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Sample records for nano pico femto

  1. Pico - Nano - Mikro: Going small, fast and dilute with soft x-rays |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Pico - Nano - Mikro: Going small, fast and dilute with soft x-rays Monday, April 25, 2016 - 11:18am SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Hendrik Ohldag (Stanford University) Program Description Because of the wavelength of x-rays, microscopes at synchrotrons are great tools to learn about physics on the nanoscale. In addition, one can make use of the fact that synchrotrons produce short x-ray pulses and address dynamical processes with a

  2. LCLS Femto-Second Timing and Synchronization System Update (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: LCLS Femto-Second Timing and Synchronization System Update Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LCLS Femto-Second Timing and Synchronization System Update...

  3. LCLS Femto-Second Timing and Synchronization System Update (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: LCLS Femto-Second Timing and Synchronization System Update Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LCLS Femto-Second Timing and Synchronization System Update You...

  4. Back The Pico Mountain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photos *Pubs summary *Status *Inside view *Go Back The Pico Mountain free tropospheric station Richard Honrath, Michigan Tech (reh@mtu.edu) Paulo Fialho, University of the Azores...

  5. West Pico Food | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pico Food Jump to: navigation, search Name: West Pico Food Place: Vernon, California Sector: Solar Product: A distributor of wholesale frozen foods to supermarket chains in...

  6. MHK Projects/OWC Pico Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OWC Pico Power Plant < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMA...

  7. Pico Rivera, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Pico Rivera is a city in Los Angeles County, California. It falls under California's 38th...

  8. Nano Facts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nano Facts The concept of the extremely small world of nano is difficult to comprehend. Here are some facts to help put this incredible world into perspective! * If we met for one nanosecond every day (7 days / week, 365 1/4 days / year) it would take about 28,519 years to accrue a total meeting time of fifteen minutes. * If we made a scale model of the solar system, and chose to make our earth one nanometer across, it would be about .01 (One hundredth) of a millimeter away from the sun in our

  9. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF3I Bubble Chamber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF3I Bubble Chamber...

  10. Preliminary Results of Mono-energetic Electron Beams from a Laser-plasma Accelerator Driven by 200 TW Femto Second Pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taki, R.; Kameshima, T.; An, W. M.; Hua, J. F.; Huang, W. H.; Tang, C. X.; Gu, Y. Q.; Guo, Y.; Hong, W.; Jiao, C. Y.; Lin, Y. Z.; Liu, H. J.; Peng, H. S.; Sun, L.; Tang, C. M.; Wang, X. D.; Wen, T. S.; Wen, X. L.; Wu, Y. C.; Zhang, B. H.

    2006-11-27

    Relativistic mono-energetic electron beams have been demonstrated by worldwide laser-plasma accelerator experiments in the range of a few tens TW. Laser-plasma accelerator experiment has been carried out with 200TW, 30fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulses focused on helium gas-jets with F/8.7 optics. Intense mono-energetic electron beams have been produced in the energy range of 30 to 150 MeV by controlling plasma length and density precisely. Images of Thomson scattering and fluorescence side scattering from plasma indicate highly relativistic effects such as a long self-channeling and filamentation as well as energetic electron deflection and intense backward Raman scattering. Preliminary results of the first laser-plasma accelerator experiment in the range of 200TW femto second pulses are presented.

  11. PICO: An Object-Oriented Framework for Branch and Bound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ECKSTEIN,JONATHAN; HART,WILLIAM E.; PHILLIPS,CYNTHIA A.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the design of PICO, a C++ framework for implementing general parallel branch-and-bound algorithms. The PICO framework provides a mechanism for the efficient implementation of a wide range of branch-and-bound methods on an equally wide range of parallel computing platforms. We first discuss the basic architecture of PICO, including the application class hierarchy and the package's serial and parallel layers. We next describe the design of the serial layer, and its central notion of manipulating subproblem states. Then, we discuss the design of the parallel layer, which includes flexible processor clustering and communication rates, various load balancing mechanisms, and a non-preemptive task scheduler running on each processor. We describe the application of the package to a branch-and-bound method for mixed integer programming, along with computational results on the ASCI Red massively parallel computer. Finally we describe the application of the branch-and-bound mixed-integer programming code to a resource constrained project scheduling problem for Pantex.

  12. NanoDays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NanoDays NanoDays WHEN: Apr 03, 2015 10:00 AM - Apr 12, 2015 5:00 PM WHERE: Bradbury Science Museum 1350 Central Ave, Los Alamos, NM 87544, USA CONTACT: Jessica Privette 505 667-0375 CATEGORY: Bradbury Science INTERNAL: Calendar Login NanoDays - April 3-12, 2015 Event Description NanoDays is a nationwide festival of educational programs about nanoscale science and engineering and its potential impact on the future. The Bradbury Science Museum celebrates NanoDays during Spring Break week, April

  13. Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 New data are reported from a second run of the 2-liter PICO-2L C3F8 bubble chamber with a total exposure of 129 kg-days at a thermodynamic threshold energy of 3.3 keV. These data show that measures taken to control particulate contamination in the superheated fluid resulted in the absence of the anomalous background events

  14. Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 New data are reported from a second run of the 2-liter PICO-2L C3F8 bubble chamber with a total exposure of 129 kg-days at a thermodynamic threshold energy of 3.3 keV. These data show that measures taken to control particulate contamination in the superheated fluid resulted in the absence of the anomalous background events

  15. NanoDays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NanoDays NanoDays WHEN: Mar 24, 2016 10:00 AM - Apr 03, 2016 5:00 PM WHERE: Bradbury Science Museum 1350 Central Ave, Los Alamos, NM 87544, USA CONTACT: Linda Anderman (505) 665-9196 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description NanoDays is a national festival of educational programs about nanoscale science and engineering and it's potential impact on the future. The Bradbury Science Museum will celebrate NanoDays over local spring break, March 24 - April 3, 2016. At the

  16. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amole, C.

    2015-10-26

    We reported new data from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 36.8 kg of CF3I and located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. PICO-60 is the largest bubble chamber to search for dark matter to date. With an analyzed exposure of 92.8 live-days, PICO-60 exhibits the same excellent background rejection observed in smaller bubble chambers. Alpha decays in PICO-60 exhibit frequency-dependent acoustic calorimetry, similar but not identical to that reported recently in a C3F8 bubble chamber. PICO-60 also observes a large population of unknown background events, exhibiting acoustic, spatial, and timing behaviors inconsistent with those expected from a dark matter signal. We found these behaviors allow for analysis cuts to remove all background events while retaining 48.2%of the exposure. Stringent limits on WIMPs interacting via spin-dependent proton and spin-independent processes are set, and the interpretation of the DAMA/LIBRA modulation signal as dark matter interacting with iodine nuclei is ruled out.

  17. Nano-composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  18. Nano C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nano-C Place: Westwood, Massachusetts Zip: 2090 Product: A Boston-based company that manufactures combustion based technology. Coordinates:...

  19. NanoReady Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NanoReady Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: NanoReady Ltd Place: Caesarea, Israel Zip: 38900 Sector: Solar Product: String representation "NanoReady devel ... nd solar cells."...

  20. PV Nano Cell | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cell Jump to: navigation, search Name: PV Nano Cell Place: Israel Product: Israel-based firm focused on PV nano cell technology. References: PV Nano Cell1 This article is a stub....

  1. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano-aerosol and nano-structured materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Charles L.; Morozov, Victor; Vsevolodov, Nikolai N.

    2010-08-17

    The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano-aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano-clusters and nano-fibers. Nano-aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase. Neutralization of electrospan nano-fibers with molecular ions and charged nano-clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano-mats. Nano-mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano-filters.

  2. Nano Tune Technologies Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Nano Tune use sol-gel processing technology to develop a high energy density & power storage devices. References: Nano Tune Technologies Corp.1 This article is...

  3. Nano Design Works | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nano Design Works Nano Design Works (NDW) capitalizes on the power of nanotechnology and provides services to strengthen its impact. With expertise in nanomaterials, computing,...

  4. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; et al

    2015-05-29

    The PICASSO and COUPP collaborations use superheated liquid detectors to search for cold dark matter through the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These experiments, located in the underground laboratory of SNOLAB, Canada, detect phase transitions triggered by nuclear recoils in the keV range induced by interactions with WIMPs. We present details of the construction and operation of these detectors as well as the results, obtained by several years of observations. We also introduce PICO, a joint effort of the two collaborations to build a second generation ton-scale bubble chamber with 250 liters of active liquid.

  5. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EPJ Web of Conferences 95,04020 (2015) DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/ 20159504020 © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2015 PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - search for dark matter with bubble chambers C. Amole1, M. Ardid2, D. M. Asner3, D. Baxter4, E. Behnke5, P. Bhattacharjee6, H. Borsodi5, M. Bou-Cabo2, S. J. Brice7, D. Broemmelsiek7, K. Clark8, J. I. Collar9, P S. Cooper7, M. Crisler7, C. E. Dahl4, M. Das6, F. Debris10, N. Dhungana11, J. Farine11, I. Felis2, R. Filgas12,a, M. Fines-

  6. Nano-optomechanical transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rakich, Peter T; El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Su, Mehmet Fatih; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Wang, Zheng; Davids, Paul

    2013-12-03

    A nano-optomechanical transducer provides ultrabroadband coherent optomechanical transduction based on Mach-wave emission that uses enhanced photon-phonon coupling efficiencies by low impedance effective phononic medium, both electrostriction and radiation pressure to boost and tailor optomechanical forces, and highly dispersive electromagnetic modes that amplify both electrostriction and radiation pressure. The optomechanical transducer provides a large operating bandwidth and high efficiency while simultaneously having a small size and minimal power consumption, enabling a host of transformative phonon and signal processing capabilities. These capabilities include optomechanical transduction via pulsed phonon emission and up-conversion, broadband stimulated phonon emission and amplification, picosecond pulsed phonon lasers, broadband phononic modulators, and ultrahigh bandwidth true time delay and signal processing technologies.

  7. Magnetic nano-particles | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic nano-particles The student will be involved in assembling CoFe2O4 nano-particles onto Si wafers for further studies by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) that will...

  8. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water ...

  9. C3Nano, inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    has emerged from Stanford University in Stanford, California. C3Nano, inc. is team of students from Stanford University, who recently won the Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

  10. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-03-11

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  11. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-23

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  12. Nano Nouvelle Pty Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Product: Nano-Nouvelle uses advanced materials technology, including nanotechnology, to develop technology in key large markets. Its particular focus is on...

  13. 'Nano'tubes, Surface Area & NanoSolar Cells

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    This unit takes students through several introductory lessons designed to gain a better understanding of the 'nano' scale as it relates to the creation of a (dye-sensitized) solar cell (DSSC). The introductory lessons guide students through activities covering volume, surface area and density and exploration of the relationship between these factors. The unit culminates with students building a Gratzel cell, a solar cell employing a layer of nanospheres of TiO2 as the semiconductor and blackberry juice as the light absorber in a non-Si-based solar cell. Students are able to build a small solar cell and test its efficiency.

  14. Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center KANC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea (Republic) Zip: 443-270 Product: String representation "The Korea Advan ... f nano devices." is too long. References: Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center (KANC)1 This...

  15. Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Parts (AMD-704) Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium ...

  16. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies You are accessing a document from ...

  17. Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 2 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 2 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: RTI International PDF icon 2002deervenkatasubramanian2.pdf More Documents & Publications Nano-...

  18. Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: RTI International PDF icon 2002deervenkatasubramanian1.pdf More Documents & Publications Nano-...

  19. Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel ThermoelectricMaterials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking & ...

  20. 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis ...

  1. Dipole nano-laser: Theory and properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghannam, T.

    2014-03-31

    In this paper we outline the main quantum properties of the system of nano-based laser called Dipole Nano-Laser emphasizing mainly on its ability to produce coherent light and for different configurations such as different embedding materials and subjecting it to an external classical electric field.

  2. Nano Design Works | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nano Design Works Share Speakers Andreas Roelofs Topic Programs Materials science Nanoscience Nano Design Works (NDW) capitalizes on the power of nanotechnology and provides services to strengthen its impact. With expertise in nanomaterials, computing, chemistry, materials, and energy systems, along with its world-class facilities, Argonne is a perfect match for companies looking to make a big impact with tiny materials

  3. Pi-CO? aqueous post-combustion CO? capture: Proof of concept through thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and gas-lift pump modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, G.; Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; ONeil, K.; Kervvan, C.; Beddelem, M. -H.

    2014-12-31

    Partnering in Innovation, Inc. (Pi-Innovation) introduces an aqueous post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO?) capture system (Pi-CO?) that offers high market value by directly addressing the primary constraints limiting beneficial re-use markets (lowering parasitic energy costs, reducing delivered cost of capture, eliminating the need for special solvents, etc.). A highly experienced team has completed initial design, modeling, manufacturing verification, and financial analysis for commercial market entry. Coupled thermodynamic and thermal-hydraulic mass transfer modeling results fully support proof of concept. Pi-CO? has the potential to lower total cost and risk to levels sufficient to stimulate global demand for CO? from local industrial sources.

  4. DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Oleg Gang

    2010-01-08

    Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

  5. Cima NanoTech | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    including nanoparticle conductive inks and transparent conductive coatings for solar cells. References: Cima NanoTech1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  6. Nano structural anodes for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Serkiz, Steven M.; McWhorter, Christopher S.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-07-07

    Anodes for proportional radiation counters and a process of making the anodes is provided. The nano-sized anodes when present within an anode array provide: significantly higher detection efficiencies due to the inherently higher electric field, are amenable to miniaturization, have low power requirements, and exhibit a small electromagnetic field signal. The nano-sized anodes with the incorporation of neutron absorbing elements (e.g., .sup.10B) allow the use of neutron detectors that do not use .sup.3He.

  7. Lipid bilayers on nano-templates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noy, Aleksandr; Artyukhin, Alexander B.; Bakajin, Olgica; Stoeve, Pieter

    2009-08-04

    A lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising a nanotube or nanowire and a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire. One embodiment provides a method of fabricating a lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising the steps of providing a nanotube or nanowire and forming a lipid bilayer around the polymer cushion. One embodiment provides a protein pore in the lipid bilayer. In one embodiment the protein pore is sensitive to specific agents

  8. Controlled Dispensing and Mixing of Pico- to Nanoliter Volumes Using On-Demand Droplet-Based Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2013-07-08

    We present an integrated droplet-on-demand microfluidic platform for dispensing, mixing, incubating, extracting and analyzing by mass spectrometry pico- to nanoliter sized droplets. Droplet generation is accomplished using computer-controlled pneumatic valves. Controlled actuation of valves for different aqueous streams enables controlled dosing and rapid mixing of reagents within droplets in the droplet generation area or in a region with widening channel cross-section. Following incubation, which takes place while droplets travel in the oil stream, the droplet contents are extracted to an aqueous channel for subsequent ionization at an integrated nanoelectrospray emitter. As an initial demonstration of the platform, rapid enzymatic digestions of a model protein are performed in droplets and detected on-line by nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  9. Annual Site Environmental Report Paducah Site

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Site Environmental Report Paducah Site 2011 PAD-REG-1012 BACK TABLE OF CONTENTS FORWARD Fractions and Multiples of Units Multiple Decimal Equivalent Prefix Symbol Engineering Format 10 6 1,000,000 mega- M E+06 10 3 1,000 kilo- k E+03 10 2 100 hecto- h E+02 10 10 deka- da E+01 10 -1 0.1 deci- d E-01 10 -2 0.01 centi- c E-02 10 -3 0.001 milli- m E-03 10 -6 0.000001 micro- μ E-06 10 -9 0.000000001 nano- n E-09 10 -12 0.000000000001 pico- P E-12 10 -15 0.000000000000001 femto- F E-15 10 -18

  10. Nano tech Silicon India Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tech Silicon India Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nano-tech Silicon India Ltd Place: Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Product: Nano-tech Silicon is a manufacturer of PV...

  11. NanoMas Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: NanoMas develops silver nanoparticle-based dyes which can be used in printable solar cells and other printable electronics. References: NanoMas Technologies Inc.1 This...

  12. Sandia National Labs: Physical, Chemical and Nano Sciences Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Semiconductor & Optical Sciences Energy Sciences Small Science Cluster Business Office News Partnering Research Departments Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences...

  13. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steelman, Ryan; Clark, Billy; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  14. Nano-material and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Seals, Roland D; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-03

    A fluffy nano-material and method of manufacture are described. At 2000.times. magnification the fluffy nanomaterial has the appearance of raw, uncarded wool, with individual fiber lengths ranging from approximately four microns to twenty microns. Powder-based nanocatalysts are dispersed in the fluffy nanomaterial. The production of fluffy nanomaterial typically involves flowing about 125 cc/min of organic vapor at a pressure of about 400 torr over powder-based nano-catalysts for a period of time that may range from approximately thirty minutes to twenty-four hours.

  15. Nano-Composite Materials - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nano-Composite Materials National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Alternative fuel vehicles typically require large energy stores (e.g., for acceleration), resulting in the ongoing development of capacitor and supercapacitor technologies. These technologies have a broad range of

  16. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  17. Electrochemical method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Joan; Jang, Bor Z.

    2013-09-03

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets with an average thickness smaller than 30 nm from a layered graphite material. The method comprises (a) forming a carboxylic acid-intercalated graphite compound by an electrochemical reaction; (b) exposing the intercalated graphite compound to a thermal shock to produce exfoliated graphite; and (c) subjecting the exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce the nano-scaled graphene platelets. Preferred carboxylic acids are formic acid and acetic acid. The exfoliation step in the instant invention does not involve the evolution of undesirable species, such as NO.sub.x and SO.sub.x, which are common by-products of exfoliating conventional sulfuric or nitric acid-intercalated graphite compounds. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  18. PLZT Nano-Precursors for High Energy Density Applications - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Find More Like This Return to Search PLZT Nano-Precursors for High Energy Density Applications Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology ...

  19. BioCentric Energy Inc formerly Nano Chemical Systems Holdings...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: BioCentric Energy Inc (formerly Nano Chemical Systems Holdings) Place: Santa Ana, California Zip: 90707 Product: California-based development-stage company that...

  20. 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion We have ...

  1. Tools for the Microbiome: Nano and Beyond (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Tools for the Microbiome: Nano and Beyond Authors: Biteen, Julie S. ; Blainey, Paul C. ; Cardon, Zoe G. ; Chun, Miyoung ; Church, George M. ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ;...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts ...

  3. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries Title: Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to ...

  4. Nano-focused Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (nBIS) Determinatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectroscopy (nBIS) Determination of the Unoccupied Electronic Structure of Pu Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nano-focused Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy ...

  5. Nano Structure Control and Selectivity of Hydrogen Release from...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nano Structure Control and Selectivity of Hydrogen Release from Hydrogen Storage Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Illustration depicting...

  6. NanoBright Technologies Pte Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    develops luminescent materials, including substances used to improve the efficiency of solar cells. References: NanoBright Technologies Pte Ltd1 This article is a stub. You...

  7. Nano-superconducting quantum interference devices with suspended junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, D.; Hasselbach, K.; Kirtley, J. R.

    2014-04-14

    Nano-Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (nano-SQUIDs) are usually fabricated from a single layer of either Nb or Al. We describe here a simple method for fabricating suspended nano-bridges in Nb/Al thin-film bilayers. We use these suspended bridges, which act as Josephson weak links, to fabricate nano-SQUIDs which show critical current oscillations at temperatures up to 1.5?K and magnetic flux densities up to over 20?mT. These nano-SQUIDs exhibit flux modulation depths intermediate between all-Al and all-Nb devices, with some of the desirable characteristics of both. The suspended geometry is attractive for magnetic single nanoparticle measurements.

  8. Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings PDF icon wear-resistant_nano-composite.pdf More Documents & Publications Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits ITP Nanomanufacturing: Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials, January 2011 Advanced Manufacturing Office, U.S. Department of Energy

  9. Method of producing nano-scaled inorganic platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites.

  10. Direct Energy Conversion Nano-hybrid Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popa-Simil, Liviu

    2008-07-01

    Most of the exothermic nuclear reactions transfer the mass defect or binding and surplus energy into kinetic energy of the resulting particles. These particles are traveling through material lattices, interacting by ionization and nuclear collisions. Placing an assembly of conductive-insulating layers in the path of such radiation, the ionization energy is transformed into charge accumulation by polarization. The result is a super-capacitor charged by the moving particles and discharged electrically. Another more promising solution is to use bi-material nanoparticles organized such as to act like a serial connection and add the voltage. A spherical symmetry fission products source coated in several nano-layers is desired for such structures. The system may operate as dry or liquid-immersed battery, removing the fission products from the fissile material. There is a tremendous advantage over the current heat flow based thermal stabilization system allowing a power density up to 1000 times higher. (author)

  11. A Nano Surface Icephobic Coating Delays Ice Formation | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... at the water-substrate interface. icing-image-with-caption-300x193 I recently ... sensors, non-icing surfaces, nano-enabled media storage and optoelectronic devices. ...

  12. NREL: Awards and Honors - NanoCeram Nanoalumina Fiber

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of time. For bone tissue engineering, NanoCeram provides a strong fibrous material, molding a scaffolding to which bone-forming osteoblast cells can adhere and build. Trials...

  13. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward...

  14. Nano-High: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lecture on Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nano-High, a program of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a series of free Saturday morning talks by internationally recognized leaders in scientific research. The talks are designed...

  15. Light modulation with a nano-patterned diffraction grating and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with a nano-patterned diffraction grating and MEMS pixel. Abstract not provided. Authors: Skinner, Jack L. ; Talin, Albert Alec ; Horsley, David A. Publication Date: 2008-05-01...

  16. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    themselves in a hexagonal grid. Nano-sized particles-bits of matter a few billionths of a meter in size, or more than a hundred times smaller than the stuff of today's...

  17. Shenzhen Institute of Nano Materials and Technology | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Product: An institute of nano technology, which could be applied in DLC film coated solar cells (diamond solar cells). Coordinates: 22.546789, 114.112556 Show Map Loading...

  18. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important...

  19. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Nano Self-Assembly Print Wednesday, 24 February 2010 00:00 If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of...

  20. Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2014-12-15

    In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer.

  1. High Strength Nano-Structured Steel - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Return to Search High Strength Nano-Structured Steel Idaho National Laboratory Success Story Details Partner Location Agreement Type Publication Date Nanosteel, Inc. Providence, Rhode Island License Work for Others (WFO) June 4, 2013 Video Bulk Materials Nanotechnology Summary The NanoSteel Company Complex modern challenges are driving new industrial market demands for metal alloys with properties and performance capabilities outside the known boundaries of

  2. Sandia National Labs: Physical, Chemical and Nano Sciences Center (PCNSC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Page Home About Us Departments News Partnering Research J. Charles Barbour J. Charles Barbour Director Beverly Eppinga Beverly A. Eppinga Sr. Mgt. Asst. DOI Research Briefs CINT Physical, Chemical, and Nano Sciences Center The Physical, Chemical, and Nano Sciences Center supports Sandia's mission by providing new scientific knowledge.We have two key activities: Support the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) mission with our unique expertise in science-based solutions

  3. New nano-mechanical plasmonic phase modulator offers electronics potential

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Argonne National Laboratory nano-mechanical plasmonic phase modulator offers electronics potential April 3, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint By using standard semiconductor manufacturing equipment, a team of scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Rutgers University and the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, has demonstrated a nano-mechanical plasmon phase modulator that can control and manipulate

  4. Nano-Composite Arsenic Sorbent - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nano-Composite Arsenic Sorbent N-CAS: A low cost, highly effective arsenic removal technology Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Nano-Composite Arsenic Sorbent (N-CAS) Fact Sheet (1,859 KB) Technology Marketing Summary INL nanotechnology researchers have engineered a revolutionary and affordable material called

  5. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Rapid deployment and the use of objective force aggressively reduce logistic footprints and

  6. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems | Department of Energy Advanced thermoelectric energy recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented PDF icon hendricks.pdf More Documents & Publications Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight

  7. Photonic Metamaterials, Nano- plasmonics and Superlens | MIT-Harvard Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Excitonics Photonic Metamaterials, Nano- plasmonics and Superlens April 8, 2009 at 3pm/36-428 Xiang Zhang NSF Nano-scale Science and Engineering Center (NSEC), University of California, Berkeley zhang_000 abstract: Recent theory predicted a new class of meta structures made of engineered sub wavelength entities - meta "atoms" and "molecules" which enable the unprecendented electromagnetic properties that do not exist in the nature such as optical magentism and

  8. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Wednesday, 25 March 2009 00:00 Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned

  9. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C.

    2012-07-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

  10. Formation of surface nano-structures by plasma expansion induced by highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moslem, W. M.; El-Said, A. S.

    2012-12-15

    Slow highly charged ions (HCIs) create surface nano-structures (nano-hillocks) on the quartz surface. The formation of hillocks was only possible by surpassing a potential energy threshold. By using the plasma expansion approach with suitable hydrodynamic equations, the creation mechanism of the nano-hillocks induced by HCIs is explained. Numerical analysis reveal that within the nanoscale created plasma region, the increase of the temperature causes an increase of the self-similar solution validity domain, and consequently the surface nano-hillocks become taller. Furthermore, the presence of the negative (positive) nano-dust particles would lead to increase (decrease) the nano-hillocks height.

  11. Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts This presentation ...

  12. Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits Project objective: To develop ultra-hard and wear ...

  13. A Three-Dimensional Carbon Nano-Network for High Performance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Three-Dimensional Carbon Nano-Network for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Three-Dimensional Carbon Nano-Network for High...

  14. Chemical imaging of biological materials by NanoSIMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P K; Smith, J B; Hutcheon, I D; Shmakov, A; Rybitskaya, I; Curran, H

    2004-08-23

    The NanoSIMS 50 represents the state -of-the-art for in situ microanalysis for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), combining unprecedented spatial resolution (as good as 50 nm) with ultra-high sensitivity (MDL of 200 atoms). The NanoSIMS incorporates an array of detectors, enabling simultaneous collection of 5 elements or isotopes originating from the same sputtered volume of a sample. The primary ion beam (Cs{sup +} or O{sup -}) can be scanned across the sample to produce quantitative secondary ion images. This capability for multiple isotope imaging with high spatial resolution is unique to the NanoSIMS and provides a novel new approach to the study of the distribution of elements in biological materials. We have applied this technique extensively to mammalian cells and bacterial spores. Results from these studies and critical analytical issues such as sample preparation, instrument tuning, and data processing will be discussed.

  15. Nano-composite stainless steel (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Nano-composite stainless steel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nano-composite stainless steel A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase. Authors: Dehoff, Ryan R. ; Blue, Craig A. ; Peter, William H. ; Chen, Wei

  16. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Technical Report: NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies Authors: Dehoff, Ryan R [1] ; Engleman, Greg [2] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL MesoCoat, Inc. Publication Date: 2012-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1055074 Report Number(s): ORNL/TM-2012/283 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Sponsoring

  17. Ductility and work hardening in nano-sized metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D. Z.; Gu, X. W.; An, Q.; Goddard, W. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-02-09

    In-situ nano-tensile experiments on 70 nm-diameter free-standing electroplated NiP metallic glass nanostructures reveal tensile true strains of ∼18%, an amount comparable to compositionally identical 100 nm-diameter focused ion beam samples and ∼3 times greater than 100 nm-diameter electroplated samples. Simultaneous in-situ observations and stress-strain data during post-elastic deformation reveal necking and work hardening, features uncharacteristic for metallic glasses. The evolution of free volume within molecular dynamics-simulated samples suggests a free surface-mediated relaxation mechanism in nano-sized metallic glasses.

  18. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print Wednesday, 24 February 2010 00:00 If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward this goal has been achieved by researchers who have found a simple and yet powerfully robust way to induce nanoparticles to assemble themselves into complex arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and

  19. Method for nano-pumping using carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates generally to the field of nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and, more specifically, to a method and system for nano-pumping media through carbon nanotubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for nano-pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more carbon nanotubes, the one or more nanotubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more nanotubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the carbon nanotubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the nanotube.

  20. Nanoconstriction-based spin-Hall nano-oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demidov, V. E.; Urazhdin, S.; Zholud, A.; Sadovnikov, A. V.; Demokritov, S. O.

    2014-10-27

    We experimentally demonstrate magnetic nano-oscillators driven by pure spin current produced by the spin Hall effect in a bow tie-shaped nanoconstriction. These devices exhibit single-mode auto-oscillation and generate highly-coherent electronic microwave signals with a significant power and the spectral linewidth as low as 6.2 MHz at room temperature. The proposed simple and flexible device geometry is amenable to straightforward implementation of advanced spintronic structures such as chains of mutually coupled spin-Hall nano-oscillators.

