Sample records for nanoscale conducting channels

  1. Benchmark density functional theory calculations for nanoscale conductance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thygesen, Kristian

    Benchmark density functional theory calculations for nanoscale conductance M. Strange,a I. S. The transmission functions are calculated using two different density functional theory methods, namely state density functional theory DFT . The resulting NEGF- DFT formalism provides a numerically efficient

  2. Electric-field-driven polymer entry into asymmetric nanoscale channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narges Nikoofard; Hossein Fazli

    2012-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric-field-driven entry process of flexible charged polymers such as single stranded DNA (ssDNA) into asymmetric nanoscale channels such as alpha-hemolysin protein channel is studied theoretically and using molecular dynamics simulations. Dependence of the height of the free-energy barrier on the polymer length, the strength of the applied electric field and the channel entrance geometry is investigated. It is shown that the squeezing effect of the driving field on the polymer and the lateral confinement of the polymer before its entry to the channel crucially affect the barrier height and its dependence on the system parameters. The attempt frequency of the polymer for passing the channel is also discussed. Our theoretical and simulation results support each other and describe related data sets of polymer translocation experiments through the alpha-hemolysin protein channel reasonably well.

  3. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, Victor V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilov Str. 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of 'Impulsar' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The 'Impulsar' - laser jet engine vehicle - propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO{sub 2}-laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  4. Near-Bulk Conductivity of Gold Nanowires as Nanoscale Interconnects and the Role of Atomically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zubarev, Eugene

    Near-Bulk Conductivity of Gold Nanowires as Nanoscale Interconnects and the Role of Atomically, a significant portion of the chip is composed of interconnects. Besides, the engineering problems associated loss, signal degradation, interconnection delays, and other performance limitations related

  5. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a long time, it was thought that their chemical complexity would preclude their use in device applications. All changed in 2004 with the discovery that the interface between...

  6. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

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  7. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

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  8. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

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  9. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

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  10. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

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  11. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  12. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  13. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  14. Free Energy Barrier for Electric Field Driven Polymer Entry into Nanoscale Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narges Nikoofard; Hossein Fazli

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Free energy barrier for entry of a charged polymer into a nanoscale channel by a driving electric field is studied theoretically and using molecular dynamics simulations. Dependence of the barrier height on the polymer length, the driving field strength, and the channel entrance geometry is investigated. Squeezing effect of the electric field on the polymer before its entry to the channel is taken into account. It is shown that lateral confinement of the polymer prior to its entry changes the polymer length dependence of the barrier height noticeably. Our theory and simulation results are in good agreement and reasonably describe related experimental data.

  15. Structure of conducting channel of lightning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alanakyan, Yu. R. [Department of General and Applied Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny, 141700 Moscow Region (Russian Federation)] [Department of General and Applied Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny, 141700 Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distribution of the plasma density in a lightning channel is studied theoretically. It is shown that the electric-field double layer is formed at the channel boundary. In this case, the electron temperature changes abruptly and ions are accelerated by the electric field of the double layer. The ion momentum flux density is close to the surrounding gas pressure. Cleaning of the channel from heavy particles occurs in particle-exchange processes between the plasma channel and the surrounding air. Hydrogen ions are accumulated inside the expanding channel from the surrounding air, which is enriched by hydrogen-contained molecules. In this case, the plasma channel is unstable and splits to a chain of equidistant bunches of plasma. The hydrogen-enrich bunches burn diffusely after recombination exhibiting the bead lightning behavior.

  16. The Structure and Transport of Water and Hydrated Ions Within Hydrophobic, Nanoscale Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, J K; Herberg, J L; Wu, Y; Schwegler, E; Mehta, A

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project includes an experimental and modeling investigation into water and hydrated ion structure and transport at nanomaterials interfaces. This is a topic relevant to understanding the function of many biological systems such as aquaporins that efficiently shuttle water and ion channels that permit selective transport of specific ions across cell membranes. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are model nanoscale, hydrophobic channels that can be functionalized, making them artificial analogs for these biological channels. This project investigates the microscopic properties of water such as water density distributions and dynamics within CNTs using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and the structure of hydrated ions at CNT interfaces via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Another component of this work is molecular simulation, which can predict experimental measurables such as the proton relaxation times, chemical shifts, and can compute the electronic structure of CNTs. Some of the fundamental questions this work is addressing are: (1) what is the length scale below which nanoscale effects such as molecular ordering become important, (2) is there a relationship between molecular ordering and transport?, and (3) how do ions interact with CNT interfaces? These are questions of interest to the scientific community, but they also impact the future generation of sensors, filters, and other devices that operate on the nanometer length scale. To enable some of the proposed applications of CNTs as ion filtration media and electrolytic supercapacitors, a detailed knowledge of water and ion structure at CNT interfaces is critical.

  17. Perspective Ion Channels: From Conductance to Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bezanilla, Francisco

    membrane is an essen- tially insurmountable barrier for the flow of ions; therefore, ion transport is carried out by membrane-embedded specialized proteins in the form of transporters and ion channels a purely electrical concept to a structural dynamics view of ions in- teracting with a membrane protein

  18. Single ultrafast diffusive conduction based optoelectronic switch for multi-channel operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Single ultrafast diffusive conduction based optoelectronic switch for multi-channel operation Fatih to multi-channel operation, including Green's function diffusive conduction solution and crosstalk conduction based optoelectronic switches that accommodate >100 optical channels (with 2,000mm-2 channel

  19. Proton-Conducting Films of Nanoscale Ribbons Formed by Exfoliation of the Layer Perovskite H2SrTa2O7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proton-Conducting Films of Nanoscale Ribbons Formed by Exfoliation of the Layer Perovskite H2SrTa2OTa2O7 were grown and characterized as solid-state proton conductors. The ribbons, made by exfoliation membranes made from layered materials such as exfoliated zirconium phosphate.12 Unfortunately, the proton

  20. Nanoscale size dependence parameters on lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamand, S.M., E-mail: soran.mamand@univsul.net [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimanyah, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq); Omar, M.S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Arbil, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq)] [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Arbil, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq); Muhammad, A.J. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk (Iraq)] [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk (Iraq)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of calculated lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A modified Callaway model is used to calculate lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct method is used to calculate phonon group velocity for these nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations are successfully investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dislocation densities are decreases with the decrease of wires diameter. -- Abstract: A detailed calculation of lattice thermal conductivity of freestanding Wurtzite GaN nanowires with diameter ranging from 97 to 160 nm in the temperature range 2-300 K, was performed using a modified Callaway model. Both longitudinal and transverse modes are taken into account explicitly in the model. A method is used to calculate the Debye and phonon group velocities for different nanowire diameters from their related melting points. Effect of Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations as structure dependent parameters are successfully used to correlate the calculated values of lattice thermal conductivity to that of the experimentally measured curves. It was observed that Gruneisen parameter will decrease with decreasing nanowire diameters. Scattering of phonons is assumed to be by nanowire boundaries, imperfections, dislocations, electrons, and other phonons via both normal and Umklapp processes. Phonon confinement and size effects as well as the role of dislocation in limiting thermal conductivity are investigated. At high temperatures and for dislocation densities greater than 10{sup 14} m{sup -2} the lattice thermal conductivity would be limited by dislocation density, but for dislocation densities less than 10{sup 14} m{sup -2}, lattice thermal conductivity would be independent of that.

  1. Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low, Gwf , test the Wiedemann-Franz (wf) law, and infer the electronic heat capacity, with a minimum value of a Coulomb-interacting electron-hole plasma may result in deviations from the Fermi-liquid values of the Mott

  2. Effect of an organic molecular coating on control over the conductance of carbon nanotube channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobrinetskiy, I. I.; Emelianov, A. V.; Nevolin, V. K., E-mail: vkn@miee.ru; Romashkin, A. V. [National Research University Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology (MIET) (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the coating of carbon nanotubes with molecules with a constant dipole moment changes the conductance of the tubes due to a variation in the structure of energy levels that participate in charge transport. The IV characteristics of the investigated structures exhibit significant dependence of the channel conductance on the gate potential. The observed memory effect of conductance level can be explained by the rearrangement of polar groups and molecules as a whole in an electric field. The higher the dipole moment per unit length and the weaker the intermolecular interaction, the faster the rearrangement process is.

  3. Nanoscale structural evolution of electrically driven insulator to metal transition in vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Eugene, E-mail: exf181@psu.edu; Shukla, Nikhil; Datta, Suman [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Stone, Greg; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Gopalan, Venkatraman [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Paik, Hanjong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Moyer, Jarrett A. [Department of Physics and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Cai, Zhonghou; Wen, Haidan [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Schlom, Darrell G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural evolution of tensile strained vanadium dioxide thin films was examined across the electrically driven insulator-to-metal transition by nanoscale hard X-ray diffraction. A metallic filament with rutile (R) structure was found to be the dominant conduction pathway for an electrically driven transition, while the majority of the channel area remained in the monoclinic M1 phase. The filament dimensions were estimated using simultaneous electrical probing and nanoscale X-ray diffraction. Analysis revealed that the width of the conducting channel can be tuned externally using resistive loads in series, enabling the M1/R phase ratio in the phase coexistence regime to be tuned.

  4. Contribution of calcium-conducting channels to the transport of zinc ions Alexandre Bouron 1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Contribution of calcium-conducting channels to the transport of zinc ions Alexandre Bouron 1. The mechanisms controlling its transport through the plasma membrane are far from being completely understood in the cellular uptake of zinc. These ion channels are currently described as systems dedicated to the transport

  5. Nanoscale relaxation oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander K. (Kensington, CA); Regan, Brian C. (Los Angeles, CA); Aloni, Shaul (Albany, CA)

    2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanoscale oscillation device is disclosed, wherein two nanoscale droplets are altered in size by mass transport, then contact each other and merge through surface tension. The device may also comprise a channel having an actuator responsive to mechanical oscillation caused by expansion and contraction of the droplets. It further has a structure for delivering atoms between droplets, wherein the droplets are nanoparticles. Provided are a first particle and a second particle on the channel member, both being made of a chargeable material, the second particle contacting the actuator portion; and electrodes connected to the channel member for delivering a potential gradient across the channel and traversing the first and second particles. The particles are spaced apart a specified distance so that atoms from one particle are delivered to the other particle by mass transport in response to the potential (e.g. voltage potential) and the first and second particles are liquid and touch at a predetermined point of growth, thereby causing merging of the second particle into the first particle by surface tension forces and reverse movement of the actuator. In a preferred embodiment, the channel comprises a carbon nanotube and the droplets comprise metal nanoparticles, e.g. indium, which is readily made liquid.

  6. Estimation of body composition in channel catfish utilizing relative weight and total body electrical conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Francisco

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) of channel catfish based on TOBEC, total length (L), and weight (W) measurements (Ps 0. 0001). . 31 7 Individual fish codes, body measurements, and observed (0) and predicted (P) ash and lean body mass components for channel catfish used to evaluate... on measurements such as weight, length, or body condition factors have been previously employed to estimate body composition (Brown and Murphy, 1991). In bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), components such as lipid, protein, ash, and dry weight have been...

  7. Nuclear fission as resonance-mediated conductance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. F. Bertsch

    2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    For 75 years the theory of nuclear fission has been based on the existence of a collective coordinate associated with the nuclear shape, an assumption required by the Bohr-Wheeler formula as well as by the R-matrix theory of fission. We show that it is also possible to formulate the theory without the help of collective coordinates. In the new formulation, fission is facilitated by individual states in the barrier region rather than channels over the barrier. In a certain limit the theory reduces to a formula closely related to the formula for electronic conductance through resonant tunneling states. In contrast, conduction through channels gives rise to a staircase excitation function that is well-known in nanoscale electronics but has never been seen in nuclear fission.

  8. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 20032012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahill, David G., E-mail: d-cahill@illinois.edu; Braun, Paul V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Chen, Gang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Clarke, David R. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Fan, Shanhui [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Goodson, Kenneth E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Keblinski, Pawel [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); King, William P. [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Mahan, Gerald D. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Majumdar, Arun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Maris, Humphrey J. [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Phillpot, Simon R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainseville, Florida 32611 (United States); Pop, Eric [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Shi, Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas, Autin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces become increasingly important on small length scales. Research during the past decade has extended studies of interfaces between simple metals and inorganic crystals to interfaces with molecular materials and liquids with systematic control of interface chemistry and physics. At separations on the order of ?1?nm, the science of radiative transport through nanoscale gaps overlaps with thermal conduction by the coupling of electronic and vibrational excitations across weakly bonded or rough interfaces between materials. Major advances in the physics of phonons include first principles calculation of the phonon lifetimes of simple crystals and application of the predicted scattering rates in parameter-free calculations of the thermal conductivity. Progress in the control of thermal transport at the nanoscale is critical to continued advances in the density of information that can be stored in phase change memory devices and new generations of magnetic storage that will use highly localized heat sources to reduce the coercivity of magnetic media. Ultralow thermal conductivitythermal conductivity below the conventionally predicted minimum thermal conductivityhas been observed in nanolaminates and disordered crystals with strong anisotropy. Advances in metrology by time-domain thermoreflectance have made measurements of the thermal conductivity of a thin layer with micron-scale spatial resolution relatively routine. Scanning thermal microscopy and thermal analysis using proximal probes has achieved spatial resolution of 10?nm, temperature precision of 50 mK, sensitivity to heat flows of 10 pW, and the capability for thermal analysis of sub-femtogram samples.

  9. Supersymmetry Across Nanoscale Heterojunction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Bagchi; A. Ganguly; A. Sinha

    2010-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that supersymmetric transformation could be applied across the heterojunction formed by joining of two mixed semiconductors. A general framework is described by specifying the structure of ladder operators at the junction for making quantitative estimation of physical quantities. For a particular heterojunction device, we show that an exponential grading inside a nanoscale doped layer is amenable to exact analytical treatment for a class of potentials distorted by the junctions through the solutions of transformed Morse-Type potentials.

  10. Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2014: Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Li-ion Anode Systems Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes...

  11. Nanoscale mass conveyors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Brian C. (Oakland, CA); Aloni, Shaul (Albany, CA); Zettl, Alexander K. (Kensington, CA)

    2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass transport method and device for individually delivering chargeable atoms or molecules from source particles is disclosed. It comprises a channel; at least one source particle of chargeable material fixed to the surface of the channel at a position along its length; a means of heating the channel; and a means for applying an controllable electric field along the channel, whereby the device transports the atoms or molecules along the channel in response to applied electric field. In a preferred embodiment, the mass transport device will comprise a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT), although other one dimensional structures may also be used. The MWNT or other structure acts as a channel for individual or small collections of atoms due to the atomic smoothness of the material. Also preferred is a source particle of a metal such as indium. The particles move by dissociation into small units, in some cases, individual atoms. The particles are preferably less than 100 nm in size.

  12. Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Yi [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Qu, Zhihua [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Braiman, Yehuda [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL; Barhen, Jacob [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.

  13. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time, researchers

  14. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time,

  15. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time,Mapping the

  16. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time,Mapping

  17. Microfluidics and Nanoscale Research Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microfluidics and Nanoscale Science Research Profile Our research group is engaged in a broad range of activities in the general area of microfluidics and nanoscale science. At a primary level, our interest that when compared to macroscale tech- nology, microfluidic systems engender a number of distinct advantages

  18. Nanoscale heat transfer - from computation to experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Tengfei

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer can differ distinctly at the nanoscale from that at the macroscale. Recent advancement in

  19. NANOSCALE STRUCTURALAND MAGNETIC CHARACTERIZATION USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    by magnetic materials as their dimensions are reduced towards the nanoscale. Important examples include coupling between magnetic thin films, which depends on the thickness of the non-magnetic spacer layer [2

  20. Nanoscale thermal transport and the thermal conductance of interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    -8 2008 #12;Er-fiber laser system, UIUC Nov. 2007 #12;Solid-liquid interfaces: Two approaches · Transient-wide: ­ thermal interface materials ­ so-called "nanofluids" (suspensions in liquids) ­ polymer composites absorption depends on temperature of the nanotube · Assume heat capacity is comparable to graphite · Cooling

  1. Nanoscale heat conduction with applications in nanoelectronics and thermoelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Ronggui, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When the device or structure characteristic length scales are comparable to the mean free path and wavelength of energy carriers (electrons, photons, phonons, and molecules) or the time of interest is on the same order as ...

  2. Thermal Conductivity Spectroscopy Technique to Measure Phonon Mean Free Paths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, A. J.

    Size effects in heat conduction, which occur when phonon mean free paths (MFPs) are comparable to characteristic lengths, are being extensively explored in many nanoscale systems for energy applications. Knowledge of MFPs ...

  3. Experimental investigations of solid-solid thermal interface conductance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Kimberlee C. (Kimberlee Chiyoko)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding thermal interface conductance is important for nanoscale systems where interfaces can play a critical role in heat transport. In this thesis, pump and probe transient thermoreflectance methods are used to ...

  4. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

  5. Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anodes Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible Anodes for...

  6. Nanoscale patterning of graphene through femtosecond laser ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahin, R.; Akturk, S., E-mail: selcuk.akturk@itu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Simsek, E. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on nanometer-scale patterning of single layer graphene on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate through femtosecond laser ablation. The pulse fluence is adjusted around the single-pulse ablation threshold of graphene. It is shown that, even though both SiO{sub 2} and Si have more absorption in the linear regime compared to graphene, the substrate can be kept intact during the process. This is achieved by scanning the sample under laser illumination at speeds yielding a few numbers of overlapping pulses at a certain point, thereby effectively shielding the substrate. By adjusting laser fluence and translation speed, 400?nm wide ablation channels could be achieved over 100??m length. Raster scanning of the sample yields well-ordered periodic structures, provided that sufficient gap is left between channels. Nanoscale patterning of graphene without substrate damage is verified with Scanning Electron Microscope and Raman studies.

  7. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of Methanol and Ethanol. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of...

  8. Symmetry-Driven Spontaneous Self-assembly of Nanoscale Ceria...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Symmetry-Driven Spontaneous Self-assembly of Nanoscale Ceria Building Blocks to Fractal Super-octahedra. Symmetry-Driven Spontaneous Self-assembly of Nanoscale Ceria Building...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanoscale Heterostructu...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible Anodes for...

  10. Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators Ruby N. Ghosh Dept. of Physics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA weekschr@msu.edu Abstract--Oxygen plays a ubiquitous role in terrestrial developed an optical technique for monitoring oxygen in both gas and liquid phases utilizing nanoscale metal

  11. Quantum effects in nanoscale Josephson junction circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haviland, David

    Quantum effects in nanoscale Josephson junction circuits SILVIA CORLEVI Doctoral Thesis Stockholm Josephson junction arrays with SQUID geometry. TRITA FYS 2006:31 ISSN 0280-316X ISRN KTH/FYS/­06:31­SE ISBN study on single-charge effects in nanoscale Josephson junctions and Cooper pair transistors (CPTs

  12. Role of Penning ionization in the enhancement of streamer channel conductivity and Ar(1s{sub 5}) production in a He-Ar plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, Brian L. [UES, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Rd., Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States); Huang, Shih K.; Speltz, Jared W.; Niekamp, Matthew A. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy., Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Ganguly, Biswa N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, 1950 5th St. Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2013-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma jet devices that use a helium gas flow mixed with a small percentage of argon have been shown to operate with a larger discharge current and enhanced production of the Ar(1s{sub 5}) metastable state, particularly in the discharge afterglow. In this experiment, time-resolved quantitative measurements of He(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) and Ar(1s{sub 5}) metastable species were combined with current and spectrally resolved emission measurements to elucidate the role of Penning ionization in a helium plasma jet with a variable argon admixture. The plasma jet was enclosed in a glass chamber through which a flowing nitrogen background was maintained at 600 Torr. At 3%-5% Ar admixture, we observed a {approx}50% increase in the peak circuit current and streamer velocity relative to a pure helium plasma jet for the same applied voltage. The streamer initiation delay also decreased by {approx}20%. Penning ionization of ground-state argon was found to be the dominant quenching pathway for He(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) up to 2% Ar and was directly correlated with a sharp increase in both the circuit current and afterglow production of Ar(1s{sub 5}) for Ar admixtures up to 1%, but not necessarily with the streamer velocity, which increased more gradually with Ar concentration. Ar(1s{sub 5}) was produced in the afterglow through recombination of Ar{sup +} and dissociative recombination of Ar{sub 2}{sup +} as the local mean electron energy decreased in the plasma channel behind the streamer head. The discharge current and argon metastable enhancement are contingent on the rapid production of He(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) near the streamer head, >5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} in 30 ns under the conditions of this experiment.

  13. Thermodynamics of Nanoscale Calcium and Strontium Titanate Perovskites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahu, Sulata Kumari

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energetics of Magnesium, Strontium, and Barium DopedNanoscale Calcium and Strontium Titanate Perovskites Sulata

  14. Pushing the boundaries of the thermal conductivity of materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Pushing the boundaries of the thermal conductivity of materials David G. Cahill, C. Chiritescu, Y. · Advances in time-domain thermoreflectance. · Amorphous limit to the thermal conductivity of materials. #12;50 nm Interfaces are critical at the nanoscale · Low thermal conductivity in nanostructured

  15. Nanoscale Strainability of Graphene by Laser Shock-Induced Three-Dimensional Shaping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yong P.

    Nanoscale Strainability of Graphene by Laser Shock-Induced Three- Dimensional Shaping Ji Li,, Ting, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States ABSTRACT: Graphene has many promising physical properties. It has been discovered that local strain in a graphene sheet can alter its conducting properties

  16. NANOSCALE OPTICAL COMPUTING USING RESONANCE ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebeck, Alvin R.

    OPTICAL COMPUTING USING RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER LOGIC A NEW NANOSCALE DEVICE BASED ON A SINGLE-MOLECULE OPTICAL PHENOMENON CALLED RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER. THIS DEVICE ENABLES A COMPLETE INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY, PROVIDING A POTENTIAL PATH TO MOLECULAR-SCALE COMPUTING

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Nanoscale Effects on Heterojunction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CoreShell Nanowires Nanoscale Effects on Heterojunction Electron Gases in GaNAlGaN CoreShell Nanowires Jeff Tsao participates in "Energy Efficiency and the Rebound Effect"...

  18. On Irregular Interconnect Fabrics for Self-Assembled Nanoscale Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christof Teuscher

    2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale electronics and novel fabrication technologies bear unique opportunities for self-assembling multi-billion component systems in a largely random manner, which would likely lower fabrication costs significantly compared to a definite ad hoc assembly. It has been shown that communication networks with the small-world property have major advantages in terms of transport characteristics and robustness over regularly connected systems. In this paper we pragmatically investigate the properties of an irregular, abstract, yet physically plausible small-world interconnect fabric that is inspired by modern network-on-chip paradigms. We vary the framework's key parameters, such as the connectivity, the number of switch blocks, the number of virtual channels, the routing strategy, the distribution of long- and short-range connections, and measure the network's transport characteristics and robustness against failures. We further explore the ability and efficiency to solve two simple toy problems, the synchronization and the density classification task. The results confirm that (1) computation in irregular assemblies is a promising new computing paradigm for nanoscale electronics and (2) that small-world interconnect fabrics have major advantages over local CA-like topologies. Finally, the results will help to make important design decisions for building self-assembled electronics in a largely random manner.

  19. Friction-Induced Fluid Heating in Nanoscale Helium Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhigang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the mechanism of friction-induced fluid heating in nanoconfinements. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the temperature variations of liquid helium in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. It is found that the fluid heating is dominated by different sources of friction as the external driving force is changed. For small external force, the fluid heating is mainly caused by the internal viscous friction in the fluid. When the external force is large and causes fluid slip at the surfaces of channel walls, the friction at the fluid-solid interface dominates over the internal friction in the fluid and is the major contribution to fluid heating. An asymmetric temperature gradient in the fluid is developed in the case of nonidentical walls and the general temperature gradient may change sign as the dominant heating factor changes from internal to interfacial friction with increasing external force.

  20. Annual Technical Report Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center (NSEC) for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    ................................................................................................................................ 151 #12; 1 1. PROJECT SUMMARY The Nanoscale Science & Engineering CenAnnual Technical Report Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center (NSEC) for Integrated University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign University of Chicago Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago

  1. Nanoscale Heterogeneity of Polyamide Membranes Formed by Interfacial Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freger, Viatcheslav "Slava"

    Nanoscale Heterogeneity of Polyamide Membranes Formed by Interfacial Polymerization Abstract theoretical model of polyamide membrane formation via interfacial polymerization. #12;

  2. Implications of Channelization and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    Dams Highways Irrigation Levees Oilfield Canals Channelization Reasons for Channelization

  3. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn F. Geisz,AerialStaff NUGWedgedNanoscaleNanoscale

  4. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andData andFleet TestAccountsNanoparticleApplicationsNanoscaleNanoscale

  5. Nano-scale Sensor Networks for Chemical Eisa Zarepour1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    Nano-scale Sensor Networks for Chemical Catalysis Eisa Zarepour1 Mahbub Hassan1 Chun Tung Chou1- searchers are now investigating the viability of nano-scale sensor networks (NSNs), which are formed natural gas to liquid fuel. Given that reliable wireless communi- cation at nano-scale is at very early

  6. Ultralow thermal conductivity and the thermal d t f i t fconductance of interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    are critical at the nanoscale · Low thermal conductivity in nanostructured materials ­ improved thermoelectric to the thermal conductivity of materials. · Ultralow thermal conductivity: beating the amorphous limitUltralow thermal conductivity and the thermal d t f i t fconductance of interfaces David G. Cahill

  7. LAMELLAR MAGNETISM ASSOCIATED WITH NANOSCALE EXSOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    LAMELLAR MAGNETISM ASSOCIATED WITH NANOSCALE EXSOLUTION IN THE ILMENITE-HEMATITE SOLID SOLUTION-hematite (FeTiO3-Fe2O3) solid solution is one of the most important magnetic phases in nature. Unusual magnetic, magnetic ordering, and exsolution. This presentation describes how this interaction leads to the phenomenon

  8. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F. D. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of dynamic structural disorder (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale.

  9. Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals A. T. KWAN, M. YU. EFREMOV, E. A-film differential scanning calorimetry to investigate the melt- ing of isolated polyethylene single crystals of lamellar single crystals of polyethylene (PE). We obtain thickness, diffraction, and calorimetry data

  10. Center for Nanoscale Materials Strategic Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    nanomaterials to yield desired, targeted functionalities is at the core of DOE's scientific mission to discover Nanotechnology Initiative and, as a DOE Nanoscale Science Research Center (NSRC), supports its scientific user transduction, while furthering the DOE missions of energy generation, storage and efficiency. Specifically, we

  11. Nanoscale Thermal Transport andMicrorefrigeratorsonaChip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are promising candidates as thermal vias and thermal interface materials due to their inherently high thermal; superlattices; thermal boundary resistance; thermionics; thermotunneling; thermoelectrics I. INTRODUCTIONINVITED P A P E R Nanoscale Thermal Transport andMicrorefrigeratorsonaChip Devices for cooling high

  12. Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. E. Chang; K. Sinha; J. M. Taylor; H. J. Kimble

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here, we show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. The trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyze realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement.

  13. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  14. Nanoscale contact engineering for Si/Silicide nanowire devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Chen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    applications of metal silicides ..1-3 1.4.Professor Yu Huang, Chair Metal silicides have been used inSummary Nanoscale metal silicides have garnered significant

  15. Electrically Controllable Spontaneous Magnetism in Nanoscale Mixed Phase Multiferroics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Q.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Controllable Spontaneous Magnetism in Nanoscale Mixed Phase2001). Chakhalian, J. et al. Magnetism at the interfacelocal nature of this magnetism. We find that the spontaneous

  16. Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    a Glance All User Facilities ASCR User Facilities BES User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) BER User...

  17. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the...

  18. Novel materials, computational spectroscopy, and multiscale simulation in nanoscale photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernardi, Marco, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells convert solar energy to electricity using combinations of semiconducting sunlight absorbers and metallic materials as electrical contacts. Novel nanoscale materials introduce new paradigms for ...

