Sample records for nanoscale chemical imaging

  1. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When...

  2. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruckNanostructued Glass-Ceramic Waste FormsNanoscale Chemical

  3. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruckNanostructued Glass-Ceramic Waste FormsNanoscaleNanoscale

  4. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruckNanostructued Glass-Ceramic Waste FormsNanoscale

  5. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilver Toyota PriusNSR KeyNUGNanoscale Chemical

  6. Science Highlight July 2011 Better Batteries through Nanoscale 3D Chemical Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Science Highlight ­ July 2011 Better Batteries through Nanoscale 3D Chemical Imaging Concerns battery technology. Although Li-ion batteries, crucial in the boom of portable electronics, stand energy density devices. Hence, monitoring changes in electrodes during battery operation (i.e., insertion

  7. Frequency Resolved Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of 4,4'-Dimercaptostilbene on Silver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Ueltschi, Tyler W.; Mifflin, Amanda L.; Hu, Dehong; Hess, Wayne P.

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-resonant tip-enhanced Raman images of 4,4'-dimercaptostilbene on silver reveal that different vibrational resonances of the reporter are selectively enhanced at different sites on the metal substrate. Sequentially recorded images track molecular diffusion within the diffraction-limited laser spot which illuminates the substrate. In effect, the recorded time resolved (?t = 10 s) pixelated images (25 nm x 8 cm-1) broadcast molecule-local field interactions which take place on much finer scales.

  8. Site-Specific Raman Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics of Nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Raman Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics of Nanoscale Interstitial Systems. Site-Specific Raman Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics of Nanoscale Interstitial Systems. Abstract:...

  9. Spatially resolved chemical imaging of individual atmospheric particles using nanoscale imaging mass spectrometry: Insighs into particle origin and chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Weber, Peter K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the spatially-resolved composition of atmospheric particles is essential for differentiating between their surface versus bulk chemistry, understanding particle reactivity and the potential environmental impact. We demonstrate the application of nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (Cameca NanoSIMS 50 ion probe) for 3D chemical imaging of individual atmospheric particles without any sample pre-treatment, such as the sectioning of particles. Use of NanoSIMS depth profile analysis enables elemental mapping of particles with nanometer spatial resolution over a broad of range of particle sizes. We have used this technique to probe spatially resolved composition of ambient particles collected during a field campaign in Mexico City. Particles collected during this campaign have been extensively characterized in the past using other particle analysis techniques and hence offer a unique opportunity for exploring the utility of depth resolved chemical imaging in ambient particle research. 1 Particles examined in this study include those collected during a pollution episode related to urban waste incineration as well as background particles from the same location prior to the episode. Particles from the pollution episode show substantial intra-particle compositional variability typical of particles resulting from multiple emission sources. In contrast, the background particles have relatively homogeneous compositions with enhanced presence of nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine at the particle surface. The observed surface enhancement of nitrogen and oxygen species is consistent with the presence of surface nitrates resulting from gas-particle heterogeneous interactions and is indicative of atmospheric ageing of the particles. The results presented here illustrate 3D characterization of ambient particles for insights into their chemical history.

  10. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the...

  11. Nano-scale scratching in chemical-mechanical polishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eusner, Thor

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) process, a critical step in the manufacture of ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) semiconductor devices, undesirable nano-scale scratches are formed on the surfaces being ...

  12. Postdoctoral Research Associate Imaging and Nanoscale Characterization Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Qian Li Postdoctoral Research Associate Imaging and Nanoscale Characterization Group Center-ion battery and fuel cell materials. 2. Surface Charge and Polarization Dynamics of Ferroelectrics The surface

  13. Infrared Scattering Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy Using An External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser For Nanoscale Chemical Imaging And Spectroscopy of Explosive Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Ian M.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Josberger, Erik E.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

    2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) is an apertureless superfocusing technique that uses the antenna properties of a conducting atomic force microscope (AFM) tip to achieve infrared spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. The instrument can be used either in imaging mode, where a fixed wavelength light source is tuned to a molecular resonance and the AFM raster scans an image, or in spectroscopy mode where the AFM is held stationary over a feature of interest and the light frequency is varied to obtain a spectrum. In either case, a strong, stable, coherent infrared source is required. Here we demonstrate the integration of a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) into an s-SNOM and use it to obtain infrared spectra of microcrystals of chemicals adsorbed onto gold substrates. Residues of the explosive compound tetryl was deposited onto gold substrates. s-SNOM experiments were performed in the 1260-1400 cm?1 tuning range of the ECQCL, corresponding to the NO2 symmetric stretch vibrational fingerprint region. Vibrational infrared spectra were collected on individual chemical domains with a collection area of *500nm2 and compared to ensemble averaged far-field reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) results.

  14. XEDS STEM Tomography For 3D Chemical Characterization Of Nanoscale Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genc, Arda; Kovarik, Libor; Gu, Meng; Cheng, Huikai; Plachinda, Pavel; Pullan, Lee; Freitag, Bert; Wang, Chong M.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a tomography technique which couples scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (XEDS) to resolve 3D distribution of elements in nanoscale materials. STEM imaging when combined with a symmetrically arranged XEDS detector design around the specimen overcomes many of the obstacles in 3D spectroscopic tomography of nanoscale materials and successfully elucidate the 3D chemical information in a large field of view of the TEM sample. We employed this technique to investigate 3D distribution of Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn) and Oxygen (O) in Li(NiMn)O2 battery cathode material. For this purpose, 2D elemental maps were acquired for a range of tilt angles and reconstructed to obtain 3D elemental distribution in an isolated Li(NiMnO2) nanoparticle. The results highlight the strength of this technique in 3D chemical analysis of nanoscale materials by successfully resolving Ni, Mn and O elemental distributions in 3D and discovering the new phenomenon of Ni surface segregation in this material. Furthermore, the comparison of simultaneously acquired HAADF STEM and XEDS STEM tomography results show that XEDS STEM tomography provides additional 3D chemical information of the material especially when there is low atomic number (Z) contrast in the material of interest.

  15. Nanoscale Current Imaging of the Conducting Channels in Proton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buratto, Steve

    Nanoscale Current Imaging of the Conducting Channels in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells David A area of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is investigated using conductive probe atomic particle at its end. This is due to the formation of protons, at the carbon cloth side of the cell

  16. A robust, scanning quantum system for nanoscale sensing and imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Maletinsky; S. Hong; M. S. Grinolds; B. Hausmann; M. D. Lukin; R. -L. Walsworth; M. Loncar; A. Yacoby

    2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Controllable atomic-scale quantum systems hold great potential as sensitive tools for nanoscale imaging and metrology. Possible applications range from nanoscale electric and magnetic field sensing to single photon microscopy, quantum information processing, and bioimaging. At the heart of such schemes is the ability to scan and accurately position a robust sensor within a few nanometers of a sample of interest, while preserving the sensor's quantum coherence and readout fidelity. These combined requirements remain a challenge for all existing approaches that rely on direct grafting of individual solid state quantum systems or single molecules onto scanning-probe tips. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication and room temperature operation of a robust and isolated atomic-scale quantum sensor for scanning probe microscopy. Specifically, we employ a high-purity, single-crystalline diamond nanopillar probe containing a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) color center. We illustrate the versatility and performance of our scanning NV sensor by conducting quantitative nanoscale magnetic field imaging and near-field single-photon fluorescence quenching microscopy. In both cases, we obtain imaging resolution in the range of 20 nm and sensitivity unprecedented in scanning quantum probe microscopy.

  17. Self-Powered Wireless Nano-scale Sensor Networks within Chemical Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    a reactor for a bottom-up control of the chemical synthesis with the ultimate goal of improvingSelf-Powered Wireless Nano-scale Sensor Networks within Chemical Reactors Eisa Zarepour1 Mahbub networks (NSNs) can be applied in many chemical applications to monitor and control the chemical process

  18. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilver Toyota PriusNSR KeyNUG NUCLEARNXCenter

  19. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilver Toyota PriusNSR KeyNUG

  20. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilver Toyota PriusNSR KeyNUGNanoscale

  1. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruckNanostructued Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms -Spectrometry

  2. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruckNanostructued Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms

  3. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruckNanostructued Glass-Ceramic Waste

  4. High transmission nanoscale bowtie-shaped aperture probe for near-field optical imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    High transmission nanoscale bowtie-shaped aperture probe for near-field optical imaging Liang Wang probe integrated with nanoscale bowtie aperture for enhanced optical transmission is demonstrated. The bowtie-shape aperture allows a propagating mode in the bowtie gap region, which enables simultaneous

  5. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Black, Jennifer M [ORNL; Wisinger, Nina [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquid cell.

  6. Advances in quantitative nanoscale subsurface imaging by mode-synthesizing atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitry, P.; Bourillot, E.; Plassard, C.; Lacroute, Y.; Lesniewska, E. [ICB, UMR CNRS 6303 CNRS-University of Bourgogne, Dijon F-21078 (France); Tetard, L. [Nanoscience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32826 (United States)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on advances toward quantitative non-destructive nanoscale subsurface investigation of a nanofabricated sample based on mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy with heterodyne detection, addressing the need to correlate the role of actuation frequencies of the probe f{sub p} and the sample f{sub s} with depth resolution for 3D tomography reconstruction. Here, by developing a simple model and validating the approach experimentally through the study of the nanofabricated calibration depth samples consisting of buried metallic patterns, we demonstrate avenues for quantitative nanoscale subsurface imaging. Our findings enable the reconstruction of the sample depth profile and allow high fidelity resolution of the buried nanostructures. Non-destructive quantitative nanoscale subsurface imaging offers great promise in the study of the structures and properties of complex systems at the nanoscale.

  7. Advances in Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Enable Quantitative Tracking of Nanoscale Changes in Thickness and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutcher, John

    Advances in Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Enable Quantitative Tracking of Nanoscale Changes: To date, detailed studies of the thickness of coatings using surface plasmon resonance have been limited a significant improvement to surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) that allows this sensitive technique

  8. Nondestructive volumetric 3-D chemical mapping of nickel-sulfur compounds at the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris W. M.; Chu Y.; Nelson, G.J.; Kiss, A.M.; Izzo Jr, J.R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, M.; Wang, S.; Chiu W.K.S.

    2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-structures of nickel (Ni) and nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) materials were studied and mapped in 3D with high-resolution x-ray nanotomography combined with full field XANES spectroscopy. This method for characterizing these phases in complex microstructures is an important new analytical imaging technique, applicable to a wide range of nanoscale and mesoscale electrochemical systems.

  9. A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres P-vacancy centre within a few nanometres of a sample, and then scan it across the sample surface, while preserving the centre's spin coherence and readout fidelity. However, existing scanning techniques, which use a single

  10. Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ Operation of Battery Electrode and Electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Megan E; Gunceler, Deniz; Gao, Jie; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Schwarz, Kathleen A; Arias, Tomás A; Abruña, Héctor D; Muller, David A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major challenge in the development of new battery materials is understanding their fundamental mechanisms of operation and degradation. Their microscopically inhomogeneous nature calls for characterization tools that provide operando and localized information from individual grains and particles. Here we describe an approach that images the nanoscale distribution of ions during electrochemical charging of a battery in a transmission electron microscope liquid flow cell. We use valence energy-loss spectroscopy to track both solvated and intercalated ions, with electronic structure fingerprints of the solvated ions identified using an ab initio non-linear response theory. Equipped with the new electrochemical cell holder, nanoscale spectroscopy and theory, we have been able to determine the lithiation state of a LiFePO4 electrode and surrounding aqueous electrolyte in real time with nanoscale resolution during electrochemical charge and discharge. We follow lithium transfer between electrode and electrolyte a...

  11. Anasys licenses ORNL nanoscale mass spectrometry imaging technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in imaging resolution as small as 250 nanometers, or 1400th the thickness of a human hair. "This capability could have a tremendous impact on a broad field of applications in...

  12. Microsoft Word - Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale bh

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to engineers striving to reduce the amount of inactive materials such as conductive additives and binders so as to increase the energy density of a system. In this study,...

  13. Microsoft Word - Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale bh

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1 SECTION A. Project Title:404 2.1 Advanced TokamakDraft)

  14. Frontiers in Chemical Imaging Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frontiers in Chemical Imaging Seminar Series On the trail of the Chimera The Atom the Chimera is still elusive. 1. Thomas F. Kelly and David J. Larson. Ann Rev. Materials Res 42 (2012) 1. 2

  15. Frontiers in Chemical Imaging Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the positions of Professor in the Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of TennesseeFrontiers in Chemical Imaging Seminar Series Presented by Dr. Stephen J Pennycook, Ph.D. Materials properties. Finally, the direct imaging and identification of point defect configurations in monolayer BN

  16. Femtosecond Single-Shot Imaging of Nanoscale Ferromagnetic Order in Co/Pd Multilayers using Resonant X-ray Holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Tianhan; Zhu, Diling; Benny Wu,; Graves, Catherine; Schaffert, Stefan; Rander, Torbjorn; Muller, leonard; Vodungbo, Boris; Baumier, Cedric; Bernstein, David P.; Brauer, Bjorn; Cros, Vincent; Jong, Sanne de; Delaunay, Renaud; Fognini, Andreas; Kukreja, Roopali; Lee, Sooheyong; Lopez-Flores, Victor; Mohanty, Jyoti; Pfau, Bastian; Popescu, 5 Horia

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first single-shot images of ferromagnetic, nanoscale spin order taken with femtosecond x-ray pulses. X-ray-induced electron and spin dynamics can be outrun with pulses shorter than 80 fs in the investigated fluence regime, and no permanent aftereffects in the samples are observed below a fluence of 25 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Employing resonant spatially-muliplexed x-ray holography results in a low imaging threshold of 5 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Our results open new ways to combine ultrafast laser spectroscopy with sequential snapshot imaging on a single sample, generating a movie of excited state dynamics.

  17. Chemical Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the Focused Ion BeamScanning Electron Microscopy Technique: Chemical Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the...

  18. Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy Conor L. Evans1§ , Xiaoyin Xu anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to image brain structure and pathology ex vivo. Although. Definitive diagnosis still requires brain biopsy in a significant number of cases. CARS microscopy

  19. Nanoscale Diffusion Studies of Lipid Membranes National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging & Spectroscopy User Facility, University of Florida Chemical Engineering We haveNanoscale Diffusion Studies of Lipid Membranes National High Magnetic Field Laboratory Advanced for the facility's future use. This will serve to enhance infrastructure for research and education at the Magnet

  20. Chemical imaging of thermoplastic olefin (TPO) surface architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, H.R. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Pharmacy] [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Pharmacy; Turner, J.F. II [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Center for Light Microscope Imaging and Biotechnology] [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Center for Light Microscope Imaging and Biotechnology; Munro, B.; Ryntz, R.A. [Visteon Automotive Systems, Dearborn, MI (United States)] [Visteon Automotive Systems, Dearborn, MI (United States); Treado, P.J. [ChemIcon Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [ChemIcon Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In the automotive industry, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) is mixed with polypropylene (PP) to form a thermoplastic olefin (TPO) for use as car bumpers and fascia. An adhesion promoting primer, chlorinated polyolefin (CPO), is spray coated onto the TPO surface to increase adhesion of the base and clear coat paints to the low surface free energy TPO substrate. The surface morphology of rubber domains within the CPO-coated TPO substrate contributes strongly to the material characteristics, including impact resistance and adhesion properties. However, elastomer-phase analysis is challenging using traditional microanalysis imaging techniques. The authors employ fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging to characterize the TPO architecture in order to better understand the surface properties of coated TPO. Fluorescence imaging makes use of Nile red (NR), a fluorescent solvatochromic dye, solvated in the primer, which is effective in differentiating rubber from polypropylene on the basis of large variations in the fluorescence quantum efficiency. Confocal fluorescence chemical imaging performed on T PO coated with NR-doped CPO shows a thin (2--3 {micro}m) layer of elastomer that has migrated to the TPO surface. Raman chemical imaging is in direct agreement with the fluorescence experiments by measuring the intrinsic vibrational signatures of CPO, EPR, and PP without the need for dyes or stains. Raman contrast is enhanced using cosine correlation analysis, a novel multivariate processing technique that provides chemical contrast on the basis of differences in spectral shape.

  1. Atomic Resolution Imaging and Quantification of Chemical Functionality of Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Udo [Yale University

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The work carried out from 2006-2014 under DoE support was targeted at developing new approaches to the atomic-scale characterization of surfaces that include species-selective imaging and an ability to quantify chemical surface interactions with site-specific accuracy. The newly established methods were subsequently applied to gain insight into the local chemical interactions that govern the catalytic properties of model catalysts of interest to DoE. The foundation of our work was the development of three-dimensional atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM), a new measurement mode that allows the mapping of the complete surface force and energy fields with picometer resolution in space (x, y, and z) and piconewton/millielectron volts in force/energy. From this experimental platform, we further expanded by adding the simultaneous recording of tunneling current (3D-AFM/STM) using chemically well-defined tips. Through comparison with simulations, we were able to achieve precise quantification and assignment of local chemical interactions to exact positions within the lattice. During the course of the project, the novel techniques were applied to surface-oxidized copper, titanium dioxide, and silicon oxide. On these materials, defect-induced changes to the chemical surface reactivity and electronic charge density were characterized with site-specific accuracy.

  2. Nanoscale chemical and mechanical characterization of thin films:sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy at buriedinterfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kweskin, S.J.

    2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy was used to characterize interfaces pertinent to current surface engineering applications, such as thin film polymers and novel catalysts. An array of advanced surface science techniques like scanning probe microscopy (SPM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gas chromatography (GC) and electron microscopy were used to obtain experimental measurements complementary to SFG data elucidating polymer and catalyst surface composition, surface structure, and surface mechanical behavior. Experiments reported in this dissertation concentrate on three fundamental questions: (1) How does the interfacial molecular structure differ from that of the bulk in real world applications? (2) How do differences in chemical environment affect interface composition or conformation? (3) How do these changes correlate to properties such as mechanical or catalytic performance? The density, surface energy and bonding at a solid interface dramatically alter the polymer configuration, physics and mechanical properties such as surface glass transition, adhesion and hardness. The enhanced sensitivity of SFG at the buried interface is applied to three systems: a series of acrylates under compression, the compositions and segregation behavior of binary polymer polyolefin blends, and the changes in surface structure of a hydrogel as a function of hydration. In addition, a catalytically active thin film of polymer coated nanoparticles is investigated to evaluate the efficacy of SFG to provide in situ information for catalytic reactions involving small mass adsorption and/or product development. Through the use of SFG, in situ total internal reflection (TIR) was used to increase the sensitivity of SFG and provide the necessary specificity to investigate interfaces of thin polymer films and nanostructures previously considered unfeasible. The dynamic nature of thin film surfaces is examined and it is found that the non-equilibrium states contribute to practical applications of acrylates, blends and hydrogels. Lastly, nanoparticle surfaces and the catalytic activity and selectivity of platinum cube nanoparticles are correlated to the surface intermediates in a high pressure flow reactor.

  3. Millimeter-wave imaging of thermal and chemical signatures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalsami, N.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of a passive millimeter-wave (mm-wave) system is described for remotely mapping thermal and chemical signatures of process effluents with application to arms control and nonproliferation. Because a large amount of heat is usually dissipated in the air or waterway as a by-product of most weapons of mass destruction facilities, remote thermal mapping may be used to detect concealed or open facilities of weapons of mass destruction. We have developed a focal-plane mm-wave imaging system to investigate the potential of thermal mapping. Results of mm-wave images obtained with a 160-GHz radiometer system are presented for different target scenes simulated in the laboratory. Chemical and nuclear facilities may be identified by remotely measuring molecular signatures of airborne molecules emitted from these facilities. We have developed a filterbank radiometer to investigate the potential of passive spectral measurements. Proof of principle is presented by measuring the HDO spectral line at 80.6 GHz with a 4-channel 77-83 GHz radiometer.

  4. 3/04/2008 Center for Nanoscale Systems, FAS, Harvard University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Nanoscale Systems, FAS, Harvard University 5 Filling Out Hazardous Waste Tags 1 of 2 ·Fill In Full Chemical This Blank #12;3/04/2008 Center for Nanoscale Systems, FAS, Harvard University 6 Filling Out Hazardous Waste3/04/2008 Center for Nanoscale Systems, FAS, Harvard University 1 Protocol For User Supplied

  5. Chemical Imaging Infrastructure Research Team: Carina Lansing, Zoe Guillen, Kerstin Kleese-van Dam, Shaun O'Leary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Shaun O'Leary Purpose Support real-time analysis of single and multi-modal chemical imaging experiments

  6. X-ray photon-in/photon-out methods for chemical imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcus, Matthew A.

    2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Most interesting materials in nature are heterogeneous, so it is useful to have analytical techniques with spatial resolution sufficient to resolve these heterogeneities.This article presents the basics of X-ray photon-in/photon-out chemical imaging. This family of methods allows one to derive images reflectingthe chemical state of a given element in a complex sample, at micron or deep sub-micron scale. X-ray chemical imaging is relatively non-destructiveand element-selective, and requires minimal sample preparation. The article presents the basic concepts and some considerations of data takingand data analysis, along with some examples.

  7. Nanoscale Pore Network and Pore Fluid Characterization from Neutron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Pore Network and Pore Fluid Characterization from Neutron Scattering and Modeling Techniques Jul 22 2015 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM Gernot Rother, Chemical Sciences Division...

  8. Correlation chemical shift imaging with low-power adiabatic pulses and constant-density spiral trajectories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andronesi, Ovidiu C.

    In this work we introduce the concept of correlation chemical shift imaging (CCSI). Novel CCSI pulse sequences are demonstrated on clinical scanners for two-dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy (COSY) and Total Correlation ...

  9. In Situ Chemical Imaging of Plant Cell Walls Using CARS/SRS Microscopy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Y.; Liu, Y. S.; Saar, B. G.; Xie, X. S.; Chen, F.; Dixon, R. A.; Himmel, M. E.; Ding S. Y.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This poster demonstrates coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering of plant cell walls. It includes simultaneous chemical imaging of lignin and cellulose (corn stover) during acidic pretreatment.

  10. In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical repellents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schafer, William R.

    Erratum In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical neurons highlighted. From the ASH cell body, the dendrite runs anteriorly until the tip of the head ending

  11. Center for Nanoscale Materials Director Petford-Long chats with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a larger version of the image, click on it. Petford-Long with Center for Nanoscale Materials colleagues (from left) Phil Rash, Ron Tollner, Marvin Kirshenbaum and George Norek...

  12. Probing Nanoscale Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Fluctuation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Fluctuation Dynamics using Correalted AFM and Confocal Ultramicroscopy. Probing Nanoscale Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Fluctuation...

  13. Advanced synchronous luminescence imaging for chemical and medical diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A diagnostic method and associated system includes the steps of exposing at least one sample location with excitation radiation through a single optical waveguide or a single optical waveguide bundle, wherein the sample emits emission radiation in response to the excitation radiation. The same single optical waveguide or the single optical waveguide bundle receives at least a portion of the emission radiation from the sample, thus providing co-registration of the excitation radiation and the emission radiation. The wavelength of the excitation radiation and emission radiation is synchronously scanned to produce a spectrum upon which an image can be formed. An increased emission signal is generated by the enhanced overlap of the excitation and emission focal volumes provided by co-registration of the excitation and emission signals thus increasing the sensitivity as well as decreasing the exposure time necessary to obtain an image.

  14. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase,Reaction-Driven RestructuringReal-Time Chemical

  15. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation ProtectionRaising fundsReal PropertyReal-Time Chemical

  16. Simulation of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition based on 3D images: a local scale approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    infiltration of ceramic matrix composites is presented. This computational model requires a 3D representation/reaction problems; Random walks; 3D image-based modeling 1. Introduction Ceramic Matrix Composites and Carbon with a matrix. One of the most efficient ones is Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI), by which gaseous precursors

  17. Development of New Soft Ionization Mass Spectrometry Approaches for Spatial Imaging of Complex Chemical and Biological Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of New Soft Ionization Mass Spectrometry Approaches for Spatial Imaging of Complex Chemical and Biological Systems Research Team: Julia Laskin, Ljiljana Pasa-Toli, Brandi Heath, Ingela to multiple chemical and biological systems Key Successes Developed unique tools for imaging biological

  18. High-resolution chemical imaging of gold nanoparticles using hard x-ray ptychography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, R.; Patommel, J.; Schroer, C. G. [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, J. [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany) [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Germany; Hofmann, G.; Grunwaldt, J.-D. [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Damsgaard, C. D. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)] [Center for Electron Nanoscopy and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Wellenreuther, G.; Falkenberg, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We combine resonant scattering with (ptychographic) scanning coherent diffraction microscopy to determine the chemical state of gold nanoparticles with high spatial resolution. Ptychographic images of the sample are recorded for a series of energies around the gold L{sub 3} absorption edge. From these data, chemical information in the form of absorption and resonant scattering spectra is reconstructed at each location in the sample. For gold nanoparticles of about 100 nm diameter, a spatial resolution of about 20-30 nm is obtained. In the future, this microscopy approach will open the way to operando studies of heterogeneous catalysts on the nanometer scale.

  19. Supersymmetry Across Nanoscale Heterojunction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Bagchi; A. Ganguly; A. Sinha

    2010-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that supersymmetric transformation could be applied across the heterojunction formed by joining of two mixed semiconductors. A general framework is described by specifying the structure of ladder operators at the junction for making quantitative estimation of physical quantities. For a particular heterojunction device, we show that an exponential grading inside a nanoscale doped layer is amenable to exact analytical treatment for a class of potentials distorted by the junctions through the solutions of transformed Morse-Type potentials.

  20. ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium dendrites...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    865.574.7308 ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium dendrites in batteries ORNL electron microscopy captured the first real-time nanoscale images of the nucleation and...

  1. Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes 2012 DOE...

  2. Mediated Enzyme Electrodes with Combined Micro-and Nanoscale Supports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Mediated Enzyme Electrodes with Combined Micro- and Nanoscale Supports Scott Calabrese Barton which is grown multiwall nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition combined with ohmic heating. Power systems based on ambient fuels will be feasible if the power device itself is capable

  3. Microfluidics and Nanoscale Research Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microfluidics and Nanoscale Science Research Profile Our research group is engaged in a broad range of activities in the general area of microfluidics and nanoscale science. At a primary level, our interest that when compared to macroscale tech- nology, microfluidic systems engender a number of distinct advantages

  4. Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Yi [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Qu, Zhihua [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Braiman, Yehuda [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL; Barhen, Jacob [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.

  5. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electronEnergy ManufacturingMapping the Nanoscale

  6. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electronEnergy ManufacturingMapping the NanoscaleMapping

  7. Nanoscale relaxation oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander K. (Kensington, CA); Regan, Brian C. (Los Angeles, CA); Aloni, Shaul (Albany, CA)

    2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanoscale oscillation device is disclosed, wherein two nanoscale droplets are altered in size by mass transport, then contact each other and merge through surface tension. The device may also comprise a channel having an actuator responsive to mechanical oscillation caused by expansion and contraction of the droplets. It further has a structure for delivering atoms between droplets, wherein the droplets are nanoparticles. Provided are a first particle and a second particle on the channel member, both being made of a chargeable material, the second particle contacting the actuator portion; and electrodes connected to the channel member for delivering a potential gradient across the channel and traversing the first and second particles. The particles are spaced apart a specified distance so that atoms from one particle are delivered to the other particle by mass transport in response to the potential (e.g. voltage potential) and the first and second particles are liquid and touch at a predetermined point of growth, thereby causing merging of the second particle into the first particle by surface tension forces and reverse movement of the actuator. In a preferred embodiment, the channel comprises a carbon nanotube and the droplets comprise metal nanoparticles, e.g. indium, which is readily made liquid.

  8. Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals as nanoscale emissive probes in light emitting diodes and cell biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Hao, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis employs colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) as nanoscale emissive probes to investigate the physics of light emitting diodes (LEDs), as well as to unveil properties of cells that conventional imaging ...

  9. Hierarchy of Electronic Properties of Chemically Derived and Pristine Graphene Probed by Microwave Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundhikanjana, W.

    2010-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Local electrical imaging using microwave impedance microscope is performed on graphene in different modalities, yielding a rich hierarchy of the local conductivity. The low-conductivity graphite oxide and its derivatives show significant electronic inhomogeneity. For the conductive chemical graphene, the residual defects lead to a systematic reduction of the microwave signals. In contrast, the signals on pristine graphene agree well with a lumped-element circuit model. The local impedance information can also be used to verify the electrical contact between overlapped graphene pieces.

