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Sample records for nanoscale chemical imaging

  1. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most ...

  2. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles ...

  3. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of Zinc Oxide Nanowire Corrosion ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of Zinc Oxide Nanowire Corrosion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of Zinc Oxide Nanowire Corrosion Nanoscale ...

  4. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support,

  5. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P.J. Kooyman, H.W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B.M. Weckhuysen, and F.M.F. de Groot, "Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy," Nature...

  6. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  7. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  8. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  9. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  10. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  11. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  12. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  13. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  14. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  15. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes. ... The measurements generated chemical contour maps for the species present. Quantitative ...

  16. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even...

  17. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heater spirals. Right: Measurements are performed in the circular areas where the windows are etched down to a thickness of 10 nm. Acquiring images at different x-ray...

  18. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale ...

  19. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery ...

  20. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC ... must understand the evolution of chemical composition and morphology of battery ...

  1. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters Prev Next Title: Nanoscale ...

  2. Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution ... energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel ...

  3. New Imaging Technique Shows Nanoscale Workings of Rechargeable Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Imaging Technique Shows Nanoscale Workings of Rechargeable Batteries There's a new tool in the push to engineer rechargeable batteries that last longer and charge more quickly. An X-ray microscopy technique recently developed at Advanced Light Source has given scientists the ability to image nanoscale changes inside lithium-ion battery particles as they charge and discharge. ← Previous Next →

  4. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the future of humankind. One bottleneck is energy storage because the harvest and consumption of energy are typically separated in time and/or location. Hence, efficient, low-cost, safe and durable batteries are

  5. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in point. The complex chemistry associated with the iron-based catalyst has made even the identity of the active catalyst at work an unsolved mystery. At the ALS, de Smit et al....

  6. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with a spatial resolution of 40 nm: first, in initial characterization at room temperature in helium; then, after two hours at 350 C in reducing hydrogen gas; and lastly,...

  7. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    process, synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2, is converted through a surface polymerization reaction into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms that can then be used in the...

  8. PHOTOELECTROCHEMISTRY AND PHOTOCATALYSIS IN NANOSCALE INORGANIC CHEMICAL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas E. Mallouk

    2007-05-27

    The goal of our DOE-supported research has been to explore the use of solid state materials as organizing media for, and as active components of, artificial photosynthetic systems. In this work we strive to understand how photoinduced electron and energy transfer reactions occur in the solid state, and to elucidate design principles for using nanoscale inorganic materials in photochemical energy conversion schemes. A unifying theme in this project has been to move beyond the study of simple transient charge separation to integrated chemical systems that can effect permanent charge separation in the form of energy-rich chemicals. This project explored the use of zeolites as organizing media for electron donor-acceptor systems and artificial photosynthetic assemblies. Layer-by-layer synthetic methods were developed using lamellar semiconductors, and multi-step, visible light driven energy/electron transfer cascades were studied by transient specroscopic techniques. By combining molecular photosensitizers with lamellar semiconductors and intercalated catalyst particles, the first non-sacrificial systems for visible light driven hydrogen evolution were developed and studied. Oxygen evolving catalyst particles and semiconductor nanowires were also studied with the goal of achieving photocatalytic water splitting using visible light.

  9. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L; Black, Jennifer M; Wisinger, Nina; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Unocic, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquid cell.

  10. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L; Black, Jennifer M.; Wisinger, Nina; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2015-02-23

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquid cell.

  11. Nanoscale Imaging of Strain using X-Ray Bragg Projection Ptychography |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Nanoscale Imaging of Strain using X-Ray Bragg Projection Ptychography October 1, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Users of the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) from IBM exploited nanofocused X-ray Bragg projection ptychography to determine the lattice strain profile in an epitaxial SiGe stressor layer of a silicon prototype device. The theoretical and experimental framework of this new coherent diffraction strain imaging approach was developed by Argonne's Materials

  12. Imaging thermal conductivity with nanoscale resolution using a scanning spin probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Aycock-Rizzo, Halley; Gao, Yang; Lu, Xi; Riedo, Elisa; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2015-11-20

    The ability to probe nanoscale heat flow in a material is often limited by lack of spatial resolution. Here, we use a diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen-vacancy centre attached to the apex of a silicon thermal tip as a local temperature sensor. We apply an electrical current to heat up the tip and rely on the nitrogen vacancy to monitor the thermal changes the tip experiences as it is brought into contact with surfaces of varying thermal conductivity. By combining atomic force and confocal microscopy, we image phantom microstructures with nanoscale resolution, and attain excellent agreement between the thermal conductivity and topographic maps. The small mass and high thermal conductivity of the diamond host make the time response of our technique short, which we demonstrate by monitoring the tip temperature upon application of a heat pulse. Our approach promises multiple applications, from the investigation of phonon dynamics in nanostructures to the characterization of heterogeneous phase transitions and chemical reactions in various solid-state systems.

  13. Imaging thermal conductivity with nanoscale resolution using a scanning spin probe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Aycock-Rizzo, Halley; Gao, Yang; Lu, Xi; Riedo, Elisa; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2015-11-20

    The ability to probe nanoscale heat flow in a material is often limited by lack of spatial resolution. Here, we use a diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen-vacancy centre attached to the apex of a silicon thermal tip as a local temperature sensor. We apply an electrical current to heat up the tip and rely on the nitrogen vacancy to monitor the thermal changes the tip experiences as it is brought into contact with surfaces of varying thermal conductivity. By combining atomic force and confocal microscopy, we image phantom microstructures with nanoscale resolution, and attain excellent agreement between the thermal conductivity and topographic maps.more » The small mass and high thermal conductivity of the diamond host make the time response of our technique short, which we demonstrate by monitoring the tip temperature upon application of a heat pulse. Our approach promises multiple applications, from the investigation of phonon dynamics in nanostructures to the characterization of heterogeneous phase transitions and chemical reactions in various solid-state systems.« less

  14. Nondestructive volumetric 3-D chemical mapping of nickel-sulfur compounds at the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris W. M.; Chu Y.; Nelson, G.J.; Kiss, A.M.; Izzo Jr, J.R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, M.; Wang, S.; Chiu W.K.S.

    2012-04-04

    Nano-structures of nickel (Ni) and nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) materials were studied and mapped in 3D with high-resolution x-ray nanotomography combined with full field XANES spectroscopy. This method for characterizing these phases in complex microstructures is an important new analytical imaging technique, applicable to a wide range of nanoscale and mesoscale electrochemical systems.

  15. Image segmentation of nanoscale Zernike phase contrast X-ray computed tomography images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Arjun S.; Mandal, Pratiti; Zhang, Yongjie; Litster, Shawn

    2015-05-14

    Zernike phase contrast is a useful technique for nanoscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging of materials with a low X-ray absorption coefficient. It enhances the image contrast by phase shifting X-ray waves to create changes in amplitude. However, it creates artifacts that hinder the use of traditional image segmentation techniques. We propose an image restoration method that models the X-ray phase contrast optics and the three-dimensional image reconstruction method. We generate artifact-free images through an optimization problem that inverts this model. Though similar approaches have been used for Zernike phase contrast in visible light microscopy, this optimization employs an effective edge detection method tailored to handle Zernike phase contrast artifacts. We characterize this optics-based restoration method by removing the artifacts in and thresholding multiple Zernike phase contrast X-ray CT images to produce segmented results that are consistent with the physical specimens. We quantitatively evaluate and compare our method to other segmentation techniques to demonstrate its high accuracy.

  16. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sacci, Robert L; Black, Jennifer M.; Wisinger, Nina; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2015-02-23

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquidmore » cell.« less

  17. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for themore » analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.« less

  18. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for the analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.

  19. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian K.; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; et al

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioningmore » it.« less

  20. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have ... The ability to image the chemical reactions in living cells in real time, especially in ...

  1. Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent Behavior in Complex ... Title: Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent Behavior in ...

  2. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Wednesday, 25 August 2010 00:00 Scientists have ...

  3. Topographical and Chemical Imaging of a Phase Separated Polymer Using a Combined Atomic Force Microscopy/Infrared Spectroscopy/Mass Spectrometry Platform

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tai, Tamin; Karácsony, Orsolya; Bocharova, Vera; Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2016-02-18

    This article describes how the use of a hybrid atomic force microscopy/infrared spectroscopy/mass spectrometry imaging platform was demonstrated for the acquisition and correlation of nanoscale sample surface topography and chemical images based on infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.

  4. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial ...

  5. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print Wednesday, 27 September 2006 00:00 For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave

  6. Nanoscale imaging of photocurrent and efficiency in CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leite, Marina S.; Abashin, Maxim; Lezec, Henri J.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony; Talin, A. Alec; Zhitenev, Nikolai B.

    2014-10-15

    The local collection characteristics of grain interiors and grain boundaries in thin film CdTe polycrystalline solar cells are investigated using scanning photocurrent microscopy. The carriers are locally generated by light injected through a small aperture (50-300 nm) of a near-field scanning optical microscope in an illumination mode. Possible influence of rough surface topography on light coupling is examined and eliminated by sculpting smooth wedges on the granular CdTe surface. By varying the wavelength of light, nanoscale spatial variations in external quantum efficiency are mapped. We find that the grain boundaries (GBs) are better current collectors than the grain interiors (GIs). The increased collection efficiency is caused by two distinct effects associated with the material composition of GBs. First, GBs are charged, and the corresponding built-in field facilitates the separation and the extraction of the photogenerated carriers. Second, the GB regions generate more photocurrent at long wavelength corresponding to the band edge, which can be caused by a smaller local band gap. As a result, resolving carrier collection with nanoscale resolution in solar cell materials is crucial for optimizing the polycrystalline device performance through appropriate thermal processing and passivation of defect and surfaces.

  7. Nanoscale imaging of photocurrent and efficiency in CdTe solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leite, Marina S.; National Inst. of Standards and Technology; Abashin, Maxim; National Inst. of Standards and Technology; Lezec, Henri J.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony; Talin, A. Alec; Sandia National Lab.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B.

    2014-10-15

    The local collection characteristics of grain interiors and grain boundaries in thin film CdTe polycrystalline solar cells are investigated using scanning photocurrent microscopy. The carriers are locally generated by light injected through a small aperture (50-300 nm) of a near-field scanning optical microscope in an illumination mode. Possible influence of rough surface topography on light coupling is examined and eliminated by sculpting smooth wedges on the granular CdTe surface. By varying the wavelength of light, nanoscale spatial variations in external quantum efficiency are mapped. We find that the grain boundaries (GBs) are better current collectors than the grain interiors (GIs).more » The increased collection efficiency is caused by two distinct effects associated with the material composition of GBs. First, GBs are charged, and the corresponding built-in field facilitates the separation and the extraction of the photogenerated carriers. Second, the GB regions generate more photocurrent at long wavelength corresponding to the band edge, which can be caused by a smaller local band gap. As a result, resolving carrier collection with nanoscale resolution in solar cell materials is crucial for optimizing the polycrystalline device performance through appropriate thermal processing and passivation of defect and surfaces.« less

  8. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Wednesday, 25 August 2010 00:00 Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively,

  9. Infrared Chemical Nano-Imaging: Accessing Structure, Coupling, and Dynamics on Molecular Length Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, Eric A.; Pollard, Benjamin; Raschke, Markus Bernd

    2015-04-02

    This Perspective highlights recent advances in infrared vibrational chemical nano-imaging. In its implementations of scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) and photothermal-induced resonance (PTIR), IR nanospectroscopy provides few-nanometer spatial resolution for the investigation of polymer, biomaterial, and related soft-matter surfaces and nanostructures. Broad-band IR s-SNOM with coherent laser and synchrotron sources allows for chemical recognition with small-ensemble sensitivity and the potential for sensitivity reaching the single-molecule limit. Probing selected vibrational marker resonances, it gives access to nanoscale chemical imaging of composition, domain morphologies, order/disorder, molecular orientation, or crystallographic phases. Local intra- and intermolecular coupling can be measured through frequency shifts of a vibrational marker in heterogeneous environments and associated inhomogeneities in vibrational dephasing. In combination with ultrafast spectroscopy, the vibrational coherent evolution of homogeneous sub-ensembles coupled to their environment can be observed. Outstanding challenges are discussed in terms of extensions to coherent and multidimensional spectroscopies, implementation in liquid and in situ environments, general sample limitations, and engineering s-SNOM scanning probes to better control the nano-localized optical excitation and to increase sensitivity.

  10. Visualizing Chemistry: The Progess and Promise of Advanced Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Committee on Revealing Chemistry Through Advanced Chemical Imaging

    2006-09-01

    The field of chemical imaging can provide detailed structural, functional, and applicable information about chemistry and chemical engineering phenomena that have enormous impacts on medicine, materials, and technology. In recognizing the potential for more research development in the field of chemical imaging, the National Academies was asked by the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, U.S. Army, and National Cancer Institute to complete a study that would review the current state of molecular imaging technology, point to promising future developments and their applications, and suggest a research and educational agenda to enable breakthrough improvements in the ability to image molecular processes simultaneously in multiple physical dimensions as well as time. The study resulted in a consensus report that provides guidance for a focused research and development program in chemical imaging and identifies research needs and possible applications of imaging technologies that can provide the breakthrough knowledge in chemistry, materials science, biology, and engineering for which we should strive. Public release of this report is expected in early October.

  11. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave the way to characterizing a whole new class of materials with

  12. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave the way to characterizing a whole new class of materials with

  13. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave the way to characterizing a whole new class of materials with

  14. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave the way to characterizing a whole new class of materials with

  15. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave the way to characterizing a whole new class of materials with

  16. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave the way to characterizing a whole new class of materials with

  17. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  18. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  19. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  20. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  1. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  2. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  3. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  4. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  5. Density and water content of nanoscale solid C-S-H formed in alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste and implications for chemical shrinkage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Allen, Andrew J.; Jennings, Hamlin M.

    2012-02-15

    Alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste was analyzed using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The scattering response indicates that the microstructure consists of a uniform matrix of hydration product with a high surface area studded with unhydrated cores of slag particles. In contrast with portland cement paste, no surface fractal scattering regime was detected, and elevated temperature curing (at 60 Degree-Sign C) had no detectable effect on the microstructure at any length scale studied. The specific surface area of the AAS pastes is about 25% higher than that of a portland cement paste cured under the same conditions. The composition and mass density of the nanoscale solid C-S-H phase formed in the AAS paste was determined using a previously developed neutron scattering method, in conjunction with a hydration model. The result ((CaO){sub 0.99}-SiO{sub 2}-(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.06}-(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.97}, d = (2.73 {+-} 0.02) g/cm{sup 3}) is significantly lower in calcium and in water as compared to portland cement or pure tricalcium silicate paste. These values were used to calculate the chemical shrinkage that would result from complete hydration of the AAS paste. The result, (12.2 {+-} 1.5) cm{sup 3} of volumetric shrinkage per 100 g of unhydrated cement, is about twice the amount of chemical shrinkage exhibited by normal cement pastes.

  6. Influence of the chemical surface structure on the nanoscale friction in plasma nitrided and post-oxidized ferrous alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freislebem, Mrcia; Menezes, Caren M.; Cemin, Felipe; Costi, Fernanda B.; Ferreira, Patrcia A.; Aguzzoli, Csar; Baumvol, Israel J. R.; Alvarez, Fernando; Figueroa, Carlos A.

    2014-09-15

    Friction is a ubiquitous phenomenon in everyday activities spanning from vehicles where efficient brakes are mandatory up to mechanical devices where its minimum effects are pursued for energy efficiency issues. Recently, theoretical models succeed correlating the friction behavior with energy transference via phonons between sliding surfaces. Therefore, considering that the energy losses by friction are prompted through phonons, the chemical surface structure between sliding surfaces is very important to determine the friction phenomenon. In this work, we address the issue of friction between a conical diamond tip sliding on different functionalized flat steel surfaces by focusing the influence of the chemical bonds in the outermost layers on the sliding resistance. This geometry allows probing the coupling of the sharp tip with terminator species on the top and underneath material surface at in-depth friction measurements from 20 to 200?nm. Experimentally, the friction coefficient decreases when nitrogen atoms are substituted for oxygen in the iron network. This effect is interpreted as due to energy losses through phonons whilst lower vibrational frequency excitation modes imply lower friction coefficients and a more accurate adjustment is obtained when a theoretical model with longitudinal adsorbate vibration is used.

  7. Atomic Resolution Imaging and Quantification of Chemical Functionality of Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Udo

    2014-12-10

    The work carried out from 2006-2014 under DoE support was targeted at developing new approaches to the atomic-scale characterization of surfaces that include species-selective imaging and an ability to quantify chemical surface interactions with site-specific accuracy. The newly established methods were subsequently applied to gain insight into the local chemical interactions that govern the catalytic properties of model catalysts of interest to DoE. The foundation of our work was the development of three-dimensional atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM), a new measurement mode that allows the mapping of the complete surface force and energy fields with picometer resolution in space (x, y, and z) and piconewton/millielectron volts in force/energy. From this experimental platform, we further expanded by adding the simultaneous recording of tunneling current (3D-AFM/STM) using chemically well-defined tips. Through comparison with simulations, we were able to achieve precise quantification and assignment of local chemical interactions to exact positions within the lattice. During the course of the project, the novel techniques were applied to surface-oxidized copper, titanium dioxide, and silicon oxide. On these materials, defect-induced changes to the chemical surface reactivity and electronic charge density were characterized with site-specific accuracy.

  8. Nanoscale chemical and mechanical characterization of thin films:sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy at buriedinterfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kweskin, S.J.

    2006-05-19

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy was used to characterize interfaces pertinent to current surface engineering applications, such as thin film polymers and novel catalysts. An array of advanced surface science techniques like scanning probe microscopy (SPM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gas chromatography (GC) and electron microscopy were used to obtain experimental measurements complementary to SFG data elucidating polymer and catalyst surface composition, surface structure, and surface mechanical behavior. Experiments reported in this dissertation concentrate on three fundamental questions: (1) How does the interfacial molecular structure differ from that of the bulk in real world applications? (2) How do differences in chemical environment affect interface composition or conformation? (3) How do these changes correlate to properties such as mechanical or catalytic performance? The density, surface energy and bonding at a solid interface dramatically alter the polymer configuration, physics and mechanical properties such as surface glass transition, adhesion and hardness. The enhanced sensitivity of SFG at the buried interface is applied to three systems: a series of acrylates under compression, the compositions and segregation behavior of binary polymer polyolefin blends, and the changes in surface structure of a hydrogel as a function of hydration. In addition, a catalytically active thin film of polymer coated nanoparticles is investigated to evaluate the efficacy of SFG to provide in situ information for catalytic reactions involving small mass adsorption and/or product development. Through the use of SFG, in situ total internal reflection (TIR) was used to increase the sensitivity of SFG and provide the necessary specificity to investigate interfaces of thin polymer films and nanostructures previously considered unfeasible. The dynamic nature of thin film surfaces is examined and it is found that the non

  9. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-02-28

    Rationale: Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Methods: We developed two image metrics, viz., chemical image contrast (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and corrected resolving power factor (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest inmore » an image. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. Results: The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. Conclusions: ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system.« less

  10. Flow Batteries Enabled by Nanoscale Percolating Conductor Networks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 2014, Research Highlights Flow Batteries Enabled by Nanoscale Percolating Conductor Networks Images for Flow Batteries Scientific Achievement Created novel electronically ...

  11. Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    soft and biological materials; imaging and spectroscopy; and nanoscale integration. ... NSRC resources and capabilities are available to the international academic, industry and ...

  12. Discovery Could Dramatically Boost Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells: Nanoscale images by Berkeley Lab researchers yield surprise that could push efficiency to 31 percent

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scientists from the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have discovered a possible secret to dramatically boosting the efficiency of perovskite solar cells hidden in the nanoscale peaks and valleys of the crystalline material.

  13. Phase transition in bulk single crystals and thin films of VO2 by nanoscale infrared spectroscopy and imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Mengkun; Sternbach, Aaron J.; Wagner, Martin; Slusar, Tetiana V.; Kong, Tai; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Qazilbash, M. M.; McLeod, Alexander; Fei, Zhe; et al

    2015-06-29

    We have systematically studied a variety of vanadium dioxide (VO2) crystalline forms, including bulk single crystals and oriented thin films, using infrared (IR) near-field spectroscopic imaging techniques. By measuring the IR spectroscopic responses of electrons and phonons in VO2 with sub-grain-size spatial resolution (~20nm), we show that epitaxial strain in VO2 thin films not only triggers spontaneous local phase separations, but leads to intermediate electronic and lattice states that are intrinsically different from those found in bulk. Generalized rules of strain- and symmetry-dependent mesoscopic phase inhomogeneity are also discussed. Furthermore, these results set the stage for a comprehensive understanding ofmore » complex energy landscapes that may not be readily determined by macroscopic approaches.« less

  14. Center for Nanoscale Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC. www.anl.gov CENTER FOR NANOSCALE MATERIALS A premier user facility providing expertise, instruments, and infrastructure for interdisciplinary nanoscience and nanotechnology research. The Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) is a premier user facility operating as one of the five centers built across the nation as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Nanoscale Science Research Center program under

  15. Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: 17; Journal ID: ISSN 0009-2665 Publisher: American Chemical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science ...

  16. In Situ Chemical Imaging of Plant Cell Walls Using CARS/SRS Microscopy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Y.; Liu, Y. S.; Saar, B. G.; Xie, X. S.; Chen, F.; Dixon, R. A.; Himmel, M. E.; Ding S. Y.

    2009-06-01

    This poster demonstrates coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering of plant cell walls. It includes simultaneous chemical imaging of lignin and cellulose (corn stover) during acidic pretreatment.

  17. Advanced synchronous luminescence imaging for chemical and medical diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2006-09-05

    A diagnostic method and associated system includes the steps of exposing at least one sample location with excitation radiation through a single optical waveguide or a single optical waveguide bundle, wherein the sample emits emission radiation in response to the excitation radiation. The same single optical waveguide or the single optical waveguide bundle receives at least a portion of the emission radiation from the sample, thus providing co-registration of the excitation radiation and the emission radiation. The wavelength of the excitation radiation and emission radiation is synchronously scanned to produce a spectrum upon which an image can be formed. An increased emission signal is generated by the enhanced overlap of the excitation and emission focal volumes provided by co-registration of the excitation and emission signals thus increasing the sensitivity as well as decreasing the exposure time necessary to obtain an image.

  18. Chemical imaging of biological materials by NanoSIMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P K; Smith, J B; Hutcheon, I D; Shmakov, A; Rybitskaya, I; Curran, H

    2004-08-23

    The NanoSIMS 50 represents the state -of-the-art for in situ microanalysis for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), combining unprecedented spatial resolution (as good as 50 nm) with ultra-high sensitivity (MDL of 200 atoms). The NanoSIMS incorporates an array of detectors, enabling simultaneous collection of 5 elements or isotopes originating from the same sputtered volume of a sample. The primary ion beam (Cs{sup +} or O{sup -}) can be scanned across the sample to produce quantitative secondary ion images. This capability for multiple isotope imaging with high spatial resolution is unique to the NanoSIMS and provides a novel new approach to the study of the distribution of elements in biological materials. We have applied this technique extensively to mammalian cells and bacterial spores. Results from these studies and critical analytical issues such as sample preparation, instrument tuning, and data processing will be discussed.

  19. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H.; Barhen, J.

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  20. Nanoscale materials for hyperthermal theranostics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Bennett E.; Roder, Paden B.; Zhou, Xuezhe; Pauzauskie, Peter J.

    2015-03-18

    Recently, the use of nanoscale materials has attracted considerable attention with the aim of designing personalized therapeutic approaches that can enhance both spatial and temporal control over drug release, permeability, and uptake. Potential benefits to patients include the reduction of overall drug dosages, enabling the parallel delivery of different pharmaceuticals, and the possibility of enabling additional functionalities such as hyperthermia or deep-tissue imaging (LIF, PET, etc.) that complement and extend the efficacy of traditional chemotherapy and surgery. Our mini review is focused on an emerging class of nanometer-scale materials that can be used both to heat malignant tissue to reducemore » angiogenesis and DNA-repair while simultaneously offering complementary imaging capabilities based on radioemission, optical fluorescence, magnetic resonance, and photoacoustic methods.« less

  1. Nanoscale materials for hyperthermal theranostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Bennett E.; Roder, Paden B.; Zhou, Xuezhe; Pauzauskie, Peter J.

    2015-03-18

    Recently, the use of nanoscale materials has attracted considerable attention with the aim of designing personalized therapeutic approaches that can enhance both spatial and temporal control over drug release, permeability, and uptake. Potential benefits to patients include the reduction of overall drug dosages, enabling the parallel delivery of different pharmaceuticals, and the possibility of enabling additional functionalities such as hyperthermia or deep-tissue imaging (LIF, PET, etc.) that complement and extend the efficacy of traditional chemotherapy and surgery. Our mini review is focused on an emerging class of nanometer-scale materials that can be used both to heat malignant tissue to reduce angiogenesis and DNA-repair while simultaneously offering complementary imaging capabilities based on radioemission, optical fluorescence, magnetic resonance, and photoacoustic methods.

  2. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and processes in liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Andrei; Tselev, Alexander; Ievlev, Anton V.

    2016-02-11

    Here, noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid–solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imagingmore » with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging.« less

  3. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Wednesday, 28 May 2014 00:00 Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks

  4. Nanoscale, multidimensional artificial magnet created

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale, multidimensional artificial magnet created Nanoscale, multidimensional artificial magnet created Applications might range from general magnetism, such as developing sensors, to information encoding. October 26, 2015 Researchers have created a nanoscale, artificial magnet by arranging an array of magnetic nano-islands along a geometry that is not found in natural magnets. As temperature is reduced, magnetic nanoislands (in blue) reach a one-dimensional static, ordered state, while

  5. Nanoscale relaxation oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Regan, Brian C.; Aloni, Shaul

    2009-04-07

    A nanoscale oscillation device is disclosed, wherein two nanoscale droplets are altered in size by mass transport, then contact each other and merge through surface tension. The device may also comprise a channel having an actuator responsive to mechanical oscillation caused by expansion and contraction of the droplets. It further has a structure for delivering atoms between droplets, wherein the droplets are nanoparticles. Provided are a first particle and a second particle on the channel member, both being made of a chargeable material, the second particle contacting the actuator portion; and electrodes connected to the channel member for delivering a potential gradient across the channel and traversing the first and second particles. The particles are spaced apart a specified distance so that atoms from one particle are delivered to the other particle by mass transport in response to the potential (e.g. voltage potential) and the first and second particles are liquid and touch at a predetermined point of growth, thereby causing merging of the second particle into the first particle by surface tension forces and reverse movement of the actuator. In a preferred embodiment, the channel comprises a carbon nanotube and the droplets comprise metal nanoparticles, e.g. indium, which is readily made liquid.

  6. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features superhydrophobicsurfaces.p...

  7. Nanoscale Materials Safety at the Department's Laboratories

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Audit Services Audit Report Nanoscale Materials Safety at the Department's ... SUBJECT: IhTFORMATION: Audit Report on "Nanoscale Materials Safety at the Department's ...

  8. Nanoscale Investigation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Inhibition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Investigation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Inhibition on Li-ion Battery MnO ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Investigation of Solid Electrolyte ...

  9. Piezoelectrically enhanced ferroelectric polymers via nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control nanoscale material properties and molecular orientation using intensive local stress. Significance and Impact Nanoscale mechanical annealing process can be used to improve...

  10. Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Nano-scale ...

  11. Nanophotonic Architectures for Nanoscale Light Control (invited...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanophotonic Architectures for Nanoscale Light Control (invited). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanophotonic Architectures for Nanoscale Light Control (invited). ...

  12. Ultrahigh-spatial-resolution chemical and magnetic imaging by laser-based photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taniuchi, Toshiyuki Kotani, Yoshinori; Shin, Shik

    2015-02-15

    We report the first experiments carried out on a new chemical and magnetic imaging system, which combines the high spatial resolution of a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) with a continuous-wave deep-ultraviolet laser. Threshold photoemission is sensitive to the chemical and magnetic structures of the surface of materials. The spatial resolution of PEEM is limited by space charging when using pulsed photon sources as well as aberrations in the electron optics. We show that the use of a continuous-wave laser enabled us to overcome such a limit by suppressing the space-charge effect, allowing us to obtain a resolution of approximately 2.6 nm. With this system, we demonstrated the imaging of surface reconstruction domains on Si(001) by linear dichroism with normal incidence of the laser beam. We also succeeded in magnetic imaging of thin films with the use of magnetic circular dichroism near the Fermi level. The unique features of the ultraviolet laser will give us fast switching of the incident angles and polarizations of the photon source, which will be useful for the characterization of antiferromagnetic materials as well as ferromagnetic materials.

  13. Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kutes, Yasemin; Aguirre, Brandon A.; Bosse, James L.; Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Zubia, David; Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-10-16

    Photo-conductive AFM spectroscopy (‘pcAFMs’) is proposed as a high-resolution approach for investigating nanostructured photovoltaics, uniquely providing nanoscale maps of photovoltaic (PV) performance parameters such as the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power, or fill factor. The method is demonstrated with a stack of 21 images acquired during in situ illumination of micropatterned polycrystalline CdTe/CdS, providing more than 42,000 I/V curves spatially separated by ~5 nm. For these CdTe/CdS microcells, the calculated photoconduction ranges from 0 to 700 picoSiemens (pS) upon illumination with ~1.6 suns, depending on location and biasing conditions. Mean short circuit currents of 2 pA, maximummore » powers of 0.5 pW, and fill factors of 30% are determined. The mean voltage at which the detected photocurrent is zero is determined to be 0.7 V. Significantly, enhancements and reductions in these more commonly macroscopic PV performance metrics are observed to correlate with certain grains and grain boundaries, and are confirmed to be independent of topography. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the benefits of nanoscale resolved PV functional measurements, reiterate the importance of microstructural control down to the nanoscale for 'PV devices, and provide a widely applicable new approach for directly investigating PV materials.« less

  14. Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutes, Yasemin; Aguirre, Brandon A.; Bosse, James L.; Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Zubia, David; Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-10-16

    Photo-conductive AFM spectroscopy (‘pcAFMs’) is proposed as a high-resolution approach for investigating nanostructured photovoltaics, uniquely providing nanoscale maps of photovoltaic (PV) performance parameters such as the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power, or fill factor. The method is demonstrated with a stack of 21 images acquired during in situ illumination of micropatterned polycrystalline CdTe/CdS, providing more than 42,000 I/V curves spatially separated by ~5 nm. For these CdTe/CdS microcells, the calculated photoconduction ranges from 0 to 700 picoSiemens (pS) upon illumination with ~1.6 suns, depending on location and biasing conditions. Mean short circuit currents of 2 pA, maximum powers of 0.5 pW, and fill factors of 30% are determined. The mean voltage at which the detected photocurrent is zero is determined to be 0.7 V. Significantly, enhancements and reductions in these more commonly macroscopic PV performance metrics are observed to correlate with certain grains and grain boundaries, and are confirmed to be independent of topography. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the benefits of nanoscale resolved PV functional measurements, reiterate the importance of microstructural control down to the nanoscale for 'PV devices, and provide a widely applicable new approach for directly investigating PV materials.