  1. Transparent Conductive Nano-Composites - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Transparent Conductive Nano-Composites Nanomaterials for Applications Ranging From Photovoltaic Cells to Display Technologies Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Indium Tin Oxide, the most widely used commercial transparent conducting coating, has severe limitations such

  2. Field Testing of Nano-PCM Enhanced Building Envelope Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program s goal of developing high-performance, energy efficient buildings will require more cost-effective, durable, energy efficient building envelopes. Forty-eight percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced envelope components can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Field-testing of prototype envelope components is an important step in estimating their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conducive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. During 2012, two test walls with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards were installed in a natural exposure test (NET) facility at Charleston, SC. The first test wall was divided into four sections, which were separated by wood studs and thin layers of foam insulation. Two sections contained nano-PCM-enhanced wallboards: one was a three-layer structure, in which nano-PCM was sandwiched between two gypsum boards, and the other one had PCM dispersed homogeneously throughout graphite nanosheets-enhanced gypsum board. The second test wall also contained two sections with interior PCM wallboards; one contained nano-PCM dispersed homogeneously in gypsum and the other was gypsum board containing a commercial microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM) for comparison. Each test wall contained a section covered with gypsum board on the interior side, which served as control or a baseline for evaluation of the PCM wallboards. The walls were instrumented with arrays of thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Further, numerical modeling of the walls containing the nano-PCM wallboards were performed to determine their actual impact on wall-generated heating and cooling loads. The models were first validated using field data, and then used to perform annual simulations using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data. This article presents the measured performance and numerical analysis to evaluate the energy-saving potential of the nano-PCM-enhanced building components.

  3. Method for forming a nano-textured substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Cui, Yi

    2015-04-07

    A method for forming a nano-textured surface on a substrate is disclosed. An illustrative embodiment of the present invention comprises dispensing of a nanoparticle ink of nanoparticles and solvent onto the surface of a substrate, distributing the ink to form substantially uniform, liquid nascent layer of the ink, and enabling the solvent to evaporate from the nanoparticle ink thereby inducing the nanoparticles to assemble into an texture layer. Methods in accordance with the present invention enable rapid formation of large-area substrates having a nano-textured surface. Embodiments of the present invention are well suited for texturing substrates using high-speed, large scale, roll-to-roll coating equipment, such as that used in office product, film coating, and flexible packaging applications. Further, embodiments of the present invention are well suited for use with rigid or flexible substrates.

  4. Nano-Composite Material Development for 3-D Printers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satches, Michael Randolph

    2015-12-01

    Graphene possesses excellent mechanical properties with a tensile strength that may exceed 130 GPa, excellent electrical conductivity, and good thermal properties. Future nano-composites can leverage many of these material properties in an attempt to build designer materials for a broad range of applications. 3-D printing has also seen vast improvements in recent years that have allowed many companies and individuals to realize rapid prototyping for relatively low capital investment. This research sought to create a graphene reinforced, polymer matrix nano-composite that is viable in commercial 3D printer technology, study the effects of ultra-high loading percentages of graphene in polymer matrices and determine the functional upper limit for loading. Loadings varied from 5 wt. % to 50 wt. % graphene nanopowder loaded in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) matrices. Loaded sample were characterized for their mechanical properties using three point bending, tensile tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis.

  5. Mirror profile optimization for nano-focusing KB mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Lin; Baker, Robert; Barrett, Ray; Cloetens, Peter; Dabin, Yves

    2010-06-23

    A KB focusing mirror width profile has been optimized to achieve nano-focusing for the nano-imaging end-station ID22NI at the ESRF. The complete mirror and flexure bender assembly has been modeled in 3D with finite element analysis using ANSYS. Bender stiffness, anticlastic effects and geometrical non-linear effects have been considered. Various points have been studied: anisotropy and crystal orientation, stress in the mirror and bender, actuator resolution and the mirror-bender adhesive bonding... Extremely high performance of the mirror is expected with residual slope error smaller than 0.6 {mu}rad, peak-to-valley, compared to the bent slope of 3000 {mu}rad.

  6. Muon Application to Advanced Bio- and Nano-Sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagamine, Kanetada

    2008-02-21

    Among present and future applications of the muon to various fields of sciences, there are several examples where research accomplishments can only be done by using muons. Here we would like to explain the selected two examples representing bio- and nano-sciences, namely, muon spin imaging of human brain for new brain function studies and muonium spin-exchange scattering spectroscopy for the development of spintronics materials.

  7. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Soules, Thomas F.; Landingham, Richard Lee; Hollingsworth, Joel P.

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  8. In Conversation with Jim Schuck: Nano-optics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jim Schuck and Alice Egan

    2010-01-08

    Sponsored by Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD), "In Conversation with" is a next generation science seminar series. Host Alice Egan is the assistant to MSD Director Miquel Salmeron. Alice conducts a fun and informative interview, touching on the lives and work of the guest. The first In Conversation With took place July 9 with Jim Schuck, a staff scientist in the Molecular Foundry's Imaging and Manipulation Facility as our first guest. He discussed the world of Nano-optics.

  9. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  10. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward this goal has been achieved by researchers who have found a simple and yet powerfully robust way to induce nanoparticles to assemble themselves into complex arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and polymers, they were able to direct the self-assembly of the

  11. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward this goal has been achieved by researchers who have found a simple and yet powerfully robust way to induce nanoparticles to assemble themselves into complex arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and polymers, they were able to direct the self-assembly of the

  12. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  13. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward this goal has been achieved by researchers who have found a simple and yet powerfully robust way to induce nanoparticles to assemble themselves into complex arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and polymers, they were able to direct the self-assembly of the

  14. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward this goal has been achieved by researchers who have found a simple and yet powerfully robust way to induce nanoparticles to assemble themselves into complex arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and polymers, they were able to direct the self-assembly of the

  15. Mega-Pore Nano-Structured Carbon - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Mega-Pore Nano-Structured Carbon Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryCurrent supercapacitor technologies cannot meet the growing demands for high-power energy storage. Meeting this challenge requires the development of new electrode materials.DescriptionScientists at ORNL have developed robust carbon monolithic having hierarchical

  16. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  17. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  18. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  19. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  20. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  1. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  2. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  3. Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-11-02

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  4. Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts | Department of Energy Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts This presentation demonstrates how nano-array catalysts have excellent robustness, use ultra-low amounts of PGM, and can be tuned for optimum performance. PDF icon deer12_guo.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano-Array Catalysts for Low

  5. 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro http://www.biomedicalimaging.org/2013/ April 7-11, 2013; San Francisco, CA, USA

  6. Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel ...

  7. Tiny subject, big fun with NanoDays at Bradbury Science Museum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Museum NanoDays is a national campaign, engaging people of all ages in learning about the emerging field of nanoscale science and engineering. March 18, 2013...

  8. Dilution-Free Analysis from Picoliter Droplets by Nano-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Page, Jason S.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-09-01

    The expanding role of microfluidics for chemical and biochemical analysis is due to factors including the favorable scaling of separation performance with reduced channel dimensions,[1] flexibility afforded by computer-aided device design, and the ability to integrate multiple sample handling and analysis steps into a single platform.[2] Such devices enable smaller liquid volumes and sample sizes to be handled than can be achieved on the benchtop, where sub-microliter volumes are difficult to work with and where sample losses to the surfaces of multiple reaction vessels become prohibitive. A particularly attractive microfluidic platform for sample-limited analyses employs aqueous droplets or plugs encapsulated by an immiscible oil.[3,4] Each droplet serves as a discrete compartment or reaction chamber enabling, e.g., high throughput screening[5,6] and kinetic studies[7-9] of femto- to nanoliter samples, as well as the encapsulation[10-12] and lysis[10] of individual cells with limited dilution of the cellular contents

  9. Optimization of Nano-Carbon Materials for Hydrogen Sorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakobson, Boris I

    2013-08-02

    Research undertaken has added to the understanding of several critical areas, by providing both negative answers (and therefore eliminating expensive further studies of unfeasible paths) and positive feasible options for storage. Theoretical evaluation of the early hypothesis of storage on pure carbon single wall nanotubes (SWNT) has been scrutinized with the use of comprehensive computational methods (and experimental tests by the Center partners), and demonstrated that the fundamentally weak binding energy of hydrogen is not sufficiently enhanced by the SWNT curvature or even defects, which renders carbon nanotubes not practical media. More promising direction taken was towards 3-dimensional architectures of high porosity where concurrent attraction of H2 molecule to surrounding walls of nano-scale cavities can double or even triple the binding energy and therefore make hydrogen storage feasible even at ambient or somewhat lower temperatures. An efficient computational tool has been developed for the rapid capacity assessment combining (i) carbon-foam structure generation, (ii) accurate empirical force fields, with quantum corrections for the lightweight H2, and (iii) grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. This made it possible to suggest optimal designs for carbon nanofoams, obtainable via welding techniques from SWNT or by growth on template-zeolites. As a precursor for 3D-foams, we have investigated experimentally the synthesis of VANTA (Vertically Aligned NanoTube Arrays). This can be used for producing nano-foams. On the other hand, fluorination of VANTA did not show promising increase of hydrogen sorption in several tests and may require further investigation and improvements. Another significant result of this project was in developing a fundamental understanding of the elements of hydrogen spillover mechanisms. The benefit of developed models is the ability to foresee possible directions for further improvement of the spillover mechanism.

  10. High energy density capacitors using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    Today, many pulse power and industrial applications are limited by capacitor performance. While incremental improvements are anticipated from existing capacitor technologies, significant advances are needed in energy density to enable these applications for both the military and for American economic competitiveness. We propose a program to research and develop a novel technology for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Nano-structure multilayer technologies developed at LLNL may well provide a breakthrough in capacitor performance. Our controlled sputtering techniques are capable of laying down extraordinarily smooth sub-micron layers of dielectric and conductor materials. With this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density may be achievable. Well-understood dielectrics and new materials will be investigated for use with this technology. Capacitors developed by nano-structure multilayer technology are inherently solid state, exhibiting extraordinary mechanical and thermal properties. The conceptual design of a Notepad capacitor is discussed to illustrate capacitor and capacitor bank design and performance with this technology. We propose a two phase R&D program to address DNA`s capacitor needs for electro-thermal propulsion and similar pulse power programs. Phase 1 will prove the concept and further our understanding of dielectric materials and design tradeoffs with multilayers. Nano-structure multilayer capacitors will be developed and characterized. As our materials research and modeling prove successful, technology insertion in our capacitor designs will improve the possibility for dramatic performance improvements. In Phase 2, we will make Notepad capacitors, construct a capacitor bank and demonstrate its performance in a meaningful pulse power application. We will work with industrial partners to design full scale manufacturing and move this technology to industry for volume production.

  11. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKechnie, Timothy N.; Antony, Leo V. M.; O'Dell, Scott; Power, Chris; Tabor, Terry

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  12. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2013-12-17

    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  13. Nano-honeycomb structured transparent electrode for enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiao-Bo; Qian, Min; Wang, Zhao-Kui E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Liao, Liang-Sheng E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn

    2015-06-01

    A universal nano-sphere lithography method has been developed to fabricate nano-structured transparent electrode, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), for light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Perforated SiO{sub 2} film made from a monolayer colloidal crystal of polystyrene spheres and tetraethyl orthosilicate sol-gel is used as a template. Ordered nano-honeycomb pits on the ITO electrode surface are obtained by chemical etching. The proposed method can be utilized to form large-area nano-structured ITO electrode. More than two folds' enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency has been achieved in a red phosphorescent OLED which was fabricated on the nano-structured ITO substrate.

  14. Process of making titanium carbide (TiC) nano-fibrous felts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fong, Hao; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhao, Yong; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2015-01-13

    A method of synthesizing mechanically resilient titanium carbide (TiC) nanofibrous felts comprising continuous nanofibers or nano-ribbons with TiC crystallites embedded in carbon matrix, comprising: (a) electrospinning a spin dope for making precursor nanofibers with diameters less than 0.5 J.Lm; (b) overlaying the nanofibers to produce a nanofibrous mat (felt); and then (c) heating the nano-felts first at a low temperature, and then at a high temperature for making electrospun continuous nanofibers or nano-ribbons with TiC crystallites embedded in carbon matrix; and (d) chlorinating the above electrospun nano-felts at an elevated temperature to remove titanium for producing carbide derived carbon (CDC) nano-fibrous felt with high specific surface areas.

  15. Design Optimization of Radionuclide Nano-Scale Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenfeld, D.W.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Smith, B.

    2004-10-06

    Radioisotopes have been used for power sources in heart pacemakers and space applications dating back to the 50's. Two key properties of radioisotope power sources are high energy density and long half-life compared to chemical batteries. The tritium battery used in heart pacemakers exceeds 500 mW-hr, and is being evaluated by the University of Florida for feasibility as a MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) power source. Conversion of radioisotope sources into electrical power within the constraints of nano-scale dimensions requires cutting-edge technologies and novel approaches. Some advances evolving in the III-V and II-IV semiconductor families have led to a broader consideration of radioisotopes rather free of radiation damage limitations. Their properties can lead to novel battery configurations designed to convert externally located emissions from a highly radioactive environment. This paper presents results for the analytical computational assisted design and modeling of semiconductor prototype nano-scale radioisotope nuclear batteries from MCNP and EGS programs. The analysis evaluated proposed designs and was used to guide the selection of appropriate geometries, material properties, and specific activities to attain power requirements for the MEMS batteries. Plans utilizing high specific activity radioisotopes were assessed in the investigation of designs employing multiple conversion cells and graded junctions with varying band gap properties. Voltage increases sought by serial combination of VOC s are proposed to overcome some of the limitations of a low power density. The power density is directly dependent on the total active areas.

  16. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  17. Phototoxicity of nano titanium dioxides in HaCaT keratinocytesGeneration of reactive oxygen species and cell damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jun; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Roberts, Joan E.; Fu, Peter P.; Mason, Ronald P.; Zhao, Baozhong

    2012-08-15

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is among the top five widely used nanomaterials for various applications. In this study, we determine the phototoxicity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) with different molecular sizes and crystal forms (anatase and rutile) in human skin keratinocytes under UVA irradiation. Our results show that all nano-TiO{sub 2} particles caused phototoxicity, as determined by the MTS assay and by cell membrane damage measured by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, both of which were UVA dose- and nano-TiO{sub 2} dose-dependent. The smaller the particle size of the nano-TiO{sub 2} the higher the cell damage. The rutile form of nano-TiO{sub 2} showed less phototoxicity than anatase nano-TiO{sub 2}. The level of photocytotoxicity and cell membrane damage is mainly dependent on the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Using polyunsaturated lipids in plasma membranes and human serum albumin as model targets, and employing electron spin resonance (ESR) oximetry and immuno-spin trapping as unique probing methods, we demonstrated that UVA irradiation of nano-TiO{sub 2} can induce significant cell damage, mediated by lipid and protein peroxidation. These overall results suggest that nano-TiO{sub 2} is phototoxic to human skin keratinocytes, and that this phototoxicity is mediated by ROS generated during UVA irradiation. Highlights: ? We evaluate the phototoxicity of nano-TiO{sub 2} with different sizes and crystal forms. ? The smaller the particle size of the nano-TiO{sub 2} the higher the cell damage. ? The rutile form of nano-TiO{sub 2} showed less phototoxicity than anatase nano-TiO{sub 2}. ? ESR oximetry and immuno-spin trapping techniques confirm UVA-induced cell damage. ? Phototoxicity is mediated by ROS generated during UVA irradiation of nano-TiO{sub 2}.

  18. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-10-20

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  19. Wetting kinetics of water nano-droplet containing non-surfactant nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Gui; Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 ; Hu, Han; Sun, Ying E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu; Duan, Yuanyuan E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu

    2013-12-16

    In this Letter, dynamic wetting of water nano-droplets containing non-surfactant gold nanoparticles on a gold substrate is examined via molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the addition of non-surfactant nanoparticles hinders the nano-second droplet wetting process, attributed to the increases in both surface tension of the nanofluid and friction between nanofluid and substrate. The droplet wetting kinetics decreases with increasing nanoparticle loading and water-particle interaction energy. The observed wetting suppression and the absence of nanoparticle ordering near the contact line of nano-sized droplets differ from the wetting behaviors reported from nanofluid droplets of micron size or larger.

  20. CNM Participates in 2014 NanoDays Outreach Event | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory CNM Participates in 2014 NanoDays Outreach Event May 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint On April 14, 2014, the CNM held a Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network (NISE) NanoDays Event for 62 local fifth-grade science students and their teachers. CNM has a strong committment to activities that increase science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) literacy and enthusiasm among students, their families, and educators. The NanoDays kits were an excellent resource for this audience,

  1. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1995-05-09

    A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  2. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Johnson, Gary W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  3. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-01-23

    A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  4. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Johnson, Gary W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1995-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  5. Synthesis of nano-crystalline multifibrous zirconia needle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Mridula; Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Zirconia needles have been successfully prepared by simple inorganic solgel route. The shape of the needles was retained after firing with aspect ratio > 400. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Fibres are composed of nano crystals. - Abstract: Zirconia needles have been successfully synthesized using a simple inorganic solgel process without using any template. The method employs mixture of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and sulphuric acid in aqueous medium. This process requires heat treatment at 40 C for 2 h in an oven for nucleus formation. Complete formation of needle occurs after 17 days. The green needle retained its original shape after calcination at 1200 C. Fired needles were of 12 cm in length and 550 ?m in diameter and possess monoclinic phase. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Depending on the heat treatment temperature, crystallite size varies in the range of 8 to around 300 nm.

  6. Phonon Spectrum Engineering in Rolled-up Micro- and Nano-Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fomin, Vladimir M.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2015-10-10

    We report on a possibility of efficient engineering of the acoustic phonon energy spectrum in multishell tubular structures produced by a novel high-tech method of self-organization of micro- and nano-architectures. The strain-driven roll-up procedure paved the way for novel classes of metamaterials such as single semiconductor radial micro- and nano-crystals and multi-layer spiral micro- and nano-superlattices. The acoustic phonon dispersion is determined by solving the equations of elastodynamics for InAs and GaAs material systems. It is shown that the number of shells is an important control parameter of the phonon dispersion together with the structure dimensions and acoustic impedance mismatch between the superlattice layers. The obtained results suggest that rolled up nano-architectures are promising for thermoelectric applications owing to a possibility of significant reduction of the thermal conductivity without degradation of the electronic transport.

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL 2011.06.01, Sedlacek, OSC Comments? We would...

  8. X-ray and neutron scattering from nano-mgantic clusters | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray and neutron scattering from nano-mgantic clusters The student will participate in hands on X-ray scattering experiments on bio-inspired inorganic materials (i.e., magnetic...

  9. Radial arrays of nano-electrospray ionization emitters and methods of forming electrosprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Ryan T [West Richland, WA; Tang, Keqi [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2010-10-19

    Electrospray ionization emitter arrays, as well as methods for forming electrosprays, are described. The arrays are characterized by a radial configuration of three or more nano-electrospray ionization emitters without an extractor electrode. The methods are characterized by distributing fluid flow of the liquid sample among three or more nano-electrospray ionization emitters, forming an electrospray at outlets of the emitters without utilizing an extractor electrode, and directing the electrosprays into an entrance to a mass spectrometry device. Each of the nano-electrospray ionization emitters can have a discrete channel for fluid flow. The nano-electrospray ionization emitters are circularly arranged such that each is shielded substantially equally from an electrospray-inducing electric field.

  10. Phase transformations of nano-sized cubic boron nitride to white graphene and white graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Hongli; Liu, Yingdi; Xue, Wenhua; Anderson, Ryan S.; Sewell, Cody R.; Xue, Sha; Crunkleton, Daniel W.; Shen, Yaogen; Wang, Sanwu

    2014-03-03

    We report quantum-mechanical investigations that predict the formation of white graphene and nano-sized white graphite from the first-order phase transformations of nano-sized boron nitride thin-films. The phase transformations from the nano-sized diamond-like structure, when the thickness d > 1.4 nm, to the energetically more stable nano-sized white graphite involve low activation energies of less than 1.0 eV. On the other hand, the diamond-like structure transforms spontaneously to white graphite when d ≤ 1.4 nm. In particular, the two-dimensional structure with single-layer boron nitride, the so-called white graphene, could be formed as a result of such transformation.

  11. Phonon Spectrum Engineering in Rolled-up Micro- and Nano-Architectures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fomin, Vladimir M.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2015-10-10

    We report on a possibility of efficient engineering of the acoustic phonon energy spectrum in multishell tubular structures produced by a novel high-tech method of self-organization of micro- and nano-architectures. The strain-driven roll-up procedure paved the way for novel classes of metamaterials such as single semiconductor radial micro- and nano-crystals and multi-layer spiral micro- and nano-superlattices. The acoustic phonon dispersion is determined by solving the equations of elastodynamics for InAs and GaAs material systems. It is shown that the number of shells is an important control parameter of the phonon dispersion together with the structure dimensions and acoustic impedance mismatchmore » between the superlattice layers. The obtained results suggest that rolled up nano-architectures are promising for thermoelectric applications owing to a possibility of significant reduction of the thermal conductivity without degradation of the electronic transport.« less

  12. Nano-High: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lecture on the "compassionate instinct"

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nano-High, a program of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a series of free Saturday morning talks by internationally recognized leaders in scientific research. The talks are designed...

  13. Nano-High: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lecture on Good Sugars

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nano-High, a program of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a series of free Saturday morning talks by internationally recognized leaders in scientific research. The talks are designed...

  14. Nano-High: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lecture on Bad Sugars

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nano-High, a program of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a series of free Saturday morning talks by internationally recognized leaders in scientific research. The talks are designed...

  15. Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To evaluate the performance of nano- array monolithic catalysts 2nm Pt nanoparticles Single crystalline Good dispersion Gao, P.X. et al., US non-provisional patent filed, (2012). ...

  16. Hybrid Nano Carbon Fiber/Graphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid Nano Carbon FiberGraphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries 2010 DOE EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Energy Storage Progress of ...

  17. Hybrid Nano Carbon Fiber/Graphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hybrid Nano Carbon FiberGraphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Progress of DOE Materials, Manufacturing Process R&D, and ARRA Battery Manufacturing ...

  18. GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics. Strain-induced self-assembly during semiconductor heteroepitaxy offers a promising approach to produce quantum nanostructures for nanologic and optoelectronics applications. Our current research direction aims to move beyond self-assembly of the basic quantum dot

  19. Nano-focused Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (nBIS) Determination of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Unoccupied Electronic Structure of Pu (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Nano-focused Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (nBIS) Determination of the Unoccupied Electronic Structure of Pu Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nano-focused Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (nBIS) Determination of the Unoccupied Electronic Structure of Pu While chemically toxic and highly radioactive, Pu may be the most scientifically interesting element in the periodic table. It's properties

  20. Decomposition Pathway of Ammonia Borane on the Surface of nano-BN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neiner, Doinita; Luedtke, Avery T.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Shaw, Wendy J.; Wang, Julia; Browning, Nigel; Autrey, Thomas; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2010-08-19

    Ammonia borane (AB) is under significant investigation as a possible hydrogen storage material. While many chemical additives have been demonstrated to have a significant positive effect on hydrogen release from ammonia borane, many provide additional complications in the regeneration cycle. Mechanically alloyed hexagonal BN (nano-BN) has been shown to facilitate the release of hydrogen from AB at lower temperature, with minimal induction time, less exothermically, and inert nano-BN may be easily removed during any regeneration of the spent AB. The samples were prepared by mechanically alloying AB with nano-BN. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the AB:nano-BN samples are physical mixtures of AB and h-BN. The release of hydrogen from AB:nano-BN mixtures as well as the decomposition products were characterized by 11B magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR, TGA/DSC/MS with 15N labeled AB, and solution 11B NMR spectroscopy. The 11B MAS solid state NMR spectrum shows that diammonate of diborane (DADB) is present in the mechanically alloyed mixture, which drastically shortens the induction period for hydrogen release from AB. Analysis of the TGA/DSC/MS spectra using 15N labeled AB shows that all the borazine (BZ) produced in the reaction comes from AB and that increasing nano-BN surface area results in increased amounts of BZ. However, under high temperature, 150?C, isothermal conditions, the amount of BZ released was the same as for neat AB. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area diffraction (SAD), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of the initial and final nano-BN additive provide evidence for crystallinity loss but not significant chemical changes. The higher concentration of BZ observed for low temperature dehydrogenation of AB:nano-BN mixtures versus neat AB is attributed to a surface interaction that favors the formation of precursors which ultimately result in BZ. This pathway can be avoided through isothermal heating at temperatures >150?C.

  1. Laser-activated nano-biomaterials for tissue repair and controlled drug release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matteini, P; Ratto, F; Rossi, F; Pini, R

    2014-07-31

    We present recent achievements of minimally invasive welding of biological tissue and controlled drug release based on laser-activated nano-biomaterials. In particular, we consider new advancements in the biomedical application of near-IR absorbing gold nano-chromophores as an original solution for the photothermal repair of surgical incisions and as nanotriggers of controlled drug release from hybrid biopolymer scaffolds. (laser biophotonics)

  2. Tools for the Microbiome: Nano and Beyond (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Tools for the Microbiome: Nano and Beyond Title: Tools for the Microbiome: Nano and Beyond Authors: Biteen, Julie S. ; Blainey, Paul C. ; Cardon, Zoe G. ; Chun, Miyoung ; Church, George M. ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ; Fraser, Scott E. ; Gilbert, Jack A. ; Jansson, Janet K. ; Knight, Rob ; Miller, Jeff F. ; Ozcan, Aydogan ; Prather, Kimberly A. ; Quake, Stephen R. ; Ruby, Edward G. ; Silver, Pamela A. ; Taha, Sharif ; van den Engh, Ger ; Weiss, Paul S. ; Wong, Gerard C. L. more

  3. Unique Methodologies for Nano/Micro Manufacturing Job Training Via Desktop

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Supercomputer Modeling and Simulation (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Unique Methodologies for Nano/Micro Manufacturing Job Training Via Desktop Supercomputer Modeling and Simulation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Unique Methodologies for Nano/Micro Manufacturing Job Training Via Desktop Supercomputer Modeling and Simulation Authors: Kimball, Clyde ; Karonis, Nicholas ; Lurio, Laurence ; Piot, Philippe ; Xiao, Zhili ; Glatz, Andreas ; Pohlman, Nicholas ; Hou, Minmei ; Demir,

  4. Nano-/micro metallic wire synthesis on Si substrate and their characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Jaskiran Kaur, Harmanmeet Singh, Surinder; Kanjilal, Dinakar; Chakarvarti, Shiv Kumar

    2014-04-24

    Nano-/micro wires of copper are grown on semiconducting Si substrate using the template method. It involves the irradiation of 8 um thick polymeric layer coated on Si with150 MeV Ni ion beam at a fluence of 2E8. Later, by using the simple technique of electrodeposition, copper nano-/micro wires were grown via template synthesis. Synthesized wires were morphologically characterized using SEM and electrical characterization was carried out by finding I-V plot.

  5. Nano-Composite Designs for Energy Storage | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nano-Composite Designs for Energy Storage Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 02.01.13 Nano-Composite Designs for Energy Storage

  6. Carbon NanoFiber Systems for Tissue Interfacing - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon NanoFiber Systems for Tissue Interfacing Platform Technology for Electrophysiological Interfacing and for Drug and Gene Delivery Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Scientists at ORNL have created vertically aligned carbon nano?fibers (VACNF) that are well suited for cell and tissue interfacing applications, such as electrophysiological stimulus and

  7. Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 PDF icon brosha_lanl_kickoff.pdf More Documents & Publications Long Term Innovative Technologies The Science And Engineering of Duralbe Ultralow PGM Catalysts DOE Durability Working Group October 2010 Meeting Minutes

  8. Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro/nano/bio

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    systems (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro/nano/bio systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro/nano/bio systems Authors: Fan, Xiao Z ; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina ; Gnerlich, Markus ; Brown, Adam ; Gerasopoulos, K ; McCarthy, M ; Culver, James ; Ghodssi, Reza Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1160750 DOE Contract Number: SC0001160 Resource Type: Journal

  9. Characterization of the nanoDot OSLD dosimeter in CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarboro, Sarah B.; Cody, Dianna; Followill, David; Court, Laurence; Stingo, Francesco C.; Kry, Stephen F.; Alvarez, Paola; Zhang, Di; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The extensive use of computed tomography (CT) in diagnostic procedures is accompanied by a growing need for more accurate and patient-specific dosimetry techniques. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) offer a potential solution for patient-specific CT point-based surface dosimetry by measuring air kerma. The purpose of this work was to characterize the OSLD nanoDot for CT dosimetry, quantifying necessary correction factors, and evaluating the uncertainty of these factors. Methods: A characterization of the Landauer OSL nanoDot (Landauer, Inc., Greenwood, IL) was conducted using both measurements and theoretical approaches in a CT environment. The effects of signal depletion, signal fading, dose linearity, and angular dependence were characterized through direct measurement for CT energies (80–140 kV) and delivered doses ranging from ∼5 to >1000 mGy. Energy dependence as a function of scan parameters was evaluated using two independent approaches: direct measurement and a theoretical approach based on Burlin cavity theory and Monte Carlo simulated spectra. This beam-quality dependence was evaluated for a range of CT scanning parameters. Results: Correction factors for the dosimeter response in terms of signal fading, dose linearity, and angular dependence were found to be small for most measurement conditions (<3%). The relative uncertainty was determined for each factor and reported at the two-sigma level. Differences in irradiation geometry (rotational versus static) resulted in a difference in dosimeter signal of 3% on average. Beam quality varied with scan parameters and necessitated the largest correction factor, ranging from 0.80 to 1.15 relative to a calibration performed in air using a 120 kV beam. Good agreement was found between the theoretical and measurement approaches. Conclusions: Correction factors for the measurement of air kerma were generally small for CT dosimetry, although angular effects, and particularly effects due to changes in beam quality, could be more substantial. In particular, it would likely be necessary to account for variations in CT scan parameters and measurement location when performing CT dosimetry using OSLD.