  10. Nanoscale heat transfer - from computation to experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Tengfei

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer can differ distinctly at the nanoscale from that at the macroscale. Recent advancement in

  11. Nanoscale Materials in Medicine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation for the Sustainable Nanomaterials Workshop by Auburn University Department of Chemical Engineering held on June 26, 2012

  12. Nanoscale data storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Li

    2007-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The object of this article is to review the development of ultrahigh-density, nanoscale data storage, i.e., nanostorage. As a fundamentally new type of storage system, the recording mechanisms of nanostorage may be completely different to those of the traditional devices. Currently, two types of molecules are being studied for potential application in nanostorage. One is molecular electronic elements including molecular wires, rectifiers, switches, and transistors. The other approach employs nanostructured materials such as nanotubes, nanowires, and nanoparticles. The challenges for nanostorage are not only the materials, ultrahigh data-densities, fabrication-costs, device operating temperatures and large-scale integration, but also the development of the physical principles and models. There are already some breakthroughs obtained, but it is still unclear what kind of nanostorage systems can ultimately replace the current silicon based transistors. A promising candidate may be a molecular-nanostructure hybrid device with sub-5 nm dimensions.

  13. Beyond control - The Uncertainties and Diverging Images of Swedish Chemicals Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haikola, Simon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and European chemicals regulation. Journal of EuropeanSwedish chemicals regulation: An overview and analysis. Riskprinciple in chemical regulation: A constructive critique.

  14. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provides links to each partner's participating organizations. Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division Center for Nanoscale Materials Energy Systems...

  15. NANOSCALE STRUCTURALAND MAGNETIC CHARACTERIZATION USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    of novel nanoscale storage devices and sensors. However, for successful utilization, it is essential]. Such unique properties of magnetic thin films and nanostructures hold great promise for the development to the characterization of nanostructured magnetic materials. 2. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY METHODS In the transmission electron

  16. Nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging C. L. Degena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonardo, Degiorgi

    tobacco mosaic virus particles sitting on a nanometer-thick layer of ad- sorbed hydrocarbons. This result, which represents a 100 million- fold improvement in volume resolution over conventional MRI considerable effort, attempts to push the spatial resolution of conventional MRI into the realm of high

  17. Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Pore network microfluidic models were fabricated by a silicon-on-glass technique that provides the precision advantage of dry etched silicon while creating a structure that is transparent across all microfluidic channels and pores, and can be imaged from either side. A silicon layer is bonded to an underlying borosilicate glass substrate and thinned to the desired height of the microfluidic channels and pores. The silicon is then patterned and through-etched by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), with the underlying glass serving as an etch stop. After bonding on a transparent glass cover plate, one obtains a micromodel in oxygen impermeable materials with water wet surfaces where the microfluidic channels are transparent and structural elements such as the pillars creating the pore network are opaque. The micromodel can be imaged from either side. The advantageous features of this approach in a chemical imaging application are demonstrated by incorporating a Pt porphyrin fluorophore in a PDMS film serving as the oxygen sensing layer and a bonding surface, or in a polystyrene film coated with a PDMS layer for bonding. The sensing of a dissolved oxygen gradient was demonstrated using fluorescence lifetime imaging, and it is shown that different matrix polymers lead to optimal use in different ranges dissolved oxygen concentration. Imaging with the opaque pillars in between the observation direction and the continuous fluorophore film yields images that retain spatial information in the sensor image.

  18. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chinn, Diane (Pleasanton, CA); Stolz, Christopher J. (Lathrop, CA); Wu, Zhouling (Pleasanton, CA); Huber, Robert (Discovery Bay, CA); Weinzapfel, Carolyn (Tracy, CA)

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  19. Dynamic Imaging of Au-nanoparticles via Scanning Electron Microscopy in a Graphene Wet Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wayne Yang; Yuning Zhang; Michael Hilke; Walter Reisner

    2015-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is crucial for studying molecular interactions in biological and chemical systems. In particular, electron microscopy is the gold-standard tool for nanoscale imaging, but its high-vacuum requirements make application to in-liquid samples extremely challenging. Here we present a new graphene based wet cell device where high resolution SEM (scanning electron microscope) and Energy Dispersive X-rays (EDX) analysis can be performed directly inside a liquid environment. Graphene is an ideal membrane material as its high transparancy, conductivity and mechanical strength can support the high vacuum and grounding requirements of a SEM while enabling maximal resolution and signal. In particular, we obtain high resolution (graphene wet cell and EDX analysis of nanoparticle composition in the liquid enviornment. Our obtained resolution surpasses current conventional silicon nitride devices imaged in both SEM and TEM under much higher electron doses.

  20. Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent Behavior in Complex Interfacial Systems. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sibener, Steven J. [University of Chicago, IL (United States)] [University of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program explored the efficacy of using molecular-level manipulation, imaging and scanning tunneling spectroscopy in conjunction with supersonic molecular beam gas-surface scattering to significantly enhance our understanding of chemical processes occurring on well-characterized interfaces. One program focus was on the spatially-resolved emergent behavior of complex reaction systems as a function of the local geometry and density of adsorbate-substrate systems under reaction conditions. Another focus was on elucidating the emergent electronic and related reactivity characteristics of intentionally constructed single and multicomponent atom- and nanoparticle-based materials. We also examined emergent chirality and self-organization in adsorbed molecular systems where collective interactions between adsorbates and the supporting interface lead to spatial symmetry breaking. In many of these studies we combined the advantages of scanning tunneling (STM) and atomic force (AFM) imaging, scanning tunneling local electronic spectroscopy (STS), and reactive supersonic molecular beams to elucidate precise details of interfacial reactivity that had not been observed by more traditional surface science methods. Using these methods, it was possible to examine, for example, the differential reactivity of molecules adsorbed at different bonding sites in conjunction with how reactivity is modified by the local configuration of nearby adsorbates. At the core of this effort was the goal of significantly extending our understanding of interfacial atomic-scale interactions to create, with intent, molecular assemblies and materials with advanced chemical and physical properties. This ambitious program addressed several key topics in DOE Grand Challenge Science, including emergent chemical and physical properties in condensed phase systems, novel uses of chemical imaging, and the development of advanced reactivity concepts in combustion and catalysis including carbon management. These activities directly benefitted national science objectives in the areas of chemical energy production and advanced materials development.

  1. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

  2. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of Methanol and Ethanol. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of...

  3. ORNL microscopy pencils patterns in polymers at the nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (865) 574-7308 ORNL microscopy pencils patterns in polymers at the nanoscale Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers used atomic force microscopy to draw nanoscale patterns in a...

  4. Nanoscale Surface Topography to Guide Bone Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanoscale Surface Topography to Guide Bone Growth P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Jirun Sun (American T S Designed and fabricated devices with nanoscale surface topography. Controlled cell alignment by varying the height and aspect ratio of the surface features. R E F E R E N C E Exploring cellular contact guidance

  5. Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators Ruby N. Ghosh Dept. of Physics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA weekschr@msu.edu Abstract--Oxygen plays a ubiquitous role in terrestrial developed an optical technique for monitoring oxygen in both gas and liquid phases utilizing nanoscale metal

  6. Mesoscale Metallic Pyramids with Nanoscale Tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odom, Teri W.

    Mesoscale Metallic Pyramids with Nanoscale Tips Joel Henzie, Eun-Soo Kwak, and Teri W. Odom generate free-standing mesoscale metallic pyramids composed of one or more materials and having nanoscale tips (radii of curvature of less than 2 nm). Mesoscale holes (100-300 nm) in a chromium film are used

  7. In situ chemical imaging at the sub-biofilm-scale | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B Liu, Z Zhu, AE Tucker, WB Chrisler, EA Hill, S Thevuthasan, Y Lin, S Liu, and MJ Marshall. 2014. "In Situ Molecular Imaging of Hydrated Biofilm in a Microfluidic Reactor by...

  8. Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajendra Bordia

    2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and processing techniques for these coatings. In addition, we investigated the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties and oxidation protection ability of the coatings. Coatings were developed to provide oxidation protection to both ferritic and austentic alloys and Ni-based alloys. The coatings that we developed are based on low viscosity pre-ceramic polymers. Thus they can be easily applied to any shape by using a variety of techniques including dip-coating, spray-coating and painting. The polymers are loaded with a variety of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles have two primary roles: control of the final composition and phases (and hence the properties); and control of the shrinkage during thermal decomposition of the polymer. Thus the selection of the nanoparticles was the most critical aspect of this project. Based on the results of the processing studies, the performance of selected coatings in oxidizing conditions (both static and cyclic) was investigated.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Nanoscale Effects on Heterojunction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CoreShell Nanowires Nanoscale Effects on Heterojunction Electron Gases in GaNAlGaN CoreShell Nanowires Jeff Tsao participates in "Energy Efficiency and the Rebound Effect"...

  10. NANOSCALE OPTICAL COMPUTING USING RESONANCE ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebeck, Alvin R.

    OPTICAL COMPUTING USING RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER LOGIC A NEW NANOSCALE DEVICE BASED ON A SINGLE-MOLECULE OPTICAL PHENOMENON CALLED RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER. THIS DEVICE ENABLES A COMPLETE INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY, PROVIDING A POTENTIAL PATH TO MOLECULAR-SCALE COMPUTING

  11. Imaging Local Chemical Microstructure of Germinated Wheat with Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koc,H.; Wetzel, D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial resolution enabled by in situ Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy as predicted from our earlier report in Spectroscopy (1) is applied to localized chemical analysis in this vital biological process of seed germination. Germination includes several different biochemical and structural processes. Ultimately, the entire seed is consumed in sustaining the new life that results after sprouting and growth (2-4). Alpha amylase production is the standard evidence for detection of sprouted (germinated) wheat at harvest. Moist preharvest conditions can cause devastating losses and render the harvested wheat unfit for flour production. Dormancy of dry seeds following harvest retards sprouting under proper storage.

  12. Design Optimization of Radionuclide Nano-Scale Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenfeld, D.W.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Smith, B.

    2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioisotopes have been used for power sources in heart pacemakers and space applications dating back to the 50's. Two key properties of radioisotope power sources are high energy density and long half-life compared to chemical batteries. The tritium battery used in heart pacemakers exceeds 500 mW-hr, and is being evaluated by the University of Florida for feasibility as a MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) power source. Conversion of radioisotope sources into electrical power within the constraints of nano-scale dimensions requires cutting-edge technologies and novel approaches. Some advances evolving in the III-V and II-IV semiconductor families have led to a broader consideration of radioisotopes rather free of radiation damage limitations. Their properties can lead to novel battery configurations designed to convert externally located emissions from a highly radioactive environment. This paper presents results for the analytical computational assisted design and modeling of semiconductor prototype nano-scale radioisotope nuclear batteries from MCNP and EGS programs. The analysis evaluated proposed designs and was used to guide the selection of appropriate geometries, material properties, and specific activities to attain power requirements for the MEMS batteries. Plans utilizing high specific activity radioisotopes were assessed in the investigation of designs employing multiple conversion cells and graded junctions with varying band gap properties. Voltage increases sought by serial combination of VOC s are proposed to overcome some of the limitations of a low power density. The power density is directly dependent on the total active areas.

  13. Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale Sn0.99Co0.01O. Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale Sn0.99Co0.01O. Abstract: In...

  14. Y-Shaped Polymer Brushes: Nanoscale Switchable Duangrut Julthongpiput, Yen-Hsi Lin, Jing Teng, Eugene R. Zubarev,* and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zubarev, Eugene

    Y-Shaped Polymer Brushes: Nanoscale Switchable Surfaces Duangrut Julthongpiput, Yen-Hsi Lin, Jing incompatible polymer chains (arms) attached to a single focal point capable of chemical grafting dissimilar (hydrophobic and hydrophilic) polymer arms in such Y-shaped molecules lead to the formation

  15. Development of nano-scale and biomimetic surfaces for biomedical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry, James Edward

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    -Chairs of Committee, Theresa Good Daniel z Committee Members, Gerard Cot? Rosana ira Head of Department, Kenneth Hall August 2005 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Development of Nano-scale and Biomimetic Surfaces... for Biomedical Applications. (August 2005) James Edward Henry, B.S.; M.S., University of Arkansas Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Theresa Good Dr. Daniel Shantz The work described in this dissertation details the development of a biomimetic...

  16. Parallel optical nanolithography using nanoscale bowtie aperture array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    Parallel optical nanolithography using nanoscale bowtie aperture array Sreemanth M.V. Uppuluri of parallel optical nanolithography using nanoscale bowtie aperture array. These nanoscale bowtie aperture1805 photoresist. An interference-based optical alignment system was employed to position the bowtie

  17. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruckNanostructued Glass-Ceramic WasteLithium-Manganese Rich

  18. Contacts Integration into functional nanoscale devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metlushko, Vitali

    from the very beginning of the design process. While the properties of nano-scale magnetic devices by magnetoresistive random- access memory (MRAM). The design challenges faced by CMOS and MRAM are very similar of this, the topographical influence of contacts on the overlying magnetic device must be taken account

  19. Nanoscale Thermal Transport andMicrorefrigeratorsonaChip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be cooled down by 20 C­30 C. Finally we will review some of the more exotic techniques hotter than the rest of the chip. Most of the conventional cooling techniques can be used to coolINVITED P A P E R Nanoscale Thermal Transport andMicrorefrigeratorsonaChip Devices for cooling high

  20. LAMELLAR MAGNETISM ASSOCIATED WITH NANOSCALE EXSOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    LAMELLAR MAGNETISM ASSOCIATED WITH NANOSCALE EXSOLUTION IN THE ILMENITE-HEMATITE SOLID SOLUTION-hematite (FeTiO3-Fe2O3) solid solution is one of the most important magnetic phases in nature. Unusual magnetic, magnetic ordering, and exsolution. This presentation describes how this interaction leads to the phenomenon

  1. Nanolithography Using High Transmission Nanoscale Bowtie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    Nanolithography Using High Transmission Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures Liang Wang, Sreemanth M demonstrate that bowtie apertures can be used for contact lithography to achieve nanometer scale resolution. The bowtie apertures with a 30 nm gap size are fabricated in aluminum thin films coated on quartz substrates

  2. Programmed assembly of nanoscale structures using peptoids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Jianhua (University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA); Russell, Scott (California State University, Stanislaus, Turlock, CA); Morishetti, Kiran (University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA); Robinson, David B.; Zuckermann, Ronald N. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Buffleben, George M.; Hjelm, Rex P. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Kent, Michael Stuart (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sequence-specific polymers are the basis of the most promising approaches to bottom-up programmed assembly of nanoscale materials. Examples include artificial peptides and nucleic acids. Another class is oligo(N-functional glycine)s, also known as peptoids, which permit greater sidegroup diversity and conformational control, and can be easier to synthesize and purify. We have developed a set of peptoids that can be used to make inorganic nanoparticles more compatible with biological sequence-specific polymers so that they can be incorporated into nucleic acid or other biologically based nanostructures. Peptoids offer degrees of modularity, versatility, and predictability that equal or exceed other sequence-specific polymers, allowing for rational design of oligomers for a specific purpose. This degree of control will be essential to the development of arbitrarily designed nanoscale structures.

  3. Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. E. Chang; K. Sinha; J. M. Taylor; H. J. Kimble

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here, we show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. The trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyze realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement.

  4. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003–2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahill, David G., E-mail: d-cahill@illinois.edu; Braun, Paul V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Chen, Gang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Clarke, David R. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Fan, Shanhui [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Goodson, Kenneth E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Keblinski, Pawel [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); King, William P. [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Mahan, Gerald D. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Majumdar, Arun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Maris, Humphrey J. [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Phillpot, Simon R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainseville, Florida 32611 (United States); Pop, Eric [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Shi, Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas, Autin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces become increasingly important on small length scales. Research during the past decade has extended studies of interfaces between simple metals and inorganic crystals to interfaces with molecular materials and liquids with systematic control of interface chemistry and physics. At separations on the order of ?1?nm, the science of radiative transport through nanoscale gaps overlaps with thermal conduction by the coupling of electronic and vibrational excitations across weakly bonded or rough interfaces between materials. Major advances in the physics of phonons include first principles calculation of the phonon lifetimes of simple crystals and application of the predicted scattering rates in parameter-free calculations of the thermal conductivity. Progress in the control of thermal transport at the nanoscale is critical to continued advances in the density of information that can be stored in phase change memory devices and new generations of magnetic storage that will use highly localized heat sources to reduce the coercivity of magnetic media. Ultralow thermal conductivity—thermal conductivity below the conventionally predicted minimum thermal conductivity—has been observed in nanolaminates and disordered crystals with strong anisotropy. Advances in metrology by time-domain thermoreflectance have made measurements of the thermal conductivity of a thin layer with micron-scale spatial resolution relatively routine. Scanning thermal microscopy and thermal analysis using proximal probes has achieved spatial resolution of 10?nm, temperature precision of 50 mK, sensitivity to heat flows of 10 pW, and the capability for thermal analysis of sub-femtogram samples.

  5. Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Bradley R. (Brentwood, CA); Talley, Chad E. (Brentwood, CA)

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) having polymer features wherein the size, shape and position are predetermined can be fabricated using an xy piezo stage mounted on an inverted microscope and a laser. Using an AMF controller, a solution containing polymer precursors and a photo initiator are positioned on the xy piezo and hit with a laser beam. The thickness of the polymeric features can be varied from a few nanometers to over a micron.

  6. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  7. Nano-scale strengthening from grains, subgrains, and particles in Fe-based alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesuer, D. R.; Syn, C. K.; Sherby, O. D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    x ULTRAFINE GRAINED MATERIALS Nano-scale strengthening fromSpringerlink.com Abstract Nano-scale strengthening has beenless than 20 h), develop nano-scale subgrains [15]. These

  8. Nano-scale magnetic film formation by decompression of supercritical CO?/ferric acetylacetonate solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Dea, Silvia

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GROWTH OF NANO-SCALE MAGNETIC FILMS USING CO 2 RESS EX-113 GROWTH OF NANO-SCALE MAGNETIC FILMS USING A SUPERCRIT-of EDX analysis on nano-scale ?lms. . . . . . . . . . . 109

  9. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  10. Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2 (EFRC) - Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary The objective of the DOE Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2 (NCGC) is to use new investigative tools, combined with experiments...

  11. Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been identified to be attributed to the oxygen deficiency near the particle surfaces. Characterization of the nanoscale phase separation and cation ordering in the pristine...

  12. Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities User Facilities Dev X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) Center for...

  13. Nanoscale Alloying, Phase-Segregation, and Core-Shell Evolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alloying, Phase-Segregation, and Core-Shell Evolution of Gold-Platinum Nanoparticles and Their Electrocatalytic Effect Nanoscale Alloying, Phase-Segregation, and Core-Shell...

  14. Nanoscale In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery Electrochemistry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery Electrochemistry via Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy A. L. Lipson, R. S. Ginder, and M. C. Hersam, Northwestern University...

  15. Nanoscale Phase Transitions under Extreme Conditions within an...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    under extreme conditions. Citation: Zhang J, M Lang, RC Ewing, R Devanathan, WJ Weber, and M Toulemonde.2010."Nanoscale Phase Transitions under Extreme Conditions within an...

  16. Nanoscale engineering boosts performance of quantum dot light...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum dot light emitting diodes Nanoscale engineering boosts performance of quantum dot light emitting diodes Quantum dots are nano-sized semiconductor particles whose emission...

  17. Thermodynamics of Nanoscale Calcium and Strontium Titanate Perovskites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahu, Sulata Kumari

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and A. Navrotsky, “Thermodynamics of Nanoscale Lead Titanate2007. A. Navrotsky, “Thermodynamics of Solid Electrolytesand Y. Fei, “The Thermodynamics of Ordered Perovskites on

  18. High-Efficiency, Self-Concentrating Nanoscale Solar Cell - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search High-Efficiency, Self-Concentrating Nanoscale Solar Cell Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact...

  19. Thermal and Non-thermal Physiochemical Processes in Nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanoscale films of ASW at low temperatures. To study the transport properties (viscosity, diffusivity), the amorphous films can be heated above their glass transition...

  20. Novel materials, computational spectroscopy, and multiscale simulation in nanoscale photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernardi, Marco, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells convert solar energy to electricity using combinations of semiconducting sunlight absorbers and metallic materials as electrical contacts. Novel nanoscale materials introduce new paradigms for ...

  1. Electrically Controllable Spontaneous Magnetism in Nanoscale Mixed Phase Multiferroics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Q.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Controllable Spontaneous Magnetism in Nanoscale Mixed Phase2001). Chakhalian, J. et al. Magnetism at the interfacelocal nature of this magnetism. We find that the spontaneous

  2. Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    a Glance All User Facilities ASCR User Facilities BES User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) BER User...

  3. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have...

  4. Exploring nanoscale magnetism in advanced materials with polarized X-rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stoehr and H.C. Siegmann, „Magnetism”, Springer (2006) [93]Exploring nanoscale magnetism in advanced materials withABSTRACT Nanoscale magnetism is of paramount scientific

  5. Exciton-Plasmon States in Nanoscale Materials: Breakdown of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marini, Andrea

    Exciton-Plasmon States in Nanoscale Materials: Breakdown of the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation Myrta propagating only forward in time. However, we show that in nanoscale materials excitons and plasmons hybridize, creating exciton-plasmon states where the electron-hole pairs oscillate back and forth in time. Then

  6. Nanoscale replicas DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600507

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jie

    Nanoscale replicas DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600507 Supramolecular Nanomimetics: Replication of Micelles. Samulski, Edward T. Samulski, and Joseph M. DeSimone* Naturally occurring supramolecular objects-assembly"-driven approaches can be tremendously successful in controlling nanoscale shape in organic and inorganic materials

  7. Novel Nanoscale Materials Reduce Electricity Needed for Sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This project researches the use of nanoscale materials (a broadly defined set of substances that haveNovel Nanoscale Materials Reduce Electricity Needed for Sludge Dewatering Industrial process, requiring up to 6000 kilowatt hours/year per million gallons per day. Project Description

  8. www.rsc.org/nanoscale ISSN 2040-3364

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    morphology of the photoactive layer. The nanoscale interpenetrating networks composed of nanostructured donor organization and nanoscale morphology for high performance low bandgap polymer solar cells Volume 6 Number 8 21 performance low bandgap polymer solar cells Ming He,a Mengye Wang,ab Changjian Linb and Zhiqun Lin*a Rational

  9. Method to determine thermal profiles of nanoscale circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander K; Begtrup, Gavi E

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A platform that can measure the thermal profiles of devices with nanoscale resolution has been developed. The system measures the local temperature by using an array of nanoscale thermometers. This process can be observed in real time using a high resolution imagining technique such as electron microscopy. The platform can operate at extremely high temperatures.

  10. Nanopatterning using NSOM probes integrated with high transmission nanoscale bowtie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    Nanopatterning using NSOM probes integrated with high transmission nanoscale bowtie aperture experimental demonstration of field enhancement using such ridge antenna apertures in a bowtie shape integrated with nanoscale bowtie aperture. Consistent lines with width of 59 nm and as small as 24 nm have

  11. Chemical imaging at 30 nm spatial resolution in 2-d and 3-d with Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    sensitive imaging of environmental biofilms; speciation and quantitative mapping of metals in natural river in January 1997, after serving on the editorial board since 1986. He has worked with AFCC since 2008 on fuel

  12. Controlling light at the nanoscale: imaging and spectroscopy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with spatial resolution down to nanometer length scales for, e.g., advanced solar energy and fuel cell applications. The extension of conventional optical spectroscopy to the...

  13. Nanoscale Light Focusing and Imaging with Nano-Optical Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meenashi Sundaram, Vijay

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    and to eliminate metallic structures which can cause joule heating during high energy operation, two all-dielectric optical probes are then designed/constructed, namely, (a) solid immersion probe, and (b) scattering dielectric probe. Both dielectric probes focus...

  14. Nanoscale Light Focusing and Imaging with Nano-Optical Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meenashi Sundaram, Vijay

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    that use electron/ion beams and x-ray, have advantages in low operating cost, no need of a vacuum conditions, and better versatility in operating conditions. To achieve a spot size with diameter less than ~?/2 (i.e. smaller than the far...

  15. M. H. (Minghu) Pan Imaging and Nanoscale Characterization Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Materials Sciences Oak Ridge National Laboratory (865) 574-2988 panm@ornl.gov Publications Education Hunan University, China Applied Physics B.A., 1996 Nanjing University, China Physics Ph.D., 2001 Professional, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Professional and Synergistic Activities 2005­p

  16. R&D staff member Imaging and Nanoscale Characterization Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Materials Sciences Oak Ridge National Laboratory (865) 574-1648 gaiz@ornl.gov Publications Education Peking University, Beijing, China Surface Science Ph.D. 1995 Peking University, Beijing, China Condensed Matter/5 ­ 2005/8 Professor, Physics Department, Peking University, Beijing, P. R. China 2004/5 ­ 2005/8 Visiting

  17. Postdoctoral Research Associate Imaging and Nanoscale Characterization Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    for Nanophase Materials Sciences Oak Ridge National Laboratory (865)241-4174 linw@ornl.gov Publications Education Xiamen University, China Physics & Electrical Communication B.S., 2001 Xiamen University, China

  18. Anasys licenses ORNL nanoscale mass spectrometry imaging technology |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta3 Table 3. Summary results
Analyzing76

  19. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHallNotSeventyTechnologiesfacilityImaging

  20. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)Hydrogen StorageITERITERBuilding EnergyImaging Print The

  1. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)Hydrogen StorageITERITERBuilding EnergyImaging Print

  2. Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkat Bommisetty, South Dakota State University

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

  3. Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rondin, L.; Tetienne, J.-P.; Spinicelli, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V. [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan and CNRS UMR 8537, 94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Dal Savio, C.; Karrai, K. [Attocube systems AG, Koeniginstrasse 11A RGB, Munich 80539 (Germany); Dantelle, G. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique and CNRS UMR 7643, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Thiaville, A.; Rohart, S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud and CNRS UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate quantitative magnetic field mapping with nanoscale resolution, by applying a lock-in technique on the electron spin resonance frequency of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect placed at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip. In addition, we report an all-optical magnetic imaging technique which is sensitive to large off-axis magnetic fields, thus extending the operation range of diamond-based magnetometry. Both techniques are illustrated by using a magnetic hard disk as a test sample. Owing to the non-perturbing and quantitative nature of the magnetic probe, this work should open up numerous perspectives in nanomagnetism and spintronics.

  4. Jaszczak et al. 1 MICRO-AND NANO-SCALE GRAPHITE CONES AND TUBES FROM HACKMAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaszczak, John A.

    of micro- and nano-scale RGS. The largest of the RGS are hollow scrolls, with the c-axis predominantly at the micro- and nano-scales. The nano-scale cones tend not to be hollow and may have a cone-helix structureJaszczak et al. 1 MICRO- AND NANO-SCALE GRAPHITE CONES AND TUBES FROM HACKMAN VALLEY, KOLA

  5. Control of friction at the nanoscale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barhen, Jacob; Braiman, Yehuda Y.; Protopopescu, Vladimir

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for control of friction at the nanoscale. A method of controlling frictional dynamics of a plurality of particles using non-Lipschitzian control includes determining an attribute of the plurality of particles; calculating an attribute deviation by subtracting the attribute of the plurality of particles from a target attribute; calculating a non-Lipschitzian feedback control term by raising the attribute deviation to a fractionary power .xi.=(2m+1)/(2n+1) where n=1, 2, 3 . . . and m=0, 1, 2, 3 . . . , with m strictly less than n and then multiplying by a control amplitude; and imposing the non-Lipschitzian feedback control term globally on each of the plurality of particles; imposing causes a subsequent magnitude of the attribute deviation to be reduced.

  6. Carbon-bearing fluids at nanoscale interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, David [Ohio State University; Ok, Salim [Ohio State University, Columbus; Phan, A [Ohio State University, Columbus; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Striolo, Alberto [Oklahoma University; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behaviour of fluids at mineral surfaces or in confined geometries (pores, fractures) typically differs from their bulk behaviour in many ways due to the effects of large internal surfaces and geometrical confinement. We summarize research performed on C-O-H fluids at nanoscale interfaces in materials of interest to the earth and material sciences (e.g., silica, alumina, zeolites, clays, rocks, etc.), emphasizing those techniques that assess microstructural modification and/or dynamical behaviour such as gravimetric analysis, small-angle (SANS) neutron scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations will be described that provide atomistic characterization of interfacial and confined fluid behaviour as well as aid in the interpretation of the neutron scattering results.

  7. Nano-spectroscopic imaging of intermolecular structure, coupling and dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollard, Benjamin; Hinrichs, Karsten; Raschke, Markus B

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular self-assembly, the function of biomembranes, and the performance of organic solar cells rely on molecular interactions on the nanoscale. The understanding and design of such intrinsic or engineered heterogeneous functional soft matter has long been impeded by a lack of spectroscopic tools with sufficient nanometer spatial resolution, attomolar sensitivity, and intermolecular spectroscopic specificity. We implement vibrational scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy ($s$-SNOM) in a multi-spectral modality with unprecedented spectral precision to investigate the structure-function relationship in nano-phase separated block-copolymers. We use a vibrational resonance as a sensitive reporter of the local chemical environment and resolve, with few nanometer spatial resolution and 0.2 cm$^{-1}$ spectral precision, spectral Stark shifts and line broadening correlated with molecular-scale morphologies. By creating images of solvatochromic vibrational shifts we discriminate local variations in elect...