  19. Electric potential distribution in nanoscale electroosmosis: from molecules to continuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Chen, S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    correlations in the electric double layer. 1. Counterionsand correlations in the electric double layer. 2 . SymmetricElectric potential distribution in nanoscale electroosmosis:

  20. Nanoscale Phase Transitions under Extreme Conditions within an...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    under extreme conditions. Citation: Zhang J, M Lang, RC Ewing, R Devanathan, WJ Weber, and M Toulemonde.2010."Nanoscale Phase Transitions under Extreme Conditions within an...

  1. Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities User Facilities Dev X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) Center for...

  2. Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale Sn0.99Co0.01O. Abstract: In a recent work, we have shown that chemically synthesized...

  3. Uncertainty Quantification for Nano-Scale Integrated Circuits...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uncertainty Quantification for Nano-Scale Integrated Circuits and MEMS Design Event Sponsor: Mathematics and Computing Science Seminar Start Date: Jan 20 2015 - 10:30am Building...

  4. Nanoscale Alloying, Phase-Segregation, and Core-Shell Evolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alloying, Phase-Segregation, and Core-Shell Evolution of Gold-Platinum Nanoparticles and Their Electrocatalytic Effect Nanoscale Alloying, Phase-Segregation, and Core-Shell...

  5. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  6. Nano-scale strengthening from grains, subgrains, and particles in Fe-based alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesuer, D. R.; Syn, C. K.; Sherby, O. D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    x ULTRAFINE GRAINED MATERIALS Nano-scale strengthening fromSpringerlink.com Abstract Nano-scale strengthening has beenless than 20 h), develop nano-scale subgrains [15]. These

  7. Nano-scale magnetic film formation by decompression of supercritical CO?/ferric acetylacetonate solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Dea, Silvia

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GROWTH OF NANO-SCALE MAGNETIC FILMS USING CO 2 RESS EX-113 GROWTH OF NANO-SCALE MAGNETIC FILMS USING A SUPERCRIT-of EDX analysis on nano-scale ?lms. . . . . . . . . . . 109

  8. Exploring nanoscale magnetism in advanced materials with polarized X-rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stoehr and H.C. Siegmann, Magnetism, Springer (2006) [93]Exploring nanoscale magnetism in advanced materials withABSTRACT Nanoscale magnetism is of paramount scientific

  9. Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible...

  10. XEDS STEM Tomography For 3D Chemical CharacterizationOf Nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XEDS STEM Tomography For 3D Chemical CharacterizationOf Nanoscale Particles. XEDS STEM Tomography For 3D Chemical CharacterizationOf Nanoscale Particles. Abstract: We present a...

  11. Measuring oxygen reduction/evolution reactions on the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Ciucci, Francesco [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of fuel cells and metal-air batteries is significantly limited by the activation of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR/OER). Despite the well-recognized role of oxygen reaction kinetics on the viability of energy technologies, the governing mechanisms remain elusive and until now addressable only by macroscopic studies. This lack of nanoscale understanding precludes optimization of material architecture. Here we report direct measurements of oxygen reduction/evolution reactions and oxygen vacancy diffusion on oxygen-ion conductive solid surfaces with sub-10 nanometer resolution. In electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), the biased scanning probe microscopy tip acts as a moving, electrocatalytically active probe exploring local electrochemical activity. The probe concentrates an electric field in a nanometer-scale volume of material, and bias-induced, picometer-level surface displacements provide information on local electrochemical processes. Systematic mapping of oxygen activity on bare and Pt-functionalized yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) surfaces is demonstrated. This approach allows directly visualization of ORR/OER activation process at the triple-phase boundary, and can be extended to broad spectrum of oxygen-conductive and electrocatalytic materials.

  12. Nanoscale atomic waveguides with suspended carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Peano; M. Thorwart; A. Kasper; R. Egger

    2005-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an experimentally viable setup for the realization of one-dimensional ultracold atom gases in a nanoscale magnetic waveguide formed by single doubly-clamped suspended carbon nanotubes. We show that all common decoherence and atom loss mechanisms are small guaranteeing a stable operation of the trap. Since the extremely large current densities in carbon nanotubes are spatially homogeneous, our proposed architecture allows to overcome the problem of fragmentation of the atom cloud. Adding a second nanowire allows to create a double-well potential with a moderate tunneling barrier which is desired for tunneling and interference experiments with the advantage of tunneling distances being in the nanometer regime.

  13. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn F. Geisz,AerialStaff NUGWedgedNanoscale Chemical

  14. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn F. Geisz,AerialStaff NUGWedgedNanoscale

  15. Nanoscale Center Dedication | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |EnergyonSupport0.pdf5 OPAM SEMIANNUALNASCAR Green Gets FirstNafeesa Hunt Owens AboutNanoscale

  16. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andData andFleet TestAccountsNanoparticleApplications -BatteryNanoscale

  17. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andData andFleet TestAccountsNanoparticleApplicationsNanoscale Chemical

  18. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andData andFleet TestAccountsNanoparticleApplicationsNanoscale

  19. Method to determine thermal profiles of nanoscale circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander K; Begtrup, Gavi E

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A platform that can measure the thermal profiles of devices with nanoscale resolution has been developed. The system measures the local temperature by using an array of nanoscale thermometers. This process can be observed in real time using a high resolution imagining technique such as electron microscopy. The platform can operate at extremely high temperatures.

  20. www.rsc.org/nanoscale ISSN 2040-3364

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    morphology of the photoactive layer. The nanoscale interpenetrating networks composed of nanostructured donor organization and nanoscale morphology for high performance low bandgap polymer solar cells Volume 6 Number 8 21 performance low bandgap polymer solar cells Ming He,a Mengye Wang,ab Changjian Linb and Zhiqun Lin*a Rational

  1. Novel Nanoscale Materials Reduce Electricity Needed for Sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This project researches the use of nanoscale materials (a broadly defined set of substances that haveNovel Nanoscale Materials Reduce Electricity Needed for Sludge Dewatering Industrial process, requiring up to 6000 kilowatt hours/year per million gallons per day. Project Description

  2. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  3. Conductive Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroluminescent devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and high-energy density batteries. These new polymers offer cost savings, weight reduction, ease of processing, and inherent rugged design compared to conventional semiconductor materials. The photovoltaic industry has grown more than 30% during the past three years. Lightweight, flexible solar modules are being used by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps for field power units. LEDs historically used for indicator lights are now being investigated for general lighting to replace fluorescent and incandescent lights. These so-called solid-state lights are becoming more prevalent across the country since they produce efficient lighting with little heat generation. Conductive polymers are being sought for battery development as well. Considerable weight savings over conventional cathode materials used in secondary storage batteries make portable devices easier to carry and electric cars more efficient and nimble. Secondary battery sales represent an $8 billion industry annually. The purpose of the project was to synthesize and characterize conductive polymers. TRACE Photonics Inc. has researched critical issues which affect conductivity. Much of their work has focused on production of substituted poly(phenylenevinylene) compounds. These compounds exhibit greater solubility over the parent polyphenylenevinylene, making them easier to process. Alkoxy substituted groups evaluated during this study included: methoxy, propoxy, and heptyloxy. Synthesis routes for production of alkoxy-substituted poly phenylenevinylene were developed. Considerable emphasis was placed on final product yield and purity.

  4. Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkat Bommisetty, South Dakota State University

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

  5. Heat conduction of single-walled carbon nanotube isotope-superlattice structures: A molecular dynamics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    -folding effect to thermal boundary resistance of lattice interface. The crossover mechanism is explained-dimensional materials. In our previous molecular dynamics study, isotope-effects on the thermal conduction were of heat conduction of SWNTs subjected to nanoscale intrinsic thermal resistances. Here, in order to reduce

  6. Jaszczak et al. 1 MICRO-AND NANO-SCALE GRAPHITE CONES AND TUBES FROM HACKMAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaszczak, John A.

    of micro- and nano-scale RGS. The largest of the RGS are hollow scrolls, with the c-axis predominantly at the micro- and nano-scales. The nano-scale cones tend not to be hollow and may have a cone-helix structureJaszczak et al. 1 MICRO- AND NANO-SCALE GRAPHITE CONES AND TUBES FROM HACKMAN VALLEY, KOLA

  7. Discovery Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    and sonar to spot passing ships and submarines. And, for people living in poor, remote communitiesDiscovery Channel :: Bacteria Power: Future Energy? Page 1 September 10, 2003 EDT Bacteria Power: Energy Of The Future? AFP R. ferriducens: "Bacterial Battery" Sept. 9, 2003 -- U

  8. Carbon-bearing fluids at nanoscale interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, David [Ohio State University; Ok, Salim [Ohio State University, Columbus; Phan, A [Ohio State University, Columbus; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Striolo, Alberto [Oklahoma University; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behaviour of fluids at mineral surfaces or in confined geometries (pores, fractures) typically differs from their bulk behaviour in many ways due to the effects of large internal surfaces and geometrical confinement. We summarize research performed on C-O-H fluids at nanoscale interfaces in materials of interest to the earth and material sciences (e.g., silica, alumina, zeolites, clays, rocks, etc.), emphasizing those techniques that assess microstructural modification and/or dynamical behaviour such as gravimetric analysis, small-angle (SANS) neutron scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations will be described that provide atomistic characterization of interfacial and confined fluid behaviour as well as aid in the interpretation of the neutron scattering results.

  9. Control of friction at the nanoscale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barhen, Jacob; Braiman, Yehuda Y.; Protopopescu, Vladimir

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for control of friction at the nanoscale. A method of controlling frictional dynamics of a plurality of particles using non-Lipschitzian control includes determining an attribute of the plurality of particles; calculating an attribute deviation by subtracting the attribute of the plurality of particles from a target attribute; calculating a non-Lipschitzian feedback control term by raising the attribute deviation to a fractionary power .xi.=(2m+1)/(2n+1) where n=1, 2, 3 . . . and m=0, 1, 2, 3 . . . , with m strictly less than n and then multiplying by a control amplitude; and imposing the non-Lipschitzian feedback control term globally on each of the plurality of particles; imposing causes a subsequent magnitude of the attribute deviation to be reduced.

  10. Title of Document: NANOSCALE MANIPULATION, PROBING, AND ASSEMBLY USING MICROFLUIDIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Document: NANOSCALE MANIPULATION, PROBING, AND ASSEMBLY USING MICROFLUIDIC FLOW along the wire. Together, these experiments illustrate the versatility of microfluidics MICROFLUIDIC FLOW CONTROL By Chad Ropp Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School

  11. Electronic structure and transport in molecular and nanoscale electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Xiaofeng

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two approaches based on first-principles method are developed to qualitatively and quantitatively study electronic structure and phase-coherent transport in molecular and nanoscale electronics, where both quantum mechanical ...

  12. Design and implementation of nanoscale fiber mechanical testing apparatus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brayanov, Jordan, 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid growth in the synthetic manufacturing industry demands higher resolution mechanical testing devices, capable of working with nanoscale fibers. A new device has been developed to perform single-axis tensile tests ...

  13. Nanoscale structure and transport : from atoms to devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Matthew Hiram

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale structures present both unique physics and unique theoretical challenges. Atomic-scale simulations can find novel nanostructures with desirable properties, but the search can be difficult if the wide range of ...

  14. Nano-scale scratching in chemical-mechanical polishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eusner, Thor

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) process, a critical step in the manufacture of ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) semiconductor devices, undesirable nano-scale scratches are formed on the surfaces being ...

  15. Secretarial Policy Statement on Nanoscale Safety - DOE Directives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    56.1, Secretarial Policy Statement on Nanoscale Safety by Bill McArthur Functional areas: Nano Technology, Safety The safety of its employees, the public, and the environment is...

  16. Perspectives Nanotechnology and the public: Effectively communicating nanoscale science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crone, Wendy C.

    Perspectives Nanotechnology and the public: Effectively communicating nanoscale science August 2006 Key words: nanotechnology, communication, public knowledge, public understanding the public on concepts and applications associated with nanotechnology. The goal of our work

  17. Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen Chemistry in Pristine Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 for Li-Ion Batteries. Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen...

  18. Thermophysical properties study of micro/nanoscale materials.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Xuhui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Thermal transport in low-dimensional structure has attracted tremendous attentions because micro/nanoscale materials play crucial roles in advancing micro/nanoelectronics industry. The thermal properties are essential for (more)

  19. Negative pressure characteristics of an evaporating meniscus at nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroo, Shalabh C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study aims at understanding the characteristics of negative liquid pressures at the nanoscale using molecular dynamics simulation. A nano-meniscus is formed by placing liquid argon on a platinum wall between two ...

  20. Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajendra Bordia

    2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and processing techniques for these coatings. In addition, we investigated the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties and oxidation protection ability of the coatings. Coatings were developed to provide oxidation protection to both ferritic and austentic alloys and Ni-based alloys. The coatings that we developed are based on low viscosity pre-ceramic polymers. Thus they can be easily applied to any shape by using a variety of techniques including dip-coating, spray-coating and painting. The polymers are loaded with a variety of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles have two primary roles: control of the final composition and phases (and hence the properties); and control of the shrinkage during thermal decomposition of the polymer. Thus the selection of the nanoparticles was the most critical aspect of this project. Based on the results of the processing studies, the performance of selected coatings in oxidizing conditions (both static and cyclic) was investigated.

  1. Spin Coherence at the Nanoscale: Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Arthur J. [Professor

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Breakthrough results were achieved during the reporting period in the areas of organic spintronics. (A) For the first time the giant magnetic resistance (GMR) was observed in spin valve with an organic spacer. Thus we demonstrated the ability of organic semiconductors to transport spin in GMR devices using rubrene as a prototype for organic semiconductors. (B) We discovered the electrical bistability and spin valve effect in a ferromagnet /organic semiconductor/ ferromagnet heterojunction. The mechanism of switching between conducting phases and its potential applications were suggested. (C) The ability of V(TCNE)x to inject spin into organic semiconductors such as rubrene was demonstrated for the first time. The mechanisms of spin injection and transport from and into organic magnets as well through organic semiconductors were elucidated. (D) In collaboration with the group of OSU Prof. Johnston-Halperin we reported the successful extraction of spin polarized current from a thin film of the organic-based room temperature ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]x and its subsequent injection into a GaAs/AlGaAs light-emitting diode (LED). Thus all basic steps for fabrication of room temperature, light weight, flexible all organic spintronic devices were successfully performed. (E) A new synthesis/processing route for preparation of V(TCNE)x enabling control of interface and film thicknesses at the nanoscale was developed at OSU. Preliminary results show these films are higher quality and what is extremely important they are substantially more air stable than earlier prepared V(TCNE)x. In sum the breakthrough results we achieved in the past two years form the basis of a promising new technology, Multifunctional Flexible Organic-based Spintronics (MFOBS). MFOBS technology enables us fabrication of full function flexible spintronic devices that operate at room temperature.

  2. Nanoscale Effects on Ion Conductance of Layer-by-Layer Structures of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andData andFleet

  3. Probing Nanostructures for Photovoltaics: Using atomic force microscopy and other tools to characterize nanoscale materials for harvesting solar energy.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaniewski, Anna Monro

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The ability to make materials with nanoscale dimensions opens vast opportunities for creating custom materials with unique properties. The properties of materials on the nanoscale (more)

  4. Nano-scale positioning, control and motion planning in hard disk drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Uwe

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Nano-scale Positioning, Control andABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION Nano-scale Positioning, Controlmm) height (mm) mini micro nano pico femto Figure 2.8:

  5. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conducted by E. de Smit, I. Swart, C. Morin, B.M. Weckhuysen, and F.M.F. de Groot (Utrecht University, The Netherlands); J.F. Creemer, G.H. Hoveling, P.J. Kooyman, and H.W....

  6. Nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging with a single diamond NV center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan Beams; Dallas Smith; Timothy W. Johnson; Sang-Hyun Oh; Lukas Novotny; Nick Vamivakas

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state quantum emitters, such as artificially engineered quantum dots or naturally occurring defects in solids, are being investigated for applications ranging from quantum information science and optoelectronics to biomedical imaging. Recently, these same systems have also been studied from the perspective of nanoscale metrology. In this letter we study the near-field optical properties of a diamond nanocrystal hosting a single nitrogen vacancy center. We find that the nitrogen vacancy center is a sensitive probe of the surrounding electromagnetic mode structure. We exploit this sensitivity to demonstrate nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with a single nitrogen vacancy center by imaging the local density of states of an optical antenna.

  7. A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Divan, Ralu; Rosenthal, Dan; Rose, Volker; Wai Hla, Saw; Liu, Yuzi

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    At a very small, or "nano" scale, materials behave differently. The study of nanomaterials is much more than miniaturization - scientists are discovering how changes in size change a material's properties. From sunscreen to computer memory, the applications of nanoscale materials research are all around us. Researchers at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials are creating new materials, methods and technologies to address some of the world's greatest challenges in energy security, lightweight but durable materials, high-efficiency lighting, information storage, environmental stewardship and advanced medical devices.

  8. 3/04/2008 Center for Nanoscale Systems, FAS, Harvard University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Nanoscale Systems, FAS, Harvard University 5 Filling Out Hazardous Waste Tags 1 of 2 ·Fill In Full Chemical This Blank #12;3/04/2008 Center for Nanoscale Systems, FAS, Harvard University 6 Filling Out Hazardous Waste3/04/2008 Center for Nanoscale Systems, FAS, Harvard University 1 Protocol For User Supplied

  9. SURFACE ELASTICITY MODELS FOR STATIC AND DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF NANOSCALE BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phani, A. Srikantha

    SURFACE ELASTICITY MODELS FOR STATIC AND DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF NANOSCALE BEAMS by Chang Liu B) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) February 2010 © Chang Liu, 2010 #12;ii Abstract Nanoscale beam of nanoscale beams. The objective is to provide NEMS designers with an efficient set of tools that can predict

  10. Construction of Channels (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Permission is required from the Natural Resources Commission is required for the construction or alteration of artificial channels or improved channels of natural watercourses that connect to any...

  11. NANO-SCALE CALORIMETRY OF ISOLATED POLYETHYLENE SINGLE CRYSTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    #12;NANO-SCALE CALORIMETRY OF ISOLATED POLYETHYLENE SINGLE CRYSTALS BY ALEX TAN KWAN B.S., Stanford) device, the nanocalorimeter, it was possible to investigate the melting of isolated polyethylene (PE, a simple Ni-foil calorimeter, to measure the heat capacity of a thin polyethylene film to verify

  12. Bioremediation of Uranium Plumes with Nano-scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    (IV) (UO2[s], uraninite) Anthropogenic · Release of mill tailings during uranium mining - MobilizationBioremediation of Uranium Plumes with Nano-scale Zero-valent Iron Angela Athey Advisers: Dr. Reyes Undergraduate Student Fellowship Program April 15, 2011 #12;Main Sources of Uranium Natural · Leaching from

  13. Nanoscale Tubules Formed by Exfoliation of Potassium Hexaniobate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanoscale Tubules Formed by Exfoliation of Potassium Hexaniobate Geoffrey B. Saupe, Chad C. Waraksa. Revised Manuscript Received March 27, 2000 The exfoliation of acid-exchanged K4Nb6O17 with tetra formed early in the exfoliation process, which are found only as flat sheets. Tubules in colloidal

  14. Nanoscale Heterogeneity of Polyamide Membranes Formed by Interfacial Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freger, Viatcheslav "Slava"

    Nanoscale Heterogeneity of Polyamide Membranes Formed by Interfacial Polymerization Viatcheslav theoretical model of polyamide membrane formation via interfacial polymerization. 1. Introduction Polyamide of a microporous support (most often polysulfone) by means of interfacial polymerization (IP).3,4 The latter method

  15. Mediated Enzyme Electrodes with Combined Micro-and Nanoscale Supports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Mediated Enzyme Electrodes with Combined Micro- and Nanoscale Supports Scott Calabrese Barton which is grown multiwall nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition combined with ohmic heating. Power systems based on ambient fuels will be feasible if the power device itself is capable

  16. Why Area Might Reduce Power in Nanoscale CMOS Paul Beckett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Seth Copen

    Why Area Might Reduce Power in Nanoscale CMOS Paul Beckett School of Electrical and Computer Engineering RMIT University Melbourne, Australia 3000 Email: pbeckett@rmit.edu.au Seth Copen Goldstein School-- In this paper we explore the relationship between power and area. By exploiting parallelism (and thus using more

  17. Nanoscale sensing methodology via functional control of an ion channel-forming peptide, Gramicidin A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macrae, Michael X.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    265 mg, 1.6 mmol) and tetrazole (560 mg, 8 mmol) were265 mg, 1.6 mmol) and tetrazole (560 mg, 8 mmol) were

  18. Nanoscale sensing methodology via functional control of an ion channel-forming peptide, Gramicidin A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macrae, Michael X.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from a bridge rectifier using semiconductor diodes (middle);full-wave bridge rectifier based on semiconductor diodes andfull-wave bridge rectifier based on semiconductor diodes and

  19. Student Affairs STUDENT CONDUCT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Student Affairs CODE OF STUDENT CONDUCT 2014-15 #12;Contents Letter from the Dean of Students ....................................................................ii Binghamton University's Code of Student Conduct Preamble...................... 1 Section I: Rules of Student Conduct.............................................................. 1 Section II: Definitions

  20. Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

  1. Local heat transfer distribution in a triangular channel with smooth walls and staggered ejection holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Sung-Won

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient liquid crystal experiments have been conducted to determine the distribution of the local heat transfer coefficient in a triangular channel with smooth wails and ejection holes along one or two of the wails. The end of the test channel...

  2. Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamza, A V

    2008-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory's (NSCL) primary mission is to create and advance interdisciplinary research and development opportunities in nanoscience and technology. The NSCL is delivering on its mission providing Laboratory programs with scientific solutions through the use of nanoscale synthesis and characterization. While this annual report summarizes 2007 activities, we have focused on nanoporous materials, advanced high strength, nanostructured metals, novel 3-dimensional lithography and characterization at the nanoscale for the past 3 years. In these three years we have synthesized the first monolithic nanoporous metal foams with less than 10% relative density; we have produced ultrasmooth nanocrystalline diamond inertial confinement fusion capsules; we have synthesized 3-dimensional graded density structures from full density to 5% relative density using nanolithography; and we have established ultrasmall angle x-ray scattering as a non-destructive tool to determine the structure on the sub 300nm scale. The NSCL also has a mission to recruit and to train personnel for Lab programs. The NSCL continues to attract talented scientists to the Laboratory. Andrew Detor from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sutapa Ghosal from the University of California, Irvine, Xiang Ying Wang from Shanghai Institute of Technology, and Arne Wittstock from University of Bremen joined the NSCL this year. The NSCL is pursuing four science and technology themes: nanoporous materials, advanced nanocrystalline materials, novel three-dimensional nanofabrication technologies, and nondestructive characterization at the mesoscale. The NSCL is also pursuing building new facilities for science and technology such as nanorobotics and atomic layer deposition.

  3. Nanoscale NMR Spectroscopy and Imaging of Multiple Nuclear Species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen J. DeVience; Linh M. Pham; Igor Lovchinsky; Alexander O. Sushkov; Nir Bar-Gill; Chinmay Belthangady; Francesco Casola; Madeleine Corbett; Huiliang Zhang; Mikhail Lukin; Hongkun Park; Amir Yacoby; Ronald L. Walsworth

    2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are well-established techniques that provide valuable information in a diverse set of disciplines but are currently limited to macroscopic sample volumes. Here we demonstrate nanoscale NMR spectroscopy and imaging under ambient conditions of samples containing multiple nuclear species, using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) colour centres in diamond as sensors. With single, shallow NV centres in a diamond chip and samples placed on the diamond surface, we perform NMR spectroscopy and one-dimensional MRI on few-nanometre-sized samples containing $^1$H and $^{19}$F nuclei. Alternatively, we employ a high-density NV layer near the surface of a diamond chip to demonstrate wide-field optical NMR spectroscopy of nanoscale samples containing $^1$H, $^{19}$F, and $^{31}$P nuclei, as well as multi-species two-dimensional optical MRI with sub-micron resolution. For all diamond samples exposed to air, we identify a ubiquitous $^1$H NMR signal, consistent with a $\\sim 1$ nm layer of adsorbed hydrocarbons or water on the diamond surface and below any sample placed on the diamond. This work lays the foundation for nanoscale NMR and MRI applications such as studies of single proteins and functional biological imaging with subcellular resolution, as well as characterization of thin films with sub-nanometre resolution.

  4. Hydrodynamics of vegetated channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nepf, Heidi

    This paper highlights some recent trends in vegetation hydrodynamics, focusing on conditions within channels and spanning spatial scales from individual blades, to canopies or vegetation patches, to the channel reach. At ...

  5. Atomic-Level Study of Ion-Induced Nanoscale Disordered Domains...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The simulations suggest that it is possible to design and fabricate nanoscale optoelectronic devices based on SiC using ion-beam-induced order-disorder transformation....

  6. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based on Hyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, Antonios G.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of interpenetrating networks of conjugated polymer and TiO2Photodiodes from Interpenetrating Polymer Networks. Naturepolymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network

  7. Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities User Facilities Dev X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) Center for...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - altered nanoscale topographies Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bioelectric Scanning Probe Microscopies Summary: . Fumagalli, G. Gomila, et al. Nano Letters (2009) Topography Capacitance Dielectric constant 4. Nanoscale... to measure...

  9. ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, R.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Lam, P.

    2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  10. ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO/MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendez-Torres, A.; Torres, R.; Lam, P.

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  11. Hydraulic conductivity of shaly sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lima, O.A.L. de [PPPG/Federal Univ. of Bahia, Salvador Bahia (Brazil)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of clays on the hydraulic conductivity of a sandstone are analyzed by considering a simple clay coating structure for the sand grains. In the model, silicate insulating nuclei are uniformly surrounded by charged clay particles. The total charge on the clays is compensated by a counterion density Q{sub v}. Assuming a capillary flow regime inside this granular model a Kozeny-Carman type equation has been derived, expressing its intrinsic permeability k in terms of a porosity-tortuosity factor {phi}{sup (m{minus}0.5)} and of the parameter Q{sub v}. The power-law derived expression shows that k decreases with the amount of clay, not only because a high Q{sub v} implies a narrowing of the pore channels, but also because it modifies the hydraulic tortuosity of the medium. This new equation has been statistically tested with extensive petrophysical laboratory data for different types of shaly sandstones.

  12. CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS (CO)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS (CO) OBJECTIVE TA-55 SST Facility NNSA ORR Implementation Plan 1 1 CO.1 The formality and discipline of operations is adequate to conduct work safely and...

  13. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvis, John Mark

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CERMET FUEL THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY A Thesis by JOHN MARK ALVIS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&. M University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Nuclear... particles of low conductivity dispersed in a metal matrix of high conductivity. A computer code was developed in order to compute the conductivity of cermet fuels as predicted by existing models and an additional model derived in this work...

  14. Interactions Between Membrane Conductances Underlying Thalamocortical Slow-Wave Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Destexhe, Alain

    or oscillations can be explained by interactions between calcium- and voltage-dependent channels. At the networkInteractions Between Membrane Conductances Underlying Thalamocortical Slow-Wave Oscillations A: Oscillations and Bursts Emerging From the Interplay of Intrinsic Conductances in Single Neurons 1404 A

  15. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  16. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  17. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  18. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by artificial DNA nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Y.; Seo, S.; Park, J.; Park, T.; Ahn, J. R., E-mail: jrahn@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.; Dugasani, S. R. [Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, S. H. [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. H., E-mail: sunghapark@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  19. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II FieldVacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium

  20. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II FieldVacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in

  1. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II FieldVacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure

  2. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II FieldVacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire

  3. Measuring Diffusivity in Supercooled Liquid Nanoscale Films using Inert Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale LandscapeImportsBG4,Measurements of NO 2Permeation:

  4. Measuring Diffusivity in Supercooled Liquid Nanoscale Films using Inert Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale LandscapeImportsBG4,Measurements of NO

  5. Nanoscale Thin Film Electrolytes for Clean Energy Applications. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andData andFleetEngineering Of Radiation Tolerant(SC) NanoscaleThin

  6. A mean field approach for computing solid-liquid surface tension for nanoscale interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Steven O.