  10. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sánchez, C.; Hortal, M.; Aliaga, C.; Devis, A.; Cloquell-Ballester, V.A.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The study compares the recyclability of polymers with and without nanoparticles. • Visual appearance, material quality and mechanical properties are evaluated. • Minor variations in mechanical properties in R-PE and R-PP with nanoparticles. • Slight degradation of R-PET which affect mechanical properties. • Colour deviations in recycled PE, PP and PET in ranges higher that 0.3 units. - Abstract: Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE–Nanoclay1, PE–CaCO{sub 3}, PP–Ag, PET–ZnO, PET–Ag, PET–Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET–Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a slight degradation of the polymer, such as increasing pinholes, degradation fumes and elongation at break. Moreover, it should be noted that colour deviations were visible in most of the samples (PE, PP and PET) in levels higher than 0.3 units (limit perceivable by the human eye). The acceptance of these changes in the properties of recycled PE, PP and PET will depend on the specific applications considered (e.g. packaging applications are more strict in material quality that urban furniture or construction products)

  11. Intrinsic dissipation in a nano-mechanical resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunal, K.; Aluru, N. R.

    2014-09-07

    We investigate the effect of size on intrinsic dissipation in nano-structures. We use molecular dynamics simulation and study dissipation under two different modes of deformation: stretching and bending mode. In the case of stretching deformation (with uniform strain field), dissipation takes place due to Akhiezer mechanism. For bending deformation, in addition to the Akhiezer mechanism, the spatial temperature gradient also plays a role in the process of entropy generation. Interestingly, we find that the bending modes have a higher Q factor in comparison with the stretching deformation (under the same frequency of operation). Furthermore, with the decrease in size, the difference in Q factor between the bending and stretching deformation becomes more pronounced. The lower dissipation for the case of bending deformation is explained to be due to the surface scattering of phonons. A simple model, for phonon dynamics under an oscillating strain field, is considered to explain the observed variation in dissipation rate. We also studied the scaling of Q factor with initial tension, in a beam under flexure. We develop a continuum theory to explain the observed results.

  12. Bioforensics: Characterization of biological weapons agents by NanoSIMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P K; Ghosal, S; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-02-26

    The anthrax attacks of Fall 2001 highlight the need to develop forensic methods based on multiple identifiers to determine the origin of biological weapons agents. Genetic typing methods (i.e., DNA and RNA-based) provide one attribution technology, but genetic information alone is not usually sufficient to determine the provenance of the material. Non-genetic identifiers, including elemental and isotopic signatures, provide complementary information that can be used to identify the means, geographic location and date of production. Under LDRD funding, we have successfully developed the techniques necessary to perform bioforensic characterization with the NanoSIMS at the individual spore level. We have developed methods for elemental and isotopic characterization at the single spore scale. We have developed methods for analyzing spore sections to map elemental abundance within spores. We have developed rapid focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning techniques for spores to preserve elemental and structural integrity. And we have developed a high-resolution depth profiling method to characterize the elemental distribution in individual spores without sectioning. We used these newly developed methods to study the controls on elemental abundances in spores, characterize the elemental distribution of in spores, and to study elemental uptake by spores. Our work under this LDRD project attracted FBI and DHS funding for applied purposes.

  13. Protection of cisplatin-induced spermatotoxicity, DNA damage and chromatin abnormality by selenium nano-particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Ali; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Ahmadi, Abbas; Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-02-01

    Cisplatin (CIS), an anticancer alkylating agent, induces DNA adducts and effectively cross links the DNA strands and so affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. The present study investigated the cellular/biochemical mechanisms underlying possible protective effect of selenium nano-particles (Nano-Se) as an established strong antioxidant with more bioavailability and less toxicity, on reproductive toxicity of CIS by assessment of sperm characteristics, sperm DNA integrity, chromatin quality and spermatogenic disorders. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of CIS gonadotoxicity, the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) as a marker of nitrosative stress (NS) and testosterone (T) concentration as a biomarker of testicular function were measured in the blood and testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. A single IP dose of CIS (7 mg/kg) and protective dose of Nano-Se (2 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination. The CIS-exposed rats showed a significant increase in testicular and serum LPO and ONOO level, along with a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants levels, diminished serum T concentration and abnormal histologic findings with impaired sperm quality associated with increased DNA damage and decreased chromatin quality. Coadministration of Nano-Se significantly improved the serum T, sperm quality, and spermatogenesis and reduced CIS-induced free radical toxic stress and spermatic DNA damage. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that Nano-Se may be useful to prevent CIS-induced gonadotoxicity through its antioxidant potential. Highlights: ? Cisplatin (CIS) affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. ? Effect of Nano-Se on CIS-induced spermatotoxicity was investigated. ? CIS-exposure induces oxidative sperm DNA damage and impairs steroidogenesis. ? Nano-Se retained sperm quality against CIS-induced free radicals toxic stress.

  14. Preparation and photocatalytic properties of AgISnO{sub 2} nano-composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Biao; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Lu, Juan; Cao, Jia-Lei; Wang, Zuo-Shan

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? AgISnO{sub 2} nano-composites have been successfully synthesized. ? As-prepared AgISnO{sub 2} nano-composites own the excellent visible light photocatalytic activity. ? As-prepared AgISnO{sub 2} nano-composites own the excellent stability. - Abstract: AgI doped SnO{sub 2} nano-composites were prepared by the chemical coprecipitation method and were characterized by the X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results showed that main of the I{sup ?} ions remained in the AgI lattice which is highly dispersed in the system. The photo-catalytic experiments performed under visible light irradiation using methylene blue as the pollutant revealed that not only the photo-catalytic activity but also the stability of SnO{sub 2} based photocatalyst could be improved by introduction of an appropriate amount of AgI, and the result was further supported by the UVVis diffuse reflection spectra and the electron spin-resonance spectra. Among all of the samples, AgISnO{sub 2} nano-composite with 2At% AgI exhibited the best catalytic efficiency and stability.

  15. Photoluminescence emission at room temperature in zinc oxide nano-columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocha, L.S.R.; Deus, R.C.; Foschini, C.R.; Simes, A.Z.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by microwave-hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals a hexagonal structure. Photoluminescence emission evidenced two absorption peaks, at around 480 nm and 590 nm wavelengths. - Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-columns at the temperature of 120 C with a soaking time of 8 min. ZnO nano-columns were characterized by using X-ray analyses (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TG-DTA), field emission gun and transmission electron microscopy (FEG-SEM and TEM) and photoluminescence properties (PL). XRD results indicated that the ZnO nano-columns are free of any impurity phase and crystallize in the hexagonal structure. Typical FT-IR spectra for ZnO nano-columns presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. PL spectra consist of a broad band at 590 nm and narrow band at 480 nm corresponding to a near-band edge emission related to the recombination of excitons and level emission related to structural defects. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain ZnO nano-columns in the temperature of 120 C for 8 min.

  16. Characterizing the Nano and Micro Structure of Concrete toImprove its Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteiro, P.J.M.; Kirchheim, A.P.; Chae, S.; Fischer, Peter; MacDowell, Alastair; Schaible, Eirc; Wenk, H.R.; Macdowell, Alastair A.

    2009-01-13

    New and advanced methodologies have been developed to characterize the nano and microstructure of cement paste and concrete exposed to aggressive environments. High resolution full-field soft X-ray imaging in the water window is providing new insight on the nano scale of the cement hydration process, which leads to a nano-optimization of cement-based systems. Hard X-ray microtomography images of ice inside cement paste and cracking caused by the alkali?silica reaction (ASR) enables three-dimensional structural identification. The potential of neutron diffraction to determine reactive aggregates by measuring their residual strains and preferred orientation is studied. Results of experiments using these tools are shown on this paper.

  17. Characterizing the nano and micro structure of concrete to improve its durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteiro, P.J.M.; Kirchheim, A.P.; Chae, S.; Fischer, P.; MacDowell, A.A.; Schaible, E.; Wenk, H.R.

    2008-10-22

    New and advanced methodologies have been developed to characterize the nano and microstructure of cement paste and concrete exposed to aggressive environments. High resolution full-field soft X-ray imaging in the water window is providing new insight on the nano scale of the cement hydration process, which leads to a nano-optimization of cement-based systems. Hard X-ray microtomography images on ice inside cement paste and cracking caused by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) enables three-dimensional structural identification. The potential of neutron diffraction to determine reactive aggregates by measuring their residual strains and preferred orientation is studied. Results of experiments using these tools will be shown on this paper.

  18. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mousa, Sahar; King Abdulaziz University, Science and Art College, Chemistry Department, Rabigh Campus, P.O. Box:344, Postal code: 21911 Rabigh ; Hanna, Adly

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 C and calcined at 600 C and 900 C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  19. Chemically Functionalized Arrays Comprising Micro and Nano-Electro-Mechanizal Systems for Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Sepaniak

    2008-10-08

    Innovative technology of sensory and selective chemical monitoring of hazardous wastes present in storage tanks are of continued importance to the environment. This multifaceted research program exploits the unique characteristics of micro and nano-fabricated cantilever-based, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMES) and nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) in chemical sensing.

  20. Status of the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Toyo University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchida, T.; Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G.; Rcz, R.; Biri, S.; Asaji, T.; Kato, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585

    2014-02-15

    In the paper, the material science experiments, carried out recently using the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at Toyo University, are reported. We have investigated several methods to synthesize endohedral C{sub 60} using ion-ion and ion-molecule collision reaction in the ECRIS. Because of the simplicity of the configuration, we can install a large choice of additional equipment in the ECRIS. The Bio-Nano ECRIS is suitable not only to test the materials production but also to test technical developments to improve or understand the performance of an ECRIS.

  1. Indexing and TEM Sample Preparation of Isolated CdTe/CdS Nano-Islands.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Indexing and TEM Sample Preparation of Isolated CdTe/CdS Nano-Islands. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Indexing and TEM Sample Preparation of Isolated CdTe/CdS Nano-Islands. Abstract not provided. Authors: Aguirre, Brandon Adrian ; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis ; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh ; Pete, Douglas V. ; Zubia, David Publication Date: 2014-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1140918 Report Number(s): SAND2014-2312C 505756 DOE Contract Number:

  2. Next Generation Hole Injection/Transport Nano-Composites for High Efficiency OLED Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King Wang

    2009-07-31

    The objective of this program is to use a novel nano-composite material system for the OLED anode coating/hole transport layer. The novel anode coating is intended to significantly increase not only hole injection/transport efficiency, but the device energy efficiency as well. Another goal of the Core Technologies Program is the optimization and scale-up of air-stable and cross-linkable novel HTL nano-composite materials synthesis and the development of low-cost, large-scale mist deposition processes for polymer OLED fabrication. This proposed technology holds the promise to substantially improve OLED energy efficiency and lifetime.

  3. The nano-microfibrous R11Ni4In9 intermetallics: New compounds and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    extraordinary anisotropy in Tb11Ni4In9 and Dy11Ni4In9 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: The nano-microfibrous R11Ni4In9 intermetallics: New compounds and extraordinary anisotropy in Tb11Ni4In9 and Dy11Ni4In9 Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on June 27, 2017 Title: The nano-microfibrous R11Ni4In9 intermetallics: New compounds and extraordinary anisotropy in Tb11Ni4In9 and Dy11Ni4In9 Authors: Provino, A. ; Gschneidner, Jr., K.

  4. 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion We have very recently discovered a new hydrogen-producing photocatalyst is BiNbO4. BiNbO4 powders prepared by solid state reaction were tested for photocatalytic activity in methanol solutions under UV irradiation. When the material is tested without

  5. In Vitro Phototoxicity and Hazard Identification of Nano-scale Titanium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, Kristen; Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina ; Degn, Laura L.; Mundy, William R.; Zucker, Robert M.; Dreher, Kevin; Zhao, Baozhong; National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing ; Roberts, Joan E.; Fordham University, New York, New York ; and others

    2012-01-15

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) catalyze reactions under UV radiation and are hypothesized to cause phototoxicity. A human-derived line of retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) was treated with six samples of nano-TiO{sub 2} and exposed to UVA radiation. The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were independently characterized to have mean primary particle sizes and crystal structures of 22 nm anatase/rutile, 25 nm anatase, 31 nm anatase/rutile, 59 nm anatase/rutile, 142 nm anatase, and 214 nm rutile. Particles were suspended in cell culture media, sonicated, and assessed for stability and aggregation by dynamic light scattering. Cells were treated with 0, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30, or 100 ?g/ml nano-TiO{sub 2} in media for 24 hrs and then exposed to UVA (2 hrs, 7.53 J/cm{sup 2}) or kept in the dark. Viability was assessed 24 hrs after the end of UVA exposure by microscopy with a live/dead assay (calcein-AM/propidium iodide). Exposure to higher concentrations of nano-TiO{sub 2} with UVA lowered cell viability. The 25 nm anatase and 31 nm anatase/rutile were the most phototoxic (LC{sub 50} with UVA < 5 ?g/ml), while the 142 nm anatase and 214 nm rutile were the least phototoxic. An acellular assay ranked TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for their UVA photocatalytic reactivities. The particles were found to be capable of generating thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) under UVA. Flow cytometry showed that nano-TiO{sub 2} combined with UVA decreased cell viability and increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, measured by Mitosox). LC{sub 50} values under UVA were correlated with TBARS reactivity, particle size, and surface area. -- Highlights: ? Nano-TiO{sub 2} enters cells within 24 hours ? Nano-TiO{sub 2} causes dose-dependent cytotoxicity greatly enhanced by UVA radiation ? Treatment with nano-TiO{sub 2} and UVA produces reactive oxygen species ? Phototoxicity is correlated with particle size, surface area, and TBARS reactivity.

  6. Nano-magnetism of magnetostriction in Fe{sub 35}Co{sub 65}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisfi, A.; Ren, T.; Wuttig, M.; Khachaturyan, A.

    2014-03-03

    The nature of the large magnetostriction in body-centered Fe-based solid solutions has been widely discussed in the literature. Here, we use a combination of magnetostriction, magnetization, torque, and transmission electron microscopy measurements of specially annealed Co{sub 65}Fe{sub 35} to show that the magnetostriction is caused by coherent uniaxial nano-precipitates. We show further that these nano-precipitates lower the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in these alloys to K{sub 1}?=??2.16??10{sup 4}?J/m{sup 3}.

  7. Magnetizable intravascular stents for sequestration of systemically circulating magnetic nano- and microspheres.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.; Kaminski, M. D.; Ebner, A. D.; Ritter, J. A.; Rosengart, A. J.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of South Carolina; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    2005-01-01

    A 2-D theoretical model was established and used to evaluate the sequestration of blood borne magnetic nano- and microspheres by a magnetizable intravascular stent system. Furthermore, an in vitro flow model system examined the efficiency of a prototype magnetizable intravascular stent to sequestrate the nano- and microspheres from arterial and/or venous blood flow. Comparisons of experimental and corresponding modeling data verified theoretical predictions. The results suggest that the magnetizable intravascular stents can be developed as an effective magnetic drug-targeting tool with potential medical applications.

  8. The nano-microfibrous R11Ni4In9 intermetallics: New compounds and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    extraordinary anisotropy in Tb11Ni4In9 and Dy11Ni4In9 (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES The nano-microfibrous R11Ni4In9 intermetallics: New compounds and extraordinary anisotropy in Tb11Ni4In9 and Dy11Ni4In9 This content will become publicly available on June 27, 2017 Title: The nano-microfibrous R11Ni4In9 intermetallics: New compounds and extraordinary anisotropy in Tb11Ni4In9 and Dy11Ni4In9 Authors: Provino, A. ; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A. ; Dhar, S. K. ; Ferdeghini, C. ; Mudryk, Y. ;

  9. Thermoelectric properties of nano-meso-micro β-MnO₂ powders as a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    function of electrical resistance (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Thermoelectric properties of nano-meso-micro β-MnO₂ powders as a function of electrical resistance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermoelectric properties of nano-meso-micro β-MnO₂ powders as a function of electrical resistance Particle sizes of manganese oxide (β-MnO₂) powders were modified by using a mortar and pestle ground method for period of times that varied between 15-60 min. Particle size

  10. Thermoelectric properties of nano-meso-micro β-MnO₂ powders as a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    function of electrical resistance (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Thermoelectric properties of nano-meso-micro β-MnO₂ powders as a function of electrical resistance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermoelectric properties of nano-meso-micro β-MnO₂ powders as a function of electrical resistance × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is

  11. Improved light extraction with nano-particles offering directional radiation diagrams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jouanin, A.; Hugonin, J. P.; Besbes, M.; Lalanne, P.

    2014-01-13

    We propose a unique approach for light extraction, using engineered nano-particles to efficiently decouple the light guided in transverse-magnetic guided modes into free-space radiation modes that leak out normally to the thin-film stacks. The underlying mechanism takes advantage of a small electric field variation at the nano-particle scale and induces a polarization conversion, which renders the induced dipole moment perpendicular to the polarization of the incident light. Our analysis is supported by 2D fully vectorial computational results. Potential applications for light emitting or photovoltaic devices are outlined.

  12. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, VF; Wu, LJ; Rupich, MW; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP; Li, Q

    2014-12-15

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2 nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 mu m long nano-rods with an average diameter of approximate to 20 nm. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 μm long nano-rods with an average diameter of ≈20 nm.

  14. Nickel nano-particle modified nitrogen-doped amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon film for glucose sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Aiping; Jin, Chunyan; Cho, Sang-Jin; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan; Kim, Doo Hwan; Hong, Byungyou; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-10-15

    Electrochemical method has been employed in this work to modify nitrogen-doped hydrogen amorphous diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) film to fabricate nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes has been characterized at the presence of glucose in electrolyte. Meanwhile, the N-DLC film structure and the morphology of metal nano-particles on the N-DLC surface have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrode exhibits a high catalytic activity and low background current. This result shows that the nickel nano-particle deposition on N-DLC surface could be a promising method to fabricate novel electrode materials for glucose sensing.

  15. Helium nano-bubble evolution in aging metal tritides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowgill, Donald F.

    2004-05-01

    A continuum-scale, evolutionary model of helium (He) nano-bubble nucleation, growth and He release for aging bulk metal tritides is presented which accounts for major features of the experimental database. Bubble nucleation, modeled as self-trapping of interstitially diffusing He atoms, is found to occur during the first few days following tritium introduction into the metal and is sensitive to the He diffusivity and pairing energy. An effective helium diffusivity of 0.3 x 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}/s at 300 K is required to generate the average bubble density of 5x 1017 bubbles/cm3 observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Early bubble growth by dislocation loop punching with a l/radius bubble pressure dependence produces good agreement with He atomic volumes and bubble pressures determined from swelling data, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements, and hydride pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) shifts. The model predicts that later in life neighboring bubble interactions may first lower the loop punching pressure through cooperative stress effects, then raise the pressure by partial blocking of loops. It also accounts for the shape of the bubble spacing distribution obtained from NMR data. This distribution is found to remain fixed with age, justifying the separation of nucleation and growth phases, providing a sensitive test of the growth formulation, and indicating that further significant bubble nucleation does not occur throughout life. Helium generated within the escape depth of surfaces and surface-connected porosity produces the low-level early helium release. Accelerated or rapid release is modeled as inter-bubble fracture using an average ligament stress criterion. Good agreement is found between the predicted onset of fracture and the observed He-metal ratio (HeM) for rapid He release from bulk palladium tritide. An examination of how inter-bubble fracture varies over the bubble spacing distribution shows that the critical Hem will be lower for thin films or small particle material. It is concluded that control of He retention can be accomplished through control of bubble nucleation.

  16. Nano Design Works: Industry's contact for emerging tech, leading tools, and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    experts | Argonne National Laboratory Works: Industry's contact for emerging tech, leading tools, and experts Argonne's Nano Design Works gives companies and entrepreneurs the solutions that enable technological innovations that save money, increase efficiencies, and create products that transform industries. PDF icon NDW_fact_sheet

  17. Catalyzed Nano-Framework Stablized High Density Reversible Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Xia; Opalka, Susanne M.; Mosher, Daniel A; Laube, Bruce L; Brown, Ronald J; Vanderspurt, Thomas H; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Ronnebro, Ewa; Boyle, Tim; Cordaro, Joseph

    2010-06-30

    A wide range of high capacity on-board rechargeable material candidates have exhibited non-ideal behavior related to irreversible hydrogen discharge / recharge behavior, and kinetic instability or retardation. This project addresses these issues by incorporating solvated and other forms of complex metal hydrides, with an emphasis on borohydrides, into nano-scale frameworks of low density, high surface area skeleton materials to stabilize, catalyze, and control desorption product formation associated with such complex metal hydrides. A variety of framework chemistries and hydride / framework combinations were investigated to make a relatively broad assessment of the method's potential. In this project, the hydride / framework interactions were tuned to decrease desorption temperatures for highly stable compounds or increase desorption temperatures for unstable high capacity compounds, and to influence desorption product formation for improved reversibility. First principle modeling was used to explore heterogeneous catalysis of hydride reversibility by modeling H2 dissociation, hydrogen migration, and rehydrogenation. Atomic modeling also demonstrated enhanced NaTi(BH4)4 stabilization at nano-framework surfaces modified with multi-functional agents. Amine multi-functional agents were found to have more balanced interactions with nano-framework and hydride clusters than other functional groups investigated. Experimentation demonstrated that incorporation of Ca(BH4)2 and Mg(BH4)2 in aerogels enhanced hydride desorption kinetics. Carbon aerogels were identified as the most suitable nano-frameworks for hydride kinetic enhancement and high hydride loading. High loading of NaTi(BH4)4 ligand complex in SiO2 aerogel was achieved and hydride stability was improved with the aerogel. Although improvements of desorption kinetics was observed, the incorporation of Ca(BH4)2 and Mg(BH4)2 in nano-frameworks did not improve their H2 absorption due to the formation of stable alkaline earth B12H12 intermediates upon rehydrogenation. This project primarily investigated the effect of nano-framework surface chemistry on hydride properties, while the effect of pore size is the focus area of other efforts (e.g., HRL, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) etc.) within the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The projects were complementary in gaining an overall understanding of the influence of nano-frameworks on hydride behavior.

  18. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gaps in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAh·cm–2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 µm-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g–1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.

  19. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gapsmore » in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAh·cm–2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 µm-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g–1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.« less

  20. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of novel zinc germanate nano-materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boppana, Venkata Bharat Ram; Hould, Nathan D.; Lobo, Raul F.

    2011-05-15

    We report the first instance of a hydrothermal synthesis of zinc germanate (Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}) nano-materials having a variety of morphologies and photochemical properties in surfactant, template and catalyst-free conditions. A systematic variation of synthesis conditions and detailed characterization using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering led to a better understanding of the growth of these particles from solution. At 140 {sup o}C, the zinc germanate particle morphology changes with pH from flower-shaped at pH 6.0, to poly-disperse nano-rods at pH 10 when the Zn to Ge ratio in the synthesis solution is 2. When the Zn to Ge ratio is reduced to 1.25, mono-disperse nano-rods could be prepared at pH 7.5. Nanorod formation is also independent of the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in contrast to previous reports. Photocatalytic tests show that Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nano-rods (by weight) and flower shaped (by surface area) are the most active for methylene blue dye degradation among the synthesized zinc germanate materials. -- Graphical abstract: Zinc germanate materials were synthesized possessing unique morphologies dependent on the hydrothermal synthesis conditions in the absence of surfactant, catalyst or template. These novel materials are characterized and evaluated for their photocatalytic activities. Display Omitted highlights: > Zinc germanate synthesized hydrothermally (surfactant free) with unique morphologies. > Flower-shaped, nano-rods, globular particles obtained dependent on synthesis pH. > At 140 {sup o}C, they possess the rhombohedral crystal irrespective of synthesis conditions. > They are photocatalytically active for the degradation of methylene blue. > Potential applications could be photocatalytic water splitting and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano-Array Catalysts for Low Temperature Diesel Oxidation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by U. Conn at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about metal oxide nano-array catalysts for...

  2. Photodegradation of luminescence in organic-ligand-capped Eu{sup 3+}:LaF{sub 3} nano-particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Gavin G. G.; Taylor, Luke R.; Longdell, Jevon J.; Clarke, David J.; Quilty, J. W.

    2014-01-28

    The luminescence from europium doped lanthanum trifluoride (Eu{sup 3+}:LaF{sub 3}) nano-crystals can be greatly enhanced by capping with β-diketonate organic ligands. Here, we report on photo-stability measurements for the case of nano-crystals capped with thenoyltrifluroacetone (TTA) and compared with those capped with an inactive ligand, oleic acid. With exposure to UV pump light, we observed significant decrease in fluorescence and change in emission spectrum of the TTA-capped nano-particles whilst the fluorescence lifetime remained approximately constant. After a dose of order 70 kJ cm{sup −2}, the luminescence level was similar to that of oleic acid capped nano-crystals. We discuss possible mechanisms.

  3. Production of ultra-thin nano-scaled graphene platelets from meso-carbon micro-beads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-11-11

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets (NGPs) having an average thickness no greater than 50 nm, typically less than 2 nm, and, in many cases, no greater than 1 nm. The method comprises (a) intercalating a supply of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMBs) to produce intercalated MCMBs; and (b) exfoliating the intercalated MCMBs at a temperature and a pressure for a sufficient period of time to produce the desired NGPs. Optionally, the exfoliated product may be subjected to a mechanical shearing treatment, such as air milling, air jet milling, ball milling, pressurized fluid milling, rotating-blade grinding, or ultrasonicating. The NGPs are excellent reinforcement fillers for a range of matrix materials to produce nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  4. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic studies on anatase nano-TiO{sub 2} at internal air lift circulating photocatalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hang Li, Mei; Jun, Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: The micro morphological structure of the nano-TiO{sub 2} particles was also observed with TEM, as shown in figure. The TEM images clearly exhibited the homogeneous microstructure of particles with a size of around 1015 nm. - Highlights: Nano-TiO{sub 2} was prepared by complex techniques of solgel, micro-emulsion and solvent thermal. The size of TiO{sub 2} was nano level and uniformity. Nano-TiO{sub 2} exhibited high photo-catalytic activity at internal air lift circulating reactor. The best nano-TiO{sub 2} dosage was obtained. - Abstract: Anatase nano-titania (TiO{sub 2}) powder was prepared by using a solgel process mediated in reverse microemulsion combined with a solvent thermal technique. The structures of the obtained TiO{sub 2} were characterized by TG-DSC, XRD, TEM. The photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue (MB) on nano-TiO{sub 2} was studied by using an internal air lift circulating photocatalytic reactor. The results show that the anatase structure appears in the calcination temperature range of 400510 C, while the transformation of anatase into rutile takes place above 510 C. The homogeneous microstructure of nano-TiO{sub 2} particles was obtained with a size of around 1015 nm. In the photocatalytic performance, degradation process follows pseudo first order kinetics with different dosages of photocatalyst and initial MB concentrations and optimal TiO{sub 2} dosage is 0.1 g/L with neutral medium.

  5. Coherent and intense multibeam generation by the apex of sharp nano-objects: Electron half-circular prism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, B.; Ishikawa, T.; Oshima, C.

    2007-10-15

    Mutually coherent multiple electron beams (multibeam) were generated from diffraction at the apex of sharp nano-objects, especially carbon nanotubes, in a field emission projection microscope. Simulation using a simple scalar diffraction model showed that the apex of sharp nano-objects played the role of an electron half-circular prism, deflecting an electron beam through a constant angle toward the prism axis. The multibeam diffraction pattern gave a high visibility of {approx}0.8 and high intensity.