  8. Atomic-Scale Chemical Imaging and Quantification of Metallic Alloy Structures by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ping [Sandia National Laboratories; Zhou, Lin [Ames Laboratory; Kramer, Matthew J. [Ames Laboratory; Smith, David J. [Arizona State University

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Determination of atomic-scale crystal structure for nanostructured intermetallic alloys, such as magnetic alloys containing Al, Ni, Co (alnico) and Fe, is crucial for understanding physical properties such as magnetism, but technically challenging due to the small interatomic distances and the similar atomic numbers. By applying energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping to the study of two intermetallic phases of an alnico alloy resulting from spinodal decomposition, we have determined atomic-scale chemical composition at individual lattice sites for the two phases: one is the B2 phase with Fe0.76Co0.24 -Fe0.40Co0.60 ordering and the other is the L21 phase with Ni0.48Co0.52 at A-sites, Al at B?-sites and Fe0.20Ti0.80 at B??-sites, respectively. The technique developed through this study represents a powerful real-space approach to investigate structure chemically at the atomic scale for a wide range of materials systems.

  9. Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2 (EFRC) - Staff

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manager (Energy Sciences Area, LBNL) An organization chart of the Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2 Research Teams: Thrust 1: Fractured Shale Ian Bourg, Thrust 1 Lead,...

  10. Secretarial Policy Statement on Nanoscale Safety - DOE Directives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    56.1, Secretarial Policy Statement on Nanoscale Safety by Bill McArthur Functional areas: Nano Technology, Safety The safety of its employees, the public, and the environment is...

  11. Nanoscale surface topography reshapes neuronal growth in culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Nanoscale surface topography reshapes neuronal growth in culture Ghislain Bugnicourt1. Moreover, when confronted to a differential surface topography, neurons specify an axon preferentially onto neurites, elongate faster, and differentiate an axon earlier than those grown on flat silicon surfaces

  12. Shedding light on Nature's nanoscale control of solar energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light on Nature's nanoscale control of solar energy July 30, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Across billions of years of evolution, nature has retained a common light-absorbing hexameric...

  13. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Nanoscale Materials for Electronics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chi-Yuan 1980-

    2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    is aimed at demonstrating fabrication processes of nanoscale FETs of graphene and porphyrinoid composites based entirely on scanning probe lithography (SPL). A nanoshaving mechanism was used to define patterns on octadecanethiol self-assembled monolayers...

  14. Title of Document: NANOSCALE MANIPULATION, PROBING, AND ASSEMBLY USING MICROFLUIDIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Document: NANOSCALE MANIPULATION, PROBING, AND ASSEMBLY USING MICROFLUIDIC FLOW along the wire. Together, these experiments illustrate the versatility of microfluidics MICROFLUIDIC FLOW CONTROL By Chad Ropp Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School

  15. Nanoscale structure and transport : from atoms to devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Matthew Hiram

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale structures present both unique physics and unique theoretical challenges. Atomic-scale simulations can find novel nanostructures with desirable properties, but the search can be difficult if the wide range of ...

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heat Transfer In Nanoscale Liquid Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bo Hung

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of nano-scale flows typically utilize fixed lattice crystal interactions between the fluid and stationary wall molecules. This approach cannot properly model thermal interactions at the wall-fluid interface...

  17. Electronic structure and transport in molecular and nanoscale electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Xiaofeng

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two approaches based on first-principles method are developed to qualitatively and quantitatively study electronic structure and phase-coherent transport in molecular and nanoscale electronics, where both quantum mechanical ...

  18. Perspectives Nanotechnology and the public: Effectively communicating nanoscale science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crone, Wendy C.

    Perspectives Nanotechnology and the public: Effectively communicating nanoscale science August 2006 Key words: nanotechnology, communication, public knowledge, public understanding the public on concepts and applications associated with nanotechnology. The goal of our work

  19. Chemical Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy Technique: Microanalysis Insights into Atmospheric Chemistry of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Airborne fly ash from coal combustion may represent a source of bioavailable iron (Fe) in the open ocean. However, few studies have been made focusing on Fe speciation and distribution in coal fly ash. In this study, chemical imaging of fly ash has been performed using a dual-beam FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope) system for a better understanding of how simulated atmospheric processing modify the morphology, chemical compositions and element distributions of individual particles. A novel approach has been applied for cross-sectioning of fly ash specimen with a FIB in order to explore element distribution within the interior of individual particles. Our results indicate that simulated atmospheric processing causes disintegration of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in fly ash particles. Aluminosilicate-phase Fe in the inner core of fly ash particles is more easily mobilized compared with oxide-phase Fe present as surface aggregates on fly ash spheres. Fe release behavior depends strongly on Fe speciation in aerosol particles. The approach for preparation of cross-sectioned specimen described here opens new opportunities for particle microanalysis, particular with respect to inorganic refractive materials like fly ash and mineral dust.

  20. In situ characterization of nanoscale catalysts during anodic redox processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Renu [National Institute of Standards and Technology] National Institute of Standards and Technology; Crozier, Peter [Arizona State University] Arizona State University; Adams, James [Arizona State University] Arizona State University

    2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling the structure and composition of the anode is critical to achieving high efficiency and good long-term performance. In addition to being a mixed electronic and ionic conductor, the ideal anode material should act as an efficient catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dry hydrocarbons without de-activating through either sintering or coking. It is also important to develop novel anode materials that can operate at lower temperatures to reduce costs and minimized materials failure associated with high temperature cycling. We proposed to synthesize and characterize novel anode cermets materials based on ceria doped with Pr and/or Gd together with either a Ni or Cu metallic components. Ceria is a good oxidation catalyst and is an ionic conductor at room temperature. Doping it with trivalent rare earths such as Pr or Gd retards sintering and makes it a mixed ion conductor (ionic and electronic). We have developed a fundamental scientific understanding of the behavior of the cermet material under reaction conditions by following the catalytic oxidation process at the atomic scale using a powerful Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (ESTEM). The ESTEM allowed in situ monitoring of structural, chemical and morphological changes occurring at the cermet under conditions approximating that of typical fuel-cell operation. Density functional calculations were employed to determine the underlying mechanisms and reaction pathways during anode oxidation reactions. The dynamic behavior of nanoscale catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and methane were used to determine: ? Fundamental processes during anodic reactions in hydrogen and carbonaceous atmospheres ? Interfacial effects between metal particles and doped ceria ? Kinetics of redox reaction in the anode material

  1. Nanoscale Electromechanics of Ferroelectric and Biological Systems: A New Dimension in Scanning Probe Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Rodriguez, Brian J [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Karapetian, Edgar [ORNL; Mirman, B [Suffolk University, Boston; Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Functionality of biological and inorganic systems ranging from nonvolatile computer memories and microelectromechanical systems to electromotor proteins and cellular membranes is ultimately based on the intricate coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena. In the past decade, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has been established as a powerful tool for nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy, and manipulation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Here, we give an overview of the fundamental image formation mechanism in PFM and summarize recent theoretical and technological advances. In particular, we show that the signal formation in PFM is complementary to that in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, and we discuss the implications. We also consider the prospect of extending PFM beyond ferroelectric characterization for quantitative probing of electromechanical behavior in molecular and biological systems and high-resolution probing of static and dynamic polarization switching processes in low-dimensional ferroelectric materials and heterostructures.

  2. New Dark Matter Detector using Nanoscale Explosives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Alejandro; Freese, Katherine; Kurdak, Cagliyan; Tarle, Gregory

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present nanoscale explosives as a novel type of dark matter detector and study the ignition properties. When a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle WIMP from the Galactic Halo elastically scatters off of a nucleus in the detector, the small amount of energy deposited can trigger an explosion. For specificity, this paper focuses on a type of two-component explosive known as a nanothermite, consisting of a metal and an oxide in close proximity. When the two components interact they undergo a rapid exothermic reaction --- an explosion. As a specific example, we consider metal nanoparticles of 5 nm radius embedded in an oxide. One cell contains more than a few million nanoparticles, and a large number of cells adds up to a total of 1 kg detector mass. A WIMP interacts with a metal nucleus of the nanoparticles, depositing enough energy to initiate a reaction at the interface between the two layers. When one nanoparticle explodes it initiates a chain reaction throughout the cell. A number of possible thermite mat...

  3. Nanoscale Advances in Catalysis and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yimin; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this perspective, we present an overview of nanoscience applications in catalysis, energy conversion, and energy conservation technologies. We discuss how novel physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials can be applied and engineered to meet the advanced material requirements in the new generation of chemical and energy conversion devices. We highlight some of the latest advances in these nanotechnologies and provide an outlook at the major challenges for further developments.

  4. The Structure and Transport of Water and Hydrated Ions Within Hydrophobic, Nanoscale Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, J K; Herberg, J L; Wu, Y; Schwegler, E; Mehta, A

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project includes an experimental and modeling investigation into water and hydrated ion structure and transport at nanomaterials interfaces. This is a topic relevant to understanding the function of many biological systems such as aquaporins that efficiently shuttle water and ion channels that permit selective transport of specific ions across cell membranes. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are model nanoscale, hydrophobic channels that can be functionalized, making them artificial analogs for these biological channels. This project investigates the microscopic properties of water such as water density distributions and dynamics within CNTs using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and the structure of hydrated ions at CNT interfaces via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Another component of this work is molecular simulation, which can predict experimental measurables such as the proton relaxation times, chemical shifts, and can compute the electronic structure of CNTs. Some of the fundamental questions this work is addressing are: (1) what is the length scale below which nanoscale effects such as molecular ordering become important, (2) is there a relationship between molecular ordering and transport?, and (3) how do ions interact with CNT interfaces? These are questions of interest to the scientific community, but they also impact the future generation of sensors, filters, and other devices that operate on the nanometer length scale. To enable some of the proposed applications of CNTs as ion filtration media and electrolytic supercapacitors, a detailed knowledge of water and ion structure at CNT interfaces is critical.

  5. Nano-scale positioning, control and motion planning in hard disk drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Uwe

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Nano-scale Positioning, Control andABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION Nano-scale Positioning, Controlmm) height (mm) mini micro nano pico femto Figure 2.8:

  6. Nanoscale Phase Separation In Epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V Alloy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    presence of nanoscale phase separation in the MBE grown alloy thin films can impact the metal-oxide interface structure. Due to nanoscale domain size of such phase separation it...

  7. Coupling EELS/EFTEM Imaging with Environmental Fluid Cell Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Insight into dynamically evolving electrochemical reactions and mechanisms encountered in electrical energy storage (EES) and conversion technologies (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors), materials science (corrosion and oxidation), and materials synthesis (electrodeposition) remains limited due to the present lack of in situ high-resolution characterization methodologies. Electrochemical fluid cell microscopy is an emerging in-situ method that allows for the direct, real-time imaging of electrochemical processes within a fluid environment. This technique is facilitated by the use of MEMS-based biasing microchip platforms that serve the purpose of sealing the highly volatile electrolyte between two electron transparent SiNx membranes and interfacing electrodes to an external potentiostat for controlled nanoscale electrochemislly experiments [!]. In order to elucidate both stmctural and chemical changes during such in situ electrochemical experiments, it is impmtant to first improve upon the spatial resolution by utilizing energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) (to minimize chromatic aben ation), then to detennine the chemical changes via electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). This presents a formidable challenge since the overall thickness through which electrons are scattered through the multiple layers of the cell can be on the order of hundreds of nanometers to microns, scattering through which has the deleterious effect of degrading image resolution and decreasing signal-to noise for spectroscopy [2].

  8. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James V. Taranik

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth’s surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system’s data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this research determined that spectral resolution of 10um was adequate, but a signal to noise above 300:1 was desirable for hyperspectral sensors with this spectral resolution. Finally, we acquired a hyperspectral thermal dataset (SEBASS) at 3m spatial resolution over our study area in Beatty, Nevada that can be co-registered with the hyperspectral reflectance, LIDAR and digital Orthophoto data sets. This data set will enable us to quantify how measurements in the reflected infrared can be used to make inferences about the response of materials in the thermal infrared, the topic of our follow-on NA-22 investigation ending in 2008. These data provide the basis for our investigations proposed for the NA-22 2008 Broad Area Announcement. Beginning in June 2008, SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation plan to fly the SpecTIR Dual and SEBASS in a stabilized mount in a twin Otter aircraft. This research provides the foundation for using reflected and emitted hyperspectral measurements together for mapping geologic and soil materials in arid to semi-arid regions.

  9. Nanoscale mapping and organization analysis of target proteins on cancer cells from B-cell lymphoma patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Mi [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiao, Xiubin [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xi, Ning, E-mail: xin@egr.msu.edu [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Yuechao; Dong, Zaili [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, Weijing, E-mail: zhangwj3072@163.com [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CD20, a membrane protein highly expressed on most B-cell lymphomas, is an effective target demonstrated in clinical practice for treating B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody against CD20. In this work, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to map the nanoscale distribution of CD20 molecules on the surface of cancer cells from clinical B-cell NHL patients under the assistance of ROR1 fluorescence recognition (ROR1 is a specific cell surface marker exclusively expressed on cancer cells). First, the ROR1 fluorescence labeling experiments showed that ROR1 was expressed on cancer cells from B-cell lymphoma patients, but not on normal cells from healthy volunteers. Next, under the guidance of ROR1 fluorescence, the rituximab-conjugated AFM tips were moved to cancer cells to image the cellular morphologies and detect the CD20-rituximab interactions on the cell surfaces. The distribution maps of CD20 on cancer cells were constructed by obtaining arrays of (16×16) force curves in local areas (500×500 nm{sup 2}) on the cell surfaces. The experimental results provide a new approach to directly investigate the nanoscale distribution of target protein on single clinical cancer cells. - Highlights: • Cancer cells were recognized from healthy cells by ROR1 fluorescence labeling. • The nanoscale distribution of CD20 on cancer cells was characterized. • The distribution of CD20 was non-uniform on the surface of cancer cells.

  10. A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Divan, Ralu; Rosenthal, Dan; Rose, Volker; Wai Hla, Saw; Liu, Yuzi

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    At a very small, or "nano" scale, materials behave differently. The study of nanomaterials is much more than miniaturization - scientists are discovering how changes in size change a material's properties. From sunscreen to computer memory, the applications of nanoscale materials research are all around us. Researchers at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials are creating new materials, methods and technologies to address some of the world's greatest challenges in energy security, lightweight but durable materials, high-efficiency lighting, information storage, environmental stewardship and advanced medical devices.

  11. Chemical Distribution and Bonding of Lithium in Intercalated Graphite: Identification with Optimized Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng; Graetz, Jason; Moreno, M. Sergio; Ma, Chao; Wu, Lijun; Volkov, Vyacheslav; Zhu, Yimei

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct mapping of the lithium spatial distribution and the chemical state provides critical information on structure-correlated lithium transport in electrode materials for lithium batteries. Nevertheless, probing lithium, the lightest solid element in the periodic table, poses an extreme challenge with traditional X-ray or electron scattering techniques due to its weak scattering power and vulnerability to radiation damage. Here, we report nanoscale maps of the lithium spatial distribution in electrochemically lithiated graphite using electron energy loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope under optimized experimental conditions. The electronic structure of the discharged graphite was obtained from the near-edge fine structure of the Li and C K-edges and ab initio calculations. A 2.7 eV chemical shift of the Li K-edge, along with changes in the density of states, reveals the ionic nature of the intercalated lithium with significant charge transfer to the graphene sheets. Direct mapping of lithium in graphite revealed nanoscale inhomogeneities (nonstoichiometric regions), which are correlated with local phase separation and structural disorder (i.e., lattice distortion and dislocations) as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The surface solid?electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer was also imaged and determined to have a thickness of 10?50 nm, covering both edge and basal planes with LiF as its primary inorganic component. The Li K-edge spectroscopy and mapping, combined with electron microscopy-based structural analysis provide a comprehensive view of the structure-correlated lithium intercalation in graphite and of the formation of the SEI layer.

  12. Chemical Distribution and Bonding of Lithium in Intercalated Graphite: Identification with Optimized Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Wang, F.; Graetz, J.; Moreno, M.S.; Ma, C.; Wu, L.; Volkov, V.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct mapping of the lithium spatial distribution and the chemical state provides critical information on structure-correlated lithium transport in electrode materials for lithium batteries. Nevertheless, probing lithium, the lightest solid element in the periodic table, poses an extreme challenge with traditional X-ray or electron scattering techniques due to its weak scattering power and vulnerability to radiation damage. Here, we report nanoscale maps of the lithium spatial distribution in electrochemically lithiated graphite using electron energy loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope under optimized experimental conditions. The electronic structure of the discharged graphite was obtained from the near-edge fine structure of the Li and C K-edges and ab initio calculations. A 2.7 eV chemical shift of the Li K-edge, along with changes in the density of states, reveals the ionic nature of the intercalated lithium with significant charge transfer to the graphene sheets. Direct mapping of lithium in graphite revealed nanoscale inhomogeneities (nonstoichiometric regions), which are correlated with local phase separation and structural disorder (i.e., lattice distortion and dislocations) as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The surface solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer was also imaged and determined to have a thickness of 10-50 nm, covering both edge and basal planes with LiF as its primary inorganic component. The Li K-edge spectroscopy and mapping, combined with electron microscopy-based structural analysis provide a comprehensive view of the structure-correlated lithium intercalation in graphite and of the formation of the SEI layer.

  13. Guiding Polymers to Perfection: Macroscopic Alignment of Nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    frequently with (3) a complete absence of defects. This methodology can be exploited in hybrid hard/soft matter systems for electronics, catalysis, and sensors. Fabrication of macroscopic domains of periodic nanoscale structures using self-organizing systems has garnered sig- nificant attention because

  14. Title of dissertation: NANOSCALE BEHAVIOR OF 90 IN FERROELECTRIC FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: NANOSCALE BEHAVIOR OF 90 DOMAINS IN FERROELECTRIC FILMS Zhengkun Ma, Doctor of Philosophy, 2005 Dissertation directed by: Professor Alexander L. Roytburd Department Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park

  15. Nanoscale Thermotropic Phase Transitions Enhance Photothermal Microscopy Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the material undergoes a phase transition. Herein, we show that thermotropic phase transitions in 4-Cyano-41 Nanoscale Thermotropic Phase Transitions Enhance Photothermal Microscopy Signals A. Nicholas G-objects in various environments. It uses a photo-induced change in the refractive index of the environment. Taking

  16. Nanoscale Tubules Formed by Exfoliation of Potassium Hexaniobate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanoscale Tubules Formed by Exfoliation of Potassium Hexaniobate Geoffrey B. Saupe, Chad C. Waraksa. Revised Manuscript Received March 27, 2000 The exfoliation of acid-exchanged K4Nb6O17 with tetra formed early in the exfoliation process, which are found only as flat sheets. Tubules in colloidal

  17. Low Power Nanoscale Buffer Management for Network on Chip Routers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    Low Power Nanoscale Buffer Management for Network on Chip Routers Suman K. Mandal Texas A power dissipation. We present a novel dynamic power management technique for low power NoC router buffers using nano CMOS SRAMS. A feedback controller was designed for block level power management

  18. Analysis and specificities of adhesive forces between microscale and nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is the packaging of NEMS which require handling, positioning, assembling and joining strategies in the mesoscale of the mesoscale in comparison with nanoscale and microscale. Firstly, it is shown that the distributions are presented. Thirdly, the van der Waals forces are increased by local deformations on the mesoscale contrary

  19. Bioremediation of Uranium Plumes with Nano-scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    (IV) (UO2[s], uraninite) Anthropogenic · Release of mill tailings during uranium mining - MobilizationBioremediation of Uranium Plumes with Nano-scale Zero-valent Iron Angela Athey Advisers: Dr. Reyes Undergraduate Student Fellowship Program April 15, 2011 #12;Main Sources of Uranium Natural · Leaching from

  20. In-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis of capacity fade in nanoscale-LiCoO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patridge, Christopher J. [NRC/NRL Cooperative Research Associate, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Love, Corey T., E-mail: corey.love@nrl.navy.mil [Chemistry Division, Code 6113, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Swider-Lyons, Karen E. [Chemistry Division, Code 6113, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Twigg, Mark E. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Code 6812, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ramaker, David E. [Chemistry Division, Code 6189, U.S. Naval Research laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The local structure of nanoscale (?10–40 nm) LiCoO{sub 2} is monitored during electrochemical cycling utilizing in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The high surface area of the LiCoO{sub 2} nanoparticles not only enhances capacity fade, but also provides a large signal from the particle surface relative to the bulk. Changes in the nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} metal-oxide bond lengths, structural disorder, and chemical state are tracked during cycling by adapting the delta mu (??) technique in complement with comprehensive extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) modeling. For the first time, we use a ?? EXAFS method, and by comparison of the difference EXAFS spectra, extrapolate significant coordination changes and reduction of cobalt species with cycling. This combined approach suggests Li–Co site exchange at the surface of the nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} as a likely factor in the capacity fade and irreversible losses in practical, microscale LiCoO{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Electrochemical cycling of Li-ion batteries has strong impact on the structure and integrity of the cathode active material particularly near the surface/electrolyte interface. In developing a new method, we have used in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy during electrochemical cycling of nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} to track changes during charge and discharge and between subsequent cycles. Using difference spectra, several small changes in Co-O bond length, Co-O and Co-Co coordination, and site exchange between Co and Li sites can be tracked. These methods show promise as a new technique to better understand processes which lead to capacity fade and loss in Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • A new method is developed to understand capacity fade in Li-ion battery cathodes. • Structural changes are tracked during Li intercalation/deintercalation of LiCoO{sub 2}. • Surface structural changes are emphasized using nanoscale-LiCoO{sub 2} and difference spectra. • Full multiple scattering calculations are used to support ?? analysis.

  1. Computation of radiative heat transport across a nanoscale vacuum gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budaev, Bair V., E-mail: bair@berkeley.edu; Bogy, David B., E-mail: dbogy@berkeley.edu [University of California, Etcheverry Hall, MC 1740, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation heat transport across a vacuum gap between two half-spaces is studied. By consistently applying only the fundamental laws of physics, we obtain an algebraic equation that connects the temperatures of the half-spaces and the heat flux between them. The heat transport coefficient generated by this equation for such structures matches available experimental data for nanoscale and larger gaps without appealing to any additional specific mechanisms of energy transfer.

  2. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutting, R. S.; Coker, V. S.; Telling, N. D.; Kimber, R. L.; Pearce, C. I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion ({approx}10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a {gamma}-camera to obtain real time images of a {sup 99m}Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more ({approx}20%) {sup 99m}Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral substrate supplied to Fe(III)-reducing bacteria.

  3. Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamza, A V

    2008-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory's (NSCL) primary mission is to create and advance interdisciplinary research and development opportunities in nanoscience and technology. The NSCL is delivering on its mission providing Laboratory programs with scientific solutions through the use of nanoscale synthesis and characterization. While this annual report summarizes 2007 activities, we have focused on nanoporous materials, advanced high strength, nanostructured metals, novel 3-dimensional lithography and characterization at the nanoscale for the past 3 years. In these three years we have synthesized the first monolithic nanoporous metal foams with less than 10% relative density; we have produced ultrasmooth nanocrystalline diamond inertial confinement fusion capsules; we have synthesized 3-dimensional graded density structures from full density to 5% relative density using nanolithography; and we have established ultrasmall angle x-ray scattering as a non-destructive tool to determine the structure on the sub 300nm scale. The NSCL also has a mission to recruit and to train personnel for Lab programs. The NSCL continues to attract talented scientists to the Laboratory. Andrew Detor from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sutapa Ghosal from the University of California, Irvine, Xiang Ying Wang from Shanghai Institute of Technology, and Arne Wittstock from University of Bremen joined the NSCL this year. The NSCL is pursuing four science and technology themes: nanoporous materials, advanced nanocrystalline materials, novel three-dimensional nanofabrication technologies, and nondestructive characterization at the mesoscale. The NSCL is also pursuing building new facilities for science and technology such as nanorobotics and atomic layer deposition.

  4. Growth and control of microscale to nanoscale carbon nitride particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, H. Y.; Shi, Y. C.; Feng, P. X. [Physics Department, Dong Hua University, Shanghai 200051 (China); University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931 (Puerto Rico) and Physics Department, Dong Hua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscale to nanoscale carbon nitride (China) particles are prepared using plasma sputtering deposition techniques. The preferred orientation of nanoscale CN particle distributions is obtained. Particles are examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman scattering spectroscopy. SEM micrographs show that the CN particles are spherical with nearly the same diameters of 2.5 {mu}m prepared without setting bias voltage. The distribution of these particles is random. Setting bias voltage up to 5 kV, plasma sputtering deposition yields several dispersed ring patterns of particle distributions where many small groups of nanoscale particles are observed. Each group of these particles is in a sunflower type of distribution, in which the biggest (85 nm) particle at the center is surrounded by many small sizes (30 nm) of CN particles. Disk type of the particles with a diameter of 10 {mu}m is also observed at different deposition conditions. Typical carbon bands and CN band in the Raman spectra of the samples are identified. The intensity of the bands obviously varies at the different deposition conditions.

  5. Deterministic, Nanoscale Fabrication of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jr., R M; Shirk, M; Gilmer, G; Rubenchik, A

    2004-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Neither LLNL nor any other organization has the capability to perform deterministic fabrication of mm-sized objects with arbitrary, {micro}m-sized, 3-dimensional features with 20-nm-scale accuracy and smoothness. This is particularly true for materials such as high explosives and low-density aerogels. For deterministic fabrication of high energy-density physics (HEDP) targets, it will be necessary both to fabricate features in a wide variety of materials as well as to understand and simulate the fabrication process. We continue to investigate, both in experiment and in modeling, the ablation/surface-modification processes that occur with the use of laser pulses that are near the ablation threshold fluence. During the first two years, we studied ablation of metals, and we used sub-ps laser pulses, because pulses shorter than the electron-phonon relaxation time offered the most precise control of the energy that can be deposited into a metal surface. The use of sub-ps laser pulses also allowed a decoupling of the energy-deposition process from the ensuing movement/ablation of the atoms from the solid, which simplified the modeling. We investigated the ablation of material from copper, gold, and nickel substrates. We combined the power of the 1-D hydrocode ''HYADES'' with the state-of-the-art, 3-D molecular dynamics simulations ''MDCASK'' in our studies. For FY04, we have stretched ourselves to investigate laser ablation of carbon, including chemically-assisted processes. We undertook this research, because the energy deposition that is required to perform direct sublimation of carbon is much higher than that to stimulate the reaction 2C + O{sub 2} => 2CO. Thus, extremely fragile carbon aerogels might survive the chemically-assisted process more readily than ablation via direct laser sublimation. We had planned to start by studying vitreous carbon and move onto carbon aerogels. We were able to obtain flat, high-quality vitreous carbon, which was easy to work on, experimentally and relatively easy to model. We were provided with bulk samples of carbon aerogel by Dr. Joe Satcher, but the shop that would have prepared mounted samples for us was overwhelmed by programmatic assignments. We are pursuing aligned carbon nanotubes, provided to us by colleagues at NASA Ames Research Center, as an alternative to aerogels. Dr. Gilmer started modeling the laser/thermally accelerated reactions of carbon with H{sub 2}, rather than O{sub 2}, due to limited information on equation of state for CO. We have extended our molecular dynamics models of ablation to include carbon in the form of graphite, vitreous carbon, and aerogels. The computer code has features that allow control of temperature, absorption of shock waves, and for the ejection of material from the computational cell. We form vitreous carbon atomic configurations by melting graphite in a microcanonical cell at a temperature of about 5000K. Quenching the molten carbon at a controlled rate of cooling yields material with a structure close to that of the vitreous carbon produced in the laboratory. To represent the aerogel, we have a computer code that connects ''graphite'' rods to randomly placed points in the 3-D computational cell. Ablation simulations yield results for vitreous carbon similar to our previous results with copper, usually involving the transient melting of the material above the threshold energy density. However, some fracturing in the solid regions occurs in this case, but was never observed in copper. These simulations are continuing, together with studies of the reaction of hydrogen with vitreous graphite at high temperatures. These reactions are qualitatively similar to that of oxygen with the carbon atoms at the surface, and the simulations should provide insight into the applicability of the use of chemical reactions to shape the surfaces of aerogels.

  6. Super-Resolution Optical Imaging of Biomass Chemical-Spatial Structure: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-410

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, S. Y.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective for this project is to characterize and develop new methods to visualize the chemical spatial structure of biomass at varying stages of the biomass degradation processes in situ during the process.

  7. Fibre-scale Modeling of C/C Processing by Chemical Vapour Infiltration Using X-ray CMT Images and Random Walkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for the CVI engineer. Introduction Fibre-reinforced carbon-matrix (C/C) composites are dedicated to very high modification under chemical deposition is handled by a specific surface discretization technique and a pseudo

  8. Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities User Facilities Dev X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) Center for...