    A mean field approach for computing solid-liquid surface tension for nanoscale interfaces Chi are largely determined by the solid-liquid surface tension. This is especially true for nanoscale systems with high surface area to volume ratios. While experimental techniques can only measure surface tension

  7. Tunable Nanoscale Plasmon Antenna for Localization and Enhancement of Optical Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Tunable Nanoscale Plasmon Antenna for Localization and Enhancement of Optical Energy Douglas Howe used. The coupling of optical energy with the surface plasmons that occur on the surface of metals the optical energy that couples with surface plasmons that exist on nanoscale metal structures. Gold

  8. Surface-Phonon Polariton Contribution to Nanoscale Radiative Heat Transfer. Emmanuel Rousseau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Surface-Phonon Polariton Contribution to Nanoscale Radiative Heat Transfer. Emmanuel Rousseau-sud Campus Polytechnique RD 128 91127 Palaiseau cedex, France Heat transfer between two plates of polar far-field value. In this article, we show that nanoscale heat transfer is dominated by the coupling

  9. Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped Emmanuel Rousseau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped silicon the role of surface plasmons for nanoscale radiative heat transfer between doped silicon surfaces. We derive a new accurate and closed-form expression of the radiative near- field heat transfer. We also

  10. Local Heating in Nanoscale Conductors Yu-Chang Chen, Michael Zwolak, and Massimiliano Di Ventra*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zwolak, Michael

    Local Heating in Nanoscale Conductors Yu-Chang Chen, Michael Zwolak, and Massimiliano Di Ventra Received October 2, 2003 ABSTRACT We report first-principles calculations of local heating in nanoscale heat dissipation, the single molecule heats less than the gold point contact. We also find that

  11. Degradation of Polymers Coating Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron Particles used in Groundwater Remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Degradation of Polymers Coating Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron Particles used in Groundwater chemicals (Zhang, 2003). Nano-scale zero valent iron (NZVI) can be injected into the soil to degrade centrifugation. UV spectrophotometer: The polymers could be quantified when dissolved in pure water or in mineral

  12. Nanoscale patterning of graphene through femtosecond laser ablation R. Sahin, E. Simsek, and S. Akturk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simsek, Ergun

    Nanoscale patterning of graphene through femtosecond laser ablation R. Sahin, E. Simsek, and S.164.158.129 On: Mon, 10 Feb 2014 15:01:27 #12;Nanoscale patterning of graphene through femtosecond laser ablation 2014) We report on nanometer-scale patterning of single layer graphene on SiO2/Si substrate through

  13. Mid Infrared Focal Plane Arrays With Nanoscale Quantum Dots and Superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishna, Sanjay

    Mid Infrared Focal Plane Arrays With Nanoscale Quantum Dots and Superlattices S. Krishna Center- Molecular beam epitaxy, Nanoscale, Quantum Dots Superlattices, Antimonides, Mid-infrared photodetector. I. INTRODUCTION Presently, the state of the art photon detectors for the mid wave infrared (MWIR, 3-5 µm) and long

  14. Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres. William J.

    to observe the real-time nucleation and growth of the lithium fibers inside a nanoscale Li-ion battery. Our needed for safe and high power Li-ion batteries. VC 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery Hessam

  15. The Kinetics of Analyte Capture on Nanoscale Sensors J. E. Solomon* and M. R. Pauly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul, Mark

    The Kinetics of Analyte Capture on Nanoscale Sensors J. E. Solomon* and M. R. Pauly *Condensed analyte capture efficiency is a crucial measure of the ultimate sensitivity of such devices years, the potential use of nanoscale electromechanical systems has been considered for high

  16. Conductance valve and pressure-to-conductance transducer method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cummings, Eric B.; Brennan, James S.

    2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for interrupting or throttling undesired ionic transport through a fluid network is disclosed. The device acts as a fluid valve by reversibly generating a fixed "bubble" in the conducting solvent solution carried by the network. The device comprises a porous hydrophobic structure filling a portion of a connecting channel within the network and optionally incorporates flow restrictor elements at either end of the porous structure that function as pressure isolation barriers, and a fluid reservoir connected to the region of the channel containing the porous structure. Also included is a pressure pump connected to the fluid reservoir. The device operates by causing the pump to vary the hydraulic pressure to a quantity of solvent solution held within the reservoir and porous structure. At high pressures, most or all of the pores of the structure are filled with conducting liquid so the ionic conductance is high. At lower pressures, only a fraction of the pores are filled with liquid, so ionic conductivity is lower. Below a threshold pressure, the porous structure contains only vapor, so there is no liquid conduction path. The device therefore effectively throttles ionic transport through the porous structure and acts as a "conductance valve" or "pressure-to-conductance" transducer within the network.

  17. High conductance surge cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, M.M.; Wilfong, D.H.; Lomax, R.E.

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressors to electrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation. 6 figs.

  18. High conductance surge cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, Matthew M. (Espanola, NM); Wilfong, Dennis H. (Brooksville, FL); Lomax, Ralph E. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressers to ectrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation.

  19. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  20. Nanoscale mapping of the W/Si(001) Schottky barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durcan, Chris A.; Balsano, Robert; LaBella, Vincent P., E-mail: vlabella@albany.edu [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The W/Si(001) Schottky barrier was spatially mapped with nanoscale resolution using ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) and ballistic hole emission microscopy (BHEM) using n-type and p-type silicon substrates. The formation of an interfacial tungsten silicide is observed utilizing transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The BEEM and BHEM spectra are fit utilizing a linearization method based on the power law BEEM model using the Prietsch Ludeke fitting exponent. The aggregate of the Schottky barrier heights from n-type (0.71?eV) and p-type (0.47?eV) silicon agrees with the silicon band gap at 80?K. Spatially resolved maps of the Schottky barrier are generated from grids of 7225 spectra taken over a 1??m??1??m area and provide insight into its homogeneity. Histograms of the barrier heights have a Gaussian component consistent with an interface dipole model and show deviations that are localized in the spatial maps and are attributed to compositional fluctuations, nanoscale defects, and foreign materials.

  1. Design Optimization of Radionuclide Nano-Scale Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenfeld, D.W.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Smith, B.

    2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioisotopes have been used for power sources in heart pacemakers and space applications dating back to the 50's. Two key properties of radioisotope power sources are high energy density and long half-life compared to chemical batteries. The tritium battery used in heart pacemakers exceeds 500 mW-hr, and is being evaluated by the University of Florida for feasibility as a MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) power source. Conversion of radioisotope sources into electrical power within the constraints of nano-scale dimensions requires cutting-edge technologies and novel approaches. Some advances evolving in the III-V and II-IV semiconductor families have led to a broader consideration of radioisotopes rather free of radiation damage limitations. Their properties can lead to novel battery configurations designed to convert externally located emissions from a highly radioactive environment. This paper presents results for the analytical computational assisted design and modeling of semiconductor prototype nano-scale radioisotope nuclear batteries from MCNP and EGS programs. The analysis evaluated proposed designs and was used to guide the selection of appropriate geometries, material properties, and specific activities to attain power requirements for the MEMS batteries. Plans utilizing high specific activity radioisotopes were assessed in the investigation of designs employing multiple conversion cells and graded junctions with varying band gap properties. Voltage increases sought by serial combination of VOC s are proposed to overcome some of the limitations of a low power density. The power density is directly dependent on the total active areas.

  2. Prediction of Fast Fading Mobile Radio Channels in Wideband Communication Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Liang

    Prediction of Fast Fading Mobile Radio Channels in Wideband Communication Systems Liang Dong on the performance of wireless communication systems, such that the prediction of the changing channel behaviors-frequency prediction scheme has superior performance over conducting the channel predic- tion on a single frequency. I

  3. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  4. Design and synthesis of guest-host nanostructures to enhance ionic conductivity across nanocomposite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Michael Z. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Kosacki, Igor (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion conducting membrane has a matrix including an ordered array of hollow channels and a nanocrystalline electrolyte contained within at least some or all of the channels. The channels have opposed open ends, and a channel width of 1000 nanometers or less, preferably 60 nanometers or less, and most preferably 10 nanometers or less. The channels may be aligned perpendicular to the matrix surface, and the length of the channels may be 10 nanometers to 1000 micrometers. The electrolyte has grain sizes of 100 nanometers or less, and preferably grain sizes of 1 to 50 nanometers. The electrolyte may include grains with a part of the grain boundaries aligned with inner walls of the channels to form a straight oriented grain-wall interface or the electrolyte may be a single crystal. In one form, the electrolyte conducts oxygen ions, the matrix is silica, and the electrolyte is yttrium doped zirconia.

  5. Foundations for in vivo nano-scale measurement of memory processes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsythe, James Chris

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ongoing program of research and development is utilizing nanomaterials as a basis for observing and measuring neurophysiological processes. Work commencing in fiscal year 2007 will focus on expanding current capabilities to create nanoelectrode arrays that will allow nanoscale measurement of the activity of 10's to 100's of neurons. This development is a vital step in gaining scientific insights concerning network properties associated with neural representations and processes. Specifically, attention will be focused the representation of memory in the hippocampus, for which extensive research has been conducted using laboratory rats. This report summarizes background research providing a foundation for work planned for fiscal year 2007 and beyond. In particular, the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the hippocampus is described. Additionally, several programs of research are described that have addressed the relationship between neurophysiological processes and behavioral measures of memory performance. These studies provide insight into methodological and analytic approaches for studying the representation of memory processes in the hippocampus. The objective of this report is to document relevant literature in a reference document that will support future research in this area.

  6. Nanoscale transport of phonons: Dimensionality, subdiffusion, molecular damping, and interference effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walczak, Kamil; Yerkes, Kirk L. [Aerospace Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in the systems composed of nanoscale chains of masses coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. Thermal conductance is obtained by using linearized Landauer-type formula for heat flux with phonon transmission probability calculated within atomistic Green's functions (AGF) method. AGF formalism is extended onto dissipative chains of masses with harmonic coupling beyond nearest-neighbor approximation, while atomistic description of heat reservoirs is also included into computational scheme. In particular, the phonon lifetimes and the phonon frequency shifts are discussed for harmonic lattices of different dimensions. Further, resonant structure of phonon transmission spectrum is analyzed with respect to reservoir-induced effects, molecular damping, and mass-to-mass harmonic coupling. Analysis of transmission zeros (antiresonances) and their accompanied Fano-shape resonances are discussed as a result of interference effects between different vibrational modes. Finally, we also predict subdiffusive transport regime for low-frequency ballistic phonons propagated along a linear chain of harmonically coupled masses.

  7. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, 6-25-13

  8. Electrically conductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Jitendra P. (Bollingbrook, IL); Bosak, Andrea L. (Burnam, IL); McPheeters, Charles C. (Woodridge, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Woodridge, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

  9. Electrically conductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  10. Quantification of nanoscale density fluctuations using electron microscopy: Light-localization properties of biological cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Damania, Dhwanil; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Subramanian, Hariharan; Backman, Vadim [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Joshi, Hrushikesh M.; Dravid, Vinayak P. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Roy, Hemant K. [Department of Internal Medicine, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois 60201 (United States); Taflove, Allen [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a study of the nanoscale mass-density fluctuations of heterogeneous optical dielectric media, including nanomaterials and biological cells, by quantifying their nanoscale light-localization properties. Transmission electron microscope images of the media are used to construct corresponding effective disordered optical lattices. Light-localization properties are studied by the statistical analysis of the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the localized eigenfunctions of these optical lattices at the nanoscale. We validated IPR analysis using nanomaterials as models of disordered systems fabricated from dielectric nanoparticles. As an example, we then applied such analysis to distinguish between cells with different degrees of aggressive malignancy.

  11. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  12. Atomic Calligraphy: The Direct Writing of Nanoscale Structures using MEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Imboden; Han Han; Jackson Chang; Flavio Pardo; Cristian A. Bolle; Evan Lowell; David J. Bishop

    2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) based method for the resist free patterning of nano-structures. Using a focused ion beam (FIB) to customize larger MEMS machines, we fabricate apertures as small as 50 nm on plates that can be moved with nanometer precision over an area greater than 20x20 {\\mu}m^2. Depositing thermally evaporated gold atoms though the apertures while moving the plate results in the deposition of nanoscale metal patterns. Adding a shutter only microns above the aperture, enables high speed control of not only where but also when atoms are deposited. Using a shutter, different sized apertures can be selectively opened and closed for nano-structure fabrication with features ranging from nano- to micrometers in scale. The ability to evaporate materials with high precision, and thereby fabricate circuits and structures in situ, enables new kinds of experiments based on the interactions of a small number of atoms and eventually even single atoms.

  13. ADVANCED HEAT EXCHANGERS USING TUNABLE NANOSCALE-MOLECULAR ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwang J. Kim; Thomas W. Bell; Srinivas Vemuri; Sailaja Govindaraju

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam condensation heat transfer on smooth horizontal tubes and enhanced tubes (TURBO-CDI and TURBO-CSL) along with nanoscale hydrophobic coated tubes was studied experimentally. Hydrophobic coatings have been created through self-assembled mono layers (SAMs) on copper alloy (99.9% Cu, 0.1% P) surfaces to enhance steam condensation through dropwise condensation. In general, a SAM system with a long-chain, hydrophobic group is nano-resistant, meaning that such a system forms a protective hydrophobic layer with negligible heat transfer resistance but a much stronger bond. When compared to complete filmwise condensation, the SAM coating on a plain tube increased the condensation heat transfer rate by a factor of 3 for copper alloy surfaces, under vacuum pressure (33.86 kPa) and by a factor of about 8 times when operated at atmospheric pressure (101 kPa). Lifetime of maintaining dropwise condensation is greatly dependent on the processing conditions.

  14. Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamza, A V; Lesuer, D R

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory's (NSCL) primary mission is to create and advance interdisciplinary research and development opportunities in nanoscience and technology. The initial emphasis of the NSCL has been on development of scientific solutions in support of target fabrication for the NIF laser and other stockpile stewardship experimental platforms. Particular emphasis has been placed on the design and development of innovative new materials and structures for use in these targets. Projects range from the development of new high strength nanocrystalline alloys to graded density materials to high Z nanoporous structures. The NSCL also has a mission to recruit and train personnel for Lab programs such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Defense and Nuclear Technologies (DNT), and Nonproliferation, Arms control and International security (NAI). The NSCL continues to attract talented scientists to the Laboratory.

  15. Method and system for nanoscale plasma processing of objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S. (Clarksville, MD); Hua, Xuefeng (Hyattsville, MD); Stolz, Christian (Baden-Wuerttemberg, DE)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma processing system includes a source of plasma, a substrate and a shutter positioned in close proximity to the substrate. The substrate/shutter relative disposition is changed for precise control of substrate/plasma interaction. This way, the substrate interacts only with a fully established, stable plasma for short times required for nanoscale processing of materials. The shutter includes an opening of a predetermined width, and preferably is patterned to form an array of slits with dimensions that are smaller than the Debye screening length. This enables control of the substrate/plasma interaction time while avoiding the ion bombardment of the substrate in an undesirable fashion. The relative disposition between the shutter and the substrate can be made either by moving the shutter or by moving the substrate.

  16. Conductivity fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, James C. (Juno Beach, FL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method of manufacturing a PEM fuel cell collector plate is disclosed. During molding a highly conductive polymer composite is formed having a relatively high polymer concentration along its external surfaces. After molding the polymer rich layer is removed from the land areas by machining, grinding or similar process. This layer removal results in increased overall conductivity of the molded collector plate. The polymer rich surface remains in the collector plate channels, providing increased mechanical strength and other benefits to the channels. The improved method also permits greater mold cavity thickness providing a number of advantages during the molding process.

  17. Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

  18. Side-Channel Oscilloscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sumanta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Side-Channel Analysis used for codebreaking could be used constructively as a probing tool for internal gates in integrated circuits. This paper outlines basic methods and mathematics for that purpose

  19. Distributed Precoding for MISO Interference Channels with Channel Mean Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Distributed Precoding for MISO Interference Channels with Channel Mean Feedback: Algorithms precoding algorithms for multiple-input single-output (MISO) interference channels, where each trans- mitter- antenna wireless interference channels [5]-[7]. For multiple- input single-output (MISO) interference

  20. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  1. Applications of a new theory extending continuum mechanics to the nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Kaibin

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation, we present the Slattery-Oh-Fu theory extending continuum mechanics to the nanoscale and its applications. We begin with an analysis of supercritical adsorption of argon, krypton, and methane on Graphon before we fully develop...

  2. Mechanics of Indentation into Micro- and Nanoscale Forests of Tubes, Rods, or Pillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lifeng

    The force-depth behavior of indentation into fibrillar-structured surfaces such as those consisting of forests of micro- or nanoscale tubes or rods is a depth-dependent behavior governed by compression, bending, and buckling ...

  3. University of California, Santa Cruz, Applied Optics Grouphttp://photon.soe.ucsc.edu Nanoscale Optofluidics for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Herbie

    University of California, Santa Cruz, Applied Optics Grouphttp://photon.soe.ucsc.edu Nanoscale;University of California, Santa Cruz, Applied Optics Grouphttp://photon.soe.ucsc.edu Background Microfluidics Single molecule analysis Integrated optics Singleparticle Optofluidics Optofluidics: combination

  4. THERMAL HEAT TRANSPORT AT THE NANO-SCALE LEVEL AND ITS APPLICATION TO NANO-MACHINING.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Basil T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Nano-manufacturing is receiving significant attention in industry due to the ever-growing interest in nanotechnology in research institutions. It is hypothesized that single-step or direct-write nano-scale (more)

  5. Nanoscale Triboelectric-Effect-Enabled Energy Conversion for Sustainably Powering Portable Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Nanoscale Triboelectric-Effect-Enabled Energy Conversion for Sustainably Powering Portable: Harvesting energy from our living environment is an effective approach for sustainable, maintenance-free, and green power source for wireless, portable, or implanted electronics. Mechanical energy scavenging based

  6. Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals as nanoscale emissive probes in light emitting diodes and cell biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Hao, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis employs colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) as nanoscale emissive probes to investigate the physics of light emitting diodes (LEDs), as well as to unveil properties of cells that conventional imaging ...

  7. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Single-chain Nanoparticles: Synthesis of Nano-scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Single-chain Nanoparticles: Synthesis of Nano-scale Architectures:00 AM, IMS Room 20 Recent efforts by our lab to fold single polymer chains into nano

  8. Toward Nanoscale Three-Dimensional Printing: Nanowalls Built of Electrospun Nanofibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ho-Young

    . This novel 3D printing scheme can be applied to the development of various 3D nanoscale objects including manufacturing for several decades.1 So- called 3D printing is reaching a stage where the desired products can

  9. Nanoscale Phase Separation In Epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V Alloy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Separation In Epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V Alloy Thin Films Studied Using Atom Probe Tomography: Comparison Of Nanoscale Phase Separation In Epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V Alloy Thin Films...

  10. Nanoscale Electrical Conductivity and Surface Spectroscopic Studies of Indium-Tin Oxide Yish-Hann Liau and Norbert F. Scherer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    enabled the Electronic and optoelectronic devices impact many areas of society, from simple household and optoelectronic devices OCTOBER 2006 | VOLUME 9 | NUMBER 1018 #12;creation of a host of structures with modulated

  11. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, dated 6-25-13, cancels DOE O 422.1. Certified 12-3-14.

  12. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  13. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  14. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  15. Li Conductivity in LixMPO4 ,,M Mn, Fe, Co, Ni... Olivine Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    diffusivity may become quite relevant. In addition, the role of electrical vs. ionic conductivity is not clear and an estimate for Li diffusion constants, in the absence of electrical conductivity constraints, is made energy barriers to cross between the channels. Without electrical conductivity limitations the intrinsic

  16. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface. 15 figs.

  17. TRANSPORT INVOLVING CONDUCTING FIBERS IN A NON-CONDUCTING MATRIX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    result is a material with high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity. Transport Models,2 , J. Rozen3 Introduction Thermal and electrical transport through a low-conductivity matrix containing conversion devices high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity are preferred for superior

  18. Dendritic Ca2 -Activated K Conductances Regulate Electrical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wessel, Ralf

    Dendritic Ca2 -Activated K Conductances Regulate Electrical Signal Propagation in an Invertebrate studies revealed that backpropagating Na spikes and synaptically evoked EPSPs caused Ca2 entry through low-voltage-activated Ca2 channels that are distrib- uted throughout the neurites. Voltage-clamp recordings from the soma

  19. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  20. QKD Quantum Channel Authentication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. T. Kosloski

    2006-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Several simple yet secure protocols to authenticate the quantum channel of various QKD schemes, by coupling the photon sender's knowledge of a shared secret and the QBER Bob observes, are presented. It is shown that Alice can encrypt certain portions of the information needed for the QKD protocols, using a sequence whose security is based on computational-complexity, without compromising all of the sequence's entropy. It is then shown that after a Man-in-the-Middle attack on the quantum and classical channels, there is still enough entropy left in the sequence for Bob to detect the presence of Eve by monitoring the QBER. Finally, it is shown that the principles presented can be implemented to authenticate the quantum channel associated with any type of QKD scheme, and they can also be used for Alice to authenticate Bob.

  1. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  2. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  3. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  4. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  5. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, R.; Smith, J.L.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them are disclosed, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps. 10 figs.

  6. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Ruoyi (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Embury, John David (Hamilton, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps.

  7. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  8. NANOSCALE BOEHMITE FILLER FOR CORROSION AND WEAR RESISTANT POLYPHENYLENESULFIDE COATINGS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2003-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors evaluated the usefulness of nanoscale boehmite crystals as a filler for anti-wear and anti-corrosion polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) coatings exposed to a very harsh, 300 C corrosive geothermal environment. The boehmite fillers dispersed uniformly into the PPS coating, conferring two advanced properties: First, they reduced markedly the rate of blasting wear; second, they increased the PPS's glass transition temperature and thermal decomposition temperature. The wear rate of PPS surfaces was reduced three times when 5wt% boehmite was incorporated into the PPS. During exposure for 15 days at 300 C, the PPS underwent hydrothermal oxidation, leading to the substitution of sulfide linkages by the sulfite linkages. However, such molecular alteration did not significantly diminish the ability of the coating to protect carbon steel against corrosion. In fact, PPS coating filled with boehmite of {le} 5wt% adequately mitigated its corrosion in brine at 300 C. One concern in using this filler was that it absorbs brine. Thus, adding an excess amount of boehmite was detrimental to achieving the maximum protection afforded by the coatings.

  9. Nanoscale order in ZnSe:(Mg, O)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elyukhin, Vyacheslav A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Avenida Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, 07360 Mxico (Mexico)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-assembling of 1O4Mg identical tetrahedral clusters resulting in the nanoscale order in ZnSe:(Mg, O) is presented. Co-doping transforms ZnSe into Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O{sub y}Se{sub 1?y} alloy of MgO, MgSe, ZnO and ZnSe. The decrease of a sum of the enthalpies of the constituent compounds and diminution of the strain energy are the causes of this phenomenon. The self-assembling conditions are obtained from the free energy minimum when magnesium and oxygen are in the dilute and ultra dilute limits, correspondingly. The occurrence of 1O4Mg clusters and completion of self-assembling when all oxygen atoms are in clusters are results of the continuous phase transitions. The self-assembling occurrence temperature does not depend on the oxygen content and it is a function of magnesium concentration. Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O{sub y}Se{sub 1?y} with all oxygen atoms in clusters can be obtained in temperature ranges from T = 206 C (x = 0.001, y = 110{sup ?4}) to T = 456 C (x = 0.01, y = 110{sup ?4}) and from T = 237 C (x = 0.001, y = 110{sup ?6}) to T = 462 C (x = 0.01, y = 110{sup ?6})

  10. Hybrid Zero-capacity Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergii Strelchuk; Jonathan Oppenheim

    2012-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    There are only two known kinds of zero-capacity channels. The first kind produces entangled states that have positive partial transpose, and the second one - states that are cloneable. We consider the family of 'hybrid' quantum channels, which lies in the intersection of the above classes of channels and investigate its properties. It gives rise to the first explicit examples of the channels, which create bound entangled states that have the property of being cloneable to the arbitrary finite number of parties. Hybrid channels provide the first example of highly cloneable binding entanglement channels, for which known superactivation protocols must fail - superactivation is the effect where two channels each with zero quantum capacity having positive capacity when used together. We give two methods to construct a hybrid channel from any binding entanglement channel. We also find the low-dimensional counterparts of hybrid states - bipartite qubit states which are extendible and possess two-way key.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Li-ion Anode Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Pittsburgh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about nanoscale...

  12. TRANSPORT INVOLVING CONDUCTING FIBERS IN A NON-CONDUCTING MATRIX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    to sev- eral applications including flexible thin-film transistors, PEM fuel cells, and direct energy, particularly Peltier devices, high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity are preferred

  13. Channeling through Bent Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

    2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to create an angular profile plot which was compared to what was produced by Yazynin's code for a beam with no multiple scattering. The results were comparable, with volume reflection and channeling effects observed and the range of crystal orientations at which volume reflection is seen was about 1 mrad in both simulations.

  14. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

  15. FAS CENTER FOR NANOSCALE SYSTEMS 11 OXFORD STREET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    _Research_Proposal.doc 1 7/29/2009 Proposal for Minor to Conduct Research or Work in a Laboratory (To be completed by CNS Faculty or Staff Sponsor) Persons under 18 years of age (minors) wishing to work or conduct research hazards in the laboratory. · Hazardous operations are defined and safe practices and protective equipment

  16. Wideband Fading Channels With Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borade, Shashi

    The Rayleigh flat fading channel at low SNR is considered. With full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and receiver, its capacity is shown to be essentially SNR log(1SNR) nats/symbol, as SNR goes to zero. ...

  17. In Situ Analytical Electron Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graetz J.; Meng, Y.S.; McGilvray, T.; Yang, M.-C.; Gostovic, D.; Wang, F.; Zeng, D.; Zhu, Y.