  6. Effect of addition of Ag nano powder on mechanical properties of epoxy/polyaminoamide adduct coatings filled with conducting polymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samad, Ubair Abdus; Khan, Rawaiz; Alam, Mohammad Asif; Al-Othman, Othman Y.; Al-Zahrani, Saeed M.

    2015-05-22

    In this study the effect of Ag Nano powder on mechanical properties of epoxy coatings filled with optimized ratio of conducting polymers (Polyaniline and Polyppyrole) was evaluated. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin (DGEBA) along with polyaminoamide adduct (ARADUR 3282-1 BD) is used as curing agent under optimized stoichiometry values. Curing is performed at room temperature with different percentages of Nano filler. Glass and steel panels were used as coating substrate. Bird applicator was used to coat the samples in order to obtain thin film with wet film thickness (WFT) of about 70-90?m. The samples were kept in dust free environment for about 7 days at room temperature for complete curing. The coated steel panels were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of coating such as hardness, scratch and impact tests whereas coated glass panels were used for measuring pendulum hardness of the coatings. To check the dispersion and morphology of Nano filler in epoxy matrix scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used in addition Nano indentation was also performed to observe the effect of Nano filler on modulus of elasticity and hardness at Nano scale.

  7. Study of nano imprinting using soft lithography on Krafty glue and PVDF polymer thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankar, M. S. Ravi, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu; Gangineni, Ramesh Babu, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R. V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry - 605014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The present work reveals soft lithography strategy based on self assembly and replica molding for carrying out micro and nanofabrication. It provides a convenient, effective and very low cost method for the formation and manufacturing of micro and nano structures. Al-layer of compact disc (sony CD-R) used as a stamp with patterned relief structures to generate patterns and structures with pattern size of 100nm height, 1.7 ?m wide. In literature, PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) solution is widely used to get negative copy of the Al-layer. In this work, we have used inexpensive white glue (Polyvinylacetate + water), 15gm (?5) and PVDF (Polyvinylidene difluoride) spin coated films and successfully transferred the nano patterns of Al layer on to white glue and PVDF films.

  8. Self-Assembled Silica Nano-Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Synthesis, Rheology & Electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Saad A.: Fedkiw Peter S.; Baker, Gregory L.

    2007-01-24

    The ultimate objectives of this research are to understand the principles underpinning nano-composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) and facilitate development of novel CPEs that are low-cost, have high conductivities, large Li+ transference numbers, improved electrolyte-electrode interfacial stability, yield long cycle life, exhibit mechanical stability and are easily processable. Our approach is to use nanoparticulate silica fillers to formulate novel composite electrolytes consisting of surface-modified fumed silica nano-particles in polyethylene oxides (PEO) in the presence of lithium salts. We intend to design single-ion conducting silica nanoparticles which provide CPEs with high Li+ transference numbers. We also will develop low-Mw (molecular weight), high-Mw and crosslinked PEO electrolytes with tunable properties in terms of conductivity, transference number, interfacial stability, processability and mechanical strength

  9. Nano-Scale Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC S) for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Hu, Michael Z.

    2010-06-01

    A one-year project was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nano-scale Interpenetrating Phase Composite (IPC) components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real applications such as high wear/corrosion resistant refractory shapes for industrial applications, lightweight vehicle braking system components, or lower cost/higher performance military body and vehicle armor. Nano-scale IPC s with improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties have previously been demonstrated at the lab scale, but have been limited in size. The work performed under this project was focused on investigating the ability to take the current traditional lab scale processes to a manufacturing scale through scaling of these processes or through the utilization of an alternative high-temperature process.

  10. Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-09-07

    This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

  11. Realizing three-dimensional artificial spin ice by stacking planar nano-arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chern, Gia-Wei; Reichhardt, Charles; Nisoli, Cristiano

    2014-01-06

    Artificial spin ice is a frustrated magnetic two-dimensional nano-material, recently employed to study variety of tailor-designed unusual collective behaviours. Recently proposed extensions to three dimensions are based on self-assembly techniques and allow little control over geometry and disorder. We present a viable design for the realization of a three-dimensional artificial spin ice with the same level of precision and control allowed by lithographic nano-fabrication of the popular two-dimensional case. Our geometry is based on layering already available two-dimensional artificial spin ice and leads to an arrangement of ice-rule-frustrated units, which is topologically equivalent to that of the tetrahedra in a pyrochlore lattice. Consequently, we show, it exhibits a genuine ice phase and its excitations are, as in natural spin ice materials, magnetic monopoles interacting via Coulomb law.

  12. Nano-photonic phenomena in van der Waals heterostructures | MIT-Harvard

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Excitonics Nano-photonic phenomena in van der Waals heterostructures March 31, 2015 at 4:30 PM/ RLE Haus 36-428 Dmitri Basov Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego Dimitri_basov_01 abstract: Layered van der Waals (vdW) crystals consist of individual atomic planes weakly coupled by vdW interaction, similar to graphene monolayers in bulk graphite. These materials can harbor superconductivity and ferromagnetism with high transition temperatures, emit light and

  13. Bridging the Nano-World and the Real World in Polymer Solar Cells | U.S.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Office of Science (SC) Bridging the Nano-World and the Real World in Polymer Solar Cells Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information »

  14. Geometrical effects on the electron residence time in semiconductor nano-particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koochi, Hakimeh; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh

    2014-09-07

    We have used random walk (RW) numerical simulations to investigate the influence of the geometry on the statistics of the electron residence time ?{sub r} in a trap-limited diffusion process through semiconductor nano-particles. This is an important parameter in coarse-grained modeling of charge carrier transport in nano-structured semiconductor films. The traps have been distributed randomly on the surface (r{sup 2} model) or through the whole particle (r{sup 3} model) with a specified density. The trap energies have been taken from an exponential distribution and the traps release time is assumed to be a stochastic variable. We have carried out (RW) simulations to study the effect of coordination number, the spatial arrangement of the neighbors and the size of nano-particles on the statistics of ?{sub r}. It has been observed that by increasing the coordination number n, the average value of electron residence time, ?{sup }{sub r} rapidly decreases to an asymptotic value. For a fixed coordination number n, the electron's mean residence time does not depend on the neighbors' spatial arrangement. In other words, ?{sup }{sub r} is a porosity-dependence, local parameter which generally varies remarkably from site to site, unless we are dealing with highly ordered structures. We have also examined the effect of nano-particle size d on the statistical behavior of ?{sup }{sub r}. Our simulations indicate that for volume distribution of traps, ?{sup }{sub r} scales as d{sup 2}. For a surface distribution of traps ?{sup }{sub r} increases almost linearly with d. This leads to the prediction of a linear dependence of the diffusion coefficient D on the particle size d in ordered structures or random structures above the critical concentration which is in accordance with experimental observations.

  15. NREL Nano-Technology Solar Cell Achieves 18.2% Efficiency - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL NREL Nano-Technology Solar Cell Achieves 18.2% Efficiency Breakthrough should eliminate need for anti-reflection layer, cutting costs October 12, 2012 Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have produced solar cells using nanotechnology techniques at an efficiency - 18.2% -- that is competitive. The breakthrough should be a major step toward helping lower the cost of solar energy. NREL tailored a nanostructured surface while ensuring

  16. Superior model for fault tolerance computation in designing nano-sized circuit systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, N. S. S. Muthuvalu, M. S.; Asirvadam, V. S.

    2014-10-24

    As CMOS technology scales nano-metrically, reliability turns out to be a decisive subject in the design methodology of nano-sized circuit systems. As a result, several computational approaches have been developed to compute and evaluate reliability of desired nano-electronic circuits. The process of computing reliability becomes very troublesome and time consuming as the computational complexity build ups with the desired circuit size. Therefore, being able to measure reliability instantly and superiorly is fast becoming necessary in designing modern logic integrated circuits. For this purpose, the paper firstly looks into the development of an automated reliability evaluation tool based on the generalization of Probabilistic Gate Model (PGM) and Boolean Difference-based Error Calculator (BDEC) models. The Matlab-based tool allows users to significantly speed-up the task of reliability analysis for very large number of nano-electronic circuits. Secondly, by using the developed automated tool, the paper explores into a comparative study involving reliability computation and evaluation by PGM and, BDEC models for different implementations of same functionality circuits. Based on the reliability analysis, BDEC gives exact and transparent reliability measures, but as the complexity of the same functionality circuits with respect to gate error increases, reliability measure by BDEC tends to be lower than the reliability measure by PGM. The lesser reliability measure by BDEC is well explained in this paper using distribution of different signal input patterns overtime for same functionality circuits. Simulation results conclude that the reliability measure by BDEC depends not only on faulty gates but it also depends on circuit topology, probability of input signals being one or zero and also probability of error on signal lines.

  17. Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Shimoda, Kazuya; Kondo, Sosuke; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Kazumi; Katoh, Yutai

    2014-12-01

    The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. Microstructural observation and data analysis were performed.

  18. Picture of the Week: Hacking the bio-nano interface for better biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Hacking the bio-nano interface for better biofuels Los Alamos theoretical physicists and chemists are using computers to develop more efficient ways of converting biofuels into electricity by using fuel cells. April 29, 2016 Recent models have studied how three quinones (a class of organic compounds) influence electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode to determine the best placement of enzymes on the electrode's surface. Recent models have studied how three quinones (a class of

  19. Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means of High

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resolution X-ray Emission Spectrometry | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means of High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectrometry Monday, August 1, 2011 - 2:00pm SSRL Bldg. 137 Conference Room 137-322 Matthias Müller, Scientist at Physikalisch-Technischn, Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany Advanced research on novel semiconductor, energy-storage and energy-conversion devices relies on the reliability of the characterization

  20. In situ XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Fuel Cells and Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with Applications to Fuel Cells and Batteries Friday, July 12, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Qingying Jia, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA The development of novel electrode materials is hindered by the lack of fundamental understanding of the precise structural effects on the catalytic activity and

  1. Carbon Nanotubes and Nano-Structure Manufacturing at TJNAF | U.S. DOE

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Office of Science (SC) Carbon Nanotubes and Nano-Structure Manufacturing at TJNAF Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000

  2. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic behavior of Co/MCM-41 nano-composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuello, N.; Elas, V.; Crivello, M.; Oliva, M.; Eimer, G.

    2013-09-15

    Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of Co/MCM-41 as magnetic nano-composites have been investigated. Mesoporous materials with different degrees of metal loading were prepared by wet impregnation and characterized by ICP, XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption, UVvis DRS, TPR and EPMA-EDS. Cobalt oxide clusters and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles could be confined inside the mesopores of MCM-41, being this fact favored by the Co loading increasing. In addition, larger crystals of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} detectable by XRD also grow on the surface when the Co loading is enhanced. The magnetic characterization was performed in a SQUID magnetometer using a maximum magnetic applied field {sub 0}Ha=1 T. While the samples with the higher Co loadings showed a behavior typically paramagnetic, a superparamagnetic contribution is more notorious for lower loadings, suggesting high Co species dispersion. - Graphical abstract: Room temperature hysteresis loops as a function of the Co content. Display Omitted - Highlights: Co species as isolated Co{sup 2+}, oxide clusters and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles were detected. For higher Co loads were detected, by XRD, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles on the external surface. The confining of Co species inside the mesopores was achieved by increasing Co load. Paramagnetism from oxide clusters/nano-particles becomes dominant for higher Co loads. Superparamagnetism can be assigned to Co species of small size and finely dispersed.

  3. Metamaterial-based theoretical description of light scattering by metallic nano-hole array structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Balakrishnan, Shankar

    2015-05-14

    We have experimentally and theoretically investigated the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures. The scattering cross section spectrum was measured for three samples each having a unique nano-hole array radius and periodicity. Each measured spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. The dispersion relation and the effective dielectric constant of the structure were calculated using transmission line theory and Bloch's theorem. Using the effective dielectric constant and the transfer matrix method, the surface plasmon polariton energies were calculated and found to be quantized. Using these quantized energies, a Hamiltonian for the surface plasmon polaritons was written in the second quantized form. Working with the Hamiltonian, a theory of scattering cross section was developed based on the quantum scattering theory and Green's function method. For both theory and experiment, the location of the surface plasmon polariton spectral peaks was dependant on the array periodicity and radii of the nano-holes. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. It is proposed that the newly developed theory can be used to facilitate optimization of nanosensors for medical and engineering applications.

  4. Efficient gas sensitivity in mixed bismuth ferrite micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waghmare, Shivaji D.; Jadhav, Vijaykumar V.; Gore, Shaym K.; Yoon, Seog-Joon; Ambade, Swapnil B.; Lokhande, B.J.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Micro (cubes) structure embedded in nano (plates) of bismuth ferrite was prepared by a chemical method. ? These structures were characterized by XRD and SEM. ? LPG, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 4} gases were exposed. ? Properties related to gas sensors were measured and reported. -- Abstract: Mixed micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures of bismuth ferrite (BFO) have been synthesized by a simple and cost-effective wet-chemical method. Structural, morphological and phase confirmation characteristics are measured using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. The digital FE-SEM photo-images of BFO sample confirmed an incubation of discrete micro-cubes into thin and regularly placed large number of nano-plates. The bismuth ferrite, with mixed structures, films show considerable performance when used in liquefied petroleum (LPG), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and ammonium (NH{sub 3}) gas sensors application. Different chemical entities in LPG have made it more efficient with higher sensitivity, recovery and response times compared to CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} gases. Furthermore, effect of palladium surface treatment on the gas sensitivity and the charge transfer resistances of BFO mixed structures is investigated and reported.

  5. Ground state study of the thin ferromagnetic nano-islands for artificial spin ice arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vieira Jnior, D. S.; Leonel, S. A. Dias, R. A. Toscano, D. Coura, P. Z. Sato, F.

    2014-09-07

    In this work, we used numerical simulations to study the magnetic ground state of the thin elongated (elliptical) ferromagnetic nano-islands made of Permalloy. In these systems, the effects of demagnetization of dipolar source generate a strong magnetic anisotropy due to particle shape, defining two fundamental magnetic ground state configurationsvortex or type C. To describe the system, we considered a model Hamiltonian in which the magnetic moments interact through exchange and dipolar potentials. We studied the competition between the vortex states and aligned statestype Cas a function of the shape of each elliptical nano-islands and constructed a phase diagram vortextype C state. Our results show that it is possible to obtain the elongated nano-islands in the C-state with aspect ratios less than 2, which is interesting from the technological point of view because it will be possible to use smaller islands in spin ice arrays. Generally, the experimental spin ice arrangements are made with quite elongated particles with aspect ratio approximately 3 to ensure the C-state.

  6. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with optical nano-antennae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, X.; Dauler, E.; Molnar, R.; Berggren, K. K.

    2010-12-20

    Optical nano-antennae have been integrated with semiconductor lasers to intensify light at the nanoscale and photodiodes to enhance photocurrent. In quantum optics, plasmonic metal structures have been used to enhance nonclassical light emission from single quantum dots. Absorption and detection of single photons from free space could also be enhanced by nanometallic antennae, but this has not previously been demonstrated. Here, we use nano-optical transmission effects in a one-dimensional gold structure, combined with optical cavity resonance, to form optical nano-antennae, which are further used to couple single photons from free space into a 80-nm-wide superconducting nanowire. This antenna-assisted coupling enables a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 47% device efficiency at the wavelength of 1550 nm and 9-?m-by-9-?m active area while maintaining a reset time of only 5 ns. We demonstrate nanoscale antenna-like structures to achieve exceptional efficiency and speed in single-photon detection.

  7. Combined experimental and numerical evaluation of a prototype nano-PCM enhanced wallboard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; LuPh.D., Jue; Soroushian, Parviz; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, forty-eight (48) percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced building envelopes can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Combined experimental testing and numerical modeling of PCM-enhanced envelope components are two important aspects of the evaluation of their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conductive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. A wall with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards was built and tested in a natural exposure test (NET) facility in a hot-humid climate location. The test wall contained PCM wallboards and regular gypsum wallboard, for a side-by-side annual comparison study. Further, numerical modeling of the walls containing the nano-PCM wallboard was performed to determine its actual impact on wall-generated heating and cooling loads. The model was first validated using experimental data, and then used for annual simulations using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY3) weather data. This article presents the measured performance and numerical analysis evaluating the energy-saving potential of the nano-PCM-enhanced wallboard.

  8. Raster-scanning serial protein crystallography using micro- and nano-focused synchrotron beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coquelle, Nicolas; Brewster, Aaron S.; Kapp, Ulrike; Shilova, Anastasya; Weinhausen, Britta; Burghammer, Manfred; Colletier, Jacques -Philippe

    2015-04-25

    High-resolution structural information was obtained from lysozyme microcrystals (20 µm in the largest dimension) using raster-scanning serial protein crystallography on micro- and nano-focused beamlines at the ESRF. Data were collected at room temperature (RT) from crystals sandwiched between two silicon nitride wafers, thereby preventing their drying, while limiting background scattering and sample consumption. In order to identify crystal hits, new multi-processing and GUI-driven Python-based pre-analysis software was developed, named NanoPeakCell, that was able to read data from a variety of crystallographic image formats. Further data processing was carried out using CrystFEL, and the resultant structures were refined to 1.7 Åmore » resolution. The data demonstrate the feasibility of RT raster-scanning serial micro- and nano-protein crystallography at synchrotrons and validate it as an alternative approach for the collection of high-resolution structural data from micro-sized crystals. Advantages of the proposed approach are its thriftiness, its handling-free nature, the reduced amount of sample required, the adjustable hit rate, the high indexing rate and the minimization of background scattering.« less

  9. FINAL REPORT: Room Temperature Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Confined Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAJO, JOHN

    2014-06-12

    DOE continues to seek solid-state hydrogen storage materials with hydrogen densities of ≥6 wt% and ≥50 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at room temperature and moderate pressures enabling widespread use in transportation applications. Meanwhile, development including vehicle engineering and delivery infrastructure continues for compressed-gas hydrogen storage systems. Although compressed gas storage avoids the materials-based issues associated with solid-state storage, achieving acceptable volumetric densities has been a persistent challenge. This project examined the possibility of developing storage materials that would be compatible with compressed gas storage technology based on enhanced hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquid solvents. These materials would store hydrogen in molecular form eliminating many limitations of current solid-state materials while increasing the volumetric capacity of compressed hydrogen storage vessels. Experimental methods were developed to study hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquids. These methods included 1) fabrication of composites comprised of volatile liquid solvents for hydrogen confined within the nano-sized pore volume of nanoporous scaffolds and 2) measuring the hydrogen uptake capacity of these composites without altering the composite composition. The hydrogen storage capacities of these nano-confined solvent/scaffold composites were compared with bulk solvents and with empty scaffolds. The solvents and scaffolds were varied to optimize the enhancement in hydrogen solubility that accompanies confinement of the solvent. In addition, computational simulations were performed to study the molecular-scale structure of liquid solvent when confined within an atomically realistic nano-sized pore of a model scaffold. Confined solvent was compared with similar simulations of bulk solvent. The results from the simulations were used to formulate a mechanism for the enhanced solubility and to guide the experiments. Overall, the combined experimental measurements and simulations indicate that hydrogen storage based on enhanced solubility in nano-confined liquids is unlikely to meet the storage densities required for practical use. Only low gravimetric capacities of < 0.5 wt% were achieved. More importantly, solvent filled scaffolds had lower volumetric capacities than corresponding empty scaffolds. Nevertheless, several of the composites measured did show significant (>~ 5x) enhanced hydrogen solubility relative to bulk solvent solubility, when the hydrogen capacity was attributed only to dissolution in the confined solvent. However, when the hydrogen capacity was compared to an empty scaffold that is known to store hydrogen by surface adsorption on the scaffold walls, including the solvent always reduced the hydrogen capacity. For the best composites, this reduction relative to an empty scaffold was ~30%; for the worst it was ~90%. The highest capacities were obtained with the largest solvent molecules and with scaffolds containing 3- dimensionally confined pore geometries. The simulations suggested that the capacity of the composites originated from hydrogen adsorption on the scaffold pore walls at sites not occupied by solvent molecules. Although liquid solvent filled the pores, not all of the adsorption sites on the pore walls were occupied due to restricted motion of the solvent molecules within the confined pore space.

  10. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutting, R. S.; Coker, V. S.; Telling, N. D.; Kimber, R. L.; Pearce, C. I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-09-09

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion ({approx}10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a {gamma}-camera to obtain real time images of a {sup 99m}Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more ({approx}20%) {sup 99m}Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral substrate supplied to Fe(III)-reducing bacteria.

  11. Fully Automated Laser Ablation Liquid Capture Sample Analysis using NanoElectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, Matthias; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Laser ablation provides for the possibility of sampling a large variety of surfaces with high spatial resolution. This type of sampling when employed in conjunction with liquid capture followed by nanoelectrospray ionization provides the opportunity for sensitive and prolonged interrogation of samples by mass spectrometry as well as the ability to analyze surfaces not amenable to direct liquid extraction. METHODS: A fully automated, reflection geometry, laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling system was achieved by incorporating appropriate laser fiber optics and a focusing lens into a commercially available, liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA ) ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate system. RESULTS: Under optimized conditions about 10% of laser ablated material could be captured in a droplet positioned vertically over the ablation region using the NanoMate robot controlled pipette. The sampling spot size area with this laser ablation liquid capture surface analysis (LA/LCSA) mode of operation (typically about 120 m x 160 m) was approximately 50 times smaller than that achievable by direct liquid extraction using LESA (ca. 1 mm diameter liquid extraction spot). The set-up was successfully applied for the analysis of ink on glass and paper as well as the endogenous components in Alstroemeria Yellow King flower petals. In a second mode of operation with a comparable sampling spot size, termed laser ablation/LESA , the laser system was used to drill through, penetrate, or otherwise expose material beneath a solvent resistant surface. Once drilled, LESA was effective in sampling soluble material exposed at that location on the surface. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating the capability for different laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling modes of operation into a LESA ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate enhanced the spot sampling spatial resolution of this device and broadened the surface types amenable to analysis to include absorbent and solvent resistant materials.

  12. Irradiation-induced nano-voids in strained tin precipitates in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaiduk, P. I., E-mail: gaiduk@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy/iNANO, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Physical Electronics and Nanotechnology, Belarusian State University, prosp. Nezavisimosti, 4, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Lundsgaard Hansen, J., E-mail: johnlh@phys.au.dk; Nylandsted Larsen, A., E-mail: anl@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy/iNANO, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-04-14

    We report on self-assembling of spherically shaped voids in nanometer size strained Sn precipitates after irradiation with He{sup +} ions in different conditions. It is found that high-temperature irradiation induces vacancies which are collected by compressively strained Sn precipitates enhancing of out-diffusion of Sn atoms from the precipitates. Nano-voids formation takes place simultaneously with a ?- to ?-phase transformation in the Sn precipitates. Post-irradiation thermal treatment leads to the removal of voids and a backward transformation of the Sn phase to ?-phase. Strain-enhanced separation of point defects along with vacancy assisted Sn out-diffusion and precipitate dissolution are discussed.

  13. Failure by fracture and fatigue in 'NANO' and 'BIO'materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritchie, R.O.; Muhlstein, C.L.; Nalla, R.K.

    2003-12-19

    The behavior of nanostructured materials/small-volumestructures and biologi-cal/bio-implantable materials, so-called "nano"and "bio" materials, is currently much in vogue in materials science. Oneaspect of this field, which to date has received only limited attention,is their fracture and fatigue properties. In this paper, we examine twotopics in this area, namely the premature fatigue failure ofsilicon-based micron-scale structures for microelectromechanical systems(MEMS), and the fracture properties of mineralized tissue, specificallyhuman bone.

  14. Directing Self-Assembly of Heterogeneous NanoSystems | MIT-Harvard Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Excitonics Directing Self-Assembly of Heterogeneous NanoSystems December 5, 2013 at 3pm/36-428 Alfredo Alexander-Katz Department of Material Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology alexander-katz_004 Abstract: Directed self-assembly of block copolymers is a route to obtain tailored 2D patterns on the 10nm scale that have a high degree of order. These patterns are promising for applications in multiple areas, including sub 10nm lithography, light harvesting, and

  15. The adsorption of rare earth ions using carbonized polydopamine nano shells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Dai, Sheng; Liu, Rui; Hou, Xisen; Dai, Sheng

    2016-01-07

    Herein we report the structure effects of nano carbon shells prepared by carbonized polydopamine for rare earth elements (REEs) adsorption for the first time. The solid carbon sphere, 60 nm carbon shell and 500 nm carbon shell were prepared and investigated for adsorption and desorption of REEs. The adsorption of carbon shells for REEs was found to be better than the solid carbon sphere. The effect of acidities on the adsorption and desorption properties was discussed in this study. The good adsorption performance of carbon shells can be attributed to their porous structure, large specific surface area, amine group andmore » carbonyl group of dopamine.« less

  16. Research and development of RHIC injection kicker upgrade with nano second FID pulse generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Hahn, H.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.J.; Pai, C.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2012-05-20

    Our recent effort to test a 50 kV, 1 kA, 50 ns pulse width, 10 ns pulse rise time FID pulse generator with a 250 ft transmission cable, resistive load, and existing RHIC injection kicker magnet has produced unparalleled results. This is the very first attempt to drive a high strength fast kicker magnet with a nano second high pulsed power (50 MVA) generator for large accelerator and colliders. The technology is impressive. We report here the result and future plan of RHIC Injection kicker upgrade.

  17. Interface nano-confined acoustic waves in polymeric surface phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travagliati, Marco; Nardi, Damiano; Giannetti, Claudio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Banfi, Francesco; Gusev, Vitalyi; Pingue, Pasqualantonio; Piazza, Vincenzo

    2015-01-12

    The impulsive acoustic dynamics of soft polymeric surface phononic crystals is investigated here in the hypersonic frequency range by near-IR time-resolved optical diffraction. The acoustic response is analysed by means of wavelet spectral methods and finite element modeling. An unprecedented class of acoustic modes propagating within the polymer surface phononic crystal and confined within 100 nm of the nano-patterned interface is revealed. The present finding opens the path to an alternative paradigm for characterizing the mechanical properties of soft polymers at interfaces and for sensing schemes exploiting polymers as embedding materials.

  18. Catalytic Templating Approaches for Three-Dimensional Hollow Carbon/Graphene Oxide Nano-Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Gun-Hee; Shin, Yongsoon; Choi, Daiwon; Arey, Bruce W.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Wang, Chong M.; Choi, Wonyong; Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We report a catalytic templating method to synthesize well-controlled, three-dimensional (3D) nano-architectures with graphene oxide sheets. The 3D composites are prepared via self-assembly of carbon, GO, and spherical alumina-coated silica (ACS) templates during a catalytic reaction porcess. By changing the GO content, we can systematically tune the architecture from layered composites to 3D hollow structures to microporous materials. The composites show a synergistic effect with significantly superior properties than either pure carbon or r-GO prepared with a significant enhancement to its capacitance at high current density.

  19. Nano-optical observation of cascade switching in a parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Robert M. Tanner, Michael G.; Casaburi, Alessandro; Hadfield, Robert H.; Webster, Mark G.; San Emeterio Alvarez, Lara; Jiang, Weitao; Barber, Zoe H.; Warburton, Richard J.

    2014-02-10

    The device physics of parallel-wire superconducting nanowire single photon detectors is based on a cascade process. Using nano-optical techniques and a parallel wire device with spatially separate pixels, we explicitly demonstrate the single- and multi-photon triggering regimes. We develop a model for describing efficiency of a detector operating in the arm-trigger regime. We investigate the timing response of the detector when illuminating a single pixel and two pixels. We see a change in the active area of the detector between the two regimes and find the two-pixel trigger regime to have a faster timing response than the one-pixel regime.

  20. The effect of ultrasonication on the size and morphology of iron oxide - chitosan nano and microparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ak?n, Deniz; Yakar, Arzu; Gndz, Ufuk

    2013-12-16

    The aim of this study is to synthesize magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-chitosan nano and microparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CPs) by suspension cross-linking and ionic gelation methods and investigate the effect of ultrasonication on the size, morphology and magnetic properties. The synthesized particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results showed that the ultrasonication decreased the mean particle diameter and enhanced magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CPs due to the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} content.

  1. Dissipative soliton dynamics in a discrete magnetic nano-dot chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kyeong-Dong; You, Chun-Yeol; Song, Hyon-Seok; Shin, Sung-Chul; Park, Byong-Guk

    2014-02-03

    Soliton dynamics is studied in a discrete magnetic nano-dot chain by means of micromagnetic simulations together with an analytic model equation. A soliton under a dissipative system is driven by an applied field. The field-driven dissipative soliton enhances its mobility nonlinearly, as the characteristic frequency and the intrinsic Gilbert damping decrease. During the propagation, the soliton emits spin waves which act as an extrinsic damping channel. The characteristic frequency, the maximum velocity, and the localization length of the soliton are found to be proportional to the threshold field, the threshold velocity, and the initial mobility, respectively.