  15. Nanoscale Materials in Medicine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation for the Sustainable Nanomaterials Workshop by Auburn University Department of Chemical Engineering held on June 26, 2012

  16. Microfluidic electrochemical device and process for chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis at the electrode-liquid interface in-situ

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li; Zhu, Zihua; Marshall, Matthew J.

    2016-03-01

    A microfluidic electrochemical device and process are detailed that provide chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis under vacuum at the surface of the electrode-sample or electrode-liquid interface in-situ. The electrochemical device allows investigation of various surface layers including diffuse layers at selected depths populated with, e.g., adsorbed molecules in which chemical transformation in electrolyte solutions occurs.

  17. Direct imaging of LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} nanostructures using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Determination of the nanoscale dimensions has previously required a destructive readout ... Images of conductive and insulating nanoscale features are achieved with feature sizes as ...

  18. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer ... heat, light, and motion, it is an essential infrastructure. Much of society's electricity is generated at fossil fuel ...

  19. Nanoscale Materials in Medicine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Inhaled nanoparticles in the brain Drug delivery from a soft contact lens ... imaging contrast was achieved in mice brain tumors using functionalized iron oxide ...

  20. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    composition maps (5 m x 5 m) of F8BT:TFB blend films (left and center). Comparative atomic-force microscopy (AFM) surface images (right) reveal micrometer-sized domains in...

  1. Imaging spectroscopy algorithms for mapping canopy foliar chemical and morphological traits and their uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Aditya; Serbin, Shawn P.; McNeil, Brenden E.; Kingdon, Clayton C.; Townsend, Philip A.

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of remote sensing is the development of generalizable algorithms to repeatedly and accurately map ecosystem properties across space and time. Imaging spectroscopy has great potential to map vegetation traits that cannot be retrieved from broadband spectral data, but rarely have such methods been tested across broad regions. Here we illustrate a general approach for estimating key foliar chemical and morphological traits through space and time using NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-Classic). We apply partial least squares regression (PLSR) to data from 237 field plots within 51 images acquired between 2008 and 2011. Using a series of 500 randomized 50/50 subsets of the original data, we generated spatially explicit maps of seven traits (leaf mass per area (Marea), percentage nitrogen, carbon, fiber, lignin, and cellulose, and isotopic nitrogen concentration, δ15N) as well as pixel-wise uncertainties in their estimates based on error propagation in the analytical methods. Both Marea and %N PLSR models had a R2 > 0.85. Root mean square errors (RMSEs) for both variables were less than 9% of the range of data. Fiber and lignin were predicted with R2 > 0.65 and carbon and cellulose with R2 > 0.45. Although R2 of %C and cellulose were lower than Marea and %N, the measured variability of these constituents (especially %C) was also lower, and their RMSE values were beneath 12% of the range in overall variability. Model performance for δ15N was the lowest (R2 = 0.48, RMSE = 0.95‰), but within 15% of the observed range. The resulting maps of chemical and morphological traits, together with their overall uncertainties, represent a first-of-its-kind approach for examining the spatiotemporal patterns of forest functioning and nutrient cycling across a broad range of temperate and sub-boreal ecosystems. These results offer an alternative to

  2. Imaging spectroscopy algorithms for mapping canopy foliar chemical and morphological traits and their uncertainties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Singh, Aditya; Serbin, Shawn P.; McNeil, Brenden E.; Kingdon, Clayton C.; Townsend, Philip A.

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of remote sensing is the development of generalizable algorithms to repeatedly and accurately map ecosystem properties across space and time. Imaging spectroscopy has great potential to map vegetation traits that cannot be retrieved from broadband spectral data, but rarely have such methods been tested across broad regions. Here we illustrate a general approach for estimating key foliar chemical and morphological traits through space and time using NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-Classic). We apply partial least squares regression (PLSR) to data from 237 field plots within 51 images acquired between 2008 and 2011. Using a series ofmore » 500 randomized 50/50 subsets of the original data, we generated spatially explicit maps of seven traits (leaf mass per area (Marea), percentage nitrogen, carbon, fiber, lignin, and cellulose, and isotopic nitrogen concentration, δ15N) as well as pixel-wise uncertainties in their estimates based on error propagation in the analytical methods. Both Marea and %N PLSR models had a R2 > 0.85. Root mean square errors (RMSEs) for both variables were less than 9% of the range of data. Fiber and lignin were predicted with R2 > 0.65 and carbon and cellulose with R2 > 0.45. Although R2 of %C and cellulose were lower than Marea and %N, the measured variability of these constituents (especially %C) was also lower, and their RMSE values were beneath 12% of the range in overall variability. Model performance for δ15N was the lowest (R2 = 0.48, RMSE = 0.95‰), but within 15% of the observed range. The resulting maps of chemical and morphological traits, together with their overall uncertainties, represent a first-of-its-kind approach for examining the spatiotemporal patterns of forest functioning and nutrient cycling across a broad range of temperate and sub-boreal ecosystems. These results offer an alternative to categorical maps of functional or physiognomic types by providing non-discrete maps (i

  3. Summary report for nanoscale magnetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J.G.; Waddill, G.D.; Jankowski, A.F.; Tamura, E.; Sterne, P.A.; Pappas, D.P.; Tong, S.Y.

    1993-09-23

    We have probed the electronic, geometric, and magnetic nanoscale structure of ultrathin magnetic films, both monolayers and multilayers (Fe/Cu(001), FePt, FeCoPt, UFe{sub 2}, U-S). Techniques used included the MCD (magnetic circular dichroism)-variants of of x-ray absorption, core-level photoemission, and photoelectron diffraction. Progress has been made on nanoscale structure-property relations, in part of coupling of world-class experimentation and theoretical modeling. Feasibility of investigations of 5f magnetism using bulk uranium samples also has been demonstrated.

  4. Shedding light on Nature's nanoscale control of solar energy | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory light on Nature's nanoscale control of solar energy July 30, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Across billions of years of evolution, nature has retained a common light-absorbing hexameric cofactor core for carrying out the very first chemical reaction of photosynthesis, the light-induced electron transfer across approximately 3 nanometers. This process has direct analogies to light-driven charge separation in photovoltaic devices. A team of users from the Notre Dame Radiation

  5. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provides links to each partner's participating organizations. Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division Center for Nanoscale Materials Energy Systems...

  6. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  7. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  8. Dynamics of Excitons and Phonons in Disordered Nanoscale Materials |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Excitons and Phonons in Disordered Nanoscale Materials December 15, 2009 at 3pm/36-428 Sergei Tretiak Los Alamos National Laboratory trekiak.003 abstract: Prediction of the optical response and photoinduced processes of molecular and nanomaterials is fundamental to a myriad of technological applications, ranging from sensing, imaging, solar energy harvesting, to future optoelectronic devices. In this talk I will overview several applications of emerging

  9. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  10. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  11. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  12. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  13. Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2012-11-21

    Pore network microfluidic models were fabricated by a silicon-on-glass technique that provides the precision advantage of dry etched silicon while creating a structure that is transparent across all microfluidic channels and pores, and can be imaged from either side. A silicon layer is bonded to an underlying borosilicate glass substrate and thinned to the desired height of the microfluidic channels and pores. The silicon is then patterned and through-etched by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), with the underlying glass serving as an etch stop. After bonding on a transparent glass cover plate, one obtains a micromodel in oxygen impermeable materials with water wet surfaces where the microfluidic channels are transparent and structural elements such as the pillars creating the pore network are opaque. The micromodel can be imaged from either side. The advantageous features of this approach in a chemical imaging application are demonstrated by incorporating a Pt porphyrin fluorophore in a PDMS film serving as the oxygen sensing layer and a bonding surface, or in a polystyrene film coated with a PDMS layer for bonding. The sensing of a dissolved oxygen gradient was demonstrated using fluorescence lifetime imaging, and it is shown that different matrix polymers lead to optimal use in different ranges dissolved oxygen concentration. Imaging with the opaque pillars in between the observation direction and the continuous fluorophore film yields images that retain spatial information in the sensor image.

  14. Center for Nanoscale Materials | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials About Research Capabilities For Users People...

  15. Raman chemical imaging of the rhizosphere bacterium Pantoea sp. YR343 and its co-culture with Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Polisetti, Sneha; Bible, Amber N.; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Bohn, Paul W.

    2016-02-29

    Chemical imaging of plant-bacteria co-cultures renders it possible to characterize bacterial populations and behaviors and their interactions with proximal organisms, under conditions closest to the environment in the rhizosphere. Here Raman micro-spectroscopy and confocal Raman imaging are used as minimally invasive probes to study the rhizosphere bacterial isolate, Pantoea sp. YR343, and its co-culture with model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by combining enhanced Raman spectroscopies with electron microscopy and principal component analysis (PCA). The presence of carotenoid pigments in the wild type Pantoea sp. YR343 was characterized using resonance Raman scattering, which was also used to confirm successful disruption of themore » crtB gene in an engineered carotenoid mutant strain. Other components of the Pantoea sp. YR343 cells were imaged in the presence of resonantly enhanced pigments using a combination of surface enhanced Raman imaging and PCA. Pantoea sp. YR343 cells decorated with Ag colloid synthesized ex situ gave spectra dominated by carotenoid scattering, whereas colloids synthesized in situ produced spectral signatures characteristic of flavins in the cell membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of whole cells and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of thinly sliced cross-sections were used to assess structural integrity of the coated cells and to establish the origin of spectral signatures based on the position of Ag nanoparticles in the cells. Finally, raman imaging was also used to characterize senescent green Arabidopsis thaliana plant roots inoculated with Pantoea sp. YR343, and PCA was used to distinguish spectral contributions from plant and bacterial cells, thereby establishing the potential of Raman imaging to visualize the distribution of rhizobacteria on plant roots.« less

  16. Controlling Motion at the Nanoscale: Rise of the Molecular Machines...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Controlling Motion at the Nanoscale: Rise of the Molecular Machines Title: Controlling Motion at the Nanoscale: Rise of the Molecular Machines Authors: ...

  17. Electron Transport at the Nanoscale Spatially Revealed by Four...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electron Transport at the Nanoscale Spatially Revealed by Four-Probe Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electron Transport at the Nanoscale ...

  18. Exploring nanoscale magnetism in advanced materials with polarized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Exploring nanoscale magnetism in advanced materials with polarized X-rays Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exploring nanoscale magnetism in advanced materials with ...

  19. Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field Prev Next Title: Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field ...

  20. Electrochemistry on the nanoscale: the force dimension (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrochemistry on the nanoscale: the force dimension Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemistry on the nanoscale: the force dimension Authors: Black, Jennifer M ...

  1. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and ... Title: Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and ...

  2. Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium ...

  3. Electrochemistry at the Nanoscale: The Force Dimension (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrochemistry at the Nanoscale: The Force Dimension Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemistry at the Nanoscale: The Force Dimension Authors: Black, Jennifer M ...

  4. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its Locality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Humidity Effect on Nanoscale ...

  5. Probing Nanoscale Objects in Liquids through Membranes with Near...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Probing Nanoscale Objects in Liquids through Membranes with Near-Field Microwave Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing Nanoscale Objects in ...

  6. Other: Nanoscale Machines: These Squeaky Wheels Will Get No Grease...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Machines: These Squeaky Wheels Will Get No Grease Citation Details Title: Nanoscale Machines: These Squeaky Wheels Will Get No Grease

  7. Probing nanoscale behavior of magnetic materials with soft x...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Probing nanoscale behavior of magnetic materials with soft x-ray spectromicroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing nanoscale behavior of magnetic materials with soft ...

  8. Whirlpools on the Nanoscale Could Multiply Magnetic Memory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Whirlpools on the Nanoscale Could Multiply Magnetic Memory Whirlpools on the Nanoscale Could Multiply Magnetic Memory Print Tuesday, 21 May 2013 00:00 Research at the Advanced...

  9. Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Title Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication...

  10. Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) User Facilities User Facilities Home User ... X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers ...

  11. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003-2012 (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. ...

  12. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chinn, Diane; Stolz, Christopher J.; Wu, Zhouling; Huber, Robert; Weinzapfel, Carolyn

    2006-07-11

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  13. Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajendra Bordia

    2009-07-31

    The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and

  14. Ultra-spatial synchrotron radiation for imaging molecular chemical structure: Applications in plant and animal studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive, bioanalytical technique. This technique takes advantage of synchrotron light brightness and small effective source size and is capable of exploring the molecular chemical features and make-up within microstructures of a biological tissue without destruction of inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions within cellular dimension. To date there has been very little application of this advanced synchrotron technique to the study of plant and animal tissues' inherent structure at a cellular or subcellular level. In this article, a novel approach was introduced to show the potential of themore » newly developed, advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to reveal molecular structural-chemical features of various plant and animal tissues.« less

  15. Atom Probe Tomography of Nanoscale Electronic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, David J.; Prosa, Ty J.; Perea, Daniel E.; Inoue, Hidekazu; Mangelinck, D.

    2016-01-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is a mass spectrometry based on time-of-flight measurements which also concurrently produces 3D spatial information. The reader is referred to any of the other papers in this volume or to the following references for further information 4–8. The current capabilities of APT, such as detecting a low number of dopant atoms in nanoscale devices or segregation at a nanoparticle interface, make this technique an important component in the nanoscale metrology toolbox. In this manuscript, we review some of the applications of APT to nanoscale electronic materials, including transistors and finFETs, silicide contact microstructures, nanowires, and nanoparticles.

  16. Nanoscale Center Dedication | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanoscale Center Dedication Nanoscale Center Dedication May 6, 2005 - 12:44pm Addthis Remarks by Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman Thank you, Bob [Rosner] for that introduction. And let me also thank you, along with [University of Chicago] President Randel, for the leadership you are showing here. Argonne has long been a world class institution. It will soar to new heights under your joint direction. I also want to acknowledge Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich. Thank you for being here. More than

  17. CNEEC - TRG3: Nanoscale Control in Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRG3: Nanoscale control in catalysis TRG3 Leader: Thomas F. Jaramillo Participating CNEEC PI’s: Stacey Bent, Bruce Clemens, Arthur Grossman, Thomas F. Jaramillo, Jens Nørskov, Friedrich Prinz, Jennifer Wilcox The grand challenge in TRG3 is the manipulation of catalyst materials at the nanoscale to significantly improve activity and selectivity for energy conversion reactions. A number of promising renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and solar fuel reactors depend upon the

  18. Integrated atomistic chemical imaging and reactive force field molecular dynamic simulations on silicon oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumpala, Santoshrupa; Broderick, Scott R.; Rajan, Krishna; Khalilov, Umedjon; Neyts, Erik C.; Duin, Adri C. T. van; Provine, J; Howe, Roger T.

    2015-01-05

    In this paper, we quantitatively investigate with atom probe tomography, the effect of temperature on the interfacial transition layer suboxide species due to the thermal oxidation of silicon. The chemistry at the interface was measured with atomic scale resolution, and the changes in chemistry and intermixing at the interface were identified on a nanometer scale. We find an increase of suboxide (SiOx) concentration relative to SiO{sub 2} and increased oxygen ingress with elevated temperatures. Our experimental findings are in agreement with reactive force field molecular dynamics simulations. This work demonstrates the direct comparison between atom probe derived chemical profiles and atomistic-scale simulations for transitional interfacial layer of suboxides as a function of temperature.

  19. Nanoscale pillar arrays for separations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kirchner, Teresa; Strickhouser, Rachel; Hatab, Nahla; Charlton, Jennifer; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2015-04-01

    The work presented herein evaluates silicon nano-pillar arrays for use in planar chromatography. Electron beam lithography and metal thermal dewetting protocols were used to create nano-thin layer chromatography platforms. With these fabrication methods we are able to reduce the size of the characteristic features in a separation medium below that used in ultra-thin layer chromatography; i.e. pillar heights are 1-2μm and pillar diameters are typically in the 200- 400nm range. In addition to the intrinsic nanoscale aspects of the systems, it is shown they can be further functionalized with nanoporous layers and traditional stationary phases for chromatography; hence exhibit broad-rangingmore » lab-on-a-chip and point-of-care potential. Because of an inherent high permeability and very small effective mass transfer distance between pillars, chromatographic efficiency can be very high but is enhanced herein by stacking during development and focusing while drying, yielding plate heights in the nm range separated band volumes. Practical separations of fluorescent dyes, fluorescently derivatized amines, and anti-tumor drugs are illustrated.« less

  20. Evidence for Anisotropic Mechanical Behavior and Nanoscale Chemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Diercks, D. R. ; Musselman, M. ; Morgenstern, A. ; Wilson, T. ; Kumar, M. ; Smith, K. ; Kawase, M. ; Gorman, B. P. ; Eberhart, M. ; Packard, C. E. Publication Date: ...

  1. Design Optimization of Radionuclide Nano-Scale Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenfeld, D.W.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Smith, B.

    2004-10-06

    Radioisotopes have been used for power sources in heart pacemakers and space applications dating back to the 50's. Two key properties of radioisotope power sources are high energy density and long half-life compared to chemical batteries. The tritium battery used in heart pacemakers exceeds 500 mW-hr, and is being evaluated by the University of Florida for feasibility as a MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) power source. Conversion of radioisotope sources into electrical power within the constraints of nano-scale dimensions requires cutting-edge technologies and novel approaches. Some advances evolving in the III-V and II-IV semiconductor families have led to a broader consideration of radioisotopes rather free of radiation damage limitations. Their properties can lead to novel battery configurations designed to convert externally located emissions from a highly radioactive environment. This paper presents results for the analytical computational assisted design and modeling of semiconductor prototype nano-scale radioisotope nuclear batteries from MCNP and EGS programs. The analysis evaluated proposed designs and was used to guide the selection of appropriate geometries, material properties, and specific activities to attain power requirements for the MEMS batteries. Plans utilizing high specific activity radioisotopes were assessed in the investigation of designs employing multiple conversion cells and graded junctions with varying band gap properties. Voltage increases sought by serial combination of VOC s are proposed to overcome some of the limitations of a low power density. The power density is directly dependent on the total active areas.

  2. A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials Share Topic Programs Materials science Nanoscience

  3. NSS-8 Workshop Summary International Workshop on Nanoscale Spectroscopy and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotechnology | Argonne National Laboratory NSS-8 Workshop Summary International Workshop on Nanoscale Spectroscopy and Nanotechnology August 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint Organized by Center for Nanoscale Materials and Advanced Photon Source The International Workshop on Nanoscale Spectroscopy and Nanotechnology 8 (NSS-8), organized by the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) and Advanced Photon Source (APS), was held under sunny, summer skies from July 28-31, 2014, in the world-class Gleacher

  4. Phase transition in bulk single crystals and thin films of VO2 by nanoscale infrared spectroscopy and imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Mengkun; Sternbach, Aaron J.; Wagner, Martin; Slusar, Tetiana V.; Kong, Tai; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Qazilbash, M. M.; McLeod, Alexander; Fei, Zhe; Abreu, Elsa; Zhang, Jingdi; Goldflam, Michael; Dai, Siyuan; Ni, Guang -Xin; Lu, Jiwei; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; Raschke, Markus B.; Averitt, Richard D.; Wolf, Stuart A.; Kim, Hyun -Tak; Canfield, Paul C.; Basov, D. N.

    2015-06-29

    We have systematically studied a variety of vanadium dioxide (VO2) crystalline forms, including bulk single crystals and oriented thin films, using infrared (IR) near-field spectroscopic imaging techniques. By measuring the IR spectroscopic responses of electrons and phonons in VO2 with sub-grain-size spatial resolution (~20nm), we show that epitaxial strain in VO2 thin films not only triggers spontaneous local phase separations, but leads to intermediate electronic and lattice states that are intrinsically different from those found in bulk. Generalized rules of strain- and symmetry-dependent mesoscopic phase inhomogeneity are also discussed. Furthermore, these results set the stage for a comprehensive understanding of complex energy landscapes that may not be readily determined by macroscopic approaches.

  5. Communication: Nanoscale ion fluctuations in Nafion polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rumberger, Brant; Bennett, Mackenzie; Zhang, Jingyun; Israeloff, N. E.; Dura, J. A.

    2014-08-21

    Ion conduction mechanisms and the nanostructure of ion conduction networks remain poorly understood in polymer electrolytes which are used as proton-exchange-membranes (PEM) in fuel cell applications. Here we study nanoscale surface-potential fluctuations produced by Brownian ion dynamics in thin films of low-hydration Nafion™, the prototype PEM. Images and power spectra of the fluctuations are used to derive the local conductivity-relaxation spectrum, in order to compare with bulk behavior and hopping-conductivity models. Conductivity relaxation-times ranged from hours to milliseconds, depending on hydration and temperature, demonstrating that the observed fluctuations are produced by water-facilitated hydrogen-ion hopping within the ion-channel network. Due to the small number of ions probed, non-Gaussian statistics of the fluctuations can be used to constrain ion conduction parameters and mechanisms.

  6. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Imaging Print The wavelengths of soft x-ray photons (1-15 nm) are very well matched to the creation of "nanoscopes" capable of probing the interior structure of biological cells and inorganic mesoscopic systems.Topics addressed by soft x-ray imaging techniques include cell biology, nanomagnetism, environmental science, and polymers. The tunability of synchrotron radiation is absolutely essential for the creation of contrast mechanisms. Cell biology CAT scans are performed in

  7. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mesoscopic systems.Topics addressed by soft x-ray imaging techniques include cell biology, nanomagnetism, environmental science, and polymers. The tunability of synchrotron...

  8. Programmed assembly of nanoscale structures using peptoids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Jianhua; Russell, Scott; Morishetti, Kiran; Robinson, David B.; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; Buffleben, George M.; Hjelm, Rex P.; Kent, Michael Stuart

    2011-02-01

    Sequence-specific polymers are the basis of the most promising approaches to bottom-up programmed assembly of nanoscale materials. Examples include artificial peptides and nucleic acids. Another class is oligo(N-functional glycine)s, also known as peptoids, which permit greater sidegroup diversity and conformational control, and can be easier to synthesize and purify. We have developed a set of peptoids that can be used to make inorganic nanoparticles more compatible with biological sequence-specific polymers so that they can be incorporated into nucleic acid or other biologically based nanostructures. Peptoids offer degrees of modularity, versatility, and predictability that equal or exceed other sequence-specific polymers, allowing for rational design of oligomers for a specific purpose. This degree of control will be essential to the development of arbitrarily designed nanoscale structures.

  9. Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Bradley R.; Talley, Chad E.

    2008-06-10

    Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) having polymer features wherein the size, shape and position are predetermined can be fabricated using an xy piezo stage mounted on an inverted microscope and a laser. Using an AMF controller, a solution containing polymer precursors and a photo initiator are positioned on the xy piezo and hit with a laser beam. The thickness of the polymeric features can be varied from a few nanometers to over a micron.

  10. Center for Nanoscale Materials | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice More Butterfly Effects: X-rays reveal the photonic crystals in butterfly wings that create color More The Friendly Faces of CNM More A Lithium-Air Battery Based on Lithium Superoxide More Borophene: Atomically Thin Metallic Boron More Video Highlight A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials BROCHURES & NEWSLETTERS CNM Overview Brochure CNM Fact Sheet Key Research Areas Nanofabrication & Devices Nanophotonics & Biofunctional

  11. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  12. Image

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-08-31

    The computer side of the IMAGE project consists of a collection of Perl scripts that perform a variety of tasks; scripts are available to insert, update and delete data from the underlying Oracle database, download data from NCBI's Genbank and other sources, and generate data files for download by interested parties. Web scripts make up the tracking interface, and various tools available on the project web-site (image.llnl.gov) that provide a search interface to the database.

  13. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Print The wavelengths of soft x-ray photons (1-15 nm) are very well matched to the creation of "nanoscopes" capable of probing the interior structure of biological cells and inorganic mesoscopic systems.Topics addressed by soft x-ray imaging techniques include cell biology, nanomagnetism, environmental science, and polymers. The tunability of synchrotron radiation is absolutely essential for the creation of contrast mechanisms. Cell biology CAT scans are performed in the

  14. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Wednesday, 21 December 2005 00:00 Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features

  15. Shaping nanoscale magnetic domain memory in exchange-coupled ferromagnets

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by field cooling (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Shaping nanoscale magnetic domain memory in exchange-coupled ferromagnets by field cooling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shaping nanoscale magnetic domain memory in exchange-coupled ferromagnets by field cooling The advance of magnetic nanotechnologies relies on detailed understanding of nanoscale magnetic mechanisms in materials. Magnetic domain memory (MDM), that is, the tendency for magnetic domains to repeat the same

  16. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Nanoscale Measurement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Measurements of Glass Transition Temperature and Temperature-Dependent Mechanical Properties in Polymers M.P. Nikiforov, S. Jesse, L.T. Germinario (CNMS user, Eastman...

  17. DOE A9024 Final Report Functional and Nanoscale Materials Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: DOE A9024 Final Report Functional and Nanoscale Materials Systems: Frontier Programs of Science at the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory Citation...

  18. Nanoscale nickel oxide/ nickel heterostructures for active hydrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for active hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale nickel oxide nickel heterostructures for active hydrogen evolution ...

  19. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and the Dual Nature of Its Locality Prev Next Title: Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its Locality ...

  20. Long Range Interactions in Nanoscale Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, Roger H; Parsegian, V Adrian; Podgonik, Rudolph; Rajter, Rick; Jagota, Anand; Luo, Jian; Asthagiri, Dilip; Chaudhury, Manoj; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Granick, Steve; Kalinin, Sergei V; Kardar, Mehran; Kjellander, Roland; Langreth, David C.; Lewis, Jennifer; Lustig, Steve; Wesolowski, David J; Wettlaufer, John; Ching, Wai-Yim; Finnis, Mike; Houlihan, Frank; Von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Van Oss, Carel; Zemb, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the long range electrodynamic, electrostatic, and polar interactions that dominate the organization of small objects at separations beyond an interatomic bond length is reviewed. From this basic-forces perspective, a large number of systems are described from which one can learn about these organizing forces and how to modulate them. The many practical systems that harness these nanoscale forces are then surveyed. The survey reveals not only the promise of new devices and materials, but also the possibility of designing them more effectively.

  1. Imaging exotic properties of nanoscale magnetic lattices | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, we have shown the signature of magnetic induction associated with a "magnetic monopole" defect for the first time. Some of the most...

  2. Femtosecond Single-Shot Imaging of Nanoscale Ferromagnetic Order...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    de ; Delaunay, Renaud ; Fognini, Andreas ; Kukreja, Roopali ; Lee, Sooheyong ; Lopez-Flores, Victor ; Mohanty, Jyoti ; Pfau, Bastian more ; Popescu, 5 Horia less Publication...

  3. Nanoscale Imaging of Fundamental Li Battery Chemistry: Solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: catalysis (heterogeneous), solar (fuels), energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel ...

  4. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  5. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-07-14

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  6. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana C; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-11-03

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  7. Method to determine thermal profiles of nanoscale circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander K; Begtrup, Gavi E

    2013-04-30

    A platform that can measure the thermal profiles of devices with nanoscale resolution has been developed. The system measures the local temperature by using an array of nanoscale thermometers. This process can be observed in real time using a high resolution imagining technique such as electron microscopy. The platform can operate at extremely high temperatures.

  8. Synthesizing High-Quality Calcium Boride at Nanoscale | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory High-Quality Calcium Boride at Nanoscale Technology available for licensing: An innovative method for synthesizing compositionally pure calcium boride at the nanoscale by using two different precursors. Process increases stability, hardness and conductivity of high-melting-point calcium boride Makes calcium boride readily available for manufacturing processes in many industries PDF icon calcium_chloride

  9. Control of friction at the nanoscale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barhen, Jacob; Braiman, Yehuda Y.; Protopopescu, Vladimir

    2010-04-06

    Methods and apparatus are described for control of friction at the nanoscale. A method of controlling frictional dynamics of a plurality of particles using non-Lipschitzian control includes determining an attribute of the plurality of particles; calculating an attribute deviation by subtracting the attribute of the plurality of particles from a target attribute; calculating a non-Lipschitzian feedback control term by raising the attribute deviation to a fractionary power .xi.=(2m+1)/(2n+1) where n=1, 2, 3 . . . and m=0, 1, 2, 3 . . . , with m strictly less than n and then multiplying by a control amplitude; and imposing the non-Lipschitzian feedback control term globally on each of the plurality of particles; imposing causes a subsequent magnitude of the attribute deviation to be reduced.

  10. Nanoscale temperature mapping in operating microelectronic devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mecklenburg, Matthew; Hubbard, William A.; White, E. R.; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B.; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, B. C.

    2015-02-05

    We report that modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as Fahrenheit’s glass-bulb thermometer, we mapped the thermal expansion of Joule-heated, 80-nanometer-thick aluminum wires by precisely measuring changes in density. With a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we quantified the local density via the energy of aluminum’s bulk plasmon. Rescaling density to temperature yields maps with amore » statistical precision of 3 kelvin/hertz₋1/2, an accuracy of 10%, and nanometer-scale resolution. Lastly, many common metals and semiconductors have sufficiently sharp plasmon resonances to serve as their own thermometers.« less

  11. Nanoscale temperature mapping in operating microelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mecklenburg, Matthew; Hubbard, William A.; White, E. R.; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B.; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, B. C.

    2015-02-05

    We report that modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as Fahrenheit’s glass-bulb thermometer, we mapped the thermal expansion of Joule-heated, 80-nanometer-thick aluminum wires by precisely measuring changes in density. With a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we quantified the local density via the energy of aluminum’s bulk plasmon. Rescaling density to temperature yields maps with a statistical precision of 3 kelvin/hertz₋1/2, an accuracy of 10%, and nanometer-scale resolution. Lastly, many common metals and semiconductors have sufficiently sharp plasmon resonances to serve as their own thermometers.

  12. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J.; Moniz, Gary A.; Morse, Theodore F.

    1997-02-04

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  13. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helble, J.J.; Moniz, G.A.; Morse, T.F.

    1995-09-05

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles. 5 figs.

  14. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J.; Moniz, Gary A.; Morse, Theodore F.

    1995-09-05

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  15. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helble, J.J.; Moniz, G.A.; Morse, T.F.

    1997-02-04

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles. 5 figs.

  16. Nanoscale Strain Maps Inside a Metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, Saryu Jindal; Sandberg, Richard L.

    2015-11-03

    This report offers a description about the 3D strain mapping of small crystals using nanometer scale images.

  17. Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rondin, L.; Tetienne, J.-P.; Spinicelli, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V.; Dal Savio, C.; Karrai, K.; Dantelle, G.; Thiaville, A.; Rohart, S.