  9. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based on Hyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, Antonios G.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of interpenetrating networks of conjugated polymer and TiO2Photodiodes from Interpenetrating Polymer Networks. Naturepolymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network

  10. Proposal to Lead the Virtual Center on Carbon Materials, and support the Chemical Hydrides Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of nanoscale carbons, SWNTs, MWNTs by laser vaporization, chemical vapor deposition, hot wire CVD, and arc-discharge methods. Experience with dopant and/or catalyst incorporation NREL Capabilities in Carbon Materials laser by transition metal hydride complexes (funded by DOE BES) Lead DOE lab for new SiH4 production process ­ pilot

  11. Simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Volker; Preissner, Curt A; Hla, Saw-Wai; Wang, Kangkang; Rosenmann, Daniel

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for performing simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast analysis in a scanning, tunneling microscope. The method and system also includes nanofabricated coaxial multilayer tips with a nanoscale conducting apex and a programmable in-situ nanomanipulator to fabricate these tips and also to rotate tips controllably.

  12. Mid Infrared Focal Plane Arrays With Nanoscale Quantum Dots and Superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishna, Sanjay

    Mid Infrared Focal Plane Arrays With Nanoscale Quantum Dots and Superlattices S. Krishna Center- Molecular beam epitaxy, Nanoscale, Quantum Dots Superlattices, Antimonides, Mid-infrared photodetector. I. INTRODUCTION Presently, the state of the art photon detectors for the mid wave infrared (MWIR, 3-5 µm) and long

  13. Title of Document: INTERACTION OF INTENSE SHORT LASER PULSES WITH GASES OF NANOSCALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Document: INTERACTION OF INTENSE SHORT LASER PULSES WITH GASES OF NANOSCALE-cluster interaction. #12;INTERACTION OF INTENSE SHORT LASER PULSES WITH GASES OF NANOSCALE ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR., Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering We study the interaction of intense laser pulses with gases

  14. Electrochemical Nanoscale Templating: Laterally Self-Aligned Growth of Organic-Metal Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    attractive for a wide range of applications such as the fabrication of nanoscale devices, energy storage of nanostructures into 2D or 3D arrays is necessary for the further hierarchical development of devices. TemplatingElectrochemical Nanoscale Templating: Laterally Self-Aligned Growth of Organic-Metal Nanostructures

  15. Local Heating in Nanoscale Conductors Yu-Chang Chen, Michael Zwolak, and Massimiliano Di Ventra*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zwolak, Michael

    Local Heating in Nanoscale Conductors Yu-Chang Chen, Michael Zwolak, and Massimiliano Di Ventra Received October 2, 2003 ABSTRACT We report first-principles calculations of local heating in nanoscale heat dissipation, the single molecule heats less than the gold point contact. We also find that

  16. Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped Emmanuel Rousseau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped silicon the role of surface plasmons for nanoscale radiative heat transfer between doped silicon surfaces. We derive a new accurate and closed-form expression of the radiative near- field heat transfer. We also

  17. A mean field approach for computing solid-liquid surface tension for nanoscale interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Steven O.

    A mean field approach for computing solid-liquid surface tension for nanoscale interfaces Chi are largely determined by the solid-liquid surface tension. This is especially true for nanoscale systems with high surface area to volume ratios. While experimental techniques can only measure surface tension

  18. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by artificial DNA nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Y.; Seo, S.; Park, J.; Park, T.; Ahn, J. R., E-mail: jrahn@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.; Dugasani, S. R. [Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, S. H. [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. H., E-mail: sunghapark@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  19. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps to Predict4VacancyVacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire

  20. Chemical synthesis of hard magnetic SmCo nanoparticles Hongwang Zhang,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J. Ping

    nm SmCo3.6­O NPs were reduced by Ca at 960 C and converted into ferromagnetic 6 nm SmCo5 NPs to the chemical instability of SmCo on the nanoscale. Here, we report a chemical synthesis of SmCo5/Sm2Co17 NPs by the combination of solution-phase synthesis and solid-state high- temperature reductive annealing methods. SmCo5

  1. Conversion of lignin precursors to carbon fibers with nanoscale graphitic domains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Jones, Eric B [ORNL; Clingenpeel, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; McKenna, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Keffer, David J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Johs, Alexander [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fiber, monolithic structures or powders that could be used directly in the production of anodes for lithium-ion batteries. In this work, we report processing parameters relevant for the conversion of lignin precursors into electrochemically active carbon fibers, the impact of lignin precursor modification on melt processing and the microstructure of the final carbon material. The conversion process encompasses melt spinning of the lignin precursor, oxidative stabilization and a low temperature carbonization step in a nitrogen/hydrogen atmosphere. To assess electrochemical performance, we determined resistivities of individual carbon fiber samples and characterized the microstructure by scanning electron microscopy and neutron diffraction. The chemical modification and subsequent thermomechanical processing methods reported here are effective for conversion into carbon fibers while preserving the macromolecular backbone structure of lignin. Modification of softwood lignin produced functionalities and rheological properties that more closely resemble hardwood lignin thereby enabling the melt processing of softwood lignin in oxidative atmospheres (air). Structural characterization of the carbonized fibers reveals nanoscale graphitic domains that are linked to enhanced electrochemical performance.

  2. Method and apparatus for remote sensing of molecular species at nanoscale utilizing a reverse photoacoustic effect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Ming (Oviedo, FL); Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Hedden, David (Lenoir City, TN)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for identifying a sample, involves illuminating the sample with light of varying wavelengths, transmitting an acoustic signal against the sample from one portion and receiving a resulting acoustic signal on another portion, detecting a change of phase in the acoustic signal corresponding to the light of varying wavelengths, and analyzing the change of phase in the acoustic signal for the varying wavelengths of illumination to identify the sample. The apparatus has a controlled source for illuminating the sample with light of varying wavelengths, a transmitter for transmitting an acoustic wave, a receiver for receiving the acoustic wave and converting the acoustic wave to an electronic signal, and an electronic circuit for detecting a change of phase in the acoustic wave corresponding to respective ones of the varying wavelengths and outputting the change of phase for the varying wavelengths to allow identification of the sample. The method and apparatus can be used to detect chemical composition or visual features. A transmission mode and a reflection mode of operation are disclosed. The method and apparatus can be applied at nanoscale to detect molecules in a biological sample.

  3. Nanoscale mapping of the W/Si(001) Schottky barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durcan, Chris A.; Balsano, Robert; LaBella, Vincent P., E-mail: vlabella@albany.edu [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The W/Si(001) Schottky barrier was spatially mapped with nanoscale resolution using ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) and ballistic hole emission microscopy (BHEM) using n-type and p-type silicon substrates. The formation of an interfacial tungsten silicide is observed utilizing transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The BEEM and BHEM spectra are fit utilizing a linearization method based on the power law BEEM model using the Prietsch Ludeke fitting exponent. The aggregate of the Schottky barrier heights from n-type (0.71?eV) and p-type (0.47?eV) silicon agrees with the silicon band gap at 80?K. Spatially resolved maps of the Schottky barrier are generated from grids of 7225 spectra taken over a 1??m?×?1??m area and provide insight into its homogeneity. Histograms of the barrier heights have a Gaussian component consistent with an interface dipole model and show deviations that are localized in the spatial maps and are attributed to compositional fluctuations, nanoscale defects, and foreign materials.

  4. XEDS STEM Tomography For 3D Chemical CharacterizationOf Nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    view of the TEM sample. We employed this technique to investigate 3D distribution of Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn) and Oxygen (O) in Li(NiMn)O2 battery cathode material. For this...

  5. Arrays of nanoscale magnetic dots: Fabrication by x-ray interference lithography and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyderman, L.J.; Solak, H.H.; David, C.; Atkinson, D.; Cowburn, R.P.; Nolting, F. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Nanomagnetism Group, Department of Physics, University of Durham, Rochester Building, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray interference lithography (XIL) was employed in combination with electrodeposition to fabricate arrays of nanoscale nickel dots which are uniform over 40 {mu}m and have periods down to 71 nm. Using extreme-ultraviolet light, XIL has the potential to produce magnetic dot arrays over large areas with periods well below 50 nm, and down to a theoretical limit of 6.5 nm for a 13 nm x-ray wavelength. In the nickel dot arrays, we observed the effect of interdot magnetic stray field interactions. Measuring the hysteresis loops using the magneto-optical Kerr effect, a double switching via the vortex state was observed in the nickel dots with diameters down to 44 nm and large dot separations. As the dot separations are reduced to below around 50 nm a single switching, occurring by collective rotation of the magnetic spins, is favored due to interdot magnetic stray field interactions. This results in magnetic flux closure through several dots which could be visualized with micromagnetic simulations. Further evidence of the stray field interactions was seen in photoemission electron microscopy images, where bands of contrast corresponding to chains of coupled dots were observed.

  6. Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamza, A V; Lesuer, D R

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory's (NSCL) primary mission is to create and advance interdisciplinary research and development opportunities in nanoscience and technology. The initial emphasis of the NSCL has been on development of scientific solutions in support of target fabrication for the NIF laser and other stockpile stewardship experimental platforms. Particular emphasis has been placed on the design and development of innovative new materials and structures for use in these targets. Projects range from the development of new high strength nanocrystalline alloys to graded density materials to high Z nanoporous structures. The NSCL also has a mission to recruit and train personnel for Lab programs such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Defense and Nuclear Technologies (DNT), and Nonproliferation, Arms control and International security (NAI). The NSCL continues to attract talented scientists to the Laboratory.

  7. Method and system for nanoscale plasma processing of objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S. (Clarksville, MD); Hua, Xuefeng (Hyattsville, MD); Stolz, Christian (Baden-Wuerttemberg, DE)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma processing system includes a source of plasma, a substrate and a shutter positioned in close proximity to the substrate. The substrate/shutter relative disposition is changed for precise control of substrate/plasma interaction. This way, the substrate interacts only with a fully established, stable plasma for short times required for nanoscale processing of materials. The shutter includes an opening of a predetermined width, and preferably is patterned to form an array of slits with dimensions that are smaller than the Debye screening length. This enables control of the substrate/plasma interaction time while avoiding the ion bombardment of the substrate in an undesirable fashion. The relative disposition between the shutter and the substrate can be made either by moving the shutter or by moving the substrate.

  8. Nanoscale patterning of graphene through femtosecond laser ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahin, R.; Akturk, S., E-mail: selcuk.akturk@itu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Simsek, E. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on nanometer-scale patterning of single layer graphene on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate through femtosecond laser ablation. The pulse fluence is adjusted around the single-pulse ablation threshold of graphene. It is shown that, even though both SiO{sub 2} and Si have more absorption in the linear regime compared to graphene, the substrate can be kept intact during the process. This is achieved by scanning the sample under laser illumination at speeds yielding a few numbers of overlapping pulses at a certain point, thereby effectively shielding the substrate. By adjusting laser fluence and translation speed, 400?nm wide ablation channels could be achieved over 100??m length. Raster scanning of the sample yields well-ordered periodic structures, provided that sufficient gap is left between channels. Nanoscale patterning of graphene without substrate damage is verified with Scanning Electron Microscope and Raman studies.

  9. High-pressure lubricity at the meso- and nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vanossi; A. Benassi; N. Varini; E. Tosatti

    2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase of sliding friction upon increasing load is a classic in the macroscopic world. Here we discuss the possibility that friction rise might sometimes turn into a drop when, at the mesoscale and nanoscale, a confined lubricant film separating crystalline sliders undergoes strong layering and solidification. Under pressure, transitions from N to N-1 layers may imply a change of lateral periodicity of the crystallized lubricant sufficient to alter the matching of crystal structures, influencing the ensuing friction jump. A pressure-induced friction drop may occur as the shear gradient maximum switches from the lubricant middle, marked by strong stick-slip with or without shear melting, to the crystalline slider-lubricant interface, characterized by smooth superlubric sliding. We present high pressure sliding simulations to display examples of frictional drops, suggesting their possible relevance to the local behavior in boundary lubrication.

  10. Nanoscale spatially resolved infrared spectra from single microdroplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Thomas; Kulik, Andrzej J; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Mason, Thomas O; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Dietler, Giovanni

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Droplet microfluidics has emerged as a powerful platform allowing a large number of individual reactions to be carried out in spatially distinct microcompartments. Due to their small size, however, the spectroscopic characterisation of species encapsulated in such systems remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate the acquisition of infrared spectra from single microdroplets containing aggregation-prone proteins. To this effect, droplets are generated in a microfluidic flow-focussing device and subsequently deposited in a square array onto a ZnSe prism using a micro stamp. After drying, the solutes present in the droplets are illuminated locally by an infrared laser through the prism, and their thermal expansion upon absorption of infrared radiation is measured with an atomic force microscopy tip, granting nanoscale resolution. Using this approach, we resolve structural differences in the amide bands of the spectra of monomeric and aggregated lysozyme from single microdroplets with picolitre volume.

  11. Nanoscale heterogeneity at the aqueous electrolyte-electrode interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David T. Limmer; Adam P. Willard

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal emergent properties of hydrated electrode interfaces that while molecular in origin are integral to the behavior of the system across long times scales and large length scales. Specifically, we describe the impact of a disordered and slowly evolving adsorbed layer of water on the molecular structure and dynamics of the electrolyte solution adjacent to it. Generically, we find that densities and mobilities of both water and dissolved ions are spatially heterogeneous in the plane parallel to the electrode over nanosecond timescales. These and other recent results are analyzed in the context of available experimental literature from surface science and electrochemistry. We speculate on the implications of this emerging microscopic picture on the catalytic proficiency of hydrated electrodes, offering an new direction for study in heterogeneous catalysis at the nanoscale.

  12. ADVANCED HEAT EXCHANGERS USING TUNABLE NANOSCALE-MOLECULAR ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwang J. Kim; Thomas W. Bell; Srinivas Vemuri; Sailaja Govindaraju

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam condensation heat transfer on smooth horizontal tubes and enhanced tubes (TURBO-CDI and TURBO-CSL) along with nanoscale hydrophobic coated tubes was studied experimentally. Hydrophobic coatings have been created through self-assembled mono layers (SAMs) on copper alloy (99.9% Cu, 0.1% P) surfaces to enhance steam condensation through dropwise condensation. In general, a SAM system with a long-chain, hydrophobic group is nano-resistant, meaning that such a system forms a protective hydrophobic layer with negligible heat transfer resistance but a much stronger bond. When compared to complete filmwise condensation, the SAM coating on a plain tube increased the condensation heat transfer rate by a factor of 3 for copper alloy surfaces, under vacuum pressure (33.86 kPa) and by a factor of about 8 times when operated at atmospheric pressure (101 kPa). Lifetime of maintaining dropwise condensation is greatly dependent on the processing conditions.

  13. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes on diamond-like carbon by the hot filament plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Byungyou

    , scanning probes, nanoscale electronic devices, hydrogen storage, chemical sensors, and composite., 1995). These properties make CNTs good candidates for many applications such as field emission devices on a nanostructured transition metal catalyst such as Co, Ni, or Fe. The growth mechanisms of CNTs are divided

  14. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Single-chain Nanoparticles: Synthesis of Nano-scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Single-chain Nanoparticles: Synthesis of Nano-scale Architectures:00 AM, IMS Room 20 Recent efforts by our lab to fold single polymer chains into nano

  15. Tunable Nanoscale Plasmon Antenna for Localization and Enhancement of Optical Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Tunable Nanoscale Plasmon Antenna for Localization and Enhancement of Optical Energy Douglas Howe....................................................................................................................... 4 Surface Plasmons used. The coupling of optical energy with the surface plasmons that occur on the surface of metals

  16. The development of nanoscale morphology in polymer:fullerene photovoltaic blends during solvent casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Travis, Adrian

    The development of nanoscale morphology in polymer:fullerene photovoltaic blends during solventsm00343c The power conversion efficiency in a conjugated polymer-functionalized fullerene bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) device is dependent both on the electronic properties

  17. Nanoscale Graphene Oxide (nGO) as Artificial Receptors: Implications for Biomolecular Interactions and Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jiaxing

    . P. Dravid*, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, International Institute or signal transducer due to size inconsistencies and poor supramolecular response. We overcame these issues uniform lateral dimension of 20 nm. Due to its nanoscale architecture, its supramolecular response

  18. Development of novel high-performance six-axis magnetically levitated instruments for nanoscale applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verma, Shobhit

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation presents two novel 6-axis magnetic-levitation (maglev) stages that are capable of nanoscale positioning. These stages have very simple and compact structure that is advantageous to meet requirements in ...

  19. Nanoscale Triboelectric-Effect-Enabled Energy Conversion for Sustainably Powering Portable Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Nanoscale Triboelectric-Effect-Enabled Energy Conversion for Sustainably Powering Portable: Harvesting energy from our living environment is an effective approach for sustainable, maintenance-free, and green power source for wireless, portable, or implanted electronics. Mechanical energy scavenging based

  20. University of California, Santa Cruz, Applied Optics Grouphttp://photon.soe.ucsc.edu Nanoscale Optofluidics for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Herbie

    University of California, Santa Cruz, Applied Optics Grouphttp://photon.soe.ucsc.edu Nanoscale;University of California, Santa Cruz, Applied Optics Grouphttp://photon.soe.ucsc.edu Background Microfluidics Single molecule analysis Integrated optics Singleparticle Optofluidics Optofluidics: combination

  1. Atomic-Level Study of Ion-Induced Nanoscale Disordered Domains...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on SiC using ion-beam-induced order-disorder transformation. Citation: Gao F, and WJ Weber.2003."Atomic-Level Study of Ion-Induced Nanoscale Disordered Domains in Silicon...

  2. Nanoscale organic transistors that use sourcedrain electrodes supported by high resolution rubber stamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Nanoscale organic transistors that use sourceÕdrain electrodes supported by high resolution rubber resolution rubber stamps bilayers of two different types of the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane 3,4 by casting

  3. Toward Nanoscale Three-Dimensional Printing: Nanowalls Built of Electrospun Nanofibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ho-Young

    . This novel 3D printing scheme can be applied to the development of various 3D nanoscale objects including manufacturing for several decades.1 So- called 3D printing is reaching a stage where the desired products can

  4. Development of nano-scale and biomimetic surfaces for biomedical applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry, James Edward

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . Both sensors developed in this work take advantage of the unique optical properties associated with nanoscale metal particles, however they use different types of spectroscopies for optical detection of the presence of the disease associated abnormal...

  5. Exchange-coupled nanoscale SmCo/NdFeB hybrid magnets Dapeng Wang a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J. Ping

    t Nanoscale hybrid magnets containing SmCo5 and Nd2Fe14B hard magnetic phases have been produced via a novel magnetization and energy products compared to the single-phase SmCo5 counterpart. & 2012 Elsevier B.V. All-coupled fully dense nanoscale hybrid magnets of different hard magnetic phases ``in one pot''. The SmCo5/Nd2Fe14

  6. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a long time, it was thought that their chemical complexity would preclude their use in device applications. All changed in 2004 with the discovery that the interface between...

  7. Harnessing microbial subsurface metal reduction activities to synthesise nanoscale cobalt ferrite with enhanced magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coker, Victoria S.; Telling, Neil D.; van der Laan, Gerrit; Pattrick, Richard A.D.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Arenholz, Elke; Tuna, Floriana; Winpenny, Richard E.P.; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale ferrimagnetic particles have a diverse range of uses from directed cancer therapy and drug delivery systems to magnetic recording media and transducers. Such applications require the production of monodisperse nanoparticles with well-controlled size, composition, and magnetic properties. To fabricate these materials purely using synthetic methods is costly in both environmental and economical terms. However, metal-reducing microorganisms offer an untapped resource to produce these materials. Here, the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens is used to synthesize magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. A combination of electron microscopy, soft X-ray spectroscopy, and magnetometry techniques was employed to show that this method of biosynthesis results in high yields of crystalline nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution and magnetic properties equal to the best chemically synthesized materials. In particular, it is demonstrated here that cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles with low temperature coercivity approaching 8 kOe and an effective anisotropy constant of {approx} 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -3} can be manufactured through this biotechnological route. The dramatic enhancement in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles by the introduction of high quantities of Co into the spinel structure represents a significant advance over previous biomineralization studies in this area using magnetotactic bacteria. The successful production of nanoparticulate ferrites achieved in this study at high yields could open up the way for the scaled-up industrial manufacture of nanoparticles using environmentally benign methodologies. Production of ferromagnetic nanoparticles for pioneering cancer therapy, drug delivery, chemical sensors, catalytic activity, photoconductive materials, as well as more traditional uses in data storage embodies a large area of inorganic synthesis research. In particular, the addition of transition metals other than Fe into the structure of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) has been shown to greatly enhance the magnetic properties of the particles, tailoring them to different commercial uses. However, synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles is often carried out at high temperatures with toxic solvents resulting in high environmental and energy costs. Additionally, these ferrite nanoparticles are not intrinsically biocompatible, and to make them suitable for insertion into the human body is a rather intricate task. A relatively unexplored resource for magnetic nanomaterial production is subsurface Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, as these microorganisms are capable of producing large quantities of nanoscale magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) at ambient temperatures. Metal-reducing bacteria live in environments deficient in oxygen and conserve energy for growth through the oxidation of hydrogen or organic electron donors, coupled to the reduction of oxidized metals such as Fe(III)-bearing minerals. This can result in the formation of magnetite via the extracellular reduction of amorphous Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides causing the release of soluble Fe(II) and resulting in complete recrystallization of the amorphous mineral into a new phase. Some previous studies have reported altering the composition of biogenic magnetite produced by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria for industrial and environmental applications. However, research into the commercial exploitation of bacteria to form magnetic minerals has focused primarily on magnetotactic bacteria which form magnetosomal magnetite internally using very different pathways to those bacteria forming magnetite outside the cell. Magnetotactic bacteria live at the sediment-water interface and use internal nanomagnets to guide them to their preferred environmental niche using the Earth's magnetic field. Since magnetotactic bacteria generally grow optimally under carefully controlled microaerobic conditions, the culturing processes for these organisms are challenging and result in low yields of nanomagnetite. Despite these limitations, magnetotactic bacteria have bee

  8. Chemical Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Science Compton double ionization of helium in the region of the cross-section maximum B. Krssig, R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, S. Hasegawa, E.P. Kanter, H....

  9. Computational insights of water droplet transport on graphene sheet with chemical density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao, E-mail: xqwang@uga.edu [College of Engineering and NanoSEC, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface gradient has been emerging as an intriguing technique for nanoscale particle manipulation and transportation. Owing to its outstanding and stable chemical properties, graphene with covalently bonded chemical groups represents extraordinary potential for the investigation of nanoscale transport in the area of physics and biology. Here, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the fundamental mechanism of utilizing a chemical density on a graphene sheet to control water droplet motions on it. Simulation results have demonstrated that the binding energy difference among distinct segment of graphene in terms of interaction between the covalently bonded oxygen atoms on graphene and the water molecules provides a fundamental driving force to transport the water droplet across the graphene sheet. Also, the velocity of the water droplet has showed a strong dependence on the relative concentration of oxygen atoms between successive segments. Furthermore, a multi-direction channel provides insights to guide the transportation of objects towards a targeted position, separating the mixtures with a system of specific chemical functionalization. Our findings shed illuminating lights on the surface gradient method and therefore provide a feasible way to control nanoscale motion on the surface and mimic the channelless microfluidics.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Li-ion Anode Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Pittsburgh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about nanoscale...

  11. Mechanisms of budding of nanoscale particles through lipid bilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teresa Ruiz-Herrero; Enrique Velasco; Michael F. Hagan

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the budding of a nanoscale particle through a lipid bilayer using molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations, and an elastic theory, with the aim of determining the extent to which equilibrium elasticity theory can describe the factors that control the mechanism and efficiency of budding. The particle is a smooth sphere which experiences attractive interactions to the lipid head groups. Depending on the parameters, we observe four classes of dynamical trajectories: particle adhesion to the membrane, stalled partially wrapped states, budding followed by scission, and membrane rupture. In most regions of parameter space we find that the elastic theory agrees nearly quantitatively with the simulated phase behavior as a function of adhesion strength, membrane bending rigidity, and particle radius. However, at parameter values near the transition between particle adhesion and budding, we observe long-lived partially wrapped states which are not captured by existing elastic theories. These states could constrain the accessible system parameters for those enveloped viruses or drug delivery vehicles which rely on exo- or endocytosis for membrane transport.

  12. Measuring oxygen reduction/evolution reactions on the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Ciucci, Francesco [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of fuel cells and metal-air batteries is significantly limited by the activation of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR/OER). Despite the well-recognized role of oxygen reaction kinetics on the viability of energy technologies, the governing mechanisms remain elusive and until now addressable only by macroscopic studies. This lack of nanoscale understanding precludes optimization of material architecture. Here we report direct measurements of oxygen reduction/evolution reactions and oxygen vacancy diffusion on oxygen-ion conductive solid surfaces with sub-10 nanometer resolution. In electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), the biased scanning probe microscopy tip acts as a moving, electrocatalytically active probe exploring local electrochemical activity. The probe concentrates an electric field in a nanometer-scale volume of material, and bias-induced, picometer-level surface displacements provide information on local electrochemical processes. Systematic mapping of oxygen activity on bare and Pt-functionalized yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) surfaces is demonstrated. This approach allows directly visualization of ORR/OER activation process at the triple-phase boundary, and can be extended to broad spectrum of oxygen-conductive and electrocatalytic materials.

  13. Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liati, Anthi; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for I.C. Engines, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130-270 {mu}m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15-30 nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively mature internal nanostructures, however, far from being graphite. Ash aggregates largely accumulate at the outlet part of DPF1, while minor amounts are deposited directly on the channel walls all along the filter length. They consist of crystalline phases with individual particles of sizes down to the nanoscale range. Chemically, the ash consists mainly of Mg, S, Ca, Zn and P, elements encountered in lubricating oil additives. In the passenger car DPF2 (with fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 200-500 {mu}m thick, inhomogeneous porous cake consisting of several superposed layers corresponding to different soot generations. The largest part of the soot cake is composed of unburned, oriented soot aggregates left behind despite repeated regenerations, while a small part constitutes a loose layer with randomly oriented aggregates, which was deposited last and has not seen any regeneration. Fe-oxide particles of micro- to nano-scale sizes, originating from the fuel-borne additive, are often dispersed within the part of the soot cake composed of the unburned soot leftovers. The individual soot nanoparticles in DPF2 are approximately 15-40 nm large and generally less mature than in the truck DPF1. The presence of soot leftovers in DPF2 indicates that the addition of fuel-borne material does not fully compensate for the temperatures needed for complete soot removal. Ash in DPF2 is filling up more than half of the filter volume (at the downstream part) and is dominated by Fe-oxide aggregates, due to the Fe-based fuel-borne additive, but otherwise its chemical composition reflects compounds of lubricating oil additives. (author)

  14. NANOSCALE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SENSORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Andres, School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University

    2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Under this funding, we proposed to: i) develop a ChemFET sensor platform, ii) develop a ChemDiode sensor platform, iii) synthesize receptor molecules suitable for chemical sensing, iv) study the electrostatic potential changes induced by receptor/target binding on surfaces and v) develop VLSI fabrication approaches for micron-scale chemical sensor devices. The accomplishments under these various thrusts are summarized in this section.

  15. Scanning precession electron tomography for three-dimensional nanoscale orientation imaging and crystallographic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggeman, Alexander S.; Krakow, Robert; Midgeley, Paul A.

    2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    number EP/H017712/1 and the Royal Society. R.K. acknowledges financial support from Rolls-Royce, EPSRC and the BMWi under EP/H022309/1, EP/H500375/1 and grant number 20T0813. We are grateful to Professor Edgar Rauch for valuable discussion on the use...

  16. Correlative Nanoscale 3D Imaging of Structure and Composition in Extended Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Verneuil en Halatte, France, 4 Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Amiens, Universite, the improvement of three-dimensional (3D) resolution is accomplished by tightening constraints: reduced manageable

  17. Spin Coherence at the Nanoscale: Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Arthur J. [Professor

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Breakthrough results were achieved during the reporting period in the areas of organic spintronics. (A) For the first time the giant magnetic resistance (GMR) was observed in spin valve with an organic spacer. Thus we demonstrated the ability of organic semiconductors to transport spin in GMR devices using rubrene as a prototype for organic semiconductors. (B) We discovered the electrical bistability and spin valve effect in a ferromagnet /organic semiconductor/ ferromagnet heterojunction. The mechanism of switching between conducting phases and its potential applications were suggested. (C) The ability of V(TCNE)x to inject spin into organic semiconductors such as rubrene was demonstrated for the first time. The mechanisms of spin injection and transport from and into organic magnets as well through organic semiconductors were elucidated. (D) In collaboration with the group of OSU Prof. Johnston-Halperin we reported the successful extraction of spin polarized current from a thin film of the organic-based room temperature ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]x and its subsequent injection into a GaAs/AlGaAs light-emitting diode (LED). Thus all basic steps for fabrication of room temperature, light weight, flexible all organic spintronic devices were successfully performed. (E) A new synthesis/processing route for preparation of V(TCNE)x enabling control of interface and film thicknesses at the nanoscale was developed at OSU. Preliminary results show these films are higher quality and what is extremely important they are substantially more air stable than earlier prepared V(TCNE)x. In sum the breakthrough results we achieved in the past two years form the basis of a promising new technology, Multifunctional Flexible Organic-based Spintronics (MFOBS). MFOBS technology enables us fabrication of full function flexible spintronic devices that operate at room temperature.