  2. Comparative Study of Structural Damage Under Irradiation in SiC Nano-structured and Conventional Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leconte, Yann; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Reynaud, Cecile; Thome, Lionel

    2008-07-01

    In the context of research on new materials for next generation nuclear reactors, it becomes more and more interesting to know what can be the advantages of nano-structured materials for such applications. In this study, we performed irradiation experiments on micro-structured and nano-structured {beta}-SiC samples, with 95 MeV Xe and 4 MeV Au ions. The structure of the samples was characterized before and after irradiation by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the occurrence of a synergy between electronic and nuclear energy loss in both samples with 95 MeV Xe ions, while the nano-structured pellet was found to have a better resistance to the irradiation with 4 MeV Au ions. (authors)

  3. The Enzyme-mimic Activity of Ferric Nano-Core Residing in Ferritin and Its Biosensing Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong J.; Zhang, Youyu; Li, Zhaohui; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-11-15

    Ferritins are nano-scale globular protein cages encapsulating a ferric core. They widely exist in animals, plants, and microbes, playing indispensable roles in iron homeostasis. Interestingly, our study clearly demonstrates that ferritin has an enzyme-mimic activity derived from its ferric nano-core, but not the protein cage. Further study revealed that the mimic-enzyme activity of ferritin is more thermally stable and pH-tolerant compared with horseradish peroxidase. Considering the abundance of ferritin in numerous organisms, this finding may indicate a new role of ferritin in antioxidant and detoxification metabolisms. In addition, as a natural protein-caged nanoparticle with an enzyme-mimic activity, ferritin is readily conjugated with biomolecules to construct nano-biosensors, thus holds promising potential for facile and biocompatible labeling for sensitive and robust bioassays in biomedical applications.

  4. In situ formation of sintered cordieritemullite nanomicro composites by utilizing of waste silica fume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khattab, R.M.; EL-Rafei, A.M.; Zawrah, M.F.

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ? We succeeded to obtain in situ formed sintered cordieritemullite nanomacro composites from waste and pure materials at 1400 C. ? Their sinterability was greatly dependent on both firing temperature and composition. ? XRD patterns showed that the optimum temperature required for formation of sintered cordieritemullite nanomacro composites was achieved at 1400 C. ? The batch containing 70 wt.% cordierite and 30 wt.% mullite exhibited the best properties. ? Microstructures of the densified composites were composed of nanomacro cordieritemullite structures. -- Abstract: This study aims at in situ formation of sintered cordieritemullite nanomacro composites having high technological properties using waste silica fume, calcined ball clay, calcined alumina, and magnesia as starting materials. The starting materials were mixed in different ratios to obtain different cordieritemullite composite batches in which the cordierite contents ranged from 50 to 100 wt.%. The batches were uni-axially pressed at 100 MPa and sintered at 1350, 1400 and 1450 C to select the optimum temperature required for cordieritemullite nanomacro composites formation. The formed phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The sintering parameters in terms of bulk density (BD) and apparent porosity (AP) were determined. The microstructure of composites has been investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cold crushing strength (CCS) of the sintered batches was evaluated. The result revealed that the cordieritemullite nanomacro composites were in-situ formed at 1400 C. The batch containing 70 wt.% cordierite showed good physical and mechanical properties.

  5. Self-assembled nano- to micron-size fibers from molten R11Ni4In9

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    intermetallics (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Self-assembled nano- to micron-size fibers from molten R11Ni4In9 intermetallics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-assembled nano- to micron-size fibers from molten R11Ni4In9 intermetallics A study of the formation of Gd11M4In9 (M = Ni, Pd, Pt) and R11Ni4In9 (R = rare earth) compounds revealed a unique and peculiar property, which is to naturally crystallize in a bundle of

  6. Long-term superelastic cycling at nano-scale in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Juan, J. Gómez-Cortés, J. F.

    2014-01-06

    Superelastic behavior at nano-scale has been studied along cycling in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars. Arrays of square micropillars were produced by focused ion beam milling, on slides of [001] oriented Cu-Al-Ni single crystals. Superelastic behavior of micropillars, due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation, has been studied by nano-compression tests during thousand cycles, and its evolution has been followed along cycling. Each pillar has undergone more than thousand cycles without any detrimental evolution. Moreover, we demonstrate that after thousand cycles they exhibit a perfectly reproducible and completely recoverable superelastic behavior.

  7. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  8. SiN-SiC nanofilm: A nano-functional ceramic with bipolar magnetic semiconducting character

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiahui; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Jinlong

    2014-04-28

    Nowadays, functional ceramics have been largely explored for application in various fields. However, magnetic functional ceramics for spintronics remain little studied. Here, we propose a nano-functional ceramic of sphalerite SiN-SiC nanofilm with intrinsic ferromagnetic order. Based on first principles calculations, the SiN-SiC nanofilm is found to be a ferromagnetic semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 1.71 eV. By mean field theory, the Curie temperature is estimated to be 304 K, close to room temperature. Furthermore, the valence band and conduction band states of the nanofilm exhibit inverse spin-polarization around the Fermi level. Thus, the SiN-SiC nanofilm is a typical bipolar magnetic semiconductor in which completely spin-polarized currents with reversible spin polarization can be created and controlled by applying a gate voltage. Such a nano-functional ceramic provides a possible route for electrical manipulation of carrier's spin orientation.

  9. Hydroquinone-ZnO nano-laminate deposited by molecular-atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jie; Lucero, Antonio T.; Cheng, Lanxia; Kim, Jiyoung; Hwang, Hyeon Jun; Ha, Min-Woo

    2015-03-23

    In this study, we have deposited organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting hydroquinone (HQ)/zinc oxide (ZnO) superlattices using molecular-atomic layer deposition, which enables accurate control of film thickness, excellent uniformity, and sharp interfaces at a low deposition temperature (150 °C). Self-limiting growth of organic layers is observed for the HQ precursor on ZnO surface. Nano-laminates were prepared by varying the number of HQ to ZnO cycles in order to investigate the physical and electrical effects of different HQ to ZnO ratios. It is indicated that the addition of HQ layer results in enhanced mobility and reduced carrier concentration. The highest Hall mobility of approximately 2.3 cm{sup 2}/V·s and the lowest n-type carrier concentration of approximately 1.0 × 10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3} were achieved with the organic-inorganic superlattice deposited with a ratio of 10 ZnO cycles to 1 HQ cycle. This study offers an approach to tune the electrical transport characteristics of ALD ZnO matrix thin films using an organic dopant. Moreover, with organic embedment, this nano-laminate material may be useful for flexible electronics.

  10. Size dependent compressibility of nano-ceria: Minimum near 33 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Song, Junhua; Chan, Siu-Wai; Walker, David; Clark, Simon M.; Kalkan, Bora

    2015-04-20

    We report the crystallite-size-dependency of the compressibility of nanoceria under hydrostatic pressure for a wide variety of crystallite diameters and comment on the size-based trends indicating an extremum near 33 nm. Uniform nano-crystals of ceria were synthesized by basic precipitation from cerium (III) nitrate. Size-control was achieved by adjusting mixing time and, for larger particles, a subsequent annealing temperature. The nano-crystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and standard ambient x-ray diffraction (XRD). Compressibility, or its reciprocal, bulk modulus, was measured with high-pressure XRD at LBL-ALS, using helium, neon, or argon as the pressure-transmitting medium for all samples. As crystallite size decreased below 100 nm, the bulk modulus first increased, and then decreased, achieving a maximum near a crystallite diameter of 33 nm. We review earlier work and examine several possible explanations for the peaking of bulk modulus at an intermediate crystallite size.

  11. Influence of germanium nano-inclusions on the thermoelectric power factor of bulk bismuth telluride alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satyala, Nikhil; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tahmasbi Rad, Armin; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-05-28

    Nanocomposite thermoelectric compound of bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) with 5 at. % germanium nano-inclusions was prepared via mechanically alloying and sintering techniques. The influence of Ge nano-inclusions and long duration annealing on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were investigated. It was found that annealing has significant effect on the carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and the power factor of the thermoelectric compound. The systematic heat treatment also reduced the density of donor type defects thereby decreasing the electron concentration. While the as-pressed nanocomposite materials showed n-type properties, it was observed that with the increase of annealing time, the nanocomposite gradually transformed to an abundantly hole-dominated (p-type) sample. The long duration annealing (∼500 h) resulted in a significantly enhanced electrical conductivity pertaining to the augmentation in the density and the structural properties of the sample. Therefore, a simultaneous enhancement in both electrical and Seebeck coefficient characteristics resulted in a remarkable increase in the thermoelectric power factor.

  12. Controllable synthesis of hollow mesoporous silica spheres and application as support of nano-gold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Tao; Ma, Weihua Shangguan, Junnan; Jiang, Wei; Zhong, Qin

    2014-07-01

    Hollow silica spheres with mesoporous structure were synthesized by sol–gel/emulsion method. In the process, the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used to stabilize the oil droplet and also used as structure direct agent. The diameter of the hollow silica spheres, ranging from 895 nm to 157 nm, can be controlled by changing the ratio of ethanol to water and the concentration of the surfactant as well. The shell thickness of the spheres decreased when the ratio of ethanol to water decreased. The proposed mechanism of the formation of silica spheres could elucidate the experimental results well. Furthermore, the resultant hollow mesoporous silica spheres were then employed as support of nano-gold which was used to catalyze the isomerization reaction of propylene oxide to produce allyl alcohol. - Graphical abstract: It is the schematic mechanism for the formation of hollow mesoporous silica spheres. - Highlights: • The formation mechanism of the hollow spheres is proposed. • The isomerization of propylene oxide can be catalyzed by the nano-gold/SiO{sub 2}. • The hollow silica spheres can be prepared controllably.

  13. NanoSIMS, TEM, and XANES studies of a unique presolar supernova graphite grain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groopman, Evan; Bernatowicz, Thomas; Zinner, Ernst; Nittler, Larry R.

    2014-07-20

    We report on isotopic and microstructural investigations of a unique presolar supernova (SN) graphite grain, referred to as G6, isolated from the Orgueil CI chondrite. G6 contains complex heterogeneities in its isotopic composition and in its microstructure. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometer isotope images of ultramicrotome sections reveal heterogeneities in its C, N, and O isotopic compositions, including anomalous shell-like structures. Transmission electron microscope studies reveal a nanocrystalline core surrounded by a turbostratic graphite mantle, the first reported nanocrystalline core from a low-density SN graphite grain. Electron diffraction analysis shows that the nanocrystalline core consists of randomly oriented 2-4 nm graphene particles, similar to those in cores of high-density (HD) presolar graphite grains from asymptotic giant branch stars. G6's core also exhibits evidence for planar stacking of these graphene nano-sheets with a domain size up to 4.5 nm, which was unobserved in the nanocrystalline cores of HD graphite grains. We also report on X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements of G6. The complex isotopic- and micro-structure of G6 provides evidence for mixing and/or granular transport in SN ejecta.

  14. Photoactive transparent nano-crystalline glass-ceramic for remazole red dye degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gad-Allah, Tarek A.; Margha, Fatma H.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Preparation and characterization of novel transparent nanocrystalline glass-ceramic. ? Precipitation of photoactive phases by using controlled heat-treatment. ? Conservation of transparency along with photoactivity. ? Using the prepared nanocrystalline glass-ceramic in water purification. -- Abstract: Transparent glass ceramic material was prepared from alkali-borosilicate glass containing titania by proper heat treatment scheme. The prepared samples were characterized using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction and UVvisible spectroscopy. The applied heat treatment program allowed the crystallization of nano-crystalline anatase, rutile, barium titanate, titanium borate and silicate phases while maintaining the transparency. The precipitated nano-crystalline anatase and rutile phases were responsible for the observed high photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples. Samples of 24.29 and 32.39 TiO{sub 2} wt% showed better efficiency for the decolorization of remazole red dye compared with commercial-TiO{sub 2} used in preparation of glass-ceramic. The reuse of prepared glass-ceramic photocatalyst with nearly same efficiency for different times was also proved.

  15. Mechanochemical synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles by using WO{sub 3}/Zn/C powder mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoseinpur, Arman; Vahdati Khaki, Jalil; Marashi, Maryam Sadat

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Nano particles of WC are synthesized by mechanochemical process. ? Zn was used to reduce WO{sub 3}. ? By removing ZnO from the milling products with an acid leaching, WC will be the final products. ? XRD results showed that the reduction reactions were completed after 36 h. ? TEM and SEM images showed that the morphology of produced powder is nearly spherical like. -- Abstract: In this research we introduce a new, facile, and economical system for fabrication of tungsten carbide (WC) nano particle powder. In this system WO{sub 3}, Zn, and C have been ball-milled for several hours, which led to the synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles. The synthesized WC can successfully be separated from the ball-milled product by subjecting the product powder to diluted HCl for removing ZnO and obtaining WC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the reduction of WO{sub 3} will be completed gradually by increasing milling time up to 36 h. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that after 36 h of milling the particle size of the fabricated powder is nano metric (about 20 nm). Results have shown that this system can surmount some main problems occurred in previous similar WC synthesizing systems. For example carbothermic reduction reactions, which lead to the synthesis of W{sub 2}C instead of WC, would not be activated because in this system reactions take place gradually.

  16. Structure and band gap determination of irradiation-induced amorphous nano-channels in LiNbO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachan, R. Pakarinen, O. H.; Chisholm, M. F.; Liu, P.; Patel, M. K.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X. L.; Weber, W. J.

    2015-04-07

    The irradiation of lithium niobate with swift heavy ions results in the creation of amorphous nano-sized channels along the incident ion path. These nano-channels are on the order of a hundred microns in length and could be useful for photonic applications. However, there are two major challenges in these nano-channels characterization: (i) it is difficult to investigate the structural characteristics of these nano-channels due to their very long length and (ii) the analytical electron microscopic analysis of individual ion track is complicated due to electron beam sensitive nature of lithium niobate. Here, we report the first high resolution microscopic characterization of these amorphous nano-channels, widely known as ion-tracks, by direct imaging them at different depths in the material, and subsequently correlating the key characteristics with electronic energy loss of ions. Energetic Kr ions ({sup 84}Kr{sup 22} with 1.98?GeV energy) are used to irradiate single crystal lithium niobate with a fluence of 2 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2}, which results in the formation of individual ion tracks with a penetration depth of ?180??m. Along the ion path, electron energy loss of the ions, which is responsible for creating the ion tracks, increases with depth under these conditions in LiNbO{sub 3}, resulting in increases in track diameter of a factor of ?2 with depth. This diameter increase with electronic energy loss is consistent with predictions of the inelastic thermal spike model. We also show a new method to measure the band gap in individual ion track by using electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

  17. Ultra low noise YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} nano superconducting quantum interference devices implementing nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arpaia, R.; Arzeo, M.; Nawaz, S.; Charpentier, S.; Lombardi, F.; Bauch, T.

    2014-02-17

    We present results on ultra low noise YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7?} (YBCO) nano Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (nanoSQUIDs). To realize such devices, we implemented high quality YBCO nanowires, working as weak links between two electrodes. We observe critical current modulation as a function of an externally applied magnetic field in the full temperature range below the transition temperature T{sub C}. The white flux noise below 1??{sub 0}/?(Hz) at T=8?K makes our nanoSQUIDs very attractive for the detection of small spin systems.

  18. Developing Supersonic Impactor and Aerodynamic Lens for Separation and Handling of Nano-Sized Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2008-06-30

    A computational model for supersonic flows of compressible gases in an aerodynamic lens with several lenses and in a supersonic/hypersonic impactor was developed. Airflow conditions in the aerodynamic lens were analyzed and contour plots for variation of Mach number, velocity magnitude and pressure field in the lens were evaluated. The nano and micro-particle trajectories in the lens and their focusing and transmission efficiencies were evaluated. The computational model was then applied to design of a aerodynamic lens that could generate focus particle beams while operating under atmospheric conditions. The computational model was also applied to airflow condition in the supersonic/hypersonic impactor. Variations of airflow condition and particle trajectories in the impactor were evaluated. The simulation results could provide understanding of the performance of the supersonic and hypersonic impactors that would be helpful for the design of such systems.

  19. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrentsmore » around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials’ photosensitivity.« less

  20. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrents around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials photosensitivity.

  1. ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, R.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Lam, P.

    2011-06-09

    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  2. ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO/MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendez-Torres, A.; Torres, R.; Lam, P.

    2011-07-15

    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  3. Nano-immunoassay with improved performance for detection of cancer biomarkers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V.; Torres, Maria P.; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Lipert, Robert J.; Jain, Maneesh; Batra, Surinder K.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

    2015-01-01

    Nano-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect is a promising analytical technique for the early detection of cancer. In its current standing the assay is capable of discriminating samples of healthy individuals from samples of pancreatic cancer patients. Further improvements in sensitivity and reproducibility will extend practical applications of the SERS-based detection platforms to wider range of problems. In this report, we discuss several strategies designed to improve performance of the SERS-based detection system. We demonstrate that reproducibility of the platform is enhanced by using atomically smooth mica surface as a template for preparation of capture surface in SERS sandwichmore » immunoassay. Furthermore, the assay's stability and sensitivity can be further improved by using either polymer or graphene monolayer as a thin protective layer applied on top of the assay addresses. The protective layer renders the signal to be more stable against photo-induced damage and carbonaceous contamination.« less

  4. Low-temperature method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets and their nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2012-03-13

    A method of exfoliating a layered material to produce separated nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm. The method comprises: (a) providing a graphite intercalation compound comprising a layered graphite containing expandable species residing in an interlayer space of the layered graphite; (b) exposing the graphite intercalation compound to an exfoliation temperature lower than 650.degree. C. for a duration of time sufficient to at least partially exfoliate the layered graphite without incurring a significant level of oxidation; and (c) subjecting the at least partially exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce separated platelets. The method can further include a step of dispersing the platelets in a polymer or monomer solution or suspension as a precursor step to nanocomposite fabrication.

  5. High energy density capacitors for power electronic applications using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1995-09-01

    Power electronics applications are currently limited by capacitor size and performance. Only incremental improvements are anticipated in existing capacitor technologies, while significant performance advances are required in energy density and overall performance to meet the technical needs of the applications which are important for U.S. economic competitiveness. One application, the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB), promises a second electronics revolution in power electronic design. High energy density capacitors with excellent electrical thermal and mechanical performance represent an enabling technology in the PEBB concept. We propose a continuing program to research and develop LLNL`s nano-structure multilayer technologies for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Our controlled deposition techniques are capable of synthesizing extraordinarily smooth sub-micron thick layers of dielectric and conductor materials. We have demonstrated that, with this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density are achievable.

  6. Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate architecture for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Todd H.

    2015-09-15

    Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate lattices, of a spinel block type, and which are resistant to carbon deposition and metal sulfide formation are provided. The catalysts are designed for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. The hexametallate lattices are doped with noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh, Ru) which are atomically dispersed as isolated sites throughout the lattice and take the place of hexametallate metal ions such as Cr, Ga, In, and/or Nb. Mirror cations in the crystal lattice are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the lanthanide metals, so as to reduce the acidity of the catalyst crystal lattice and enhance the desorption of carbon deposit forming moieties such as aromatics. The catalysts can be used at temperatures as high as 1000.degree. C. and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. A method for producing these catalysts and applications of their use also is provided.

  7. A general procedure for thermomechanical calibration of nano/micro-mechanical resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, B.D., E-mail: bhauer@ualberta.ca; Doolin, C.; Beach, K.S.D., E-mail: kbeach@ualberta.ca; Davis, J.P., E-mail: jdavis@ualberta.ca

    2013-12-15

    We describe a general procedure to calibrate the detection of a nano/micro-mechanical resonators displacement as it undergoes thermal Brownian motion. A brief introduction to the equations of motion for such a resonator is presented, followed by a detailed derivation of the corresponding power spectral density (PSD) function, which is identical in all situations aside from a system-dependent effective mass value. The effective masses for a number of different resonator geometries are determined using both finite element method (FEM) modeling and analytical calculations. -- Highlights: Model micro- and nanomechanical resonators displaced by their own thermal motion. Review the theoretical framework for describing thermomechanical systems. Present a recipe for measurement calibration on devices of arbitrary shape. Point out and correct inconsistencies in the existing literature. Provide an authoritative guide and reference for practitioners in this area.

  8. Circuit model optimization of a nano split ring resonator dimer antenna operating in infrared spectral range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gneiding, N.; Zhuromskyy, O.; Peschel, U.; Shamonina, E.

    2014-10-28

    Metamaterials are comprised of metallic structures with a strong response to incident electromagnetic radiation, like, for example, split ring resonators. The interaction of resonator ensembles with electromagnetic waves can be simulated with finite difference or finite elements algorithms, however, above a certain ensemble size simulations become inadmissibly time or memory consuming. Alternatively a circuit description of metamaterials, a well developed modelling tool at radio and microwave frequencies, allows to significantly increase the simulated ensemble size. This approach can be extended to the IR spectral range with an appropriate set of circuit element parameters accounting for physical effects such as electron inertia and finite conductivity. The model is verified by comparing the coupling coefficients with the ones obtained from the full wave numerical simulations, and used to optimize the nano-antenna design with improved radiation characteristics.

  9. Boride-based nano-laminates with MAX-phase-like behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Telle, Rainer . E-mail: telle@ghi.rwth-aachen.de; Momozawa, Ai; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-09-15

    MAX-phases being usually composed of transition metals, group A elements and carbon/nitrogen are considered interesting materials for many applications because of their tremendous bulk modulus, 'reversible' plasticity, and machinability. This is mainly due to their unique kind of bonding comprising covalent, ionic as well as metallic bonds providing 'easy' planes of rupture and deformability due to the layered crystal structures. In transition metal boride systems, similar types of bonding are available. In particular the W{sub 2}B{sub 5}-structure type and its stacking variations allow the synthesis of strongly layered crystal structures exhibiting unique delamination phenomena. The paper presents ab initio calculations showing the similarities of bonding between the ternary carbides and the corresponding ternary or quaternary borides. Formation of boride-based nano-laminates from auxiliary liquid phases, from the melt as well as during sintering and precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions will be discussed by means of SEM and TEM studies. The role of impurities weakening the interlayer bonding will be addressed in particular. The pronounced cleavage parallel to the basal plane gives rise for crack deflection and pull-out mechanisms if the laminates are dispersed in brittle matrices such as boron carbide, silicon carbide or other transition metal borides. - Graphical abstract: Some transition metal borides crystallise in a layered structure of alternating stacks of metal and boron atoms giving rise for strongly anisotropic properties. Their preferred cleavage parallel and the deformability perpendicular to the basal plan are similar to the peculiar mechanical behaviour recently described for MAX-phases. Ab initio calculations of the crystal structure prove the weak bonds between the layers for a variety of borides which can be used to reinforce ceramic materials on a nano-scale level.

  10. The effects of surface bond relaxation on electronic structure of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nano-films by first-principles calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, C. Zhao, Y. F.; Fu, C. X.; Gong, Y. Y.; Chi, B. Q.; Sun, C. Q.

    2014-10-15

    The effects of vertical compressive stress on Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nano-films have been investigated by the first principles calculation, including stability, electronic structure, crystal structure, and bond order. It is found that the band gap of nano-film is sensitive to the stress in Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nano-film and the critical thickness increases under compressive stress. The band gap and band order of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film has been affected collectively by the surface and internal crystal structures, the contraction ratio between surface bond length of nano-film and the corresponding bond length of bulk decides the band order of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film.

  11. Structural Study of SiC Nanoparticles Grown by Inductively Coupled Plasma and Laser Pyrolysis for Nano-structured Ceramics Elaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leconte, Yann; Portier, Xavier; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Reynaud, Cecile

    2008-07-01

    Refractory carbide nano-structured ceramics as SiC constitute interesting materials for high temperature applications and particularly for fourth generation nuclear plants. To elaborate such nano-materials, weighable amounts of SiC nano-powders have to be synthesized first with an accurate control of the grain size and stoichiometry. The inductively coupled plasma and the laser pyrolysis techniques, respectively developed at EMPA Thun and CEA Saclay, allow meeting these requirements. Both techniques are able to produce dozens of grams per hour of silicon carbide nano-powders. The particle size can be adjusted down to around 20 nm for the plasma synthesis and even down to 5-10 nm for the laser pyrolysis. The stoichiometry Si/C can be tuned by the addition of methane into the plasma and acetylene for the laser process. (authors)

  12. Low-Cost Nano-Patterning Process Makes Millions of Holes in Silver Film, Boosting Light-Capturing Qualities of Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    NREL researchers have demonstrated a simple, low-cost way to pattern nano-sized holes in thin silver films in order to trap light waves and boost the transmission of photons into usable energy.

  13. Low temperature synthesis of diamond-based nano-carbon composite materials with high electron field emission properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R.; Yeh, C. J.; Leou, K. C.; Lin, I. N.

    2015-06-08

    A diamond-based nano-carbon composite (d/NCC) material, which contains needle-like diamond grains encased with the nano-graphite layers, was synthesized at low substrate temperature via a bias enhanced growth process using CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} plasma. Such a unique granular structure renders the d/NCC material very conductive (??=?714.8?S/cm), along with superior electron field emission (EFE) properties (E{sub 0}?=?4.06?V/?m and J{sub e}?=?3.18?mA/cm{sup 2}) and long lifetime (??=?842?min at 2.41?mA/cm{sup 2}). Moreover, the electrical conductivity and EFE behavior of d/NCC material can be tuned in a wide range that is especially useful for different kind of applications.

  14. Three dimensional imaging and analysis of a single nano-device at the ultimate scale using correlative microscopy techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grenier, A.; Barnes, J. P.; Serra, R.; Audoit, G.; Cooper, D.; Duguay, S.; Rolland, N.; Blavette, D.; Vurpillot, F.; Morin, P.; Gouraud, P.

    2015-05-25

    The analysis of a same sample using nanometre or atomic-scale techniques is fundamental to fully understand device properties. This is especially true for the dopant distribution within last generation nano-transistors such as MOSFET or FINFETs. In this work, the spatial distribution of boron in a nano-transistor at the atomic scale has been investigated using a correlative approach combining electron and atom probe tomography. The distortions present in the reconstructed volume using atom probe tomography have been discussed by simulations of surface atoms using a cylindrical symmetry taking into account the evaporation fields. Electron tomography combined with correction of atomic density was used so that to correct image distortions observed in atom probe tomography reconstructions. These corrected atom probe tomography reconstructions then enable a detailed boron doping analysis of the device.

  15. Direct probing of electron and hole trapping into nano-floating-gate in organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Ze-Qun; Wang, Shun; Chen, Jian-Mei; Gao, Xu; Dong, Bin E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn Chi, Li-Feng E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn Wang, Sui-Dong E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn

    2015-03-23

    Electron and hole trapping into the nano-floating-gate of a pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory is directly probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The probing is straightforward and non-destructive. The measured surface potential change can quantitatively profile the charge trapping, and the surface characterization results are in good accord with the corresponding device behavior. Both electrons and holes can be trapped into the nano-floating-gate, with a preference of electron trapping than hole trapping. The trapped charge quantity has an approximately linear relation with the programming/erasing gate bias, indicating that the charge trapping in the device is a field-controlled process.

  16. Determination of reactive oxygen species from ZnO micro-nano structures with shape-dependent photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Weiwei; Zhao, Hongxiao; Jia, Huimin; Yin, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Zhi

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with shape dependent photocatalytic activity were prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were identified precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Highlights: ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies were prepared by solvothermal reaction. Multi-pod like ZnO structures exhibited superior photocatalytic activity. The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were characterized precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies have been prepared by the changing solvents used during their synthesis by solvothermal reaction. Three typical shapes of ZnO structures including hexagonal, bell bottom like and multi-pod formed and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Multi pod like ZnO structures exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity toward degradation of methyl orange. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy coupled with spin trapping techniques, we demonstrate an effective way to identify precisely the generation of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide and singlet oxygen from the irradiated ZnO multi pod structures. The type of reactive oxygen species formed was predictable from the band gap structure of ZnO. These results indicate that the shape of micro-nano structures significantly affects the photocatalytic activity of ZnO, and demonstrate the value of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for characterizing the type of reactive oxygen species formed during photoexcitation of semiconductors.