    2012-04-09

    We demonstrate quantitative magnetic field mapping with nanoscale resolution, by applying a lock-in technique on the electron spin resonance frequency of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect placed at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip. In addition, we report an all-optical magnetic imaging technique which is sensitive to large off-axis magnetic fields, thus extending the operation range of diamond-based magnetometry. Both techniques are illustrated by using a magnetic hard disk as a test sample. Owing to the non-perturbing and quantitative nature of the magnetic probe, this work should open up numerous perspectives in nanomagnetism and spintronics.

  18. Synthesizing High-Quality Calcium Boride at Nanoscale - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boride at Nanoscale Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology CaB6 particles coated for 20 cycles at 1600 C. CaB6 particles...

  19. Nanoscale selective area growth of thick, dense, uniform, In...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Nanoscale selective area growth of thick, dense, uniform, In-rich, InGaN nanostructure arrays on GaNsapphire template Authors: Sundaram, S. 1 ; Puybaret, R. 2 ; El ...

  20. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Dual Nature of Its Locality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its ...

  1. Investigation of the chemical interface in the soybean–aphid and rice–bacteria interactions using MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Klein, Adam T.; Yagnik, Gargey B.; Hohenstein, Jessica D.; Ji, Zhiyuan; Zi, Jiachen; Reichert, Malinda D.; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.; Yang, Bing; Peters, Reuben J.; Vela, Javier; et al

    2015-04-27

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an emerging technology for high-resolution plant biology. It has been utilized to study plant–pest interactions, but limited to the surface interfaces. Here we expand the technology to explore the chemical interactions occurring inside the plant tissues. Two sample preparation methods, imprinting and fracturing, were developed and applied, for the first time, to visualize internal metabolites of leaves in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MSI. This is also the first time nanoparticle-based ionization was implemented to ionize diterpenoid phytochemicals that were difficult to analyze with traditional organic matrices. The interactions between rice–bacterium and soybean–aphid were investigated asmore » two model systems to demonstrate the capability of high-resolution MSI based on MALDI. Localized molecular information on various plant- or pest-derived chemicals provided valuable insight for the molecular processes occurring during the plant–pest interactions. Basically, salicylic acid and isoflavone based resistance was visualized in the soybean–aphid system and antibiotic diterpenoids in rice–bacterium interactions.« less

  2. Chemical Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy Technique: Microanalysis Insights into Atmospheric Chemistry of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-01-21

    Airborne fly ash from coal combustion may represent a source of bioavailable iron (Fe) in the open ocean. However, few studies have been made focusing on Fe speciation and distribution in coal fly ash. In this study, chemical imaging of fly ash has been performed using a dual-beam FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope) system for a better understanding of how simulated atmospheric processing modify the morphology, chemical compositions and element distributions of individual particles. A novel approach has been applied for cross-sectioning of fly ash specimen with a FIB in order to explore element distribution within the interior of individual particles. Our results indicate that simulated atmospheric processing causes disintegration of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in fly ash particles. Aluminosilicate-phase Fe in the inner core of fly ash particles is more easily mobilized compared with oxide-phase Fe present as surface aggregates on fly ash spheres. Fe release behavior depends strongly on Fe speciation in aerosol particles. The approach for preparation of cross-sectioned specimen described here opens new opportunities for particle microanalysis, particular with respect to inorganic refractive materials like fly ash and mineral dust.

  3. Investigation of the chemical interface in the soybeanaphid and ricebacteria interactions using MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Adam T.; Yagnik, Gargey B.; Hohenstein, Jessica D.; Ji, Zhiyuan; Zi, Jiachen; Reichert, Malinda D.; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.; Yang, Bing; Peters, Reuben J.; Vela, Javier; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-04-27

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an emerging technology for high-resolution plant biology. It has been utilized to study plantpest interactions, but limited to the surface interfaces. Here we expand the technology to explore the chemical interactions occurring inside the plant tissues. Two sample preparation methods, imprinting and fracturing, were developed and applied, for the first time, to visualize internal metabolites of leaves in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MSI. This is also the first time nanoparticle-based ionization was implemented to ionize diterpenoid phytochemicals that were difficult to analyze with traditional organic matrices. The interactions between ricebacterium and soybeanaphid were investigated as two model systems to demonstrate the capability of high-resolution MSI based on MALDI. Localized molecular information on various plant- or pest-derived chemicals provided valuable insight for the molecular processes occurring during the plantpest interactions. Basically, salicylic acid and isoflavone based resistance was visualized in the soybeanaphid system and antibiotic diterpenoids in ricebacterium interactions.

  4. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  5. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  6. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  7. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  8. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  9. CNEEC - TRG2: Nanoscale Control over Photons and Electrons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRG2: Nanoscale Control over Photons and Electrons TRG2 Leader: Mark Brongersma This group’s aim is to boost the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) and photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices by engineering new materials at the nanoscale that offer excellent light absorption and subsequent charge extraction. The driving mechanism in conventional PV and photocatalytic devices is to convert sunlight into electrons and holes and to collect them in spatially distinct regions. Unfortunately, many of the

  10. Scientists use world's fastest computer to simulate nanoscale material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    failure Nanoscale material failure Scientists use world's fastest computer to simulate nanoscale material failure With this new tool, scientists can better study what nanowires do under stress. October 29, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National

  11. Ultrafast Chemistry under Nonequilibrium Conditions and the Shock to Deflagration Transition at the Nanoscale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wood, Mitchell A.; Cherukara, Mathew J.; Kober, Edward M.; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-06-13

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to describe the chemical reactions following shock-induced collapse of cylindrical pores in the high-energy density material RDX. For shocks with particle velocities of 2 km/s we find that the collapse of a 40 nm diameter pore leads to a deflagration wave. Molecular collisions during the collapse lead to ultrafast, multistep chemical reactions that occur under nonequilibrium conditions. WE found that exothermic products formed during these first few picoseconds prevent the nanoscale hotspot from quenching. Within 30 ps, a local deflagration wave develops. It propagates at 0.25 km/s and consists of an ultrathin reaction zone ofmore » only ~5 nm, thus involving large temperature and composition gradients. Contrary to the assumptions in current models, a static thermal hotspot matching the dynamical one in size and thermodynamic conditions fails to produce a deflagration wave indicating the importance of nonequilibrium loading in the criticality of nanoscale hot spots. These results provide insight into the initiation of reactive decomposition.« less

  12. Ultrafast Chemistry under Nonequilibrium Conditions and the Shock to Deflagration Transition at the Nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Mitchell A.; Cherukara, Mathew J.; Kober, Edward M.; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-06-13

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to describe the chemical reactions following shock-induced collapse of cylindrical pores in the high-energy density material RDX. For shocks with particle velocities of 2 km/s we find that the collapse of a 40 nm diameter pore leads to a deflagration wave. Molecular collisions during the collapse lead to ultrafast, multistep chemical reactions that occur under nonequilibrium conditions. WE found that exothermic products formed during these first few picoseconds prevent the nanoscale hotspot from quenching. Within 30 ps, a local deflagration wave develops. It propagates at 0.25 km/s and consists of an ultrathin reaction zone of only ~5 nm, thus involving large temperature and composition gradients. Contrary to the assumptions in current models, a static thermal hotspot matching the dynamical one in size and thermodynamic conditions fails to produce a deflagration wave indicating the importance of nonequilibrium loading in the criticality of nanoscale hot spots. These results provide insight into the initiation of reactive decomposition.

  13. Non-Equilibrium Nanoscale Self-Organization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aziz, Michael J

    2006-03-09

    Self-organized one- and two-dimensional arrays of nanoscale surface features ("ripples" and "dots") sometimes form spontaneously on initially flat surfaces eroded by a directed ion beam in a process called "sputter patterning". Experiments on this sputter patterning process with focused and unfocused ion beams, combined with theoretical advances, have been responsible for a number of scientific advances. Particularly noteworthy are (i) the discovery of propagative, rather than dissipative, behavior under some ion erosion conditions, permitting a pattern to be fabricated at a large length scale and propagated over large distances while maintaining, or even sharpening, the sharpest features; (ii) the first demonstration of guided self-organization of sputter patterns, along with the observation that defect density is minimized when the spacing between boundaries is near an integer times the natural spatial period; and (iii) the discovery of metastability of smooth surfaces, which contradicts the nearly universally accepted linear stability theory that predicts that any surface is linearly unstable to sinusoidal perturbations of some wave vector.

  14. In situ characterization of nanoscale catalysts during anodic redox processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Renu; Crozier, Peter; Adams, James

    2013-09-19

    Controlling the structure and composition of the anode is critical to achieving high efficiency and good long-term performance. In addition to being a mixed electronic and ionic conductor, the ideal anode material should act as an efficient catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dry hydrocarbons without de-activating through either sintering or coking. It is also important to develop novel anode materials that can operate at lower temperatures to reduce costs and minimized materials failure associated with high temperature cycling. We proposed to synthesize and characterize novel anode cermets materials based on ceria doped with Pr and/or Gd together with either a Ni or Cu metallic components. Ceria is a good oxidation catalyst and is an ionic conductor at room temperature. Doping it with trivalent rare earths such as Pr or Gd retards sintering and makes it a mixed ion conductor (ionic and electronic). We have developed a fundamental scientific understanding of the behavior of the cermet material under reaction conditions by following the catalytic oxidation process at the atomic scale using a powerful Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (ESTEM). The ESTEM allowed in situ monitoring of structural, chemical and morphological changes occurring at the cermet under conditions approximating that of typical fuel-cell operation. Density functional calculations were employed to determine the underlying mechanisms and reaction pathways during anode oxidation reactions. The dynamic behavior of nanoscale catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and methane were used to determine: ? Fundamental processes during anodic reactions in hydrogen and carbonaceous atmospheres ? Interfacial effects between metal particles and doped ceria ? Kinetics of redox reaction in the anode material

  15. History-dependent ion transport through conical nanopipettes and the implications in energy conversion dynamics at nanoscale interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Dengchao; Kvetny, Maksim M.; Brown, Warren; Liu, Juan; Wang, Gangli

    2014-08-20

    The dynamics of ion transport at nanostructured substrate–solution interfaces play vital roles in high-density energy conversion, stochastic chemical sensing and biosensing, membrane separation, nanofluidics and fundamental nanoelectrochemistry. Advancements in these applications require a fundamental understanding of ion transport at nanoscale interfaces. The understanding of the dynamic or transient transport, and the key physical process involved, is limited, which contrasts sharply with widely studied steady-state ion transport features at atomic and nanometer scale interfaces. Here we report striking time-dependent ion transport characteristics at nanoscale interfaces in current–potential (I–V) measurements and theoretical analyses. First, a unique non-zero I–V cross-point and pinched I–V curves are established as signatures to characterize the dynamics of ion transport through individual conical nanopipettes. Moreoever, ion transport against a concentration gradient is regulated by applied and surface electrical fields. The concept of ion pumping or separation is demonstrated via the selective ion transport against concentration gradients through individual nanopipettes. Third, this dynamic ion transport process under a predefined salinity gradient is discussed in the context of nanoscale energy conversion in supercapacitor type charging–discharging, as well as chemical and electrical energy conversion. Our analysis of the emerging current–potential features establishes the urgently needed physical foundation for energy conversion employing ordered nanostructures. The elucidated mechanism and established methodology can be generalized into broadly-defined nanoporous materials and devices for improved energy, separation and sensing applications.

  16. History-dependent ion transport through conical nanopipettes and the implications in energy conversion dynamics at nanoscale interfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Dengchao; Kvetny, Maksim M.; Brown, Warren; Liu, Juan; Wang, Gangli

    2014-08-20

    The dynamics of ion transport at nanostructured substrate–solution interfaces play vital roles in high-density energy conversion, stochastic chemical sensing and biosensing, membrane separation, nanofluidics and fundamental nanoelectrochemistry. Advancements in these applications require a fundamental understanding of ion transport at nanoscale interfaces. The understanding of the dynamic or transient transport, and the key physical process involved, is limited, which contrasts sharply with widely studied steady-state ion transport features at atomic and nanometer scale interfaces. Here we report striking time-dependent ion transport characteristics at nanoscale interfaces in current–potential (I–V) measurements and theoretical analyses. First, a unique non-zero I–V cross-point and pinched I–Vmore » curves are established as signatures to characterize the dynamics of ion transport through individual conical nanopipettes. Moreoever, ion transport against a concentration gradient is regulated by applied and surface electrical fields. The concept of ion pumping or separation is demonstrated via the selective ion transport against concentration gradients through individual nanopipettes. Third, this dynamic ion transport process under a predefined salinity gradient is discussed in the context of nanoscale energy conversion in supercapacitor type charging–discharging, as well as chemical and electrical energy conversion. Our analysis of the emerging current–potential features establishes the urgently needed physical foundation for energy conversion employing ordered nanostructures. The elucidated mechanism and established methodology can be generalized into broadly-defined nanoporous materials and devices for improved energy, separation and sensing applications.« less

  17. Visualizing nanoscale excitonic relaxation properties of disordered edges and grain boundaries in monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bao, Wei; Borys, Nicholas J.; Ko, Changhyun; Suh, Joonki; Fan, Wen; Thron, Andrew; Zhang, Yingjie; Buyanin, Alexander; Zhang, Jie; Cabrini, Stefano; et al

    2015-08-13

    The ideal building blocks for atomically thin, flexible optoelectronic and catalytic devices are two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors. Although challenging for two-dimensional systems, sub-diffraction optical microscopy provides a nanoscale material understanding that is vital for optimizing their optoelectronic properties. We use the ‘Campanile’ nano-optical probe to spectroscopically image exciton recombination within monolayer MoS2 with sub-wavelength resolution (60 nm), at the length scale relevant to many critical optoelectronic processes. Moreover, synthetic monolayer MoS2 is found to be composed of two distinct optoelectronic regions: an interior, locally ordered but mesoscopically heterogeneous two-dimensional quantum well and an unexpected ~300-nm wide, energetically disorderedmore » edge region. Further, grain boundaries are imaged with sufficient resolution to quantify local exciton-quenching phenomena, and complimentary nano-Auger microscopy reveals that the optically defective grain boundary and edge regions are sulfur deficient. In conclusion, the nanoscale structure–property relationships established here are critical for the interpretation of edge- and boundary-related phenomena and the development of next-generation two-dimensional optoelectronic devices.« less

  18. Nanoscale Advances in Catalysis and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yimin; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-05-12

    In this perspective, we present an overview of nanoscience applications in catalysis, energy conversion, and energy conservation technologies. We discuss how novel physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials can be applied and engineered to meet the advanced material requirements in the new generation of chemical and energy conversion devices. We highlight some of the latest advances in these nanotechnologies and provide an outlook at the major challenges for further developments.

  19. Nanoscale Molecules Under Thermodynamic Control:" Digestive Ripening" or " Nanomachining"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klabunde, Kenneth J.

    2015-06-04

    Overall Research Goals and Specific Objectives: Nanoscale materials are becoming ubiquitous in science and engineering, and are found widely in nature. However, their formation processes and uniquely high chemical reactivities are not understood well, indeed are often mysterious. Over recent years, a number of research teams have described nanoparticle synthesis, and aging, thermal treatment, or etching times have been mentioned. We have used the terms “digestive ripening” and “nanomachining” and have suggested that thermodynamics plays an important part in the size adjustment to monodisperse arrays being formed. Since there is scant theoretical understanding of digestive ripening, the overall goal in our research is to learn what experimental parameters (ligand used, temperature, solvent, time) are most important, how to control nanoparticle size and shape after initial crude nanoparticles have been synthesized, and gain better understanding of the chemical mechanism details. Specific objectives for the past twentynine months since the grant began have been to (1) Secure and train personnel;as of 2011, a postdoc Deepa Jose, female from the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, India; Yijun Sun, a second year graduate student, female from China; and Jessica Changstrom, female from the USA, GK12 fellow (program for enhancing teaching ability) are actively carrying out research. (2) Find out what happens to sulfur bound hydrogen of thiol when it interacts with gold nanoparticles. Our findings are discussed in detail later. (3) Determine the effect of particle size, shape, and temperature on dodecyl thiol assited digestive ripening of gold nanoparticles. See our discussions later. (4) To understand in detail the ligand interaction in molecular clusters and nanoparticles (5) Determine the effect of chain length of amines on Au nanoparticle size under digestive ripening conditions (carbon chain length varied from 4-18). (6) Determine the catalytic activity

  20. Observation and Quantification of Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries by Operando Electrochemical (S)TEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Qian, Jiangfeng; Nasybulin, Eduard; Park, Chiwoo; Welch, David A.; Faller, Roland; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Wang, Chong M.; Evans, James E.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-03-11

    An operando electrochemical stage for the transmission electron microscope has been configured to form a “Li battery” that is used to quantify the electrochemical processes that occur at the anode during charge/discharge cycling. Of particular importance for these observations is the identification of an image contrast reversal that originates from solid Li being less dense than the surrounding liquid electrolyte and electrode surface. This contrast allows Li to be identified from Li containing compounds that make up the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. By correlating images showing the sequence of Li electrodeposition and the evolution of the SEI layer with simultaneously acquired and calibrated cyclic voltammograms (CV), electrodeposition and electrolyte breakdown processes can be quantified directly on the nanoscale. This approach opens up intriguing new possibilities to rapidly visualize and test the electrochemical performance of a wide range of electrode/electrolyte combinations for next generation battery systems.

  1. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These surfaces appear to be macroscopically smooth, but are actually composed of nano- and ... This project is developing a technology to enable the imaging of nano- and micro-scale ...

  2. Photoelectron imaging and theoretical study on the structure and chemical binding of the mixed-ligand M(I) complexes, [HMSH]{sup ?} (M = Cu, Ag, and Au)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Zhengbo; Liu, Zhiling; Cong, Ran; Xie, Hua; Tang, Zichao, E-mail: zctang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: fanhj@dicp.ac.cn; Fan, Hongjun, E-mail: zctang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: fanhj@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2014-03-21

    We have reported a combined photoelectron imaging and theoretical study on gaseous mixed-ligand M(I) complexes of [HMSH]{sup ?} (M = Cu, Ag, and Au). With the aid of Franck-Condon simulations, vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra yield accurate electron affinities of 3.269(6), 3.669(10), and 3.591(6) eV for [HCuSH], [HAgSH], and [HAuSH], respectively. And low-frequency modes are observed: 368(12) cm{sup ?1} for [HCuSH], 286(12) cm{sup ?1} for [HAgSH], and 327(12) cm{sup ?1} for [HAuSH], respectively. Extensive theoretical calculations are performed to aid in the spectral assignments and the calculated values agree well with the experimental observations. Although the S and H atoms have little discrepancy in electronegativity (2.20 for H and 2.54 for S), distinct bonding properties are demonstrated between HM and MS bond. It is revealed that there exists significant ionic bonding between MS in [HMSH]{sup ?} (M = Cu, Ag, and Au), while a gradual transition from ionic behavior between HCu in [HCuSH]{sup ?} to quite strong covalent bonding between HAu in [HAuSH]{sup ?}, supported by a variety of chemical bonding analyses.

  3. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James V. Taranik

    2007-12-31

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earths surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual systems data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this

  4. Modeling nanoscale hydrodynamics by smoothed dissipative particle dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Huan; Mundy, Christopher J.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Voulgarakis, Nikolaos

    2015-05-21

    Thermal fluctuation and hydrophobicity are two hallmarks of fluid hydrodynamics on the nano-scale. It is a challenge to consistently couple the small length and time scale phenomena associated with molecular interaction with larger scale phenomena. The development of this consistency is the essence of mesoscale science. In this study, we develop a nanoscale fluid model based on smoothed dissipative particle dynamics that accounts for the phenomena of associated with density fluctuations and hydrophobicity. We show consistency in the fluctuation spectrum across scales. In doing so, it is necessary to account for finite fluid particle size. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the present model can capture of the void probability and solvation free energy of apolar particles of different sizes. The present fluid model is well suited for a understanding emergent phenomena in nano-scale fluid systems.

  5. The Structure and Transport of Water and Hydrated Ions Within Hydrophobic, Nanoscale Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, J K; Herberg, J L; Wu, Y; Schwegler, E; Mehta, A

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this project includes an experimental and modeling investigation into water and hydrated ion structure and transport at nanomaterials interfaces. This is a topic relevant to understanding the function of many biological systems such as aquaporins that efficiently shuttle water and ion channels that permit selective transport of specific ions across cell membranes. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are model nanoscale, hydrophobic channels that can be functionalized, making them artificial analogs for these biological channels. This project investigates the microscopic properties of water such as water density distributions and dynamics within CNTs using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and the structure of hydrated ions at CNT interfaces via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Another component of this work is molecular simulation, which can predict experimental measurables such as the proton relaxation times, chemical shifts, and can compute the electronic structure of CNTs. Some of the fundamental questions this work is addressing are: (1) what is the length scale below which nanoscale effects such as molecular ordering become important, (2) is there a relationship between molecular ordering and transport?, and (3) how do ions interact with CNT interfaces? These are questions of interest to the scientific community, but they also impact the future generation of sensors, filters, and other devices that operate on the nanometer length scale. To enable some of the proposed applications of CNTs as ion filtration media and electrolytic supercapacitors, a detailed knowledge of water and ion structure at CNT interfaces is critical.

  6. Predictive modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-08-05

    Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO3. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track formation occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.

  7. A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Divan, Ralu; Rosenthal, Dan; Rose, Volker; Wai Hla, Saw; Liu, Yuzi

    2014-09-15

    At a very small, or "nano" scale, materials behave differently. The study of nanomaterials is much more than miniaturization - scientists are discovering how changes in size change a material's properties. From sunscreen to computer memory, the applications of nanoscale materials research are all around us. Researchers at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials are creating new materials, methods and technologies to address some of the world's greatest challenges in energy security, lightweight but durable materials, high-efficiency lighting, information storage, environmental stewardship and advanced medical devices.

  8. A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Divan, Ralu; Rosenthal, Dan; Rose, Volker; Wai Hla, Saw; Liu, Yuzi

    2014-01-29

    At a very small, or "nano" scale, materials behave differently. The study of nanomaterials is much more than miniaturization - scientists are discovering how changes in size change a material's properties. From sunscreen to computer memory, the applications of nanoscale materials research are all around us. Researchers at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials are creating new materials, methods and technologies to address some of the world's greatest challenges in energy security, lightweight but durable materials, high-efficiency lighting, information storage, environmental stewardship and advanced medical devices.

  9. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Wednesday, 29 August 2012 00:00 Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a

  10. Nanoscale dynamics and aging of fibrous peptide-based gels (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale dynamics and aging of fibrous peptide-based gels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale dynamics and aging of fibrous peptide-based gels Authors: Dudukovic, ...

  11. Nanoscale Spin-State Ordering in LaCoO3 Epitaxial Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Spin-State Ordering in LaCoO3 Epitaxial Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Spin-State Ordering in LaCoO3 Epitaxial Thin Films Authors: Kwon, ...

  12. Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0kumta.pdf (1.9 MB) More Documents & Publications Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Nanoscale ...

  13. Chemical Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARPA-E Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Chemical Engineering HomeTag:Chemical ...

  14. Evidence for the temperature dependence of phase transformation behavior of silicon at nanoscale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mangalampalli S. R. N., Kiran; Tran, Tuan; Smillie, Lachlan; Haberl, Bianca; Subianto, D.; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses the in-situ high-temperature nanoindentation coupled with electrical measurements to investigate the temperature dependence (25 to 200 C) of the phase transformation behavior of crystalline silicon (dc-Si) at the nanoscale. Along with in-situ indentation and electrical data, ex-situ characterizations such as Raman and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) have been used to reveal the dominant mode of deformation under the indenter. In contrast to the previous studies, the dominant mode of deformation under the nanoindenter at elevated temperatures is not the dc-Si to metallic phase ( -Sn) transformation. Instead, XTEM images from 150 C indents reveal that themore » dominant mode of deformation is twinning along {111} planes. While the in-situ high-temperature electrical measurements show an increase in the current due to metallic phase formation up to 125 C, it is absent 150 C, revealing that the formation of the metallic phase is negligible in this regime. Thus, this work provides clear insight into the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in dc-Si at the nanoscale.« less

  15. Nanoscale elastic changes in 2D Ti3C2Tx (MXene) pseudocapacitive electrodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Come, Jeremy; Xie, Yu; Naguib, Michael; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Gogotsi, Yury; Kent, Paul R. C.; Balke, Nina

    2016-02-01

    Designing sustainable electrodes for next generation energy storage devices relies on the understanding of their fundamental properties at the nanoscale, including the comprehension of ions insertion into the electrode and their interactions with the active material. One consequence of ion storage is the change in the electrode volume resulting in mechanical strain and stress that can strongly affect the cycle life. Therefore, it is important to understand the changes of dimensions and mechanical properties occurring during electrochemical reactions. While the characterization of mechanical properties via macroscopic measurements is well documented, in-situ characterization of their evolution has never been achieved atmore » the nanoscale. Two dimensional (2D) carbides, known as MXenes, are promising materials for supercapacitors and various kinds of batteries, and understating the coupling between their mechanical and electrochemical properties is therefore necessary. Here we report on in-situ imaging, combined with density functional theory of the elastic changes, of a 2D titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) electrode in direction normal to the basal plane during cation intercalation. The results show a strong correlation between the Li+ ions content and the elastic modulus, whereas little effects of K+ ions are observed. Moreover, this strategy enables identifying the preferential intercalation pathways within a single particle.« less

  16. Evidence for the temperature dependence of phase transformation behavior of silicon at nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangalampalli S. R. N., Kiran; Tran, Tuan; Smillie, Lachlan; Haberl, Bianca; Subianto, D.; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses the in-situ high-temperature nanoindentation coupled with electrical measurements to investigate the temperature dependence (25 to 200 C) of the phase transformation behavior of crystalline silicon (dc-Si) at the nanoscale. Along with in-situ indentation and electrical data, ex-situ characterizations such as Raman and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) have been used to reveal the dominant mode of deformation under the indenter. In contrast to the previous studies, the dominant mode of deformation under the nanoindenter at elevated temperatures is not the dc-Si to metallic phase ( -Sn) transformation. Instead, XTEM images from 150 C indents reveal that the dominant mode of deformation is twinning along {111} planes. While the in-situ high-temperature electrical measurements show an increase in the current due to metallic phase formation up to 125 C, it is absent 150 C, revealing that the formation of the metallic phase is negligible in this regime. Thus, this work provides clear insight into the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in dc-Si at the nanoscale.

  17. Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Scientific User Facilities (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) The Molecular Foundry (TMF) Projects Accelerator & Detector Research Science Highlights Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home

  18. Nanoscale mapping and organization analysis of target proteins on cancer cells from B-cell lymphoma patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Mi; Xiao, Xiubin; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Dong, Zaili; Zhang, Weijing

    2013-11-01

    CD20, a membrane protein highly expressed on most B-cell lymphomas, is an effective target demonstrated in clinical practice for treating B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody against CD20. In this work, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to map the nanoscale distribution of CD20 molecules on the surface of cancer cells from clinical B-cell NHL patients under the assistance of ROR1 fluorescence recognition (ROR1 is a specific cell surface marker exclusively expressed on cancer cells). First, the ROR1 fluorescence labeling experiments showed that ROR1 was expressed on cancer cells from B-cell lymphoma patients, but not on normal cells from healthy volunteers. Next, under the guidance of ROR1 fluorescence, the rituximab-conjugated AFM tips were moved to cancer cells to image the cellular morphologies and detect the CD20-rituximab interactions on the cell surfaces. The distribution maps of CD20 on cancer cells were constructed by obtaining arrays of (1616) force curves in local areas (500500 nm{sup 2}) on the cell surfaces. The experimental results provide a new approach to directly investigate the nanoscale distribution of target protein on single clinical cancer cells. - Highlights: Cancer cells were recognized from healthy cells by ROR1 fluorescence labeling. The nanoscale distribution of CD20 on cancer cells was characterized. The distribution of CD20 was non-uniform on the surface of cancer cells.

  19. Acoustic Detection of Phase Transitions at the Nanoscale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Khassaf, Hamidreza; Cao, Ye; Zhang, Shujun; Tselev, Alexander; Carmichael, Ben D.; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Chen, Long-Qing; Alpay, S. Pamir; et al

    2016-01-25

    On page 478, N. Bassiri-Gharb and co-workers demonstrate acoustic detection in nanoscale volumes by use of an atomic force microscope tip technique. Elastic changes in volume are measured by detecting changes in resonance of the cantilever. Also, the electric field in this case causes a phase transition, which is modeled by Landau theory.

  20. In Situ Analytical Electron Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graetz J.; Meng, Y.S.; McGilvray, T.; Yang, M.-C.; Gostovic, D.; Wang, F.; Zeng, D.; Zhu, Y.

    2011-10-31

    Oxides and their tailored structures are at the heart of electrochemical energy storage technologies and advances in understanding and controlling the dynamic behaviors in the complex oxides, particularly at the interfaces, during electrochemical processes will catalyze creative design concepts for new materials with enhanced and better-understood properties. Such knowledge is not accessible without new analytical tools. New innovative experimental techniques are needed for understanding the chemistry and structure of the bulk and interfaces, more importantly how they change with electrochemical processes in situ. Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is used extensively to study electrode materials ex situ and is one of the most powerful tools to obtain structural, morphological, and compositional information at nanometer scale by combining imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy, e.g., EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry) and Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry (EELS). Determining the composition/structure evolution upon electrochemical cycling at the bulk and interfaces can be addressed by new electron microscopy technique with which one can observe, at the nanometer scale and in situ, the dynamic phenomena in the electrode materials. In electrochemical systems, for instance in a lithium ion battery (LIB), materials operate under conditions that are far from equilibrium, so that the materials studied ex situ may not capture the processes that occur in situ in a working battery. In situ electrochemical operation in the ultra-high vacuum column of a TEM has been pursued by two major strategies. In one strategy, a 'nano-battery' can be fabricated from an all-solid-state thin film battery using a focused ion beam (FIB). The electrolyte is either polymer based or ceramic based without any liquid component. As shown in Fig. 1a, the interfaces between the active electrode material/electrolyte can be clearly observed with TEM imaging, in contrast to the

  1. Nanoscale mapping of plasmon and exciton in ZnO tetrapods coupled with Au nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bertoni, Giovanni; Fabbri, Filippo; Villani, Marco; Lazzarini, Laura; Turner, Stuart; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Calestani, Davide; Gradečak, Silvija; Zappettini, Andrea; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2016-01-12

    Metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance optical absorption or emission in semiconductors, thanks to a strong interaction of collective excitations of free charges (plasmons) with electromagnetic fields. Herein we present direct imaging at the nanoscale of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au/ZnO nanostructures by combining scanning transmission electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping. The Au nanoparticles (~30 nm in diameter) are grown in-situ on ZnO nanotetrapods by means of a photochemical process without the need of binding agents or capping molecules, resulting in clean interfaces. Interestingly, the Au plasmon resonance is localized at the Au/vacuum interface, rather than presentingmore » an isotropic distribution around the nanoparticle. Moreover, on the contrary, a localization of the ZnO signal has been observed inside the Au nanoparticle, as also confirmed by numerical simulations.« less

  2. Fidelity imaging for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, Sayan Salapaka, Murti

    2015-01-05

    Atomic force microscopy is widely employed for imaging material at the nanoscale. However, real-time measures on image reliability are lacking in contemporary atomic force microscopy literature. In this article, we present a real-time technique that provides an image of fidelity for a high bandwidth dynamic mode imaging scheme. The fidelity images define channels that allow the user to have additional authority over the choice of decision threshold that facilitates where the emphasis is desired, on discovering most true features on the sample with the possible detection of high number of false features, or emphasizing minimizing instances of false detections. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of fidelity imaging.