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxides and their tailored structures are at the heart of electrochemical energy storage technologies and advances in understanding and controlling the dynamic behaviors in the complex oxides, particularly at the interfaces, during electrochemical processes will catalyze creative design concepts for new materials with enhanced and better-understood properties. Such knowledge is not accessible without new analytical tools. New innovative experimental techniques are needed for understanding the chemistry and structure of the bulk and interfaces, more importantly how they change with electrochemical processes in situ. Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is used extensively to study electrode materials ex situ and is one of the most powerful tools to obtain structural, morphological, and compositional information at nanometer scale by combining imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy, e.g., EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry) and Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry (EELS). Determining the composition/structure evolution upon electrochemical cycling at the bulk and interfaces can be addressed by new electron microscopy technique with which one can observe, at the nanometer scale and in situ, the dynamic phenomena in the electrode materials. In electrochemical systems, for instance in a lithium ion battery (LIB), materials operate under conditions that are far from equilibrium, so that the materials studied ex situ may not capture the processes that occur in situ in a working battery. In situ electrochemical operation in the ultra-high vacuum column of a TEM has been pursued by two major strategies. In one strategy, a 'nano-battery' can be fabricated from an all-solid-state thin film battery using a focused ion beam (FIB). The electrolyte is either polymer based or ceramic based without any liquid component. As shown in Fig. 1a, the interfaces between the active electrode material/electrolyte can be clearly observed with TEM imaging, in contrast to the composite electrodes/electrolyte interfaces in conventional lithium ion batteries, depicted in Fig.1b, where quantitative interface characterization is extremely difficult if not impossible. A second strategy involves organic electrolyte, though this approach more closely resembles the actual operation conditions of a LIB, the extreme volatility In Situ Analytical Electron Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Electrochemistry by Ying Shirley Meng, Thomas McGilvray, Ming-Che Yang, Danijel Gostovic, Feng Wang, Dongli Zeng, Yimei Zhu, and Jason Graetz of the organic electrolytes present significant challenges for designing an in situ cell that is suitable for the vacuum environment of the TEM. Significant progress has been made in the past few years on the development of in situ electron microscopy for probing nanoscale electrochemistry. In 2008, Brazier et al. reported the first cross-section observation of an all solid-state lithium ion nano-battery by TEM. In this study the FIB was used to make a 'nano-battery,' from an all solid-state battery prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In situ TEM observations were not possible at that time due to several key challenges such as the lack of a suitable biasing sample holder and vacuum transfer of sample. In 2010, Yamamoto et al. successfully observed changes of electric potential in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery in situ with electron holography (EH). The 2D potential distribution resulting from movement of lithium ions near the positive-electrode/electrolyte interface was quantified. More recently Huang et al. and Wang et al. reported the in situ observations of the electrochemical lithiation of a single SnO{sub 2} nanowire electrode in two different in situ setups. In their approach, a vacuum compatible ionic liquid is used as the electrolyte, eliminating the need for complicated membrane sealing to prevent the evaporation of carbonate based organic electrolyte into the TEM column. One main limitation of this approach is that EELS spectral imaging is not possible due to the high plasmon signal of the ionic li

  18. In situ characterization of nanoscale catalysts during anodic redox processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Renu [National Institute of Standards and Technology] National Institute of Standards and Technology; Crozier, Peter [Arizona State University] Arizona State University; Adams, James [Arizona State University] Arizona State University

    2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling the structure and composition of the anode is critical to achieving high efficiency and good long-term performance. In addition to being a mixed electronic and ionic conductor, the ideal anode material should act as an efficient catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dry hydrocarbons without de-activating through either sintering or coking. It is also important to develop novel anode materials that can operate at lower temperatures to reduce costs and minimized materials failure associated with high temperature cycling. We proposed to synthesize and characterize novel anode cermets materials based on ceria doped with Pr and/or Gd together with either a Ni or Cu metallic components. Ceria is a good oxidation catalyst and is an ionic conductor at room temperature. Doping it with trivalent rare earths such as Pr or Gd retards sintering and makes it a mixed ion conductor (ionic and electronic). We have developed a fundamental scientific understanding of the behavior of the cermet material under reaction conditions by following the catalytic oxidation process at the atomic scale using a powerful Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (ESTEM). The ESTEM allowed in situ monitoring of structural, chemical and morphological changes occurring at the cermet under conditions approximating that of typical fuel-cell operation. Density functional calculations were employed to determine the underlying mechanisms and reaction pathways during anode oxidation reactions. The dynamic behavior of nanoscale catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and methane were used to determine: ? Fundamental processes during anodic reactions in hydrogen and carbonaceous atmospheres ? Interfacial effects between metal particles and doped ceria ? Kinetics of redox reaction in the anode material

  19. Extremality conditions for generalized channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anna Jencova

    2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized channel is a completely positive map that preserves trace on a given subspace. We find conditions under which a generalized channel with respect to a positively generated subspace J is an extreme point in the set of all such generalized channels. As a special case, this yields extremality conditions for quantum protocols. In particular, we obtain new extremality conditions for quantum 1-testers with 2 outcomes, which correspond to yes/no measurements on the set of quantum channels.

  20. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  1. Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liati, Anthi; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for I.C. Engines, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130-270 {mu}m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15-30 nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively mature internal nanostructures, however, far from being graphite. Ash aggregates largely accumulate at the outlet part of DPF1, while minor amounts are deposited directly on the channel walls all along the filter length. They consist of crystalline phases with individual particles of sizes down to the nanoscale range. Chemically, the ash consists mainly of Mg, S, Ca, Zn and P, elements encountered in lubricating oil additives. In the passenger car DPF2 (with fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 200-500 {mu}m thick, inhomogeneous porous cake consisting of several superposed layers corresponding to different soot generations. The largest part of the soot cake is composed of unburned, oriented soot aggregates left behind despite repeated regenerations, while a small part constitutes a loose layer with randomly oriented aggregates, which was deposited last and has not seen any regeneration. Fe-oxide particles of micro- to nano-scale sizes, originating from the fuel-borne additive, are often dispersed within the part of the soot cake composed of the unburned soot leftovers. The individual soot nanoparticles in DPF2 are approximately 15-40 nm large and generally less mature than in the truck DPF1. The presence of soot leftovers in DPF2 indicates that the addition of fuel-borne material does not fully compensate for the temperatures needed for complete soot removal. Ash in DPF2 is filling up more than half of the filter volume (at the downstream part) and is dominated by Fe-oxide aggregates, due to the Fe-based fuel-borne additive, but otherwise its chemical composition reflects compounds of lubricating oil additives. (author)

  2. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the School conductivity of the coatings. The minimum thermal conductivity occurs at a low rotation rate and is 0.8 W intrinsic thermal conductivity, good phase stability and greater resistance to sintering and CMAS attack

  3. PLASTIC PORT NON-CONDUCTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    PIN NO. 1 INDICATOR 81 3 5 2 4 6 7 CONDUCTIVE PLASTIC PORT NON-CONDUCTIVE PLASTIC HOUSING Description The conductive port option for the Low Cost Miniature Link component family consists of a grounding path from the conductive port to four grounding pins as shown in the package outline drawing

  4. Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ Operation of Battery Electrode and Electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Megan E; Gunceler, Deniz; Gao, Jie; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Schwarz, Kathleen A; Arias, Toms A; Abrua, Hctor D; Muller, David A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major challenge in the development of new battery materials is understanding their fundamental mechanisms of operation and degradation. Their microscopically inhomogeneous nature calls for characterization tools that provide operando and localized information from individual grains and particles. Here we describe an approach that images the nanoscale distribution of ions during electrochemical charging of a battery in a transmission electron microscope liquid flow cell. We use valence energy-loss spectroscopy to track both solvated and intercalated ions, with electronic structure fingerprints of the solvated ions identified using an ab initio non-linear response theory. Equipped with the new electrochemical cell holder, nanoscale spectroscopy and theory, we have been able to determine the lithiation state of a LiFePO4 electrode and surrounding aqueous electrolyte in real time with nanoscale resolution during electrochemical charge and discharge. We follow lithium transfer between electrode and electrolyte a...

  5. Parallel nano-Differential Scanning Calorimetry: A New Device for Combinatorial Analysis of Complex nano-Scale Material Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Parallel nano-Differential Scanning Calorimetry: A New Device for Combinatorial Analysis of Complex nano-Scale Material Systems Patrick James McCluskey, and Joost J. Vlassak Division of Engineering is presented for the combinatorial analysis of complex nano-scale material systems. The parallel nano

  6. Impact of Nano-scale Through-Silicon Vias on the Quality of Today and Future 3D IC Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    Impact of Nano-scale Through-Silicon Vias on the Quality of Today and Future 3D IC Designs Dae Hyun sub-micron dimensions in a few years. This downscaling of TSVs requires research on the impact of nano. In this paper, we investigate, for the first time, the impact of nano-scale TSVs on the area, wirelength, delay

  7. Electron-beam patterning of polymer electrolyte films to make multiple nanoscale gates for nanowire transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. J. Carrad; A. M. Burke; R. W. Lyttleton; H. J. Joyce; H. H. Tan; C. Jagadish; K. Storm; H. Linke; L. Samuelson; A. P. Micolich

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an electron-beam based method for the nanoscale patterning of the poly(ethylene oxide)/LiClO$_{4}$ polymer electrolyte. We use the patterned polymer electrolyte as a high capacitance gate dielectric in single nanowire transistors and obtain subthreshold swings comparable to conventional metal/oxide wrap-gated nanowire transistors. Patterning eliminates gate/contact overlap which reduces parasitic effects and enables multiple, independently controllable gates. The method's simplicity broadens the scope for using polymer electrolyte gating in studies of nanowires and other nanoscale devices.

  8. The Properties of Confined Water and Fluid Flow at the Nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwegler, E; Reed, J; Lau, E; Prendergast, D; Galli, G; Grossman, J C; Cicero, G

    2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has been focused on the development of accurate computational tools to study fluids in confined, nanoscale geometries, and the application of these techniques to probe the structural and electronic properties of water confined between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, including the presence of simple ions at the interfaces. In particular, we have used a series of ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations to build an understanding of how hydrogen bonding and solvation are modified at the nanoscale. The properties of confined water affect a wide range of scientific and technological problems - including protein folding, cell-membrane flow, materials properties in confined media and nanofluidic devices.

  9. Nanoscale Phase Separation In Epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V Alloy Thin Films Studied Using Atom Probe Tomography: Comparison Of Experiments And Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaraj, Arun; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Ramanan, Sathvik; Walvekar, Sarita K.; Bowden, Mark E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Tailored metal alloy thin film-oxide interfaces generated using molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) deposition of alloy thin films on a single crystalline oxide substrate can be used for detailed studies of irradiation damage response on the interface structure. However presence of nanoscale phase separation in the MBE grown alloy thin films can impact the metal-oxide interface structure. Due to nanoscale domain size of such phase separation it is very challenging to characterize by conventional techniques. Therefor laser assisted atom probe tomography (APT) was utilized to study the phase separation in epitaxial Cr0.61Mo0.39, Cr0.77Mo0.23, and Cr0.32V0.68 alloy thin films grown by MBE on MgO(001) single crystal substrates. Statistical analysis, namely frequency distribution analysis and Pearson coefficient analysis of experimental data was compared with similar analyses conducted on simulated APT datasets with known extent of phase separation. Thus the presence of phase separation in Cr-Mo films, even when phase separation was not clearly observed by x-ray diffraction, and the absence of phase separation in the Cr-V film were thus confirmed.

  10. Dynamical coupled-channels study of meson production reactions from EBACatJLab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamano, Hiroyuki [Excited Baryon Analysis Center (EBAC), Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the current status of a combined and simultaneous analysis of meson production reactions based on a dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) model, which is conducted at Excited Baryon Analysis Center (EBAC) of Jefferson Lab.

  11. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  12. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  13. Gas Code of Conduct (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Code of Conduct sets forth the standard of conduct for transactions, direct or indirect, between gas companies and their affiliates. The purpose of these regulations is to promote...

  14. Commensurability effects induced by a periodic array of nanoscale anti-dots in Nb superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metlushko, Vitali

    Commensurability effects induced by a periodic array of nanoscale anti-dots in Nb superconductor A. PACS: 74.25.Ha; 74.76.)w Keywords: Nanostructures; Anti-dots; Commensurability 1. Introduction atomic layers on periodical substrate [5], magnetic bubble arrays [6] and the magnetically induced Wigner

  15. Nanoscience This course explores the frontiers of science on the nanoscale. Many developing 21st

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    Nanoscience MSc/PgDip This course explores the frontiers of science on the nanoscale. Many and behaviours of systems in this submicrometrescale size domain. The multidisciplinary nature of nanoscience. The projects take place primarily in research labs associated with nanoscience located in the University

  16. Micro-and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L.

    Micro- and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Vladimir Ya. Shur investigation of the domain evolution in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate during backswitched electric sources based on quasi-phase matching.11 Lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) and lithium tantalate LiTaO3 (LT

  17. Polymeric Nanoscale All-Solid State Battery Steven E. Bullock1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kofinas, Peter

    Polymeric Nanoscale All-Solid State Battery Steven E. Bullock1 , and Peter Kofinas2 1 Department to an all solid- state polymer battery. Such a battery would have greater safety, without potential, the search for an all solid-state battery has continued. Research on polymeric materials for batteries has

  18. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700139 StructurePropertyFunction Relationships in Nanoscale Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700139 Structure­Property­Function Relationships in Nanoscale Oxide Sensors-emitting diodes, lasers, photovoltaic solar cells, UV-photodetectors, var- istors, and even heterogeneous for chemical sensing.[17] However, to date most of the attention in the field of metal-oxide sensors

  19. Material Standards for EHS for Engineered Nanoscale Materials Material Standards for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    #12;#12;Material Standards for EHS for Engineered Nanoscale Materials Material Standards of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD Workshop Co-Chairs and Principle Report Editors Dianne L. Poster, John A. Small, Michael T. Postek National Institute of Standards and Technology Sponsored by U

  20. Charge separation in nanoscale photovoltaic materials: recent insights from first-principles electronic structure theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    Charge separation in nanoscale photovoltaic materials: recent insights from first-scale photovoltaic materials; in particular recent theoretical/computational work based on first principles electron and hole in so-called excitonic photovoltaic cells. Emphasis is placed on theoretical results

  1. Nanoscale photon management in silicon solar cells Sangmoo Jeong, Shuang Wang, and Yi Cui

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    benefits. For power generation, low-cost fossil fuel has, however, been pre- ferred to renewable energy and wind, can be accessed easily in most of the world. In particular, the solar energy deliveredNanoscale photon management in silicon solar cells Sangmoo Jeong, Shuang Wang, and Yi Cui Citation

  2. Radiation fields for nanoscale systems Ming Liang Zhang* and D. A. Drabold**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drabold, David

    Radiation fields for nanoscale systems Ming Liang Zhang* and D. A. Drabold** Department of Physics-classical radiation theory, temporal coarse graining * Corresponding author: e-mail zhangm@ohio.edu, Phone: (01) 740 semi-classical radiation theory (SCRT) with these sources, the microscopic Maxwell equations can

  3. Self-Powered Wireless Nano-scale Sensor Networks within Chemical Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    a reactor for a bottom-up control of the chemical synthesis with the ultimate goal of improvingSelf-Powered Wireless Nano-scale Sensor Networks within Chemical Reactors Eisa Zarepour1 Mahbub networks (NSNs) can be applied in many chemical applications to monitor and control the chemical process

  4. Quantification of Nanoscale Density Fluctuations in Biological Cells/Tissues: Inverse Participation Ratio (IPR) Analysis of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradhan, Prabhakar

    Ratio (IPR) Analysis of Transmission Electron Microscopy Images and Implications for Early-Stage Cancer analysis of the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the eigenfunctions of these optical lattices at the nanoscales. First, the IPR analysis is validated in experiments with models of disordered systems fabricated

  5. Heat transfer in soft nanoscale interfaces: the influence of interface curvature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Heat transfer in soft nanoscale interfaces: the influence of interface curvature Anders Lervik transient non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations, heat-transfer through nanometer-scale interfaces processes. We show that the modeling of heat transfer across a nanodroplet/fluid interface requires

  6. Nanoscale Heat Transfer at Contact Between a Hot Tip and a Substrate Stphane Lefvre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Nanoscale Heat Transfer at Contact Between a Hot Tip and a Substrate Stéphane Lefèvre Laboratoire d three heat transfer modes with experimental data and modeling. We conclude that the three modes in "International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 49, 1-2 (2006) 251-258" DOI : 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2005

  7. Fluid structure and boundary slippage in nanoscale liquid films Nikolai V. Priezjev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priezjev, Nikolai V.

    Fluid structure and boundary slippage in nanoscale liquid films Nikolai V. Priezjev Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (Dated: August 19, 2011 in micro and nanofluidic systems and, in particular, in accurate prediction of fluid flows with slip

  8. From self-assembly to engines: Simulating the nanoscale D. C. Rapaport, Bar-Ilan University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    From self-assembly to engines: Simulating the nanoscale D. C. Rapaport, Bar-Ilan University Two self-assembly, namely, the formation of the exquisitely designed protein capsids of spherical viruses. New insights into the assembly mechanisms have emerged from simulations carried out using simplified

  9. Effects of nanoscale thickness and elastic nonlinearity on measured mechanical properties of polymeric films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    of polymeric films B. Oommen, K.J. Van Vliet Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts the mechanical properties of nanoscale, compliant material volumes such as polymeric films and bio materials of semi-infinite thickness fails to accurately predict the nominal elastic modulus E for polymeric

  10. Nanoscale tunable reduction of graphene oxide for graphene electronics , D. Wang2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanoscale tunable reduction of graphene oxide for graphene electronics Z. Wei1* , D. Wang2* , S contributed equally to this work. paul.sheehan@nrl.navy.mil elisa.riedo@physics.gatech.edu Graphene is now in graphene oxide (GO) has risen for producing large-scale flexible conductors and for its potential to open

  11. ReseaRch at the University of Maryland Innovating Energy Storage at the Nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wendell T.

    ReseaRch at the University of Maryland Innovating Energy Storage at the Nanoscale Growing demands for energy, particularly renewable energy, require not only new sources but new methods of storage tests newly created nanostructures for their energy storage capacities. His work in micro

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations of the nano-scale room-temperature oxidation of aluminum single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Molecular dynamics simulations of the nano-scale room-temperature oxidation of aluminum single Abstract The oxidation of aluminum single crystals is studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with dynamic charge transfer between atoms. The simulations are performed on three aluminum low-index surfaces

  13. Nanoscale Joule heating, Peltier cooling and current crowding at graphenemetal contacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, William P.

    Nanoscale Joule heating, Peltier cooling and current crowding at graphenemetal contacts Kyle L are the Joule and Peltier effects. The Joule effect9 occurs as charge carriers dissipate energy within the lattice, and is pro- portional to resistance and the square of the current. The Peltier effect17

  14. Novel Nanoscale Catalysts and Desulfurizers for Aviation Fuels Martin Duran* and Abdul-Majeed Azad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    reforming catalysts for jet fuel", The Ohio Fuel Cell Symposium of the Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition, May 23Novel Nanoscale Catalysts and Desulfurizers for Aviation Fuels Martin Duran* and Abdul-Majeed Azad) to hydrogen through steam reforming poses a challenge since these fuels contain sulfur up to about 1000 ppm

  15. Transport Simulation of a Nanoscale Silicon Rod Field-Effect C. Dwyer, R. Taylor, L. Vicci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Chris

    ://ftp.cs.unc.edu/pub/packages/GRIP/publication_addenda /TSNSRFET. I. INTRODUCTION Recent advances in nanoscience enable new possibilities for nanoscale computer CMOS inverter in the shape of a 3D rod lattice. The junctions between rods are metallized DNA strands components of the fabrication technique starting with its transistors. The importance of low power digital

  16. A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres P and A. Yacoby1 * The nitrogen-vacancy defect centre in diamond1­4 has potential applications processing9 and bioimaging10 . These applications rely on the ability to pos- ition a single nitrogen-vacancy

  17. Last Revised: 04/03/2014 UNDERGRADUATE MINOR IN "NANOSCALE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    . It is open to any UG student pursuing an Engineering or Arts & Sciences (Chemistry, Physics, BiologyLast Revised: 04/03/2014 UNDERGRADUATE MINOR IN "NANOSCALE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING" SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE Available to any UG pursuing an Arts and Science or Engineering degree I

  18. Science Highlight July 2011 Better Batteries through Nanoscale 3D Chemical Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    as the technology of choice in soon-to-be marketed models, further improvements in their energy density, cost, cycle energy density devices. Hence, monitoring changes in electrodes during battery operation (i.e., insertion the promise of adding a new dimension, 3D nanoscale chemical and architectural visualization

  19. Hydrogen embrittlement of ferritic steels: Observations on deformation microstructure, nanoscale dimples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sow-Hsin

    Hydrogen embrittlement of ferritic steels: Observations on deformation microstructure, nanoscale hydrogen embrittlement of ferritic steels has been a subject of significant research, one of the major challenges in tackling hydrogen embrittlement is that the mechanism of embrittlement is not fully resolved

  20. Methods of conducting simultaneous exothermic and endothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Marysville, OH); Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Fitzgerald, Sean P. (Columbus, OH)

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated Combustion Reactors (ICRs) and methods of making ICRs are described in which combustion chambers (or channels) are in direct thermal contact to reaction chambers for an endothermic reaction. Superior results were achieved for combustion chambers which contained a gap for free flow through the chamber. Particular reactor designs are also described. Processes of conducting reactions in integrated combustion reactors are described and results presented. Some of these processes are characterized by unexpected and superior results.

  1. Mirrored serpentine flow channels for fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rock, Jeffrey Allan (Rochester, NY)

    2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A PEM fuel cell having serpentine flow field channels wherein the input/inlet legs of each channel border the input/inlet legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field, and the output/exit legs of each channel border the output/exit legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field. The serpentine fuel flow channels may be longer, and may contain more medial legs, than the serpentine oxidant flow channels.

  2. Experimental thermal conductivity and contact conductance of graphite composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Marian Christine

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 2. 1 One-Dimensional Heat Transfer by Conduction Across a Plane Wall Figure 2. 2 Fundamental Element for Electrically Based Thermal Model. . . 14 Figure 2. 3 Rectangular Unit Cell Orientation . 14 Figure 2. 4 Model of Parabolic Distribution... a low transverse thermal conductivity, they show better thermal performance than MMC's for some weight-critical applications (Ibrahim, 1992). Graphite/organic compound composites also will be reviewed. Using a high conductivity graphite fiber...

  3. Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While information exists on high energy negative particle channeling there has been little study of the challenges of negative particle bending and channeling collimation. Partly this is because negative dechanneling lengths are relatively much shorter. Electrons are not particularly useful for investigating negative particle channeling effects because their material interactions are dominated by channeling radiation. Another important factor is that the current central challenge in channeling collimation is the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) where both beams are positive. On the other hand in the future the collimation question might reemerge for electon-positron or muon colliders. Dechanneling lengths increase at higher energies so that part of the negative particle experimental challenge diminishes. In the article different approaches to determining negative dechanneling lengths are reviewed. The more complicated case for axial channeling is also discussed. Muon channeling as a tool to investigate dechanneling is also discussed. While it is now possible to study muon channeling it will probably not illuminate the study of negative dechanneling.

  4. Heat conductivity in the beta-FPU lattice. Solitons and breathers as energy carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Yu. Astakhova; V. N. Likhachev; G. A. Vinogradov

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper consists of two parts. The first part proposes a new methodological framework within which the heat conductivity in 1D lattices can be studied. The total process of heat conductivity is decomposed into two contributions where the first one is the equilibrium process at equal temperatures T of both lattice ends and the second -- non-equilibrium process with the temperature \\Delta T of one end and zero temperature of the other. The heat conductivity in the limit \\Delta T \\to 0 is reduced to the heat conductivity of harmonic lattice. A threshold temperature T_{thr} scales T_{thr}(N) \\sim N^{-3} with the lattice size N. Some unusual properties of heat conductivity can be exhibited on nanoscales at low temperatures. The thermodynamics of the \\beta-FPU lattice can be adequately approximated by the harmonic lattice. The second part testifies in the favor of the soliton and breather contribution to the heat conductivity in contrast to [N. Li, B. Li, S. Flach, PRL 105 (2010) 054102]. In the continuum limit the \\beta-FPU lattice is reduced to the modified Korteweg - de Vries equation with soliton and breather solutions. Numerical simulations demonstrate their high stability. New method for the visualization of moving solitons and breathers is suggested. An accurate expression for the dependence of the sound velocity on temperature is also obtained. Our results support the conjecture on the solitons and breathers contribution to the heat conductivity.

  5. STANDARD LAN -1 Fiber Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellia, Marco

    STANDARD LAN - 1 Fiber Channel Gruppo Reti TLC nome.cognome@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito.it/ #12;STANDARD LAN - 2 Fibre Channel · Born to interconnect mainframes and servers to storage systems: fibERs, but not only... · Interoperability with SCSI, Internet Protocol (IP), ... · Standard ANSI X3

  6. Optical Conductivity with Holographic Lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary T. Horowitz; Jorge E. Santos; David Tong

    2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We add a gravitational background lattice to the simplest holographic model of matter at finite density and calculate the optical conductivity. With the lattice, the zero frequency delta function found in previous calculations (resulting from translation invariance) is broadened and the DC conductivity is finite. The optical conductivity exhibits a Drude peak with a cross-over to power-law behavior at higher frequencies. Surprisingly, these results bear a strong resemblance to the properties of some of the cuprates.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flows in Expanding Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vorobieff, Peter; Putkaradze, Vakhtang

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an experimental realization of the classical Jeffery-Hamel flows inside a wedge-shaped channel. We compare the measured velocity fields with the predictions of Jeffery-Hamel theory. A detailed experimental study of bifurcation diagrams for the solutions reveals the absolute stability of the pure outflow solution and an interesting hysteretic structure for bifurcations. We also observe a multiple vortex flow regime predicted earlier numerically and analytically. Experimental studies of the stability of the flow to perturbations at the channel exit are also conducted.

  8. On a novel rate theory for transport in narrow ion channels and its application to the study of flux optimization via geometric effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reingruber, Jürgen

    On a novel rate theory for transport in narrow ion channels and its application to the study passage time to describe single-ion conduction in narrow, effectively one-dimensional membrane channels. DOI: 10.1063/1.3077205 I. INTRODUCTION Ion channels are membrane proteins which enable se- lected ions

  9. Appendix C Conducting Structured Walkthroughs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide describes how to conduct a structured walkthroughs during the lifecycle stages of software engineering projects, regardless of hardware platform.

  10. On extreme Bosonic linear channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Holevo

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The set of all channels with fixed input and output is convex. We first give a convenient formulation of necessary and sufficient condition for a channel to be extreme point of this set in terms of complementary channel, a notion of big importance in quantum information theory. This formulation is based on the general approach to extremality of completely positive maps in an operator algebra due to Arveson. We then apply this formulation to prove the main result of this note: under certain nondegeneracy conditions, purity of the environment is necessary and sufficient for extremality of Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channel. It follows that Gaussian channel between finite-mode Bosonic systems is extreme if and only if it has minimal noise.

  11. A flexible, highly stable electrochemical scanning probe microscope for nanoscale studies at the solid-liquid interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gimzewski, James

    low-noise measurements in ambient, in situ, and electrochemical environments. II. DESIGNA flexible, highly stable electrochemical scanning probe microscope for nanoscale studies at the solid-liquid interface, specifically in electrolyte environments. Quantification of system noise limits

  12. Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications.

  13. Enhancement of Topological Insulators Surface Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Xinxin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancement of Topological Insulators Surface Conduction AEnhancement of Topological Insulators Surface Conduction byTopological Insulator

  14. Engineered nano-scale ceramic supports for PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blackmore, Karen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Neil J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalyst support durability is currently a technical barrier for commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, especially for transportation applications. Degradation and corrosion of the conventional carbon supports leads to losses in active catalyst surface area and, consequently, reduced performance. As a result, the major aim of this work is to develop support materials that interact strongly with Pt, yet sustain bulk-like catalytic activities with very highly dispersed particles. This latter aspect is key to attaining the 2015 DOE technical targets for platinum group metal (PGM) loadings (0.20 mg/cm{sup 2}). The benefits of the use of carbon-supported catalysts to drastically reduce Pt loadings from the early, conventional Pt-black technology are well known. The supported platinum catalyzed membrane approach widely used today for fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) was developed shortly thereafter these early reports. Of direct relevance to this present work, are the investigations into Pt particle growth in PEM fuel cells, and subsequent follow-on work showing evidence of Pt particles suspended free of the support within the catalyst layer. Further, durability work has demonstrated the detrimental effects of potential cycling on carbon corrosion and the link between electrochemical surface area and particle growth. To avoid the issues with carbon degradation altogether, it has been proposed by numerous fuel cell research groups to replace carbon supports with conductive materials that are ceramic in nature. Intrinsically, these many conductive oxides, carbides, and nitrides possess the prerequisite electronic conductivity required, and offer corrosion resistance in PEMFC environments; however, most reports indicate that obtaining sufficient surface area remains a significant barrier to obtaining desirable fuel ceU performance. Ceramic materials that exhibit high electrical conductivity and necessary stability under fuel cell conditions must also exhibit high surface area as a necessary adjunct to obtaining high Pt dispersions and Pt utilization targets. Our goal in this work is to identify new synthesis approaches together with materials that will lead to ceramic supports with high surface areas and high Pt dispersions. Several strong candidates for use as PEMFC catalyst supports include: transition metal nitrides and substoichiometric titanium oxides, which hither to now have been prepared by other researcher groups with relatively low surface areas (ca. 1-50 m{sup 2}/g typical). To achieve our goals of engineering high surface area, conductive ceramic support for utilization in PEMFCs, a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary team with experience synthesizing and investigating these materials has been assembled. This team is headed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and includes Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of New Mexico. This report describes our fiscal year 2010 technical progress related to applying advanced synthetiC methods towards the development of new ceramic supports for Pt catalysts for PEM fuel cells.