  17. Effects of nano-SiO{sub 2} particles on surface tracking characteristics of silicone rubber composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong Li, Zhonglei; Du, Boxue

    2014-09-08

    Compared with neat silicone rubber composites (SiRCs), SiRCs filled with nano-sized SiO{sub 2} particles at weight ratios from 0.1 to 1.0?wt.?% exhibit a higher surface flashover voltage and a greater resistance to surface tracking. Scanning electron microscopy images of tracking morphologies indicate that the SiO{sub 2} particles are situated in close proximity to the polymeric chains and act as bridges to stabilize the chains and maintain the structure of the composite. Higher concentrations of nano-sized SiO{sub 2} particles, however, (above 0.3?wt.?%) produce defects in the molecular network which lead to reductions in both the surface flashover voltage and the resistance to surface tracking, although these reduced values are still superior to those of neat SiRCs. Therefore, SiRCs filled with nano-sized SiO{sub 2} particles, especially at an optimal weight ratio (0.1 to 0.3?wt.?%), may have significant potential applications as outdoor insulators for power systems.

  18. The modulation of canine mesenchymal stem cells by nano-topographic cues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Joshua A.; Ly, Irene; Borjesson, Dori L.; Nealey, Paul F.; Russell, Paul; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2012-11-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising cellular therapeutic for the treatment of a variety of disorders. On transplantation, MSCs interact with diverse extracellular matrices (ECMs) that vary dramatically in topographic feature type, size and surface order. In order to investigate the impact of these topographic cues, surfaces were fabricated with either isotropically ordered holes or anisotropically ordered ridges and grooves. To simulate the biologically relevant nano through micron size scale, a series of topographically patterned substrates possessing features of differing pitch (pitch=feature width+groove width) were created. Results document that the surface order and size of substratum topographic features dramatically modulate fundamental MSC behaviors. Topographically patterned (ridge+groove) surfaces were found to significantly impact MSC alignment, elongation, and aspect ratio. Novel findings also demonstrate that submicron surfaces patterned with holes resulted in increased MSC alignment to adjacent cells as well as increased migration rates. Overall, this study demonstrates that the presentation of substratum topographic cues dramatically influence MSC behaviors in a size and shape dependent manner. The response of MSCs to substratum topographic cues was similar to other cell types that have been studied previously with regards to cell shape on ridge and groove surfaces but differed with respect to proliferation and migration. This is the first study to compare the impact of anisotropically ordered ridge and groove topographic cues to isotropically order holed topographic cues on fundamental MSC behaviors across a range of biologically relevant size scales.

  19. NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pintauro, Peter

    2012-07-09

    The objective of this proposal is to fabricate and characterize a new class of NanoCapillary Network (NCN) proton conducting membranes for hydrogen/air fuel cells that operate under high temperature, low humidity conditions. The membranes will be intelligently designed, where a high density interconnecting 3-D network of nm-diameter electrospun proton conducting polymer fibers is embedded in an inert (uncharged) water/gas impermeable polymer matrix. The high density of fibers in the resulting mat and the high ion-exchange capacity of the fiber polymer will ensure high proton conductivity. To further enhance water retention, molecular silica will be added to the sulfonated polymer fibers. The uncharged matrix material will control water swelling of the high ion-exchange capacity proton conducting polymer fibers and will impart toughness to the final nanocapillary composite membrane. Thus, unlike other fuel cell membranes, the role of the polymer support matrix will be decoupled from that of the proton-conducting channels. The expected final outcome of this 5-year project is the fabrication of fuel cell membranes with properties that exceed the DOE’s technical targets, in particular a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at a temperature less than or equal to120°C and 25-50% relative humidity.

  20. Radiation Resistance of XLPE Nano-dielectrics for Advanced Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duckworth, Robert C; Polyzos, Georgios; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Leonard, Keith J; Sauers, Isidor

    2014-01-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in nuclear reactor safety, particularly as commercial reactors are approaching 40 years service and lifetime extensions are considered, as well as for new reactor building projects around the world. The materials that are currently used in cabling for instrumentation, reactor control, and communications include cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), ethylene propylene rubber (EPR), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), neoprene, and chlorosulfonated polyethylene. While these materials show suitable radiation tolerance in laboratory tests, failures before their useful lifetime occur due to the combined environmental effects of radiation, temperature and moisture, or operation under abnormal conditions. In addition, the extended use of commercial reactors beyond their original service life places a greater demand on insulating materials to perform beyond their current ratings in these nuclear environments. Nanocomposite materials that are based on XLPE and other epoxy resins incorporating TiO2, MgO, SiO2, and Al2O3 nanoparticles are being fabricated using a novel in-situ method established at ORNL to demonstrate materials with increased resistance to radiation. As novel nanocomposite dielectric materials are developed, characterization of the non-irradiated and irradiated nanodielectrics will lead to a knowledge base that allow for dielectric materials to be engineered with specific nanoparticle additions for maximum benefit to wide-variety of radiation environments found in nuclear reactors. This paper presents the initial findings on the development of XLPE-based SiO2 nano-composite dielectrics in the context of electrical performance and radiation degradation.

  1. Synthesis of supported silver nano-spheres on zinc oxide nanorods for visible light photocatalytic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saoud, Khaled; Alsoubaihi, Rola; Bensalah, Nasr; Bora, Tanujjal; Bertino, Massimo; Dutta, Joydeep

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: Synthesis of supported Ag NPs on ZnO nanorods using open vessel microwave reactor. Use of the Ag/ZnO NPs as an efficient visible light photocatalyst. Complete degradation of methylene blue in 1 h with 0.5 g/L Ag/ZnO NPs. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of silver (Ag) nano-spheres (NS) supported on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods through two step mechanism, using open vessel microwave reactor. Direct reduction of ZnO from zinc nitrates was followed by deposition precipitation of the silver on the ZnO nanorods. The supported Ag/ZnO nanoparticles were then characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, photoluminescence and UVvis spectroscopy. The visible light photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO system was investigated using a test contaminant, methylene blue (MB). Almost complete removal of MB in about 60 min for doses higher than 0.5 g/L of the Ag/ZnO photocatalyst was achieved. This significant improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of Ag/ZnO photocatalyst under visible light irradiation can be attributed to the presence of Ag nanoparticles on the ZnO nanoparticles which greatly enhances absorption in the visible range of solar spectrum enabled by surface plasmon resonance effect from Ag nanoparticles.

  2. The structure of nano-palladium deposited on carbon-based supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikna, ?ubomr, E-mail: lubomir.pikna@tuke.sk [Faculty of Metallurgy, Technical University of Koice, Letn 9, 042 00 Koice (Slovakia); Milkovi?, Ondrej, E-mail: ondrej.milkovic@tuke.sk [Faculty of Metallurgy, Technical University of Koice, Letn 9, 042 00 Koice (Slovakia); Saksl, Karel, E-mail: ksaksl@imr.saske.sk [Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Koice (Slovakia); Heelov, Mria, E-mail: maria.hezelova@tuke.sk [Faculty of Metallurgy, Technical University of Koice, Letn 9, 042 00 Koice (Slovakia); Smr?ov, Miroslava, E-mail: miroslava.smrcova@tuke.sk [Faculty of Metallurgy, Technical University of Koice, Letn 9, 042 00 Koice (Slovakia); Puli, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.pulis@tuke.sk [Faculty of Metallurgy, Technical University of Koice, Letn 9, 042 00 Koice (Slovakia); Michalik, tefan, E-mail: stefan.michalik@upjs.ke [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, UPJ, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Koice (Slovakia); Gamcov, Jana, E-mail: jana.gamcova@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrae 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Nano-palladium catalysts, prepared using the same procedure with the same metal content (3 wt%) and two different supports, activated carbon (Pd/C) and activated carbonmultiwalled carbon nanotubes (Pd/C/CNT), are discussed. The simple technique of deposition reduction was applied in the preparation of these two types of Pd catalysts. TEM, XRD analysis, EXAFS signal analysis, and XANES were used for sample characterization. In both samples, transmission electron microscopy identified nanosized Pd particles with nearly spherical morphology but different sizes. The mean diameters of the particles on Pd/C and Pd/C/CNT were estimated to be 5.4 nm and 7.8 nm, respectively. The EXAFS signal analysis showed that Pd atoms on the particle surfaces were coordinated by 4 oxygens to form a PdO monolayer covering a metallic core. The XANES signal analysis indicated a smaller particle size for Pd/C (? 5 nm) than for Pd/C/CNT (? 10 nm), in good agreement with the TEM observations. - Graphical abstract: Visualization of metallic core (left), oxide monolayer (middle) and nanoparticle of diameter 5 nm (right). - Highlights: Pd catalysts were prepared on two types of supports: carbon and carbon nanotubes. BET, TEM, XRD characterization of prepared catalysts. XAFS: Concentration of Pd in samples Pd/C and Pd/C/CNT. EXAFS and XANES signal analysis of catalysts. Visualisation of atoms arrangement at the Pd nanoparticle surface.

  3. Characterization of silicon photomultipliers at National Nano-Fab Center for PET-MR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyoungtaek; Cho, Gyuseong; Sul, Woo Suk

    2014-10-15

    The silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were fabricated for magnetic resonance compatible positron emission tomography (PET) applications using customized CMOS processes at National NanoFab Center. Each micro-cell consists of a shallow n+/p well junction on a p-type epitaxial wafer and passive quenching circuit was applied. The size of the SiPM is 3 3 mm{sup 2} and the pitch of each micro-cell is 65 ?m. In this work, several thousands of SiPMs were packaged and tested to build a PET ring detector which has a 60 mm axial and 390 mm radial field of view. I-V characteristics of the SiPMs are shown good uniformity and breakdown voltage is around 20 V. The photon detection efficiency was measured via photon counting method and the maximum value was recorded as 16% at 470 nm. The gamma ray spectrum of a Ge-68 isotope showed nearly 10% energy resolution at 511 keV with a 3 3 20 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystal.

  4. Switchable and non-switchable zero backscattering of dielectric nano-resonators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Feng; Wei, Qi -Huo; Htoon, Han

    2015-02-27

    Previous studies have shown that two-dimensional (2D) arrays of high-permittivity dielectric nanoparticles are capable of fully suppressing backward light scattering when the resonant frequencies of electrical and magnetic dipolar modes are coincident. In this paper, we numerically demonstrate that the zero-backscattering of 2D Si nanocuboid arrays can be engineered to be switchable or non-switchable in response to a variation in the environmental refractive index. For each cuboid width/length, there exist certain cuboid heights and orthogonal periodicity ratio for which the electrical and magnetic resonances exhibit similar spectra widths and equivalent sensitivities to the environmental index changes, so that the zero-backscatteringmoreis non-switchable upon environmental change. For some other cuboid heights and certain anisotropic periodicity ratios, the electric and magnetic modes exhibit different sensitivities to environmental index changes, making the zero-backscattering sensitive to environmental changes. We also show that by using two different types of nano-resonators in the unit cell, Fano resonances can be introduced to greatly enhance the switching sensitivity of zero-backscattering.less

  5. Method of producing nano-scaled graphene and inorganic platelets and their nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jang, Bor Z.; Zhamu, Aruna

    2011-02-22

    Disclosed is a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm, and often between 0.34 nm and 1.02 nm. The method comprises: (a) subjecting the layered material in a powder form to a halogen vapor at a first temperature above the melting point or sublimation point of the halogen at a sufficient vapor pressure and for a duration of time sufficient to cause the halogen molecules to penetrate an interlayer space of the layered material, forming a stable halogen-intercalated compound; and (b) heating the halogen-intercalated compound at a second temperature above the boiling point of the halogen, allowing halogen atoms or molecules residing in the interlayer space to exfoliate the layered material to produce the platelets. Alternatively, rather than heating, step (a) is followed by a step of dispersing the halogen-intercalated compound in a liquid medium which is subjected to ultrasonication for exfoliating the halogen-intercalated compound to produce the platelets, which are dispersed in the liquid medium. The halogen can be readily captured and re-used, thereby significantly reducing the impact of halogen to the environment. The method can further include a step of dispersing the platelets in a polymer or monomer solution or suspension as a precursor step to nanocomposite fabrication.

  6. Method of producing nano-scaled graphene and inorganic platelets and their nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jang, Bor Z.; Zhamu, Aruna

    2012-02-14

    Disclosed is a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm, and often between 0.34 nm and 1.02 nm. The method comprises: (a) subjecting the layered material in a powder form to a halogen vapor at a first temperature above the melting point or sublimation point of the halogen at a sufficient vapor pressure and for a duration of time sufficient to cause the halogen molecules to penetrate an interlayer space of the layered material, forming a stable halogen-intercalated compound; and (b) heating the halogen-intercalated compound at a second temperature above the boiling point of the halogen, allowing halogen atoms or molecules residing in the interlayer space to exfoliate the layered material to produce the platelets. Alternatively, rather than heating, step (a) is followed by a step of dispersing the halogen-intercalated compound in a liquid medium which is subjected to ultrasonication for exfoliating the halogen-intercalated compound to produce the platelets, which are dispersed in the liquid medium. The halogen can be readily captured and re-used, thereby significantly reducing the impact of halogen to the environment. The method can further include a step of dispersing the platelets in a polymer or monomer solution or suspension as a precursor step to nanocomposite fabrication.

  7. Quantum ground state effect on fluctuation rates in nano-patterned superconducting structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eftekharian, Amin; Jafari Salim, Amir; University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 ; Atikian, Haig; Akhlaghi, Mohsen K.; Hamed Majedi, A.

    2013-12-09

    In this Letter, we present a theoretical model with experimental verifications to describe the abnormal behaviors of the measured fluctuation rates occurring in nano-patterned superconducting structures below the critical temperature. In the majority of previous works, it is common to describe the fluctuation rate by defining a fixed ground state or initial state level for the singularities (vortex or vortex-antivortex pairs), and then employing the well-known rate equations to calculate the liberation rates. Although this approach gives an acceptable qualitative picture, without utilizing free parameters, all the models have been inadequate in describing the temperature dependence of the rate for a fixed width or the width dependence of the rate for a fixed temperature. Here, we will show that by defining a current-controlled ground state level for both the vortex and vortex-antivortex liberation mechanisms, the dynamics of these singularities are described for a wide range of temperatures and widths. According to this study, for a typical strip width, not only is the vortex-antivortex liberation higher than the predicted rate, but also quantum tunneling is significant in certain conditions and can not be neglected.

  8. Nano/bio treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls with evaluation of comparative toxicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le, Thao Thanh; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Nguyen, Hoang Khanh; Jeon, Jong -Rok; Chang, Yoon -Seok

    2015-02-03

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 in soils and sediments is a major concern because of its toxicity and presence at high concentrations. In this study, we developed an integrated remediation system for PCBs using chemical catalysis and biodegradation. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1248 was achieved by treatment with bimetallic nanoparticles Pd/nFe under anoxic conditions. Among the 32 PCB congeners of Aroclor 1248 examined, our process dechlorinated 99%, 92%, 84%, and 28% of tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated biphenyls, respectively. The resulting biphenyl was biodegraded rapidly by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Benzoic acid was detected as an intermediate duringmore » the biodegradation process. The toxicity of the residual PCBs after nano-bio treatment was evaluated in terms of toxic equivalent values which decreased from 33.8 × 10-5 μg g-1 to 9.5 × 10-5 μg g-1. The residual PCBs also had low cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli as demonstrated by lower reactive oxygen species levels, lower glutathione peroxidase activity, and a reduced number of dead bacteria.« less

  9. Nano-Scale Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Two-Dimensional Transport Experiments, and Application for Uranium Remediation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kanel, S. R.; Clement, T. P.; Barnett, M. O.; Goltz, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic nano-scale hydroxyapatite (NHA) was prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The XRD data confirmed that the crystalline structure and chemical composition of NHA correspond to Ca 5 OH(PO 4 ) 3 . The SEM data confirmed the size of NHA to be less than 50 nm. A two-dimensional physical model packed with saturated porous media was used to study the transport characteristics of NHA under constant flow conditions. The data show that the transport patterns of NHA were almost identical to tracer transport patterns. This result indicates that the NHA material canmore » move with water like a tracer, and its movement was neither retarded nor influenced by any physicochemical interactions and/or density effects. We have also tested the reactivity of NHA with 1 mg/L hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) and found that complete removal of U(VI) is possible using 0.5 g/L NHA at pH 5 to 6. Our results demonstrate that NHA has the potential to be injected as a dilute slurry for in situ treatment of U(VI)-contaminated groundwater systems.« less

  10. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stengl, Vaclav; Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  11. Nano/bio treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls with evaluation of comparative toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, Thao Thanh; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Nguyen, Hoang Khanh; Jeon, Jong -Rok; Chang, Yoon -Seok

    2015-02-03

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 in soils and sediments is a major concern because of its toxicity and presence at high concentrations. In this study, we developed an integrated remediation system for PCBs using chemical catalysis and biodegradation. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1248 was achieved by treatment with bimetallic nanoparticles Pd/nFe under anoxic conditions. Among the 32 PCB congeners of Aroclor 1248 examined, our process dechlorinated 99%, 92%, 84%, and 28% of tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated biphenyls, respectively. The resulting biphenyl was biodegraded rapidly by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Benzoic acid was detected as an intermediate during the biodegradation process. The toxicity of the residual PCBs after nano-bio treatment was evaluated in terms of toxic equivalent values which decreased from 33.8 × 10-5 μg g-1 to 9.5 × 10-5 μg g-1. The residual PCBs also had low cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli as demonstrated by lower reactive oxygen species levels, lower glutathione peroxidase activity, and a reduced number of dead bacteria.

  12. Fabrication of nano structural biphasic materials from phosphogypsum waste and their in vitro applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Khaled R.; Mousa, Sahar M.; El Bassyouni, Gehan T.

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schema of the process, (b) TEM of nano particles of biphasic materials and (c) SEM of post-immersion. - Highlights: Ratio of HA and ?-TCP phases were controlled by thermal treatment. HA partially decomposed into ?-TCP with other bioactive phases. Calcined HA at 900 C is the best for the bioactivity behavior. - Abstract: In this study, a novel process of preparing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) is proposed. Also its bioactivity for the utilization of the prepared BCP as a biomaterial is studied. A mixture of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) could be obtained by thermal treatment of HAP which was previously prepared from phosphogypsum (PG) waste. The chemical and phase composition, morphology and particle size of prepared samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bioactivity was investigated by soaking of the calcined samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results confirmed that the calcination temperatures played an important role in the formation of calcium phosphate (CP) materials. XRD results indicated that HAP was partially decomposed into ?-TCP. The in vitro data confirmed that the calcined HAP forming BCP besides other phases such as pyrophosphate and silica are bioactive materials. Therefore, BCP will be used as good biomaterials for medical applications.

  13. Remote optical sensing on the nanometer scale with a bowtie aperture nano-antenna on a fiber tip of scanning near-field optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atie, Elie M.; Xie, Zhihua; El Eter, Ali; Salut, Roland; Baida, Fadi I.; Grosjean, Thierry; Nedeljkovic, Dusan; Tannous, Tony

    2015-04-13

    Plasmonic nano-antennas have proven the outstanding ability of sensing chemical and physical processes down to the nanometer scale. Sensing is usually achieved within the highly confined optical fields generated resonantly by the nano-antennas, i.e., in contact to the nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate the sensing capability of nano-antennas to their larger scale environment, well beyond their plasmonic confinement volume, leading to the concept of remote (non contact) sensing on the nanometer scale. On the basis of a bowtie-aperture nano-antenna (BNA) integrated at the apex of a SNOM (Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy) fiber tip, we introduce an ultra-compact, moveable, and background-free optical nanosensor for the remote sensing of a silicon surface (up to distance of 300?nm). Sensitivity of the BNA to its large scale environment is high enough to expect the monitoring and control of the spacing between the nano-antenna and a silicon surface with sub-nanometer accuracy. This work paves the way towards an alternative class of nanopositioning techniques, based on the monitoring of diffraction-free plasmon resonance, that are alternative to nanomechanical and diffraction-limited optical interference-based devices.

  14. ONE-DIMENSIONAL PLASMONIC NANO-PHOTOCATALYSTS: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murph, S.

    2011-08-14

    This study describes a simple two-step approach to coat gold nanorods with a silica/titania shell. Gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of 2.5 (L = 48 {+-} 2 and d = 19 {+-} 1) are synthesized by a silver-seed mediated growth approach according to our previously reported procedure (Hunyadi Murph ACS Symposium Series, Volume 1064, Chapter 8, 2011, 127-163 and reference herein). Gold nanorods are grown on pre-formed gold nano-seeds in the presence of surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and a small amount of silver ions. A bifunctional linker molecule which has a thiol group at one end and a silane group at the other is used to derivatize gold nanorods. The silane group is subsequently reacted with both sodium silicate and titanium isopropoxide to a silica/titania shell around the gold nanorods. By fine tuning the reaction conditions, the silica/titania shell thickness can be controlled from {approx}5 to {approx}40nm. The resulting nanomaterials are stable, amenable to scale up and can be isolated without core aggregation or decomposition. These new materials have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis. Photocatalytic activity of Au-silica/titania nanomaterials under visible and UV illumination is measured via degradation of a model dye, methyl orange (MO) under visible and UV illumination. The results indicate a 3 fold improvement in the photocatalytic decomposition rate of MO under visible illumination vs. UV illumination.

  15. CABLE AGING AND CONDITION MONITORING OF RADIATION RESISTANT NANO-DIELECTRICS IN ADVANCED REACTOR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duckworth, Robert C; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Kidder, Michelle; Polyzos, Georgios; Leonard, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) nanocomposites have been developed in an effort to improve cable insulation lifetime to serve in both instrument cables and auxiliary power systems in advanced reactor applications as well as to provide an alternative for new or retro-fit cable insulation installations. Nano-dielectrics composed of different weight percentages of MgO & SiO2 have been subjected to radiation at accumulated doses approaching 20 MRad and thermal aging temperatures exceeding 100 C. Depending on the composition, the performance of the nanodielectric insulation was influenced, both positively and negatively, when quantified with respect to its electrical and mechanical properties. For virgin unradiated or thermally aged- samples, XLPE nanocomposites with 1wt.% SiO2 showed improvement in breakdown strength and reduction in its dissipation factor when compared to pure undoped- XLPE, while XLPE 3wt.% SiO2 resulted in lower breakdown strength. When aged in air at 120 C, retention of electrical breakdown strength and dissipation factor was observed for XLPE 3wt.% MgO nanocomposites. Irrespective of the nanoparticle species, XLPE nanocomposites that were gamma irradiated up to the accumulated dose of 18 MRad showed a significant drop in breakdown strength especially for particle concentrations greater than 3 wt.%. Additional attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy measurements suggest changes in the structure of the XLPE SiO2 nanocomposites associated with the interaction of silicon and oxygen. Discussion on the relevance of property changes with respect to cable aging and condition monitoring is presented.

  16. Effect of martensite to austenite reversion on the formation of nano/submicron grained AISI 301 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karimi, M.; Najafizadeh, A.; Kermanpur, A.; Eskandari, M.

    2009-11-15

    The martensite to austenite reversion behavior of 90% cold rolled AISI 301 stainless steel was investigated in order to refine the grain size. Cold rolled specimens were annealed at 600-900 deg. C, and subsequently characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Feritscope, and hardness measurements. The effects of annealing parameters on the formation of fully-austenitic nano/submicron grained structure and the mechanisms involved were studied. It was found that annealing at 800 deg. C for 10 s exhibited the smallest average austenite grain size of 240 {+-} 60 nm with an almost fully-austenitic structure.

  17. X-ray nano-diffraction study of Sr intermetallic phase during solidification of Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manickaraj, Jeyakumar; Gorny, Anton; Shankar, Sumanth, E-mail: shankar@mcmaster.ca [Light Metal Casting Research Centre (LMCRC), Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street W, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Cai, Zhonghou [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-02-17

    The evolution of strontium (Sr) containing intermetallic phase in the eutectic reaction of Sr-modified Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy was studied with high energy synchrotron beam source for nano-diffraction experiments and x-ray fluorescence elemental mapping. Contrary to popular belief, Sr does not seem to interfere with the Twin Plane Re-entrant Edge (TPRE) growth mechanism of eutectic Si, but evolves as the Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sr phase during the eutectic reaction at the boundary between the eutectic Si and Al grains.

  18. Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, W. S. Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H.; Zhang, J.; Luo, J. K.; Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB

    2014-02-15

    Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

  19. Characterization, organic modification of wollastonite coated with nano-Mg(OH){sub 2} and its application in filling PA6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Caili; Wang, Dong; Zheng, Shuilin

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: Wollastonite is first inorganic modified by coating nano-Mg(OH){sub 2} and then organic modified with silane. Filling 30% of this composite powder in PA6 the mechanical properties, the heat distortion temperature and oxygen index of the PA6 composites were notably enhanced. - Abstract: Nano-Mg(OH){sub 2} was deposited on the surface of wollastonite (MW) powder with heterogeneous nucleation method and then modified with silane. The microstructure and surface properties of wollastonite (W) and MW powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The microstructure of W, MW and silane modified MW (SMW) powders were characterized by Fourier translation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The mechanical properties, heat distortion temperature (HDT) and oxygen index (OI) of PA6 composites having different fillers were discussed. It was shown that the surface of wollastonite was coated with a layer of 33 nm thickness of Mg(OH){sub 2} grains and the distribution of which was uniform. The number of the hydroxyl groups on the surface of wollastonite powder increased after coated with Mg(OH){sub 2}. Filling 30% of SMW powder in PA6 the mechanical properties, HDT and OI were notably enhanced.

  20. Non-linear mode interaction between spin torque driven and damped modes in spin torque nano-oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romera, M.; Monteblanco, E.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.; Ebels, U.; Delaët, B.

    2015-05-11

    The influence of dynamic coupling in between magnetic layers of a standard spin torque nano-oscillator composed of a synthetic antiferromagnet (SyF) as a polarizer and an in-plane magnetized free layer has been investigated. Experiments on spin valve nanopillars reveal non-continuous features such as kinks in the frequency field dependence that cannot be explained without such interactions. Comparison of experiments to numerical macrospin simulations shows that this is due to non-linear interaction between the spin torque (STT) driven mode and a damped mode that is mediated via the third harmonics of the STT mode. It only occurs at large applied currents and thus at large excitation amplitudes of the STT mode. Under these conditions, a hybridized mode characterized by a strong reduction of the linewidth appears. The reduced linewidth can be explained by a reduction of the non-linear contribution to the linewidth via an enhanced effective damping. Interestingly, the effect depends also on the exchange interaction within the SyF. An enhancement of the current range of reduced linewidth by a factor of two and a reduction of the minimum linewidth by a factor of two are predicted from simulation when the exchange interaction strength is reduced by 30%. These results open directions to optimize the design and microwave performances of spin torque nano-oscillators taking advantage of the coupling mechanisms.

  1. Simulation of a broadband nano-biosensor based on an onion-like quantum dot-quantum well structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Absalan, H; SalmanOgli, A; Rostami, R

    2013-07-31

    The fluorescence resonance energy transfer is studied between modified quantum-dots and quantum-wells used as a donor and an acceptor. Because of the unique properties of quantum dots, including diverse surface modification flexibility, bio-compatibility, high quantum yields and wide absorption, their use as nano-biosensors and bio-markers used in diagnosis of cancer is suggested. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer is simulated in a quantum dot-quantum well system, where the energy can flow from donor to acceptor. If the energy transfer can be either turned on or off by a specific interaction, such as interaction with any dyes, a molecular binding event or a cleavage reaction, a sensor can be designed (under assumption that the healthy cells have a known effect or unyielding effect on output parameters while cancerous cells, due to their pandemic optical properties, can impact the fluorescence resonance energy transfer parameters). The developed nano-biosensor can operate in a wide range of wavelengths (310 - 760 nm). (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  2. TeV/m nano-accelerator: Investigation on feasibility of CNT-channeling acceleration at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Y. M.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Thurman-Keup, R. M.

    2015-03-23

    The development of high gradient acceleration and tight phase-space control of high power beams is a key element for future lepton and hadron colliders since the increasing demands for higher energy and luminosity significantly raise costs of modern HEP facilities. Atomic channels in crystals are known to consist of 10100 V/ potential barriers capable of guiding and collimating a high energy beam providing continuously focused acceleration with exceptionally high gradients (TeV/m). However, channels in natural crystals are only angstrom-size and physically vulnerable to high energy interactions, which has prevented crystals from being applied to high power accelerators. Carbon-based nano-crystals such as carbon-nanotubes (CNTs) and graphenes have a large degree of dimensional flexibility and thermo-mechanical strength, which could be suitable for channeling acceleration of MW beams. Nano-channels of the synthetic crystals can accept a few orders of magnitude larger phase-space volume of channeled particles with much higher thermal tolerance than natural crystals. This study presents the current status of CNT-channeling acceleration research at the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) in Fermilab.

  3. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    F. ; Dhungana, N. ; Farine, J. ; Felis, I. more ; Filgas, R. ; Fines-Neuschild, M. ; Girard, F. ; Giroux, G. ; Hai, M. ; Hall, J. ; Harris, O. ; Jackson, C. M. ; Jin, M. ; ...