  3. Deterministic, Nanoscale Fabrication of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jr., R M; Shirk, M; Gilmer, G; Rubenchik, A

    2004-09-24

    Neither LLNL nor any other organization has the capability to perform deterministic fabrication of mm-sized objects with arbitrary, {micro}m-sized, 3-dimensional features with 20-nm-scale accuracy and smoothness. This is particularly true for materials such as high explosives and low-density aerogels. For deterministic fabrication of high energy-density physics (HEDP) targets, it will be necessary both to fabricate features in a wide variety of materials as well as to understand and simulate the fabrication process. We continue to investigate, both in experiment and in modeling, the ablation/surface-modification processes that occur with the use of laser pulses that are near the ablation threshold fluence. During the first two years, we studied ablation of metals, and we used sub-ps laser pulses, because pulses shorter than the electron-phonon relaxation time offered the most precise control of the energy that can be deposited into a metal surface. The use of sub-ps laser pulses also allowed a decoupling of the energy-deposition process from the ensuing movement/ablation of the atoms from the solid, which simplified the modeling. We investigated the ablation of material from copper, gold, and nickel substrates. We combined the power of the 1-D hydrocode ''HYADES'' with the state-of-the-art, 3-D molecular dynamics simulations ''MDCASK'' in our studies. For FY04, we have stretched ourselves to investigate laser ablation of carbon, including chemically-assisted processes. We undertook this research, because the energy deposition that is required to perform direct sublimation of carbon is much higher than that to stimulate the reaction 2C + O{sub 2} => 2CO. Thus, extremely fragile carbon aerogels might survive the chemically-assisted process more readily than ablation via direct laser sublimation. We had planned to start by studying vitreous carbon and move onto carbon aerogels. We were able to obtain flat, high-quality vitreous carbon, which was easy to work on

  4. Coupling EELS/EFTEM Imaging with Environmental Fluid Cell Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M; Dudney, Nancy J; More, Karren Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Insight into dynamically evolving electrochemical reactions and mechanisms encountered in electrical energy storage (EES) and conversion technologies (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors), materials science (corrosion and oxidation), and materials synthesis (electrodeposition) remains limited due to the present lack of in situ high-resolution characterization methodologies. Electrochemical fluid cell microscopy is an emerging in-situ method that allows for the direct, real-time imaging of electrochemical processes within a fluid environment. This technique is facilitated by the use of MEMS-based biasing microchip platforms that serve the purpose of sealing the highly volatile electrolyte between two electron transparent SiNx membranes and interfacing electrodes to an external potentiostat for controlled nanoscale electrochemislly experiments [!]. In order to elucidate both stmctural and chemical changes during such in situ electrochemical experiments, it is impmtant to first improve upon the spatial resolution by utilizing energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) (to minimize chromatic aben ation), then to detennine the chemical changes via electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). This presents a formidable challenge since the overall thickness through which electrons are scattered through the multiple layers of the cell can be on the order of hundreds of nanometers to microns, scattering through which has the deleterious effect of degrading image resolution and decreasing signal-to noise for spectroscopy [2].

  5. Predictive modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-08-05

    Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO3. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track formation occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.

  6. CHEMICAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... In the absence of an accepted quantitative method, the qualitative, risk-based exposure ... report. 4.3 INTEGRATION OF NEW RESEARCH FINDINGS PERTAINING TO NANOSCALE ...

  7. Nanoscale engineering boosts performance of quantum dot light emitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diodes Quantum dot light emitting diodes Nanoscale engineering boosts performance of quantum dot light emitting diodes Quantum dots are nano-sized semiconductor particles whose emission color can be tuned by simply changing their dimensions. October 25, 2013 Postdoctoral researcher Young-Shin Park characterizing emission spectra of LEDs in the Los Alamos National Laboratory optical laboratory. Postdoctoral researcher Young-Shin Park characterizing emission spectra of LEDs in the Los Alamos

  8. Electronic Structure and Excited State Dynamics in Biological and Nanoscale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Electronic Structure and Excited State Dynamics in Biological and Nanoscale Systems February 25, 2009 at 3pm/36-428 Gregory D. Scholes Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto scholes2 abstract: After photoexcitation, energy absorbed by a molecule can be transferred efficiently over a distance of up to several tens of Ångstrom to another molecule by the process of resonance energy transfer, RET (also commonly known as electronic energy

  9. Residual stress within nanoscale metallic multilayer systems during thermal cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Economy, David Ross; Cordill, Megan Jo; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2015-09-21

    Projected applications for nanoscale metallic multilayers will include wide temperature ranges. Since film residual stress has been known to alter system reliability, stress development within new film structures with high interfacial densities should be characterized to identify potential long-term performance barriers. To understand factors contributing to thermal stress evolution within nanoscale metallic multilayers, stress in Cu/Nb systems adhered to Si substrates was calculated from curvature measurements collected during cycling between 25 °C and 400 °C. Additionally, stress within each type of component layers was calculated from shifts in the primary peak position from in-situ heated X-ray diffraction. The effects ofmore » both film architecture (layer thickness) and layer order in metallic multilayers were tracked and compared with monolithic Cu and Nb films. Analysis indicated that the thermoelastic slope of nanoscale metallic multilayer films depends on thermal expansion mismatch, elastic modulus of the components, and also interfacial density. The layer thickness (i.e. interfacial density) affected thermoelastic slope magnitude while layer order had minimal impact on stress responses after the initial thermal cycle. When comparing stress responses of monolithic Cu and Nb films to those of the Cu/Nb systems, the nanoscale metallic multilayers show a similar increase in stress above 200 °C to the Nb monolithic films, indicating that Nb components play a larger role in stress development than Cu. Local stress calculations from X-ray diffraction peak shifts collected during heating reveal that the component layers within a multilayer film respond similarly to their monolithic counterparts.« less

  10. Los Alamos scientists detect and track single molecules with nanoscale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon cylinders Nanotube "glowsticks" transform surface science tool kit Los Alamos scientists detect and track single molecules with nanoscale carbon cylinders Researchers have now shown that semiconducting carbon nanotubes have the potential to detect and track single molecules in water. January 10, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering

  11. Computation of radiative heat transport across a nanoscale vacuum gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budaev, Bair V. Bogy, David B.

    2014-02-10

    Radiation heat transport across a vacuum gap between two half-spaces is studied. By consistently applying only the fundamental laws of physics, we obtain an algebraic equation that connects the temperatures of the half-spaces and the heat flux between them. The heat transport coefficient generated by this equation for such structures matches available experimental data for nanoscale and larger gaps without appealing to any additional specific mechanisms of energy transfer.

  12. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  13. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  14. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  15. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  16. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  17. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  18. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  19. Residual stress within nanoscale metallic multilayer systems during thermal cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Economy, David Ross; Cordill, Megan Jo; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2015-09-21

    Projected applications for nanoscale metallic multilayers will include wide temperature ranges. Since film residual stress has been known to alter system reliability, stress development within new film structures with high interfacial densities should be characterized to identify potential long-term performance barriers. To understand factors contributing to thermal stress evolution within nanoscale metallic multilayers, stress in Cu/Nb systems adhered to Si substrates was calculated from curvature measurements collected during cycling between 25 °C and 400 °C. Additionally, stress within each type of component layers was calculated from shifts in the primary peak position from in-situ heated X-ray diffraction. The effects of both film architecture (layer thickness) and layer order in metallic multilayers were tracked and compared with monolithic Cu and Nb films. Analysis indicated that the thermoelastic slope of nanoscale metallic multilayer films depends on thermal expansion mismatch, elastic modulus of the components, and also interfacial density. The layer thickness (i.e. interfacial density) affected thermoelastic slope magnitude while layer order had minimal impact on stress responses after the initial thermal cycle. When comparing stress responses of monolithic Cu and Nb films to those of the Cu/Nb systems, the nanoscale metallic multilayers show a similar increase in stress above 200 °C to the Nb monolithic films, indicating that Nb components play a larger role in stress development than Cu. Local stress calculations from X-ray diffraction peak shifts collected during heating reveal that the component layers within a multilayer film respond similarly to their monolithic counterparts.

  20. Nanoscale Traffic Rules for Metals on Graphene | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Traffic Rules for Metals on Graphene Researchers have shown how the motion of individual atoms on surfaces of graphene-a one atom thick layer of carbon-can be controlled. The adatom diffusion rate and hopping direction can be tuned by lowering the diffusion barrier using an effective electric field. This was shown using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy at low temperatures and the mechanism was elucidated using first-principles calculations. The electric field is locally tuned by

  1. CNEEC - TRG1: Nanoscale Control of Thermodynamic Potentials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRG1: Nanoscale Control of Thermodynamic Potentials TRG1 Leaders: Bruce Clemens and David Goldhaber-Gordon Energy storage and conversion involve charge transport, charge storage and conversion of materials from one phase to another. At the nanometer regime, size can have a dramatic effect on these processes and properties. Our program develops fundamental understanding of the effect of size on thermodynamics, kinetic processes, electronic structure and charge transport. Material systems

  2. Nanoscale Strontium Titanate Photocatalysts for Overall Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Troy K.; Browning, Nigel D.; Osterloh, Frank

    2012-08-28

    SrTiO3 (STO) is a large band gap (3.2 eV) semiconductor that catalyzes the overall water splitting reaction under UV light irradiation in the presence of a NiO cocatalyst. As we show here, the reactivity persists in nanoscale particles of the material, although the process is less effective at the nanoscale. To reach these conclusions, Bulk STO, 30 5 nm STO, and 6.5 1 nm STO were synthesized by three different methods, their crystal structures verified with XRD and their morphology observed with HRTEM before and after NiO deposition. In connection with NiO, all samples split water into stoichiometric mixtures of H2 and O2, but the activity is decreasing from 28 ?mol H2 g1 h1 (bulk STO), to 19.4 ?mol H2 g1 h1 (30 nm STO), and 3.0 ?mol H2 g1 h1 (6.5 nm STO). The reasons for this decrease are an increase of the water oxidation overpotential for the smaller particles and reduced light absorption due to a quantum size effect. Overall, these findings establish the first nanoscale titanate photocatalyst for overall water splitting.

  3. Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamza, A V

    2008-04-07

    The Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory's (NSCL) primary mission is to create and advance interdisciplinary research and development opportunities in nanoscience and technology. The NSCL is delivering on its mission providing Laboratory programs with scientific solutions through the use of nanoscale synthesis and characterization. While this annual report summarizes 2007 activities, we have focused on nanoporous materials, advanced high strength, nanostructured metals, novel 3-dimensional lithography and characterization at the nanoscale for the past 3 years. In these three years we have synthesized the first monolithic nanoporous metal foams with less than 10% relative density; we have produced ultrasmooth nanocrystalline diamond inertial confinement fusion capsules; we have synthesized 3-dimensional graded density structures from full density to 5% relative density using nanolithography; and we have established ultrasmall angle x-ray scattering as a non-destructive tool to determine the structure on the sub 300nm scale. The NSCL also has a mission to recruit and to train personnel for Lab programs. The NSCL continues to attract talented scientists to the Laboratory. Andrew Detor from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sutapa Ghosal from the University of California, Irvine, Xiang Ying Wang from Shanghai Institute of Technology, and Arne Wittstock from University of Bremen joined the NSCL this year. The NSCL is pursuing four science and technology themes: nanoporous materials, advanced nanocrystalline materials, novel three-dimensional nanofabrication technologies, and nondestructive characterization at the mesoscale. The NSCL is also pursuing building new facilities for science and technology such as nanorobotics and atomic layer deposition.

  4. Super-Resolution Optical Imaging of Biomass Chemical-Spatial Structure: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-410

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, S. Y.

    2013-06-01

    The overall objective for this project is to characterize and develop new methods to visualize the chemical spatial structure of biomass at varying stages of the biomass degradation processes in situ during the process.

  5. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutting, R. S.; Coker, V. S.; Telling, N. D.; Kimber, R. L.; Pearce, C. I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-09-09

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion ({approx}10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a {gamma}-camera to obtain real time images of a {sup 99m}Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more ({approx}20%) {sup 99m}Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral substrate

  6. Super-Resolution Optical Imaging of Biomass Chemical Spatial Structure: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-411

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Shi -Y.

    2013-10-01

    The primary objective of this effort is to develop the capability to apply new single molecule imaging methods to the study of plant cell structure and the dynamics of cellulase enzyme activity.

  7. Watch copper deposited in a chemical reaction at the nanoscale | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Year Award | Department of Energy Wastren-EnergX Mission Support Wins 8(a)/Small Disadvantaged Business of the Year Award Wastren-EnergX Mission Support Wins 8(a)/Small Disadvantaged Business of the Year Award September 23, 2014 - 9:40am Addthis Damon Detillion, Project Manager for Wastren-EnergX Mission Support, Accepts 8(a)/Small Disadvantaged Business of the Year Award from OSDBU Director John Hale, June 12, 2014, Tampa, FL Damon Detillion, Project Manager for Wastren-EnergX Mission

  8. Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for NNSA U N C L A S S I F I E D Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Eric L. Brosha, Anthony Burrell, Neil Henson, Jonathan Phillips, and Tommy Rockward Los Alamos National Laboratory Timothy Ward, Plamen Atanassov University of New Mexico Karren More Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fuel Cell Technologies Program Kick-off Meeting September 30 - October 1, 2009 Washington DC Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for NNSA U

  9. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by artificial DNA nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Y.; Seo, S.; Park, J.; Park, T.; Ahn, J. R., E-mail: jrahn@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.; Dugasani, S. R. [Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, S. H. [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. H., E-mail: sunghapark@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-09

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  10. Formation of hollow nanocrystals through the nanoscale kirkendall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Yadong; Rioux, Robert M.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Hughes, Steven; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2004-03-11

    We demonstrate that hollow nanocrystals can be synthesized through a mechanism analogous to the Kirkendall Effect, in which pores form due to the difference in diffusion rates between two components in a diffusion couple. Cobalt nanocrystals are chosen as a primary example to show that their reaction in solution with oxygen, sulfur or selenium leads to the formation of hollow nanocrystals of the resulting oxide and chalcogenides. This process provides a general route to the synthesis of hollow nanostructures of large numbers of compounds. A simple extension of this process yields platinum-cobalt oxide yolk-shell nanostructures which may serve as nanoscale reactors in catalytic applications.

  11. Chemical Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Science Chemical Science National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Actinide Chemistry» Modeling and Simulation in the Chemical Sciences» Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry» Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science» Chemical Researcher Jeff Pietryga shows two vials of different-size nanocrystals, each

  12. Division of Chemical & Biological Sciences | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical & Biological Sciences [PHOTO]Laboratory-scale instrumentation for chemical analysis. The Division of Chemical and Biological Sciences is known for laboratory-scale instrumentation development for chemical analysis. Read about dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) | Read about stimulation emission deplection (STED) [IMAGE]Imaging mass spectrometry Imaging mass spectrometry enables new understanding of the distribution of chemicals in plant materials. Read More [PHOTO] Previous Pause

  13. Dimensionality of nanoscale TiO2 determines the mechanism of photoinduced electron injection from a CdSe nanoparticle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tafen, De Nyago; Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2014-03-10

    Assumptions about electron transfer (ET) mechanisms guide design of catalytic, photovoltaic, and electronic systems. We demonstrate that the mechanism of ET from a CdSe quantum dot (QD) into nanoscale TiO2 depends on TiO2 dimensionality. The injection into a TiO2 QD is adiabatic due to strong donor–acceptor coupling, arising from unsaturated chemical bonds on the QD surface, and low density of acceptor states. In contrast, the injection into a TiO2 nanobelt (NB) is nonadiabatic, because the state density is high, the donor–acceptor coupling is weak, and multiple phonons accommodate changes in the electronic energy. The CdSe adsorbant breaks symmetry of delocalizedmore » TiO2 NB states, relaxing coupling selection rules, and generating more ET channels. Both mechanisms can give efficient ultrafast injection. Furthermore, the dependence on system properties is very different for the two mechanisms, demonstrating that the fundamental principles leading to efficient charge separation depend strongly on the type of nanoscale material.« less

  14. Plant Metabolic Imaging | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant Metabolic Imaging The Ames Laboratory has developed state-of-the-art processes for imaging plant metabolites. Identifying and understanding plant chemicals will lead to the ...

  15. Oxygen Electroreduction on Nanoscale Pt/[TaOPO4/VC] and Pt/[Ta2O5...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oxygen Electroreduction on Nanoscale PtTaOPO4VC and PtTa2O5VC in Alkaline Electrolyte Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxygen Electroreduction on Nanoscale Pt...

  16. Chemical Recycling | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Recycling Chemical Recycling

  17. Real time nanoscale structural evaluation of gold structures on Si (100) surface using in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rath, A. E-mail: ashutosh.phy@gmail.com E-mail: pvsatyam22@gmail.com; Juluri, R. R.; Satyam, P. V. E-mail: ashutosh.phy@gmail.com E-mail: pvsatyam22@gmail.com

    2014-05-14

    Transport behavior of gold nanostructures on Si(100) substrate during annealing under high vacuum has been investigated using in-situ real time transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A comparative study has been done on the morphological changes due to annealing under different vacuum environments. Au thin films of thickness ∼2.0 nm were deposited on native oxide covered silicon substrate by using thermal evaporation system. In-situ real time TEM measurements at 850 °C showed the isotropic growth of rectangular/square shaped gold-silicon alloy structures. During the growth, it is observed that the alloying occurs in liquid phase followed by transformation into the rectangular shapes. For similar system, ex-situ annealing in low vacuum (10{sup −2} millibars) at 850 °C showed the spherical gold nanostructures with no Au-Si alloy formation. Under low vacuum annealing conditions, the rate of formation of the oxide layer dominates the oxide desorption rate, resulting in the creation of a barrier layer between Au and Si, which restricts the inter diffusion of Au in to Si. This work demonstrates the important role of interfacial oxide layer on the growth of nanoscale Au-Si alloy structures during the initial growth. The time dependent TEM images are presented to offer a direct insight into the fundamental dynamics of the sintering process at the nanoscale.

  18. Chemical microsensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, Basil I.

    1995-01-01

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

  19. Visualization of electrochemically driven solid-state phase transformations using operando hard X-ray spectro-imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Linsen; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Wang, Jiajun; Gao, Peng; Ding, Qi; Yu, Young-Sang; Wang, Feng; Cabana, Jordi; Wang, Jun; Jin, Song

    2015-04-20

    In situ techniques with high temporal, spatial and chemical resolution are key to understand ubiquitous solid-state phase transformations, which are crucial to many technological applications. Hard X-ray spectro-imaging can visualize electrochemically driven phase transformations but demands considerably large samples with strong absorption signal so far. Here we show a conceptually new data analysis method to enable operando visualization of mechanistically relevant weakly absorbing samples at the nanoscale and study electrochemical reaction dynamics of iron fluoride, a promising high-capacity conversion cathode material. In two specially designed samples with distinctive microstructure and porosity, we observe homogeneous phase transformations during both discharge and charge, faster and more complete Li-storage occurring in porous polycrystalline iron fluoride, and further, incomplete charge reaction following a pathway different from conventional belief. In conclusion, these mechanistic insights provide guidelines for designing better conversion cathode materials to realize the promise of high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Method and apparatus for remote sensing of molecular species at nanoscale utilizing a reverse photoacoustic effect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Ming [Oviedo, FL; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN; Hedden, David [Lenoir City, TN

    2010-02-23

    A method and apparatus for identifying a sample, involves illuminating the sample with light of varying wavelengths, transmitting an acoustic signal against the sample from one portion and receiving a resulting acoustic signal on another portion, detecting a change of phase in the acoustic signal corresponding to the light of varying wavelengths, and analyzing the change of phase in the acoustic signal for the varying wavelengths of illumination to identify the sample. The apparatus has a controlled source for illuminating the sample with light of varying wavelengths, a transmitter for transmitting an acoustic wave, a receiver for receiving the acoustic wave and converting the acoustic wave to an electronic signal, and an electronic circuit for detecting a change of phase in the acoustic wave corresponding to respective ones of the varying wavelengths and outputting the change of phase for the varying wavelengths to allow identification of the sample. The method and apparatus can be used to detect chemical composition or visual features. A transmission mode and a reflection mode of operation are disclosed. The method and apparatus can be applied at nanoscale to detect molecules in a biological sample.

  1. Nano-Scale Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Two-Dimensional Transport Experiments, and Application for Uranium Remediation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kanel, S. R.; Clement, T. P.; Barnett, M. O.; Goltz, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic nano-scale hydroxyapatite (NHA) was prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The XRD data confirmed that the crystalline structure and chemical composition of NHA correspond to Ca 5 OH(PO 4 ) 3 . The SEM data confirmed the size of NHA to be less than 50 nm. A two-dimensional physical model packed with saturated porous media was used to study the transport characteristics of NHA under constant flow conditions. The data show that the transport patterns of NHA were almost identical to tracer transport patterns. This result indicates that the NHA material canmore » move with water like a tracer, and its movement was neither retarded nor influenced by any physicochemical interactions and/or density effects. We have also tested the reactivity of NHA with 1 mg/L hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) and found that complete removal of U(VI) is possible using 0.5 g/L NHA at pH 5 to 6. Our results demonstrate that NHA has the potential to be injected as a dilute slurry for in situ treatment of U(VI)-contaminated groundwater systems.« less

  2. Simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Volker; Preissner, Curt A; Hla, Saw-Wai; Wang, Kangkang; Rosenmann, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    A method and system for performing simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast analysis in a scanning, tunneling microscope. The method and system also includes nanofabricated coaxial multilayer tips with a nanoscale conducting apex and a programmable in-situ nanomanipulator to fabricate these tips and also to rotate tips controllably.

  3. Nanoscale mechanical switching of ferroelectric polarization via flexoelectricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Yijia; Hong, Zijian; Britson, Jason; Chen, Long-Qing

    2015-01-12

    Flexoelectric coefficient is a fourth-rank tensor arising from the coupling between strain gradient and electric polarization and thus exists in all crystals. It is generally ignored for macroscopic crystals due to its small magnitude. However, at the nanoscale, flexoelectric contributions may become significant and can potentially be utilized for device applications. Using the phase-field method, we study the mechanical switching of electric polarization in ferroelectric thin films by a strain gradient created via an atomic force microscope tip. Our simulation results show good agreement with existing experimental observations. We examine the competition between the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects and provide an understanding of the role of flexoelectricity in the polarization switching. Also, by changing the pressure and film thickness, we reveal that the flexoelectric field at the film bottom can be used as a criterion to determine whether domain switching may happen under a mechanical force.

  4. Methods and devices for fabricating three-dimensional nanoscale structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Jangung

    2010-04-27

    The present invention provides methods and devices for fabricating 3D structures and patterns of 3D structures on substrate surfaces, including symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns of 3D structures. Methods of the present invention provide a means of fabricating 3D structures having accurately selected physical dimensions, including lateral and vertical dimensions ranging from 10s of nanometers to 1000s of nanometers. In one aspect, methods are provided using a mask element comprising a conformable, elastomeric phase mask capable of establishing conformal contact with a radiation sensitive material undergoing photoprocessing. In another aspect, the temporal and/or spatial coherence of electromagnetic radiation using for photoprocessing is selected to fabricate complex structures having nanoscale features that do not extend entirely through the thickness of the structure fabricated.

  5. Friction-Induced Fluid Heating in Nanoscale Helium Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhigang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-21

    We investigate the mechanism of friction-induced fluid heating in nanoconfinements. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the temperature variations of liquid helium in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. It is found that the fluid heating is dominated by different sources of friction as the external driving force is changed. For small external force, the fluid heating is mainly caused by the internal viscous friction in the fluid. When the external force is large and causes fluid slip at the surfaces of channel walls, the friction at the fluid-solid interface dominates over the internal friction in the fluid and is the major contribution to fluid heating. An asymmetric temperature gradient in the fluid is developed in the case of nonidentical walls and the general temperature gradient may change sign as the dominant heating factor changes from internal to interfacial friction with increasing external force.

  6. Development of Nanoscale Ceramics for Advanced Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miriam Leffler; Joseph Helble

    1999-09-30

    Bulk structures of unstabilized ZrO{sub 2-x}, with x in the range of 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.44, at ambient pressure have been found to exist in three different structures. (monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic.). At ambient temperature and elevated pressures above 3.5 GPa, unstabilized zirconia at these same compositions is found as a fourth phase, the orthorhombic phase. Work done in this project has demonstrated that nanoscale zirconia particles containing the orthorhombic phase in addition to amorphous material can be produced through solgel methods. Extensive characterization of this material including recent high temperature x-ray diffraction work has indicated that the structure of the synthesized zirconia appears to be linked to the oxygen vacancy population in the material, and that water appears to be a critical factor in determining the type of material formed during synthesis. These results suggest that surface energy alone is not the controlling factor in determining crystal phase.

  7. Method and system for nanoscale plasma processing of objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Hua, Xuefeng; Stolz, Christian

    2008-12-30

    A plasma processing system includes a source of plasma, a substrate and a shutter positioned in close proximity to the substrate. The substrate/shutter relative disposition is changed for precise control of substrate/plasma interaction. This way, the substrate interacts only with a fully established, stable plasma for short times required for nanoscale processing of materials. The shutter includes an opening of a predetermined width, and preferably is patterned to form an array of slits with dimensions that are smaller than the Debye screening length. This enables control of the substrate/plasma interaction time while avoiding the ion bombardment of the substrate in an undesirable fashion. The relative disposition between the shutter and the substrate can be made either by moving the shutter or by moving the substrate.

  8. Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamza, A V; Lesuer, D R

    2006-01-03

    The Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory's (NSCL) primary mission is to create and advance interdisciplinary research and development opportunities in nanoscience and technology. The initial emphasis of the NSCL has been on development of scientific solutions in support of target fabrication for the NIF laser and other stockpile stewardship experimental platforms. Particular emphasis has been placed on the design and development of innovative new materials and structures for use in these targets. Projects range from the development of new high strength nanocrystalline alloys to graded density materials to high Z nanoporous structures. The NSCL also has a mission to recruit and train personnel for Lab programs such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Defense and Nuclear Technologies (DNT), and Nonproliferation, Arms control and International security (NAI). The NSCL continues to attract talented scientists to the Laboratory.

  9. Nanoscale pressure sensors realized from suspended graphene membrane devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilera-Servin, Juan; Miao, Tengfei; Bockrath, Marc

    2015-02-23

    We study the transport properties of graphene layers placed over ∼200 nm triangular holes via attached electrodes under applied pressure. We find that the injected current division between counter electrodes depends on pressure and can be used to realize a nanoscale pressure sensor. Estimating various potential contributions to the resistivity change of the deflected graphene membrane including piezoresistivity, changing gate capacitance, and the valley Hall effect due to the pressure-induced synthetic magnetic field, we find that the valley Hall effect yields the largest expected contribution to the longitudinal resistivity modulation for accessible device parameters. Such devices in the ballistic transport regime may enable the realization of tunable valley polarized electron sources.

  10. Activity and Stability of Nanoscale Oxygen Reduction Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao-Horn, Yang

    2015-07-28

    Design of highly active and stable nanoscale catalysts for electro-oxidation of small organic molecules is of great importance to the development of efficient fuel cells. The amount and instability of Pt-based catalysts in the cathode limits the cost, efficiency and lifetime of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. We developed a microscopic understanding of the factors governing activity and stability in Pt and PtM alloys. Experimental efforts were focused on probing the size and shape dependence of ORR activity of Pt-based nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes. A microscopic understanding of the activity was achieved by correlating voltammetry and rotating ring disk electrodes to surface atomic and electronic structures, which were elucidated predominantly by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS).

  11. Chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2001-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator is disclosed with applications to chemical sensing and analysis. The preconcentrator can be formed by depositing a resistive heating element (e.g. platinum) over a membrane (e.g. silicon nitride) suspended above a substrate. A coating of a sorptive material (e.g. a microporous hydrophobic sol-gel coating or a polymer coating) is formed on the suspended membrane proximate to the heating element to selective sorb one or more chemical species of interest over a time period, thereby concentrating the chemical species in the sorptive material. Upon heating the sorptive material with the resistive heating element, the sorbed chemical species are released for detection and analysis in a relatively high concentration and over a relatively short time period. The sorptive material can be made to selectively sorb particular chemical species of interest while not substantially sorbing other chemical species not of interest. The present invention has applications for use in forming high-sensitivity, rapid-response miniaturized chemical analysis systems (e.g. a "chem lab on a chip").

  12. Chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  13. Chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

  14. Nanoscale copper in the soil–plant system – toxicity and underlying potential mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anjum, Naser A.; Adam, Vojtech; Iqbal, Muhammad; Lukatkin, Alexander S.; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-04-15

    Nanoscale copper particles (nano-Cu) are used in many antimicrobial formulations and products for their antimicrobial activity. They may enter deliberately and/or accidentally into terrestrial environments including soils. Being the major ‘eco-receptors’ of nanoscale particles in the terrestrial ecosystem, soil–microbiota and plants (the soil–plant system) have been used as a model to dissect the potential impact of these particles on the environmental and human health. In the soil–plant system, the plant can be an indirect non-target organism of the soil-associated nano-Cu that may in turn affect plant-based products and their consumers. By all accounts, information pertaining to nano-Cu toxicity and the underlying potential mechanisms in the soil–plant system remains scanty, deficient and little discussed. Therefore, based on some recent reports from (bio)chemical, molecular and genetic studies of nano-Cu versus soil–plant system, this article: (i) overviews the status, chemistry and toxicity of nano-Cu in soil and plants, (ii) discusses critically the poorly understood potential mechanisms of nano-Cu toxicity and tolerance both in soil–microbiota and plants, and (iii) proposes future research directions. It appears from studies hitherto made that the uncontrolled generation and inefficient metabolism of reactive oxygen species through different reactions are the major factors underpinning the overall nano-Cu consequences in both the systems. However, it is not clear whether the nano-Cu or the ion released from it is the cause of the toxicity. We advocate to intensify the multi-approach studies focused at a complete characterization of the nano-Cu, its toxicity (during life cycles of the least-explored soil–microbiota and plants), and behavior in an environmentally relevant terrestrial exposure setting. Such studies may help to obtain a deeper insight into nano-Cu actions and address adequately the nano-Cu-associated safety concerns in the

  15. Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blank, Aharon; Shapiro, Guy; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Gershoni, David

    2015-01-19

    Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an 'optically detected magnetic resonance imaging' technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors.