  18. Chemical Occurrences

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Classification of Chemical Occurrence Reports into the following four classes: Occurrences characterized by serious energy release, injury or exposure requiring medical treatment, or severe environmental damage, Occurrences characterized by minor injury or exposure, or reportable environmental release, Occurrences that were near misses including notable safety violations and Minor occurrences.

  19. Contact optical nanolithography using nanoscale C-shaped apertures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    . Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3560-3562 (1999). 3. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom , "Imprint

  20. Parallel nano-Differential Scanning Calorimetry: A New Device for Combinatorial Analysis of Complex nano-Scale Material Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Parallel nano-Differential Scanning Calorimetry: A New Device for Combinatorial Analysis of Complex nano-Scale Material Systems Patrick James McCluskey, and Joost J. Vlassak Division of Engineering is presented for the combinatorial analysis of complex nano-scale material systems. The parallel nano

  1. A non-planar organic molecule with non-volatile electrical bistability for nano-scale data storage{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    A non-planar organic molecule with non-volatile electrical bistability for nano-scale data storage-planar organic molecule with electron donor and acceptor capabilities was synthesized for nano-scale data storage the demand of expansive storage capacity in the future. Recently, organic materials have received much

  2. The Properties of Confined Water and Fluid Flow at the Nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwegler, E; Reed, J; Lau, E; Prendergast, D; Galli, G; Grossman, J C; Cicero, G

    2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has been focused on the development of accurate computational tools to study fluids in confined, nanoscale geometries, and the application of these techniques to probe the structural and electronic properties of water confined between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, including the presence of simple ions at the interfaces. In particular, we have used a series of ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations to build an understanding of how hydrogen bonding and solvation are modified at the nanoscale. The properties of confined water affect a wide range of scientific and technological problems - including protein folding, cell-membrane flow, materials properties in confined media and nanofluidic devices.

  3. J. Nanoparticle Res. Computational Materials Chemistry at the Nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Çagin, Tahir

    modeling is being used to determine the struc­ ture, physical, and chemical properties of materials these scales can lead to new phenomena providing opportunities for new levels of sensing, manipulation, and control. However, being much smaller than the wavelength of visible light but much larger than simple

  4. Northwest National Laboratory's Chemical Imaging Initiative is...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulating streamflow and river dynamics. When coupled with established land and Earth system models, MOSART outperforms other river routing models and provides the basis for a...

  5. Frontiers in Chemical Imaging Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the ideal source for examining matter on fundamental length and time scales. The next evolution of FELs and the number of experiments that can simultaneously operate at the same time reducing the physical scale at higher energy, or can be used to reduce the physical scale of the FEL, by reduction of the electron

  6. Frontiers in Chemical Imaging Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -ray microscopy has blossomed into a popular and rich methodology, opening the door to new research-ray microscopy beamline at APS in 1997. Ian subsequently oversaw the development of the APS Sector 2 beamlines and led the APS X-ray Microscopy Group during 2000-2004. After spending a year in Berlin studying resonant

  7. Frontiers in Chemical Imaging Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the UCSD Center for Research in Biological Systems. Date: July 26, 2011 Location: ETB Columbia River Room

  8. Frontiers in Chemical Imaging Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the Department of Energy and Congress. Friday April 20, 2012 9:00 am ETB Columbia River Room Host: Louis

  9. Spatially resolved chemical imaging of individual atmospheric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    study include those collected during a pollution episode related to urban waste incineration as well as background particles from the same location prior to the episode....

  10. Frontiers in Chemical Imaging Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of carbon aerogels able to wick cryogenic hydrogen needed for laser fusion targets and development of super strong carbon aerogels able to with stand volume changes associated charge- discharge in super capacitors

  11. Frontiers in Chemical Imaging Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    knock-on radiation damage in materials such as graphene. As a result, very large electron doses can pioneered by Nion. Correction of electron-optical aberrations has resulted in electron beams. He has been developing electron-optical instruments since his post-doctorate: serial- detection EELS

  12. Chemical Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms AboutRESEARCH CAPABILITIES Thematerials | Center forChemical

  13. Use of Plasmon Spectroscopy to Evaluate the Mechanical Properties of Materials at the Nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howe, James M.

    Use of Plasmon Spectroscopy to Evaluate the Mechanical Properties of Materials at the Nanoscale, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4745, USA Abstract: Relationships between volume plasmon of available data, correlations between the volume plasmon energy, Ep, Young's modulus, Ym, bulk modulus, Bm

  14. Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres. William J.

    Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery Hessam.1063/1.3643035] Lithium-ion batteries are of great interest due to their high energy density, however, various safety properties, many applications are pos- sible.10,11 One is the electrolyte of the lithium-ion batteries, where

  15. Nanoscale Joule heating, Peltier cooling and current crowding at graphenemetal contacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, William P.

    Nanoscale Joule heating, Peltier cooling and current crowding at graphene­metal contacts Kyle L are the Joule and Peltier effects. The Joule effect9 occurs as charge carriers dissipate energy within the lattice, and is pro- portional to resistance and the square of the current. The Peltier effect17

  16. A Mossbauer spectroscopy study of nanoscale GeSn dispersions prepared by ball milling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boolchand, Punit

    A Mo¨ssbauer spectroscopy study of nanoscale Ge­Sn dispersions prepared by ball milling P by 119 Sn Mo¨ssbauer spectroscopy. The Mo¨ssbauer measurements in general reveal two sites for the Sn of the Sn was detected by Mo¨ssbauer spectroscopy at Sn-poor concentrations (x # 0.10) when the milling vial

  17. Hierarchical Assembly and Compliance of Aligned Nanoscale Polymer Cylinders in Confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    beyond the confined channel volumes. This graphoepitaxial methodology can be exploited in hybrid hard/soft-organize at these length scales. For this reason, hybrid systems where soft matter self-organizes into a nanoscale template analysis of the capacity of this system to accommodate lithographic defects and observations of alignment

  18. High-Affinity DNA Base Analogs as Supramolecular, Nanoscale Promoters of Macroscopic Adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    High-Affinity DNA Base Analogs as Supramolecular, Nanoscale Promoters of Macroscopic Adhesion Cyrus and Engineering, § Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, and Department of Materials Science and manufac- tured coatings and composites. Supramolecular interactions are often implicated in various

  19. Hydrogen embrittlement of ferritic steels: Observations on deformation microstructure, nanoscale dimples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sow-Hsin

    Hydrogen embrittlement of ferritic steels: Observations on deformation microstructure, nanoscale hydrogen embrittlement of ferritic steels has been a subject of significant research, one of the major challenges in tackling hydrogen embrittlement is that the mechanism of embrittlement is not fully resolved

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of the nano-scale room-temperature oxidation of aluminum single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    films that form on aluminum and aluminum alloys in air protect the surface against further oxidationMolecular dynamics simulations of the nano-scale room-temperature oxidation of aluminum single Abstract The oxidation of aluminum single crystals is studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations

  1. Last Revised: 04/03/2014 UNDERGRADUATE MINOR IN "NANOSCALE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    . It is open to any UG student pursuing an Engineering or Arts & Sciences (Chemistry, Physics, BiologyLast Revised: 04/03/2014 UNDERGRADUATE MINOR IN "NANOSCALE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING" SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE Available to any UG pursuing an Arts and Science or Engineering degree I

  2. Next Generation Optical Fiber for IR Applications: Novel Materials and NanoScale Textures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Next Generation Optical Fiber for IR Applications: Novel Materials and NanoScale Textures Axel, Orlando, FL 32816, USA #12;Outline · Impact of fiber optics · What are next generation optical fibers achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication" Charles K. Kao Brief

  3. A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes Nian Liu1 lithium-ion batteries and in more recent Li­O2 and Li­S batteries as a replacement for the dendrite to the level of commercial lithium-ion batteries (3.7 mAh cm22 ). Particle fracture and loss of electrical

  4. Biologically Activated Noble Metal Alloys at the Nanoscale: For Lithium Ion Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Biologically Activated Noble Metal Alloys at the Nanoscale: For Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Yun Jung as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Using two clones, one for specificity (p8#9 virus) and one choice for lithium ion batteries, these noble metal/alloy nanowires serve as great model systems to study

  5. Nanoscale Strainability of Graphene by Laser Shock-Induced Three-Dimensional Shaping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yong P.

    Nanoscale Strainability of Graphene by Laser Shock-Induced Three- Dimensional Shaping Ji Li,, Ting, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States ABSTRACT: Graphene has many promising physical properties. It has been discovered that local strain in a graphene sheet can alter its conducting properties

  6. 60th Anniversary Issue: Physical Picoscale science and nanoscale engineering by electron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    th Anniversary Issue: Physical Picoscale science and nanoscale engineering by electron microscopy Zhong Lin Wang* School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta.wang@mse.gatech.edu Abstract A future scanning/transmission electron microscope is proposed to be a comprehensive machine

  7. A scanning AC calorimetry technique for the analysis of nano-scale quantities of materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A scanning AC calorimetry technique for the analysis of nano-scale quantities of materials Kechao OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 114901 (2012) A scanning AC calorimetry technique for the analysis of nano 2012) We present a scanning AC nanocalorimetry method that enables calorimetry measurements at heating

  8. Commensurability effects induced by a periodic array of nanoscale anti-dots in Nb superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metlushko, Vitali

    Commensurability effects induced by a periodic array of nanoscale anti-dots in Nb superconductor A. PACS: 74.25.Ha; 74.76.)w Keywords: Nanostructures; Anti-dots; Commensurability 1. Introduction atomic layers on periodical substrate [5], magnetic bubble arrays [6] and the magnetically induced Wigner

  9. Nanoscale high-temperature superconductivity P. Mohanty a,*, J.Y.T. Wei b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Raj

    of high-temperature superconducting nanoscale devices, including Y-junctions, four-probe wires and rings-Tc superconducting (HTS) cuprate structures are only a few nanometers in size [1]. Scan- ning tunneling microscopy on a typical HTS surface gives microscopic length scales of unit cells and do- mains, typically in the range

  10. A computational contact model for nanoscale rubber adhesion Roger A. Sauer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A computational contact model for nanoscale rubber adhesion Roger A. Sauer Institute for Continuum Mechanics, Leibniz Universit¨at Hannover, Germany published in Constitutive Models for Rubber VI, G mechanical contact model which is capable of describing and simulating rubber adhesion at the nanometer scale

  11. Micro-and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L.

    Micro- and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Vladimir Ya. Shur investigation of the domain evolution in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate during backswitched electric sources based on quasi-phase matching.11 Lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) and lithium tantalate LiTaO3 (LT

  12. Heat transfer in soft nanoscale interfaces: the influence of interface curvature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Heat transfer in soft nanoscale interfaces: the influence of interface curvature Anders Lervik transient non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations, heat-transfer through nanometer-scale interfaces processes. We show that the modeling of heat transfer across a nanodroplet/fluid interface requires

  13. Nanoscale Heat Transfer at Contact Between a Hot Tip and a Substrate Stphane Lefvre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Nanoscale Heat Transfer at Contact Between a Hot Tip and a Substrate Stéphane Lefèvre Laboratoire d three heat transfer modes with experimental data and modeling. We conclude that the three modes in "International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 49, 1-2 (2006) 251-258" DOI : 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2005

  14. Three-dimensional mapping of optical near field of a nanoscale bowtie antenna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    Three-dimensional mapping of optical near field of a nanoscale bowtie antenna Rui Guo*, Edward C. This paper describes an experimental three-dimensional optical near-field mapping of a bowtie nano. The experimental results also demonstrate the polarization dependence of the transmission through the bowtie

  15. The effects of stress concentrators on strength of materials at nanoscale: A molecular dynamics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deymier, Pierre

    materials. There is evidence that when at least one spatial dimension is below a critical one the effects, suggests that such critical dimensions are in the nanometer range and, of course, depend on the materialThe effects of stress concentrators on strength of materials at nanoscale: A molecular dynamics

  16. Graphitic Phase of NaCl. Bulk Properties and Nanoscale Stability Alexander G. Kvashnin,,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tománek, David

    Graphitic Phase of NaCl. Bulk Properties and Nanoscale Stability Alexander G. Kvashnin,,,§ Pavel B approach to evaluate the stability and physical properties of the nanometer-thickness NaCl layered films and found that the rock salt films with a (111) surface become unstable with thickness below 1 nm

  17. From self-assembly to engines: Simulating the nanoscale D. C. Rapaport, Bar-Ilan University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    a small fraction of the most highly bonded forms. The second is the Stirling engine, an externalFrom self-assembly to engines: Simulating the nanoscale D. C. Rapaport, Bar-Ilan University Two combustion engine with a history dating back to the industrial revolution. The model considered here employs

  18. Nanoscale fabrication and modification of selected battery materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostecki, Robert; Song, Xiang Yun; Kinoshita, Kim; McLarnon, Frank

    2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon is an integral part of many battery electrodes. We explored the use of semiconductor-processing techniques that involve photolithography to pattern photoresists and subsequent pyrolysis to form carbon microstructures that function as microelectrodes. In this study, we describe the status of the fabrication of carbon microelectrodes obtained by pyrolysis of photoresist. Electrochemical nanometer-scale patterning of the surface of a conducting lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) was studied. We show that a localized surface chemical change can be confined to a depth which depends on the oxide-tip voltage difference and ambient humidity The ability to produce nanometer-size patterns of chemically modified oxide or nanometer-sized alterations of the oxide morphology is demonstrated and discussed with reference to possible mechanisms.

  19. ESM of Ionic and Electrochemical Phenomena on the Nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [Pennsylvania State University; Balke, Nina [ORNL; McCorkle, Morgan L [ORNL; Guo, Senli [ORNL; Arruda, Thomas M [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operation of energy storage and conversion devices is ultimately controlled by series of intertwined ionic and electronic transport processes and electrochemical reactions at surfaces and interfaces, strongly mediated by strain and mechanical processes [1-4]. In a typical fuel cell, these include chemical species transport in porous cathode and anode materials, gas-solid electrochemical reactions at grains and triple-phase boundaries (TPBs), ionic and electronic flows in multicomponent electrodes, and chemical and electronic potential drops at internal interfaces in electrodes and electrolytes. All these phenomena are sensitively affected by the microstructure of materials from device level to the atomic scales as illustrated in Fig. 1. Similar spectrum of length scales and phenomena underpin operation of other energy systems including primary and secondary batteries, as well as hybrid systems such flow and metal-air/water batteries.

  20. Nano-scale magnetic film formation by decompression of supercritical CO?/ferric acetylacetonate solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Dea, Silvia

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    12] S.I. Sandler. Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics.19] S.I. Sandler. Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics.44] S.I. Sandler. Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics.

  1. 2013 R&D 100 Award: Movie-mode electron microscope captures nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagrange, Thomas; Reed, Bryan

    2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A new instrument developed by LLNL scientists and engineers, the Movie Mode Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (MM-DTEM), captures billionth-of-a-meter-scale images with frame rates more than 100,000 times faster than those of conventional techniques. The work was done in collaboration with a Pleasanton-based company, Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions (IDES) Inc. Using this revolutionary imaging technique, a range of fundamental and technologically important material and biological processes can be captured in action, in complete billionth-of-a-meter detail, for the first time. The primary application of MM-DTEM is the direct observation of fast processes, including microstructural changes, phase transformations and chemical reactions, that shape real-world performance of nanostructured materials and potentially biological entities. The instrument could prove especially valuable in the direct observation of macromolecular interactions, such as protein-protein binding and host-pathogen interactions. While an earlier version of the technology, Single Shot-DTEM, could capture a single snapshot of a rapid process, MM-DTEM captures a multiframe movie that reveals complex sequences of events in detail. It is the only existing technology that can capture multiple electron microscopy images in the span of a single microsecond.

  2. 2013 R&D 100 Award: Movie-mode electron microscope captures nanoscale

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lagrange, Thomas; Reed, Bryan

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A new instrument developed by LLNL scientists and engineers, the Movie Mode Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (MM-DTEM), captures billionth-of-a-meter-scale images with frame rates more than 100,000 times faster than those of conventional techniques. The work was done in collaboration with a Pleasanton-based company, Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions (IDES) Inc. Using this revolutionary imaging technique, a range of fundamental and technologically important material and biological processes can be captured in action, in complete billionth-of-a-meter detail, for the first time. The primary application of MM-DTEM is the direct observation of fast processes, including microstructural changes, phase transformations and chemical reactions, that shape real-world performance of nanostructured materials and potentially biological entities. The instrument could prove especially valuable in the direct observation of macromolecular interactions, such as protein-protein binding and host-pathogen interactions. While an earlier version of the technology, Single Shot-DTEM, could capture a single snapshot of a rapid process, MM-DTEM captures a multiframe movie that reveals complex sequences of events in detail. It is the only existing technology that can capture multiple electron microscopy images in the span of a single microsecond.

  3. Nanoscale Structures Relating to the Mechanical Properties of Abalone Shell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    of Nacre 1. The nacreous layer of sea-shells is composed of 95 vol.% CaCO3, and 5% organic matrix (proteins of magnitude higher than monolithic CaCO3. The fracture toughness is comparable to that of modern ceramics. #12 Orthorhombic form of CaCO3 #12;Cross-section view of Abalone Shell Figures 1a and 1b: SEM Images of cross

  4. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erwin, D.N.; Kiel, J.L.; Batishko, C.R.; Stahl, K.A.

    1990-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopic imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber. 22 figs.

  5. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erwin, David N. (San Antonio, TX); Kiel, Johnathan L. (San Antonio, TX); Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Stahl, Kurt A. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopie imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber.

  6. Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Laminated Woven Composites Reinforced with Aligned Nanoscale Fibers: Mechanisms at the Macro, Micro, and Nano Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wicks, Sunny S.

    Several hybrid architectures with aligned nanoscale fibers have been shown to provide inter- and intra-laminar reinforcement of fiber reinforced polymer composites. In one architecture, aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown ...

  7. Solar Energy Technologies Program Peer Review: Center for Nanoscale Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Boudjouk; Larry Pederson; Doug Schulz

    2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to develop plant-derived polymers with high potential for replacing petroleum-derived polymers. Important considerations include reduced swelling, lower price, equal or greater strength, and improved processability. Polymer precursors and other high value chemicals are derived by selective oxidation of renewable resources including oil seeds and cellulosics. High throughput combinatorial methods were applied to optimize oxidative catalysis as well as to formulate polymer families. Long chain dicarboxylic acids have been derived in >80% yields from fatty acids found in oil seeds by selective oxidative cleavage using tungsten-based and other catalysts. Furan dicarboxylic acids have been synthesized in high yields by selective catalytic oxidation of cellulosic materials. This product is a precursor to a new class of polyamide polymers. A series terephthalamide/adipamide copolymers have been prepared from long-chain dicarboxylic acids derived from renewable feedstocks. Compositions have been identified that exhibit significant processing advantages over commercial nylons.

  8. Nanoscale displacement sensing based on nonlinear frequency mixing in quantum cascade lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mezzapesa, F P; De Risi, G; Brambilla, M; Dabbicco, M; Spagnolo, V; Scamarcio, G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a sensor scheme for nanoscale target displacement that relies on a single Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) subject to optical feedback. The system combines the inherent sensitivity of QCLs to optical re-injection and their ultra-stability in the strong feedback regime where nonlinear frequency mixing phenomena are enhanced. An experimental proof of principle in the micrometer wavelength scale is provided. We perform real-time measurements of displacement with {\\lambda}/100 resolution by inserting a fast-shifting reference etalon in the external cavity. The resulting signal dynamics at the QCL terminals shows a stroboscopic-like effect that relates the sensor resolution with the reference etalon speed. Intrinsic limits to the measurement algorithm and to the reference speed are discussed, disclosing that nanoscale ranges are attainable.

  9. Stick-Slip Control in Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication by Surface Wettability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Chen; Adam S. Foster; Mikko J. Alava; Lasse Laurson

    2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of atomic scale surface-lubricant interactions on nanoscale boundary-lubricated friction, by considering two example surfaces - hydrophilic mica and hydrophobic graphene - confining thin layers of water in molecular dynamics simulations. We observe stick-slip dynamics for thin water films confined by mica sheets, involving periodic breaking-reforming transitions of atomic scale capillary water bridges formed around the potassium ions of mica. However, only smooth sliding without stick-slip events is observed for water confined by graphene, as well as for thicker water layers confined by mica. Thus, our results illustrate how atomic scale details affect the wettability of the confining surfaces, and consequently control the presence or absence of stick-slip dynamics in nanoscale friction.

  10. Nano-Scale Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC S) for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-year project was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nano-scale Interpenetrating Phase Composite (IPC) components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real applications such as high wear/corrosion resistant refractory shapes for industrial applications, lightweight vehicle braking system components, or lower cost/higher performance military body and vehicle armor. Nano-scale IPC s with improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties have previously been demonstrated at the lab scale, but have been limited in size. The work performed under this project was focused on investigating the ability to take the current traditional lab scale processes to a manufacturing scale through scaling of these processes or through the utilization of an alternative high-temperature process.

  11. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging using parallel transmission at 7T

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gagoski, Borjan Aleksandar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), also known as phase-encoded (PE) chemical shift imaging (CSI), suffers from both low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the brain metabolites, as well as inflexible ...

  12. Implications and mitigation of model mismatch and covariance contamination for hyperspectral chemical agent detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Sidi

    Most chemical gas detection algorithms for long-wave infrared hyperspectral images assume a gas with a perfectly known spectral signature. In practice, the chemical signature is either imperfectly measured and/or exhibits ...

  13. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chung-cheng (Irvine, CA); Sui, Guodong (Los Angeles, CA); Elizarov, Arkadij (Valley Village, CA); Kolb, Hartmuth C. (Playa del Rey, CA); Huang, Jiang (San Jose, CA); Heath, James R. (South Pasadena, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Los Angeles, CA); Quake, Stephen R. (Stanford, CA); Tseng, Hsian-rong (Los Angeles, CA); Wyatt, Paul (Tipperary, IE); Daridon, Antoine (Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH)

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  14. Computational Chemical Materials Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Home Computational Chemical and Materials Engineering Tahir Cagin Chemical Engineering Department through processing for improving their performance for engineering applications · Use and develop with usable ­ Chemical ­ Electronic ­ Optical ­ Magnetic ­ Transport, thermal and mechanical properties

  15. Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes ICEHT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...

  16. Test Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Test Images. I hope to have a set of test images for the course soon. Some images are available now; some will have to wait until I can find another 100-200

  17. Soft-x-ray spectroscopy study of nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, J.-H.

    2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to control the particle size and morphology of nanoparticles is of crucial importance nowadays both from a fundamental and industrial point of view considering the tremendous amount of high-tech applications. Controlling the crystallographic structure and the arrangement of atoms along the surface of nanostructured material will determine most of its physical properties. In general, electronic structure ultimately determines the properties of matter. Soft X-ray spectroscopy has some basic features that are important to consider. X-ray is originating from an electronic transition between a localized core state and a valence state. As a core state is involved, elemental selectivity is obtained because the core levels of different elements are well separated in energy, meaning that the involvement of the inner level makes this probe localized to one specific atomic site around which the electronic structure is reflected as a partial density-of-states contribution. The participation of valence electrons gives the method chemical state sensitivity and further, the dipole nature of the transitions gives particular symmetry information. The new generation synchrotron radiation sources producing intensive tunable monochromatized soft X-ray beams have opened up new possibilities for soft X-ray spectroscopy. The introduction of selectively excited soft X-ray emission has opened a new field of study by disclosing many new possibilities of soft X-ray resonant inelastic scattering. In this paper, some recent findings regarding soft X-ray absorption and emission studies of various nanostructured systems are presented.

  18. Molecular level control of nanoscale composition and morphology: Toward photocatalytic nanocomposites for solar-to-chemical energy conversion of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruberu, Thanthrige P. [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the factors influencing nanocrystal formation is a challenge yet to be realized. In comparison to the large number of studies on nanocrystal synthesis and their applications, the number of studies on the effect of the precursor chemistry on nanocrystal composition and shape remains low. Although photochemical fabrication of metalsemiconductor nano-heterostructures is reported in literature, control over the free particle formation and the site of metal deposition have not been achieved. Moreover, utilization of metal- semiconductor nano-heterostructures in photocatalytic reactions other than water splitting is hardly explored. In this thesis, we studied the effect of chalcogenide precursor reactivity on the composition, morphology and the axial anisotropy of cadmiumchalcogenide nanocrystals. We also investigated the influence of the irradiation wavelength in synthesizing metal-semiconductor nano-heterostructures. Finally, we showed that metal semiconductor nano-heterostructures can be used as a photocatalyst for alcohol dehydrogenation reactions. We explored the pathways for the formation of Pt and Pd nanoparticles on CdS and CdS{sub 0.4}Se{sub 0.6} nanorods. This study revealed that the wavelength of irradiation is critical to control free-standing vs. bound metal (Pt and Pd) nanoparticles to semiconductor. Additionally, we observed that metal photodeposition occurs on specific segments of axially anisotropic, compositionally graded CdS0.4Se0.6 nanorods due to the band-gap differential between their nano-domains. We used semiconductor-metal heterostructures for sunlightdriven dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis of benzyl alcohol. Heterostructure composition dictates activity (turnovers) and product distribution. A few metal (Pt, Pd) islands on the semiconductor surface significantly enhance activity and selectivity and also greatly stabilize the semiconductor against photoinduced etching and degradation.

  19. Nanoscale chemical and mechanical characterization of thin films: sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy at buried interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kweskin, S.J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gases, i.e. , CO (AirGas, CP grade), H 2 (Praxair, UHP,99.999%), He (Praxair, UHP, 99.999%), and 20%O 2 /He mixture (Praxair, UHP, 99.999%), all used in the as-

  20. chemical analysis | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical analysis chemical analysis Leads No leads are available at this time. Microstructure and Cs Behavior of Ba-Doped Aluminosilicate Pollucite Irradiated with F+ Ions....

  1. Image Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recognition Image Analysis and Recognition Snapshot1498121slicesqResedison Fibers permeating imaged material (Courtesy: Bale, Loring, Perciano and Ushizima) Imagery coming from...

  2. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  3. Guidance Document Reactive Chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    showers and chillers. Health Hazards: The reactive chemicals are grouped primarily because of the physical

  4. Chemical Management Contacts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Contacts for additional information on Chemical Management and brief description on Energy Facility Contractors Group

  5. Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-06ER15835: Chemical Imaging with 100nm Spatial Resolution: Combining High Resolution Flurosecence Microscopy and Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buratto, Steven K. [UC Santa Barbara

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We have combined, in a single instrument, high spatial resolution optical microscopy with the chemical specificity and conformational selectivity of ion mobility mass spectrometry. We discuss the design and construction of this apparatus as well as our efforts in applying this technique to thin films of molecular semiconductor materials.

  6. PINS chemical identification software

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caffrey, Augustine J.; Krebs, Kennth M.

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for identifying a chemical compound. A neutron source delivers neutrons into the chemical compound. The nuclei of chemical elements constituting the chemical compound emit gamma rays upon interaction with the neutrons. The gamma rays are characteristic of the chemical elements constituting the chemical compound. A spectrum of the gamma rays is generated having a detection count and an energy scale. The energy scale is calibrated by comparing peaks in the spectrum to energies of pre-selected chemical elements in the spectrum. A least-squares fit completes the calibration. The chemical elements constituting the chemical compound can be readily determined, which then allows for identification of the chemical compound.

  7. Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    , Biochemical, Environmental, Petroleum Engineering and Nantoechnology. CHEMICAL&MATERIALSSCIENCE CHE OVERVIEW of Science 131 units · Chemical Engineering (Petroleum) Bachelor of Science 136 units · Chemical Engineering38 Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical

  8. Spectroscopic imaging in electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Colliex, C. [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the scanning transmission electron microscope, multiple signals can be simultaneously collected, including the transmitted and scattered electron signals (bright field and annular dark field or Z-contrast images), along with spectroscopic signals such as inelastically scattered electrons and emitted photons. In the last few years, the successful development of aberration correctors for the electron microscope has transformed the field of electron microscopy, opening up new possibilities for correlating structure to functionality. Aberration correction not only allows for enhanced structural resolution with incident probes into the sub-angstrom range, but can also provide greater probe currents to facilitate mapping of intrinsically weak spectroscopic signals at the nanoscale or even the atomic level. In this issue of MRS Bulletin, we illustrate the power of the new generation of electron microscopes with a combination of imaging and spectroscopy. We show the mapping of elemental distributions at atomic resolution and also the mapping of electronic and optical properties at unprecedented spatial resolution, with applications ranging from graphene to plasmonic nanostructures, and oxide interfaces to biology.