  15. Probing Interactions at the Nanoscale: Sensing Protein Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohn, Lydia; Weiss, Ron; Tavazoie, Saeed

    2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction We have developed a high-frequency electronic biosensor of parallel-plate geometry that is embedded within a microfluidic device. This novel biosensor allows us to perform dielectric spectroscopy on a variety of biological samplesfrom cells to moleculesin solution. Because it is purely electronic, the sensor allows for rapid characterization with no sample preparation or chemical alteration. In addition, it is capable of probing length scales from millimeters to microns over a frequency range 50 MHz to 40 GHz, and sample volumes as small as picoliters [1,2]. Our high-frequency biosensor has evolved from previous device designs based on a coplanar waveguide (CPW) geometry [2]. For our current device, we employ microfluidic tectonics (FT) [3] to embed two microstrip conductors within a microfluidic channel. The electronic coupling between the two conductors is greater than in our previous CPW design and more importantly, leads to an enhanced sensitivity. Our utilization of FT allows us to incorporate easily this high-frequency electronic biosensor with a variety of lab-on-a-chip architectures. Device Description Figure 1 is a schematic of our high-frequency electronic biosensor. We fabricate this sensor by first depositing a 500 seed layer of gold onto two glass microscope slides. We then use photolithography to pattern the gold that is subsequently electroplated to a thickness of 4-6 m. After reactive-ion etching the photoresist and removing the unplated gold with a standard iodine-based gold etchant, we align the two slides under a microscope such that the microstrip conductors overlap one another in a parallel-plate geometry (80 m x 500 m). We control the separation between the microstrip conductors using gold foil spacers 325 m thick. The foil additionally ensures coupling between the grounds on each slide. Following alignment, we employ FT to bond the two glass slides together and to create a microfluidic channel running perpendicular to the microstrip conductors (see Figure 1). We complete the device by inserting 0.02 ID vinyl tubing through predrilled input and output holes of the device [3]. All of our devices are designed to have a 50 ? matched impedance and minimal insertion loss for 0.05 40 GHz. With these characteristics, we expect a sensitivity of 0.05 dB. Results By accessing frequencies > 20 GHz with our device, we can probe unique low-frequency vibrational or rotational modes of bio-macromolecules, since at these frequencies the counterions have fully relaxed, the dipole moment of water is rapidly decreasing, and the macroscopic distortions of macromolecules become important and are reflected in the obtained spectra. As a first demonstration, we have measured PCR products. We are able to distinguish between non-reacted primers for PCR amplification and reacted PCR products (24 amplification cycles). Figure 2 shows representative spectra of the two different DNA solutions obtained from a single device and scaled to DI water. We have obtained similar spectral features from additional devices and are currently developing a quantitative model to explain our results. This initial demonstration of molecular differentiation using a high-frequency electronic biosensor shows the great promise of electronic biosensing.

  16. Stick-Slip Control in Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication by Surface Wettability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Chen; Adam S. Foster; Mikko J. Alava; Lasse Laurson

    2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of atomic scale surface-lubricant interactions on nanoscale boundary-lubricated friction, by considering two example surfaces - hydrophilic mica and hydrophobic graphene - confining thin layers of water in molecular dynamics simulations. We observe stick-slip dynamics for thin water films confined by mica sheets, involving periodic breaking-reforming transitions of atomic scale capillary water bridges formed around the potassium ions of mica. However, only smooth sliding without stick-slip events is observed for water confined by graphene, as well as for thicker water layers confined by mica. Thus, our results illustrate how atomic scale details affect the wettability of the confining surfaces, and consequently control the presence or absence of stick-slip dynamics in nanoscale friction.

  17. Nano-Scale Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC S) for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-year project was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nano-scale Interpenetrating Phase Composite (IPC) components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real applications such as high wear/corrosion resistant refractory shapes for industrial applications, lightweight vehicle braking system components, or lower cost/higher performance military body and vehicle armor. Nano-scale IPC s with improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties have previously been demonstrated at the lab scale, but have been limited in size. The work performed under this project was focused on investigating the ability to take the current traditional lab scale processes to a manufacturing scale through scaling of these processes or through the utilization of an alternative high-temperature process.

  18. Broadcasting Gaussian Sources Over Gaussian Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Yang

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Channel . . . . . . . . . . Power Loss for the Gaussianbroadcast channel, the power loss of separate coding is alsois to analyze the power loss for the Gaussian case. We

  19. Bargaining and the MISO Interference Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nokleby, Matthew; Swindlehurst, A. Lee

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the pareto boundary for the MISO interference channel, IEEEinterference in the Gaussian MISO broadcast channel, inOn maximizing the sum network MISO broadcast capacity, in

  20. Nanoscale fabrication and modification of selected battery materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostecki, Robert; Song, Xiang Yun; Kinoshita, Kim; McLarnon, Frank

    2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon is an integral part of many battery electrodes. We explored the use of semiconductor-processing techniques that involve photolithography to pattern photoresists and subsequent pyrolysis to form carbon microstructures that function as microelectrodes. In this study, we describe the status of the fabrication of carbon microelectrodes obtained by pyrolysis of photoresist. Electrochemical nanometer-scale patterning of the surface of a conducting lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) was studied. We show that a localized surface chemical change can be confined to a depth which depends on the oxide-tip voltage difference and ambient humidity The ability to produce nanometer-size patterns of chemically modified oxide or nanometer-sized alterations of the oxide morphology is demonstrated and discussed with reference to possible mechanisms.

  1. XEDS STEM Tomography For 3D Chemical Characterization Of Nanoscale Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genc, Arda; Kovarik, Libor; Gu, Meng; Cheng, Huikai; Plachinda, Pavel; Pullan, Lee; Freitag, Bert; Wang, Chong M.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a tomography technique which couples scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (XEDS) to resolve 3D distribution of elements in nanoscale materials. STEM imaging when combined with a symmetrically arranged XEDS detector design around the specimen overcomes many of the obstacles in 3D spectroscopic tomography of nanoscale materials and successfully elucidate the 3D chemical information in a large field of view of the TEM sample. We employed this technique to investigate 3D distribution of Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn) and Oxygen (O) in Li(NiMn)O2 battery cathode material. For this purpose, 2D elemental maps were acquired for a range of tilt angles and reconstructed to obtain 3D elemental distribution in an isolated Li(NiMnO2) nanoparticle. The results highlight the strength of this technique in 3D chemical analysis of nanoscale materials by successfully resolving Ni, Mn and O elemental distributions in 3D and discovering the new phenomenon of Ni surface segregation in this material. Furthermore, the comparison of simultaneously acquired HAADF STEM and XEDS STEM tomography results show that XEDS STEM tomography provides additional 3D chemical information of the material especially when there is low atomic number (Z) contrast in the material of interest.

  2. Field-amplified sample stacking and focusing in nanofluidic channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sustarich, Jess M.; Pennathur, Sumita [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Storey, Brian D. [Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering, Needham, Massachusetts 02492 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluidic technology is gaining popularity for bioanalytical applications due to advances in both nanofabrication and design. One major obstacle in the widespread adoption of such technology for bioanalytical systems is efficient detection of samples due to the inherently low analyte concentrations present in such systems. This problem is exacerbated by the push for electronic detection, which requires an even higher sensor-local sample concentration than optical detection. This paper explores one of the most common preconcentration techniques, field-amplified sample stacking, in nanofluidic systems in efforts to alleviate this obstacle. Holding the ratio of background electrolyte concentrations constant, the parameters of channel height, strength of electric field, and concentration are varied. Although in micron scale systems, these parameters have little or no effect on the final concentration enhancement achieved, nanofluidic experiments show strong dependencies on each of these parameters. Further, nanofluidic systems demonstrate an increased concentration enhancement over what is predicted and realized in microscale counterparts. Accordingly, a depth-averaged theoretical model is developed that explains these observations and furthermore predicts a novel focusing mechanism that can explain the increased concentration enhancement achieved. Specifically, when the electric double layer is sufficient in size relative to the channel height, negatively charged analyte ions are repelled from negatively charged walls, and thus prefer to inhabit the centerline of the channels. The resulting induced pressure gradients formed due to the high and low electrical conductivity fluids in the channel force the ions to move at a slower velocity in the low-conductivity region, and a faster velocity in the high-conductivity region, leading to focusing. A simple single-channel model is capable of predicting key experimental observations, while a model that incorporates the details of the fluid inlet and outlet ports allows for more detailed comparisons between model and experiment.

  3. Continuous production of conducting polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaige, Terry A. (Terry Alden), 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device to continuously produce polypyrrole was designed, manufactured, and tested. Polypyrrole is a conducting polymer which has potential artificial muscle applications. The objective of continuous production was to ...

  4. CONDUCTANCE OF NANOSYSTEMS WITH INTERACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsak, Anton

    -beam lithography or small metallic grains,[1] semiconductor quantum dots,[2] or a single large molecule of an atomic-size bridge that forms in the break,[3] or even measure the conductance of a single hydrogen

  5. Conducting polymer actuators : temperature effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Zio, Michael R. (Michael Robert), 1982-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to utilize conducting polymer actuators as a viable engineering solution, it is necessary to produce usable levels of force with a reasonable bandwidth. Polypyrrole actuated at temperatures as high as 100 C ...

  6. Plasma conductivity at finite coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babiker Hassanain; Martin Schvellinger

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    By taking into account the full order(\\alpha'^3) type IIB string theory corrections to the supergravity action, we compute the leading finite 't Hooft coupling order(\\lambda^{-3/2}) corrections to the conductivity of strongly-coupled SU(N) {\\cal {N}}=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma in the large N limit. We find that the conductivity is enhanced by the corrections, in agreement with the trend expected from previous perturbative weak-coupling computations.

  7. Technical Paper by T.D. Stark and L.F. Pazmino HIGH TEMPERATURE AIR CHANNEL TESTING OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BONDED PVC GEOMEMBRANE SEAMS __________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT track thermal seams for 0.75 mm thick PVC geomembranes. This objective is accomplished by developing conducting destructive tests. KEYWORDS: PVC Geomembrane, Air Channel Testing, Seams, Quality Assurance

  8. Growth of metallic nanowires by chemical etching and the use of microfluidics channels to produce quantum point contacts.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soltani, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??A self-terminated electrochemical method was used to fabricate microscopic-scale contacts between two Au electrodes in a microfluidic channel. The conductance of contacts varies in a (more)

  9. Lithographically Patterned Channels Spatially Segregate Kinesin Motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hancock, William O.

    * Departments of Bioengineering and Electrical Engineering and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsyl and transporting material at nanoscale dimensions, there is considerable interest in harnessing motor proteins), cumulative forces on the order of nN per µm2 are theoretically possible. The size, efficiency, and potential

  10. Optical conductivity of curved graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. Chaves; T. Frederico; O. Oliveira; W. de Paula; M. C. Santos

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the optical conductivity for an out-of-plane deformation in graphene using an approach based on solutions of the Dirac equation in curved space. Different examples of periodic deformations along one direction translates into an enhancement of the optical conductivity peaks in the region of the far and mid infrared frequencies for periodicities $\\sim100\\,$nm. The width and position of the peaks can be changed by dialling the parameters of the deformation profiles. The enhancement of the optical conductivity is due to intraband transitions and the translational invariance breaking in the geometrically deformed background. Furthemore, we derive an analytical solution of the Dirac equation in a curved space for a general deformation along one spatial direction. For this class of geometries, it is shown that curvature induces an extra phase in the electron wave function, which can also be explored to produce interference devices of the Aharonov-Bohm type.

  11. Lithium-cation conductivity and crystal structure of lithium diphosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voronin, V.I., E-mail: voronin@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics Urals Branch RAS, S.Kovalevskoy Street 18, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Sherstobitova, E.A. [Institute of Metal Physics Urals Branch RAS, S.Kovalevskoy Street 18, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Blatov, V.A., E-mail: blatov@samsu.ru [Samara Center for Theoretical Materials Science (SCTMS), Samara State University, Ac.Pavlov Street 1, 443011 Samara (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shekhtman, G.Sh., E-mail: shekhtman@ihte.uran.ru [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry Urals Branch RAS, Akademicheskaya 20, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical conductivity of lithium diphosphate Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been measured and jump-like increasing of ionic conductivity at 913 K has been found. The crystal structure of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been refined using high temperature neutron diffraction at 3001050 K. At 913 K low temperature triclinic form of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} transforms into high temperature monoclinic one, space group P2{sub 1}/n, a=8.8261(4) , b=5.2028(4) , c=13.3119(2) , ?=104.372(6). The migration maps of Li{sup +} cations based on experimental data implemented into program package TOPOS have been explored. It was found that lithium cations in both low- and high temperature forms of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} migrate in three dimensions. Cross sections of the migrations channels extend as the temperature rises, but at the phase transition point have a sharp growth showing a strong crystal structure ion conductivity correlation. -- Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} at 950 K. Red balls represent oxygen atoms; black lines show Li{sup +} ion migration channels in the layers perpendicular to [001] direction. Highlights: Structure of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been refined using high temperature neutron diffraction. At 913 K triclinic form of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} transforms into high temperature monoclinic one. The migration maps of Li{sup +} implemented into program package TOPOS have been explored. Cross sections of the migrations channels at the phase transition have a sharp growth.

  12. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  13. Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella Oneidensis Strain MR-1 and Other Microorganisms . Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

  14. Free convection effects on forced flow inside a vertical channel at low peclet numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husain, Syed Rahmat

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'e provided in order to assess the effect of upstream and downstream energy penetration due to axial conduction. The fluid enters the channel with a parabolic velocity profile and at an uniform reference temperature. A constant property (except.... The unheated exit length will allow the fluid velocity and temperature profiles to develop somewhat after the fluid has left the heated region of the channel. The entry velocity profile in the unheated region is assumed to be fully developed (parabolic...

  15. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  16. Conducting Your Own Energy Audit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Why should you or anyone be interested in conducting a time intensive energy audit. What equipment is needed? When should you get started? Who should do it? The answer to Why is that energy costs are cutting into a companys profit every minute...

  17. Conducting Polymer Devices for Bioelectronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    signals recording. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) represent a step beyond conducting polymer a far superior signal-to-noise- ratio (SNR) compared to electrodes. The high SNR of the OECT recordings and contamination. The use of an organic electrochemical transistor for detection of lactate by integration

  18. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

    1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  19. ETHICAL CONDUCT IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    ETHICAL CONDUCT IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH: A Handbook for Biomedical Graduate Studies Students and Research Fellows Third Edition BIOMEDICAL GRADUATE STUDIES PROGRAM UNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA #12 that a trainee in biomedical research should be taught to maintain the highest standards of scientific integrity

  20. 6 Equalization of Channels with ISI Many practical channels are bandlimited and linearly distort the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    244 6 Equalization of Channels with ISI Many practical channels are bandlimited and linearly distort the transmit signal. In this case, the resulting ISI channel has to be equalized for reliable

  1. Conduct of operations implementation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, C.K.; Hall, R.L.

    1991-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This implementation plan describes the process and provides information and schedules that are necessary to implement and comply with the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, {open_quotes}Conduct of Operations{close_quotes} (CoOp). This plan applies to all Pinellas Plant operations and personnel. Generally, this Plan discusses how DOE Order 5480.19 will be implemented at the Pinellas Plant.

  2. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  3. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  4. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  5. Ion transport through cell membrane channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Gomulkiewicz; Jacek Miekisz; Stanislaw Miekisz

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss various models of ion transport through cell membrane channels. Recent experimental data shows that sizes of ion channels are compared to those of ions and that only few ions may be simultaneously in any single channel. Theoretical description of ion transport in such channels should therefore take into account interactions between ions and between ions and channel proteins. This is not satisfied by macroscopic continuum models based on Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. More realistic descriptions of ion transport are offered by microscopic Brownian and molecular dynamics. One should also take into account a dynamical character of the channel structure. This is not yet addressed in the literature

  6. Quantum Capacities of Channels with small Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael M. Wolf; David Perez-Garcia

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the quantum capacity of noisy quantum channels which can be represented by coupling a system to an effectively small environment. A capacity formula is derived for all cases where both system and environment are two-dimensional--including all extremal qubit channels. Similarly, for channels acting on higher dimensional systems we show that the capacity can be determined if the channel arises from a sufficiently small coupling to a qubit environment. Extensions to instances of channels with larger environment are provided and it is shown that bounds on the capacity with unconstrained environment can be obtained from decompositions into channels with small environment.

  7. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  8. Theory of the ion-channel laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A relativistic electron beam propagating through a plasma in the ion-focussed regime exhibits an electromagnetic instability with peak growth rate near a resonant frequency {omega}{approximately}2 {gamma}{sup 2} {omega}{beta}, where {gamma} is the Lorentz factor and {omega}{beta} is the betatron frequency. The physical basis for this instability is that an ensemble of relativistic simple harmonic oscillators, weakly driven by an electromagnetic wave, will lose energy to the wave through axial bunching. This bunching'' corresponds to the development of an rf component in the beam current, and a coherent centroid oscillation. The subject of this thesis is the theory of a laser capitalizing on this electromagnetic instability. A historical perspective is offered. The basic features of relativistic electron beam propagation in the ion-focussed regime are reviewed. The ion-channel laser (ICL) instability is explored theoretically through an eikonal formalism, analgous to the KMR'' formalism for the free-electron laser (FEL). The dispersion relation is derived, and the dependence of growth rate on three key parameters is explored. Finite temperature effects are assessed. From this work it is found that the typical gain length for amplification is longer than the Rayleigh length and we go on to consider three mechanisms which will tend to guide waveguide. First, we consider the effect of the ion channel as a dielectric waveguide. We consider next the use of a conducting waveguide, appropriate for a microwave amplifier. Finally, we examine a form of optical guiding'' analgous to that found in the FEL. The eikonal formalism is used to model numerically the instability through and beyond saturation. Results are compared with the numerical simulation of the full equations of motion, and with the analytic scalings. The analytical requirement on detuning spread is confirmed.

  9. Chaotic oscillation and random-number generation based on nanoscale optical-energy transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makoto Naruse; Song-Ju Kim; Masashi Aono; Hirokazu Hori; Motoichi Ohtsu

    2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    By using nanoscale energy-transfer dynamics and density matrix formalism, we demonstrate theoretically and numerically that chaotic oscillation and random-number generation occur in a nanoscale system. The physical system consists of a pair of quantum dots (QDs), with one QD smaller than the other, between which energy transfers via optical near-field interactions. When the system is pumped by continuous-wave radiation and incorporates a timing delay between two energy transfers within the system, it emits optical pulses. We refer to such QD pairs as nano-optical pulsers (NOPs). Irradiating an NOP with external periodic optical pulses causes the oscillating frequency of the NOP to synchronize with the external stimulus. We find that chaotic oscillation occurs in the NOP population when they are connected by an external time delay. Moreover, by evaluating the time-domain signals by statistical-test suites, we confirm that the signals are sufficiently random to qualify the system as a random-number generator (RNG). This study reveals that even relatively simple nanodevices that interact locally with each other through optical energy transfer at scales far below the wavelength of irradiating light can exhibit complex oscillatory dynamics. These findings are significant for applications such as ultrasmall RNGs.

  10. Optical far- and near-field femtosecond laser ablation of Si for nanoscale chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zormpa, Vasileia; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Extending spatial resolution in laser-based chemical analysis to the nanoscale becomes increasingly important as nanoscience and nanotechnology develop. Implementation of femtosecond laser pulses arises as a basic strategy for increasing resolution since it is associated with spatially localized material damage. In this work we study femtosecond laser far- and near-field processing of silicon (Si) at two distinct wavelengths (400 and 800 nm), for nanoscale chemical analysis. By tightly focusing femtosecond laser beams in the far-field we were able to produce sub-micrometer craters. In order to further reduce the crater size, similar experiments were performed in the near-field through sub-wavelength apertures, resulting to the formation of sub-30 nm craters. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was used for chemical analysis with a goal to identify the minimum crater size from which spectral emission could be measured. Emission from sub-micrometer craters (full-with-at-half-maximum) was possible, which are among the smallest ever reported for femtosecond LIBS.

  11. Feedback Capacity of the Compound Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrader, Brooke E.

    In this work, we find the capacity of a compound finite-state channel (FSC) with time-invariant deterministic feedback. We consider the use of fixed length block codes over the compound channel. Our achievability result ...

  12. Student ConduCt Student Affairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Code of Student ConduCt 2013-14 Student Affairs #12;Contents Letter from the Dean of Students .........................................................................................ii University Code of Student Conduct Preamble............................................. 1 Section I: Rules of Student Conduct.............................................................. 1 Section

  13. Extremal Channels for a genaral Quantum system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuldeep Dixit; E. C. G. Sudarshan

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum channels can be mathematically represented as completely positive trace-preserving maps that act on a density matrix. A general quantum channel can be written as a convex sum of `extremal' channels. We show that for an $N$-level system, the extremal channel can be characterized in terms of $N^2$-$N$ real parameters coupled with rotations. We give a representation for $N$= 2, 3, 4.

  14. Atomic Scale Design and Three-Dimensional Simulation of Ionic Diffusive Nanofluidic Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin Kyoung Park; Kelin Xia; Guo-Wei We

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advance in nanotechnology has led to rapid advances in nanofluidics, which has been established as a reliable means for a wide variety of applications, including molecular separation, detection, crystallization and biosynthesis. Although atomic and molecular level consideration is a key ingredient in experimental design and fabrication of nanfluidic systems, atomic and molecular modeling of nanofluidics is rare and most simulations at nanoscale are restricted to one- or two-dimensions in the literature, to our best knowledge. The present work introduces atomic scale design and three-dimensional (3D) simulation of ionic diffusive nanofluidic systems. We propose a variational multiscale framework to represent the nanochannel in discrete atomic and/or molecular detail while describe the ionic solution by continuum. Apart from the major electrostatic and entropic effects, the non-electrostatic interactions between the channel and solution, and among solvent molecules are accounted in our modeling. We derive generalized Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations for nanofluidic systems. Mathematical algorithms, such as Dirichlet to Neumann mapping and the matched interface and boundary (MIB) methods are developed to rigorously solve the aforementioned equations to the second-order accuracy in 3D realistic settings. Three ionic diffusive nanofluidic systems, including a negatively charged nanochannel, a bipolar nanochannel and a double-well nanochannel are designed to investigate the impact of atomic charges to channel current, density distribution and electrostatic potential. Numerical findings, such as gating, ion depletion and inversion, are in good agreements with those from experimental measurements and numerical simulations in the literature.

  15. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.

    1988-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  16. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Sante Fe, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  17. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Sante Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  18. Advances in inherently conducting polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldissi, M.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of polyacetylene as the prototype material led to extensive research on its synythesis and characterization. The techniques that emerged as the most important and promising ones are those that dealt with molecular orientation and that resulted in conductivities almost as high as that of copper. The study of dozens of other materials followed. Interest in conducting polymers stems from their nonclassical optical and electronic properties as well as their potential technological applications. However, some of the factors currently limiting their use are the lack of long-term stability and the need to develop conventional low-cost techniques for easy processing. Therefore, research was extended toward solving these problems, and progress has been recently made in that direction. The synthesis of new materials such as stable and easily processable alkylthiophenes, water-soluble polymers, and multicomponent systems, including copolymers and composites, constitutes an important step forward in the area of synthetic metals. However, a full understanding of materials chemistry and properties requires more work in the years to come. Although, few small-scale applications have proven to be successful, long-term stability and applicability tests are needed before their commercial use becomes reality.

  19. FREEPORT HARBOR, TEXAS CHANNEL IMPROVEMENT PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    the Gulf of Mexico; a main channel 45 feet deep and 400 feet wide; a Brazos Harbor channel 36 feet deep-loaded to traverse the waterway. The current channel depth requires that large crude carriers remain offshore and transfer their cargo into smaller crude tankers for the remainder of the voyage. This lightering operation

  20. Coding theorems for hybrid channels. II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Kuznetsova; A. S. Holevo

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work continues investigation of the capacities of measurement (quantum-classical) channels in the most general setting, initiated in~\\cite{HCT}. The proof of coding theorems is given for the classical capacity and entanglement-assisted classical capacity of the measurement channel with arbitrary output alphabet, without assuming that the channel is given by a bounded operator-valued density.

  1. Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    semiconductors and ceramics with desired thermalthermal conductivity of several polycrystalline semiconductors and ceramics,Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

  2. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Massachusetts Institute of...

  3. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells Technology available for licensing: New transparent conducting oxide...

  4. REPORT ON 6TH U.S.-JAPAN JOINT SEMINAR ON NANOSCALE TRANSPORT PHENOMENA.SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    and heat transfer community and the importance of nanoscale transport phenomena for nanostructured sessions, as well as a dedicated poster session of selected presentations from an open call for papers. All for each session were summarized by session chairs. Following is a brief summary of the sessions. OPENING

  5. Direct Observation of Nanoscale Peltier and Joule Effects at Metal-Insulator Domain Walls in Vanadium Dioxide Nanobeams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    Direct Observation of Nanoscale Peltier and Joule Effects at Metal- Insulator Domain Walls localized alternating Peltier heating and cooling as well as Joule heating concentrated at the M-I domain the monoclinic phase identification. KEYWORDS: Vanadium dioxide, thermoreflectance microscopy, Peltier effect

  6. Intrinsic vacancy induced nanoscale wire structure in heteroepitaxial Ga2Se3/Si(001) Taisuke Ohta,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olmstead, Marjorie

    Intrinsic vacancy induced nanoscale wire structure in heteroepitaxial Ga2Se3/Si(001) Taisuke Ohta,1-blende structure of -Ga2Se3, which contains ordered 110 arrays of Ga vacancies. These ordered vacancy lines structural vacancies of semiconducting chalcogenides lead to numerous interesting structural, electronic

  7. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 031117 (2012) Stochastically driven single-level quantum dot: A nanoscale finite-time thermodynamic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindenberg, Katja

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as a nanoscale finite-time thermodynamic machine. The dot is driven by an external stochastic force that switches that extracts heat from the cold reservoir via the work input of the stochastic driving. The efficiency coupling conditions, familiar features are recovered in appropriate limits: Carnot efficiency

  8. A computational investigation of the phase behavior and capillary sublimation of water confined between nanoscale hydrophobic plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Andrew

    A computational investigation of the phase behavior and capillary sublimation of water confined behavior and capillary sublimation of water confined between nanoscale hydrophobic plates Andrew L 11210, USA 3 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA 4

  9. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawley, H.B.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Meyer, W.T.; Gorbics, M.S.; Thomas, W.D.; McKay, R.L.; Homer, J.F. Jr.

    1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler. 25 figs.

  10. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawley, H. Bert (Ames, IA); Rosenberg, Eli I. (Ames, IA); Meyer, W. Thomas (Ames, IA); Gorbics, Mark S. (Ames, IA); Thomas, William D. (Boone, IA); McKay, Roy L. (Ames, IA); Homer, Jr., John F. (Ames, IA)

    1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler.

  11. High Yield Synthesis of Mesoscopic Conductive and Dispersible Carbon Nanostructures via Ultrasonication of Commercial Precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Vikram K [ORNL] [ORNL; Quinlan, Ronald [ORNL] [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL] [ORNL; Kisliuk, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhat, Gajanan [ORNL] [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to produce large quantities of graphenic materials displaying excellent conductivity, thermal resistance, and tunable properties for industrial applications has spurred interest in new techniques for exfoliating graphite. In this paper, sonication-assisted exfoliation of graphitic precursors in the presence of chloroform is shown to produce chemically and structurally unique exfoliated graphitic materials in high yields. These exfoliated graphites, referred to as mesographite and mesographene, respectively, exhibit unique properties which depend on the number of layers and exfoliation conditions. Structural characterization of mesographene reveals the presence of nanoscale two-dimensional graphene layers, and threedimensional carbon nanostructures sandwiched between layers, similar to those found in ball-milled and intercalated graphites. The conductivities of mesographite and mesographene are 2700 and 2000 S/m, respectively, indicating high conductivity despite flake damage. Optical absorption measurements of mesographite sonicated in various solvents showed significant changes in dispersion characteristics, and also indicated significant changes to mesoscopic colloidal behavior. A mechanism for functionalization and formation of capped carbon nanostructures is proposed by integrating the chemical and structural characterization in relation to the various carbon structures observed by electron microscopy. Composites based on common polymers were prepared by solution processing, and changes in thermal properties indicate improved dispersion of mesographite in polar polymers.