  16. Chemical Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Science Chemical Science Plant fatty acids are used in a vast range of products, from polymers to plastics and soaps to industrial feed stocks -- making up an estimated $150 billion market annually. A new discovery of inserting double bonds in the fatty acids could show the way to the designer production of plant fatty acids, and, in turn, to new industrial applications and new products. <a href

  17. Chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1992-06-09

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

  18. Chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - Nanoscale_Gai_2013.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    physical and chemical properties of complex oxides. Most of the functionality in e.g. catalysis and electrochemistry depends in particular on control of the oxygen stoichiometry....

  20. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    preparation requirements. Infrared spectroscopy uses low-energy light, is minimally invasive, and is applicable under ambient conditions, making it an excellent tool for chemical...

  1. Soft x-ray ptychography studies of nanoscale magnetic and structural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Soft x-ray ptychography studies of nanoscale magnetic and structural correlations in thin SmCo5 films Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly ...

  2. Giant two-phonon Raman scattering from nanoscale NbC precipitates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Giant two-phonon Raman scattering from nanoscale NbC precipitates in Nb Not Available Temp HTML Storage 2: Cao, C.; Tao, R.; Ford, D. C.; Klie, R. F.; Proslier, T.; Cooley, L. D.; ...

  3. Method for producing electrodes using microscale or nanoscale materials obtained from hydrogendriven metallurgical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, James J.; Adzic, Gordana D.; Johnson, John R.; Vogt, Thomas; McBreen, James

    2003-09-02

    A method is provided for producing electrodes using microscale and nanoscale metal materials formed from hydrogen driven metallurgical processes; such a the HD (hydriding, dehydriding) process, the HDDR (hydriding, dehydriding, disproportionation, and recombination) process, and variants thereof.

  4. Nanoscale Building Blocks and DNA "Glue" Help Shape 3D Architectures...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Building Blocks and DNA "Glue" Help Shape 3D Architectures Basic Energy Sciences (BES) ... by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy ...

  5. Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. Image courtesy of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc Image courtesy of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc APCI PORT ARTHUR ICCS PROJECT In October 2009, DOE selected the Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) team to conduct one of 12 projects in Phase 1 of its Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (ICCS) program. DOE again selected the project in June 2010 as one of three projects to receive continued (Phase 2) funding. In total,

  6. Center for Nanoscale Controls on Geologic CO2 (NCGC) | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) Center for Nanoscale Controls on Geologic CO2 (NCGC) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Center for Nanoscale Controls on Geologic CO2 (NCGC) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page NCGC Header Director Donald DePaolo Lead Institution Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Year Established 2009 Mission To enhance the performance and

  7. Spins and Heat in Nanoscale Electronic Systems (SHINES) | U.S. DOE Office

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    of Science (SC) Spins and Heat in Nanoscale Electronic Systems (SHINES) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Spins and Heat in Nanoscale Electronic Systems (SHINES) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page SHINES Header Director Jing Shi Lead Institution University of California, Riverside Year Established 2014 Mission To explore the interplay of spin,

  8. Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (SC) Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) User Facilities User Facilities Home User Facilities at a Glance All User Facilities ASCR User Facilities BES User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) BER User Facilities FES User Facilities HEP User Facilities NP User Facilities User Resources User Statistics Policies and Processes Frequently Asked Questions User Facility Science Highlights User Facility News Contact

  9. A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoogeboom-Pot, Kathleen M.; Hernandez-Charpak, Jorge N.; Gu, Xiaokun; Frazer, Travis D.; Anderson, Erik H.; Chao, Weilun; Falcone, Roger W.; Yang, Ronggui; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Nardi, Damiano

    2015-03-23

    Understanding thermal transport from nanoscale heat sources is important for a fundamental description of energy flow in materials, as well as for many technological applications including thermal management in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, thermoelectric devices, nanoenhanced photovoltaics, and nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Thermal transport at the nanoscale is fundamentally different from that at the macroscale and is determined by the distribution of carrier mean free paths and energy dispersion in a material, the length scales of the heat sources, and the distance over which heat is transported. Past work has shown that Fourier’s law for heat conduction dramatically overpredicts the rate of heat dissipation from heat sources with dimensions smaller than the mean free path of the dominant heat-carrying phonons. In this work, we uncover a new regime of nanoscale thermal transport that dominates when the separation between nanoscale heat sources is small compared with the dominant phonon mean free paths. Surprisingly, the interaction of phonons originating from neighboring heat sources enables more efficient diffusive-like heat dissipation, even from nanoscale heat sources much smaller than the dominant phonon mean free paths. This finding suggests that thermal management in nanoscale systems including integrated circuits might not be as challenging as previously projected. In conclusion, we demonstrate a unique capability to extract differential conductivity as a function of phonon mean free path in materials, allowing the first (to our knowledge) experimental validation of predictions from the recently developed first-principles calculations.

  10. A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoogeboom-Pot, Kathleen M.; Hernandez-Charpak, Jorge N.; Gu, Xiaokun; Frazer, Travis D.; Anderson, Erik H.; Chao, Weilun; Falcone, Roger W.; Yang, Ronggui; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; et al

    2015-03-23

    Understanding thermal transport from nanoscale heat sources is important for a fundamental description of energy flow in materials, as well as for many technological applications including thermal management in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, thermoelectric devices, nanoenhanced photovoltaics, and nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Thermal transport at the nanoscale is fundamentally different from that at the macroscale and is determined by the distribution of carrier mean free paths and energy dispersion in a material, the length scales of the heat sources, and the distance over which heat is transported. Past work has shown that Fourier’s law for heat conduction dramatically overpredicts the rate ofmore » heat dissipation from heat sources with dimensions smaller than the mean free path of the dominant heat-carrying phonons. In this work, we uncover a new regime of nanoscale thermal transport that dominates when the separation between nanoscale heat sources is small compared with the dominant phonon mean free paths. Surprisingly, the interaction of phonons originating from neighboring heat sources enables more efficient diffusive-like heat dissipation, even from nanoscale heat sources much smaller than the dominant phonon mean free paths. This finding suggests that thermal management in nanoscale systems including integrated circuits might not be as challenging as previously projected. In conclusion, we demonstrate a unique capability to extract differential conductivity as a function of phonon mean free path in materials, allowing the first (to our knowledge) experimental validation of predictions from the recently developed first-principles calculations.« less

  11. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopic images of these ultra-thin nanosheets for the first time. By combining atomic force microscopy with infrared synchrotron light, ALS researchers from Berkeley Lab...

  12. Switchable friction enabled by nanoscale self-assembly on graphene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gallagher, Patrick; Lee, Menyoung; Amet, Francois; Maksymovych, Petro; Wang, Jun; Wang, Shuopei; Lu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Guangyu; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; et al

    2016-02-23

    Graphene monolayers are known to display domains of anisotropic friction with twofold symmetry and anisotropy exceeding 200%. This anisotropy has been thought to originate from periodic nanoscale ripples in the graphene sheet, which enhance puckering around a sliding asperity to a degree determined by the sliding direction. Here we demonstrate that these frictional domains derive not from structural features in the graphene but from self-assembly of environmental adsorbates into a highly regular superlattice of stripes with period 4–6 nm. The stripes and resulting frictional domains appear on monolayer and multilayer graphene on a variety of substrates, as well as onmore » exfoliated flakes of hexagonal boron nitride. We show that the stripe-superlattices can be reproducibly and reversibly manipulated with submicrometre precision using a scanning probe microscope, allowing us to create arbitrary arrangements of frictional domains within a single flake. In conclusion, our results suggest a revised understanding of the anisotropic friction observed on graphene and bulk graphite in terms of adsorbates.« less

  13. Chemical Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical 'Sponges' Could Make Chemo Safer Chemical 'Sponges' Could Make Chemo Safer July 8, 2016 - 4:22pm Addthis A sample of a polymer-based membrane material created at Berkeley Lab. It’s designed to soak up cancer drugs and limit their side effects. | Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab. A sample of a polymer-based membrane material created at Berkeley Lab. It's designed to soak up cancer drugs and limit their side effects. | Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab. Glenn Roberts Jr.

  14. Chemical Occurrences

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Classification of Chemical Occurrence Reports into the following four classes: Occurrences characterized by serious energy release, injury or exposure requiring medical treatment, or severe environmental damage, Occurrences characterized by minor injury or exposure, or reportable environmental release, Occurrences that were near misses including notable safety violations and Minor occurrences.

  15. Nanoscale imaging of photocurrent and efficiency in CdTe solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cells The local collection characteristics of grain interiors and grain boundaries in thin film CdTe polycrystalline solar cells are investigated using scanning photocurrent...

  16. Spin Coherence at the Nanoscale: Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Arthur J.

    2013-09-10

    Breakthrough results were achieved during the reporting period in the areas of organic spintronics. (A) For the first time the giant magnetic resistance (GMR) was observed in spin valve with an organic spacer. Thus we demonstrated the ability of organic semiconductors to transport spin in GMR devices using rubrene as a prototype for organic semiconductors. (B) We discovered the electrical bistability and spin valve effect in a ferromagnet /organic semiconductor/ ferromagnet heterojunction. The mechanism of switching between conducting phases and its potential applications were suggested. (C) The ability of V(TCNE)x to inject spin into organic semiconductors such as rubrene was demonstrated for the first time. The mechanisms of spin injection and transport from and into organic magnets as well through organic semiconductors were elucidated. (D) In collaboration with the group of OSU Prof. Johnston-Halperin we reported the successful extraction of spin polarized current from a thin film of the organic-based room temperature ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]x and its subsequent injection into a GaAs/AlGaAs light-emitting diode (LED). Thus all basic steps for fabrication of room temperature, light weight, flexible all organic spintronic devices were successfully performed. (E) A new synthesis/processing route for preparation of V(TCNE)x enabling control of interface and film thicknesses at the nanoscale was developed at OSU. Preliminary results show these films are higher quality and what is extremely important they are substantially more air stable than earlier prepared V(TCNE)x. In sum the breakthrough results we achieved in the past two years form the basis of a promising new technology, Multifunctional Flexible Organic-based Spintronics (MFOBS). MFOBS technology enables us fabrication of full function flexible spintronic devices that operate at room temperature.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Li-ion Anode Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Pittsburgh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about nanoscale...

  18. Opto-Electronic Characterization CdTe Solar Cells from TCO to Back Contact with Nano-Scale CL Probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moseley, John; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.; Paudel, Naba; Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Kuciauskas, Darius; Guthrey, Harvey L.; Duenow, Joel; Yan, Yanfa; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Ahrenkiel, Richard K.

    2015-06-14

    We used cathodoluminescence (CL) (spectrum-per-pixel) imaging on beveled CdTe solar cell sections to investigate the opto-electronic properties of these devices from the TCO to the back contact. We used a nano-scale CL probe to resolve luminescence from grain boundary (GB) and grain interior (GI) locations near the CdS/CdTe interface where the grains are very small. As-deposited, CdCl2-treated, Cu-treated, and (CdCl2+Cu)-treated cells were analyzed. Color-coded CL spectrum imaging maps on bevels illustrate the distribution of the T=6 K luminescence transitions through the depth of devices with unprecedented spatial resolution. The CL at the GBs and GIs is shown to vary significantly from the front to the back of devices and is a sensitive function of processing. Supporting D-SIMS depth profile, TRPL lifetime, and C-V measurements are used to link the CL data to the J-V performance of devices.

  19. Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liati, Anthi; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis

    2010-09-15

    Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130-270 {mu}m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15-30 nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively mature internal nanostructures, however, far from being graphite. Ash aggregates largely accumulate at the outlet part of DPF1, while minor amounts are deposited directly on the channel walls all along the filter length. They consist of crystalline phases with individual particles of sizes down to the nanoscale range. Chemically, the ash consists mainly of Mg, S, Ca, Zn and P, elements encountered in lubricating oil additives. In the passenger car DPF2 (with fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 200-500 {mu}m thick, inhomogeneous porous cake consisting of several superposed layers corresponding to different soot generations. The largest part of the soot cake is composed of unburned, oriented soot aggregates left behind despite repeated regenerations, while a small part constitutes a loose layer with randomly oriented aggregates, which was deposited last and has not seen any regeneration. Fe-oxide particles of micro- to nano-scale sizes, originating from the fuel-borne additive, are often dispersed within the part of the soot cake composed of the unburned soot leftovers. The individual soot nanoparticles in DPF2 are approximately 15-40 nm large and generally less mature than in the truck DPF1. The presence of soot leftovers in DPF2 indicates that the addition of fuel-borne material does not fully compensate for the temperatures needed for complete soot removal. Ash in DPF2 is filling up more than half of the filter volume (at the downstream part) and is dominated by Fe-oxide aggregates, due to the Fe-based fuel

  20. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, Jennifer N.; Wang, Joseph

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  1. Computational insights of water droplet transport on graphene sheet with chemical density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao, E-mail: xqwang@uga.edu [College of Engineering and NanoSEC, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    Surface gradient has been emerging as an intriguing technique for nanoscale particle manipulation and transportation. Owing to its outstanding and stable chemical properties, graphene with covalently bonded chemical groups represents extraordinary potential for the investigation of nanoscale transport in the area of physics and biology. Here, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the fundamental mechanism of utilizing a chemical density on a graphene sheet to control water droplet motions on it. Simulation results have demonstrated that the binding energy difference among distinct segment of graphene in terms of interaction between the covalently bonded oxygen atoms on graphene and the water molecules provides a fundamental driving force to transport the water droplet across the graphene sheet. Also, the velocity of the water droplet has showed a strong dependence on the relative concentration of oxygen atoms between successive segments. Furthermore, a multi-direction channel provides insights to guide the transportation of objects towards a targeted position, separating the mixtures with a system of specific chemical functionalization. Our findings shed illuminating lights on the surface gradient method and therefore provide a feasible way to control nanoscale motion on the surface and mimic the channelless microfluidics.

  2. Stories of Discovery & Innovation: A Nanoscale "Tune-Up" for Fuel Cells |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) A Nanoscale "Tune-Up" for Fuel Cells Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications History Contact BES Home 06.11.12 Stories of Discovery & Innovation: A Nanoscale "Tune-Up" for Fuel Cells Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Using sophisticated techniques, EFRC researchers are observing, at the molecular

  3. The Properties of Confined Water and Fluid Flow at the Nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwegler, E; Reed, J; Lau, E; Prendergast, D; Galli, G; Grossman, J C; Cicero, G

    2009-03-09

    This project has been focused on the development of accurate computational tools to study fluids in confined, nanoscale geometries, and the application of these techniques to probe the structural and electronic properties of water confined between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, including the presence of simple ions at the interfaces. In particular, we have used a series of ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations to build an understanding of how hydrogen bonding and solvation are modified at the nanoscale. The properties of confined water affect a wide range of scientific and technological problems - including protein folding, cell-membrane flow, materials properties in confined media and nanofluidic devices.

  4. Micro- and nano-scale hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers by coaxial electrospinning: Preparation and gas sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jin; Choi, Sun-Woo; Kim, Sang Sub

    2011-11-15

    We report the preparation of micro- and nano-scale hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers using a coaxial electrospinning technique and their gas sensing properties in terms of CO. The diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers can be controlled from 200 nm to several micrometers by changing the viscosity of electrospinning solutions. Lower viscosities produce slim hollow nanofibers. In contrast, fat hollow microfibers are obtained in the case of higher viscosities. A simple mathematical expression is presented to predict the change in diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers as a function of viscosity. The successful control over the diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers is expected to bring extensive applications. To test a potential use of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers in chemical gas sensors, their sensing properties to CO are investigated at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Microstructures of as-prepared and calcined hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers prepared by the electrospinning technique with a coaxial needle. Dynamic response at various CO concentrations for the sensor fabricated with the hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers. Highlights: > Hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers were synthesized using a coaxial electrospinning technique. > Their diameter can be controlled by changing the viscosity of electrospinning solutions. > Lower viscosities produce slim hollow nanofibers. > In contrast, fat hollow microfibers are obtained in the case of higher viscosities. > Successful control over the diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers will bring extensive applications.

  5. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; et al

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  6. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  7. Nanoscale Silicon as a Catalyst for Graphene Growth: Mechanistic Insight from in Situ Raman Spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Share, Keith; Carter, Rachel E.; Nikolaev, Pavel; Hooper, Daylong; Oakes, Landon; Cohn, Adam P.; Rao, Rahul; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.; Maruyama, Benji; et al

    2016-06-08

    Nanoscale carbons are typically synthesized by thermal decomposition of a hydrocarbon at the surface of a metal catalyst. Whereas the use of silicon as an alternative to metal catalysts could unlock new techniques to seamlessly couple carbon nanostructures and semiconductor materials, stable carbide formation renders bulk silicon incapable of the precipitation and growth of graphitic structures. In this article, we provide evidence supported by comprehensive in situ Raman experiments that indicates nanoscale grains of silicon in porous silicon (PSi) scaffolds act as catalysts for hydrocarbon decomposition and growth of few-layered graphene at temperatures as low as 700 K. Self-limiting growthmore » kinetics of graphene with activation energies measured between 0.32–0.37 eV elucidates the formation of highly reactive surface-bound Si radicals that aid in the decomposition of hydrocarbons. Nucleation and growth of graphitic layers on PSi exhibits striking similarity to catalytic growth on nickel surfaces, involving temperature dependent surface and subsurface diffusion of carbon. Lastly, this work elucidates how the nanoscale properties of silicon can be exploited to yield catalytic properties distinguished from bulk silicon, opening an important avenue to engineer catalytic interfaces combining the two most technologically important materials for modern applications—silicon and nanoscale carbons.« less

  8. Microsoft Word - Abstracts - Poster session - Aug8.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... IM.02 Nanoscale Chemical Imaging with Photo-induced Force Microscopy Robert Kertayasa, Molecular Vista Co-authors: Sung Park, Tom Albrecht Infrared Photo-induced Force Microscopy ...

  9. Harnessing microbial subsurface metal reduction activities to synthesise nanoscale cobalt ferrite with enhanced magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coker, Victoria S.; Telling, Neil D.; van der Laan, Gerrit; Pattrick, Richard A.D.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Arenholz, Elke; Tuna, Floriana; Winpenny, Richard E.P.; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2009-03-24

    Nanoscale ferrimagnetic particles have a diverse range of uses from directed cancer therapy and drug delivery systems to magnetic recording media and transducers. Such applications require the production of monodisperse nanoparticles with well-controlled size, composition, and magnetic properties. To fabricate these materials purely using synthetic methods is costly in both environmental and economical terms. However, metal-reducing microorganisms offer an untapped resource to produce these materials. Here, the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens is used to synthesize magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. A combination of electron microscopy, soft X-ray spectroscopy, and magnetometry techniques was employed to show that this method of biosynthesis results in high yields of crystalline nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution and magnetic properties equal to the best chemically synthesized materials. In particular, it is demonstrated here that cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles with low temperature coercivity approaching 8 kOe and an effective anisotropy constant of {approx} 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -3} can be manufactured through this biotechnological route. The dramatic enhancement in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles by the introduction of high quantities of Co into the spinel structure represents a significant advance over previous biomineralization studies in this area using magnetotactic bacteria. The successful production of nanoparticulate ferrites achieved in this study at high yields could open up the way for the scaled-up industrial manufacture of nanoparticles using environmentally benign methodologies. Production of ferromagnetic nanoparticles for pioneering cancer therapy, drug delivery, chemical sensors, catalytic activity, photoconductive materials, as well as more traditional uses in data storage embodies a large area of inorganic synthesis research. In particular, the addition of transition metals other than

  10. 2013 R&D 100 Award: Movie-mode electron microscope captures nanoscale

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lagrange, Thomas; Reed, Bryan

    2014-07-21

    A new instrument developed by LLNL scientists and engineers, the Movie Mode Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (MM-DTEM), captures billionth-of-a-meter-scale images with frame rates more than 100,000 times faster than those of conventional techniques. The work was done in collaboration with a Pleasanton-based company, Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions (IDES) Inc. Using this revolutionary imaging technique, a range of fundamental and technologically important material and biological processes can be captured in action, in complete billionth-of-a-meter detail, for the first time. The primary application of MM-DTEM is the direct observation of fast processes, including microstructural changes, phase transformations and chemical reactions, that shape real-world performance of nanostructured materials and potentially biological entities. The instrument could prove especially valuable in the direct observation of macromolecular interactions, such as protein-protein binding and host-pathogen interactions. While an earlier version of the technology, Single Shot-DTEM, could capture a single snapshot of a rapid process, MM-DTEM captures a multiframe movie that reveals complex sequences of events in detail. It is the only existing technology that can capture multiple electron microscopy images in the span of a single microsecond.

  11. Solar Energy Technologies Program Peer Review: Center for Nanoscale Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Boudjouk; Larry Pederson; Doug Schulz

    2010-05-26

    The purpose of this project is to develop plant-derived polymers with high potential for replacing petroleum-derived polymers. Important considerations include reduced swelling, lower price, equal or greater strength, and improved processability. Polymer precursors and other high value chemicals are derived by selective oxidation of renewable resources including oil seeds and cellulosics. High throughput combinatorial methods were applied to optimize oxidative catalysis as well as to formulate polymer families. Long chain dicarboxylic acids have been derived in >80% yields from fatty acids found in oil seeds by selective oxidative cleavage using tungsten-based and other catalysts. Furan dicarboxylic acids have been synthesized in high yields by selective catalytic oxidation of cellulosic materials. This product is a precursor to a new class of polyamide polymers. A series terephthalamide/adipamide copolymers have been prepared from long-chain dicarboxylic acids derived from renewable feedstocks. Compositions have been identified that exhibit significant processing advantages over commercial nylons.

  12. Molecular level control of nanoscale composition and morphology: Toward photocatalytic nanocomposites for solar-to-chemical energy conversion of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruberu, Thanthrige P.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing nanocrystal formation is a challenge yet to be realized. In comparison to the large number of studies on nanocrystal synthesis and their applications, the number of studies on the effect of the precursor chemistry on nanocrystal composition and shape remains low. Although photochemical fabrication of metalsemiconductor nano-heterostructures is reported in literature, control over the free particle formation and the site of metal deposition have not been achieved. Moreover, utilization of metal- semiconductor nano-heterostructures in photocatalytic reactions other than water splitting is hardly explored. In this thesis, we studied the effect of chalcogenide precursor reactivity on the composition, morphology and the axial anisotropy of cadmiumchalcogenide nanocrystals. We also investigated the influence of the irradiation wavelength in synthesizing metal-semiconductor nano-heterostructures. Finally, we showed that metal semiconductor nano-heterostructures can be used as a photocatalyst for alcohol dehydrogenation reactions. We explored the pathways for the formation of Pt and Pd nanoparticles on CdS and CdS{sub 0.4}Se{sub 0.6} nanorods. This study revealed that the wavelength of irradiation is critical to control free-standing vs. bound metal (Pt and Pd) nanoparticles to semiconductor. Additionally, we observed that metal photodeposition occurs on specific segments of axially anisotropic, compositionally graded CdS0.4Se0.6 nanorods due to the band-gap differential between their nano-domains. We used semiconductor-metal heterostructures for sunlightdriven dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis of benzyl alcohol. Heterostructure composition dictates activity (turnovers) and product distribution. A few metal (Pt, Pd) islands on the semiconductor surface significantly enhance activity and selectivity and also greatly stabilize the semiconductor against photoinduced etching and degradation.

  13. Polarization transfer NMR imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sillerud, Laurel O.; van Hulsteyn, David B.

    1990-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) image is obtained with spatial information modulated by chemical information. The modulation is obtained through polarization transfer from a first element representing the desired chemical, or functional, information, which is covalently bonded and spin-spin coupled with a second element effective to provide the imaging data. First and second rf pulses are provided at first and second frequencies for exciting the imaging and functional elements, with imaging gradients applied therebetween to spatially separate the nuclei response for imaging. The second rf pulse is applied at a time after the first pulse which is the inverse of the spin coupling constant to select the transfer element nuclei which are spin coupled to the functional element nuclei for imaging. In a particular application, compounds such as glucose, lactate, or lactose, can be labeled with .sup.13 C and metabolic processes involving the compounds can be imaged with the sensitivity of .sup.1 H and the selectivity of .sup.13 C.

  14. Soft-x-ray spectroscopy study of nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, J.-H.

    2005-07-30

    The ability to control the particle size and morphology of nanoparticles is of crucial importance nowadays both from a fundamental and industrial point of view considering the tremendous amount of high-tech applications. Controlling the crystallographic structure and the arrangement of atoms along the surface of nanostructured material will determine most of its physical properties. In general, electronic structure ultimately determines the properties of matter. Soft X-ray spectroscopy has some basic features that are important to consider. X-ray is originating from an electronic transition between a localized core state and a valence state. As a core state is involved, elemental selectivity is obtained because the core levels of different elements are well separated in energy, meaning that the involvement of the inner level makes this probe localized to one specific atomic site around which the electronic structure is reflected as a partial density-of-states contribution. The participation of valence electrons gives the method chemical state sensitivity and further, the dipole nature of the transitions gives particular symmetry information. The new generation synchrotron radiation sources producing intensive tunable monochromatized soft X-ray beams have opened up new possibilities for soft X-ray spectroscopy. The introduction of selectively excited soft X-ray emission has opened a new field of study by disclosing many new possibilities of soft X-ray resonant inelastic scattering. In this paper, some recent findings regarding soft X-ray absorption and emission studies of various nanostructured systems are presented.

  15. Nano-Scale Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC S) for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Hu, Michael Z.

    2010-06-01

    A one-year project was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nano-scale Interpenetrating Phase Composite (IPC) components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real applications such as high wear/corrosion resistant refractory shapes for industrial applications, lightweight vehicle braking system components, or lower cost/higher performance military body and vehicle armor. Nano-scale IPC s with improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties have previously been demonstrated at the lab scale, but have been limited in size. The work performed under this project was focused on investigating the ability to take the current traditional lab scale processes to a manufacturing scale through scaling of these processes or through the utilization of an alternative high-temperature process.

  16. Mechanical properties of bulk and nanoscale TiO[subscript 2] phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swamy, V.; Holbig, E.; Dubrovinksy, L.S.; Prakapenka, V.; Muddle, B.C.

    2008-09-11

    The mechanical properties of bulk and nanoscale TiO{sub 2} phases are examined with a view to assess the available bulk modulus and hardness data, and to understand the size-dependent behaviors. The bulk modulus values of thermodynamically stable bulk TiO{sub 2} phases show a general correlation with Ti-O coordination number. As with the cotunnite-structured (OII) phase, it is likely that the seven-coordinated OI and eight-coordinated fluorite forms of TiO{sub 2} are ultrahard substances. Of the nanoscale phases investigated thus far, nanocrystalline anatase displays the strongest size dependence of bulk modulus values, with possible stiffening behavior effected by incipient grain boundary amorphization under pressure. Nanocrystalline rutile and baddeleyite phases do not show appreciable size dependence in their compression behaviors.

  17. A Nanoscale "Tune-Up" for Fuel Cells | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    A Nanoscale "Tune-Up" for Fuel Cells News News Home Featured Articles 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Science Headlines Science Highlights Presentations & Testimony News Archives Communications and Public Affairs Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 06.11.12 A Nanoscale "Tune-Up" for Fuel Cells Using sophisticated techniques, EFRC researchers are

  18. The Best of Both Worlds: Bulk Diamond Properties Realized at the Nanoscale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource The Best of Both Worlds: Bulk Diamond Properties Realized at the Nanoscale Friday, August 9, 2013 - 10:30am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Abraham Wolcott, Department of Chemistry, Columbia University High-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) nanodiamonds with nitrogen vacancy centers represent a unique class of fluorophores due to their long-lived electron spin properties, all-carbon matrix, and long-term photostability. While this class

  19. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Chung-cheng; Sui, Guodong; Elizarov, Arkadij; Kolb, Hartmuth C.; Huang, Jiang; Heath, James R.; Phelps, Michael E.; Quake, Stephen R.; Tseng, Hsian-rong; Wyatt, Paul; Daridon, Antoine

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  20. Chemical Management System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-10-30

    CMS provides an inventory of all chemicals on order or being held in the laboratory, to provide a specific location for all chemical containers, to ensure that health and safety regulatory codes are being upheld, and to provide PNNL staff with hazardous chemical information to better manage their inventories. CMS is comprised of five major modules: 1) chemical purchasing, 2) chemical inventory, 3) chemical names, properties, and hazard groups, 4) reporting, and 5) system administration.

  1. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erwin, D.N.; Kiel, J.L.; Batishko, C.R.; Stahl, K.A.

    1990-08-14

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopic imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber. 22 figs.

  2. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erwin, David N.; Kiel, Johnathan L.; Batishko, Charles R.; Stahl, Kurt A.

    1990-01-01

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopie imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber.

  3. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-02-01

    Improved Corrosion Management Could Provide Significant Cost and Energy Savings for the Chemical Industry. In the chemical industry, corrosion is often responsible for significant shutdown and maintenance costs.

  4. Chemical & Engineering News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARPA-E Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Chemical & Engineering News Home...

  5. Microbial Cell Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Sullivan, Claretta; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is finding increasing application in a variety of fields including microbiology. Until the emergence of AFM, techniques for ivnestigating processes in single microbes were limited. From a biologist's perspective, the fact that AFM can be used to generate high-resolution images in buffers or media is its most appealing feature as live-cell imaging can be pursued. Imaging living cells by AFM allows dynamic biological events to be studied, at the nanoscale, in real time. Few areas of biological research have as much to gain as microbiology from the application of AFM. Whereas the scale of microbes places them near the limit of resolution for light microscopy. AFM is well suited for the study of structures on the order of a micron or less. Although electron microscopy techniques have been the standard for high-resolution imaging of microbes, AFM is quickly gaining favor for several reasons. First, fixatives that impair biological activity are not required. Second, AFM is capable of detecting forces in the pN range, and precise control of the force applied to the cantilever can be maintained. This combination facilitates the evaluation of physical characteristics of microbes. Third, rather than yielding the composite, statistical average of cell populations, as is the case with many biochemical assays, the behavior of single cells can be monitored. Despite the potential of AFM in microbiology, there are several limitations that must be considered. For example, the time required to record an image allows for the study of gross events such as cell division or membrane degradation from an antibiotic but precludes the evaluation of biological reactions and events that happen in just fractions of a second. Additionally, the AFM is a topographical tool and is restricted to imaging surfaces. Therefore, it cannot be used to look inside cells as with opticla and transmission electron microscopes. other practical considerations are the limitation on

  6. Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes ICEHT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes...

  7. Multimedia regulated chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.; Mao, Y.L.

    1999-10-01

    This article examines those chemicals that are listed in either environmental laws or regulations. Its objective is to help readers determine which laws regulate what types of chemicals and which types of chemicals are regulated by what laws. It is multimedia in scope, describing the various chemicals that are regulated in the different media (i.e., air, water, or land).