  9. INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON Nanoscale Energy Conversion and Information Processing Devices, Nice 2006 S. Dilhaire, W. Claeys, S. Grauby, J.M. Rampnoux, Y. Ezzahri,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optical delay Ti:Sa Laser Probe beam Pump beam AOMModulation Translation command unit Modulation filter WORKSHOP ON Nanoscale Energy Conversion and Information Processing Devices, Nice 2006 Metal Cap layer Super latticeLaser Nano Ultrasonics #12;INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON Nanoscale Energy Conversion and Information

  10. Nanoscale interplay of strain and doping in a high-temperature superconductor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zeljkovic, Ilija [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Boston College, Chestnut Hills, MA (United States); Gu, Genda [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nieminen, Jouko [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Huang, Dennis [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Chang, Tay-Rong [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan); He, Yang [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Jeng, Horng-Tay [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan); Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Xu, Zhijun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wen, Jinsheng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lin, Hsin [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Markiewicz, Robert S. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Bansil, Arun [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Hoffman, Jennifer E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The highest temperature superconductors are electronically inhomogeneous at the nanoscale, suggesting the existence of a local variable which could be harnessed to enhance the superconducting pairing. Here we report the relationship between local doping and local strain in the cuprate superconductor Bi?Sr?CaCu?O??x. We use scanning tunneling microscopy to discover that the crucial oxygen dopants are periodically distributed, in correlation with local strain. Our picoscale investigation of the intra-unit-cell positions of all oxygen dopants provides essential structural input for a complete microscopic theory.

  11. Free Energy Barrier for Electric Field Driven Polymer Entry into Nanoscale Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narges Nikoofard; Hossein Fazli

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Free energy barrier for entry of a charged polymer into a nanoscale channel by a driving electric field is studied theoretically and using molecular dynamics simulations. Dependence of the barrier height on the polymer length, the driving field strength, and the channel entrance geometry is investigated. Squeezing effect of the electric field on the polymer before its entry to the channel is taken into account. It is shown that lateral confinement of the polymer prior to its entry changes the polymer length dependence of the barrier height noticeably. Our theory and simulation results are in good agreement and reasonably describe related experimental data.

  12. Nanoscale interplay of strain and doping in a high-temperature superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeljkovic, Ilija [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Boston College, Chestnut Hills, MA (United States); Gu, Genda [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nieminen, Jouko [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Huang, Dennis [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Chang, Tay-Rong [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan); He, Yang [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Jeng, Horng-Tay [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan); Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Xu, Zhijun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wen, Jinsheng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lin, Hsin [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Markiewicz, Robert S. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Bansil, Arun [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Hoffman, Jennifer E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The highest temperature superconductors are electronically inhomogeneous at the nanoscale, suggesting the existence of a local variable which could be harnessed to enhance the superconducting pairing. Here we report the relationship between local doping and local strain in the cuprate superconductor Bi?Sr?CaCu?O??x. We use scanning tunneling microscopy to discover that the crucial oxygen dopants are periodically distributed, in correlation with local strain. Our picoscale investigation of the intra-unit-cell positions of all oxygen dopants provides essential structural input for a complete microscopic theory.

  13. Nanoscale structure in AgSbTe2 determined by diffuse elastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Ma, Jie [ORNL; Delaire, Olivier A [ORNL; Budai, John D [ORNL; May, Andrew F [ORNL; Karapetrova, Evguenia A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffuse elastic neutron scattering measurements confirm that AgSbTe2 has a hierarchical structure, with defects on length scales from nanometers to microns. While scattering from mesoscale structure is consistent with previously-proposed structures in which Ag and Sb order on a NaCl lattice, more diffuse scattering from nanoscale structure suggests a structural rearrangement in which hexagonal layers form a combination of (ABC), (ABA), and (AAB) stacking sequences. The AgCrSe2 structure is the best-fitting model for the local atomic arrangements.

  14. People Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    People Images People Images Several hundred of the 1700 U.S. scientists contributing to the LHC accelerator and experiments gathered in June 2008 in CERN's building 40 CE0252 Joel...

  15. DE-FG02-06ER15364: Final Technical Report Nanoscale Reactivity of Clays, Clay Analogues (Micas), and Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2008-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objectives were to determine the nanoscale to molecular scale structure of the interface between muscovite mica and aqueous solutions containing various sorbates and to explore systematics that control the incorporation of inorganic and organic chemical components during aging of nanoparticles of iron-oxides and aluminosilicate clays. The basal surface of phyllosilicates is a primary sorbent of environmental contaminants, natural organic matter, and nutrients. Micas are also superb atomically-flat substrates used in materials science and surface physics applications. We applied X-ray scattering techniques using high brilliance synchrotron radiation to investigate molecular-scale details of mica’s interface structure in solutions containing common and toxic cations, anions, and natural organic molecules. Nanoparticles are ubiquitous in the environment and have a high capacity for sorbing contaminants through the combined effects of their high surface areas and pH-dependent surface charge. Aging of nanoparticles from metastable to stable phases can be inhibited by sorption of nonstructural components, but exact mechanisms are unknown. We synthesized Fe-oxides and aluminosilicate clay minerals from aqueous solutions in the presence of selected anions, and organic molecules, and quantified the uptake of these additives during aging and some implications for nanoparticle formation.

  16. Capacitive chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  17. Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology 4 units Prof. Richard Brutchey, Fall 2014 (Lecture = 12:00­12:50 pm MWF) CHEM 455 is an upper-division undergraduate course in Chemical Nanotechnology. The intent

  18. Image alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  19. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy via Relaxation of Solid-State Spin Probes at the Nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. T. Hall; P. Kehayias; D. A. Simpson; A. Jarmola; A. Stacey; D. Budker; L. C. L. Hollenberg

    2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) describes a suite of techniques for characterising electronic systems, with applications in physics, materials science, chemistry, and biology. However, the requirement for large electron spin ensembles in conventional ESR techniques limits their spatial resolution. Here we present a method for measuring the ESR spectrum of nanoscale electronic environments by measuring the relaxation time ($T_1$) of an optically addressed single-spin probe as it is systematically tuned into resonance with the target electronic system. As a proof of concept we extract the spectral distribution for the P1 electronic spin bath in diamond using an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centres, and demonstrate excellent agreement with theoretical expectations. As the response of each NV spin in this experiment is dominated by a single P1 spin at a mean distance of 2.7\\,nm, the extension of this all-optical technique to the single NV case will enable nanoscale ESR spectroscopy of atomic and molecular spin systems.

  20. and Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinz, Friedrich B.

    is constructing a new building that will house the Department of Chemical Engineering and the DepartmentBiological and Chemical Engineering Building #12;2 Biological and Chemical Engineering Building sta and Engineering Quad, the new building will be part of a neighborhood of four buildings that house a community

  1. Equilibrium Chemical Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatsuo Shibata; Shin-ichi Sasa

    1997-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An equilibrium reversible cycle with a certain engine to transduce the energy of any chemical reaction into mechanical energy is proposed. The efficiency for chemical energy transduction is also defined so as to be compared with Carnot efficiency. Relevance to the study of protein motors is discussed. KEYWORDS: Chemical thermodynamics, Engine, Efficiency, Molecular machine.

  2. Department of Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    Developing Leaders of Innovation Department of Chemical Engineering #12;At the University of Virginia, we educate students in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering, giving them.Va. Department of Chemical Engineering benefit from a modern academic curriculum and state

  3. PHYSICS DIVISION CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    PHYSICS DIVISION CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN 2008 Prepared by _________________________________________________ T. Mullen Physics Division Chemical Hygiene Officer Reviewed by ___________________________________________________ J. Woodring Site Chemical Hygiene Officer Approved

  4. SPIE Medical Imaging Medical Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miga, Michael I.

    CT and SPECT (GE Hawkeye) SPIE Medical Imaging 2006 28 CT/PET System Combined CT and PET (Siemens Medical Imaging 2006 10 Computed Tomography (CT) 3D Tomography from multiple projections #12;6 SPIE: Scintillation Camera SPIE Medical Imaging 2006 26 PET and SPECT PET = Positron Emission Tomography SPECT

  5. Wyss Institute Chemical Hygiene Plan CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    Wyss Institute Chemical Hygiene Plan CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering June 2014 #12;Wyss Institute Chemical Hygiene Plan TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 POLICY.......................................................................................... 2 2.1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE OFFICER

  6. REPORT ON 6TH U.S.-JAPAN JOINT SEMINAR ON NANOSCALE TRANSPORT PHENOMENA.SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    electricity (PV), solar fuel (biomass), and solar thermal, and thermoelectricity related issues for discussing and identifying outstanding science and technology issues in the area of nanoscale thermophysics from MIT, Fushinobu Kazuyoshi from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Shigeo Maruyama from Tokyo University

  7. Direct Observation of Nanoscale Peltier and Joule Effects at Metal-Insulator Domain Walls in Vanadium Dioxide Nanobeams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    Direct Observation of Nanoscale Peltier and Joule Effects at Metal- Insulator Domain Walls localized alternating Peltier heating and cooling as well as Joule heating concentrated at the M-I domain the monoclinic phase identification. KEYWORDS: Vanadium dioxide, thermoreflectance microscopy, Peltier effect

  8. Optical spectrometer at the nanoscale using optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas Jingjing Li, Alessandro Salandrino, and Nader Engheta*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jingjing

    Optical spectrometer at the nanoscale using optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas Jingjing Li, Alessandro; published 5 May 2009 Here we present and analyze an optical spectrum analyzer at the nanometer scale that is able to distribute different frequency contents of the radiation of an optical dipole source

  9. Direct Measurement of the Nanoscale Mechanical Properties of NiTi Shape Memory Gordon A. Shaw1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crone, Wendy C.

    Direct Measurement of the Nanoscale Mechanical Properties of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Gordon A. Shaw.S.A. ABSTRACT The mechanical properties of sputter-deposited NiTi shape memory alloy thin films ranging the findings, which suggest that the substrate tends block the shape memory effect as film thickness decreases

  10. lame synthesis is one of the most versatile and promising technologies for large-scale production of nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    andenvironmental24 concern. Inorganic, nanostructured materials can be produced by doping a flame with inorganicLETTERS F lame synthesis is one of the most versatile and promising technologies for large-scale production of nanoscale materials1­3 . Pyrolysis has recently been shown to be a useful route

  11. Single-polymer `flyfishing' effect for nanoscale motors and machines: an exact worm-like-chain model study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Weizhu

    Single-polymer `flyfishing' effect for nanoscale motors and machines: an exact worm University of Singapore, Singapore 119076 Single-polymer control effects are abundant in biological motors/machines for nanotechnology. Understanding motor-relevant polymer effects in a general

  12. Direct Evidence of Nanoscale Carrier Localization in InGaN/GaN Structures Grown on Si Substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    Direct Evidence of Nanoscale Carrier Localization in InGaN/GaN Structures Grown on Si Substrates: time-resolved photoluminescence, quantum dots, InGaN, Si substrate There exists a strong continuous expensive and are limited in size. Thus, heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on silicon substrates seems

  13. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 031117 (2012) Stochastically driven single-level quantum dot: A nanoscale finite-time thermodynamic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindenberg, Katja

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as a nanoscale finite-time thermodynamic machine. The dot is driven by an external stochastic force that switches that extracts heat from the cold reservoir via the work input of the stochastic driving. The efficiency coupling conditions, familiar features are recovered in appropriate limits: Carnot efficiency

  14. Nanoscale Synthesis and Functional Assembly Center for Nanophase Materials Science and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Society 2001­p Journal Reviewer: Applied Catalysis, Catalysis Communications, Chemical Communications catalysis, nanomaterials for catalysis and photocatalysis, and applied spectroscopy. Specific techniques­2003 Research Associate, State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, China

  15. Imaging and measuring the biophysical properties of Fc gamma receptors on single macrophages using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Mi [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xi, Ning [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)] [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Yuechao [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xiao, Xiubin [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)] [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China); Zhang, Weijing, E-mail: zhangwj3072@163.com [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)] [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)

    2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •Nanoscale cellular ultra-structures of macrophages were observed. •The binding affinities of Fc?Rs were measured directly on macrophages. •The nanoscale distributions of Fc?Rs were mapped on macrophages. -- Abstract: Fc gamma receptors (Fc?R), widely expressed on effector cells (e.g., NK cells, macrophages), play an important role in clinical cancer immunotherapy. The binding of Fc?Rs to the Fc portions of antibodies that are attached to the target cells can activate the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) killing mechanism which leads to the lysis of target cells. In this work, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe the cellular ultra-structures and measure the biophysical properties (affinity and distribution) of Fc?Rs on single macrophages in aqueous environments. AFM imaging was used to obtain the topographies of macrophages, revealing the nanoscale cellular fine structures. For molecular interaction recognition, antibody molecules were attached onto AFM tips via a heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) crosslinker. With AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy, the binding affinities of Fc?Rs were quantitatively measured on single macrophages. Adhesion force mapping method was used to localize the Fc?Rs, revealing the nanoscale distribution of Fc?Rs on local areas of macrophages. The experimental results can improve our understanding of Fc?Rs on macrophages; the established approach will facilitate further research on physiological activities involved in antibody-based immunotherapy.

  16. Highly Hazardous Chemicals and Chemical Spills EPA Compliance Fact Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Highly Hazardous Chemicals and Chemical Spills EPA Compliance Fact Sheet Vanderbilt Environmental.safety.vanderbilt.edu HIGHLY HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTES Certain chemical wastes must be handled by special procedures due to their highly hazardous nature. These chemicals include expired isopropyl and ethyl ethers (these chemicals

  17. Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    Emphasis in Nanotechnology · ChemicalEngineering Emphasis in Petroleum Engineering · ChemicalEngineering38 Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical and electronics fields. Chemical Engineers are employed in areas as diverse as the chemical, materials, energy

  18. Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    · ChemicalEngineering (Nanotechnology) Bachelor of Science 131 units · ChemicalEngineering(Petroleum38 Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical and electronics fields. Chemical Engineers are employed in areas as diverse as the chemical, pharmaceutical

  19. Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    in Nanotechnology · ChemicalEngineering Emphasis in Petroleum Engineering · ChemicalEngineering Emphasis in Polymers38 Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical and electronics fields. Chemical Engineers are employed in areas as diverse as the chemical, pharmaceutical

  20. Poiseuille flow past a nanoscale cylinder in a slit channel: Lubrication theory versus molecular dynamics analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahmani, Amir M; Jupiterwala, Mehlam; Colosqui, Carlos E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plane Poiseuille flow past a nanoscale cylinder that is arbitrarily confined (i.e., symmetrically or asymmetrically confined) in a slit channel is studied via hydrodynamic lubrication theory and molecular dynamics simulations, considering cases where the cylinder remains static or undergoes thermal motion. Lubrication theory predictions for the drag force and volumetric flow rate are in close agreement with molecular dynamics simulations of flows having molecularly thin lubrication gaps, despite the presence of significant structural forces induced by the crystalline structure of the modeled solid. While the maximum drag force is observed in symmetric confinement, i.e., when the cylinder is equidistant from both channel walls, the drag decays significantly as the cylinder moves away from the channel centerline and approaches a wall. Hence, significant reductions in the mean drag force on the cylinder and hydraulic resistance of the channel can be observed when thermal motion induces random off-center displace...

  1. Nanoscale density fluctuations in swift heavy ion irradiated amorphous SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kluth, P.; Giulian, R.; Ridgway, M. C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Pakarinen, O. H.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K. [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Byrne, A. P. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the observation of nanoscale density fluctuations in 2 {mu}m thick amorphous SiO{sub 2} layers irradiated with 185 MeV Au ions. At high fluences, in excess of approximately 5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}, where the surface is completely covered by ion tracks, synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering measurements reveal the existence of a steady state of density fluctuations. In agreement with molecular dynamics simulations, this steady state is consistent with an ion track ''annihilation'' process, where high-density regions generated in the periphery of new tracks fill in low-density regions located at the center of existing tracks.

  2. Theoretical studies of Ir5Th and Ir5Ce nanoscale precipitates in Ir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Averill, Frank [ORNL] [ORNL; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimentally, it is known that very small amounts of thorium and/or cerium added to iridium metal form a precipitate, Ir5Th / Ir5Ce, which improves the high temperature mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. We demonstrate that there are low-energy configurations for nano-scale precipitates of these phases in Ir, and that these coherent arrangements may assist in producing improved mechanical properties. One precipitate/matrix orientation gives a particularly low interfacial energy, and a low lattice misfit. Nanolayer precipitates with this orientation are found to be likely to form, with little driving force to coarsen. The predicted morphology of the precipitates and their orientation with the matrix phase provide a potential experiment that could be used to test these predictions.

  3. Universal 2D Soft Nano-Scale Mosaic Structure Theory for Polymers and Colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia-lin Wu

    2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A basic concept in chain-particle cluster-motion, from frozen glassy state to melt state, is the 2D soft nano-scale mosaic structure formed by 8 orders of 2D interface excitation (IE) loop-flows, from small to large in inverse cascade and re-arrangement structure in cascade along local one direction. IE has additional repulsive energy and extra vacancy volume. IE results from that the instantaneous synchronal polarized electron charge coupling pair is able to parallel transport on the interface between two neighboring chain-particles with antiparallel delocalization. This structure accords with de Gennes' mosaic structure picture, from which we can directly deduce glass transition temperature, melt temperature, free volume fraction, critical entangled chain length, and activation energy to break solid lattice. This is also the in-herency maximum order-potential structure in random systems.

  4. An atomistic methodology of energy release rate for graphene at nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lee, James D., E-mail: jdlee@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, the George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Wang, Xianqiao [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb architecture, serving as a fundamental building block for electric devices. Understanding the fracture mechanism of graphene under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of graphene-based devices at atomic scale. Although most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable in molecular dynamics simulation, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at nanoscale. This work introduces an atomistic simulation methodology, based on the energy release rate, as a tool to unveil the fracture mechanism of graphene at nanoscale. This methodology can be easily extended to any atomistic material system. We have investigated both opening mode and mixed mode at different temperatures. Simulation results show that the critical energy release rate of graphene is independent of initial crack length at low temperature. Graphene with inclined pre-crack possesses higher fracture strength and fracture deformation but smaller critical energy release rate compared with the graphene with vertical pre-crack. Owing to its anisotropy, graphene with armchair chirality always has greater critical energy release rate than graphene with zigzag chirality. The increase of temperature leads to the reduction of fracture strength, fracture deformation, and the critical energy release rate of graphene. Also, higher temperature brings higher randomness of energy release rate of graphene under a variety of predefined crack lengths. The energy release rate is independent of the strain rate as long as the strain rate is small enough.

  5. Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the industrial revolution, detection and monitoring of toxic matter, chemical wastes, and air pollutants has become an important environmental issue. Thus, it leads to the development of chemical sensors for various environmental applications. The recent disastrous oil spills over the near-surface of ocean due to the offshore drilling emphasize the use of chemical sensors for prevention and monitoring of the processes that might lead to these mishaps.1, 2 Chemical sensors operated on a simple principle that the sensing platform undergoes a detectable change when exposed to the target substance to be sensed. Among all the types of chemical sensors, solid state gas sensors have attracted a great deal of attention due to their advantages such as high sensitivity, greater selectivity, portability, high stability and low cost.3, 4 Especially, semiconducting metal oxides such as SnO2, TiO2, and WO3 have been widely used as the active sensing platforms in solid state gas sensors.5 For the enhanced properties of solid state gas sensors, finding new sensing materials or development of existing materials will be needed. Thus, nanostructured materials such as nanotubes,6-8 nanowires,9-11 nanorods,12-15 nanobelts,16, 17 and nano-scale thin films18-23 have been synthesized and studied for chemical sensing applications.

  6. Excimer laser chemical problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennant, R.; Peterson, N.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques need to be developed to maintain XeF and XeCl laser performance over long periods of time without degradation resulting from chemical processes occurring within the laser. The dominant chemical issues include optical damage, corrosions of laser materials, gas contamination, and control of halogen concentration. Each of these issues are discussed and summarized. The methods of minimizing or controlling the chemical processes involved are presented.

  7. EMSL - chemical analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical-analysis en Microstructure and Cs Behavior of Ba-Doped Aluminosilicate Pollucite Irradiated with F+ Ions. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

  8. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  9. Apparatus for chemical synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  10. Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    bonds, 2 to 10 ev). The methods that have revealed this richness and order of medium- and high-energy, mass spectrometry. While hot-atom studies overcome the energy limitations of thermochemical methods energies of a few electron volts. Most studies of chemical kinetics made by traditional thermochemical

  11. CHEMICAL ABBREVIATION KEY ABBREVIATION CHEMICAL NAME HAZARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Corrosive - base LiCl Lithium chloride Harmful MeOH Methanol Flammable #12;CHEMICAL ABBREVIATION KEY Irritant destain Methanol,acetic acid,H2O Flammable, Corrosive - acid DI H2O Deionized water DCM FeCl3 Iron(III) chloride Corrosive - acid FeSO4 Iron(II) sulfate Toxic H2O Water HCl Hydrochloric

  12. Imaging of semiconductors using a flying laser spot scanning system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas William

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in silicon p-n junctions was a direct result of this research. Verification of the experimental findings include analysis using other characterization techniques such as X-ray topo- graphy, electrical testing and preferential chemical etching... Image (I. R. Radiation) . . 22 Flying Spot Scanner Photo Image (Visible Radiation) . 23 15 Photo Image Showing Crystal Defects 24 16 Sirtl Etch Photomicrograph of Lattice Crystal Defects 25 17 Photo Image Showing Laser Induced Lifetime Changes 26...

  13. Engineering domain structures in nanoscale magnetic thin films via strain Jia-Mian Hu, T. N. Yang, L. Q. Chen, and C. W. Nan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    Engineering domain structures in nanoscale magnetic thin films via strain Jia-Mian Hu, T. N. Yang://scitation.aip.org/termsconditions. Downloaded to ] IP: 146.186.211.66 On: Thu, 09 Jan 2014 19:48:21 #12;Engineering domain structures in nanoscale magnetic thin films via strain Jia-Mian Hu,1,a) T. N. Yang,2 L. Q. Chen,1,2 and C. W. Nan1,a) 1

  14. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Simonson, Robert J. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  15. Dynamic imaging with electron microscopy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Campbell, Geoffrey; McKeown, Joe; Santala, Melissa

    2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Livermore researchers have perfected an electron microscope to study fast-evolving material processes and chemical reactions. By applying engineering, microscopy, and laser expertise to the decades-old technology of electron microscopy, the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) team has developed a technique that can capture images of phenomena that are both very small and very fast. DTEM uses a precisely timed laser pulse to achieve a short but intense electron beam for imaging. When synchronized with a dynamic event in the microscope's field of view, DTEM allows scientists to record and measure material changes in action. A new movie-mode capability, which earned a 2013 R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine, uses up to nine laser pulses to sequentially capture fast, irreversible, even one-of-a-kind material changes at the nanometer scale. DTEM projects are advancing basic and applied materials research, including such areas as nanostructure growth, phase transformations, and chemical reactions.

  16. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  17. ITP Chemicals: Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Identifying Process Inefficiencies in the U.S. Chemical Industry, Industrial Technologies Program, DRAFT Summary...

  18. ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY a post graduate course (doktorandkurs) when: February 10 ­ 28, 2014 where: Chemical Ecology, Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agriculture (SLU to modern analytical methods used in Chemical Ecological and Ecotoxicological research, such as: methods

  19. Neutron Imaging at ORNL: Challenges and Opportunities | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron Imaging at ORNL: Challenges and Opportunities Jul 15 2015 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM Hassina Bilheux, Chemical and Engineering Materials Division Celebrating the Achievements of...

  20. Safety Issues Chemical Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Robert E.

    Safety Issues · Chemical Storage ·Store in compatible containers that are in good condition to store separately. #12;Safety Issues · Flammable liquid storage -Store bulk quantities in flammable storage cabinets -UL approved Flammable Storage Refrigerators are required for cold storage · Provide

  1. Chemical Dynamics, Molecular Energetics, and Kinetics at the Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley are continuously reinventing synchrotron investigations of physical chemistry and chemical physics with vacuum ultraviolet light. One of the unique aspects of a synchrotron for chemical physics research is the widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet light that permits threshold ionization of large molecules with minimal fragmentation. This provides novel opportunities to assess molecular energetics and reaction mechanisms, even beyond simple gas phase molecules. In this perspective, significant new directions utilizing the capabilities at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline are presented, along with an outlook for future synchrotron and free electron laser science in chemical dynamics. Among the established and emerging fields of investigations are cluster and biological molecule spectroscopy and structure, combustion flame chemistry mechanisms, radical kinetics and product isomer dynamics, aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, planetary and interstellar chemistry, and secondary neutral ion-beam desorption imaging of biological matter and materials chemistry.

  2. Magnetic fields, spots and weather in chemically peculiar stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Kochukhov

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    New observational techniques and sophisticated modelling methods has led to dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of the interplay between the surface magnetism, atomic diffusion and atmospheric dynamics in chemically peculiar stars. Magnetic Doppler images, constructed using spectropolarimetric observations of Ap stars in all four Stokes parameters, reveal the presence of small-scale field topologies. Abundance Doppler mapping has been perfected to the level where distributions of many different chemical elements can be deduced self-consistently for one star. The inferred chemical spot structures are diverse and do not always trace underlying magnetic field geometry. Moreover, horizontal chemical inhomogeneities are discovered in non-magnetic CP stars and evolving chemical spots are observed for the first time in the bright mercury-manganese star alpha And. These results show that in addition to magnetic fields, another important non-magnetic structure formation mechanism acts in CP stars.

  3. Poiseuille flow past a nanoscale cylinder in a slit channel: Lubrication theory versus molecular dynamics analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir M. Rahmani; Yang Shao; Mehlam Jupiterwala; Carlos E. Colosqui

    2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Plane Poiseuille flow past a nanoscale cylinder that is arbitrarily confined (i.e., symmetrically or asymmetrically confined) in a slit channel is studied via hydrodynamic lubrication theory and molecular dynamics simulations, considering cases where the cylinder remains static or undergoes thermal motion. Lubrication theory predictions for the drag force and volumetric flow rate are in close agreement with molecular dynamics simulations of flows having molecularly thin lubrication gaps, despite the presence of significant structural forces induced by the crystalline structure of the modeled solid. While the maximum drag force is observed in symmetric confinement, i.e., when the cylinder is equidistant from both channel walls, the drag decays significantly as the cylinder moves away from the channel centerline and approaches a wall. Hence, significant reductions in the mean drag force on the cylinder and hydraulic resistance of the channel can be observed when thermal motion induces random off-center displacements. Analytical expressions and numerical results in this work provide useful insights into the hydrodynamics of colloidal solids and macromolecules in confinement.

  4. The Nanoscale Ordered MAterials Diffractometer NOMAD at the Spallation Neutron Source SNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feygenson, Mikhail [ORNL; Carruth, John William [ORNL; Hoffmann, Ron [ORNL; Chipley, Kenneth King [ORNL; Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nanoscale Ordered Materials Diffractometer (NOMAD) is neutron time-of-flight diffractometer designed to determine pair dist ribution functions of a wide range of materials ranging from short range ordered liquids to long range ordered crystals. Due to a large neutron flux provided by the Spallation Neutron Source SNS and a large detector coverage neutron count-rates exceed comparable instruments by one to two orders of magnitude. This is achieved while maintaining a relatively high momentum transfer resolution of a $\\delta Q/Q \\sim 0.8\\%$ FWHM (typical), and an achievable $\\delta Q/Q$ of 0.24\\% FWHM (best). The real space resolution is related to the maximum momentum transfer; A maximum momentum transfer of 50\\AA$^{-1}$ can be achieved routinely and the maximum momentum transfer given by the detector configuration and the incident neutron spectrum is 125 \\AA$^{-1}$. High stability of the source and the detector allow small contrast isotope experiments to be performed. A detailed description of the instrument is given and the results of experiments with standard samples are discussed.

  5. Foundations for in vivo nano-scale measurement of memory processes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsythe, James Chris

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ongoing program of research and development is utilizing nanomaterials as a basis for observing and measuring neurophysiological processes. Work commencing in fiscal year 2007 will focus on expanding current capabilities to create nanoelectrode arrays that will allow nanoscale measurement of the activity of 10's to 100's of neurons. This development is a vital step in gaining scientific insights concerning network properties associated with neural representations and processes. Specifically, attention will be focused the representation of memory in the hippocampus, for which extensive research has been conducted using laboratory rats. This report summarizes background research providing a foundation for work planned for fiscal year 2007 and beyond. In particular, the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the hippocampus is described. Additionally, several programs of research are described that have addressed the relationship between neurophysiological processes and behavioral measures of memory performance. These studies provide insight into methodological and analytic approaches for studying the representation of memory processes in the hippocampus. The objective of this report is to document relevant literature in a reference document that will support future research in this area.