  12. STUDENT CONDUCT CODE REVIEW/DISCUSSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    STUDENT CONDUCT CODE REVISION REVIEW/DISCUSSION Student Conduct Code Revision Workgroup #12;Agenda Introductions/Purpose History of the Student Conduct Code Revision Workgroup Highlights of the Draft Revision Introduction: Principles Promoting Student Responsibility Jurisdiction Conduct in Violation of Community

  13. Distribution of nanoscale nuclei in the amorphous dome of a phase change random access memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Bong-Sub, E-mail: bongsub@gmail.com; Darmawikarta, Kristof; Abelson, John R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Coordinated Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Raoux, Simone; Shih, Yen-Hao; Zhu, Yu [IBM/Macronix PCRAM Joint Project, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Bishop, Stephen G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Coordinated Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Coordinated Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The nanoscale crystal nuclei in an amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} bit in a phase change memory device were evaluated by fluctuation transmission electron microscopy. The quench time in the device (?10 ns) afforded more and larger nuclei in the melt-quenched state than in the as-deposited state. However, nuclei were even more numerous and larger in a test structure with a longer quench time (?100 ns), verifying the prediction of nucleation theory that slower cooling produces more nuclei. It also demonstrates that the thermal design of devices will strongly influence the population of nuclei, and thus the speed and data retention characteristics.

  14. Theoretical studies of Ir5Th and Ir5Ce nanoscale precipitates in Ir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Averill, Frank [ORNL] [ORNL; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimentally, it is known that very small amounts of thorium and/or cerium added to iridium metal form a precipitate, Ir5Th / Ir5Ce, which improves the high temperature mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. We demonstrate that there are low-energy configurations for nano-scale precipitates of these phases in Ir, and that these coherent arrangements may assist in producing improved mechanical properties. One precipitate/matrix orientation gives a particularly low interfacial energy, and a low lattice misfit. Nanolayer precipitates with this orientation are found to be likely to form, with little driving force to coarsen. The predicted morphology of the precipitates and their orientation with the matrix phase provide a potential experiment that could be used to test these predictions.

  15. Nanoscale Electromechanics of Ferroelectric and Biological Systems: A New Dimension in Scanning Probe Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Rodriguez, Brian J [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Karapetian, Edgar [ORNL; Mirman, B [Suffolk University, Boston; Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Functionality of biological and inorganic systems ranging from nonvolatile computer memories and microelectromechanical systems to electromotor proteins and cellular membranes is ultimately based on the intricate coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena. In the past decade, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has been established as a powerful tool for nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy, and manipulation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Here, we give an overview of the fundamental image formation mechanism in PFM and summarize recent theoretical and technological advances. In particular, we show that the signal formation in PFM is complementary to that in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, and we discuss the implications. We also consider the prospect of extending PFM beyond ferroelectric characterization for quantitative probing of electromechanical behavior in molecular and biological systems and high-resolution probing of static and dynamic polarization switching processes in low-dimensional ferroelectric materials and heterostructures.

  16. Nanoscale density fluctuations in swift heavy ion irradiated amorphous SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kluth, P.; Giulian, R.; Ridgway, M. C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Pakarinen, O. H.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K. [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Byrne, A. P. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the observation of nanoscale density fluctuations in 2 {mu}m thick amorphous SiO{sub 2} layers irradiated with 185 MeV Au ions. At high fluences, in excess of approximately 5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}, where the surface is completely covered by ion tracks, synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering measurements reveal the existence of a steady state of density fluctuations. In agreement with molecular dynamics simulations, this steady state is consistent with an ion track ''annihilation'' process, where high-density regions generated in the periphery of new tracks fill in low-density regions located at the center of existing tracks.

  17. Nanoscale compositional banding in binary thin films produced by ion-assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Bradley, R. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    During the ion-assisted deposition of a binary material, the ion beam can induce the formation of nanoscale ripples on the surface of the growing thin film and compositional banding within its bulk. We demonstrate that this remains true even if the curvature dependence of the sputter yields and ballistic mass redistribution are negligible, and the two atomic species are completely miscible. The concentration of the species with the lower of the two sputter yields is higher at the crests of the ripples than at their troughs. Depending on the angles of incidence of the two atomic species, the incident flux of atoms with the higher sputter yield can either stabilize or destabilize the initially flat surface of the thin film.

  18. Data-dependent Write Channel Model for Magnetic Recording

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli

    for the Bit-Patterned Media (BPM) channel in [1]. Here, we focus on the write channel and characterize model considered and its relevance with the BPM write channel. We then characterize the information with probability 1. Relevance with the BPM write channel The channel model in (1) depicts a BPM write channel

  19. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  20. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutting, R. S.; Coker, V. S.; Telling, N. D.; Kimber, R. L.; Pearce, C. I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion ({approx}10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a {gamma}-camera to obtain real time images of a {sup 99m}Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more ({approx}20%) {sup 99m}Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral substrate supplied to Fe(III)-reducing bacteria.

  1. An atomistic methodology of energy release rate for graphene at nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lee, James D., E-mail: jdlee@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, the George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Wang, Xianqiao [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb architecture, serving as a fundamental building block for electric devices. Understanding the fracture mechanism of graphene under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of graphene-based devices at atomic scale. Although most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable in molecular dynamics simulation, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at nanoscale. This work introduces an atomistic simulation methodology, based on the energy release rate, as a tool to unveil the fracture mechanism of graphene at nanoscale. This methodology can be easily extended to any atomistic material system. We have investigated both opening mode and mixed mode at different temperatures. Simulation results show that the critical energy release rate of graphene is independent of initial crack length at low temperature. Graphene with inclined pre-crack possesses higher fracture strength and fracture deformation but smaller critical energy release rate compared with the graphene with vertical pre-crack. Owing to its anisotropy, graphene with armchair chirality always has greater critical energy release rate than graphene with zigzag chirality. The increase of temperature leads to the reduction of fracture strength, fracture deformation, and the critical energy release rate of graphene. Also, higher temperature brings higher randomness of energy release rate of graphene under a variety of predefined crack lengths. The energy release rate is independent of the strain rate as long as the strain rate is small enough.

  2. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Fading Channels under QoS Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gursoy, Mustafa Cenk

    Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Fading Channels under QoS Constraints Deli Qiao, Mustafa Cenk, and energy requirements under QoS constraints are identified. The analysis is conducted for the case in which vanishes. Through the wideband slope analysis, the increased energy requirements at low but nonzero power

  3. Analysis of IFR driver fuel hot channel factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, J.Y.; Chang, L.K.; Mohr, D.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal-hydraulic uncertainty factors for Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) driver fuels have been determined based primarily on the database obtained from the predecessor fuels used in the IFR prototype, Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The uncertainty factors were applied to the channel factors (HCFs) analyses to obtain separate overall HCFs for fuel and cladding for steady-state analyses. A ``semistatistical horizontal method`` was used in the HCFs analyses. The uncertainty factor of the fuel thermal conductivity dominates the effects considered in the HCFs analysis; the uncertainty in fuel thermal conductivity will be reduced as more data are obtained to expand the currently limited database for the IFR ternary metal fuel (U-20Pu-10Zr). A set of uncertainty factors to be used for transient analyses has also been derived.

  4. Reduced Thermal Conductivity of Compacted Silicon Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen, Taylor S.

    Thermal-Barrier-Coating Applications, Journa of American Ceramicthermal conductivity materials are typically found among ceramicsThermal Conductivity of Porous Materials: Application to Thick Barrier Coatings, Journal of the European Ceramic

  5. Engineering domain structures in nanoscale magnetic thin films via strain Jia-Mian Hu, T. N. Yang, L. Q. Chen, and C. W. Nan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    Engineering domain structures in nanoscale magnetic thin films via strain Jia-Mian Hu, T. N. Yang://scitation.aip.org/termsconditions. Downloaded to ] IP: 146.186.211.66 On: Thu, 09 Jan 2014 19:48:21 #12;Engineering domain structures in nanoscale magnetic thin films via strain Jia-Mian Hu,1,a) T. N. Yang,2 L. Q. Chen,1,2 and C. W. Nan1,a) 1

  6. Private Interactive Communication Across an Adversarial Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Private Interactive Communication Across an Adversarial Channel Ran Gelles, Amit Sahai, and Akshay Wadia Department of Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA {gelles, sahai

  7. Southern California Channel Islands Bibliography, through 1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    evaluation/offshore/Santa Maria/ Santa Barbara/Santa Maria Basin/Santa Barbara Channel/Los Angeles Basin/economic geology/energy sources/petroleum. #

  8. On the specifics of the electrical conductivity anomalies in PVC nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Vlasov; L. A. Apresyan

    2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A qualitative model describing the "anomalous" features of the conductivity of polymer nanocomposites, in particular, switching to the conducting state in relatively thick (tens of microns or more) of flexible PVC films is considered. In previously published experimental results, change of conductivity by 10 or more orders of magnitude occurred both in the absence of external influences (spontaneously), and under the influence of an applied electric field, as well as other initiating factors (such as uniaxial pressure) . In a model of hopping conduction mechanism it is shown, that switching in the conduction states under the action of external field significantly (by orders of magnitude) below threshold can be associated with a high-resistance state instability that results from the sequence of "shorting" (reversible soft breakdown) of narrow insulating gaps between regions with relatively high conductivity. Increasing the field strength in the remaining insulating gaps ultimately leads to the formation of a conducting channel between the external electrodes and switching conductivity of the composite film sample in a state of high conductivity. This cascade model is essentially based on the transition from the usual description of the charge tunneling through single independent insulating gap to take into account correlations between adjacent gaps. In the frame of developed model other "anomalies" such as exponential dependence of the resistance on the sample thickness, pressure, and other influences can be qualitative explained. An analogy of the model with a cascading breakdown of avalanche transistors is also considered.

  9. Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor over-coated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

  10. The workshop on conductive polymers: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reports are made by groups on: polyacetylene, polyphenylene, polyaniline, and related systems; molecular, crystallographic, and defect structures in conducting polymers; heterocyclic polymers; synthesis of new and improved conducting polymers; future applications possibilities for conducting polymers; and challenges for improved understanding of properties. (DLC)

  11. Joint channel estimation and decoding of root LDPC codes in block-fading channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andriyanova, Iryna

    Joint channel estimation and decoding of root LDPC codes in block-fading channels Iryna Andriyanova receivers for joint decoding and channel-state estimation for transmission on block-fading chan- nels of root-LDPC-coded signals. Root-LDPC codes are known to be most performant codes for block

  12. Nanoscale mapping and organization analysis of target proteins on cancer cells from B-cell lymphoma patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Mi [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiao, Xiubin [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xi, Ning, E-mail: xin@egr.msu.edu [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Yuechao; Dong, Zaili [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, Weijing, E-mail: zhangwj3072@163.com [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CD20, a membrane protein highly expressed on most B-cell lymphomas, is an effective target demonstrated in clinical practice for treating B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody against CD20. In this work, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to map the nanoscale distribution of CD20 molecules on the surface of cancer cells from clinical B-cell NHL patients under the assistance of ROR1 fluorescence recognition (ROR1 is a specific cell surface marker exclusively expressed on cancer cells). First, the ROR1 fluorescence labeling experiments showed that ROR1 was expressed on cancer cells from B-cell lymphoma patients, but not on normal cells from healthy volunteers. Next, under the guidance of ROR1 fluorescence, the rituximab-conjugated AFM tips were moved to cancer cells to image the cellular morphologies and detect the CD20-rituximab interactions on the cell surfaces. The distribution maps of CD20 on cancer cells were constructed by obtaining arrays of (1616) force curves in local areas (500500 nm{sup 2}) on the cell surfaces. The experimental results provide a new approach to directly investigate the nanoscale distribution of target protein on single clinical cancer cells. - Highlights: Cancer cells were recognized from healthy cells by ROR1 fluorescence labeling. The nanoscale distribution of CD20 on cancer cells was characterized. The distribution of CD20 was non-uniform on the surface of cancer cells.

  13. Determining conductivity and mobility values of individual components in multiphase composite Cu{sub 1.97}Ag{sub 0.03}Se

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, Tristan W.; Brown, David R.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey, E-mail: jsnyder@caltech.edu [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, MC 309-81, Pasadena, California 91106 (United States); Zeier, Wolfgang G. [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, MC 309-81, Pasadena, California 91106 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Seeley G. Mudd Bldg., 3620 McClintock Ave., Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States); Melot, Brent C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Seeley G. Mudd Bldg., 3620 McClintock Ave., Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The intense interest in phase segregation in thermoelectrics as a means to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity and to modify the electronic properties from nanoscale size effects has not been met with a method for separately measuring the properties of each phase assuming a classical mixture. Here, we apply effective medium theory for measurements of the in-line and Hall resistivity of a multiphase composite, in this case Cu{sub 1.97}Ag{sub 0.03}Se. The behavior of these properties with magnetic field as analyzed by effective medium theory allows us to separate the conductivity and charge carrier mobility of each phase. This powerful technique can be used to determine the matrix properties in the presence of an unwanted impurity phase, to control each phase in an engineered composite, and to determine the maximum carrier concentration change by a given dopant, making it the first step toward a full optimization of a multiphase thermoelectric material and distinguishing nanoscale effects from those of a classical mixture.

  14. Effects of liquid conductivity differences on multi-component sample injection, pumping and stacking in microfluidic chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Effects of liquid conductivity differences on multi-component sample injection, pumping-chip processing, or by design. The two situations studied here are sample pumping (where bulk transport in a straight-cross channel configuration is applied here to both pumping and stacking cases. A key

  15. Ca2+ Channels and Ryanodine Receptors in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yue, David

    Ca2+ Channels and Ryanodine Receptors in Heart Cells Vasudev Bailey Calcium Signals Ca2+ signalling between single L-type Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in heart cells Shi-Qiang Wang, Long-Sheng Song and ryanodine receptors #12;Local calcium release Ca (a.u.) 20 µm Background Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release

  16. Energy Harvesting Diamond Channel with Energy Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Energy Harvesting Diamond Channel with Energy Cooperation Berk Gurakan Sennur Ulukus Department@umd.edu Abstract--We consider the energy harvesting diamond channel, where the source and two relays harvest energy the option of wirelessly transferring some of its energy to the relays via energy cooperation. We find

  17. Blind Channel Equalization and -Approximation Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Yinyu

    Blind Channel Equalization and #15;-Approximation Algorithms #3; Qingyu Li 1 , Er-Wei Bai 1 University of Iowa Iowa City, IA 52242 Abstract In this paper, we show that a blind equalizer can be obtained without using any sta- tistical information on the input by formulating the blind channel equalization

  18. Distributed Interference Pricing with MISO Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    Distributed Interference Pricing with MISO Channels Changxin Shi, Randall A. Berry, and Michael L an interference channel consisting of multi- input, single-output (MISO) wireless links. The objective generalized to a MISO network, as shown in Sec- tion II. Such an algorithm was previously presented in [3

  19. Optimization of Energy Harvesting MISO Communication Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gesbert, David

    1 Optimization of Energy Harvesting MISO Communication Channels Rajeev Gangula, Student Member-to-point multiple-input single-output (MISO) communication system is con- sidered when both the transmitter (TX bound on the ergodic rate of MISO channel with beamforming and limited feedback. Feedback bit allocation

  20. Sabine-Neches Waterway Channel Improvement Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    and 500 to 800 feet wide, from the Gulf of Mexico; a channel 40 feet deep and 400 feet wide to Beaumont of navigation on the waterway. The current channel was completed in 1960. At that time, crude oil tankers are now used routinely for crude oil imports to both Beaumont and Port Arthur. In addition to larger

  1. FREEPORT HARBOR, TEXAS CHANNEL IMPROVEMENT PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    the Gulf of Mexico; a main channel 45 feet deep and 400 feet wide; a Brazos Harbor channel 36 feet deep requires that large crude carriers remain offshore and transfer their cargo into smaller crude tankers for the remainder of the voyage. This lightering operation takes place in the Gulf of Mexico where the two ships

  2. Constrained capacity of MIMO Rayleigh fading channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Wenyan

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis channel capacity of a special type of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fading channels is studied, where the transmitters are subject to a finite phase-shift keying (PSK) input alphabet. The constraint on the input...

  3. In-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis of capacity fade in nanoscale-LiCoO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patridge, Christopher J. [NRC/NRL Cooperative Research Associate, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Love, Corey T., E-mail: corey.love@nrl.navy.mil [Chemistry Division, Code 6113, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Swider-Lyons, Karen E. [Chemistry Division, Code 6113, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Twigg, Mark E. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Code 6812, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ramaker, David E. [Chemistry Division, Code 6189, U.S. Naval Research laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The local structure of nanoscale (?1040 nm) LiCoO{sub 2} is monitored during electrochemical cycling utilizing in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The high surface area of the LiCoO{sub 2} nanoparticles not only enhances capacity fade, but also provides a large signal from the particle surface relative to the bulk. Changes in the nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} metal-oxide bond lengths, structural disorder, and chemical state are tracked during cycling by adapting the delta mu (??) technique in complement with comprehensive extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) modeling. For the first time, we use a ?? EXAFS method, and by comparison of the difference EXAFS spectra, extrapolate significant coordination changes and reduction of cobalt species with cycling. This combined approach suggests LiCo site exchange at the surface of the nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} as a likely factor in the capacity fade and irreversible losses in practical, microscale LiCoO{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Electrochemical cycling of Li-ion batteries has strong impact on the structure and integrity of the cathode active material particularly near the surface/electrolyte interface. In developing a new method, we have used in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy during electrochemical cycling of nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} to track changes during charge and discharge and between subsequent cycles. Using difference spectra, several small changes in Co-O bond length, Co-O and Co-Co coordination, and site exchange between Co and Li sites can be tracked. These methods show promise as a new technique to better understand processes which lead to capacity fade and loss in Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: A new method is developed to understand capacity fade in Li-ion battery cathodes. Structural changes are tracked during Li intercalation/deintercalation of LiCoO{sub 2}. Surface structural changes are emphasized using nanoscale-LiCoO{sub 2} and difference spectra. Full multiple scattering calculations are used to support ?? analysis.

  4. The Nanoscale Ordered MAterials Diffractometer NOMAD at the Spallation Neutron Source SNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feygenson, Mikhail [ORNL; Carruth, John William [ORNL; Hoffmann, Ron [ORNL; Chipley, Kenneth King [ORNL; Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nanoscale Ordered Materials Diffractometer (NOMAD) is neutron time-of-flight diffractometer designed to determine pair dist ribution functions of a wide range of materials ranging from short range ordered liquids to long range ordered crystals. Due to a large neutron flux provided by the Spallation Neutron Source SNS and a large detector coverage neutron count-rates exceed comparable instruments by one to two orders of magnitude. This is achieved while maintaining a relatively high momentum transfer resolution of a $\\delta Q/Q \\sim 0.8\\%$ FWHM (typical), and an achievable $\\delta Q/Q$ of 0.24\\% FWHM (best). The real space resolution is related to the maximum momentum transfer; A maximum momentum transfer of 50\\AA$^{-1}$ can be achieved routinely and the maximum momentum transfer given by the detector configuration and the incident neutron spectrum is 125 \\AA$^{-1}$. High stability of the source and the detector allow small contrast isotope experiments to be performed. A detailed description of the instrument is given and the results of experiments with standard samples are discussed.

  5. Ab-initio friction forces on the nanoscale: A DFT study of fcc Cu(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Wolloch; Gregor Feldbauer; Peter Mohn; Josef Redinger; Andrs Vernes

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    While there are a number of models that tackle the problem of calculating friction forces on the atomic level, providing a completely parameter-free approach remains a challenge. Here we present a quasi-static model to obtain an approximation to the nanofrictional response of dry, wearless systems based on quantum mechanical all-electron calculations. We propose a mechanism to allow dissipative sliding, which relies on atomic relaxations. We define two different ways of calculating the mean nanofriction force, both leading to an exponential friction-versus-load behavior for all sliding directions. Since our approach does not impose any limits on lengths and directions of the sliding paths, we investigate arbitrary sliding directions for an fcc Cu(111) interface and detect two periodic paths which form the upper and lower bound of nanofriction. For long aperiodic paths the friction force convergences to a value in between these limits. For low loads we retrieve the Derjaguin generalization of Amontons-Coulomb kinetic friction law which appears to be valid all the way down to the nanoscale. We observe a non-vanishing Derjaguin-offset even for atomically flat surfaces in dry contact.

  6. Arrays of nanoscale magnetic dots: Fabrication by x-ray interference lithography and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyderman, L.J.; Solak, H.H.; David, C.; Atkinson, D.; Cowburn, R.P.; Nolting, F. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Nanomagnetism Group, Department of Physics, University of Durham, Rochester Building, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray interference lithography (XIL) was employed in combination with electrodeposition to fabricate arrays of nanoscale nickel dots which are uniform over 40 {mu}m and have periods down to 71 nm. Using extreme-ultraviolet light, XIL has the potential to produce magnetic dot arrays over large areas with periods well below 50 nm, and down to a theoretical limit of 6.5 nm for a 13 nm x-ray wavelength. In the nickel dot arrays, we observed the effect of interdot magnetic stray field interactions. Measuring the hysteresis loops using the magneto-optical Kerr effect, a double switching via the vortex state was observed in the nickel dots with diameters down to 44 nm and large dot separations. As the dot separations are reduced to below around 50 nm a single switching, occurring by collective rotation of the magnetic spins, is favored due to interdot magnetic stray field interactions. This results in magnetic flux closure through several dots which could be visualized with micromagnetic simulations. Further evidence of the stray field interactions was seen in photoemission electron microscopy images, where bands of contrast corresponding to chains of coupled dots were observed.

  7. Conversion of lignin precursors to carbon fibers with nanoscale graphitic domains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Jones, Eric B [ORNL; Clingenpeel, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; McKenna, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Keffer, David J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Johs, Alexander [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fiber, monolithic structures or powders that could be used directly in the production of anodes for lithium-ion batteries. In this work, we report processing parameters relevant for the conversion of lignin precursors into electrochemically active carbon fibers, the impact of lignin precursor modification on melt processing and the microstructure of the final carbon material. The conversion process encompasses melt spinning of the lignin precursor, oxidative stabilization and a low temperature carbonization step in a nitrogen/hydrogen atmosphere. To assess electrochemical performance, we determined resistivities of individual carbon fiber samples and characterized the microstructure by scanning electron microscopy and neutron diffraction. The chemical modification and subsequent thermomechanical processing methods reported here are effective for conversion into carbon fibers while preserving the macromolecular backbone structure of lignin. Modification of softwood lignin produced functionalities and rheological properties that more closely resemble hardwood lignin thereby enabling the melt processing of softwood lignin in oxidative atmospheres (air). Structural characterization of the carbonized fibers reveals nanoscale graphitic domains that are linked to enhanced electrochemical performance.

  8. Method and apparatus for remote sensing of molecular species at nanoscale utilizing a reverse photoacoustic effect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Ming (Oviedo, FL); Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Hedden, David (Lenoir City, TN)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for identifying a sample, involves illuminating the sample with light of varying wavelengths, transmitting an acoustic signal against the sample from one portion and receiving a resulting acoustic signal on another portion, detecting a change of phase in the acoustic signal corresponding to the light of varying wavelengths, and analyzing the change of phase in the acoustic signal for the varying wavelengths of illumination to identify the sample. The apparatus has a controlled source for illuminating the sample with light of varying wavelengths, a transmitter for transmitting an acoustic wave, a receiver for receiving the acoustic wave and converting the acoustic wave to an electronic signal, and an electronic circuit for detecting a change of phase in the acoustic wave corresponding to respective ones of the varying wavelengths and outputting the change of phase for the varying wavelengths to allow identification of the sample. The method and apparatus can be used to detect chemical composition or visual features. A transmission mode and a reflection mode of operation are disclosed. The method and apparatus can be applied at nanoscale to detect molecules in a biological sample.

  9. Holographic conductivity of zero temperature superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Konoplya; A. Zhidenko

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the recently found by G. Horowitz and M. Roberts (arXiv:0908.3677) numerical model of the ground state of holographic superconductors (at zero temperature), we calculate the conductivity for such models. The universal relation connecting conductivity with the reflection coefficient was used for finding the conductivity by the WKB approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the frequency and charge density is discussed. Numerical calculations confirm the general arguments of (arXiv:0908.3677) in favor of non-zero conductivity even at zero temperature. In addition to the Horowitz-Roberts solution we have found (probably infinite) set of extra solutions which are normalizable and reach the same correct RN-AdS asymptotic at spatial infinity. These extra solutions (which correspond to larger values of the grand canonical potential) lead to effective potentials that also vanish at the horizon and thus correspond to a non-zero conductivity at zero temperature.

  10. Transport involving conducting fibers in a non-conducting matrix R. A. Hansela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    result is a material with high electrical conduc- tivity and low thermal conductivity. If we consider, conducting fibers, thin-film devices 1. Introduction Thermal and electrical transport through a low to predict conductance of the combined system. However, if the two materials are similar in conductivity

  11. Conducting polymer actuator enhancement through microstructuring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillai, Priam Vasudevan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroactive conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, polyaniline, and polythiophenes are currently studied as novel biologically inspired actuators. The actuation mechanisms in these materials are based on the diffusion ...

  12. Fabrication and characterization of conducting polymer microwires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saez, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible microwires fabricated from conducting polymers have a wide range of potential applications, including smart textiles that incorporate sensing, actuation, and data processing. The development of garments that ...

  13. Low temperature proton conducting oxide devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Payzant, Edward A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Speakman, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Greenblatt, Martha (Highland Park, NJ)

    2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for conducting protons at a temperature below 550.degree. C. includes a LAMOX ceramic body characterized by an alpha crystalline structure.

  14. Industrial Energy Audit Guidebook: Guidelines for Conducting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industry Resource Type: Guidemanual Website: china.lbl.govsiteschina.lbl.govfilesLBNL-3991E.Industrial%20Energy Industrial Energy Audit Guidebook: Guidelines for Conducting...

  15. Thermal conductivity and heat transfer in superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.; Neagu, M.; Borca-Tasciuc, T.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the thermal conductivity and heat transfer processes in superlattice structures is critical for the development of thermoelectric materials and devices based on quantum structures. This work reports progress on the modeling of thermal conductivity of superlattice structures. Results from the models established based on the Boltzmann transport equation could explain existing experimental results on the thermal conductivity of semiconductor superlattices in both in plane and cross-plane directions. These results suggest the possibility of engineering the interfaces to further reduce thermal conductivity of superlattice structures.

  16. Modernizing Patent Law's Inequitable Conduct Doctrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotropia, Christopher

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conduct doctrine, but the patent system in general. Berkeleyof the currently pending patent reform legislation containsUTCLE 12th Annual Advanced Patent Law Institute, http://

  17. EPA -- Addressing Children's Health through Reviews Conducted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Children's Health through Reviews Conducted Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act and Section 309 of the Clean Air Act EPA -- Addressing Children's Health...

  18. Multi-channel blind system identification for central hemodynamic monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yi, 1973-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-channel Blind System Identification (MBSI) is a technique for estimating both an unknown input and unknown channel dynamics from simultaneous output measurements at different channels through which the input signal ...

  19. Hydraulic and slurry flows through a channel contraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Hydraulic and slurry flows through a channel contraction Onno Bokhove o, Twente #12;Hydraulic flow through channel contraction Outline 1. Introduction 2. Experiments 3. Conclusions References ISSF 2008 University of Twente Page 2 #12;Hydraulic flow through channel contraction

  20. Maximum likelihood sequence estimation for multipath fading channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pautler, Joseph James

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis addresses receiver design for multipath fading channels. The channel model was chosen to closely resemble a typical land mobile fading channel. Three receivers will be compared in this work. The first will be the optimum receiver...