  8. Chemical Management Contacts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Contacts for additional information on Chemical Management and brief description on Energy Facility Contractors Group

  9. Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-06ER15835: Chemical Imaging with 100nm Spatial Resolution: Combining High Resolution Flurosecence Microscopy and Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buratto, Steven K.

    2013-09-03

    We have combined, in a single instrument, high spatial resolution optical microscopy with the chemical specificity and conformational selectivity of ion mobility mass spectrometry. We discuss the design and construction of this apparatus as well as our efforts in applying this technique to thin films of molecular semiconductor materials.

  10. PINS chemical identification software

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caffrey, Augustine J.; Krebs, Kennth M.

    2004-09-14

    An apparatus and method for identifying a chemical compound. A neutron source delivers neutrons into the chemical compound. The nuclei of chemical elements constituting the chemical compound emit gamma rays upon interaction with the neutrons. The gamma rays are characteristic of the chemical elements constituting the chemical compound. A spectrum of the gamma rays is generated having a detection count and an energy scale. The energy scale is calibrated by comparing peaks in the spectrum to energies of pre-selected chemical elements in the spectrum. A least-squares fit completes the calibration. The chemical elements constituting the chemical compound can be readily determined, which then allows for identification of the chemical compound.

  11. Chemical Sciences Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling and Simulation in the Chemical Sciences Capabilities Modeling and simulation help us transform chemical data into meaningful information: * Develop remote-sensors that detect nuclear materials * Perform large- or small-scaled process modeling * Simulate new chemicals with tailored properties for diverse applications * Analyze chemical reaction rates for complex modeling needs * Examine chemical-sciences data and modeling for nuclear forensics * Analyze high explosive data and perform

  12. Chemical Sector Analysis | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACChemical Sector Analysis content top Chemical Supply Chain Analysis Posted by Admin on Mar 1, 2012 in | Comments 0 comments Chemical Supply Chain Analysis NISAC has developed a range of capabilities for analyzing the consequences of disruptions to the chemical manufacturing industry. Each capability provides a different but complementary perspective on the questions of interest-questions like Given an event, will the entire chemical sector be impacted or just parts? Which chemicals, plants,

  13. Image Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Image Gallery News & Publications ESnet News Publications and Presentations Galleries Image Gallery Video Gallery ESnet Awards and Honors Contact Us Media Jon Bashor, ...

  14. Chemical Biological Emergency Management Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-06-15

    CB-EMIS is designed to provide information and analysis to transit system operators and emergency responders in the event of a chemical attack on a subway system. The software inforporates detector data, video images, train data, meteorological data, and above- and below-ground plume dispersion models, hight of the liquid level.

  15. Nanoscale interplay of strain and doping in a high-temperature superconductor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zeljkovic, Ilija; Gu, Genda; Nieminen, Jouko; Huang, Dennis; Chang, Tay-Rong; He, Yang; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Lin, Hsin; et al

    2014-11-07

    The highest temperature superconductors are electronically inhomogeneous at the nanoscale, suggesting the existence of a local variable which could be harnessed to enhance the superconducting pairing. Here we report the relationship between local doping and local strain in the cuprate superconductor Bi₂Sr₂CaCu₂O₈₊x. We use scanning tunneling microscopy to discover that the crucial oxygen dopants are periodically distributed, in correlation with local strain. Our picoscale investigation of the intra-unit-cell positions of all oxygen dopants provides essential structural input for a complete microscopic theory.

  16. Nanoscale structure in AgSbTe2 determined by diffuse elastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Ma, Jie [ORNL; Delaire, Olivier A [ORNL; Budai, John D [ORNL; May, Andrew F [ORNL; Karapetrova, Evguenia A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse elastic neutron scattering measurements confirm that AgSbTe2 has a hierarchical structure, with defects on length scales from nanometers to microns. While scattering from mesoscale structure is consistent with previously-proposed structures in which Ag and Sb order on a NaCl lattice, more diffuse scattering from nanoscale structure suggests a structural rearrangement in which hexagonal layers form a combination of (ABC), (ABA), and (AAB) stacking sequences. The AgCrSe2 structure is the best-fitting model for the local atomic arrangements.

  17. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  18. Utilizing dynamic laser speckle to probe nanoscale morphology evolution in nanoporous gold thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Christopher A. R.; Ly, Sonny; Wang, Ling; Seker, Erkin; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2016-03-02

    Here we show the use of dynamic laser speckle autocorrelation spectroscopy in conjunction with the photothermal treatment of nanoporous gold (np-Au) thin films to probe nanoscale morphology changes during the photothermal treatment. Utilizing this spectroscopy method, backscattered speckle from the incident laser is tracked during photothermal treatment and both the characteristic feature size and annealing time of the film are determined. These results demonstrate that this method can successfully be used to monitor laser-based surface modification processes without the use of ex-situ characterization.

  19. Growth of solid and hollow gold particles through the thermal annealing of nanoscale patterned thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Junhao; He, Weidong; Vilayur Ganapathy, Subramanian; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Wang, Bin; Palepu, Sandeep; Remec, Miroslav; Hess, Wayne P.; Hmelo, Anthony B.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Dickerson, James

    2013-11-27

    Through thermally annealing well-arrayed, circular, nanoscale thin films of gold, deposited onto [111] silicon/silicon dioxide substrates, both solid and hollow gold particles of different morphologies with controllable sizes were obtained. The thin film could form individual particle or clusters of particles by tuning the diameter of it. Hollow gold particles were featured by their large size whose diameter was larger than 500 nm and confirmed by a cross-section view. Hollow gold particles show greater plasmonic field enhancement under photoemission electron microscopy. Potential growth mechanisms for these structures are explored

  20. Nanoscale interplay of strain and doping in a high-temperature superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeljkovic, Ilija; Gu, Genda; Nieminen, Jouko; Huang, Dennis; Chang, Tay-Rong; He, Yang; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Lin, Hsin; Markiewicz, Robert S.; Bansil, Arun; Hoffman, Jennifer E.

    2014-11-07

    The highest temperature superconductors are electronically inhomogeneous at the nanoscale, suggesting the existence of a local variable which could be harnessed to enhance the superconducting pairing. Here we report the relationship between local doping and local strain in the cuprate superconductor Bi₂Sr₂CaCu₂O₈₊x. We use scanning tunneling microscopy to discover that the crucial oxygen dopants are periodically distributed, in correlation with local strain. Our picoscale investigation of the intra-unit-cell positions of all oxygen dopants provides essential structural input for a complete microscopic theory.

  1. Determination of carbon distributions in quenched and partitioned microstructures using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Zhu, Zihua; Sun, Xin; De Moor, Emmanuel; Taylor, Mark D.; Speer, John; Matlock, David K.

    2015-04-20

    A multi-modal characterization technique, which combines nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy (Nano-SIMS) with a spatial resolution of ~100 nm and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) to determine carbon distributions in austenite and martensite in a quenched and partitioned (Q&P) Fe-0.29C-2.95Mn-1.59Si steel is presented. Significant carbon enrichment of austenite was measured with decreased levels of carbon in martensite, supporting the carbon partitioning mechanism. Fresh untempered martensite could be identified, and different degrees of enrichment were observed for blocky and lath austenite.

  2. Nanoscale interplay of strain and doping in a high-temperature superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeljkovic, Ilija; Gu, Genda; Nieminen, Jouko; Huang, Dennis; Chang, Tay-Rong; He, Yang; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Lin, Hsin; Markiewicz, Robert S.; Bansil, Arun; Hoffman, Jennifer E.

    2014-11-07

    The highest temperature superconductors are electronically inhomogeneous at the nanoscale, suggesting the existence of a local variable which could be harnessed to enhance the superconducting pairing. Here we report the relationship between local doping and local strain in the cuprate superconductor Bi?Sr?CaCu?O??x. We use scanning tunneling microscopy to discover that the crucial oxygen dopants are periodically distributed, in correlation with local strain. Our picoscale investigation of the intra-unit-cell positions of all oxygen dopants provides essential structural input for a complete microscopic theory.

  3. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  4. Capacitive chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  5. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  6. Visualization of electrochemically driven solid-state phase transformations using operando hard X-ray spectro-imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Linsen; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Wang, Jiajun; Gao, Peng; Ding, Qi; Yu, Young-Sang; Wang, Feng; Cabana, Jordi; Wang, Jun; Jin, Song

    2015-04-20

    In situ techniques with high temporal, spatial and chemical resolution are key to understand ubiquitous solid-state phase transformations, which are crucial to many technological applications. Hard X-ray spectro-imaging can visualize electrochemically driven phase transformations but demands considerably large samples with strong absorption signal so far. Here we show a conceptually new data analysis method to enable operando visualization of mechanistically relevant weakly absorbing samples at the nanoscale and study electrochemical reaction dynamics of iron fluoride, a promising high-capacity conversion cathode material. In two specially designed samples with distinctive microstructure and porosity, we observe homogeneous phase transformations during both discharge andmore » charge, faster and more complete Li-storage occurring in porous polycrystalline iron fluoride, and further, incomplete charge reaction following a pathway different from conventional belief. In conclusion, these mechanistic insights provide guidelines for designing better conversion cathode materials to realize the promise of high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.« less

  7. Chemicals | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ace013_pitz_2010_o.pdf (1.44 MB) More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetics Research on HCCI and Diesel Fuels Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    Discusses detailed chemical kinetics mechanisms for complex hydrocarbon fuels and

  8. 2. Chemical Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Lecture) Chung K. Law Robert H. Goddard Professor Princeton University Princeton-CEFRC-Combustion Institute Summer School on Combustion June 20-24, 2016 1 Day 1: Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics 1. Chemical Thermodynamics * Chemical equilibrium * Energy conservation & adiabatic flame temp., T ad 2. Chemical Kinetics * Reaction rates and approximations * Theories of reaction rates * Straight and branched chain reactions 3. Oxidation Mechanisms of Fuels * Hydrogen, CO, hydrocarbons 2 1.

  9. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Troy A. Semelsberger Los Alamos National Laboratory Hydrogen Storage Summit Jan 27-29, 2015 Denver, CO Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials 2 Objectives 1. Assess chemical hydrogen storage materials that can exceed 700 bar compressed hydrogen tanks 2. Status (state-of-the-art) of chemical hydrogen storage materials 3. Identify key material characteristics 4. Identify obstacles, challenges and risks for the successful deployment of chemical hydrogen materials in a practical on-board hydrogen

  10. ITP Chemicals: Chemical Industry of the Future: New Biocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Chemicals: Chemical Industry of the Future: New Biocatalysts: Essential Tools for a ... TECHNOLOGY VISION 2020: The U.S. Chemical Industry Gasoline Biodesulfurization Fact Sheet ...

  11. ITP Chemicals: Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Identifying Process ... ITP Chemicals: Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Identifying ...

  12. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  13. New tool helps reduce use of hazardous chemicals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tool Helps Reduce Use Of Hazardous Chemicals Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit New tool helps reduce use of hazardous chemicals The "Green Chemical Alternatives Purchasing Wizard," will begin to help employees choose the most benign substances possible for their work. January 1, 2013 dummy image Read our archives Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email Community

  14. Chemical Resources | Sample Preparation Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Resources Chemical Inventory All Sample Preparation Labs are stocked with an assortment of common solvents, acids, bases, buffers, and other reagents. See our Chemical ...

  15. Image alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  16. Thermal and Non-thermal Physiochemical Processes in Nanoscale Films of Amorphous Solid Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. Scott; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.

    2012-01-17

    Amorphous solid water (ASW) is a metastable form of water created by vapor deposition onto a cold substrate (typically less than 130 K). Since this unusual form of water only exists on earth in laboratories with highly specialized equipment, it is fair to ask why there is any interest in studying this esoteric material. Much of the scientific interest involves using ASW as a model system to explore the physical and reactive properties of liquid water and aqueous solutions. Other researchers are interested in ASW because it is believed to be the predominate form of water in the extreme cold temperatures found in many astrophysical and planetary environments. In addition, ASW is a convenient model system for studying the stability of metastable systems (glasses) and the properties of highly porous materials. A fundamental understanding of such properties has applications in a diverse range of disciplines including cryobiology, food science, pharmaceuticals, astrophysics and nuclear waste storage among others.There exist several excellent reviews on the properties of ASW and supercooled liquid water and a new comprehensive review is beyond the scope of this Account. Instead, we focus on our research over the past 15 years using molecular beams and surface science techniques to probe the thermal and non thermal properties of nanoscale films of ASW. We use molecular beams to precisely control the deposition conditions (flux, incident, energy, incident angle) to create compositionally-tailored, nanoscale films of ASW at low temperatures. To study the transport properties (viscosity, diffusivity), the amorphous films can be heated above their glass transition temperatures, Tg, at which time they transform into deeply supercooled liquids prior to crystallization. The advantage of this approach is that at temperatures near Tg the viscosity is approximately 15 orders of magnitude larger than a normal liquid, and therefore the crystallization kinetics are dramatically slowed

  17. Harnessing Molecule-solid Duality of Nanoclusters/nanoparticles for Nanoscale Control of Size Shape and Alloying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J Yin; P Hu; B Wanjala; O Malis; C Zhong

    2011-12-31

    This report demonstrates a molecule-solid duality concept for nanoscale control of size, shape and alloying by showing novel evolution of binary copper and gold nanoclusters or nanoparticles towards alloy nanocubes, as evidenced by in situ real time synchrotron X-ray diffraction characterization.

  18. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  19. CAMD Cleanroom Chemical List

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CAMD Cleanroom Chemical List Chemicals on this list are routine use chemicals in the CAMD Cleanroom and are available to users for general use. All others (*) are approved for use in the cleanroom but are not provided by CAMD. You must purchase from your department and store at the facility. If there are any other chemicals that you need to use that are not on this list, contact the Safety Director, Dr. Lorraine Day, day@lsu.edu, 225-578-4616 for approval. Resists Developers *AZ 1505 *AZ 1512

  20. Apparatus for chemical synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Herring, J. Stephen; Grandy, Jon D.

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  1. Note: Detector collimators for the nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tamalonis, A.; Weber, J. K. R.; Neuefeind, J. C.; Carruth, J.; Skinner, L. B.; Alderman, O. L. G.; Benmore, C. J.

    2015-09-09

    We constructed and tested five neutron collimator designs using the nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) instrument. Collimators were made from High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) or 5% borated HDPE. In all cases, collimators improved the signal to background ratio and reduced detection of secondary scattering. Moreover, in the Q-range 10-20 Å-1, signal to background ratio improved by factors of approximately 1.6 and 2.0 for 50 and 100 mm deep collimators, respectively. In the Q-range 40-50 Å-1, the improvement factors were 1.8 and 2.7. Secondary scattering as measured at Q similar to 9.5 Å-1 was significantly decreased when the collimators were installed.

  2. Unraveling the Mechanism of Nanoscale Mechanical Reinforcement in Glassy Polymer Nanocomposites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Shiwang; Bocharova, Vera; Belianinov, Alex; Xiong, Shaomin; Kisliuk, Alexander; Somnath, Suhas; Holt, Adam P.; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Jesse, Stephen; Martin, Halie J.; et al

    2016-05-20

    The mechanical reinforcement of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) above the glass transition temperature, Tg, has been extensively researched. However, not much is known about the origin of this effect below Tg. In this paper, we unravel the mechanism of PNC reinforcement within the glassy state by directly probing nanoscale mechanical properties with atomic force microscopy and macroscopic properties with Brillouin light scattering. Our results unambiguously show that the "glassy" Young's modulus in the interfacial polymer layer of PNCs is two-times higher than in the bulk polymer, which results in significant reinforcement below Tg. We ascribe this phenomenon to a high stretchingmore » of the chains within the interfacial layer. Since the interfacial chain packing is essentially temperature independent, these findings provide a new insight into the mechanical reinforcement of PNCs also above Tg.« less

  3. Nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I.

    2015-12-31

    The present work summarizes recent progress in the investigation of nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys foils produced at exceptionally high cooling rates. We focus here on the potential of modification of hydrogen desorption kinetics in respect to weak and strong trapping sites that could serve as hydrogen sinks in Al materials. It is shown that it is important to elucidate the surface microstructure of the Al alloy foils at the submicrometer scale because rapidly solidified microstructural features affect hydrogen trapping at nanostructured defects. We discuss the profound influence of solute atoms on hydrogen−lattice defect interactions in the alloys. with emphasis on role of vacancies in hydrogen evolution; both rapidly solidified pure Al and conventionally processed aluminum samples are considered.

  4. Nanoscale Silicon as Anode for Li-ion Batteries: The Fundamentals, Promise, and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; He, Yang; Zheng, Jianming; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-09-24

    Silicon (Si), associated with its natural abundance, low discharge voltage vs. Li/Li+, and extremely high theoretical discharge capacity (~ 4200 mAh g-1,), has been extensively explored as anode for lithium ion battery. One of the key challenges for using Si as anode is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which causes a fast capacity fading. Over the last few years, dramatic progress has been made for addressing this issue. In this paper, we summarize the progress towards tailoring of Si as anode for lithium ion battery. The paper is organized such that it covers the fundamentals, the promise offered based on nanoscale designing, and the remaining challenges that need to be attacked to allow using of Si based materials as anode for battery.

  5. Nanoscale three-dimensional reconstruction of electric and magnetic stray fields around nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubk, A.; Wolf, D.; Sturm, S.; Simon, P.; Wang, C.; Felser, C.

    2014-10-27

    Static electromagnetic stray fields around nanowires (NWs) are characteristic for a number of important physical effects such as field emission or magnetic force microscopy. Consequently, an accurate characterization of these fields is of high interest and electron holographic tomography (EHT) is unique in providing tomographic 3D reconstructions at nm spatial resolution. However, several limitations of the experimental setup and the specimen itself are influencing EHT. Here, we show how a deliberate restriction of the tomographic reconstruction to the exterior of the NWs can be used to mitigate these limitations facilitating a quantitative 3D tomographic reconstruction of static electromagnetic stray fields at the nanoscale. As an example, we reconstruct the electrostatic stray field around a GaAs-AlGaAs core shell NW and the magnetic stray field around a Co{sub 2}FeGa Heusler compound NW.

  6. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based onHyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, AntoniosG.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-09-09

    In recent years, the search to develop large-area solar cells at low cost has led to research on photovoltaic (PV) systems based on nanocomposites containing conjugated polymers. These composite films can be synthesized and processed at lower costs and with greater versatility than the solid state inorganic semiconductors that comprise today's solar cells. However, the best nanocomposite solar cells are based on a complex architecture, consisting of a fine blend of interpenetrating and percolating donor and acceptor materials. Cell performance is strongly dependent on blend morphology, and solution-based fabrication techniques often result in uncontrolled and irreproducible blends, whose composite morphologies are difficult to characterize accurately. Here we incorporate 3-dimensional hyper-branched colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, yielding reproducible and controlled nanoscale morphology.

  7. Theoretical studies of Ir5Th and Ir5Ce nanoscale precipitates in Ir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, James R; Averill, Frank; Cooper, Valentino R

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally, it is known that very small amounts of thorium and/or cerium added to iridium metal form a precipitate, Ir5Th / Ir5Ce, which improves the high temperature mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. We demonstrate that there are low-energy configurations for nano-scale precipitates of these phases in Ir, and that these coherent arrangements may assist in producing improved mechanical properties. One precipitate/matrix orientation gives a particularly low interfacial energy, and a low lattice misfit. Nanolayer precipitates with this orientation are found to be likely to form, with little driving force to coarsen. The predicted morphology of the precipitates and their orientation with the matrix phase provide a potential experiment that could be used to test these predictions.

  8. Note: Detector collimators for the nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamalonis, A.; Weber, J. K. R. Alderman, O. L. G.; Neuefeind, J. C.; Carruth, J.; Skinner, L. B.; Benmore, C. J.

    2015-09-15

    Five neutron collimator designs were constructed and tested at the nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) instrument. Collimators were made from High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) or 5% borated HDPE. In all cases, collimators improved the signal to background ratio and reduced detection of secondary scattering. In the Q-range 10-20 Å{sup −1}, signal to background ratio improved by factors of approximately 1.6 and 2.0 for 50 and 100 mm deep collimators, respectively. In the Q-range 40-50 Å{sup −1}, the improvement factors were 1.8 and 2.7. Secondary scattering as measured at Q ∼ 9.5 Å{sup −1} was significantly decreased when the collimators were installed.

  9. Colloidal processing and sintering of nano-scale TiN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nab, R.; Albayrak, S.; Aslan, M.; Schmidt, H.

    1995-09-01

    Surface modification of nano-scale TiN powder with guanidine propionic acid was used for the preparation of well dispersed slurries. The starting powder could be completely deagglomerated for modifier concentrations exeeding 7.5 wt.-% at pH = 9. Such slurries ({le} 40 wt.-% solid content) behave like an ideal Netwonian liquid. Green compacts with relative densities around 50 % were prepared by pressure filtration. The specimens are characterized by a homogeneous green microstructure with pore sizes in the range of 3 to 10 mn, which could be sintered to high density (> 96 %) below 1400{degrees}C. Up to densities of 96 % grain coarsening can be neglected, but further densification was accompanied by an exaggregated grain growth.

  10. An atomistic methodology of energy release rate for graphene at nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lee, James D.; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-03-21

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb architecture, serving as a fundamental building block for electric devices. Understanding the fracture mechanism of graphene under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of graphene-based devices at atomic scale. Although most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable in molecular dynamics simulation, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at nanoscale. This work introduces an atomistic simulation methodology, based on the energy release rate, as a tool to unveil the fracture mechanism of graphene at nanoscale. This methodology can be easily extended to any atomistic material system. We have investigated both opening mode and mixed mode at different temperatures. Simulation results show that the critical energy release rate of graphene is independent of initial crack length at low temperature. Graphene with inclined pre-crack possesses higher fracture strength and fracture deformation but smaller critical energy release rate compared with the graphene with vertical pre-crack. Owing to its anisotropy, graphene with armchair chirality always has greater critical energy release rate than graphene with zigzag chirality. The increase of temperature leads to the reduction of fracture strength, fracture deformation, and the critical energy release rate of graphene. Also, higher temperature brings higher randomness of energy release rate of graphene under a variety of predefined crack lengths. The energy release rate is independent of the strain rate as long as the strain rate is small enough.

  11. Molecular Control of the Nanoscale: Effect of PhosphineChalcogenide Reactivity on CdSCdSe Nanocrystal Composition and Morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruberu, T. Purnima A.; Albright, Haley R.; Callis, Brandon; Ward, Brittney; Cisneros, Joana; Fan, Hua-Jun; Vela, Javier

    2012-04-22

    We demonstrate molecular control of nanoscale composition, alloying, and morphology (aspect ratio) in CdSCdSe nanocrystal dots and rods by modulating the chemical reactivity of phosphinechalcogenide precursors. Specific molecular precursors studied were sulfides and selenides of triphenylphosphite (TPP), diphenylpropylphosphine (DPP), tributylphosphine (TBP), trioctylphosphine (TOP), and hexaethylphosphorustriamide (HPT). Computational (DFT), NMR (31P and 77Se), and high-temperature crossover studies unambiguously confirm a chemical bonding interaction between phosphorus and chalcogen atoms in all precursors. Phosphinechalcogenide precursor reactivity increases in the order: TPPE < DPPE < TBPE < TOPE < HPTE (E = S, Se). For a given phosphine, the selenide is always more reactive than the sulfide. CdS1xSex quantum dots were synthesized via single injection of a R3PSR3PSe mixture to cadmium oleate at 250 C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV/Vis and PL optical spectroscopy reveal that relative R3PS and R3PSe reactivity dictates CdS1xSex dot chalcogen content and the extent of radial alloying (alloys vs core/shells). CdS, CdSe, and CdS1xSex quantum rods were synthesized by injection of a single R3PE (E = S or Se) precursor or a R3PSR3PSe mixture to cadmiumphosphonate at 320 or 250 C. XRD and TEM reveal that the length-to-diameter aspect ratio of CdS and CdSe nanorods is inversely proportional to R3PE precursor reactivity. Purposely matching or mismatching R3PSR3PSe precursor reactivity leads to CdS1xSex nanorods without or with axial composition gradients, respectively. We expect these observations will lead to scalable and highly predictable bottom-up programmed syntheses of finely heterostructured nanomaterials with well-defined architectures and properties that are tailored for precise applications.

  12. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  13. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  14. Selecting chemical treatment programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.E. )

    1988-09-01

    Many process equipment performance and reliability problems can be solved economically by the proper selection and application of chemical treatment programs. It is important to choose an experienced chemical vendor and to work closely with the vendor to develop a good chemical treatment program. This requires devoting sufficient manpower to ensure that the treatment program development is thorough and timely. After the treatment program is installed, the system operation and performance should be routinely monitored to ensure that expected benefits are achieved and unexpected problems do not develop.

  15. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spires, Renee H.

    2010-11-01

    Renee Spires, Project Manager at Savannah River Remediation, opens Session 3 (Accelerated Waste Retrieval and Closure: Key Technologies) at the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange with a talk on enhanced chemical cleaning.

  16. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  17. Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CDE Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering We support stockpile manufacturing, surveillance, applied and basic energy sciences, threat reduction, public health, the environment, and space exploration. Contact Us Group Leader Peter Stark Deputy Group Leader Tom Yoshida Group Office (505) 667-5740 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy The Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering (C-CDE) Group combines engineering design with routine analytical services and state-of-the-art

  18. American Chemical Society Fellows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    selected as American Chemical Society Fellows August 7, 2014 Chamberlin and Porterfield named ACS Fellows LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Aug. 7, 2014-Rebecca Chamberlin and Donivan Porterfield, both of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Actinide Analytical Chemistry group, have been selected as a 2014 Fellows of the American Chemical Society (ACS). Rebecca Chamberlin An inorganic chemist and radiochemist, Chamberlin is currently the co-principal investigator for development of novel microreactor-based systems

  19. 2. Chemical Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chung K. Law Robert H. Goddard Professor Princeton University Princeton-CEFRC-Combustion Institute Summer School on Combustion June 20-24, 2016 1 What is Combustion? * Study of chemically reacting flows with highly exothermic, temperature-sensitive reactions A Laminar Bunsen Flame A Turbulent Jet Flame Combustion is A Multi-physics & Multi-scale Science * Combustion is a multi- physics science, embodying two major branches of nonlinear science: - Chemical kinetics - Fluid mechanics *

  20. Deep-subwavelength imaging of both electric and magnetic localized optical fields by plasmonic campanile nanoantenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caselli, Niccolò; La China, Federico; Bao, Wei; Riboli, Francesco; Gerardino, Annamaria; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Pagliano, Francesco; Fiore, Andrea; Schuck, P. James; Cabrini, Stefano; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Gurioli, Massimo; Intonti, Francesca

    2015-06-05

    Tailoring the electromagnetic field at the nanoscale has led to artificial materials exhibiting fascinating optical properties unavailable in naturally occurring substances. Besides having fundamental implications for classical and quantum optics, nanoscale metamaterials provide a platform for developing disruptive novel technologies, in which a combination of both the electric and magnetic radiation field components at optical frequencies is relevant to engineer the light-matter interaction. Thus, an experimental investigation of the spatial distribution of the photonic states at the nanoscale for both field components is of crucial importance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a concomitant deep-subwavelength near-field imaging of the electric and magnetic intensities of the optical modes localized in a photonic crystal nanocavity. We take advantage of the “campanile tip”, a plasmonic near-field probe that efficiently combines broadband field enhancement with strong far-field to near-field coupling. In conclusion, by exploiting the electric and magnetic polarizability components of the campanile tip along with the perturbation imaging method, we are able to map in a single measurement both the electric and magnetic localized near-field distributions.

  1. Deep-subwavelength imaging of both electric and magnetic localized optical fields by plasmonic campanile nanoantenna

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Caselli, Niccolò; La China, Federico; Bao, Wei; Riboli, Francesco; Gerardino, Annamaria; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Pagliano, Francesco; Fiore, Andrea; Schuck, P. James; et al

    2015-06-05

    Tailoring the electromagnetic field at the nanoscale has led to artificial materials exhibiting fascinating optical properties unavailable in naturally occurring substances. Besides having fundamental implications for classical and quantum optics, nanoscale metamaterials provide a platform for developing disruptive novel technologies, in which a combination of both the electric and magnetic radiation field components at optical frequencies is relevant to engineer the light-matter interaction. Thus, an experimental investigation of the spatial distribution of the photonic states at the nanoscale for both field components is of crucial importance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a concomitant deep-subwavelength near-field imaging of the electric and magneticmore » intensities of the optical modes localized in a photonic crystal nanocavity. We take advantage of the “campanile tip”, a plasmonic near-field probe that efficiently combines broadband field enhancement with strong far-field to near-field coupling. In conclusion, by exploiting the electric and magnetic polarizability components of the campanile tip along with the perturbation imaging method, we are able to map in a single measurement both the electric and magnetic localized near-field distributions.« less

  2. Stripe-like nanoscale structural phase separation in superconducting BaPb1-xBixO3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Zhang, Y.; Parra, C.; Manoharan, H. C.; Beasley, M. R.; Geballe, T. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Fisher, I. R.

    2015-09-16

    The phase diagram of BaPb1-xBixO3 exhibits a superconducting “dome” in the proximity of a charge density wave phase. For the superconducting compositions, the material coexists as two structural polymorphs. Here we show, via high resolution transmission electron microscopy, that the structural dimorphism is accommodated in the form of partially disordered nanoscale stripes. Identification of the morphology of the nanoscale structural phase separation enables determination of the associated length scales, which we compare to the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length. Thus, we find that the maximum Tc occurs when the superconducting coherence length matches the width of the partially disordered stripes, implying amore » connection between the structural phase separation and the shape of the superconducting dome.« less

  3. ITP Chemicals: Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Identifying Process Inefficiencies in the U.S. Chemical Industry, Industrial Technologies Program, DRAFT Summary Report, December 2006 | Department of Energy Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Identifying Process Inefficiencies in the U.S. Chemical Industry, Industrial Technologies Program, DRAFT Summary Report, December 2006 ITP Chemicals: Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Identifying Process Inefficiencies in the U.S. Chemical

  4. Imaging and measuring the biophysical properties of Fc gamma receptors on single macrophages using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Mi; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Xiao, Xiubin; Zhang, Weijing

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: Nanoscale cellular ultra-structures of macrophages were observed. The binding affinities of Fc?Rs were measured directly on macrophages. The nanoscale distributions of Fc?Rs were mapped on macrophages. -- Abstract: Fc gamma receptors (Fc?R), widely expressed on effector cells (e.g., NK cells, macrophages), play an important role in clinical cancer immunotherapy. The binding of Fc?Rs to the Fc portions of antibodies that are attached to the target cells can activate the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) killing mechanism which leads to the lysis of target cells. In this work, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe the cellular ultra-structures and measure the biophysical properties (affinity and distribution) of Fc?Rs on single macrophages in aqueous environments. AFM imaging was used to obtain the topographies of macrophages, revealing the nanoscale cellular fine structures. For molecular interaction recognition, antibody molecules were attached onto AFM tips via a heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) crosslinker. With AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy, the binding affinities of Fc?Rs were quantitatively measured on single macrophages. Adhesion force mapping method was used to localize the Fc?Rs, revealing the nanoscale distribution of Fc?Rs on local areas of macrophages. The experimental results can improve our understanding of Fc?Rs on macrophages; the established approach will facilitate further research on physiological activities involved in antibody-based immunotherapy.