  4. Pico Vermelho Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  5. Pico Vermelho-Ribeira Grande Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    yd Use the "Edit with Form" button at the top of the page to add a Well Field Description Geology of the Area Geologic Setting Tectonic Setting: Rift Zone Controlling Structure:...

  6. MHK Technologies/European Pico Pilot Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2008 Brest, France , Jah, Alok, "Tidal Turbine begins Feeding Power to the Grid", The Guardian (newspaper), London, July 18, 2008 Date Submitted 9282010 << Return to the MHK...

  7. Array of Cu{sub 2}O nano-columns fabricated by oblique angle sputter deposition and their application in photo-assisted proton reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Chaudhary, Y. S.; Thakur, I.; Kulkarni, N. A.; Ayyub, P.

    2015-01-14

    Nano-columnar arrays of Cu{sub 2}O were grown by the oblique angle sputter deposition technique based on the self-shadowing principle. The as-grown nano-columnar samples are oriented along (111) direction, and they are highly transmitting in the visible range with a low reflectance. In this work, we show the photo-electrochemical activity of nano-columnar array of Cu{sub 2}O, which shows a higher (?25%) photocurrent density and a two-fold enhancement in the incident-to-photon conversion efficiency as compared to continuous thin film of Cu{sub 2}O in photo-assisted proton reduction type reaction. The improvement in electrochemical activity of nano-columnar Cu{sub 2}O photocathode can be attributed to the change in morphology, crystal structure, as well as electrical property, which shows a higher degree of band bending, increased donor carrier (e?) density and lower width of space charge region as revealed by capacitance measurements and Mott-Schottky analysis.

  8. Optimizing white light luminescence in Dy{sup 3+}-doped Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haritha, P.; Linganna, K.; Venkatramu, V.; Martn, I. R.; Monteseguro, V.; Rodrguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Babu, P.; Len-Luis, S. F.; Jayasankar, C. K.; Lavn, V.

    2014-11-07

    Trivalent dysprosium-doped Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets have been prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and laser excited spectroscopy. Under a cw 457?nm laser excitation, the white luminescence properties of Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets have been studied as a function of the optically active Dy{sup 3+} ion concentration and at low temperature. Decay curves for the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+} ion exhibit non-exponential nature for all the Dy{sup 3+} concentrations, which have been well-fitted to a generalized energy transfer model for a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction between Dy{sup 3+} ions without diffusion. From these data, a simple rate-equations model can be applied to predict that intense white luminescence could be obtained from 1.8?mol% Dy{sup 3+} ions-doped nano-garnets, which is in good agreement with experimental results. Chromaticity color coordinates and correlated color temperatures have been determined as a function of temperature and are found to be within the white light region for all Dy{sup 3+} concentrations. These results indicate that 2.0?mol% Dy{sup 3+} ions doped nano-garnet could be useful for white light emitting device applications.

  9. Micro- and nano-X-ray computed-tomography: A step forward in the characterization of the pore network of a leached cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossa, Nathan; Chaurand, Perrine; Vicente, Jrme; Borschneck, Daniel; Levard, Clment; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier; Rose, Jrme

    2015-01-15

    Pore structure of leached cement pastes (w/c = 0.5) was studied for the first time from micro-scale down to the nano-scale by combining micro- and nano-X-ray computed tomography (micro- and nano-CT). This allowed assessing the 3D heterogeneity of the pore network along the cement profile (from the core to the altered layer) of almost the entire range of cement pore size, i.e. from capillary to gel pores. We successfully quantified an increase of porosity in the altered layer at both resolutions. Porosity is increasing from 1.8 to 6.1% and from 18 to 58% at the micro-(voxel = 1.81 ?m) and nano-scale (voxel = 63.5 nm) respectively. The combination of both CT allowed to circumvent weaknesses inherent of both investigation scales. In addition the connectivity and the channel size of the pore network were also evaluated to obtain a complete 3D pore network characterization at both scales.

  10. Alternation of the Pd Lattice in Nano-Sized-Pd/ZrO2 Composite during Hydrogen Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arachi, Yoshinori; Asai, Takeshi; Emura, Shuichi; Omura, Akira; Nunogaki, Masanobu; Yamaura, Shunichi; Inoue, Akihisa; Arata, Yoshiaki

    2007-02-02

    Structural analysis of high Deuterium absorbed 5 nm Pd particles in dispersed ZrO2 has been carried out using XAFS techniques. X-ray absorption spectra around the Pd K-absorption edge were observed and analyzed. The Pd-Pd bonding distance in the fcc Pd lattice was enlarged by 0.08 {approx} 0.09 A during absorption of deuterium, and it completely reverted to its original state with the release of deuterium while maintaining the crystal lattice symmetry. These changes provide evidence that deuterium locates not on the surface of the Pd particle, but rather within the Pd crystal lattice. XANES spectra clearly indicate that any change in the oxidation state of Pd are not observed, resulting in no reaction of the absorbed Deuterium atoms with Pd atoms. This paper reports the alternation of Pd lattice in nano-sized composite during hydrogen absorption. The possible models of deuterium position in the Pd lattice are also discussed.

  11. Generation of steep phase anisotropy with zero-backscattering by arrays of coupled dielectric nano-resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng; Wei, Qi-Huo; Htoon, Han

    2014-09-22

    The interaction of light with high-permittivity dielectric nano-resonators can lead to zero-backscattering (i.e., full transmission), attributed to the simultaneous excitation of electric and magnetic dipolar modes in these resonators. In this paper, we numerically demonstrate that 2-dimensional Si nanocuboid arrays with anisotropic periodicity and finely tuned cuboid height can generate up to 2? optical phase anisotropy with zero-backscattering. Especially, by introducing strong Fano-type coupling into unit cells of the array, the induced phase anisotropy becomes ultra-steep with excitation wavelength. These special optical properties promise applications in various transmissive photonic devices, and we discuss their potential applications in transmissive polarization conversion and sensing.

  12. Blue light emitting SrSn(OH){sub 6} nano-rods doped with lanthanide ions (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, D.K.; Nuwad, J.; Rajeswari, B.; Vishwanadh, B.; Sudarsan, V.; Vatsa, R.K.; Kadam, R.M.; Pillai, C.G.S.; Kulshreshtha, S.K.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Room temperature synthesis of blue light emitting SrSn(OH){sub 6} nano-rods. ? Blue light emission originates from the recombination of self trapped excitons. ? There exists energy transfer from host to lanthanide ions in SrSn(OH){sub 6}:Ln nano-rods. ? Solubility of Eu{sup 3+} ions in SrSn(OH){sub 6} nano-rods is around 1.5 at%. -- Abstract: Blue light emitting SrSn(OH){sub 6} nano-rods were prepared in aqueous medium at room temperature. Presence of lanthanide ions in reaction medium during synthesis of nano-rods, leads to significant changes in the morphology of the nano-rods. Based on luminescence studies emission in the blue region from SrSn(OH){sub 6} nano-rods has been attributed to radiative recombination of self trapped excitons in the lattice. SrSn(OH){sub 6} nano-rods were doped with lanthanide ions like Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} and their luminescence studies revealed that there exists energy transfer from host to lanthanide ions. From the luminescence studies on Eu{sup 3+} doped samples, it is confirmed that up to 1.5 at%, Eu{sup 3+} ions get incorporated at Sr{sup 2+} site in SrSn(OH){sub 6} lattice and beyond which a separate Eu{sup 3+} containing phase is formed. Part of the europium ions also exists as Eu{sup 2+} species in the lattice as confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies.

  13. From micro- to nano-scale molding of metals : size effect during molding of single crystal Al with rectangular strip punches.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.; Meng, W. J.; Mei, F.; Hiller, J.; Miller, D. J. (Materials Science Division); (Louisiana State Univ.); (Enervana Tech. LLC)

    2011-02-01

    A single crystal Al specimen was molded at room temperature with long, rectangular, strip diamond punches. Quantitative molding response curves were obtained at a series of punch widths, ranging from 5 {micro}m to 550 nm. A significant size effect was observed, manifesting itself in terms of significantly increasing characteristic molding pressure as the punch width decreases to 1.5 {micro}m and below. A detailed comparison of the present strip punch molding results was made with Berkovich pyramidal indentation on the same single crystal Al specimen. The comparison reveals distinctly different dependence of the characteristic pressure on corresponding characteristic length. The present results show the feasibility of micro-/nano-scale compression molding as a micro-/nano-fabrication technique, and offer an experimental test case for size-dependent plasticity theories.

  14. Designing optical metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion based on Al:ZnO/ZnO nano-layered structure using Atomic Layer Deposition technique

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kelly, Priscilla; Liu, Mingzhao; Kuznetsova, Lyuba

    2016-04-07

    In this study, nano-layered Al:ZnO/ZnO hyperbolic dispersion metamaterial with a large number of layers was fabricated using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Experimental dielectric functions for Al:ZnO/ZnO structures are obtained by an ellipsometry technique in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. The theoretical modeling of the Al:ZnO/ZnO dielectric permittivity is done using effective medium approximation. A method for analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometry data is demonstrated to extract the optical permittivity for this highly anisotropic nano-layered metamaterial. The results of the ellipsometry analysis show that Al:ZnO/ZnO structures with a 1:9 ALD cycle ratio exhibit hyperbolic dispersion transition change near 1.8more » μm wavelength.« less

  15. Energy deficit of pulsed-laser field-ionized and field-emitted ions from non-metallic nano-tips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnoldi, L.; Silaeva, E. P.; Gaillard, A.; Vurpillot, F.; Blum, I.; Rigutti, L.; Deconihout, B.; Vella, A.

    2014-05-28

    The energy deficit of pulsed-laser field-evaporated ions and field-ionized atoms of an inert gas from the surface of a non-metallic nano-metric tip is reported as a function of the laser intensity, ion current, and temperature. A new model is proposed to explain these results, taking into account the resistive properties of non-metallic nano-tips. A good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experimental results is obtained for all parameters investigated experimentally. This model is also used to discuss the evaporation behavior of oxides analyzed in laser-assisted atom probe tomography. New insight into the contribution of the electrostatic field and the laser illumination on the evaporation process of non-metallic materials is given.

  16. AOI [3] High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 and - H2S Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perepezko, John; Lu-Steffes, Otto

    2014-08-31

    The emissions from coal-fired power plants remain a significant concern for air quality. This environmental challenge must be overcome by controlling the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) throughout the entire coal combustion process. One of the processes which could specifically benefit from robust, low cost, and high temperature compatible gas sensors is the coal gasification process which converts coal and/or biomass into syngas. Hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur compounds make up 33%, 43% and 2% of syngas, respectively. Therefore, development of a high temperature (>500°C) chemical sensor for in-situ monitoring of H2, H2S and SO2 levels during coal gasification is strongly desired. The selective detection of SO2/H2S in the presence of H2, is a formidable task for a sensor designer. In order to ensure effective operation of these chemical sensors, the sensor system must inexpensively function within harsh temperature and chemical environment. Currently available sensing approaches, which are based on gas chromatography, electrochemistry, and IR-spectroscopy, do not satisfy the required cost and performance targets. This work focused on the development microsensors that can be applied to this application. In order to develop the high- temperature compatible microsensor, this work addressed various issues related to sensor stability, selectivity, and miniaturization. In the research project entitled “High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 and -H2S Sensors”, the team worked to develop micro-scale, chemical sensors and sensor arrays composed of nano-derived, metal-oxide composite materials to detect gases like H2, SO2, and H2S within high-temperature environments (>500C). The research was completed in collaboration with NexTech Materials, Ltd. (Lewis Center, Ohio). NexTech assisted in the testing of the sensors in syngas with contaminate levels of H2S. The idea of including nanomaterials as the sensing material within resistive-type chemical sensor platforms was to increase the sensitivity (as shown for room temperature applications). Unfortunately, nanomaterials are not stable at high temperatures due to sintering and coarsening processes that are driven by their high surface to volume ratio. Therefore, new hydrogen and sulfur selective nanomaterial systems with high selectivity and stability properties in the proposed harsh environment were investigated. Different nano-morphologies of zirconate, molybdate, and tungstate compounds were investigated. The fabrication of the microsensors consisted of the deposition of the selective nanomaterial systems over metal based interconnects on an inert substrate. This work utilized the chemi-resistive (resistive- type) microsensor architecture where the chemically and structurally stable, high temperature compatible electrodes were sputtered onto a ceramic substrate. The nanomaterial sensing systems were deposited over the electrodes using a lost mold method patterned by conventional optical lithography. The microsensor configuration with optimized nanomaterial system was tested and compared to a millimeter-size sensor e outcomes of this research will contribute to the economical application of sensor arrays for simultaneous sensing of H2, H2S, and SO2.

  17. An experimental study of external reactor vessel cooling strategy on the critical heat flux using the graphene oxide nano-fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, S. D.; Lee, S. W.; Kang, S.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Bang, I. C.

    2012-07-01

    External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) for in-vessel retention (IVR) of corium as a key severe accident management strategy can be achieved by flooding the reactor cavity during a severe accident. In this accident mitigation strategy, the decay heat removal capability depends on whether the imposed heat flux exceeds critical heat flux (CHF). To provide sufficient cooling for high-power reactors such as APR1400, there have been some R and D efforts to use the reactor vessel with micro-porous coating and nano-fluids boiling-induced coating. The dispersion stability of graphene-oxide nano-fluid in the chemical conditions of flooding water that includes boric acid, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was checked in terms of surface charge or zeta potential before the CHF experiments. Results showed that graphene-oxide nano-fluids were very stable under ERVC environment. The critical heat flux (CHF) on the reactor vessel external wall was measured using the small scale two-dimensional slide test section. The radius of the curvature is 0.1 m. The dimension of each part in the facility simulated the APR-1400. The heater was designed to produce the different heat flux. The magnitude of heat flux follows the one of the APR-1400 when the severe accident occurred. All tests were conducted under inlet subcooling 10 K. Graphene-oxide nano-fluids (concentration: 10 -4 V%) enhanced CHF limits up to about 20% at mass flux 50 kg/m{sup 2}s and 100 kg/m{sup 2}s in comparison with the results of the distilled water at same test condition. (authors)

  18. Nano-fabricated perpendicular magnetic anisotropy electrodes for lateral spin valves and observation of Nernst-Ettingshausen related signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chejanovsky, N.; Sharoni, A.

    2014-08-21

    Lateral spin valves (LSVs) are efficient structures for characterizing spin currents in spintronics devices. Most LSVs are based on ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes for spin-injection and detection. While there are advantages for using perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) FM, e.g., stability to nano-scaling, these have almost not been studied. This is mainly due to difficulties in fabricating PMA FMs in a lateral geometry. We present here an efficient method, based on ion-milling through an AlN mask, for fabrication of LSVs with multi-layered PMA FMs such as Co/Pd and Co/Ni. We demonstrate, using standard permalloy FMs, that the method enables efficient spin injection. We show the multi-layer electrodes retain their PMA properties as well as spin injection and detection in PMA LSVs. In addition, we find a large asymmetric voltage signal which increases with current. We attribute this to a Nernst-Ettingshausen effect caused by local Joule heating and the perpendicular magnetic easy axis.

  19. Nano-twin Mediated Plasticity in Carbon-containing FeNiCoCrMn High Entropy Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Zhenggang; Bei, Hongbin; Parish, Chad M

    2015-06-14

    Equiatomic FeNiCoCrMn alloy has been reported to exhibit promising strength and ductility at cryogenic temperature and deformation mediated by nano-twining appeared to be one of the main reasons. We use the FeNiCoCrMn alloy as a base alloy to seek further improvement of its mechanical properties by alloying additional elements, i.e., interstitial carbon. Moreover, the effects of carbon on microstructures, mechanical properties and twinning activities were investigated in two different temperatures (77 and 293 K). With addition of 0.5 at% C, the high entropy alloy still remains entirely single phase face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure. We found that these materials can be cold rolled and recrystallized to produce a microstructure with equiaxed grains. Both strain hardening rate and strength are enhanced while high uniform elongations to fracture (~70% at 77 K and ~40% at 293 K) are still maintained. The increased strain hardening and strength could be caused by the promptness of deformation twinning in C-containing high entropy alloys.

  20. Addressing the Recalcitrance of Cellulose Degradation through Cellulase Discovery, Nano-scale Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms, and Kinetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Larry P., Bergstrom, Gary; Corgie, Stephane; Craighead, Harold; Gibson, Donna; Wilson, David

    2011-06-13

    This research project was designed to play a vital role in the development of low cost sugars from cellulosic biomass and contributing to the national effort to displace fossil fuel usage in the USA transportation sector. The goal was to expand the portfolio of cell wall degrading enzymes through innovative research at the nano-scale level, prospecting for novel cellulases and building a kinetic framework for the development of more effective enzymatic conversion processes. More precisely, the goal was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for some cellulases that are very familiar to members of our research team and to investigate what we hope are novel cellulases or new enzyme combinations from the world of plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Hydrolytic activities of various cellulases and cellulase cocktails were monitored at the nanoscale of cellulose fibrils and the microscale of pretreated cellulose particles, and we integrated this insight into a heterogeneous reaction framework. The over-riding approach for this research program was the application of innovative and cutting edge optical and high-throughput screening and analysis techniques for observing how cellulases hydrolyze real substrates.

  1. Nano-sized precipitate stability and its controlling factors in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Ilavsky, Jan; Ghosh, Gautam; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-11-05

    Coherent B2-ordered NiAl-type precipitates have been used to reinforce solid-solution bodycentered- cubic iron for high-temperature application in fossil-energy power plants. In this study, the stability of nano-sized precipitates in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy was investigated at 700 - 950°C using ultra-small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopies. Here we show that the coarsening kinetics of NiAl-type precipitates is in excellent agreement with the ripening model in multicomponent alloys. We further demonstrate that the interfacial energy between the matrix and NiAl-type precipitates is strongly dependent to differences in the matrix/precipitate compositions. The results profile the ripening process in multicomponent alloys bymore » illustrating controlling factors (i.e., interfacial energy, diffusivities, and element partitioning). As a result, the study provides guidelines to design and develop high-temperature alloys with stable microstructures for long-term service.« less

  2. Effect of substrates on microstructure and mechanical properties of nano-eutectic 1080 steel produced by aluminothermic reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La, Peiqing, E-mail: pqla@lut.cn; Li, Zhengning; Li, Cuiling; Hu, Sulei; Lu, Xuefeng; Wei, Yupeng; Wei, Fuan

    2014-06-01

    Nano-eutectic bulk 1080 carbon steel was prepared on glass and copper substrates by an aluminothermic reaction casting. The microstructure of the steel was analyzed by an optical microscope, transmission electron microscopy, an electron probe micro-analyzer, a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Results show that the microstructure of the steel consisted of a little cementite and lamellar eutectic pearlite. Average lamellar spacing of the pearlite prepared on copper and glass substrates was about 230 nm and 219 nm, respectively. Volume fraction of the pearlite of the two steels was about 95%. Hardness of the steel was about 229 and 270 HV. Tensile strength was about 610 and 641 MPa and tensile elongation was about 15% and 8%. Compressive strength was about 1043 and 1144 MPa. Compared with the steel prepared on copper substrate, the steel prepared on glass substrate had smaller lamellar spacing of the pearlite phase and higher strength, and low ductility due to the smaller spacing. - Highlights: 1080-carbon steels were successfully prepared by an aluminothermic reaction casting. Lamellar spacing of the nanoeutetic pearlite is less than 250 nm. The compressive strength of the steel is about 1144 MPa. The tensile ductility of the steel is about 15%.

  3. Effect of carbon dioxide and nitrogen on the diffusivity of methane confined in nano-porous carbon aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavila Chathoth, Suresh; He, Lilin; Mamontov, Eugene; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    2012-01-01

    The microscopic diffusivity of methane (CH{sub 4}) confined in nano-porous carbon aerogel was investigated as a function of added carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) pressure using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). In the range of the external pressure of 1-2.5 MPa, the self-diffusivity of methane was found to increase with CO{sub 2} pressure and remain practically unchanged in the N{sub 2} environment. Increasing mobility of methane with CO{sub 2} pressure suggests that the adsorbed CH4 molecules become gradually replaced by CO{sub 2} on the surface of carbon aerogel pores, whereas the presence of N{sub 2} does not induce the replacement. The molecular mobility of the methane, with or without added carbon dioxide and nitrogen, is described by the unrestricted diffusion model, which is characteristic of methane compressed in small pores. On the other hand, both nitrogen and carbon dioxide molecules in carbon aerogel, when studied alone, with no methane present, follow a jump diffusion process, characteristic of the molecular mobility in the densified adsorbed layers on the surface of the aerogel pores.

  4. Film Breakdown and Nano-Porous Mg(OH)2 Formation from Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys in Salt Solutions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brady, Michael P; Rother, Gernot; Anovitz, Lawrence; Littrell, Ken; Unocic, Kinga A; Song, GuangLing; Thomson, Jeffery K; Gallego, Nidia C; Davis, Dr. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and cross-section scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to study film formation by magnesium alloys AZ31B (Mg-3Al-1Zn base) and ZE10A (Elektron 717, E717: Mg-1Zn + Nd, Zr) in H2O and D2O with and without 1 or 5 wt.% NaCl. No SANS scattering changes were observed after 24 h D2O or H2O exposures compared with unreacted alloy, consistent with relatively dense MgO-base film formation. However, exposure to 5 wt.% NaCl resulted in accelerated corrosion, with resultant SANS scattering changes detected. The SANS data indicated both particle and rough surface scattering, but with no preferential sizemore » features. The films formed in 5 wt.% NaCl consisted of a thin, inner MgO-base layer, and a nano-porous and filamentous Mg(OH)2 outer region tens of microns thick. Chlorine was detected extending to the inner MgO-base film region, with segregation of select alloying elements also observed in the inner MgO, but not the outer Mg(OH)2. Modeling of the SANS data suggested that the outer Mg(OH)2 films had very high surface areas, consistent with loss of film protectiveness. Implications for the NaCl corrosion mechanism, and the potential utility of SANS for Mg corrosion, are discussed.« less

  5. MoS{sub 2}@ZnO nano-heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalysis and field emission properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Ying-Hua; Yu, Ke Li, Jin-Zhu; Fu, Hao; Zhu, Zi-Qiang

    2014-08-14

    The molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2})@ZnO nano-heterojunctions were successfully fabricated through a facile three-step synthetic process: prefabrication of the ZnO nanoparticles, the synthesis of MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers, and the fabrication of MoS{sub 2}@ZnO heterojunctions, in which ZnO nanoparticles were uniformly self-assembled on the MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers by utilizing polyethyleneimine as a binding agent. The photocatalytic activities of the composite samples were evaluated by monitoring the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB). Compared with pure MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers, the composites show higher adsorption capability in dark and better photocatalytic efficiency due to the increased specific surface area and improved electron-hole pair separation. After irradiation for 100?min, the remaining MB in solution is about 7.3%. Moreover, the MoS{sub 2}@ZnO heterojunctions possess enhanced field emission properties with lower turn-on field of 3.08?V ?m{sup ?1}and lower threshold field of 6.9?V ?m{sup ?1} relative to pure MoS{sub 2} with turn-on field of 3.65?V ?m{sup ?1} and threshold field of 9.03?V ?m{sup ?1}.

  6. Film Breakdown and Nano-Porous Mg(OH)2 Formation from Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys in Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P; Rother, Gernot; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Littrell, Ken; Unocic, Kinga A; Song, GuangLing; Thomson, Jeffery K; Gallego, Nidia C; Davis, Dr. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and cross-section scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to study film formation by magnesium alloys AZ31B (Mg-3Al-1Zn base) and ZE10A (Elektron 717, E717: Mg-1Zn + Nd, Zr) in H2O and D2O with and without 1 or 5 wt.% NaCl. No SANS scattering changes were observed after 24 h D2O or H2O exposures compared with unreacted alloy, consistent with relatively dense MgO-base film formation. However, exposure to 5 wt.% NaCl resulted in accelerated corrosion, with resultant SANS scattering changes detected. The SANS data indicated both particle and rough surface scattering, but with no preferential size features. The films formed in 5 wt.% NaCl consisted of a thin, inner MgO-base layer, and a nano-porous and filamentous Mg(OH)2 outer region tens of microns thick. Chlorine was detected extending to the inner MgO-base film region, with segregation of select alloying elements also observed in the inner MgO, but not the outer Mg(OH)2. Modeling of the SANS data suggested that the outer Mg(OH)2 films had very high surface areas, consistent with loss of film protectiveness. Implications for the NaCl corrosion mechanism, and the potential utility of SANS for Mg corrosion, are discussed.

  7. Nano-sized precipitate stability and its controlling factors in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Ilavsky, Jan; Ghosh, Gautam; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-11-05

    Coherent B2-ordered NiAl-type precipitates have been used to reinforce solid-solution bodycentered- cubic iron for high-temperature application in fossil-energy power plants. In this study, the stability of nano-sized precipitates in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy was investigated at 700 - 950°C using ultra-small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopies. Here we show that the coarsening kinetics of NiAl-type precipitates is in excellent agreement with the ripening model in multicomponent alloys. We further demonstrate that the interfacial energy between the matrix and NiAl-type precipitates is strongly dependent to differences in the matrix/precipitate compositions. The results profile the ripening process in multicomponent alloys by illustrating controlling factors (i.e., interfacial energy, diffusivities, and element partitioning). As a result, the study provides guidelines to design and develop high-temperature alloys with stable microstructures for long-term service.

  8. NanoLC-FT-ICR MS improves proteome coverage attainable for ~3000 laser microdissected breast carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umar, Arzu; Luider, Theo N.; Foekens, J. A.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana

    2007-01-29

    Genomics and proteomics assays hold great promise for unrevealing molecular events that underlie human disease. Essential to this quest is the ability to effectively analyze clinical samples, but this task is considerably complicated by tissue heterogeneity. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) can be used to selectively isolate targeted cell populations (such as tumor cells) from their native tissue environment. However, the small number of cells that are typically procured by LCM severely limits the proteome coverage and biomarker discovery potential achievable by conventional proteomics platforms. Herein, we report on the use of a nano liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion clyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (nLC-FTICR MS) platform for analyzing protein digests of approximately 3,000 LCM-derived tumor cells from breast carcinoma tissue, which corresponds to approximately 300 ng of total protein. A total of 2,836 peptides were identified by matching LC-MS data to accurate mass and time (AMT) tag databases that were previously established for the human mammary epithelium and several breast cancer cell lines. The peptide identifications correspond to 1,139 unique proteins confidently identified with 2 or more peptides. Based on categorization by Gene Ontology, identified proteins appear to cover a wide variety of biological functions and cellular compartments. This work demonstrates that a substantial number of proteins can be identified from a limited number of cells using the AMT tag approach and opens a door for high throughput in-depth proteomics analysis of clinical samples.

  9. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  10. Nano-twin Mediated Plasticity in Carbon-containing FeNiCoCrMn High Entropy Alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Zhenggang; Bei, Hongbin; Parish, Chad M

    2015-06-14

    Equiatomic FeNiCoCrMn alloy has been reported to exhibit promising strength and ductility at cryogenic temperature and deformation mediated by nano-twining appeared to be one of the main reasons. We use the FeNiCoCrMn alloy as a base alloy to seek further improvement of its mechanical properties by alloying additional elements, i.e., interstitial carbon. Moreover, the effects of carbon on microstructures, mechanical properties and twinning activities were investigated in two different temperatures (77 and 293 K). With addition of 0.5 at% C, the high entropy alloy still remains entirely single phase face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure. We found that these materials canmore » be cold rolled and recrystallized to produce a microstructure with equiaxed grains. Both strain hardening rate and strength are enhanced while high uniform elongations to fracture (~70% at 77 K and ~40% at 293 K) are still maintained. The increased strain hardening and strength could be caused by the promptness of deformation twinning in C-containing high entropy alloys.« less

  11. Surfactant-Free Synthesis of Bi?Te?-Te Micro-Nano Heterostructure with Enhanced Thermoelectric Figure of Merit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yichi; Wang, Heng; Kraemer, Stephan; Shi, Yifeng; Zhang, Fan; Snedaker, Matt; Ding, Kunlun; Moskovits, Martin; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Stucky, Galen D.