  1. Solution to time-energy costs of quantum channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi-Hang Fred Fung; H. F. Chau; Chi-Kwong Li; Nung-Sing Sze

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a formula for the time-energy costs of general quantum channels proposed in [Phys. Rev. A 88, 012307 (2013)]. This formula allows us to numerically find the time-energy cost of any quantum channel using positive semidefinite programming. We also derive a lower bound to the time-energy cost for any channels and the exact the time-energy cost for a class of channels which includes the qudit depolarizing channels and projector channels as special cases.

  2. TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results are reported for test beam acceleration and deflection in a two-channel, cm-scale, rectangular dielectric-lined wakefield accelerator structure energized by a 14-MeV drive beam. The dominant waveguide mode of the structure is at {approx}30 GHz, and the structure is configured to exhibit a high transformer ratio ({approx}12:1). Accelerated bunches in the narrow secondary channel of the structure are continuously energized via Cherenkov radiation that is emitted by a drive bunch moving in the wider primary channel. Observed energy gains and losses, transverse deflections, and changes in the test bunch charge distribution compare favorably with predictions of theory.

  3. Multi-channel polarized thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-channel polarized thermal emitter (PTE) is presented. The multi-channel PTE can emit polarized thermal radiation without using a polarizer at normal emergence. The multi-channel PTE consists of two layers of metallic gratings on a monolithic and homogeneous metallic plate. It can be fabricated by a low-cost soft lithography technique called two-polymer microtransfer molding. The spectral positions of the mid-infrared (MIR) radiation peaks can be tuned by changing the periodicity of the gratings and the spectral separation between peaks are tuned by changing the mutual angle between the orientations of the two gratings.

  4. Complete Muon Cooling Channel Design and Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Y. Yoshikawa, C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov, D.V. Neuffer, K. Yonehara

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considerable progress has been made in developing promising subsystems for muon beam cooling channels to provide the extraordinary reduction of emittances required for an energy-frontier muon collider. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that the various proposed cooling subsystems can be consolidated into an integrated end-to-end design. Presented here are concepts to address the matching of transverse emittances between subsystems through an extension of the theoretical framework of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), which allows a general analytical approach to guide the transition from one set of cooling channel parameters to another.

  5. Complete Muon Cooling Channel Design and Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuffer, D.V.; /Fermilab; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Johnson, R.P.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Derbenev, Y.S.; Morozov, V.S.; /Jefferson Lab

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considerable progress has been made in developing promising subsystems for muon beam cooling channels to provide the extraordinary reduction of emittances required for an energy-frontier muon collider. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that the various proposed cooling subsystems can be consolidated into an integrated end-to-end design. Presented here are concepts to address the matching of transverse emittances between subsystems through an extension of the theoretical framework of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), which allows a general analytical approach to guide the transition from one set of cooling channel parameters to another.

  6. Coupled-channel scattering on a torus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Peng [JLAB; Dudek, Jozef Jon [Old Dominion U., JLAB; Edwards, Robert G. [JLAB; Szczepaniak, Adam Pawel [Indiana U.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the Hamiltonian formalism approach, a generalized Luscher's formula for two particle scattering in both the elastic and coupled-channel cases in moving frames is derived from a relativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equation. Some strategies for extracting scattering amplitudes for a coupled-channel system from the discrete finite-volume spectrum are discussed and illustrated with a toy model of two-channel resonant scattering. This formalism will, in the near future, be used to extract information about hadron scattering from lattice QCD computations.

  7. STUDENT CONDUCT CODE (Approved June 16, 2006)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    CHAPTER 8 STUDENT CONDUCT CODE (Approved June 16, 2006) 8.010. Purpose 8.020. Definitions 8 of the conduct of all students" and "to enforce obedience to the rules." Although the grant of authority is broadly stated, it is well recognized that students are citizens. Students have legal rights, and deserve

  8. Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shea, John Joseph (Pittsburgh, PA); Djordjevic, Miomir B. (Milwaukee, WI); Hanna, William Kingston (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

  9. Selected factors influencing GCL hydraulic conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, R.J. [Trow Consulting Engineers Ltd., Brampton, Ontario (Canada); Rowe, R.K.; Quigley, R.M. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of confined swell and hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on a needle-punched geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) with water as the hydrating medium and reference permeant. Increases in the static confining stress and the needle-punching both restricted GCL swell and contributed to lower bulk GCL void ratios and hence significantly lower hydraulic conductivity values. A well defined linear-log relationship is found between the bulk void ratio and hydraulic conductivity. The number of pore volumes of permeant flow and consequently the level of chemical equilibrium is shown to have a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity. It is shown that there is a decrease in hydraulic conductivity for small amounts of permeant flow for all ethanol/water mixtures examined. At or near chemical equilibrium, low concentration mixtures (25 and 50% ethanol) continued to produce relative decreases in GCL hydraulic conductivity due to the increased viscosity of the permeant; however, highly concentrated mixtures (75 and 100% ethanol) produced relative increases in GCL hydraulic conductivity arising from double layer contraction. The implications are discussed.

  10. An Innovative High Thermal Conductivity Fuel Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamil A. Khan

    2009-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of the fuel in today's Light Water Reactors, Uranium dioxide, can be improved by incorporating a uniformly distributed heat conducting network of a higher conductivity material, Silicon Carbide. The higher thermal conductivity of SiC along with its other prominent reactor-grade properties makes it a potential material to address some of the related issues when used in UO2 [97% TD]. This ongoing research, in collaboration with the University of Florida, aims to investigate the feasibility and develop a formal methodology of producing the resultant composite oxide fuel. Calculations of effective thermal conductivity of the new fuel as a function of %SiC for certain percentages and as a function of temperature are presented as a preliminary approach. The effective thermal conductivities are obtained at different temperatures from 600K to 1600K. The corresponding polynomial equations for the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities are given based on the simulation results. Heat transfer mechanism in this fuel is explained using a finite volume approach and validated against existing empirical models. FLUENT 6.1.22 was used for thermal conductivity calculations and to estimate reduction in centerline temperatures achievable within such a fuel rod. Later, computer codes COMBINE-PC and VENTURE-PC were deployed to estimate the fuel enrichment required, to maintain the same burnup levels, corresponding to a volume percent addition of SiC.

  11. The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, Laren Malcolm [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular wires. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the rules of the game) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

  12. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, S. (South Jordan, UT); Nair, Balakrishnan G. (Sandy, UT); Small, Troy (Midvale, UT); Heck, Brian (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  13. Harnessing microbial subsurface metal reduction activities to synthesise nanoscale cobalt ferrite with enhanced magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coker, Victoria S.; Telling, Neil D.; van der Laan, Gerrit; Pattrick, Richard A.D.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Arenholz, Elke; Tuna, Floriana; Winpenny, Richard E.P.; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale ferrimagnetic particles have a diverse range of uses from directed cancer therapy and drug delivery systems to magnetic recording media and transducers. Such applications require the production of monodisperse nanoparticles with well-controlled size, composition, and magnetic properties. To fabricate these materials purely using synthetic methods is costly in both environmental and economical terms. However, metal-reducing microorganisms offer an untapped resource to produce these materials. Here, the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens is used to synthesize magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. A combination of electron microscopy, soft X-ray spectroscopy, and magnetometry techniques was employed to show that this method of biosynthesis results in high yields of crystalline nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution and magnetic properties equal to the best chemically synthesized materials. In particular, it is demonstrated here that cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles with low temperature coercivity approaching 8 kOe and an effective anisotropy constant of {approx} 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -3} can be manufactured through this biotechnological route. The dramatic enhancement in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles by the introduction of high quantities of Co into the spinel structure represents a significant advance over previous biomineralization studies in this area using magnetotactic bacteria. The successful production of nanoparticulate ferrites achieved in this study at high yields could open up the way for the scaled-up industrial manufacture of nanoparticles using environmentally benign methodologies. Production of ferromagnetic nanoparticles for pioneering cancer therapy, drug delivery, chemical sensors, catalytic activity, photoconductive materials, as well as more traditional uses in data storage embodies a large area of inorganic synthesis research. In particular, the addition of transition metals other than Fe into the structure of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) has been shown to greatly enhance the magnetic properties of the particles, tailoring them to different commercial uses. However, synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles is often carried out at high temperatures with toxic solvents resulting in high environmental and energy costs. Additionally, these ferrite nanoparticles are not intrinsically biocompatible, and to make them suitable for insertion into the human body is a rather intricate task. A relatively unexplored resource for magnetic nanomaterial production is subsurface Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, as these microorganisms are capable of producing large quantities of nanoscale magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) at ambient temperatures. Metal-reducing bacteria live in environments deficient in oxygen and conserve energy for growth through the oxidation of hydrogen or organic electron donors, coupled to the reduction of oxidized metals such as Fe(III)-bearing minerals. This can result in the formation of magnetite via the extracellular reduction of amorphous Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides causing the release of soluble Fe(II) and resulting in complete recrystallization of the amorphous mineral into a new phase. Some previous studies have reported altering the composition of biogenic magnetite produced by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria for industrial and environmental applications. However, research into the commercial exploitation of bacteria to form magnetic minerals has focused primarily on magnetotactic bacteria which form magnetosomal magnetite internally using very different pathways to those bacteria forming magnetite outside the cell. Magnetotactic bacteria live at the sediment-water interface and use internal nanomagnets to guide them to their preferred environmental niche using the Earth's magnetic field. Since magnetotactic bacteria generally grow optimally under carefully controlled microaerobic conditions, the culturing processes for these organisms are challenging and result in low yields of nanomagnetite. Despite these limitations, magnetotactic bacteria have bee

  14. Longitudinal profile of channels cut by springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devauchelle, O.

    We propose a simple theory for the longitudinal profile of channels incised by groundwater flow. The aquifer surrounding the stream is represented in two dimensions through Darcy's law and the Dupuit approximation. The ...

  15. Channelized voice over digital subscriber line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habib, A.; Saiedian, Hossein

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this article is to present a promising voice over digital subscriber line (VoDSL) solution: an alternative method that uses physical layer transportation to provide channelized VoDSL (CVoDSL). This article ...

  16. Kelp Forests of the Santa Barbara Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Kelp Forests of the Santa Barbara Channel Revised Fourth Edition Kelp Forests of the Santa Barbara Research Program Santa Barbara Coastal Long Term Ecological Research Program #12;Kelp Forests of the Santa

  17. Optimal Distributed Beamforming for MISO Interference Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Jiaming

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, the problem of quantifying the Pareto optimal boundary of the achievable rate region is considered over multiple-input single-output(MISO)interference channels, where the problem boils down to solving a sequence of convex feasibility...

  18. Message passing with queues and channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dozsa, Gabor J; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ratterman, Joseph D; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In an embodiment, a send thread receives an identifier that identifies a destination node and a pointer to data. The send thread creates a first send request in response to the receipt of the identifier and the data pointer. The send thread selects a selected channel from among a plurality of channels. The selected channel comprises a selected hand-off queue and an identification of a selected message unit. Each of the channels identifies a different message unit. The selected hand-off queue is randomly accessible. If the selected hand-off queue contains an available entry, the send thread adds the first send request to the selected hand-off queue. If the selected hand-off queue does not contain an available entry, the send thread removes a second send request from the selected hand-off queue and sends the second send request to the selected message unit.

  19. Weak multiplicativity for random quantum channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montanaro, Ashley

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that random quantum channels exhibit significant violations of multiplicativity of maximum output p-norms for any p>1. In this work, we show that a weaker variant of multiplicativity nevertheless holds for these channels. For any constant p>1, given a random quantum channel N (i.e. a channel whose Stinespring representation corresponds to a random subspace S), we show that with high probability the maximum output p-norm of n copies of N decays exponentially with n. The proof is based on relaxing the maximum output infinity-norm of N to the operator norm of the partial transpose of the projector onto S, then calculating upper bounds on this quantity using ideas from random matrix theory.

  20. Optimal unitary dilation for bosonic Gaussian channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caruso, Filippo [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Eisert, Jens [Dahlem Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Freie Universitaet Berlin, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Giovannetti, Vittorio [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Holevo, Alexander S. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Gubkina 8, RU-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A general quantum channel can be represented in terms of a unitary interaction between the information-carrying system and a noisy environment. In this paper the minimal number of quantum Gaussian environmental modes required to provide a unitary dilation of a multimode bosonic Gaussian channel is analyzed for both pure and mixed environments. We compute this quantity in the case of pure environment corresponding to the Stinespring representation and give an improved estimate in the case of mixed environment. The computations rely, on one hand, on the properties of the generalized Choi-Jamiolkowski state and, on the other hand, on an explicit construction of the minimal dilation for arbitrary bosonic Gaussian channel. These results introduce a new quantity reflecting ''noisiness'' of bosonic Gaussian channels and can be applied to address some issues concerning transmission of information in continuous variables systems.

  1. Digitally Assisted Multi-Channel Receivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pentakota, Krishna Anand Santosh Spikanth

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    -channel charge sampling receivers with sinc filter banks together with a complete system calibration and synchronization algorithm for the receiver. A unified model has been defined for the receiver containing all first order mismatches, offsets... and imperfections and a technique based on least mean squares algorithm is employed to track these errors. The performance of this technique under noisy channel conditions has been verified. The sinc filter bank is compared with the conventional analog filter...

  2. Thermal conductivity measurements of Summit polycrystalline silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Rebecca; Kuppers, Jaron D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A capability for measuring the thermal conductivity of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials using a steady state resistance technique was developed and used to measure the thermal conductivities of SUMMiT{trademark} V layers. Thermal conductivities were measured over two temperature ranges: 100K to 350K and 293K to 575K in order to generate two data sets. The steady state resistance technique uses surface micromachined bridge structures fabricated using the standard SUMMiT fabrication process. Electrical resistance and resistivity data are reported for poly1-poly2 laminate, poly2, poly3, and poly4 polysilicon structural layers in the SUMMiT process from 83K to 575K. Thermal conductivity measurements for these polysilicon layers demonstrate for the first time that the thermal conductivity is a function of the particular SUMMiT layer. Also, the poly2 layer has a different variation in thermal conductivity as the temperature is decreased than the poly1-poly2 laminate, poly3, and poly4 layers. As the temperature increases above room temperature, the difference in thermal conductivity between the layers decreases.

  3. Investigation of channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation in a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Kuan-Hsien; Chou, Wu-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Siou; Hung, Yi-Syuan; Sze, Simon M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hung, Pei-Hua; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tien-Yu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Bo-Liang [Advanced Display Technology Research Center, AU Optronics, No. 1, Li-Hsin Rd. 2, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Letter investigates abnormal channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. Unlike drain-induced source barrier lowering effect, threshold voltage increases with increasing drain voltage. Furthermore, the wider the channel, the larger the threshold voltage observed. Because of the surrounding oxide and other thermal insulating material and the low thermal conductivity of the IGZO layer, the self-heating effect will be pronounced in wider channel devices and those with a larger operating drain bias. To further clarify the physical mechanism, fast IV measurement is utilized to demonstrate the self-heating induced anomalous channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation.

  4. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G., E-mail: gerald.faussurier@cea.fr; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  5. Thermal conductivity of bulk nanostructured lead telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hori, Takuma [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Chen, Gang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shiomi, Junichiro, E-mail: shiomi@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of lead telluride with embedded nanoinclusions was studied using Monte Carlo simulations with intrinsic phonon transport properties obtained from first-principles-based lattice dynamics. The nanoinclusion/matrix interfaces were set to completely reflect phonons to model the maximum interface-phonon-scattering scenario. The simulations with the geometrical cross section and volume fraction of the nanoinclusions matched to those of the experiment show that the experiment has already reached the theoretical limit of thermal conductivity. The frequency-dependent analysis further identifies that the thermal conductivity reduction is dominantly attributed to scattering of low frequency phonons and demonstrates mutual adaptability of nanostructuring and local disordering.

  6. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James (Knoxville, TN); Klett, Lynn (Knoxville, TN); Kaufman, Jonathan (Leonardtown, MD)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  7. Multi channel thermal hydraulic analysis of gas cooled fast reactor using genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drajat, R. Z.; Su'ud, Z.; Soewono, E.; Gunawan, A. Y. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    There are three analyzes to be done in the design process of nuclear reactor i.e. neutronic analysis, thermal hydraulic analysis and thermodynamic analysis. The focus in this article is the thermal hydraulic analysis, which has a very important role in terms of system efficiency and the selection of the optimal design. This analysis is performed in a type of Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) using cooling Helium (He). The heat from nuclear fission reactions in nuclear reactors will be distributed through the process of conduction in fuel elements. Furthermore, the heat is delivered through a process of heat convection in the fluid flow in cooling channel. Temperature changes that occur in the coolant channels cause a decrease in pressure at the top of the reactor core. The governing equations in each channel consist of mass balance, momentum balance, energy balance, mass conservation and ideal gas equation. The problem is reduced to finding flow rates in each channel such that the pressure drops at the top of the reactor core are all equal. The problem is solved numerically with the genetic algorithm method. Flow rates and temperature distribution in each channel are obtained here.

  8. Compliance Monitoring of Underwater Blasting for Rock Removal at Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project, 2009/2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Skalski, J. R.; Seaburg, Adam

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) conducted the 20-year Columbia River Channel Improvement Project (CRCIP) to deepen the navigation channel between Portland, Oregon, and the Pacific Ocean to allow transit of fully loaded Panamax ships (100 ft wide, 600 to 700 ft long, and draft 45 to 50 ft). In the vicinity of Warrior Point, between river miles (RM) 87 and 88 near St. Helens, Oregon, the USACE conducted underwater blasting and dredging to remove 300,000 yd3 of a basalt rock formation to reach a depth of 44 ft in the Columbia River navigation channel. The purpose of this report is to document methods and results of the compliance monitoring study for the blasting project at Warrior Point in the Columbia River.

  9. Effects of imperfect insulating coatings on the flow partitioning between parallel channels in self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaizer, A.A.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fully developed liquid-metal flow in a system of three straight rectangular ducts is investigated. The ducts are electrically coupled by common conducting walls covered with an imperfect insulating layer. A numerical model of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in the system is described. Since no additional assumptions, such as in the core-flow solution, have been made, this model can be used for the analysis of MHD flow in parallel ducts with nearly perfect insulating coating. Any orientation of the applied uniform magnetic field is possible. Electrical conductivities of the dividing and exterior walls, and of the insulating layers in individual channels can be varied independently, as well as characteristics of insulating imperfections in each channel. A restriction of equal pressure gradients in all ducts is imposed, and the flow partitioning between parallel channels is examined. Results of the numerical simulation of the influence of insulation imperfections on flow distribution and velocity profiles are presented. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Characterization of macro-length conducting polymers and the development of a conducting polymer rotary motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Bryan D. (Bryan David), 1981-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers are a subset of materials within the electroactive polymer class that exhibit active mechanical deformations. These deformations induce stresses and strains that allow for conducting polymers to be used ...

  11. Method and apparatus for casting conductive and semi-conductive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1984-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for casting conductive and semi-conductive materials. The apparatus includes a plurality of conductive members arranged to define a container-like area having a desired cross-sectional shape. A portion or all of the conductive or semi-conductive material which is to be cast is introduced into the container-like area. A means is provided for inducing the flow of an electrical current in each of the conductive members, which currents act collectively to induce a current flow in the material. The induced current flow through the conductive members is in a direction substantially opposite to the induced current flow in the material so that the material is repelled from the conductive members during the casting process.

  12. Vortex interaction enhanced saturation number and caging effect in a superconducting film with a honeycomb array of nanoscale holes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latimer, M. L.; Berdiyorov, G. R.; Xiao, Z. L.; Kwok, W. K.; Peeters, F. M. (Materials Science Division); (Northern Illinois Univ.); (Universiteit Antwerpen)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical transport properties of a MoGe thin film with a honeycomb array of nanoscale holes are investigated. The critical current of the system shows nonmatching anomalies as a function of applied magnetic field, enabling us to distinguish between multiquanta vortices trapped in the holes and interstitial vortices located between the holes. The number of vortices trapped in each hole is found to be larger than the saturation number predicted for an isolated hole and shows a nonlinear field dependence, leading to the caging effect as predicted from the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. Our experimental results are supplemented by numerical simulations based on the GL theory.

  13. Femtosecond Single-Shot Imaging of Nanoscale Ferromagnetic Order in Co/Pd Multilayers using Resonant X-ray Holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Tianhan; Zhu, Diling; Benny Wu,; Graves, Catherine; Schaffert, Stefan; Rander, Torbjorn; Muller, leonard; Vodungbo, Boris; Baumier, Cedric; Bernstein, David P.; Brauer, Bjorn; Cros, Vincent; Jong, Sanne de; Delaunay, Renaud; Fognini, Andreas; Kukreja, Roopali; Lee, Sooheyong; Lopez-Flores, Victor; Mohanty, Jyoti; Pfau, Bastian; Popescu, 5 Horia

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first single-shot images of ferromagnetic, nanoscale spin order taken with femtosecond x-ray pulses. X-ray-induced electron and spin dynamics can be outrun with pulses shorter than 80 fs in the investigated fluence regime, and no permanent aftereffects in the samples are observed below a fluence of 25 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Employing resonant spatially-muliplexed x-ray holography results in a low imaging threshold of 5 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Our results open new ways to combine ultrafast laser spectroscopy with sequential snapshot imaging on a single sample, generating a movie of excited state dynamics.

  14. Experimental study of turbulent supercritical open channel water flow as applied to the CLiFF concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    ; Liquid wall; Low conductivity fluid; Turbulence; Surface waves; Heat transfer 1. Introduction In fusion not experience strong MHD forces and to a large extent remain turbulent, but their heat transfer capabilitiesExperimental study of turbulent supercritical open channel water flow as applied to the CLi

  15. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 144305 (2013) Two-channel model for nonequilibrium thermal transport in pump-probe experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahill, David G.

    150 nm of the Al/Si0.99Ge0.01 interface. The extra thermal resistance in this region is a result. INTRODUCTION The magnitude of a material's thermal conductivity and spe- cific heat is determinedPHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 144305 (2013) Two-channel model for nonequilibrium thermal transport in pump

  16. Large displacement fast conducting polymer actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Angela Y. (Angela Ying-Ju), 1982-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers are a promising class of electroactive materials that undergo volumetric changes under applied potentials, which make them particularly useful for many actuation applications. Polypyrrole , is one of ...

  17. Conducting polymer nanostructures for biological applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis and characterization of conducting copolymer nanofibrils of pyrrolepolypyrrole synthesis was 0.1 M pyrrole monomer dissolved insynthesis Polypyrrole was electropolymerized from a solution of 0.1 M pyrrole (

  18. California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - 10:17am Addthis Working with Nextval, Inc., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a Conducting Polymer Binder for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. With a...

  19. Modeling tensorial conductivity of particle suspension networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyler Olsen; Ken Kamrin

    2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant microstructural anisotropy is known to develop during shearing flow of attractive particle suspensions. These suspensions, and their capacity to form conductive networks, play a key role in flow-battery technology, among other applications. Herein, we present and test an analytical model for the tensorial conductivity of attractive particle suspensions. The model utilizes the mean fabric of the network to characterize the structure, and the relationship to the conductivity is inspired by a lattice argument. We test the accuracy of our model against a large number of computer-generated suspension networks, based on multiple in-house generation protocols, giving rise to particle networks that emulate the physical system. The model is shown to adequately capture the tensorial conductivity, both in terms of its invariants and its mean directionality.

  20. Thermal Conductivity in Nanocrystalline Ceria Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marat Khafizov; In-Wook Park; Aleksandr Chernatynskiy; Lingfeng He; Jianliang Lin; John J. Moore; David Swank; Thomas Lillo; Simon R. Phillpot; Anter El-Azab; David H. Hurley

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline ceria films grown by unbalanced magnetron sputtering is determined as a function of temperature using laser-based modulated thermoreflectance. The films exhibit significantly reduced conductivity compared with stoichiometric bulk CeO2. A variety of microstructure imaging techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron analysis, and electron energy loss spectroscopy indicate that the thermal conductivity is influenced by grain boundaries, dislocations, and oxygen vacancies. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity is analyzed using an analytical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The conclusion of this study is that oxygen vacancies pose a smaller impediment to thermal transport when they segregate along grain boundaries.

  1. November 15, 2012 Conducting and managing documents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaji, Hajime

    1 November 15, 2012 Conducting and managing documents #12;2 Agenda 1. Basics of copyright 2. Necessary information for citing materials 3. Citation Manager #12;1.Basics of copyright 3 #12;Definitions

  2. Synthesis and characterization of conducting polymer actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vandesteeg, Nathan A. (Nathan Alan)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers are known to mechanically respond to electrochemical stimuli and have been utilized as linear actuators. To date, the most successful mechanism for actuation is ionic ingress and egress, though mechanisms ...

  3. Development and characterization of conducting polymer actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillai, Priam Vasudevan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers such as polypyrrole, polythiophene and polyaniline are currently studied as novel biologically inspired actuators. The actuation mechanism of these materials depends upon the motion of ions in and out ...

  4. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  5. M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat Transfer 1 Steady Heat Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    of the material. In the limiting case where x0, the equation above reduces to the differential form: W dx dT k is the only energy interaction; the energy balance for the wall can be expressed: dt dE QQ wall outin). Thermal Conductivity Thermal conductivity k [W/mK] is a measure of a material's ability to conduct heat

  6. Standards of Student Conduct: A Guide to the University of Rochester Conduct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portman, Douglas

    Standards of Student Conduct: A Guide to the University of Rochester Conduct Process and Policies 2012-2013 Center for Student Conflict Management #12;2 STANDARDS OF STUDENT CONDUCT A Guide Student Handbook, the Residential Community Standards material, the Resident Network Acceptable Use Policy

  7. Student Conduct Information Packet A Step-by-Step Guide to the Student Conduct Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zobin, Nahum

    Student Conduct Information Packet A Step-by-Step Guide to the Student Conduct Process Basic Overview The student conduct process at the College is summarized in the flow chart below. This chart is provided to students to explain the process during the Information Session. #12;Taking a Closer Look

  8. Microsoft Vendor Code of Conduct (US 2012) 1 Microsoft Vendor Code of Conduct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Phil

    Microsoft Vendor Code of Conduct (US 2012) 1 Microsoft Vendor Code of Conduct Microsoft aspires with customers, partners, governments, communities, and vendors. Through the Standards of Business Conduct (www expects its vendors to embrace this commitment to integrity by complying with and training its employees

  9. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles A. (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Tempe, AZ)

    2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  10. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  11. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  12. High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Duenow, Joel N. (Golden, CO); Barnes, Teresa (Evergreen, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO)

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

  13. Clustering of cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels in olfactory cilia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    French, Donald A.

    Clustering of cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels in olfactory cilia Richard J. Flannery* , Donald A channel clusters in olfactory cilia Key words: olfaction, receptor neuron, cyclic-nucleotide-gated channel of olfactory signal transduction, including a high density of cyclic-nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. CNG

  14. MISO Broadcast Channel with Delayed and Evolving CSIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gesbert, David

    MISO Broadcast Channel with Delayed and Evolving CSIT Jinyuan Chen and Petros Elia Mobile--The work considers the two-user MISO broadcast channel with a gradual and delayed accumulation of channel-input single-output broadcast channel (MISO BC) with an M-transmit antenna (M 2) transmitter communicating

  15. Multiple description source coding for mobile radio channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pegnyemb, Telesphore Bertrand

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The topic of this thesis is the transmission of a memoryless source over a slow fading channel. It should be noted that when a channel is specified as a slow fading channel, it does not specify whether the channel is flat or frequency selective...

  16. A Search for Channel Deformation in Irradiated Vanadium Tensile Specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, David S.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2010-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature tensile specimen of V-4Cr-4Ti which had be irradiated in the 17J test at 425C to 3.7 dpa was mechanically polished, deformed to 3.9% strain at room temperature, and examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy in order to look for evidence of channel deformation. It was found that uniform deformation can occur without channel deformation, but evidence for channeling was found with channels appearing most prominently after the onset of necking. The channeling occurs on wavy planes with large variations in localized deformation from channel to channel.