  5. Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2013-12-01

    Since the industrial revolution, detection and monitoring of toxic matter, chemical wastes, and air pollutants has become an important environmental issue. Thus, it leads to the development of chemical sensors for various environmental applications. The recent disastrous oil spills over the near-surface of ocean due to the offshore drilling emphasize the use of chemical sensors for prevention and monitoring of the processes that might lead to these mishaps.1, 2 Chemical sensors operated on a simple principle that the sensing platform undergoes a detectable change when exposed to the target substance to be sensed. Among all the types of chemical sensors, solid state gas sensors have attracted a great deal of attention due to their advantages such as high sensitivity, greater selectivity, portability, high stability and low cost.3, 4 Especially, semiconducting metal oxides such as SnO2, TiO2, and WO3 have been widely used as the active sensing platforms in solid state gas sensors.5 For the enhanced properties of solid state gas sensors, finding new sensing materials or development of existing materials will be needed. Thus, nanostructured materials such as nanotubes,6-8 nanowires,9-11 nanorods,12-15 nanobelts,16, 17 and nano-scale thin films18-23 have been synthesized and studied for chemical sensing applications.

  6. Career Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Career Images Career Images Explore a dimensional career at Los Alamos Lab: Take a look at who is working here and what they are doing to have a fulfilling career and balanced work/life. Diversity and Inclusion» Career Options» Our Workplace» Employee, Retiree Resources» Career Stories» Career Images» Career Videos» Click thumbnails to enlarge. Photos arranged by most recent first, horizontal formats before vertical. See Flickr for more sizes and details. Advanced wireless sensing systems

  7. Mechanical-chemical coupling and self-organization in mudstones.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.

    2010-06-01

    Shales and other mudstones are the most abundant rock types in sedimentary basins, yet have received comparatively little attention. Common as hydrocarbon seals, these are increasingly being targeted as unconventional gas reservoirs, caprocks for CO{sub 2} sequestration, and storage repositories for waste. The small pore and grain size, large specific surface areas, and clay mineral structures lend themselves to rapid reaction rates accompanying changes in stress, pressure, temperature and chemical conditions. Under far from equilibrium conditions, mudrocks display a variety of spatio-temporal self-organized phenomena arising from the nonlinear coupling of mechanics with chemistry. Beginning with a detailed examination of nano-scale pore network structures in mudstones, we discuss the dynamics behind such self-organized phenomena as pressure solitons, chemically-induced flow self focusing and permeability transients, localized compaction, time dependent well-bore failure, and oscillatory osmotic fluxes as they occur in clay-bearing sediments. Examples are draw from experiments, numerical simulation, and the field. These phenomena bear on the ability of these rocks to serve as containment barriers.

  8. Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Bocharova, Vera; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-01-27

    Frictional forces arise whenever objects around us are set in motion. Controlling them in a rational manner means gaining leverage over mechanical energy losses and wear. This paper presents a way of manipulating nanoscale friction by means of in situ lubrication and interfacial electrochemistry. Water lubricant is directionally condensed from the vapor phase at a moving metal-ionic crystal interface by a strong confined electric field, thereby allowing friction to be tuned up or down via an applied bias. The electric potential polarity and ionic solid solubility are shown to strongly influence friction between the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip andmore » salt surface. An increase in friction is associated with the AFM tip digging into the surface, whereas reducing friction does not influence its topography. No current flows during friction variation, which excludes Joule heating and associated electrical energy losses. Lastly, the demonstrated novel effect can be of significant technological importance for controlling friction in nano- and micro-electromechanical systems.« less

  9. Nanoscale transport of phonons: Dimensionality, subdiffusion, molecular damping, and interference effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walczak, Kamil; Yerkes, Kirk L.

    2014-05-07

    We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in the systems composed of nanoscale chains of masses coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. Thermal conductance is obtained by using linearized Landauer-type formula for heat flux with phonon transmission probability calculated within atomistic Green's functions (AGF) method. AGF formalism is extended onto dissipative chains of masses with harmonic coupling beyond nearest-neighbor approximation, while atomistic description of heat reservoirs is also included into computational scheme. In particular, the phonon lifetimes and the phonon frequency shifts are discussed for harmonic lattices of different dimensions. Further, resonant structure of phonon transmission spectrum is analyzed with respect to reservoir-induced effects, molecular damping, and mass-to-mass harmonic coupling. Analysis of transmission zeros (antiresonances) and their accompanied Fano-shape resonances are discussed as a result of interference effects between different vibrational modes. Finally, we also predict subdiffusive transport regime for low-frequency ballistic phonons propagated along a linear chain of harmonically coupled masses.

  10. Concepts for the development of nanoscale stable precipitation-strengthened steels manufactured by conventional methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yablinsky, C. A.; Tippey, K. E.; Vaynman, S.; Anderoglu, O.; Fine, M. E.; Chung, Y. -W.; Speer, J. G.; Findley, K. O.; Dogan, O. N.; Jablonski, P. D.; Maloy, S. A.; Hackenberg, R. E.; Clarke, A. J.; Clarke, K. D.

    2014-11-11

    In this study, the development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferrous alloys has shown that microstructures designed for excellent irradiation resistance and thermal stability ideally contain stable nanoscale precipitates and dislocation sinks. Based upon this understanding, the microstructures of conventionally manufactured ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels can be designed to include controlled volume fractions of fine, stable precipitates and dislocation sinks via specific alloying and processing paths. The concepts proposed here are categorized as advanced high-Cr ferritic-martensitic (AHCr-FM) and novel tailored precipitate ferritic (TPF) steels, which have the potential to improve the in-reactor performance of conventionally manufactured alloys. AHCr-FM steels have modified alloy content relative to current reactor materials (such as alloy NF616/P92) to maximize desirable precipitates and control phase stability. TPF steels are designed to incorporate nickel aluminides, in addition to microalloy carbides, in a ferritic matrix to produce fine precipitate arrays with good thermal stability. Both alloying concepts may also benefit from thermomechanical processing to establish dislocation sinks and modify phase transformation behaviors. Alloying and processing paths toward designed microstructures are discussed for both AHCr-FM and TPF material classes.

  11. Concepts for the development of nanoscale stable precipitation-strengthened steels manufactured by conventional methods

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yablinsky, C. A.; Tippey, K. E.; Vaynman, S.; Anderoglu, O.; Fine, M. E.; Chung, Y. -W.; Speer, J. G.; Findley, K. O.; Dogan, O. N.; Jablonski, P. D.; et al

    2014-11-11

    In this study, the development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferrous alloys has shown that microstructures designed for excellent irradiation resistance and thermal stability ideally contain stable nanoscale precipitates and dislocation sinks. Based upon this understanding, the microstructures of conventionally manufactured ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels can be designed to include controlled volume fractions of fine, stable precipitates and dislocation sinks via specific alloying and processing paths. The concepts proposed here are categorized as advanced high-Cr ferritic-martensitic (AHCr-FM) and novel tailored precipitate ferritic (TPF) steels, which have the potential to improve the in-reactor performance of conventionally manufactured alloys. AHCr-FM steels have modifiedmore » alloy content relative to current reactor materials (such as alloy NF616/P92) to maximize desirable precipitates and control phase stability. TPF steels are designed to incorporate nickel aluminides, in addition to microalloy carbides, in a ferritic matrix to produce fine precipitate arrays with good thermal stability. Both alloying concepts may also benefit from thermomechanical processing to establish dislocation sinks and modify phase transformation behaviors. Alloying and processing paths toward designed microstructures are discussed for both AHCr-FM and TPF material classes.« less

  12. Nanoscale calibration of n-type ZnO staircase structures by scanning capacitance microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L. Laurent, J.; Brémond, G.; Chauveau, J. M.; Sallet, V.; Jomard, F.

    2015-11-09

    Cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) was performed on n-type ZnO multi-layer structures homoepitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy method. Highly contrasted SCM signals were obtained between the ZnO layers with different Ga densities. Through comparison with dopant depth profiles from secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurement, it is demonstrated that SCM is able to distinguish carrier concentrations at all levels of the samples (from 2 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} to 3 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}). The good agreement of the results from the two techniques indicates that SCM can be a useful tool for two dimensional carrier profiling at nanoscale for ZnO nanostructure development. As an example, residual carrier concentration inside the non-intentionally doped buffer layer was estimated to be around 2 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3} through calibration analysis.

  13. Identifying Deformation and Strain Hardening Behaviors of Nanoscale Metallic Multilayers Through Nano-wear Testing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Economy, David Ross; Mara, Nathan A.; Schoeppner, R.; Schultz, Bradley M.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2016-01-13

    In complex loading conditions (e.g. sliding contact), mechanical properties, such as strain hardening and initial hardness, will dictate the long-term performance of materials systems. With this in mind, the strain hardening behaviors of Cu/Nb nanoscale metallic multilayer systems were examined by performing nanoindentation tests within nanoscratch wear boxes and undeformed, as-deposited regions. Both the architecture and substrate influence were examined by utilizing three different individual layer thicknesses (2, 20, and 100 nm) and two total film thicknesses (1 and 10 μm). After nano-wear deformation, multilayer systems with thinner layers showed less volume loss as measured by laser scanning microscopy. Additionally,more » the hardness of the deformed regions significantly rose with respect to the as-deposited measurements, which further increased with greater wear loads. Strain hardening exponents for multilayers with thinner layers (2 and 20 nm, n ≈ 0.018 and n ≈ 0.022 respectively) were less than was determined for 100 nm systems (n ≈ 0.041). These results suggest that singledislocation based deformation mechanisms observed for the thinner systems limit the extent of achievable strain hardening. This conclusion indicates that impacts of both architecture strengthening and strain hardening must be considered to accurately predict multilayer performance during sliding contact across varying length scales.« less

  14. Correlation between piezoresponse nonlinearity and hysteresis in ferroelectric crystals at nanoscale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Yang, Yaodong; Li, Linglong; Liu, Zhengchun; Vasudevan, Rama K.

    2016-04-27

    Here, the nonlinear response of a ferroic to external fields has been studied for decades, garnering interest for both understanding fundamental physics, as well as technological applications such as memory devices. Yet, the behavior of ferroelectrics at mesoscopic regimes remains poorly understood, and the scale limits of theories developed for macroscopic regimes are not well tested experimentally. Here, we test the link between piezo-nonlinearity and local piezoelectric strain hysteresis, via AC-field dependent measurements in conjunction with first order reversal curve (FORC) measurements on (K,Na)NbO3 crystals with band-excitation piezoelectric force microscopy. The correlation coefficient between nonlinearity amplitude and the FORC ofmore » the polarization switching shows a clear decrease in correlation with increasing AC bias, suggesting the impact of domain wall clamping on the DC measurement case. Further, correlation of polynomial fitting terms from the nonlinear measurements with the hysteresis loop area reveals that the largest correlations are reserved for the quadratic terms, which is expected for irreversible domain wall motion contributions that impact both piezoelectric behavior as well as minor loop formation. These confirm the link between local piezoelectric nonlinearity, domain wall motion and minor loop formation, and suggest that existing theories (such as Preisach) are applicable at these length scales, with associated implications for future nanoscale devices.« less

  15. Nanoscale wear and kinetic friction between atomically smooth surfaces sliding at high speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajauria, Sukumar Canchi, Sripathi V. Schreck, Erhard; Marchon, Bruno

    2015-02-23

    The kinetic friction and wear at high sliding speeds is investigated using the head-disk interface of hard disk drives, wherein the head and the disk are less than 10?nm apart and move at sliding speeds of 510?m/s relative to each other. While the spacing between the sliding surfaces is of the same order of magnitude as various AFM based fundamental studies on friction, the sliding speed is nearly six orders of magnitude larger, allowing a unique set-up for a systematic study of nanoscale wear at high sliding speeds. In a hard disk drive, the physical contact between the head and the disk leads to friction, wear, and degradation of the head overcoat material (typically diamond like carbon). In this work, strain gauge based friction measurements are performed; the friction coefficient as well as the adhering shear strength at the head-disk interface is extracted; and an experimental set-up for studying friction between high speed sliding surfaces is exemplified.

  16. Effectively suppressing dissolution of manganese from spinel lithium manganate via a nanoscale surface-doping approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Zhan, Chun; Wu, Tianpin; Wen, Jianguo; Lei, Yu; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Wu, Huiming; Miller, Dean J.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Sun, Yang-Kook; Qiu, Xinping; Amine, Khalil

    2014-12-16

    The capacity fade of lithium manganate-based cells is associated with the dissolution of Mn from cathode/electrolyte interface due to the disproportionation reaction of Mn(III), and the subsequent deposition of Mn(II) on the anode. Suppressing the dissolution of Mn from the cathode is critical to reducing capacity fade of LiMn2O4-based cells. Here we report a nanoscale surface-doping approach that minimizes Mn dissolution from lithium manganate. This approach exploits advantages of both bulk doping and surface-coating methods by stabilizing surface crystal structure of lithium manganate through cationic doping while maintaining bulk lithium manganate structure, and protecting bulk lithium manganate from electrolyte corrosion while maintaining ion and charge transport channels on the surface through the electrochemically active doping layer. Consequently, the surface-doped lithium manganate demonstrates enhanced electrochemical performance. This study provides encouraging evidence that surface doping could be a promising alternative to improve the cycling performance of lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Theory of signal and noise in double-gated nanoscale electronic pH sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Go, Jonghyun; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2012-08-01

    The maximum sensitivity of classical nanowire (NW)-based pH sensors is defined by the Nernst limit of 59 mV/pH. For typical noise levels in ultra-small single-gated nanowire sensors, the signal-to-noise ratio is often not sufficient to resolve pH changes necessary for a broad range of applications. Recently, a new class of double-gated devices was demonstrated to offer apparent 'super-Nernstian' response (>59 mV/pH) by amplifying the original pH signal through innovative biasing schemes. However, the pH-sensitivity of these nanoscale devices as a function of biasing configurations, number of electrodes, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) remains poorly understood. Even the basic question such as 'Do double-gated sensors actually resolve smaller changes in pH compared to conventional single-gated sensors in the presence of various sources of noise?' remains unanswered. In this article, we provide a comprehensive numerical and analytical theory of signal and noise of double-gated pH sensors to conclude that, while the theoretical lower limit of pH-resolution does not improve for double-gated sensors, this new class of sensors does improve the (instrument-limited) pH resolution.

  18. Analysis of nanoscale two-phase flow of argon using molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Abhishek Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-12-09

    Two phase flows through micro and nanochannels have attracted a lot of attention because of their immense applicability to many advanced fields such as MEMS/NEMS, electronic cooling, bioengineering etc. In this work, a molecular dynamics simulation method is employed to study the condensation process of superheated argon vapor force driven flow through a nanochannel combining fluid flow and heat transfer. A simple and effective particle insertion method is proposed to model phase change of argon based on non-periodic boundary conditions in the simulation domain. Starting from a crystalline solid wall of channel, the condensation process evolves from a transient unsteady state where we study the influence of different wall temperatures and fluid wall interactions on interfacial and heat transport properties of two phase flows. Subsequently, we analyzed transient temperature, density and velocity fields across the channel and their dependency on varying wall temperature and fluid wall interaction, after a dynamic equilibrium is achieved in phase transition. Quasi-steady nonequilibrium temperature profile, heat flux and interfacial thermal resistance were analyzed. The results demonstrate that the molecular dynamics method, with the proposed particle insertion method, effectively solves unsteady nonequilibrium two phase flows at nanoscale resolutions whose interphase between liquid and vapor phase is typically of the order of a few molecular diameters.

  19. Biological and Chemical Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  20. Process Intensification - Chemical Sector Focus

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Intensification - Chemical Sector Focus 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1 4 2. Technology Assessment and Potential ................................................................................................................. 5 5 2.1 Chemical Industry Focus

  1. Chemical Routes to Colloidal Chalcogenide Nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaak, Raymond

    2015-02-19

    This project sought to develop new low-temperature synthetic pathways to intermetallic and chalcogenide nanostructures and powders, with an emphasis on systems that are relevant to advancing the synthesis, processing, and discovery of superconducting materials. The primary synthetic routes involved solution chemistry methods, and several fundamental synthetic challenges that underpinned the formation of these materials were identified and investigated. Methods for incorporating early transition metals and post transition metals into nanoscale and bulk crystals using low-temperature solution chemistry methods were developed and studied, leading to colloidal nanocrystals of elemental indium, manganese, and germanium, as well as nanocrystalline and bulk intermetallic compounds containing germanium, gallium, tin, indium, zinc, bismuth, and lithium. New chemical tools were developed to help target desired phases in complex binary intermetallic and metal chalcogenide systems that contain multiple stable phases, including direct synthesis methods and chemical routes that permit post-synthetic modification. Several phases that are metastable in bulk systems were targeted, synthesized, and characterized as nanocrystalline solids and bulk powders, including the L12-type intermetallic compounds Au3Fe, Au3Ni, and Au3Co, as well as wurtzite-type MnSe. Methods for accessing crystalline metal borides and carbides using direct solution chemistry methods were also developed, with an emphasis on Ni3B and Ni3C, which revealed useful correlations of composition and magnetic properties. Methods for scale-up and nanoparticle purification were explored, providing access to centimeter-scale pressed pellets of polyol-synthesized nanopowders and a bacteriophage-mediated method for separating impure nanoparticle mixtures into their components. Several advances were made in the synthesis of iron selenide and related superconducting materials, including the production of colloidal Fe

  2. Modeling investigation of the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of nanoscale precipitates in advanced structural materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirth, Brian

    2015-04-08

    Materials used in extremely hostile environment such as nuclear reactors are subject to a high flux of neutron irradiation, and thus vast concentrations of vacancy and interstitial point defects are produced because of collisions of energetic neutrons with host lattice atoms. The fate of these defects depends on various reaction mechanisms which occur immediately following the displacement cascade evolution and during the longer-time kinetically dominated evolution such as annihilation, recombination, clustering or trapping at sinks of vacancies, interstitials and their clusters. The long-range diffusional transport and evolution of point defects and self-defect clusters drive a microstructural and microchemical evolution that are known to produce degradation of mechanical properties including the creep rate, yield strength, ductility, or fracture toughness, and correspondingly affect material serviceability and lifetimes in nuclear applications. Therefore, a detailed understanding of microstructural evolution in materials at different time and length scales is of significant importance. The primary objective of this work is to utilize a hierarchical computational modeling approach i) to evaluate the potential for nanoscale precipitates to enhance point defect recombination rates and thereby the self-healing ability of advanced structural materials, and ii) to evaluate the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of such nanoscale precipitates resulting from enhanced point defect transport to and annihilation at precipitate interfaces. This project will utilize, and as necessary develop, computational materials modeling techniques within a hierarchical computational modeling approach, principally including molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo and spatially-dependent cluster dynamics modeling, to identify and understand the most important physical processes relevant to promoting the “selfhealing” or radiation resistance in advanced materials containing

  3. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, S.P.

    1999-03-02

    A dispenser is disclosed for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 {micro}m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (ca. 200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments. 4 figs.

  4. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P.

    1999-03-02

    A dispenser for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 .mu.m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (.about.200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Careers: Chemistry & Chemical Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Chemistry research photo Sandia's Combustion Research Facility pioneered the use of chemical-imaging tools, such as laser diagnostics, for combustion applications. Chemists at Sandia conduct research and development at the interface between biology, synthetic chemistry, and surface science to deliver prototype solutions in diverse applications. They provide knowledge about materials structure, properties, and performance and about the processes to produce,

  6. New screening process for potentially cancer causing chemicals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New screening process for potentially cancer causing chemicals Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window) Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window) Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window) A better way to screen chemicals that may cause cancer is under development. This image shows in two dimensions what Berkeley lab scientists are working to achieve in three dimensions: cultures containing diverse cell types (seen here using

  7. Equilibria in Chemical Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-01-01

    SOLGASMIX-PV calculates equilibrium relationships in complex chemical systems. Chemical equilibrium calculations involve finding the system composition, within certain constraints, which contains the minimum free energy. The constraints are the preservation of the masses of each element present and either constant pressure or volume. SOLGASMIX-PV can calculate equilibria in systems containing a gaseous phase, condensed phase solutions, and condensed phases of invariant and variable stoichiometry. Either a constant total gas volume or a constant total pressuremore » can be assumed. Unit activities for condensed phases and ideality for solutions are assumed, although nonideal systems can be handled provided activity coefficient relationships are available.« less

  8. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-24

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  9. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  10. Local Optical Spectroscopies for Subnanometer Spatial Resolution Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20

    The evanescently coupled photon scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) have special requirements in terms of stability and optical access. We have made substantial improvements to the stability, resolution, and noise floor of our custom-built visible-photon STM, and will translate these advances to our infrared instrument. Double vibration isolation of the STM base with a damping system achieved increased rigidity, giving high tunneling junction stability for long-duration and high-power illumination. Light frequency modulation with an optical chopper and phase-sensitive detection now enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the tunneling junction during irradiation.

  11. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to...

  12. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provides enough water to sustain the living cells without producing interference on mid-IR spectroscopy. The mid-IR light (2.5-15.5 mm wavelength, or 4000-650 cm-1 wavenumber)...

  13. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microwell edge. To evaluate this technique's potential, researchers studied why the antimicrobial agent mitomycin-C (MMC) does not kill some E. coli in biofilms, focusing on the...

  14. Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Send to Email Send to Email Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close Cite: APA Format ...

  15. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-cm-diameter silicon chip (light green) that has been subjected to deep reactive ion etching to form a hydrophilic microchannel or microwell (measuring 1 mm 20-40 m 10-15...

  16. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researchers studied why the antimicrobial agent mitomycin-C (MMC) does not kill some E. coli in biofilms, focusing on the entrance of MMC into bacterial cells and the subsequent...

  17. Category:Chemical Logging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical Logging Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Chemical Logging page? For detailed information on Chemical Logging, click here. Category:Chemical...

  18. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could

  19. Nano-Scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry - A new analytical tool in biogeochemistry and soil ecology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, A M; Ritz, K; Nunan, N; Clode, P L; Pett-Ridge, J; Kilburn, M R; Murphy, D V; O'Donnell, A G; Stockdale, E A

    2006-10-18

    Soils are structurally heterogeneous across a wide range of spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, external environmental conditions do not have a uniform effect throughout the soil, resulting in a large diversity of micro-habitats. It has been suggested that soil function can be studied without explicit consideration of such fine detail, but recent research has indicated that the micro-scale distribution of organisms may be of importance for a mechanistic understanding of many soil functions. Due to a lack of techniques with adequate sensitivity for data collection at appropriate scales, the question 'How important are various soil processes acting at different scales for ecological function?' is challenging to answer. The nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS) represents the latest generation of ion microprobes which link high-resolution microscopy with isotopic analysis. The main advantage of NanoSIMS over other secondary ion mass spectrometers is the ability to operate at high mass resolution, whilst maintaining both excellent signal transmission and spatial resolution ({approx}50 nm). NanoSIMS has been used previously in studies focusing on presolar materials from meteorites, in material science, biology, geology and mineralogy. Recently, the potential of NanoSIMS as a new tool in the study of biophysical interfaces in soils has been demonstrated. This paper describes the principles of NanoSIMS and discusses the potential of this tool to contribute to the field of biogeochemistry and soil ecology. Practical considerations (sample size and preparation, simultaneous collection of isotopes, mass resolution, isobaric interference and quantification of the isotopes of interest) are discussed. Adequate sample preparation avoiding biases in the interpretation of NanoSIMS data due to artifacts and identification of regions-of interest are of most concerns in using NanoSIMS as a new tool in biogeochemistry and soil ecology. Finally, we review the areas of

  20. Foam-assisted delivery of nanoscale zero valent iron in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Yuanzhao; Liu, Bo; Shen, Xin; Zhong, Lirong; Li, Xiqing

    2013-09-01

    Foam is potentially a promising vehicle to deliver nanoparticles for vadose zone remediation as foam can overcome the intrinsic problems associated with solution-based delivery, such as preferential flow and contaminant mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of using foam to deliver nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) in unsaturated porous media was investigated. Foams generated using surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) showed excellent ability to carry nZVI. SLES and nZVI concentrations in the foaming solutions did not affect the percentages of nZVI concentrations in foams relative to nZVI concentrations in the solutions. When foams carrying nZVI were injected through the unsaturated columns, the fractions of nZVI exiting the column were much higher than those when nZVI was injected in liquid. The enhanced nZVI transport implies that foam delivery could significantly increase the radius of influence of injected nZVI. The type and concentrations of surfactants and the influent nZVI concentrations did not noticeably affect nZVI transport during foam delivery. In contrast, nZVI retention increased considerably as the grain size of porous media decreased. Oxidation of foam-delivered nZVI due to oxygen diffusion into unsaturated porous media was visually examined using a flow cell. It was demonstrated that if foams are injected to cover a deep vadose zone layer, oxidation would only cause a small fraction of foam-delivered nZVI to be oxidized before it reacts with contaminants.

  1. Dynamic imaging with electron microscopy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Campbell, Geoffrey; McKeown, Joe; Santala, Melissa

    2014-05-30

    Livermore researchers have perfected an electron microscope to study fast-evolving material processes and chemical reactions. By applying engineering, microscopy, and laser expertise to the decades-old technology of electron microscopy, the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) team has developed a technique that can capture images of phenomena that are both very small and very fast. DTEM uses a precisely timed laser pulse to achieve a short but intense electron beam for imaging. When synchronized with a dynamic event in the microscope's field of view, DTEM allows scientists to record and measure material changes in action. A new movie-mode capability, which earned a 2013 R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine, uses up to nine laser pulses to sequentially capture fast, irreversible, even one-of-a-kind material changes at the nanometer scale. DTEM projects are advancing basic and applied materials research, including such areas as nanostructure growth, phase transformations, and chemical reactions.

  2. Chemical Supply Chain Analysis | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACCapabilitiesChemical Supply Chain Analysis content top Chemical Supply Chain Analysis NISAC has developed a range of capabilities for analyzing the consequences of disruptions to the chemical manufacturing industry. Each capability provides a different but complementary perspective on the questions of interest-questions like Given an event, will the entire chemical sector be impacted or just parts? Which chemicals, plants, and complexes could be impacted? In which regions of the country?

  3. Chemical Dynamics, Molecular Energetics, and Kinetics at the Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-03-14

    Scientists at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley are continuously reinventing synchrotron investigations of physical chemistry and chemical physics with vacuum ultraviolet light. One of the unique aspects of a synchrotron for chemical physics research is the widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet light that permits threshold ionization of large molecules with minimal fragmentation. This provides novel opportunities to assess molecular energetics and reaction mechanisms, even beyond simple gas phase molecules. In this perspective, significant new directions utilizing the capabilities at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline are presented, along with an outlook for future synchrotron and free electron laser science in chemical dynamics. Among the established and emerging fields of investigations are cluster and biological molecule spectroscopy and structure, combustion flame chemistry mechanisms, radical kinetics and product isomer dynamics, aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, planetary and interstellar chemistry, and secondary neutral ion-beam desorption imaging of biological matter and materials chemistry.

  4. Imaging sciences workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candy, J.V.

    1994-11-15

    This workshop on the Imaging Sciences sponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory contains short abstracts/articles submitted by speakers. The topic areas covered include the following: Astronomical Imaging; biomedical imaging; vision/image display; imaging hardware; imaging software; Acoustic/oceanic imaging; microwave/acoustic imaging; computed tomography; physical imaging; imaging algorithms. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging and characterization of strain in silicon-on-insulator nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Gang; Moutanabbir, Oussama; Reiche, Manfred; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian

    2014-12-06

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CDI) has emerged in the last decade as a promising high resolution lens-less imaging approach for the characterization of various samples. It has made significant technical progress through developments in source, algorithm and imaging methodologies thus enabling important scientific breakthroughs in a broad range of disciplines. In this report, we will introduce the principles of forward scattering CDI and Bragg geometry CDI (BCDI), with an emphasis on the latter. BCDI exploits the ultra-high sensitivity of the diffraction pattern to the distortions of crystalline lattice. Its ability of imaging strain on the nanometer scale in three dimensions is highly novel. We will present the latest progress on the application of BCDI in investigating the strain relaxation behavior in nanoscale patterned strained silicon-on-insulator (sSOI) materials, aiming to understand and engineer strain for the design and implementation of new generation semiconductor devices.

  6. Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging and characterization of strain in silicon-on-insulator nanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiong, Gang; Moutanabbir, Oussama; Reiche, Manfred; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian

    2014-12-06

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CDI) has emerged in the last decade as a promising high resolution lens-less imaging approach for the characterization of various samples. It has made significant technical progress through developments in source, algorithm and imaging methodologies thus enabling important scientific breakthroughs in a broad range of disciplines. In this report, we will introduce the principles of forward scattering CDI and Bragg geometry CDI (BCDI), with an emphasis on the latter. BCDI exploits the ultra-high sensitivity of the diffraction pattern to the distortions of crystalline lattice. Its ability of imaging strain on the nanometer scale in three dimensionsmore » is highly novel. We will present the latest progress on the application of BCDI in investigating the strain relaxation behavior in nanoscale patterned strained silicon-on-insulator (sSOI) materials, aiming to understand and engineer strain for the design and implementation of new generation semiconductor devices.« less

  7. Electro-Chemical Processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electro-Chemical Processes - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  8. 2. Chemical Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Lecture) Chung K. Law Robert H. Goddard Professor Princeton University Princeton-CEFRC-Combustion Institute Summer School on Combustion June 20-24, 2016 1 Day 4: Laminar Premixed Flames 1. The standard premixed flame 1. Phenomenological and asymptotic analyses 2. Parametric dependence 3. Chemical structure 2. Limit phenomena 1. The S-curve concept 2. Extinction through volumetric heat loss 3. Aerodynamics of flames 1. Hydrodynamic stretch 2. Flame stretch 3. Flamefront instabilities 2 1. The

  9. Long-term superelastic cycling at nano-scale in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Juan, J. Gómez-Cortés, J. F.

    2014-01-06

    Superelastic behavior at nano-scale has been studied along cycling in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars. Arrays of square micropillars were produced by focused ion beam milling, on slides of [001] oriented Cu-Al-Ni single crystals. Superelastic behavior of micropillars, due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation, has been studied by nano-compression tests during thousand cycles, and its evolution has been followed along cycling. Each pillar has undergone more than thousand cycles without any detrimental evolution. Moreover, we demonstrate that after thousand cycles they exhibit a perfectly reproducible and completely recoverable superelastic behavior.