  6. Ab-initio friction forces on the nanoscale: A DFT study of fcc Cu(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Wolloch; Gregor Feldbauer; Peter Mohn; Josef Redinger; András Vernes

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    While there are a number of models that tackle the problem of calculating friction forces on the atomic level, providing a completely parameter-free approach remains a challenge. Here we present a quasi-static model to obtain an approximation to the nanofrictional response of dry, wearless systems based on quantum mechanical all-electron calculations. We propose a mechanism to allow dissipative sliding, which relies on atomic relaxations. We define two different ways of calculating the mean nanofriction force, both leading to an exponential friction-versus-load behavior for all sliding directions. Since our approach does not impose any limits on lengths and directions of the sliding paths, we investigate arbitrary sliding directions for an fcc Cu(111) interface and detect two periodic paths which form the upper and lower bound of nanofriction. For long aperiodic paths the friction force convergences to a value in between these limits. For low loads we retrieve the Derjaguin generalization of Amontons-Coulomb kinetic friction law which appears to be valid all the way down to the nanoscale. We observe a non-vanishing Derjaguin-offset even for atomically flat surfaces in dry contact.

  7. Nanoscale transport of phonons: Dimensionality, subdiffusion, molecular damping, and interference effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walczak, Kamil; Yerkes, Kirk L. [Aerospace Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in the systems composed of nanoscale chains of masses coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. Thermal conductance is obtained by using linearized Landauer-type formula for heat flux with phonon transmission probability calculated within atomistic Green's functions (AGF) method. AGF formalism is extended onto dissipative chains of masses with harmonic coupling beyond nearest-neighbor approximation, while atomistic description of heat reservoirs is also included into computational scheme. In particular, the phonon lifetimes and the phonon frequency shifts are discussed for harmonic lattices of different dimensions. Further, resonant structure of phonon transmission spectrum is analyzed with respect to reservoir-induced effects, molecular damping, and mass-to-mass harmonic coupling. Analysis of transmission zeros (antiresonances) and their accompanied Fano-shape resonances are discussed as a result of interference effects between different vibrational modes. Finally, we also predict subdiffusive transport regime for low-frequency ballistic phonons propagated along a linear chain of harmonically coupled masses.

  8. Appendix G. Chemicals Appendix G. Chemicals G-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    of chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, building materials, housewares, pesticides, and industrial chemicals chemicals result from the direct or indirect actions of humans. Build- ing materials used for the construction of homes may contain chemicals such as formaldehyde (in some insulation materials), asbestos

  9. Appendix H. Chemicals Appendix H. Chemicals H-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    of chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, building materials, housewares, pesticides, and industrial chemicals chemicals result from the direct or indirect actions of humans. Build- ing materials used for the construction of homes may contain chemicals such as formaldehyde (in some insulation materials), asbestos

  10. PhD Chemical Engineering MS Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    phenomena in nature and technology. The chemical engineer leverages knowledge of molecular processes across1 PhD Chemical Engineering MS Chemical Engineering Bylaws Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering College of Engineering and Architecture Approved by Voiland School faculty

  11. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricks Editor, R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G-31 Fluorocarbonhydrocarbons, and (3) fluorocarbon solvents. However, aHigh Hazard Chemicals Fluorocarbon Solvents Fluorocarbon

  12. November 2006 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenstein, Seth

    .0 DEPARTMENTAL SAFETY MANAGEMENT 4.1 CHEMISTRY SAFETY COMMITTEE 4.2 TRAINING 4.3 CHEMICAL SAFETY PROTOCOLS 4.2 CHEMICAL HAZARD INFORMATION 6.3 CHEMICAL STORAGE IN LABORATORIES 6.4 WORKING WITH PARTICULARLY HAZARDOUS PROCEDURES 6.8 CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL 6.9 COMPRESSED GASES 6.10 CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS #12;November 2006 3 6

  13. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispenser for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 .mu.m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (.about.200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments.

  14. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, S.P.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispenser is disclosed for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 {micro}m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (ca. 200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments. 4 figs.

  15. Development and Evaluation of Nanoscale Sorbents for Mercury Capture from Warm Fuel Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raja A. Jadhav

    2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several different types of nanocrystalline metal oxide sorbents were synthesized and evaluated for capture of mercury (Hg) from coal-gasifier warm fuel gas. Detailed experimental studies were carried out to understand the fundamental mechanism of interaction between mercury and nanocrystalline sorbents over a range of fuel gas conditions. The metal oxide sorbents evaluated in this work included those prepared by GTI's subcontractor NanoScale Materials, Inc. (NanoScale) as well as those prepared in-house. These sorbents were evaluated for mercury capture in GTI's Mercury Sorbent Testing System. Initial experiments were focused on sorbent evaluation for mercury capture in N{sub 2} stream over the temperature range 423-533 K. These exploratory studies demonstrated that NanoActive Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} along with its supported form was the most active of the sorbent evaluated. The capture of Hg decreased with temperature, which suggested that physical adsorption was the dominant mechanism of Hg capture. Desorption studies on spent sorbents indicated that a major portion of Hg was attached to the sorbent by strong bonds, which suggested that Hg was oxidized by the O atoms of the metal oxides, thus forming a strong Hg-O bond with the oxide. Initial screening studies also indicated that sulfided form of CuO/alumina was the most active for Hg capture, therefore was selected for detailed evaluation in simulated fuel gas (SFG). It was found that such supported CuO sorbents had high Hg-sorption capacity in the presence of H{sub 2}, provided the gas also contained H{sub 2}S. Exposure of supported CuO sorbent to H{sub 2}S results in the formation of CuS, which is an active sorbent for Hg capture. Sulfur atom in CuS forms a bond with Hg that results into its capture. Although thermodynamically CuS is predicted to form unreactive Cu{sub 2}S form when exposed to H{sub 2}, it is hypothesized that Cu atoms in such supported sorbents are in ''dispersed'' form, with two Cu atoms separated by a distance longer than required to form a Cu{sub 2}S molecule. Thus CuS remains in the stable reactive form as long as H{sub 2}S is present in the gas phase. It was also found that the captured Hg on such supported sorbents could be easily released when the spent sorbent is exposed to a H2-containing stream that is free of Hg and H{sub 2}S. Based on this mechanism, a novel regenerative process has been proposed to remove Hg from fuel gas at high temperature. Limited multicyclic studies carried out on the supported Cu sorbents showed their potential to capture Hg from SFG in a regenerative manner. This study has demonstrated that supported nanocrystalline Cu-based sorbents have potential to capture mercury from coal syngas over multiple absorption/regeneration cycles. Further studies are recommended to evaluate their potential to remove arsenic and selenium from coal fuel gas.

  16. Novel approaches to tailor and tune light-matter interactions at the nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. J. M. Kort-Kamp

    2015-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis we propose new, versatile schemes to control light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. In the first part of the thesis, we envisage a new class of plasmonic cloaks made of magneto-optical (MO) materials. We demonstrate that the application of a uniform magnetic field B in these cloaks may not only switch on and off the cloaking mechanism, but also mitigate the electromagnetic (EM) absorption. We also prove that the scattered field profile can be effectively controlled by changing B. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the study of light-matter interactions mediated by fluctuations of the vacuum EM field. Firstly, we demonstrate that the Purcell effect can be effectively suppressed for an excited atom near a cloaking device. Furthermore, the decay rate of a quantum emitter near a graphene-coated wall under the influence of an external magnetic field is studied. We show that the MO properties of graphene strongly affect the atomic lifetime and that B allows for an unprecedented control of the decay channels of the system. In addition, we discuss the dispersive interaction between an atom and suspended graphene in a magnetic field. For large atom-graphene separations and low temperatures we show that the interaction energy is a quantized function of B. Besides, we show that at room temperature, thermal effects must be taken into account even in the extreme near-field regime. Finally, the third part of the thesis deals with the study of near-field heat transfer. We analyze the energy transfered from a semi-infinite medium to a composite sphere made of metallic inclusions embedded in a dielectric host medium. We show that the heat transfer can be strongly enhanced at the percolation phase transition. We show that our results apply for different effective medium models and are robust against changes in the inclusions' shape and materials.

  17. Hyperspectral Imaging or Imaging Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    (nm) Cosmic Rays Gamma Rays X Rays Microwaves (Radar) Radio & Television WavesUV 105 106 107 108 109 the image cube by scanning through it. The conventional methods are whiskbroom (a), filter/Fourier transform Optics Scene FOVx X-Dimension Scanning Mechanism Focusing Optics #12;Whiskbroom Sensor Accumulation

  18. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  19. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  20. Chemical and Biochemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neimark, Alexander V.

    - nology fields where they can test the side effects of antibiotics or develop agricultural chemicals clean drinking water to a village in Kenya, a country experiencing its worst drought in 20 years," said and three collab- orating institutions to improve the manufacture of pharmaceutical, food, and agricultural

  1. Local Optical Spectroscopies for Subnanometer Spatial Resolution Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The evanescently coupled photon scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) have special requirements in terms of stability and optical access. We have made substantial improvements to the stability, resolution, and noise floor of our custom-built visible-photon STM, and will translate these advances to our infrared instrument. Double vibration isolation of the STM base with a damping system achieved increased rigidity, giving high tunneling junction stability for long-duration and high-power illumination. Light frequency modulation with an optical chopper and phase-sensitive detection now enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the tunneling junction during irradiation.

  2. Chemical Imaging DOI: 10.1002/anie.201000900

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    biofuel sources. Biofuels offer an infinitely renewable source of carbon-neutral fuels that can] The major challenge to be overcome in the widespread adoption of many biofuels is that biomass that substantial energy is required to produce the current generation of biofuels, thus decreasing or eliminating

  3. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy measurements. Future applications of the SR-FTIR-based microfluidics approach may help explain why some bacteria maintain biofilms in given...

  4. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase,Reaction-Driven Restructuring

  5. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase,Reaction-Driven RestructuringReal-Time

  6. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase,Reaction-Driven RestructuringReal-TimeReal-Time

  7. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase,Reaction-Driven

  8. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation ProtectionRaising fundsReal Property

  9. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation ProtectionRaising fundsReal PropertyReal-Time

  10. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation ProtectionRaising fundsReal PropertyReal-TimeReal-Time

  11. Imaging bolometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wurden, Glen A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation-hard, steady-state imaging bolometer. A bolometer employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber of plasma radiation in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry is described. The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils from which the absorbing matrix is fabricated by using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. The resulting design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with approximately 100 Hz time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data will be measured via an IR camera. The resulting spatial data may be used to tomographically investigate the profile of plasmas.

  12. Imaging bolometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wurden, G.A.

    1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation-hard, steady-state imaging bolometer is disclosed. A bolometer employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber of plasma radiation in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry is described. The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils from which the absorbing matrix is fabricated by using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. The resulting design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with approximately 100 Hz time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data will be measured via an IR camera. The resulting spatial data may be used to tomographically investigate the profile of plasmas. 2 figs.

  13. Long-term superelastic cycling at nano-scale in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Juan, J., E-mail: jose.sanjuan@ehu.es; Gómez-Cortés, J. F. [Dpto. Física Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Univ. del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)] [Dpto. Física Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Univ. del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); López, G. A.; Nó, M. L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Univ. del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)] [Dpto. Física Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Univ. del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Jiao, C. [FEI, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands)] [FEI, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Superelastic behavior at nano-scale has been studied along cycling in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars. Arrays of square micropillars were produced by focused ion beam milling, on slides of [001] oriented Cu-Al-Ni single crystals. Superelastic behavior of micropillars, due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation, has been studied by nano-compression tests during thousand cycles, and its evolution has been followed along cycling. Each pillar has undergone more than thousand cycles without any detrimental evolution. Moreover, we demonstrate that after thousand cycles they exhibit a perfectly reproducible and completely recoverable superelastic behavior.

  14. Oscillating spin-orbit interaction as a source of spin-polarized wave packets in two-terminal nanoscale devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viktor Szaszko-Bogar; Peter Foldi; F. M. Peeters

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Ballistic transport through nanoscale devices with time-dependent Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction (SOI) can lead to spin-polarized wave packets that appear even for completely unpolarized input. The SOI that oscillates in a finite domain generates density and spin polarization fluctuations that leave the region as propagating waves. Particularly, spin polarization has space and time dependence even in regions without SOI. Our results are based on an analytic solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation. The relevant Floquet quasi-energies that are obtained appear in the energy spectrum of both the transmitted and reflected waves.

  15. Methods for spectral image analysis by exploiting spatial simplicity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenan, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Several full-spectrum imaging techniques have been introduced in recent years that promise to provide rapid and comprehensive chemical characterization of complex samples. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful chemical information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution, have proven effective for extracting the essential chemical information from high dimensional spectral image data sets into a limited number of components that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the chemical species comprising the sample. There are many cases, however, in which those constraints are not effective and where alternative approaches may provide new analytical insights. For many cases of practical importance, imaged samples are "simple" in the sense that they consist of relatively discrete chemical phases. That is, at any given location, only one or a few of the chemical species comprising the entire sample have non-zero concentrations. The methods of spectral image analysis of the present invention exploit this simplicity in the spatial domain to make the resulting factor models more realistic. Therefore, more physically accurate and interpretable spectral and abundance components can be extracted from spectral images that have spatially simple structure.

  16. Methods for spectral image analysis by exploiting spatial simplicity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Several full-spectrum imaging techniques have been introduced in recent years that promise to provide rapid and comprehensive chemical characterization of complex samples. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful chemical information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution, have proven effective for extracting the essential chemical information from high dimensional spectral image data sets into a limited number of components that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the chemical species comprising the sample. There are many cases, however, in which those constraints are not effective and where alternative approaches may provide new analytical insights. For many cases of practical importance, imaged samples are "simple" in the sense that they consist of relatively discrete chemical phases. That is, at any given location, only one or a few of the chemical species comprising the entire sample have non-zero concentrations. The methods of spectral image analysis of the present invention exploit this simplicity in the spatial domain to make the resulting factor models more realistic. Therefore, more physically accurate and interpretable spectral and abundance components can be extracted from spectral images that have spatially simple structure.

  17. Synchrotron infrared confocal microscope: Application to infrared 3D spectral imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Synchrotron infrared confocal microscope: Application to infrared 3D spectral imaging F Jamme1, 2 coupled to an infrared microscope allows imaging at the so-called diffraction limit. Thus, numerous infrared beamlines around the world have been developed for infrared chemical imaging. Infrared microscopes

  18. Appendix G. Chemicals Appendix G. Chemicals G-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    actions of humans. Building materials used for the construction of homes may contain chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, building materials, housewares, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. Through the use of chemicals, we can increase food production, cure diseases, build more efficient houses, and send people

  19. Appendix G: Chemicals Appendix G: Chemicals G-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    actions of humans. Building materials used for the construction of homes may contain chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, building materials, housewares, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. Through the use of chemicals, we can increase food production, cure diseases, build more efficient houses, and send people

  20. Appendix H: Chemicals Appendix H: Chemicals H-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    actions of humans. Building materials used for the construction of homes may contain chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, building materials, housewares, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. Through the use of chemicals, we can increase food production, cure diseases, build more efficient houses, and send people

  1. Appendix B: Chemicals Appendix B: Chemicals B-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    such as pharmaceuticals, building materials, housewares, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. Through the use materials used for the construction of homes may contain chemicals such as formaldehyde (in some insulation of chemicals, we can increase food production, cure diseases, build more efficient houses, and send people

  2. COOEE bitumen: chemical aging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study chemical aging in "COOEE bitumen" using molecular dynamic simulations. The model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: "2 resins $\\rightarrow$ 1 asphaltene". Molecular dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule, are determined for the four different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes is given.

  3. Addressing the Recalcitrance of Cellulose Degradation through Cellulase Discovery, Nano-scale Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms, and Kinetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Larry P., Bergstrom, Gary; Corgie, Stephane; Craighead, Harold; Gibson, Donna; Wilson, David

    2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project was designed to play a vital role in the development of low cost sugars from cellulosic biomass and contributing to the national effort to displace fossil fuel usage in the USA transportation sector. The goal was to expand the portfolio of cell wall degrading enzymes through innovative research at the nano-scale level, prospecting for novel cellulases and building a kinetic framework for the development of more effective enzymatic conversion processes. More precisely, the goal was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for some cellulases that are very familiar to members of our research team and to investigate what we hope are novel cellulases or new enzyme combinations from the world of plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Hydrolytic activities of various cellulases and cellulase cocktails were monitored at the nanoscale of cellulose fibrils and the microscale of pretreated cellulose particles, and we integrated this insight into a heterogeneous reaction framework. The over-riding approach for this research program was the application of innovative and cutting edge optical and high-throughput screening and analysis techniques for observing how cellulases hydrolyze real substrates.

  4. Effects and Mechanisms of Mechanical Activation on Hydrogen Sorption/ Desorption of Nanoscale Lithium Nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, Leon, L.; Yang, Gary, Z.; Crosby, Kyle; Wwan, Xufei. Zhong, Yang; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Osborn, William; Hu, Jianzhi; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to investigate and develop novel, mechanically activated, nanoscale Li3N-based and LiBH4-based materials that are able to store and release {approx}10 wt% hydrogen at temperatures near 100 C with a plateau hydrogen pressure of less than 10 bar. Four (4) material systems have been investigated in the course of this project in order to achieve the project objective. These 4 systems are (i) LiNH2+LiH, (ii) LiNH2+MgH2, (iii) LiBH4, and (iv) LiBH4+MgH2. The key findings we have obtained from these 4 systems are summarized below. *The thermodynamic driving forces for LiNH2+LiH and LiBH4 systems are not adequate to enable H2 release at temperatures < 100 C. *Hydrogen release in the solid state for all of the four systems is controlled by diffusion, and thus is a slow process. *LiNH2+MgH2 and LiBH4+MgH2 systems, although possessing proper thermodynamic driving forces to allow for H2 release at temperatures < 100 C, have sluggish reaction kinetics because of their diffusion-controlled rate-limiting steps. *Reducing particles to the nanometer length scale (< 50 nm) can improve the thermodynamic driving force to enable H2 release at near ambient temperature, while simultaneously enhancing the reaction kinetics as well as changing the diffusion-controlled rate-limiting step to gas desorption-controlled rate-limiting step. This phenomenon has been demonstrated with LiBH4 and offers the hope that further work along this direction will make one of the material systems, i.e., LiBH4, LiBH4+MgH2 and LiNH2+MgH2, possess the desired thermodynamic properties and rapid H2 uptake/release kinetics for on-board applications. Many of the findings and knowledge gained from this project have been published in archival refereed journal articles [1-15] and are accessible by general public. Thus, to avoid a bulky final report, the key findings and knowledge gained from this project will be succinctly summarized, particularly for those findings and knowledge available in the public domain. However, for those findings and knowledge that have not been published yet, more detailed information will be provided. The report will be divided into 4 major sections based on the material systems investigated.

  5. SPECIAL ISSUE: ENVIRONMENTAL NANOMATERIALS Arsenic Removal by Nanoscale Magnetite in Guanajuato, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    , Mexico Jesse Walter Farrell,1,* John Fortner,2 Sarah Work,3 Carolina Avendano,4 Natalia I. Gonzalez, Texas. 5 CITAG, Guanajuato, Mexico. 6 Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice. A water assessment of Guanajuato, Mexico, and surrounding areas indicated naturally occurring arsenic

  6. Lensless imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless4 Lensless Imaging of

  7. ISSN 1359-7345 Chemical Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    semiconductor gas sensors were greatly enhanced by utilizing hollow nano- structures.4b,d However, even;Ultra-fast responding and recovering C2H5OH sensors using SnO2 hollow spheres prepared and activated prepared using nanoscale SnO2 hollow spheres with NiO- functionalized inner walls. The exceptional ultra

  8. AGRI-SCIENCE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    photosynthetic efficiency Improve chemical agronomic and agro-ecological control measures Modelling through translation of chemical biology tools and technologies Control weeds, disease and pests Minimise a platform to steer future research and policy directions. · Encourage external outreach to engage

  9. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricks Editor, R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive Hazardous or Other Location LBL On-Site Bldgs.hazardous chemicals usedin the laboratory: and (v} The locationhazardous chemicals are present: and. (irl}The location and

  10. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, F

    2007-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks.

  11. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  12. Cotton Harvest-Aid Chemicals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzer, Robert B.; Supak, James

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Application Managing Harvest-Aid Program Secondary Growth Insect Control Care of Equipment Safety with Chemicals Guide for Using Cotton Harvest Aids Defoliants Desiccants Mixtures Plant Regulators-Conditioners 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 COTTON... HARVEST-AID CHEMICALS Robert B. Metzer and James Supak* As the name implies, harvest-aid chemicals pre pare the cotton crop for harvest by reducing foliage and plant moisture that interfere with harvesting operations. Harvest-aid chemicals...

  13. CHEMICAL HYGIENE LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION & STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs____________________19 #12;3 Introduction 12/4/2013 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research University of California at Santa Barbara Spectroscopy Department Chemical Hygiene Plan NMR and EPR

  14. CHEMICAL HYGIENE LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION & STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs______________________19 #12;3 Introduction 10/23/09 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research Department Chemical Hygiene Plan NMR Laboratory Form Version 8/6/98 1. General Laboratory Information

  15. Chemical & Engineering Materials | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical & Engineering Materials SHARE Chemical and Engineering Materials Neutron-based research at SNS and HFIR in Chemical and Engineering Materials strives to understand the...

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Advanced Nano-Scale Very Large Scale Integration Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Ying

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacitance comparison between lithography simulated and lay- out for two elbow conductors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 VI Resistance comparison between lithography simulated and layout for two elbow conductors... and new flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 xii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 The lithography challenge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Image distortion due to lithography effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 The conductors buried...

  17. Course: ECE 597EN/697EN Energy Transport and Conversion at the Nanoscale Instructor: Zlatan Aksamija (zlatana@engin.umass.edu)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    and Energy Quantization 3. Energy States in Solids 4. Statistical Thermodynamics and Thermal Energy Storage 5. This course aims to provide a detailed look at thermal, electrical, and optical energy transportCourse: ECE 597EN/697EN Energy Transport and Conversion at the Nanoscale Instructor: Zlatan

  18. Proton-Conducting Films of Nanoscale Ribbons Formed by Exfoliation of the Layer Perovskite H2SrTa2O7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proton-Conducting Films of Nanoscale Ribbons Formed by Exfoliation of the Layer Perovskite H2SrTa2OTa2O7 were grown and characterized as solid-state proton conductors. The ribbons, made by exfoliation membranes made from layered materials such as exfoliated zirconium phosphate.12 Unfortunately, the proton

  19. Structural phase transitions on the nanoscale: The crucial pattern in the phase-change materials Ge2Sb2Te5 and GeTe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Structural phase transitions on the nanoscale: The crucial pattern in the phase-change materials Ge2Sb2Te5 and GeTe J. Akola1,2 and R. O. Jones1 1Institut für Festkörperforschung, Forschungszentrum to characterize the amorphous structure of the prototype materials Ge2Sb2Te5 and GeTe. In both, there is long

  20. 3M-NANO is the annual International Conference on Manipulation, Manufacturing and Measurement on the Nanoscale; it will be held in 2014 in Taipei, Taiwan. The ultimate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appelrath, Hans-Jürgen

    3M-NANO is the annual International Conference on Manipulation, Manufacturing and Measurement markets. The advanced technologies for manipulation, manufacturing and measurement at nanoscale promise, Int. J of Optomechatronics, J of Micro-Bio Robotics, and other SCI/Ei journals. Organizers: Industrial

  1. Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals Hongwen Ren, Yun-Hsing Fan, and Shin-Tson Wua)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals Hongwen Ren, Yun-Hsing Fan May 2003; accepted 27 June 2003 An electrically tunable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using by voltage. The major advantages of such a Fresnel lens are simple fabrication, large aperture size

  2. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laguna, George R. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir.

  3. Chemical sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darrow, Christopher B. (Pleasanton, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Modesto, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Wang, Amy W. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  4. Chemical kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical kinetics of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.

  5. Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (Million Cubic Feet) Cameron,Chemicals

  6. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Departmentof EnergyPublic LawEnergyEnhanced Chemical Cleaning

  7. Sandia Energy - Chemical Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Press ReleasesInApplied & ComputationalBriefChemical

  8. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  9. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  10. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  11. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  12. Chemicals for Plant Disease Control at Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, Kevin

    2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    common chemical names and the corresponding chemical name for each active ingredient. Kevin Ong* ?Assistant Professor and Extension Plant Pathologist, The Texas A&M University System Table 1. Plant disease control chemicals. Common name Chemical name 1...

  13. Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    , Biochemical, Environmental, Petroleum Engineering and Nantoechnology. CHEMICAL&MATERIALSSCIENCE CHE OVERVIEW of Science 131 units · Chemical Engineering (Petroleum) Bachelor of Science 136 units · Chemical Engineering38 Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical

  14. Femtosecond Transient Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirmani, Ahmed (Ghulam Ahmed)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis proposes a novel framework called transient imaging for image formation and scene understanding through impulse illumination and time images. Using time-of-flight cameras and multi-path analysis of global light ...

  15. Three Dimensional Molecular Imaging for Lignocellulosic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of high efficiency, inexpensive processing protocols to render biomass components into fermentable substrates for the sequential processing of cell wall components into fuels and important feedstocks for the biorefinery of the future is a key goal of the national roadmap for renewable energy. Furthermore, the development of such protocols depends critically on detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal infiltration of reagents designed to remove and separate the phenylpropenoid heteropolymer (lignin) from the processable sugar components sequestered in the rigid cell walls of plants. A detailed chemical and structural understanding of this pre-enzymatic processing in space and time was the focus of this program. We worked to develop new imaging strategies that produce real-time molecular speciation information in situ; extract sub-surface information about the effects of processing; and follow the spatial and temporal characteristics of the molecular species in the matrix and correlate this complex profile with saccharification. Spatially correlated SIMS and Raman imaging were used to provide high quality, high resolution subcellular images of Miscanthus cross sections. Furthermore, the combination of information from the mass spectrometry and Raman scattering allows specific chemical assignments of observed structures, difficult to assign from either imaging approach alone and lays the foundation for subsequent heterocorrelated imaging experiments targeted at more challenging biological systems, such as the interacting plant-microbe systems relevant to the rhizosphere.

  16. MASS SPECTROMETRIC APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MASS SPECTROMETRIC APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS: CRITICAL REVIEW OF MOST RECENT ADVANCES. MASS SPECTROMETRIC APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL...

  17. NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF Chemical Hygiene Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH Chemical Hygiene Plan Division of Occupational Health Chemical Hygiene Plan Evaluation and Record Keeping

  18. Identification of the stimulated-emission threshold in high-{beta} nanoscale lasers through phase-space reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hachair, X.; Elvira, D.; Le Gratiet, L.; Lemaitre, A.; Abram, I.; Sagnes, I.; Robert-Philip, I.; Beveratos, A. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-UPR20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Braive, R. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-UPR20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Universite Paris Denis Diderot, 75205 Paris, Cedex 13 (France); Lippi, G. L. [Institut Non Lineaire de Nice, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 1361 Route des Lucioles, F-06560 Valbonne (France); Institut Non Lineaire de Nice, CNRS UMR 6618, 1361 Route des Lucioles, F-06560 Valbonne (France)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale lasers sustain a few optical modes so that the fraction of spontaneous emission {beta} funnelled into the useful (lasing) mode is high (of the order of 10{sup -1}) and the threshold, which traditionally corresponds to an abrupt kink in the light-in-light-out curve, becomes ill defined. We propose an alternative definition of the threshold that is based on the dynamical response of the laser and is valid even for {beta}=1 lasers. The laser dynamics is analyzed through a reconstruction of its phase-space trajectory for pulsed excitations. Crossing the threshold, brings about a change in the shape of the trajectory and in the area contained in it. An unambiguous determination of the threshold in terms of this change is shown theoretically and illustrated experimentally in a photonic-crystal laser.

  19. Effect of geometrical constraint condition on the formation of nanoscale twins in the Ni-based metallic glass composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.H.; Kim, B.S.; Kim, D.H.; Ott, R.T.; Sansoz, F.; Eckert, J.

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the effect of geometrically constrained stress-strain conditions on the formation of nanotwins in alpha-brass phase reinforced Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass (MG) matrix deformed under macroscopic uniaxial compression. The specific geometrically constrained conditions in the samples lead to a deviation from a simple uniaxial state to a multi-axial stress state, for which nanocrystallization in the MG matrix together with nanoscale twinning of the brass reinforcement is observed in localized regions during plastic flow. The nanocrystals in the MG matrix and the appearance of the twinned structure in the reinforcements indicate that the strain energy is highly confined and the local stress reaches a very high level upon yielding. Both the effective distribution of reinforcements on the strain enhancement of composite and the effects of the complicated stress states on the development of nanotwins in the second-phase brass particles are discussed.