  17. Poly(ethylene glycol)-based open-channel blockers for the acetylcholine receptor : mechanistic and structure-function studies at the single-channel level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Wan-Chen, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion channels are essential mediators in nervous signaling pathways. Because hyperactivation of ion channels can lead to pathological disorders such as congenital myasthenic syndromes and neurodegeneration, channel inhibitors ...

  18. Joint source channel coding for non-ergodic channels: the distortion signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) exponent perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattad, Kapil

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 II DISTORTION SNR EXPONENT FOR THE AWGN CHANNEL 10 A. Introduction and Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 B. Informed Transmitter Upper Bound . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 C. Prior Work... mean square error, a simple joint source channel coding scheme that involves just transmitting the source over the channel with appropriate power scaling is optimal [1,2]. Some advantages and disadvantages of joint source channel coding are discussed...

  19. Black Conductive Titanium Oxide High-Capacity Materials for Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, W.

    2011-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is one of the most widely studied transitionmetal oxides because of its many potential applications in photoelectrochemical systems, such as dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrodes for photovoltaic solar cells, and water-splitting catalysts for hydrogen generation, and in environmental purification for creating or degrading specific compounds. However, TiO{sub 2} has a wide bandgap and high electrical resistivity, which limits its use as an electrode. A set of non-stoichiometric titanium oxides called the Magneli phases, having a general formula of Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n-1} with n between 4 and 10, exhibits lower bandgaps and resistivities, with the highest electrical conductivities reported for Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7}. These phases have been formulated under different conditions, but in all reported cases the resulting oxides have minimum grain sizes on the order of micrometers, regardless of the size of the starting titanium compounds. In this method, nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates are first coated with carbon using either wet or dry chemistry methods. During this process the size and shape of the nanoparticles are 'locked in.' Subsequently the carbon-coated nanoparticles are heated. This results in the transformation of the original TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates to Magneli phases without coarsening, so that the original size and shape of the nanoparticles are maintained to a precise degree. People who work on batteries, fuel cells, ultracapacitors, electrosynthesis cells, electro-chemical devices, and soil remediation have applications that could benefit from using nanoscale Magneli phases of titanium oxide. Application of these electrode materials may not be limited to substitution for TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Combining the robustness and photosensitivity of TiO{sub 2} with higher electrical conductivity may result in a general electrode material.

  20. Effects and Mechanisms of Mechanical Activation on Hydrogen Sorption/ Desorption of Nanoscale Lithium Nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, Leon, L.; Yang, Gary, Z.; Crosby, Kyle; Wwan, Xufei. Zhong, Yang; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Osborn, William; Hu, Jianzhi; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to investigate and develop novel, mechanically activated, nanoscale Li3N-based and LiBH4-based materials that are able to store and release {approx}10 wt% hydrogen at temperatures near 100 C with a plateau hydrogen pressure of less than 10 bar. Four (4) material systems have been investigated in the course of this project in order to achieve the project objective. These 4 systems are (i) LiNH2+LiH, (ii) LiNH2+MgH2, (iii) LiBH4, and (iv) LiBH4+MgH2. The key findings we have obtained from these 4 systems are summarized below. *The thermodynamic driving forces for LiNH2+LiH and LiBH4 systems are not adequate to enable H2 release at temperatures < 100 C. *Hydrogen release in the solid state for all of the four systems is controlled by diffusion, and thus is a slow process. *LiNH2+MgH2 and LiBH4+MgH2 systems, although possessing proper thermodynamic driving forces to allow for H2 release at temperatures < 100 C, have sluggish reaction kinetics because of their diffusion-controlled rate-limiting steps. *Reducing particles to the nanometer length scale (< 50 nm) can improve the thermodynamic driving force to enable H2 release at near ambient temperature, while simultaneously enhancing the reaction kinetics as well as changing the diffusion-controlled rate-limiting step to gas desorption-controlled rate-limiting step. This phenomenon has been demonstrated with LiBH4 and offers the hope that further work along this direction will make one of the material systems, i.e., LiBH4, LiBH4+MgH2 and LiNH2+MgH2, possess the desired thermodynamic properties and rapid H2 uptake/release kinetics for on-board applications. Many of the findings and knowledge gained from this project have been published in archival refereed journal articles [1-15] and are accessible by general public. Thus, to avoid a bulky final report, the key findings and knowledge gained from this project will be succinctly summarized, particularly for those findings and knowledge available in the public domain. However, for those findings and knowledge that have not been published yet, more detailed information will be provided. The report will be divided into 4 major sections based on the material systems investigated.

  1. Addressing the Recalcitrance of Cellulose Degradation through Cellulase Discovery, Nano-scale Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms, and Kinetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Larry P., Bergstrom, Gary; Corgie, Stephane; Craighead, Harold; Gibson, Donna; Wilson, David

    2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project was designed to play a vital role in the development of low cost sugars from cellulosic biomass and contributing to the national effort to displace fossil fuel usage in the USA transportation sector. The goal was to expand the portfolio of cell wall degrading enzymes through innovative research at the nano-scale level, prospecting for novel cellulases and building a kinetic framework for the development of more effective enzymatic conversion processes. More precisely, the goal was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for some cellulases that are very familiar to members of our research team and to investigate what we hope are novel cellulases or new enzyme combinations from the world of plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Hydrolytic activities of various cellulases and cellulase cocktails were monitored at the nanoscale of cellulose fibrils and the microscale of pretreated cellulose particles, and we integrated this insight into a heterogeneous reaction framework. The over-riding approach for this research program was the application of innovative and cutting edge optical and high-throughput screening and analysis techniques for observing how cellulases hydrolyze real substrates.

  2. Determinating Timing Channels in Statistically Multiplexed Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aviram, Amittai; Ford, Bryan; Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Timing side-channels represent an insidious security challenge for cloud computing, because: (a) they enable one customer to steal information from another without leaving a trail or raising alarms; (b) only the cloud provider can feasibly detect and report such attacks, but the provider's incentives are not to; and (c) known general-purpose timing channel control methods undermine statistical resource sharing efficiency, and, with it, the cloud computing business model. We propose a new cloud architecture that uses provider-enforced deterministic execution to eliminate all timing channels internal to a shared cloud domain, without limiting internal resource sharing. A prototype determinism-enforcing hypervisor demonstrates that utilizing such a cloud might be both convenient and efficient. The hypervisor enables parallel guest processes and threads to interact via familiar shared memory and file system abstractions, and runs moderately coarse-grained parallel tasks as efficiently and scalably as current nond...

  3. Degenerate Quantum Codes for Pauli Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graeme Smith; John A. Smolin

    2006-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A striking feature of quantum error correcting codes is that they can sometimes be used to correct more errors than they can uniquely identify. Such degenerate codes have long been known, but have remained poorly understood. We provide a heuristic for designing degenerate quantum codes for high noise rates, which is applied to generate codes that can be used to communicate over almost any Pauli channel at rates that are impossible for a nondegenerate code. The gap between nondegenerate and degenerate code performance is quite large, in contrast to the tiny magnitude of the only previous demonstration of this effect. We also identify a channel for which none of our codes outperform the best nondegenerate code and show that it is nevertheless quite unlike any channel for which nondegenerate codes are known to be optimal.

  4. Quantum conductance of zigzag graphene oxide nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kan, Zhe; Nelson, Christopher; Khatun, Mahfuza, E-mail: mkhatun@bsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Computational Nanoscience, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 (United States)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic properties of zigzag graphene oxide nanoribbons (ZGOR) are presented. The results show interesting behaviors which are considerably different from the properties of the perfect graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The theoretical methods include a Huckel-tight binding approach, a Green's function methodology, and the Landauer formalism. The presence of oxygen on the edge results in band bending, a noticeable change in density of states and thus the conductance. Consequently, the occupation in the valence bands increase for the next neighboring carbon atom in the unit cell. Conductance drops in both the conduction and valence band regions are due to the reduction of allowed k modes resulting from band bending. The asymmetry of the energy band structure of the ZGOR is due to the energy differences of the atoms. The inclusion of a foreign atom's orbital energies changes the dispersion relation of the eigenvalues in energy space. These novel characteristics are important and valuable in the study of quantum transport of GNRs.

  5. Casimir energy for surfaces with constant conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nail Khusnutdinov; D. Drosdoff; Lilia M. Woods

    2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the vacuum energy of the electromagnetic field in systems characterized by a constant conductivity using the zeta-regularization approach. The interaction in two cases is investigated: two infinitely thin parallel sheets and an infinitely thin spherical shell. We found that the Casimir energy for the planar system is always attractive and it has the same characteristic distance dependence as the interaction for two perfect semi-infinite metals. The Casimir energy for the spherical shell depends on the inverse radius of the sphere, but it maybe negative or positive depending on the value of the conductivity. If the conductivity is less than a certain critical value, the interaction is attractive, otherwise the Casimir force is repulsive regardless of the spherical shell radius.

  6. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael Ray (Knoxville, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  7. Acetonitrile Drastically Boosts Conductivity of Ionic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Kalugin, Oleg N; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply a new methodology in the force field generation (PCCP 2011, 13, 7910) to study the binary mixtures of five imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) with acetonitrile (ACN). The investigated RTILs are composed of tetrafluoroborate (BF4) anion and dialkylimidazolium cations, where one of the alkyl groups is methyl for all RTILs, and the other group is different for each RTILs, being ethyl (EMIM), butyl (BMIM), hexyl (HMIM), octyl (OMIM), and decyl (DMIM). Specific densities, radial distribution functions, ionic cluster distributions, heats of vaporization, diffusion constants, shear viscosities, ionic conductivities, and their correlations are discussed. Upon addition of ACN, the ionic conductivity of RTILs is found to increase by more than 50 times, that significantly exceeds an impact of most known solvents. Remarkably, the sharpest conductivity growth is found for the long-tailed imidazolium-based cations. This new fact motivates to revisit an application of these binary systems as a...

  8. Study of fully developed, liquid-metal, open-channel flow in a nearly coplanar magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morley, N.B.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fully developed, gravity-driven flow in an open channel of arbitrary electrical conductance and orientation to an applied magnetic field is investigated. The formulation of the model equations and the numerical solution methodology are described in detail. Numerical solutions of the model equations for the flow velocity profile, induced magnetic field profile, and the uniform film height as a function of Hartmann number, field angle, flow rate, and channel conductivity are presented and discussed. The parameter ranges explored are those most representative of tokamak divertor surface protection schemes, where the field is predominantly coplanar in orientation. The formation of jets in velocity and the occurrence of abrupt jumps in uniform film height are seen as the wall conductance increases. Regimes where the flow is dominated by the smaller transverse field component instead of the larger coplanar field are also observed. Simple analytic relations predicting the film height are given for the different flow regimes. 13 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Conduct of Operations and Quality Assurance Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, N.S.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to present and detail the deliverables for the Tiger Team Action Plan, Finding MF-11, and milestones in the FY92 Performance Appraisal for Conduct of Operations from Sandia National Laboratories to DOE. The ``Proposal for Reporting Conduct of Operations & Quality Assurance Compliance to DOE`` describes what the deliverables shall be. Five major steps that result in the development of line practices are covered in this document. These line practices specify what Sandia will do to comply with the above DOE management orders. The five steps include: hazard classification; programmatic risk classification; management grouping; compliance plan; and corporate reporting.

  10. Conduct of Operations and Quality Assurance Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, N.S.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to present and detail the deliverables for the Tiger Team Action Plan, Finding MF-11, and milestones in the FY92 Performance Appraisal for Conduct of Operations from Sandia National Laboratories to DOE. The Proposal for Reporting Conduct of Operations Quality Assurance Compliance to DOE'' describes what the deliverables shall be. Five major steps that result in the development of line practices are covered in this document. These line practices specify what Sandia will do to comply with the above DOE management orders. The five steps include: hazard classification; programmatic risk classification; management grouping; compliance plan; and corporate reporting.

  11. Conductivity as applied to water analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godfrey, Truman M.

    1913-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    for the "Dionio Water Tester11. 1. Detection of condenser leaks. 2. Measurement of the priming of boilers. 3. Estimation of the hardness of water. 6. 4. Softening water. 5. Detection of sewage pollution. 6. Test of sewage effluent. 7. Estimation... of the purity of distilled water. 8. Checking the purity of a water supply. In most cases, conductivity is a very satisfactory means of detecting condenser leaks and may also he used in estimating the extent of the leakage. The conductivity of a sample...

  12. Electronic conduction through single crystals of polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samson, Gerald Maurice

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    May, 1966 Major Subjects Physics ELECTRONIC CONDUCTION THROUGH SINGLE CRYSTRLS OF POLYETHYLENE k Thesis By Gerald Maurice Samson Approved as to style and content by: naen of the Committee ad of the D artment ber ber c- The autho. u... talc o Polyot! ylone . -y, i'oo Gerald !':cur"' co Samson Directed by: Zr. Joe S. The predominant conduction mechani m through single cryo' mls op polyethylene is shown to be Schott!cy ( hernal) oui "sion . or tompora- o tu. es - bove 0 C. . "or...

  13. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornack, T.R.; Chilko, R.J.

    1986-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask. 2 figs.

  14. Application of conducting polymers to electroanalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josowicz, M.A.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers can be used as sensitive layers in chemical microsensors leading to new applications of theses devices. They offer the potential for developing material properties that are critical to the sensor sensitivity, selectivity and fabrication. The advantages and limitations of the use of thin polymer layers in electrochemical sensors are discussed.

  15. Faculty and Staff Commute Report Conducted by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Faculty and Staff Commute Report July 2008 Conducted by #12;Executive Summary The price of gasoline at Austin is $91.35 per month. With no relief in sight to rising gasoline prices, employees are increasingly to accommodate future vehicles, such as installing charging stations on campus for plug in cars. #12;Faculty

  16. Fracture Conductivity of the Eagle Ford Shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzek, James J

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    such as the Eagle Ford Shale. This work investigates the fracture conductivities of seven Eagle Ford Shale samples collected from an outcrop of facies B. Rough fractures were induced in the samples and laboratory experiments that closely followed the API RP-61...

  17. Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherkaev, Andrej

    Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites A.V. Cherkaev \\Lambda L.V. Gibiansky y April 19, 1995 Abstract In this paper we construct microstructures of multiphase composites with un be easily gen­ eralized for the three­dimensional composites with arbitrary number of phases. 1 Introduction

  18. Code of Conduct Etiquette at Utrecht University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Code of Conduct Etiquette at Utrecht University What principles underpin our behaviour of Utrecht University. The Code describes the values that govern the way people work and study for sanctions. How is Utrecht University different from other universities? What do we wish to achieve? MISSION

  19. How to Conduct an Energy Efficiency Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biles, J. E.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes how to organize a team of specialists in order to conduct an energy efficiency study in a totally unfamiliar plant. In-plant data gathering techniques are presented as well as methods for obtaining ideas and information from...

  20. Heat conductivity of a pion gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Dobado Gonzalez; Felipe J. Llanes-Estrada; Juan M. Torres Rincon

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the heat conductivity of a dilute pion gas employing the Uehling-Uehlenbeck equation and experimental phase-shifts parameterized by means of the SU(2) Inverse Amplitude Method. Our results are consistent with previous evaluations. For comparison we also give results for an (unphysical) hard sphere gas.

  1. Thermal Conductivity and Noise Attenuation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    .3.4 Corrosion-resistant and high-temperature filters 9 1.3.5 Acoustic Applications 9 2. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 2.1 THERMAL RESISTANCE 2.1.1 Thermal Conductors in Series 12 2.1.2 Thermal conductors in parallel 13 2 difference RTH Thermal resistance of conductor sb Stefan's constant T4 Temperature difference K* Total

  2. Conducting a Wildland Visual Resources Inventory1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Conducting a Wildland Visual Resources Inventory1 James F. Palmer 2/ 1/ Submitted to the National of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. Abstract: This paper describes a procedure for system- atically inventorying- tion and description of each inventoried scene are recorded on U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps

  3. Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1990-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    "To provide requirements and guidelines for Departmental Elements, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), to use in developing directives, plans, and/or procedures relating to the conduct of operations at DOE facilities. The implementation of these requirements and guidelines should result in improved quality and uniformity of operations. Change 2, 10-23-2001. Canceled by DOE O 422.1.

  4. Mssbauer study of conductive oxide glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Koken; Kubuki, Shiro [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nishida, Tetsuaki, E-mail: nishida@fuk.kindai.ac.jp [Kinki University, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat treatment of barium iron vanadate glass, BaO?Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}?V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, at temperatures higher than crystallization temperature causes a marked decrease in resistivity (?) from several M?cm to several ?cm. {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectrum of heat-treated vanadate glass shows a marked decrease in quadrupole splitting (?) of Fe{sup III}, reflecting a structural relaxation, i.e., an increased symmetry of 'distorted' FeO{sub 4} and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra which are connected to each other by sharing corner oxygen atoms. Structural relaxation of 3D-network of vanadate glass accompanies a decrease in the activation energy for the conduction, reflecting a decreased energy gap between the donor level and conduction band. A marked increase in the conductivity was observed in CuO- or Cu{sub 2}O-containing barium iron vanadate glass after heat treatment at 450 C for 30 min or more. 'n-type semiconductor model combined with small polaron hopping theory' was proposed in order to explain the high conductivity.

  5. Simulating a single qubit channel using a mixed state environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geetu Narang; Arvind

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the class of single qubit channels with the environment modeled by a one-qubit mixed state. The set of affine transformations for this class of channels is computed analytically, employing the canonical form for the two-qubit unitary operator. We demonstrate that, 3/8 of the generalized depolarizing channels can be simulated by the one-qubit mixed state environment by explicitly obtaining the shape of the volume occupied by this class of channels within the tetrahedron representing the generalized depolarizing channels. Further, as a special case, we show that the two-Pauli Channel cannot be simulated by a one-qubit mixed state environment.

  6. How Kondo-holes create intense nanoscale heavy-fermion hybridization disorder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, James C.

    of the electronic structure at Kondo-holes created by substi- tuting spinless thorium atoms for magnetic uranium of the matrix element Vhðh2? for the quantum conversion of a conduction electron into an f-electron and vice

  7. Strain uniformity through equal channel angular extrusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bier, Derek Werner

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to characterize the processing effects of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) on aluminum 6063, copper I 10, and filamentary Cu/NbTi composite superconductor. The major objective of this study is to measure strain...

  8. Channel coding for high speed links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blitvic, Natasa

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the benefit of channel coding for high-speed backplane or chip-to-chip interconnects, referred to as the high-speed links. Although both power-constrained and bandwidth-limited, the high-speed links ...

  9. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds as Water Channel Blockers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Groot, Bert

    /AQP2/AQP4, whereas the water permeability of AQP3 and AQP5, which lack a corresponding TyrQuaternary Ammonium Compounds as Water Channel Blockers SPECIFICITY, POTENCY, AND SITE OF ACTION, West Mains Road, EH9 3JJ Scotland, United Kingdom Excessive water uptake through Aquaporins (AQP) can

  10. Channel Routing for Integrated Optics Christopher Condrat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalla, Priyank

    Channel Routing for Integrated Optics Christopher Condrat (chris@g6net.com) Priyank Kalla (kalla, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract--Increasing scope and applications of integrated optics necessitates the development of automated techniques for physical design of optical systems. This paper presents an automated

  11. Computational Studies of the Gramicidin Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021 Received September 17 of the ion and water molecules through the channel interior, the large energetic loss due to dehydration, the large energetic loss of de- hydration being roughly compensated by coordination with main-chain carbonyl

  12. Appendix A: Committee on Student Conduct Hearing Procedures Committee on Student Conduct Hearing Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Appendix A: Committee on Student Conduct Hearing Procedures Committee on Student Conduct Hearing Procedures A. Introduction B. Parties to the Complaint C. Committee and Panels D. Cases of Physical. For the purpose of these procedures, the parties are identified as the University presenter and the accused

  13. Stochastic Dynamics of Electrical Membrane with Voltage-Dependent Ion Channel Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong Qian; Xue-Juan Zhang; Min Qian

    2014-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Brownian ratchet like stochastic theory for the electrochemical membrane system of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) is developed. The system is characterized by a continuous variable $Q_m(t)$, representing mobile membrane charge density, and a discrete variable $K_t$ representing ion channel conformational dynamics. A Nernst-Planck-Nyquist-Johnson type equilibrium is obtained when multiple conducting ions have a common reversal potential. Detailed balance yields a previously unknown relation between the channel switching rates and membrane capacitance, bypassing Eyring-type explicit treatment of gating charge kinetics. From a molecular structural standpoint, membrane charge $Q_m$ is a more natural dynamic variable than potential $V_m$; our formalism treats $Q_m$-dependent conformational transition rates $\\lambda_{ij}$ as intrinsic parameters. Therefore in principle, $\\lambda_{ij}$ vs. $V_m$ is experimental protocol dependent,e.g., different from voltage or charge clamping measurements. For constant membrane capacitance per unit area $C_m$ and neglecting membrane potential induced by gating charges, $V_m=Q_m/C_m$, and HH's formalism is recovered. The presence of two types of ions, with different channels and reversal potentials, gives rise to a nonequilibrium steady state with positive entropy production $e_p$. For rapidly fluctuating channels, an expression for $e_p$ is obtained.

  14. Atomic Scale Picture of the Ion Conduction Mechanism in Tetrahedral Network of Lanthanum Barium Gallate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalarvo, Niina H [ORNL] [ORNL; Gourdon, Olivier [ORNL] [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL] [ORNL; Gout, Delphine J [ORNL] [ORNL; Ohl, Michael E [ORNL] [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined experimental study of impedance spectroscopy, neutron powder diffraction and quasielastic neutron scattering was performed to shed light into the atomic scale ion migration processes in proton and oxide ion conductor; La0.8Ba1.2GaO3.9 . This material consist of tetrahedral GaO4 units, which are rather flexible and rocking motion of these units promotes the ionic migration process. The oxide ion (vacancy) conduction takes place on channels along c axis, involving a single elementary step, which occurs between adjacent tetrahedron (inter-tetrahedron jump). The proton conduction mechanism consists of intra-tetrahedron and inter-tetrahedron elementary processes. The intra-tetrahedron proton transport is the rate-limiting process, with activation energy of 0.44 eV. The rocking motion of the GaO4 tetrahedron aids the inter-tetrahedral proton transport, which has the activation energy of 0.068 eV.

  15. Channel Sounding for the Masses: Low Complexity GNU 802.11b Channel Impulse Response Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firooz, Mohammad H; Zhang, Junxing; Patwari, Neal; Kasera, Sneha K

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New techniques in cross-layer wireless networks are building demand for ubiquitous channel sounding, that is, the capability to measure channel impulse response (CIR) with any standard wireless network and node. Towards that goal, we present a software-defined IEEE 802.11b receiver and CIR estimation system with little additional computational complexity compared to 802.11b reception alone. The system implementation, using the universal software radio peripheral (USRP) and GNU Radio, is described and compared to previous work. By overcoming computational limitations and performing direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DS-SS) matched filtering on the USRP, we enable high-quality yet inexpensive CIR estimation. We validate the channel sounder and present a drive test campaign which measures hundreds of channels between WiFi access points and an in-vehicle receiver in urban and suburban areas.

  16. Effect of geometrical constraint condition on the formation of nanoscale twins in the Ni-based metallic glass composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.H.; Kim, B.S.; Kim, D.H.; Ott, R.T.; Sansoz, F.; Eckert, J.

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the effect of geometrically constrained stress-strain conditions on the formation of nanotwins in alpha-brass phase reinforced Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass (MG) matrix deformed under macroscopic uniaxial compression. The specific geometrically constrained conditions in the samples lead to a deviation from a simple uniaxial state to a multi-axial stress state, for which nanocrystallization in the MG matrix together with nanoscale twinning of the brass reinforcement is observed in localized regions during plastic flow. The nanocrystals in the MG matrix and the appearance of the twinned structure in the reinforcements indicate that the strain energy is highly confined and the local stress reaches a very high level upon yielding. Both the effective distribution of reinforcements on the strain enhancement of composite and the effects of the complicated stress states on the development of nanotwins in the second-phase brass particles are discussed.

  17. Thermalization properties at mK temperatures of a nanoscale optomechanical resonator with acoustic-bandgap shield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean M. Meenehan; Justin D. Cohen; Simon Groeblacher; Jeff T. Hill; Amir H. Safavi-Naeini; Markus Aspelmeyer; Oskar Painter

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical measurements of a nanoscale silicon optomechanical crystal cavity with a mechanical resonance frequency of 3.6GHz are performed at sub-kelvin temperatures. We infer optical-absorption-induced heating and damping of the mechanical resonator from measurements of phonon occupancy and motional sideband asymmetry. At the lowest probe power and lowest fridge temperature (10mK), the localized mechanical resonance is found to couple at a rate of 400Hz (Q=9x10^6) to a thermal bath of temperature 270mK. These measurements indicate that silicon optomechanical crystals cooled to millikelvin temperatures should be suitable for a variety of experiments involving coherent coupling between photons and phonons at the single quanta level.

  18. Identification of the stimulated-emission threshold in high-{beta} nanoscale lasers through phase-space reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hachair, X.; Elvira, D.; Le Gratiet, L.; Lemaitre, A.; Abram, I.; Sagnes, I.; Robert-Philip, I.; Beveratos, A. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-UPR20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Braive, R. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-UPR20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Universite Paris Denis Diderot, 75205 Paris, Cedex 13 (France); Lippi, G. L. [Institut Non Lineaire de Nice, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 1361 Route des Lucioles, F-06560 Valbonne (France); Institut Non Lineaire de Nice, CNRS UMR 6618, 1361 Route des Lucioles, F-06560 Valbonne (France)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale lasers sustain a few optical modes so that the fraction of spontaneous emission {beta} funnelled into the useful (lasing) mode is high (of the order of 10{sup -1}) and the threshold, which traditionally corresponds to an abrupt kink in the light-in-light-out curve, becomes ill defined. We propose an alternative definition of the threshold that is based on the dynamical response of the laser and is valid even for {beta}=1 lasers. The laser dynamics is analyzed through a reconstruction of its phase-space trajectory for pulsed excitations. Crossing the threshold, brings about a change in the shape of the trajectory and in the area contained in it. An unambiguous determination of the threshold in terms of this change is shown theoretically and illustrated experimentally in a photonic-crystal laser.

  19. DNA and RNA sequencing by nanoscale reading through programmable electrophoresis and nanoelectrode-gated tunneling and dielectric detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, James W.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for performing nucleic acid (DNA and/or RNA) sequencing on a single molecule. The genetic sequence information is obtained by probing through a DNA or RNA molecule base by base at nanometer scale as though looking through a strip of movie film. This DNA sequencing nanotechnology has the theoretical capability of performing DNA sequencing at a maximal rate of about 1,000,000 bases per second. This enhanced performance is made possible by a series of innovations including: novel applications of a fine-tuned nanometer gap for passage of a single DNA or RNA molecule; thin layer microfluidics for sample loading and delivery; and programmable electric fields for precise control of DNA or RNA movement. Detection methods include nanoelectrode-gated tunneling current measurements, dielectric molecular characterization, and atomic force microscopy/electrostatic force microscopy (AFM/EFM) probing for nanoscale reading of the nucleic acid sequences.

  20. Multiterminal Conductance of a Floquet Topological Insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. E. F. Foa Torres; P. M. Perez-Piskunow; C. A. Balseiro; G. Usaj

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on simulations of the dc conductance and quantum Hall response of a Floquet topological insulator using Floquet scattering theory. Our results reveal that laser-induced edge states in graphene lead to quantum Hall plateaus once imperfect matching with the non-illuminated leads is lessened. But the magnitude of the Hall plateaus is not directly related to the number and chirality of all the edge states at a given energy as usual. Instead, the plateaus are dominated only by those edge states adding to the dc density of states. Therefore, the dc quantum Hall conductance of a Floquet topological insulator is not directly linked to topological invariants of the full the Floquet bands.