  10. Imaging bolometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wurden, Glen A.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation-hard, steady-state imaging bolometer. A bolometer employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber of plasma radiation in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry is described. The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils from which the absorbing matrix is fabricated by using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. The resulting design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with approximately 100 Hz time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data will be measured via an IR camera. The resulting spatial data may be used to tomographically investigate the profile of plasmas.

  11. Imaging bolometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wurden, G.A.

    1999-01-19

    Radiation-hard, steady-state imaging bolometer is disclosed. A bolometer employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber of plasma radiation in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry is described. The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils from which the absorbing matrix is fabricated by using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. The resulting design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with approximately 100 Hz time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data will be measured via an IR camera. The resulting spatial data may be used to tomographically investigate the profile of plasmas. 2 figs.

  12. Imaging systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, I.R.

    1981-08-18

    In an imaging apparatus using nuclear magnetic resonance, first and second gradient field pulses are applied, the second being of opposite sense to the first. It is preferable to match these so that they entirely cancel. However it is shown to be sufficient if they are as close as possible to the same magnitude and a further 'glitch' pulse is used to reduce the total gradient field over the pulse sequence substantially to zero.

  13. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, F

    2007-03-19

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks.

  14. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  15. Nuclear Imaging | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Jefferson Lab's Radiation Detector and Imaging Group Members of Jefferson Lab's Radiation Detector & Medical Imaging Group design and build unique imaging devices based on...

  16. Manhattan Project: Places Images

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PLACES IMAGES Resources > Photo Gallery Scroll down to see each of these images individually. The images are: 1. Remains of a Shinto Shrine, Nagasaki, October 1945 (courtesy the ...

  17. Chemical Processing Qualification Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6-2010 February 2010 DOE STANDARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING QUALIFICATION STANDARD DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1176-2010 ii This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds DOE-STD-1176-2010 iv INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1176-2010 v

  18. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laguna, George R.; Peter, Frank J.; Butler, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir.

  19. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Butler, M.A.

    1999-02-16

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir. 7 figs.

  20. Chemical kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical kinetics of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.

  1. Chemical sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darrow, Christopher B.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Lane, Stephen M.; Lee, Abraham P.; Wang, Amy W.

    2002-01-01

    An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  2. LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-09-24

    The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

  3. Addressing the Recalcitrance of Cellulose Degradation through Cellulase Discovery, Nano-scale Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms, and Kinetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Larry P., Bergstrom, Gary; Corgie, Stephane; Craighead, Harold; Gibson, Donna; Wilson, David

    2011-06-13

    This research project was designed to play a vital role in the development of low cost sugars from cellulosic biomass and contributing to the national effort to displace fossil fuel usage in the USA transportation sector. The goal was to expand the portfolio of cell wall degrading enzymes through innovative research at the nano-scale level, prospecting for novel cellulases and building a kinetic framework for the development of more effective enzymatic conversion processes. More precisely, the goal was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for some cellulases that are very familiar to members of our research team and to investigate what we hope are novel cellulases or new enzyme combinations from the world of plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Hydrolytic activities of various cellulases and cellulase cocktails were monitored at the nanoscale of cellulose fibrils and the microscale of pretreated cellulose particles, and we integrated this insight into a heterogeneous reaction framework. The over-riding approach for this research program was the application of innovative and cutting edge optical and high-throughput screening and analysis techniques for observing how cellulases hydrolyze real substrates.

  4. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its Locality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Sangmo; Strelcov, Evgheni; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Tselev, Alexander; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-01-07

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a powerful tool to investigate electrochemistry in nanoscale volumes. While most SPM-based studies have focused on reactions at the tip-surface junction, charge and mass conservation requires coupled and intrinsically non-local cathodic and anodic processes that can be significantly affected by ambient humidity. Here, we explore the role of water in both cathodic and anodic processes, associated charge transport, and topographic volume changes depending on the polarity of tip bias. The first-order reversal curve current-voltage technique combined with simultaneous detection of the sample topography, referred to as FORC-IVz, was applied to a silver solid ion conductor.more » We found that the protons generated from water affect silver ionic conduction, silver particle formation and dissolution, and mechanical integrity of the material. This work highlights the dual nature (simultaneously local and non-local) of electrochemical SPM studies, which should be considered for comprehensive understanding of nanoscale electrochemistry.« less

  5. Influence of chemical disorder on energy dissipation and defect evolution in advanced alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Jin, Ke; Xue, Haizhou; Lu, Chenyang; Olsen, Raina J.; Beland, Laurent K.; Ullah, Mohammad W.; Zhao, Shijun; Bei, Hongbin; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; et al

    2016-08-01

    We report that historically, alloy development with better radiation performance has been focused on traditional alloys with one or two principal element(s) and minor alloying elements, where enhanced radiation resistance depends on microstructural or nanoscale features to mitigate displacement damage. In sharp contrast to traditional alloys, recent advances of single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs) have opened up new frontiers in materials research. In these alloys, a random arrangement of multiple elemental species on a crystalline lattice results in disordered local chemical environments and unique site-to-site lattice distortions. Based on closely integrated computational and experimental studies using a novel setmore » of SP-CSAs in a face-centered cubic structure, we have explicitly demonstrated that increasing chemical disorder can lead to a substantial reduction in electron mean free paths, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity, which results in slower heat dissipation in SP-CSAs. The chemical disorder also has a significant impact on defect evolution under ion irradiation. Considerable improvement in radiation resistance is observed with increasing chemical disorder at electronic and atomic levels. Finally, the insights into defect dynamics may provide a basis for understanding elemental effects on evolution of radiation damage in irradiated materials and may inspire new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for advanced energy systems.« less

  6. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  7. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  8. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  9. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  10. Lensless imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures by X-ray Spectro-Holography J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter and J. Stöhr (SSRL) The unprecedented properties of X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) under development world wide will open the door for entirely new classes of experiments. The ultra-short time structure of the ultra-bright x-ray pulses will revolutionize the field of femtosecond x-ray science, since it will become possible to obtain sufficient information about a system from probing it

  11. Image Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Image Gallery The Trinity Test of 1945 was the first full-scale, real-world test of a nuclear weapon; with the new Trinity supercomputer our goal is to do this virtually, in 3D. Click thumbnails to enlarge. Photos arranged by most recent first, horizontal formats before vertical. See Flickr for more sizes and details. Groves and Oppenheimer, 9-11-45 (799398) Groves and Oppenheimer, 9-11-45 (799398) Trinity (C761, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Photo by Jack Aeby) Trinity (C761, Los Alamos

  12. Modular strategies for PET imaging agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, , J.M.

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging.

  13. Volatile chemical reagent detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Liaohai; McBranch, Duncan; Wang, Rong; Whitten, David

    2004-08-24

    A device for detecting volatile chemical reagents based on fluorescence quenching analysis that is capable of detecting neutral electron acceptor molecules. The device includes a fluorescent material, a contact region, a light source, and an optical detector. The fluorescent material includes at least one polymer-surfactant complex. The polymer-surfactant complex is formed by combining a fluorescent ionic conjugated polymer with an oppositely charged surfactant. The polymer-surfactant complex may be formed in a polar solvent and included in the fluorescent material as a solution. Alternatively, the complex may be included in the fluorescent material as a thin film. The use of a polymer-surfactant complex in the fluorescent material allows the device to detect both neutral and ionic acceptor molecules. The use of a polymer-surfactant complex film allows the device and the fluorescent material to be reusable after exposing the fluorescent material to a vacuum for limited time.

  14. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  15. Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution Friday, February 27, 2015 The energy density of current batteries is limited by the practical capacity of the positive electrode, which is the determined by the properties of the active material and its concentration in the

  16. Corsicana Chemical Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corsicana Chemical Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Corsicana Chemical Company Place: Corsicana, Texas Zip: 75110 Product: Chemical company and biodiesel producer in...

  17. Atlanta Chemical Engineering LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Atlanta Chemical Engineering LLC Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Atlanta Chemical Engineering LLC Name: Atlanta Chemical Engineering LLC Place: Marietta, Georgia Country: United...

  18. chemical_methods | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Methods Chemical methods focus mainly on alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) processes that involve the injection of micellar-polymers into the reservoir. Chemical flooding ...

  19. Shanghai TL Chemical Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shanghai TL Chemical Company Place: Shanghai, China Zip: 200240 Product: Focuses on novel chemical structure PEM and PE Resin, PEM FC materials and parts, Key chemical...

  20. Speckle imaging algorithms for planetary imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, E.

    1994-11-15

    I will discuss the speckle imaging algorithms used to process images of the impact sites of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The algorithms use a phase retrieval process based on the average bispectrum of the speckle image data. High resolution images are produced by estimating the Fourier magnitude and Fourier phase of the image separately, then combining them and inverse transforming to achieve the final result. I will show raw speckle image data and high-resolution image reconstructions from our recent experiment at Lick Observatory.

  1. Gas phase chemical detection with an integrated chemical analysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; KOTTENSTETTE,RICHARD; HELLER,EDWIN J.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; LEWIS,PATRICK R.; MANGINELL,RONALD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.

    2000-04-12

    Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample preconcentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described.

  2. Gas Phase Chemical Detection with an Integrated Chemical Analysis System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baca, Albert G.; Casalnuovo, Stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Hietala, Susan L.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Matzke, Carloyn M.; Reno, John L.; Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1999-07-08

    Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample concentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described. The design and performance of novel micromachined acoustic wave devices, with the potential for improved chemical sensitivity, are also described.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Z Pulsed Power Facility: Image Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Image Gallery .

  4. ARM - Measurement - Inorganic chemical composition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsInorganic chemical composition ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Inorganic chemical composition The chemical composition of an aerosol, with the exception of those with hydrocarbons, and usually including carbides, oxides of carbon, metallic carbonates, carbon sulfur compounds, and carbon nitrogen compounds. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is

  5. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Enhancing chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of enhancing selected chemical reactions. The population of a selected high vibrational energy state of a reactant molecule is increased substantially above its population at thermal equilibrium by directing onto the molecule a beam of radiant energy from a laser having a combination of frequency and intensity selected to pump the selected energy state, and the reaction is carried out with the temperature, pressure, and concentrations of reactants maintained at a combination of values selected to optimize the reaction in preference to thermal degradation by transforming the absorbed energy into translational motion. The reaction temperature is selected to optimize the reaction. Typically a laser and a frequency doubler emit radiant energy at frequencies of .nu. and 2.nu. into an optical dye within an optical cavity capable of being tuned to a wanted frequency .delta. or a parametric oscillator comprising a non-centrosymmetric crystal having two indices of refraction, to emit radiant energy at the frequencies of .nu., 2.nu., and .delta. (and, with a parametric oscillator, also at 2.nu.-.delta.). Each unwanted frequency is filtered out, and each desired frequency is focused to the desired radiation flux within a reaction chamber and is reflected repeatedly through the chamber while reactants are fed into the chamber and reaction products are removed therefrom.

  7. DNA and RNA sequencing by nanoscale reading through programmable electrophoresis and nanoelectrode-gated tunneling and dielectric detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James W.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for performing nucleic acid (DNA and/or RNA) sequencing on a single molecule. The genetic sequence information is obtained by probing through a DNA or RNA molecule base by base at nanometer scale as though looking through a strip of movie film. This DNA sequencing nanotechnology has the theoretical capability of performing DNA sequencing at a maximal rate of about 1,000,000 bases per second. This enhanced performance is made possible by a series of innovations including: novel applications of a fine-tuned nanometer gap for passage of a single DNA or RNA molecule; thin layer microfluidics for sample loading and delivery; and programmable electric fields for precise control of DNA or RNA movement. Detection methods include nanoelectrode-gated tunneling current measurements, dielectric molecular characterization, and atomic force microscopy/electrostatic force microscopy (AFM/EFM) probing for nanoscale reading of the nucleic acid sequences.

  8. Identification of the stimulated-emission threshold in high-{beta} nanoscale lasers through phase-space reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hachair, X.; Elvira, D.; Le Gratiet, L.; Lemaitre, A.; Abram, I.; Sagnes, I.; Robert-Philip, I.; Beveratos, A.; Braive, R.; Lippi, G. L.

    2011-05-15

    Nanoscale lasers sustain a few optical modes so that the fraction of spontaneous emission {beta} funnelled into the useful (lasing) mode is high (of the order of 10{sup -1}) and the threshold, which traditionally corresponds to an abrupt kink in the light-in-light-out curve, becomes ill defined. We propose an alternative definition of the threshold that is based on the dynamical response of the laser and is valid even for {beta}=1 lasers. The laser dynamics is analyzed through a reconstruction of its phase-space trajectory for pulsed excitations. Crossing the threshold, brings about a change in the shape of the trajectory and in the area contained in it. An unambiguous determination of the threshold in terms of this change is shown theoretically and illustrated experimentally in a photonic-crystal laser.

  9. Effect of geometrical constraint condition on the formation of nanoscale twins in the Ni-based metallic glass composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.H.; Kim, B.S.; Kim, D.H.; Ott, R.T.; Sansoz, F.; Eckert, J.

    2014-04-25

    We investigated the effect of geometrically constrained stress-strain conditions on the formation of nanotwins in alpha-brass phase reinforced Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass (MG) matrix deformed under macroscopic uniaxial compression. The specific geometrically constrained conditions in the samples lead to a deviation from a simple uniaxial state to a multi-axial stress state, for which nanocrystallization in the MG matrix together with nanoscale twinning of the brass reinforcement is observed in localized regions during plastic flow. The nanocrystals in the MG matrix and the appearance of the twinned structure in the reinforcements indicate that the strain energy is highly confined and the local stress reaches a very high level upon yielding. Both the effective distribution of reinforcements on the strain enhancement of composite and the effects of the complicated stress states on the development of nanotwins in the second-phase brass particles are discussed.

  10. Thermal stability of sputter-deposited 330 austenitic stainless-steel thin films with nanoscale growth twins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.; Misra, A.; Wang, H.; Swadener, J.G.; Lima, A.L.; Hundley, M.F.; Hoagland, R.G.

    2005-12-05

    We have explored the thermal stability of nanoscale growth twins in sputter-deposited 330 stainless-steel (SS) films by vacuum annealing up to 500 deg. C. In spite of an average twin spacing of only 4 nm in the as-deposited films, no detectable variation in the twin spacing or orientation of twin interfaces was observed after annealing. An increase in the average columnar grain size was observed after annealing. The hardness of 330 SS films increases after annealing, from 7 GPa for as-deposited films to around 8 GPa for annealed films, while the electrical resistivity decreases slightly after annealing. The changes in mechanical and electrical properties after annealing are interpreted in terms of the corresponding changes in the residual stress and microstructure of the films.

  11. Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen Chemistry in Pristine Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Genc, Arda; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Browning, Nigel D.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.

    2013-05-14

    Li-rich layered material Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 possesses high voltage and high specific capacity, which makes it an attractive candidate for the transportation industry and sustainable energy storage systems. The rechargeable capacity of the Li-ion battery is linked largely to the structural stability of the cathode materials during the charge-discharge cycles. However, the structure and cation distribution in pristine (un-cycled) Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 have not yet been fully characterized. Using a combination of aberration-corrected scanning/transmission electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (XEDS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and complementary multislice image simulation, we have probed the crystal structure, cation/anion distribution, and electronic structure of Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 nanoparticle. We discovered that the electronic structure and valence state of transition metal ions show significant variations, which have been identified to be attributed to the oxygen deficiency near the particle surfaces. Characterization of the nanoscale phase separation and cation ordering in the pristine material are critical for understanding the capacity and voltage fading of this material for battery application.

  12. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr.

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  13. FAQS Reference Guide- Chemical Processing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the February 2010 edition of DOE-STD-1176-2010, Chemical Processing Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  14. Chemical Looping | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to convert fossil fuels to electricity and provide carbon capture without significant efficiency or cost penalties. Chemical looping combustion is very similar to oxy-fuel...

  15. Chemical Logging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    concentrations.1 Use in Geothermal Exploration During a chemical logging study at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site, returned drilling fluid samples were collected every...

  16. Methods for spectral image analysis by exploiting spatial simplicity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2010-05-25

    Several full-spectrum imaging techniques have been introduced in recent years that promise to provide rapid and comprehensive chemical characterization of complex samples. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful chemical information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution, have proven effective for extracting the essential chemical information from high dimensional spectral image data sets into a limited number of components that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the chemical species comprising the sample. There are many cases, however, in which those constraints are not effective and where alternative approaches may provide new analytical insights. For many cases of practical importance, imaged samples are "simple" in the sense that they consist of relatively discrete chemical phases. That is, at any given location, only one or a few of the chemical species comprising the entire sample have non-zero concentrations. The methods of spectral image analysis of the present invention exploit this simplicity in the spatial domain to make the resulting factor models more realistic. Therefore, more physically accurate and interpretable spectral and abundance components can be extracted from spectral images that have spatially simple structure.

  17. Methods for spectral image analysis by exploiting spatial simplicity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2010-11-23

    Several full-spectrum imaging techniques have been introduced in recent years that promise to provide rapid and comprehensive chemical characterization of complex samples. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful chemical information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution, have proven effective for extracting the essential chemical information from high dimensional spectral image data sets into a limited number of components that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the chemical species comprising the sample. There are many cases, however, in which those constraints are not effective and where alternative approaches may provide new analytical insights. For many cases of practical importance, imaged samples are "simple" in the sense that they consist of relatively discrete chemical phases. That is, at any given location, only one or a few of the chemical species comprising the entire sample have non-zero concentrations. The methods of spectral image analysis of the present invention exploit this simplicity in the spatial domain to make the resulting factor models more realistic. Therefore, more physically accurate and interpretable spectral and abundance components can be extracted from spectral images that have spatially simple structure.

  18. FAQS Gap Analysis Qualification Card - Chemical Processing |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemical Processing FAQS Gap Analysis Qualification Card - Chemical Processing Functional Area Qualification Standard Gap Analysis Qualification Cards outline the differences ...

  19. Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development for high efficiency clean combustion engines Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development for high ...

  20. Split image optical display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-05-31

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  1. Split image optical display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2007-05-29

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  2. Direct observation of interface and nanoscale compositional modulation in ternary III-As heterostructure nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesan, Sriram; Scheu, Christina; Madsen, Morten H.; Krogstrup, Peter; Johnson, Erik; Schmid, Herbert

    2013-08-05

    Straight, axial InAs nanowire with multiple segments of Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As was grown. High resolution X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping reveals the distribution of group III atoms at the axial interfaces and at the sidewalls. Significant Ga enrichment, accompanied by a structural change is observed at the Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As/InAs interfaces and a higher Ga concentration for the early grown Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As segments. The elemental map and EDS line profile infer Ga enrichment at the facet junctions between the sidewalls. The relative chemical potentials of ternary alloys and the thermodynamic driving force for liquid to solid transition explains the growth mechanisms behind the enrichment.

  3. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase ... are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. ...

  4. In the OSTI Collections: Nanotechnology | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... catalysis; theory, modeling and simulation; electronic materials; nanoscale photonics; soft and biological materials; imaging and spectroscopy; and nanoscale integration. ...

  5. ImageJ

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ImageJFiji can display, edit, analyze, process, save and print 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit images. It can read many image formats including TIFF, GIF, JPEG, BMP, DICOM, FITS and ...

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiO microspheres with different nanoscale building blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Ling; Hao Yanjing; Zhao Yan; Lai Qiongyu; Xu Xiaoyun

    2010-11-15

    NiO microspheres were successfully obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor, which were synthesized via the hydrothermal reaction of nickel chloride, glucose and ammonia. The products were characterized by TGA, XRD and SEM. The influences of glucose and reaction temperature on the morphologies of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism for the spherical morphology was proposed. The charge/discharge test showed that the as-prepared NiO microspheres composed of nanoparticles can serve as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor due to the spherical hollow structure. -- Graphical Abstract: Fig. 5 is the SEM image of NiO that was prepared in the different hydrothermal reaction temperatures. It showed that reaction temperature played a crucial role for the morphology of products.

  7. Techniques in diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, G.H. ); Worthington, B.S. )

    1989-01-01

    This book provides aspirant radiologists worldwide with a modern international coverage of all imaging modalities, including plan x-ray, CT magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear medicine.

  8. Manhattan Project: Image Retouching`

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Image Retouching Resources > Photo Gallery Smyth Report (original) Smyth Report (retouched) Images on this web site have sometimes been "retouched." In every case, however, the ...

  9. Chemical Management Volume 3 of 3 - Consolidated Chemical User...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Code NFPA 45 (2004), Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals NFPA 51 (1997), Standard for the Design and Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems NFPA 55 ...

  10. Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-11-13

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

  11. Method of forming a chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.; Wendt, Kraig M.

    2007-10-09

    A method of forming a chemical composition such as a chemical hydride is described and which includes the steps of selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of hydrogen; and exposing the selected composition to an amount of ionizing radiation to encourage the changing of the chemical bonds of the selected composition, and chemically reacting the selected composition with the source of hydrogen to facilitate the formation of a chemical hydride.

  12. Non-planar chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Sokolowski, Sara S.; Lewis, Patrick R.

    2006-10-10

    A non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a high-surface area, low mass, three-dimensional, flow-through sorption support structure that can be coated or packed with a sorptive material. The sorptive material can collect and concentrate a chemical analyte from a fluid stream and rapidly release it as a very narrow temporal plug for improved separations in a microanalytical system. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator retains most of the thermal and fabrication benefits of a planar preconcentrator, but has improved ruggedness and uptake, while reducing sorptive coating concerns and extending the range of collectible analytes.

  13. Chemical microreactor and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan

    2011-08-09

    A method for forming a chemical microreactor includes forming at least one capillary microchannel in a substrate having at least one inlet and at least one outlet, integrating at least one heater into the chemical microreactor, interfacing the capillary microchannel with a liquid chemical reservoir at the inlet of the capillary microchannel, and interfacing the capillary microchannel with a porous membrane near the outlet of the capillary microchannel, the porous membrane being positioned beyond the outlet of the capillary microchannel, wherein the porous membrane has at least one catalyst material imbedded therein.

  14. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for Imaging Body Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krohn, Ken

    2001-04-25

    PET is a nuclear medicine technology for imaging chemical processes as they are occurring in the human body. This distinguishes it from conventional radiographic and NMR imaging, which depict anatomic changes that generally occur secondary to chemical changes. As our knowledge about human genomics and molecular biology increases and as we develop new approaches to therapy based on this biochemical information, it becomes increasingly important to be able to image important chemical processes occurring in vivo. Methods exist for imaging metabolic rates for energy utilization, cellular proliferation, and protein synthesis. The sending and receiving function of neurotransmitters can be imaged to test for mismatch in their communication function. Gene transfection can be imaged with PET reporters. All of these approaches allow the physician to better select the appropriate treatment for an individual patient, rather than basing treatment on historical experience for a population of similar patients. The technology for PET requires synthesis of positron emitting radioactive molecules, most commonly labeled with C-11 (20.4m) and F-18 (109.8 m) which are made on site with an accelerator. FNAL was involved in developing new RFQ technology for making PET isotopes. The technology also requires better imaging technology, including scintillators, and more robust algorithms for image reconstruction and data analysis.

  15. Improved ductility of a transformation-induced-plasticity steel by nanoscale austenite lamellae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yongfeng; liu, Yandong; Sun, Xin; Wang, Y. D.; Zuo, Liang; Misra, R. D. K.

    2013-07-02

    TRIP (transformation-induced-plasticity) steel with a chemical composition of 0.19C0.30Si1.76Mn1.52Al (weight percentage, wt.%) have been treated by intercritical annealing and austempering process. The microstructures of the obtained samples consist of the ferrite, the bainite and the retained austenite phase. The volume fractions of the bainite and the retained austenite gradually increase with increasing the temperature of the intercritical annealing. Consequently, significantly different mechanical properties have been observed. The sample annealed at 820C (for 120s) and partitioned at 400C (for 300s) has the best combination of ultimate tensile strength (UTS, ~682 MPa) and elongation to failure (~70%) with about 26% of bainitic ferrite plates and 17% retained austenite in its microstructure. The retained austenite has a lamella morphology with 100300 nm in thickness and 25 ?m in length. On the contrary, the sample annealed at the same temperature without the partitioning process yields much lower UTS and elongation to failure.

  16. In Situ STEM-EELS observation of nanoscale interfacial phenomena in all-solid-state batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Ziying; Xin, Huolin L.; Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; He, Kai; Li, Juchuan; Dudney, Nancy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-05-03

    Behaviors of functional interfaces are crucial factors in the performance and safety of energy storage and conversion devices. Indeed, solid electrode–solid electrolyte interfacial impedance is now considered the main limiting factor in all-solid-state batteries rather than low ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. Here, we present a new approach to conducting in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in order to uncover the unique interfacial phenomena related to lithium ion transport and its corresponding charge transfer. Our approach allowed quantitative spectroscopic characterization of a galvanostatically biased electrochemical system under in situ conditions. Usingmore » a LiCoO2/LiPON/Si thin film battery, an unexpected structurally disordered interfacial layer between LiCoO2 cathode and LiPON electrolyte was discovered to be inherent to this interface without cycling. During in situ charging, spectroscopic characterization revealed that this interfacial layer evolved to form highly oxidized Co ions species along with lithium oxide and lithium peroxide species. Here, these findings suggest that the mechanism of interfacial impedance at the LiCoO2/LiPON interface is caused by chemical changes rather than space charge effects. Insights gained from this technique will shed light on important challenges of interfaces in all-solid-state energy storage and conversion systems and facilitate improved engineering of devices operated far from equilibrium.« less

  17. Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Qian, Jiangfeng; Nasybulin, Eduard; Welch, David A.; Park, Chiwoo; Faller, Roland; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Evans, James E.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-07-27

    Lithium (Li)-ion batteries are currently used for a wide variety of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and renewable energy applications. In addition, extensive worldwide research efforts are now being devoted to more advanced “beyond Li-ion” battery chemistries - such as lithium-sulfur (Li-S) and lithium-air (Li-O2) - in which the carbon anode is replaced with Li metal. However, the practical application of Li metal anode systems has been highly problematic. The main challenges involve controlling the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer and the suppression of Li dendrite growth during the charge/discharge process (achieving “dendrite-free” cycling). The SEI layer formation continuously consumes the electrolyte components creating highly resistive layer, which leads to the rapid decrease of cycling performance and degradation of the Li anode. The growth of Li metal dendrites at the anode contributes to rapid capacity fading (the presence of “dead Li” created during the discharge leads to an increased overpotential) and, in the case of continuous growth, leads to internal short circuits and extreme safety issues. Here we demonstrate the application of an operando electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (ec-(S)TEM) cell to study the SEI layer formation and the initial stages of Li dendrite growth - the goal is to develop a mechanism for mitigating the degradation processes and increasing safety. Bright field (BF) STEM images in Figure 1 A-C show Li metal deposition and dissolution processes at the interface between the Pt working electrode and the lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte during three charge/discharge cycles. A contrast reversal caused by Li metal being lighter/less dense than surrounding electrolyte (Li appears brighter than the background in BF STEM images) allows Li to be uniquely identified from the other components in the system - the only solid

  18. Generalized chemical route to develop fatty acid capped highly dispersed semiconducting metal sulphide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, Jayesh D.; Chemical Engineering Department, University of Laval, Quebec, QC, G1K 7P4 ; Mighri, Frej; Chemical Engineering Department, University of Laval, Quebec, QC, G1K 7P4 ; Ajji, Abdellah; Chemical Engineering Department, Ecole Polytechnique, C.P. 6079, Succ. Centre-Ville Montreal, QC, H3C 3A7

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Chemical route for the synthesis of OA-capped CdS, ZnS and PbS at low temperature. ► Synthesized nanocrystals via thermolysis of their metal–oleate complexes. ► Size quantized nanocrystals were highly dispersed and stable at room temperature. -- Abstract: This work deals with the synthesis of highly dispersed semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs) of cadmium sulphide (CdS), zinc sulphide (ZnS) and lead sulphide (PbS) through a simple and generalized process using oleic acid (OA) as surfactant. To synthesize these NCs, metal–oleate (M–O) complexes were obtained from the reaction at 140 °C between metal acetates and OA in hexanes media. Subsequently, M–O complexes were sulphurized using thioacetamide at the same temperature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations show that the synthesized products are of nanoscale-size with highly crystalline cubic phase. The optical absorption of OA-capped metal sulphide NCs confirms that their size quantization induced a large shift towards visible region. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of CdS NCs shows a broad band-edge emission with shallow and deep-trap emissions, while PL spectrum of ZnS NCs reveals a broad emission due to defects states on the surface. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicate that fatty acid monolayers were bound strongly on the nanocrystal surface as a carboxylate and the two oxygen atoms of the carboxylate were coordinated symmetrically to the surface of the NCs. The strong binding between the fatty acid and the NCs surface enhances the stability of NCs colloids. In general, this generalized route has a great potential in developing nanoscale metal sulphides for opto-electronic devices.

  19. Mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Lewis, Patrick R.

    2007-01-30

    A microfabricated mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator actively measures the mass of a sample on an acoustic microbalance during the collection process. The microbalance comprises a chemically sensitive interface for collecting the sample thereon and an acoustic-based physical transducer that provides an electrical output that is proportional to the mass of the collected sample. The acoustic microbalance preferably comprises a pivot plate resonator. A resistive heating element can be disposed on the chemically sensitive interface to rapidly heat and release the collected sample for further analysis. Therefore, the mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  20. Self-Assembly by Instruction: Designing Nanoscale Systems Using DNA-Based Approaches (474th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gang, Oleg

    2012-01-18

    In the field of nanoscience, if you can control how nanoparticles self-assemble in particular structures — joining each other, for example, as molecules can form, atom-by-atom — you can design new materials that have unique properties that industry needs. Nature already uses the DNA genetic code to instruct the building of specific proteins and whole organisms in both plants and people. Taking a cue from nature, scientists at BNL devised a way of using strands of synthetic DNA attached to the surface of nanoparticles to instruct them to self-assemble into specific nanoscale structures, clusters, and three-dimensional organizations. Novel materials designed and fabricated this way promise use in photovoltaics, energy storage, catalysis, cell-targeted systems for more effective medical treatments, and biomolecular sensing for environmental monitoring and medical applications. To find out more about the rapid evolution of this nanoassembly method and its applications, join Physicist Oleg Gang of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) as he gives the 474th Brookhaven Lecture, titled “Self-Assembly by Instruction: Designing Nanoscale Systems Using DNA-Based Approaches." Gang, who has led this work at the CFN, will explain the rapid evolution of this nanoassembly method, and discuss its present and future applications in highly specific biosensors, optically active nano-materials, and new ways to fabricate complex architectures in a rational manner via self-assembly. Gang and his colleagues used the CFN and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facilities to perform their groundbreaking research. At the CFN, the scientists used electron microscopes and optical methods to visualize the clusters that they fabricated. At the NSLS, they applied x-rays to study a particles-assembly process in solution, DNA’s natural environment. Gang earned a Ph.D. in soft matter physics from Bar-Ilan University in 2000, and he was a Rothschild Fellow at Harvard