  20. DNA and RNA sequencing by nanoscale reading through programmable electrophoresis and nanoelectrode-gated tunneling and dielectric detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James W.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for performing nucleic acid (DNA and/or RNA) sequencing on a single molecule. The genetic sequence information is obtained by probing through a DNA or RNA molecule base by base at nanometer scale as though looking through a strip of movie film. This DNA sequencing nanotechnology has the theoretical capability of performing DNA sequencing at a maximal rate of about 1,000,000 bases per second. This enhanced performance is made possible by a series of innovations including: novel applications of a fine-tuned nanometer gap for passage of a single DNA or RNA molecule; thin layer microfluidics for sample loading and delivery; and programmable electric fields for precise control of DNA or RNA movement. Detection methods include nanoelectrode-gated tunneling current measurements, dielectric molecular characterization, and atomic force microscopy/electrostatic force microscopy (AFM/EFM) probing for nanoscale reading of the nucleic acid sequences.

  1. Nano-scale brushes: How to build a smart surface coating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holger Merlitz; Gui-Li He; Chen-Xu Wu; Jens-Uwe Sommer

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Via computer simulations, we demonstrate how a densely grafted layer of polymers, a {\\it brush}, could be turned into an efficient switch through chemical modification of some of its end-monomers. In this way, a surface coating with reversibly switchable properties can be constructed. We analyze the fundamental physical principle behind its function, a recently discovered surface instability, and demonstrate that the combination of a high grafting density, an inflated end-group size and a high degree of monodispersity are conditions for an optimal functionality of the switch.

  2. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  3. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  4. FAQS Reference Guide- Chemical Processing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the February 2010 edition of DOE-STD-1176-2010, Chemical Processing Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  5. Process Intensification - Chemical Sector Focus

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cost and risk in chemical manufacturing facilities. 24 25 At the core of PI is the optimization of process performance by focusing on molecular level kinetics, 26...

  6. Imaging Sciences Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candy, J.V.

    1996-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the proceedings of the Imaging Sciences Workshop sponsored by C.A.S.LS., the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences. The Center, established primarily to provide a forum where researchers can freely exchange ideas on the signal and image sciences in a comfortable intellectual environment, has grown over the last two years with the opening of a Reference Library (located in Building 272). The Technical Program for the 1996 Workshop include a variety of efforts in the Imaging Sciences including applications in the Microwave Imaging, highlighted by the Micro-Impulse Radar (MIR) system invented at LLNL, as well as other applications in this area. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Speech, Acoustic Ocean Imaging, Radar Ocean Imaging, Ultrasonic Imaging, and Optical Imaging discuss various applica- tions of real world problems. For the more theoretical, sessions on Imaging Algorithms and Computed Tomography were organized as well as for the more pragmatic featuring a session on Imaging Systems.

  7. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  8. Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubel, Edwin

    Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection in the Zebrafish Lateral Line Rubel,1,2 and David W. Raible1,4 Abstract In humans, most hearing loss results from death of hair cells, the mechanosensory receptors of the inner ear. Two goals of current hearing research are to protect hair cells from

  9. Development of novel high-performance six-axis magnetically levitated instruments for nanoscale applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verma, Shobhit

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the sample. While working in noncontact mode the AFM tip does not touch the sample but gets the topographic image of sample from attractive force [13]. The AFM have resolution up to 10 pm. The basic working principle of AFM is very much like a record...-earth permanent-magnet-biased magnetic-bearing suspension [48]. The permanent magnet provides bias flux and the electromagnet can increase or reduce flux of the permanent magnet. The flux path of the electromagnet does not pass through the permanent magnet so...

  10. Fast Camera Imaging of Hall Thruster Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.L. Ellison, Y. Raitses and N.J. Fisch

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Hall thrusters provide efficient space propulsion by electrostatic acceleration of ions. Rotating electron clouds in the thruster overcome the space charge limitations of other methods. Images of the thruster startup, taken with a fast camera, reveal a bright ionization period which settles into steady state operation over 50 ?s. The cathode introduces azimuthal asymmetry, which persists for about 30 ?s into the ignition. Plasma thrusters are used on satellites for repositioning, orbit correction and drag compensation. The advantage of plasma thrusters over conventional chemical thrusters is that the exhaust energies are not limited by chemical energy to about an electron volt. For xenon Hall thrusters, the ion exhaust velocity can be 15-20 km/s, compared to 5 km/s for a typical chemical thruster

  11. NETL's High-Speed Imaging System Successfully Applied in Medicine, Broad Spectrum of Industry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A groundbreaking Department of Energy-developed imaging system originally designed to help create cleaner fossil energy processes is finding successful applications in a wide range of medical, chemical processing, energy, and other industries.

  12. Chemical Evolution in Omega Centauri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verne V. Smith

    2003-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The globular cluster Omega Centauri displays evidence of a complex star formation history and peculiar internal chemical evolution, setting it apart from essentially all other globular clusters of the Milky Way. In this review we discuss the nature of the chemical evolution that has occurred within Omega Cen and attempt to construct a simple scenario to explain its chemistry.

  13. CHEMICAL HYGIENE LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sideris, Thomas C.

    1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION & STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs____________________19 #12;3 Introduction 12/4/2013 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research Hygiene Plan NMR and EPR Laboratory Form Version 8/6/98 1. General Laboratory Information Laboratory Name

  14. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

  15. Method of forming a chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zollinger, William T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wendt, Kraig M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a chemical composition such as a chemical hydride is described and which includes the steps of selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of hydrogen; and exposing the selected composition to an amount of ionizing radiation to encourage the changing of the chemical bonds of the selected composition, and chemically reacting the selected composition with the source of hydrogen to facilitate the formation of a chemical hydride.

  16. Direct observation of interface and nanoscale compositional modulation in ternary III-As heterostructure nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesan, Sriram; Scheu, Christina [Department of Chemistry and Center for NanoScience, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Butenandstr 5-13(E), 81377 München (Germany)] [Department of Chemistry and Center for NanoScience, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Butenandstr 5-13(E), 81377 München (Germany); Madsen, Morten H.; Krogstrup, Peter; Johnson, Erik [Nano-Science Center and Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Nano-Science Center and Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Schmid, Herbert [INM-Leibniz Institute for New Materials, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)] [INM-Leibniz Institute for New Materials, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Straight, axial InAs nanowire with multiple segments of Ga{sub x}In{sub 1?x}As was grown. High resolution X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping reveals the distribution of group III atoms at the axial interfaces and at the sidewalls. Significant Ga enrichment, accompanied by a structural change is observed at the Ga{sub x}In{sub 1?x}As/InAs interfaces and a higher Ga concentration for the early grown Ga{sub x}In{sub 1?x}As segments. The elemental map and EDS line profile infer Ga enrichment at the facet junctions between the sidewalls. The relative chemical potentials of ternary alloys and the thermodynamic driving force for liquid to solid transition explains the growth mechanisms behind the enrichment.

  17. animal molecular imaging: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in biomedical research. Key Words: anesthesia; CT; mouse; MRI; optical microscopy; PET; rat; ultrasound Robert S. Balaban; Victoria A. Hampshire 2001-01-01 3 Nanoscale...

  18. Chemical analysis quality assurance at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, R.L.; Anselmo, R.W.; Black, D.B.; Jacobson, J.J.; Lewis, L.C.; Marushia, P.C.; Spraktes, F.W.; Zack, N.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a uranium reprocessing facility operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The chemical analysis support required for the plant processes is provided by a chemical analysis staff of 67 chemists, analysts, and support personnel. The documentation and defense of the chemical analysis data at the ICPP has evolved into a complete chemical analysis quality assurance program with training/qualification and requalification, chemical analysis procedures, records management and chemical analysis methods quality control as major elements. The quality assurance procedures are implemented on a central analytical computer system. The individual features provided by the computer system are automatic method selection for process streams, automation of method calculations, automatic assignment of bias and precision estimates at analysis levels to all method results, analyst specific daily requalification or with-method-use requalification, untrained or unqualified analyst method lockout, statistical testing of process stream results for replicate agreement, automatic testing of process results against pre-established operating, safety, or failure limits at varying confidence levels, and automatic transfer and report of analysis data plus the results of all statistical testing to the Production Department.

  19. High resolution x-ray lensless imaging by differential holographic encoding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, D.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Wu, B.; Scherz, A.; Acremann, Y.; Tylisczcak, T.; Fischer, P.; Friedenberger, N.; Ollefs, K.; Farle, M.; Fienup, J. R.; Stohr, J.

    2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray free electron lasers (X-FEL{sub s}) will soon offer femtosecond pulses of laterally coherent x-rays with sufficient intensity to record single-shot coherent scattering patterns for nanoscale imaging. Pulse trains created by splitand-delay techniques even open the door for cinematography on unprecedented nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. A key to real space ultrafast motion pictures is fast and reliable inversion of the recorded reciprocal space scattering patterns. Here we for the first time demonstrate in the x-ray regime the power of a novel technique for lensless high resolution imaging, previously suggested by Guizar-Sicairos and Fienup termed holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation, HERALD0. We have achieved superior resolution over conventional x-ray Fourier transform holography (FTH) without sacrifices in SNR or significant increase in algorithmic complexity. By combining images obtained from individual sharp features on an extended reference, we further show that the resolution can be even extended beyond the reference fabrication limits. Direct comparison to iterative phase retrieval image reconstruction and images recorded with stateof- the-art zone plate microscopes is presented. Our results demonstrate the power of HERALDO as a favorable candidate for robust inversion of single-shot coherent scattering patterns.

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiO microspheres with different nanoscale building blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Ling; Hao Yanjing; Zhao Yan [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lai Qiongyu, E-mail: laiqy5@hotmail.co [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xu Xiaoyun [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    NiO microspheres were successfully obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor, which were synthesized via the hydrothermal reaction of nickel chloride, glucose and ammonia. The products were characterized by TGA, XRD and SEM. The influences of glucose and reaction temperature on the morphologies of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism for the spherical morphology was proposed. The charge/discharge test showed that the as-prepared NiO microspheres composed of nanoparticles can serve as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor due to the spherical hollow structure. -- Graphical Abstract: Fig. 5 is the SEM image of NiO that was prepared in the different hydrothermal reaction temperatures. It showed that reaction temperature played a crucial role for the morphology of products.

  1. Contribution of nano-scale effects to the total efficiency of converters of thermal neutrons on the basis of gadolinium foils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Abdushukurov; D. V. Bondarenko; Kh. Kh. Muminov; D. Yu. Chistyakov

    2008-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the influence of nano-scale layers of converters made from natural gadolinium and its 157 isotope into the total efficiency of registration of thermal neutrons. Our estimations show that contribution of low-energy Auger electrons with the runs about nanometers in gadolinium, to the total efficiency of neutron converters in this case is essential and results in growth of the total efficiency of converters. The received results are in good consent to the experimental data.

  2. 596 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 41, NO. 4, APRIL 2005 Nanoscale Spatial Phase Modulation of GaN on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    Modulation of GaN on a V-Grooved Si Substrate--Cubic Phase GaN on Si(001) for Monolithic Integration S. C Abstract--Nanoscale spatial phase modulation of GaN gorwn on a 355-nm period array of V-grooves fabricated in a Si(001) substrate is reported. Orientation-dependent selective nucleation of GaN in metal

  3. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Center of Excellence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage William Tumas proprietary or confidential information #12;2 Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Overview Project Start Date: FY Barriers Addressed #12;3 Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center National

  4. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, G.C.; Brinker, C.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Bein, T.; Moller, K.

    1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings and sensors are described having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

  5. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C. (P.O. Box 763, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Doughty, Daniel H. (11724 Woodmar La., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Bein, Thomas (1114 Princeton Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106); Moller, Karin (1114 Princeton Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings and sensors having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

  6. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C. (Bernalillo County, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Doughty, Daniel H. (Albuquerque, NM); Bein, Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Moller, Karin (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings and sensors having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

  7. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, G.C.; Brinker, C.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Bein, T.; Moller, K.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings and sensors are disclosed having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided. 7 figs.

  8. Experimental characterization and chemical kinetics study of chemical looping combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tianjiao, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is one of the most promising technologies to achieve carbon capture in fossil fuel power generation plants. A novel rotary-bed reactor concept was proposed by Zhao et. al. [1] in 2013. It ...

  9. Self-Assembly by Instruction: Designing Nanoscale Systems Using DNA-Based Approaches (474th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gang, Oleg (Center for Functional Nanomaterials) [Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In the field of nanoscience, if you can control how nanoparticles self-assemble in particular structures — joining each other, for example, as molecules can form, atom-by-atom — you can design new materials that have unique properties that industry needs. Nature already uses the DNA genetic code to instruct the building of specific proteins and whole organisms in both plants and people. Taking a cue from nature, scientists at BNL devised a way of using strands of synthetic DNA attached to the surface of nanoparticles to instruct them to self-assemble into specific nanoscale structures, clusters, and three-dimensional organizations. Novel materials designed and fabricated this way promise use in photovoltaics, energy storage, catalysis, cell-targeted systems for more effective medical treatments, and biomolecular sensing for environmental monitoring and medical applications. To find out more about the rapid evolution of this nanoassembly method and its applications, join Physicist Oleg Gang of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) as he gives the 474th Brookhaven Lecture, titled “Self-Assembly by Instruction: Designing Nanoscale Systems Using DNA-Based Approaches." Gang, who has led this work at the CFN, will explain the rapid evolution of this nanoassembly method, and discuss its present and future applications in highly specific biosensors, optically active nano-materials, and new ways to fabricate complex architectures in a rational manner via self-assembly. Gang and his colleagues used the CFN and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facilities to perform their groundbreaking research. At the CFN, the scientists used electron microscopes and optical methods to visualize the clusters that they fabricated. At the NSLS, they applied x-rays to study a particles-assembly process in solution, DNA’s natural environment. Gang earned a Ph.D. in soft matter physics from Bar-Ilan University in 2000, and he was a Rothschild Fellow at Harvard University from 1999 to 2002. After joining BNL as a Goldhaber Fellow in 2002, he became an assistant scientist at the CFN in 2004. He became the CFN’s leader for Soft and Biological Nanomaterials Theme Group in 2006, and earned the title of scientist in 2009. Gang has received numerous honors and recognitions, including the 2010 Gordon Battelle Prize for Scientific Discovery.

  10. Non-planar chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sokolowski, Sara S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a high-surface area, low mass, three-dimensional, flow-through sorption support structure that can be coated or packed with a sorptive material. The sorptive material can collect and concentrate a chemical analyte from a fluid stream and rapidly release it as a very narrow temporal plug for improved separations in a microanalytical system. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator retains most of the thermal and fabrication benefits of a planar preconcentrator, but has improved ruggedness and uptake, while reducing sorptive coating concerns and extending the range of collectible analytes.

  11. Atomistic Time-Domain Simulations of Light-Harvesting and Charge-Transfer Dynamics in Novel Nanoscale Materials for Solar Hydrogen Production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Funded by the DOE grant (i) we continued to study and analyze the atomistic detail of the electron transfer (ET) across the chromophore-TiO2 interface in Gratzel cell systems for solar hydrogen production. (ii) We extensively investigated the nature of photoexcited states and excited state dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots (QD) designed for photovoltaic applications. (iii) We continued a newly initiated research direction focusing on excited state properties and electron-phonon interactions in nanoscale carbon materials. Over the past year, the results of the DOE funded research were summarized in 3 review articles. 12 original manuscripts were written. The research results were reported in 28 invited talks at conferences and university seminars. 20 invitations were accepted for talks in the near future. 2 symposia at national and international meetings have being organized this year on topics closely related to the DOE funded project, and 2 more symposia have been planned for the near future. We summarized the insights into photoinduced dynamics of semiconductor QDs, obtained from our time-domain ab initio studies. QDs exhibit both molecular and bulk properties. Unlike either bulk or molecular materials, QD properties can be modified continuously by changing QD shape and size. However, the chemical and physical properties of molecular and bulk materials often contradict each other, which can lead to differing viewpoints about the behavior of QDs. For example, the molecular view suggests strong electron-hole and charge-phonon interactions, as well as slow energy relaxation due to mismatch between electronic energy gaps and phonon frequencies. In contrast, the bulk view advocates that the kinetic energy of quantum confinement is greater than electron-hole interactions, that charge-phonon coupling is weak, and that the relaxation through quasi-continuous bands is rapid. By synthesizing the bulk and molecular viewpoints, we clarified the controversies and provided a unified atomistic picture of the nature and dynamics of photoexcited states in semiconductor QDs. We also summarized our recent findings about the photoinduced electron dynamics at the chromophore-semiconductor interfaces from a time-domain ab initio perspective. The interface provides the foundation for a new, promising type of solar cell and presents a fundamentally important case study for several fields, including photo-, electro- and analytical chemistries, molecular electronics, and photography. Further, the interface offers a classic example of an interaction between an organic molecular species and an inorganic bulk material. Scientists employ different concepts and terminologies to describe molecular and solid states of matter, and these differences make it difficult to describe the interface with a single model. At the basic atomistic level of description, however, this challenge can be largely overcome. Recent advances in non-adiabatic molecular dynamics and time-domain density functional theory have created a unique opportunity for simulating the ultrafast, photoinduced processes on a computer very similar to the way that they occur in nature. These state-of-the-art theoretical tools offered a comprehensive picture of a variety of electron transfer processes that occur at the interface, including electron injection from the chromophore to the semiconductor, electron relaxation and delocalization inside the semiconductor, back-transfer of the electron to the chromophore and to the electrolyte, and regeneration of the neutral chromophore by the electrolyte. The ab initio time-domain modeling is particularly valuable for understanding these dynamic features of the ultrafast electron transfer processes, which cannot be represented by a simple rate description. We demonstrated using symmetry adapted cluster theory with configuration interaction (SAC-CI) that charging of small PbSe nanocrystals (NCs) greatly modifies their electronic states and optical excitations. Conduction and valence band transitions that are not available in neutral NCs dominate

  12. Chemical and Biological Engineering Department Code 1 Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemical and Biological Engineering Department Code 1 CODE of the Department of Chemical of Chemical & Biological Engineering. For clarity of presentation, some passages are copied directly from shall offer an undergraduate chemical and biological engineering program of technological, scientific

  13. Biomedical | Chemical & Biomolecular | Civil & Environmental | Electrical & Computer | Industrial | Mechanical | Petroleum Careers in Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    | Mechanical | Petroleum Careers in Chemical Engineering Career opportunities in chemical engineering that new chemical engineering graduates have an average starting salary of $67,600. The University from industry professionals and participate in activities that promote engineering. Chemical

  14. DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY CHEMICAL HYGIENE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN #12, 2014 #12;University of Delaware Department of Environmental Health & Safety Chemical Hygiene) #12;University of Delaware Department of Environmental Health & Safety Chemical Hygiene Plan

  15. California Institute of Technology CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraon, Andrei

    California Institute of Technology CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN Caltech Environment, Health, and Safety: safety@caltech.edu Website: www.safety.caltech.edu #12;CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN ­ AUGUST 2013 Page 2 of 45 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN Table of Contents INTRODUCTION

  16. chemical (CHE) CHE overview programs available

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    , Environmental, Manufacturing and Petroleum En- gineering. Programs Available · Chemical Engineering Bachelor Engineering (Environmental) Bachelor of Science 135 units · Chemical Engineering (Petroleum) Bachelor of Science 136 units · Chemical Engineering (Polymer Science) Bachelor of Science 136 units · Petroleum

  17. New Science for Chemicals Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the State-of-the-Science of Endocrine Disruptors (WHO,461, 472 (2009). 17. NRC, Science and Decisions: AdvancingPOLICYFORUM SCIENCE AND REGULATION New Science for Chemicals

  18. Mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator actively measures the mass of a sample on an acoustic microbalance during the collection process. The microbalance comprises a chemically sensitive interface for collecting the sample thereon and an acoustic-based physical transducer that provides an electrical output that is proportional to the mass of the collected sample. The acoustic microbalance preferably comprises a pivot plate resonator. A resistive heating element can be disposed on the chemically sensitive interface to rapidly heat and release the collected sample for further analysis. Therefore, the mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  19. CHEN 3600 Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department Notes 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    CHEN 3600 ­ Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department Notes 4 EWE-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department Notes 4 EWE: "Engineering With Excel" Larsen Page 2 will be added using "cutting and pasting". #12;CHEN 3600 ­ Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical

  20. Association of the sites of heavy metals with nanoscale carbon in a Kentucky electrostatic precipitator fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Hower; Uschi M. Graham; Alan Dozier; Michael T. Tseng; Rajesh A. Khatri [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HRTEM-STEM-EELS) was used to study fly ashes produced from the combustion of an eastern Kentucky coal at a southeastern-Kentucky wall-fired pulverized coal utility boiler retrofitted for low-NOx combustion. Fly ash was collected from individual hoppers in each row of the electrostatic precipitators (ESP) pollution-control system, with multiple hoppers sampled within each of the three rows. Temperatures within the ESP array range from about 200 {degree}C at the entry to the first row to <150{degree}C at the exit of the third row. HRTEM-STEM-EELS study demonstrated the presence of nanoscale (10 s nm) C agglomerates with typical soot-like appearance and others with graphitic fullerene-like nanocarbon structures. The minute carbon agglomerates are typically juxtaposed and intergrown with slightly larger aluminosilicate spheres and often form an ultrathin halo or deposit on the fly ash particles. The STEM-EELS analyses revealed that the nanocarbon agglomerates host even finer (<3 nm) metal and metal oxide particles. Elemental analysis indicated an association of Hg with the nanocarbon. Arsenic, Se, Pb, Co, and traces of Ti and Ba are often associated with Fe-rich particles within the nanocarbon deposits. 57 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Field limit and nano-scale surface topography of superconducting radio-frequency cavity made of extreme type II superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The field limit of superconducting radio-frequency cavity made of type II superconductor with a large Ginzburg-Landau parameter is studied with taking effects of nano-scale surface topography into account. If the surface is ideally flat, the field limit is imposed by the superheating field. On the surface of cavity, however, nano-defects almost continuously distribute and suppress the superheating field everywhere. The field limit is imposed by an effective superheating field given by the product of the superheating field for ideal flat surface and a suppression factor that contains effects of nano-defects. A nano-defect is modeled by a triangular groove with a depth smaller than the penetration depth. An analytical formula for the suppression factor of bulk and multilayer superconductors are derived in the framework of the London theory. As an immediate application, the suppression factor of the dirty Nb processed by the electropolishing is evaluated by using results of surface topographic study. The estimat...

  2. Magnonic band structure, complete bandgap, and collective spin wave excitation in nanoscale two-dimensional magnonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, D.; Barman, A., E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); K?os, J. W.; Krawczyk, M. [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Pozna? 61-614 (Poland)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the observation of a complete bandgap and collective spin wave excitation in two-dimensional magnonic crystals comprised of arrays of nanoscale antidots and nanodots, respectively. Considering that the frequencies dealt with here fall in the microwave band, these findings can be used for the development of suitable magnonic metamaterials and spin wave based signal processing. We also present the application of a numerical procedure, to compute the dispersion relations of spin waves for any high symmetry direction in the first Brillouin zone. The results obtained from this procedure have been reproduced and verified by the well established plane wave method for an antidot lattice, when magnetization dynamics at antidot boundaries are pinned. The micromagnetic simulation based method can also be used to obtain iso–frequency contours of spin waves. Iso–frequency contours are analogous of the Fermi surfaces and hence, they have the potential to radicalize our understanding of spin wave dynamics. The physical origin of bands, partial and full magnonic bandgaps have been explained by plotting the spatial distribution of spin wave energy spectral density. Although, unfettered by rigid assumptions and approximations, which afflict most analytical methods used in the study of spin wave dynamics, micromagnetic simulations tend to be computationally demanding. Thus, the observation of collective spin wave excitation in the case of nanodot arrays, which can obviate the need to perform simulations, may also prove to be valuable.

  3. Effects of grazing incidence conditions on the x-ray diffuse scattering from self-assembled nanoscale islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidbauer, M.; Grigoriev, D.; Hanke, M.; Schaefer, P.; Wiebach, T.; Koehler, R. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction from SiGe nanoscale islands grown on Si(001) substrate were investigated. Experiments and corresponding theoretical simulations based on the distorted-wave Born approximation were carried out. The strain field inside and in the vicinity of the SiGe islands was calculated in the framework of linear elasticity theory using the numerical finite element method. The diffuse intensity pattern in reciprocal space reveals a well-resolved fine structure with prominent maxima and a complicated fringe pattern. The distribution of diffuse intensity in reciprocal space strongly depends on the angle of incidence with respect to the sample surface. The results obtained substantiate the important role of basically five (grazing incidence small-angle x-ray) and nine (grazing incidence diffraction) scattering channels that have to be considered for a complete understanding of the scattering scenario. A refined island model concerning shape, size, and Ge composition was elaborated.

  4. High resolution low dose transmission electron microscopy real-time imaging and manipulation of nano-scale objects in the electron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Jr., R. Malcolm (Austin, TX); Barnes, Zack (Austin, TX); Sawatari, Chie (Shizuoka, JP); Kondo, Tetsuo (Kukuoka, JP)

    2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a method, apparatus and system for nanofabrication in which one or more target molecules are identified for manipulation with an electron beam and the one or more target molecules are manipulated with the electron beam to produce new useful materials.

  5. USING RANDOM MATRIX THEORY TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF ENDMEMBERS IN A HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damelin, Steven

    chemical unmixing [1], extracting speech signals in a noisy band [2], unmixing minerals [3] and unmixing en of spectral endmembers in a hyper- spectral image is an important step in the spectral unmixing process of endmembers in an image is im- portant for the processing of many different types of data, in- cluding

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: MOgene Green Chemicals LLC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MOgene Green Chemicals LLC Sandia to Partner with MOgene Green Chemicals on ARPA-E REMOTE Project On October 2, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Research &...

  7. Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Developing chemical kinetic mechanisms and applying them to simulating engine combustion processes. deer09aceves.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Research on...

  8. Sandia Researchers Develop Promising Chemical Technology for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sandia Researchers Develop Promising Chemical Technology for Energy Storage Sandia Researchers Develop Promising Chemical Technology for Energy Storage March 7, 2012 - 9:50am...

  9. Correlations Between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Correlations Between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass Burn Aerosols. Correlations Between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass Burn Aerosols....

  10. Keeping Tabs on the World's Dangerous Chemicals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sandia chemical engineer Nancy Jackson has worked in laboratories around the world to help ensure that chemicals are used safely and kept secure.

  11. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Chemical & Sample Prep

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical & Sample Preparation For general questions, please contact the Lujan Center Chemical and Sample Preparation Laboratory responsible: Charles Kelsey | ckelsey@lanl.gov |...

  12. User Science Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Image: OBrianImageBig.png | png | 5 MB SlavaFull.png FES: Small Scale Experimental Plasma Research October 21, 2010 | Author(s): Vyacheslav Lukin (NRL) | Category: Fusion Energy |...

  13. Imaging in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The text contains details of recording media, image quality, sensitometry, processing and equipment used in radiotherapy for imaging. It reflects part of the syllabus for the College of Radiographers.

  14. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING 1 Determining the Intrinsic Dimension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damelin, Steven

    chemical unmixing [1], extracting speech signals in a noisy line [2], unmixing minerals [3] and unmixingIEEEProof IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING 1 Determining the Intrinsic Dimension is an important step in the spectral unmixing process and under- or overestimation of this number may lead

  15. Consumers' Image of Broilers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtenay, Henry V.; Branson, Robert E.

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    which they feel the product possesses. This research was designed to determine consumers' favorable and unfavorable images as to broilers, both in making purchases in stores and in serving them as a meat dish. These images, summarized briefly here... count. The Preparation and Cooking Image: The h0u.l wife's image of broilers focuses on one metliotl- frying. The major deterrent to preparing othci dishes was that these are either too difficult or canno* be prepared satisfactorily...

  16. Imaging with Scattered Neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Ballhausen; H. Abele; R. Gaehler; M. Trapp; A. Van Overberghe

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a novel experimental technique for neutron imaging with scattered neutrons. These scattered neutrons are of interest for condensed matter physics, because they permit to reveal the local distribution of incoherent and coherent scattering within a sample. In contrast to standard attenuation based imaging, scattered neutron imaging distinguishes between the scattering cross section and the total attenuation cross section including absorption. First successful low-noise millimeter-resolution images by scattered neutron radiography and tomography are presented.

  17. Near-electrode imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL); Woelk, Klaus (Wachtberg, DE); Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager uses the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

  18. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review #12;2 | Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain ImagingThe Wellcome Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales, no's role in supporting human functional brain imaging and have informed `our' speculations for the future

  19. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 Dale ­ one of our first Trustees. Understanding the brain remains one of our key strategic aims today three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging

  20. Medical imaging systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.