    2011-01-01

    An ideal thermoelectric material would be a semiconductor with high electrical conductivity and relatively low thermal conductivity: an electron crystal, phonon glass. Introducing nanoscale heterostructures into the bulk TE matrix is one way of achieving this intuitively anomalous electron/phonon transport behavior. The heterostructured interfaces are expected to play a significant role in phonon scattering to reduce thermal conductivity and in the energy-dependent scattering of electrical carriers to improve the Seebeck coefficient. A nanoparticle building block assembly approach is plausible to fabricate three-dimensional heterostructured materials on a bulk commercial scale. However, a key problem in applying this strategy is the possible negative impact on TE performance of organic residue from the nanoparticle capping ligands. Herein, we report a wet chemical, surfactant-free, low-temperature, and easily up-scalable strategy for the synthesis of nanoscale heterophase Bi?Te?-Te via a galvanic replacement reaction. The micro-nano heterostructured material is fabricated bottom-up, by mixing the heterophase with commercial Bi?Te?. This unique structure shows an enhanced zT value of ~0.4 at room temperature. This heterostructure has one of the highest figures of merit among bismuth telluride systems yet achieved by a wet chemical bottom-up assembly. In addition, it shows a 40% enhancement of the figure of merit over our lab-made material without nanoscale heterostructures. This enhancement is mainly due to the decrease in the thermal conductivity while maintaining the power factor. Overall, this cost-efficient and room-temperature synthesis methodology provides the potential for further improvement and large-scale thermoelectric applications.

  12. Bridging the Gap between Theory and Experiments - Nano-structural Changes in Supported Catalysts under Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Blom, Douglas Allen; Debusk, Melanie Moses

    2008-01-01

    Computational approaches have been limited to examining catalytic processes using models that have been greatly simplified in comparison to real catalysts. Experimental studies, especially on emission treatment catalysts, have primarily focused on fully formulated systems. Thus, there remains a knowledge gap between theory and experiments. We combine the power of theory and experiment for atomistic design of catalytically active sites that can translate the fundamental insights gained directly to a catalyst system suitable for technical deployment. In this article, we describe our results on a model platinum-alumina catalyst that is a common constituent of emission treatment catalysts such as three-way, NO/dx trap, oxidation, and HC-SCR catalysts. We present theoretical and experimental studies of the oxidation and reactivity of Pt catalyst clusters towards O, CO, and NO/dx. Our theoretical studies indicate that the reaction energetics are strongly dependent on the size of the clusters as well as the extent of oxidation of the clusters, and the energetics of CO and NO oxidation may be more favorable on the oxidized clusters than metallic clusters because of the weakened adsorption of O, CO and NO. Experimentally, we have observed that the aberration-corrected HA-ADF STEM images of Pt/gg-alumina support show that there are single atoms, 2-3 atom clusters, and several 10-20 atom clusters of Pt. We also found that the Pt particles size has an impact on CO oxidation initiation and completion temperatures. Substrate effects were studied for equivalent Pt particle size distributions on both gu-alumina and gg-alumina supports. Particle size effects were investigated on Pt/gg-alumina catalysts with Pt particle size distribution centered at 1 nm and 12 nm, respectively. We will describe our results on substrate and Pt particle size effects. In addition, we will also present our study of nano-structural changes in model catalysts on exposure to various reaction conditions.

  13. Identification and design of novel polymer-based mechanical transducers: A nano-structural model for thin film indentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villanueva, Joshua; Huang, Qian; Sirbuly, Donald J.

    2014-09-14

    Mechanical characterization is important for understanding small-scale systems and developing devices, particularly at the interface of biology, medicine, and nanotechnology. Yet, monitoring sub-surface forces is challenging with current technologies like atomic force microscopes (AFMs) or optical tweezers due to their probe sizes and sophisticated feedback mechanisms. An alternative transducer design relying on the indentation mechanics of a compressible thin polymer would be an ideal system for more compact and versatile probes, facilitating measurements in situ or in vivo. However, application-specific tuning of a polymer's mechanical properties can be burdensome via experimental optimization. Therefore, efficient transducer design requires a fundamental understanding of how synthetic parameters such as the molecular weight and grafting density influence the bulk material properties that determine the force response. In this work, we apply molecular-level polymer scaling laws to a first order elastic foundation model, relating the conformational state of individual polymer chains to the macroscopic compression of thin film systems. A parameter sweep analysis was conducted to observe predicted model trends under various system conditions and to understand how nano-structural elements influence the material stiffness. We validate the model by comparing predicted force profiles to experimental AFM curves for a real polymer system and show that it has reasonable predictive power for initial estimates of the force response, displaying excellent agreement with experimental force curves. We also present an analysis of the force sensitivity of an example transducer system to demonstrate identification of synthetic protocols based on desired mechanical properties. These results highlight the usefulness of this simple model as an aid for the design of a new class of compact and tunable nanomechanical force transducers.

  14. Effect of Dual-Function Nano-Structured Silicon Oxide Thin Film on Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, B.; Sivec, L.; Yue, G.; Jiang, C. S.; Yang, J.; Guha, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present our recent study of using nano-structured hydrogenated silicon oxide films (nc-SiO{sub x}:H) as a dual-function layer in multi-junction solar cells. The nc-SiO{sub x}:H films were deposited using very high frequency glow discharge of a SiH{sub 4} (or Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}), CO{sub 2}, PH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2} gas mixture. By optimizing deposition parameters, we obtained 'dual function' nc-SiO{sub x}:H material characterized by a conductivity suitable for use as an n layer and optical properties suitable for use as an inter-reflection layer. We tested the nc-SiO{sub x}:H by replacing the normal n-type material in the tunnel junction of a multi-junction structure. The advantage of the dual-function nc-SiO{sub x}:H layer is twofold; one is to simplify the cell structure, and the other is to reduce any optical loss associated with the inter-reflection layer. Quantum efficiency measurements show the gain in top cell current is equal to or greater than the loss in bottom cell current for a-Si:H/nc-Si:H structures. In addition, a thinner a-Si:H top cell with the nc-SiO{sub x}:H n layer improves the top-cell stability, thereby providing higher stabilized solar cell efficiency. We also used the dual-function layer between the middle and the bottom cells in a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/nc-Si:H triple-junction structures. The gain in the middle cell current is {approx}1.0 mA/cm{sup 2}, leading to an initial active-area efficiency of 14.8%.

  15. Controlled deposition of sulphur-containing semiconductor and dielectric nano-structured films on metals in SF{sub 6} ion-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Bredin, Jrme; Aanesland, Ane

    2013-12-07

    In the present paper, the deposition processes and formation of films in SF{sub 6} ion-ion plasma, with positive and negative ion flows accelerated to the surface, are investigated. The PEGASES (acronym for Plasma Propulsion with Electronegative GASES) source is used as an ion-ion plasma source capable of generating almost ideal ion-ion plasma with negative ion to electron density ratio more than 2500. It is shown that film deposition in SF{sub 6} ion-ion plasma is very sensitive to the polarity of the incoming ions. The effect is observed for Cu, W, and Pt materials. The films formed on Cu electrodes during negative and positive ion assisted deposition were analyzed. Scanning electron microscope analysis has shown that both positive and negative ion fluxes influence the copper surface and leads to film formation, but with different structures of the surface: the low-energy positive ion bombardment causes the formation of a nano-pored film transparent for ions, while the negative ion bombardment leads to a continuous smooth insulating film. The transversal size of the pores in the porous film varies in the range 50500 nm, and further analysis of the film has shown that the film forms a diode together with the substrate preventing positive charge drain, and positive ions are neutralized by passing through the nano-pores. The film obtained with the negative ion bombardment has an insulating surface, but probably with a multi-layer structure: destroying the top surface layer allows to measure similar diode IV-characteristics as for the nano-pored film case. Basing on results, practical conclusions for the probes and electrodes cleaning in ion-ion SF{sub 6} plasmas have been made. Different applications are proposed for the discovered features of the controlled deposition from ion-ion plasmas, from Li-sulphur rechargeable batteries manufacturing and nanofluidics issues to the applications for microelectronics, including low-k materials formation.

  16. Large voltage modulation in magnetic field sensors from two-dimensional arrays of Y-Ba-Cu-O nano Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cybart, Shane A. Dynes, R. C.; Cho, E. Y.; Wong, T. J.; Glyantsev, V. N.; Huh, J. U.; Yung, C. S.; Moeckly, B. H.; Beeman, J. W.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Wu, S. M.

    2014-02-10

    We have fabricated and tested two-dimensional arrays of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} superconducting quantum interference devices. The arrays contain over 36?000 nano Josephson junctions fabricated from ion irradiation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} through narrow slits in a resist-mask that was patterned with electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Measurements of current-biased arrays in magnetic field exhibit large voltage modulations as high as 30?mV.

  17. Suppression of the spin pumping in Pd/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayers with nano-oxide layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Duck-Ho; Kim, Hong-Hyoun; You, Chun-Yeol

    2011-08-15

    We demonstrate that the spin pumping effect can be effectively suppressed with a nano-oxide layer. Spin pumping effect manifests itself by an enhancement of the Gilbert damping parameter in normal metal/ferromagnetic hetero-structures, while many spintronics devices prefer smaller damping parameter. Since the spin pumping effect is directly related with the spin dependent interface conductance, we can modify the spin pumping by altering the interface conductance with the nano-oxide layer. We prepared series of Pd/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayers with different pausing time between Pd and Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} depositions in order to control the interface conductance. The Gilbert damping parameters are determined from the line-width measurements in the ferromagnetic resonance spectra for each pausing time sample. They are 0.0490, 0.0296, 0.0278, and 0.0251 for 0, 6, 30, and 60 s pausing time, respectively. We find that the damping parameter of Pd/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} is almost recovered to one of the Cu/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayer with 60 s pausing time, while the static magnetic properties are not noticeably changed.

  18. Effect of sintering in ball-milled K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} thermoelectric nano-composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatzikraniotis, E.; Ioannou, M.; Chrissafis, K.; Chung, D.Y.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Kyratsi, Th.

    2012-09-15

    K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} has many attractive features for thermoelectric applications. Recently, K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposite materials, consisting of nano-crystalline, micro-crystalline and amorphous phases, have been fabricated based on powder technology techniques. The Seebeck coefficient has been enhanced while the thermal conductivity has been decreased presenting, thus, interesting behavior. The behavior of the materials under heat treatment conditions is now of interest, as the application of sintering process is necessary for the development of thermoelectric modules. In this work, the crystallization of the K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nano-composites is studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results show that crystallization follows a multiple-step process with different activation energies. The thermoelectric properties are also discussed in the range that crystallization occurs. - Graphical Abstract: {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposites follow a multiple-step crystallization process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based composites consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sintering results multiple-step crystallization with variable activation energies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties follow a step-like behavior during sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties are attributed to the strain relaxation, nucleation and grain growth.

  19. First principles assessment of helium trapping in Y{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} in nano-featured ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Yanan; Jiang, Yong E-mail: odette@engineering.ucsb.edu; Yang, Litong; Lan, Guoqiang; Robert Odette, G. E-mail: odette@engineering.ucsb.edu; Yamamoto, Takuya; Shang, Jiacheng; Dang, Ying

    2014-10-14

    Nano-scale Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Y{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} oxides are the major features that provide high strength and irradiation tolerance in nano-structured ferritic alloys. Here, we employ density functional theory to study helium trapping in Y{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}. The results suggest that helium is more deeply trapped in Y{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} compared to Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Helium occupies open channels in Y{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}, where it weakly chemically interacts with neighboring oxygen anions, and results in less volume expansion compared to Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, reducing strains in the iron matrix. The corresponding helium mobility in these channels is very high. While its ultimate fate is to form oxide/matrix interface bubbles, transient deep trapping of helium in oxides plays a major role in the ability of NFA to manage helium distribution.

  20. Nano-scale NiSi and n-type silicon based Schottky barrier diode as a near infra-red detector for room temperature operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, S.; Midya, K.; Duttagupta, S. P.; Ramakrishnan, D.

    2014-09-28

    The fabrication of nano-scale NiSi/n-Si Schottky barrier diode by rapid thermal annealing process is reported. The characterization of the nano-scale NiSi film was performed using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The thickness of the film (27 nm) has been measured by cross-sectional Secondary Electron Microscopy and XPS based depth profile method. Currentvoltage (IV) characteristics show an excellent rectification ratio (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} = 10?) at a bias voltage of 1 V. The diode ideality factor is 1.28. The barrier height was also determined independently based on IV (0.62 eV) and high frequency capacitancevoltage technique (0.76 eV), and the correlation between them has explained. The diode photo-response was measured in the range of 1.352.5 ?m under different reverse bias conditions (0.01.0 V). The response is observed to increase with increasing reverse bias. From the photo-responsivity study, the zero bias barrier height was determined to be 0.54 eV.

  1. Towards sub-200 nm nano-structuring of linear giant magneto-resistive spin valves by a direct focused ion beam milling process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedmüller, Benjamin; Huber, Felix; Herr, Ulrich

    2014-02-14

    In this work, we present a detailed investigation of a focused ion beam (FIB) assisted nano-structuring process for giant magneto-resistive (GMR) spin valve sensors. We have performed a quantitative study of the dependence of the GMR ratio as well as the sensor resistance on the ion dose, which is implanted in the active region of our sensors. These findings are correlated with the decrease of magneto-resistive properties after micro- and nano-structuring by the FIB and reveal the importance of ion damage which limits the applicability of FIB milling to GMR devices in the low μm range. Deposition of a protective layer (50 nm SiO{sub 2}) on top of the sensor structure before milling leads to a preservation of the magneto-resistive properties after the milling procedure down to sensor dimensions of ∼300 nm. The reduction of the sensor dimensions to the nanometer regime is accompanied by a shift of the GMR curves, and a modification of the saturation behavior. Both effects can be explained by a micromagnetic model including the magnetic interaction of free and pinned layer as well as the effect of the demagnetizing field of the free layer on the sensor behavior. The results demonstrate that the FIB technology can be successfully used to prepare spintronic nanostructures.

  2. Low Temperature Propane Oxidation over Co3O4 based Nano-array Catalysts. Ni Dopant Effect, Reaction Mechanism and Structural Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Zheng; Wu, Zili; Gao, Puxian; Song, Wenqiao; Xiao, Wen; Guo, Yanbing; Ding, Jun; Suib, Steven L.; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2015-06-09

    Low temperature propane oxidation has been achieved by Co3O4-based nano-array catalysts featuring low catalytic materials loading. The Ni doping into the Co3O4 lattice has led to enhanced reaction kinetics at low temperature by promoting the surface lattice oxygen activity. In situ DRIFTS investigation in tandem with isotopic oxygen exchange reveals that the propane oxidation proceeds via Mars-van Krevelen mechanism where surface lattice oxygen acts as the active site whereas O2 in the reaction feed does not directly participate in CO2 formation. The Ni doping promotes the formation of less stable carbonates on the surface to facilitate the CO2 desorption. The thermal stability of Ni doped Co3O4 decreases with increased Ni concentration while catalytic activity increases. A balance between enhanced activity and compromised thermal stability shall be considered in the Ni doped Co3O4 nano-array catalysts for low temperature hydrocarbon oxidation. This study provides useful and timely guidance for rational catalyst design toward low temperature catalytic oxidation.

  3. Low Temperature Propane Oxidation over Co3O4 based Nano-array Catalysts. Ni Dopant Effect, Reaction Mechanism and Structural Stability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ren, Zheng; Wu, Zili; Gao, Puxian; Song, Wenqiao; Xiao, Wen; Guo, Yanbing; Ding, Jun; Suib, Steven L.; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2015-06-09

    Low temperature propane oxidation has been achieved by Co3O4-based nano-array catalysts featuring low catalytic materials loading. The Ni doping into the Co3O4 lattice has led to enhanced reaction kinetics at low temperature by promoting the surface lattice oxygen activity. In situ DRIFTS investigation in tandem with isotopic oxygen exchange reveals that the propane oxidation proceeds via Mars-van Krevelen mechanism where surface lattice oxygen acts as the active site whereas O2 in the reaction feed does not directly participate in CO2 formation. The Ni doping promotes the formation of less stable carbonates on the surface to facilitate the CO2 desorption. Themore » thermal stability of Ni doped Co3O4 decreases with increased Ni concentration while catalytic activity increases. A balance between enhanced activity and compromised thermal stability shall be considered in the Ni doped Co3O4 nano-array catalysts for low temperature hydrocarbon oxidation. This study provides useful and timely guidance for rational catalyst design toward low temperature catalytic oxidation.« less

  4. Time-Dependent Measure of a Nano-Scale Force-Pulse Driven by the Axonemal Dynein Motors in Individual Live Sperm Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M J; Rudd, R E; McElfresh, M W; Balhorn, R

    2009-04-23

    Nano-scale mechanical forces generated by motor proteins are crucial to normal cellular and organismal functioning. The ability to measure and exploit such forces would be important to developing motile biomimetic nanodevices powered by biological motors for Nanomedicine. Axonemal dynein motors positioned inside the sperm flagellum drive microtubule sliding giving rise to rhythmic beating of the flagellum. This force-generating action makes it possible for the sperm cell to move through viscous media. Here we report new nano-scale information on how the propulsive force is generated by the sperm flagellum and how this force varies over time. Single cell recordings reveal discrete {approx}50 ms pulses oscillating with amplitude 9.8 {+-} 2.6 nN independent of pulse frequency (3.5-19.5 Hz). The average work carried out by each cell is 4.6 x 10{sup -16} J per pulse, equivalent to the hydrolysis of {approx}5,500 ATP molecules. The mechanochemical coupling at each active dynein head is {approx}2.2 pN/ATP, and {approx}3.9 pN per dynein arm, in agreement with previously published values obtained using different methods.

  5. NanoDays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    activities with presentations on current research, this event features new and unique learning experiences for both children and adults. WHAT TO EXPECT: Hands-on, table-top...

  6. Bio2Nano

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    they learn and adapt; and they scavenge energy from the environment. In short, Nature has mastered creating complex behavior from collective phenomena on the nanoscale. In...

  7. A transmission electron microscopy study of the deformation behavior underneath nanoindents in nano-scale Al-TiN multilayered composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, Dhriti; Mara, Nathan A; Dickerson, Patricia O; Misra, Amit; Hoagland, R G

    2009-01-01

    Nano-scale multilayered Al-TiN composites were deposited with DC magnetron sputtering technique in two different layer thickness ratios - Al:TiN = 1:1 and Al:TiN = 9:1. The Al layer thickness varied from 2 nm to 450 nm. The hardness of the samples was tested by nanoindentation using a Berkovich tip. Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was carried out on samples extracted with Focused Ion Beam (FIB) from below the nanoindents. This paper presents the results of the hardness tests in the Al-TiN multilayers with the two different thickness ratios and the observations from the cross-sectional TEM studies of the regions underneath the indents. These studies showed remarkable strength in the multilayers, as well as some very interesting deformation behavior in the TiN layers at extremely small length scales, where the hard TiN layers undergo co-deformation with the Al layers.

  8. Preparation of aluminum foil-supported nano-sized ZnO thin films and its photocatalytic degradation to phenol under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng Feng . E-mail: cefpeng@scut.edu.cn; Wang Hongjuan; Yu Hao; Chen Shuihui

    2006-11-09

    The zinc oxide thin films on aluminum foil have been successfully prepared by sol-gel method with methyl glycol as solvent. The film was characterized by means of XRD, TG, UV-vis, SEM and AFM, which show that the ZnO/Al film is formed by a layer of ZnO nano-sized particles with average diameter of 52.2 nm. Under the initial concentration of 20 mg/L phenol solution (500 mL) and visible light irradiation time of 3 h, more than 40% of the initial phenol was totally mineralized using two pieces of ZnO/Al thin film as photocatalyst with an efficient irradiation area of 400 cm{sup 2}. It is a promising visible light responded photocatalyst for the activation of O{sub 2} at room temperature to degrade organic pollutants.

  9. The effects of side-chain-induced disorder on the emission spectra and quantum yields of oligothiophene nano-aggregates. A combined experimental and MD-TDDFT study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Jiyun; Jeon, SuKyung; Kim, Janice J.; Devi, Diane; Chacon-Madrid, Kelly; Lee, Wynee; Koo, Seung Moh; Wildeman, Jurjen; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Peteanu, Linda A.; Wen, Jin; Ma, Jing

    2014-07-24

    Oligomeric thiophenes are commonly-used components in organic electronics and solar cells. These molecules stack and/or aggregate readily under the processing conditions used to form thin films for these applications, significantly altering their optical and charge-transport properties. To determine how these effects depend on the substitution pattern of the thiophene main chains, nano-aggregates of three sexi-thiophene (6T) oligomers having different alkyl substitution patterns were formed using solvent poisoning techniques and studied using steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. The results indicate the substantial role played by the side-chain substituents in determining the emissive properties of these species. Both the measured spectral changes and their dependence on substitution are well modeled by combined quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations connect the side-chain-induced disorder, which determines the favorable chain packing configurations within the aggregates, with their measured electronic spectra.

  10. The effects of side-chain-induced disorder on the emission spectra and quantum yields of oligothiophene nano-aggregates: A combined experimental and MD-TDDFT study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Jiyun; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Jeon, SuKyung; Kim, Janice J.; Devi, Diane; Chacon-Madrid, Kelly; Lee, Wynee; Koo, Seung Moh; Wildeman, Jurjen; Peteanu, Linda A.; Wen, Jin; Ma, Jing

    2014-11-13

    Oligomeric thiophenes are commonly-used components in organic electronics and solar cells. These molecules stack and/or aggregate readily under the processing conditions used to form thin films for these applications, significantly altering their optical and charge-transport properties. To determine how these effects depend on the substitution pattern of the thiophene main chains, nano-aggregates of three sexi-thiophene (6T) oligomers having different alkyl substitution patterns were formed using solvent poisoning techniques and studied using steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. The results indicate the substantial role played by the side-chain substituents in determining the emissive properties of these species. Both the measured spectral changes and their dependence on substitution are well modeled by combined quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations connect the side-chain-induced disorder, which determines the favorable chain packing configurations within the aggregates, with their measured electronic spectra.

  11. Solvothermal synthesis and tunable luminescence of Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} codoped YF{sub 3} nano- and micro-crystals with uniform morphologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Yue [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China) [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Chen, Baojiu, E-mail: chenmbj@sohu.com [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)] [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Jinsu; Tian, Bining; Sun, Jiashi; Cheng, Lihong; Zhong, Haiyang; Zhong, Hua [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)] [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Hua, Ruinian, E-mail: rnhua@dlnu.edu.cn [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China)] [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} codoped YF{sub 3} nano- and micro-crystals with the morphologies of ellipsoid-like nanoplate, spindle, sandwich-structural rhombus and nanoaggregate were synthesized through a solvothermal method. The morphologies of the prepared products can be tailored by controlling the volume ratio of ethylene glycol (EG) to H{sub 2}O, solvent type or the reaction time. A possible formation mechanism of the sandwich-structural rhombus like YF{sub 3} phosphor was proposed. The emitting colors of YF{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+} phosphors can be easily tuned from yellowish green, yellow to orange by increasing Eu{sup 3+} concentration. The energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} in YF{sub 3} phosphors was studied. It was found that the interaction type between Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} is electric dipole-dipole interaction. - Graphical abstract: Sandwich-structural rhombus like YF{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized through a solvothermal process. The formation mechanism of the sandwich-structural rhombus like YF{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} phosphors was studied. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YF{sub 3} nano- and micro-crystals were synthesized through solvothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A formation mechanism of the sandwich-structural rhombus like YF{sub 3} was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The emitting colors of YF{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+} phosphors can be tuned. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} is confirmed as electric dipole-dipole interaction.

  12. Role of intensive milling in the processing of barium ferrite/magnetite/iron hybrid magnetic nano-composites via partial reduction of barium ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molaei, M.J.; Ataie, A.; Raygan, S.; Picken, S.J.

    2015-03-15

    In this research a mixture of barium ferrite and graphite was milled for different periods of time and then heat treated at different temperatures. The effects of milling time and heat treatment temperature on the phase composition, thermal behavior, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques, respectively. X-ray diffraction results revealed that BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites form after a 20 h milling due to the partial reduction of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. High resolution transmission electron microscope images of a 40 h milled sample showed agglomerated structure consisting of nanoparticles with a mean particle size of 30 nm. Thermal analysis of the samples via differential thermal analysis indicated that for un-milled samples, heat treatment up to 900 °C did not result in α-Fe formation, while for a 20 h milled sample heat treatment at 700 °C resulted in reduction process progress to the formation of α-Fe. Wustite was disappeared in an X-ray diffraction pattern of a heat treated sample at 850 °C, by increasing the milling time from 20 to 40 h. By increasing the milling time, the structure of heat treated samples becomes magnetically softer due to an increase in saturation magnetization and a decrease in coercivity. Saturation magnetization and coercivity of a sample milled for 20 h and heat treated at 850 °C were 126.3 emu/g and 149.5 Oe which by increasing the milling time to 40 h, alter to 169.1 emu/g and 24.3 Oe, respectively. High coercivity values of milled and heat treated samples were attributed to the nano-scale formed iron particles. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Barium ferrite and graphite were treated mechano-thermally. • Increasing milling time increases reduction progress after heat treatment. • Composites including iron nano-crystals forms by milling and heat treatment. • Shorter milling time results in higher H{sub C} of the milled and heat treated samples.

  13. Nano-crystallization and magnetic mechanisms of Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} amorphous alloy by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yaocen; Takeuchi, Akira; Makino, Akihiro; Liang, Yunye; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-07

    Iron-based amorphous and nano-crystalline alloys have attracted a growing interest due to their potential in the application of magnetic coil production. However, fundamental understanding of the nano-crystallization mechanisms and magnetic features in the amorphous structure are still lack of knowledge. In the present work, we performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulation to clarify the ionic and electronic structure in atomic scale, and to derive the origin of the good magnetic property of Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} amorphous alloy. The simulation gave a direct evidence of the Cu-P bonding preference in the amorphous alloy, which may promote nucleation in nano-crystallization process. On the other hand, the electron transfer and the band/orbital features in the amorphous alloy suggests that alloying elements with large electronegativity and the potential to expand Fe disordered matrix are preferred for enhancing the magnetization.

  14. In situ derivation of sulfur activated TiO{sub 2} nano porous layers through pulse-micro arc oxidation technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayati, M.R.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-195, Tehran ; Moshfegh, A.Z.; Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 14588-89694, Tehran ; Molaei, Roya

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} S-TiO{sub 2} layers were grown by MAO technique under pulse current for the first time. {yields} Effect of growth parameters on chemical composition, topography, and morphology of the layers was studied. {yields} A correlation between photocatalytic performance and growth conditions was proposed. -- Abstract: Micro arc oxidation technique, as a facile and efficient process, was employed to grow sulfur doped titania porous layers. This research sheds light on the photocatalytic performance of the micro arc oxidized S-TiO{sub 2} nano-porous layers fabricated under pulse current. Morphological and topographical studies, performed by SEM and AFM techniques, revealed that increasing the frequency and/or decreasing the duty cycle resulted in formation of finer pores and smoother surfaces. XRD and XPS results showed that the layers consisted of anatase and rutile phases whose fraction was observed to change depending on the synthesis conditions. The highest anatase relative content was obtained at the frequency of 500 Hz and the duty cycle of 5%. Furthermore, photocatalytic activity of the layers was examined by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue under both ultraviolet and visible photo irradiations. Maximum photodegradation reaction rate constants over the pulse-grown S-TiO{sub 2} layers were respectively measured as 0.0202 and 0.0110 min{sup -1} for ultraviolet and visible irradiations.

  15. The effects of side-chain-induced disorder on the emission spectra and quantum yields of oligothiophene nano-aggregates. A combined experimental and MD-TDDFT study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hong, Jiyun; Jeon, SuKyung; Kim, Janice J.; Devi, Diane; Chacon-Madrid, Kelly; Lee, Wynee; Koo, Seung Moh; Wildeman, Jurjen; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Peteanu, Linda A.; et al

    2014-07-24

    Oligomeric thiophenes are commonly-used components in organic electronics and solar cells. These molecules stack and/or aggregate readily under the processing conditions used to form thin films for these applications, significantly altering their optical and charge-transport properties. To determine how these effects depend on the substitution pattern of the thiophene main chains, nano-aggregates of three sexi-thiophene (6T) oligomers having different alkyl substitution patterns were formed using solvent poisoning techniques and studied using steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. The results indicate the substantial role played by the side-chain substituents in determining the emissive properties of these species. Both the measured spectral changesmore » and their dependence on substitution are well modeled by combined quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations connect the side-chain-induced disorder, which determines the favorable chain packing configurations within the aggregates, with their measured electronic spectra.« less

  16. An investigation on the influence of milling time and calcination temperature on the characterization of nano cerium oxide powder synthesized by mechanochemical route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aminzare, M.; Amoozegar, Z.; Sadrnezhaad, S.K.

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? Synthesis of nanosized CeO{sub 2} was carried out using mechanochemical reactions plus sequential calcinations procedure. ? The effect of milling time and calcinations procedure on crystallite size and surface area of the as-synthesized powders was investigated. ? The extended milling times were exposed to result in the smaller crystallite size, and hence higher surface area for the as-synthesized powder. ? Higher calcinations temperatures, on the other hand, led to the as-synthesized powder with a larger crystallite size and therefore, lower surface area. ? Activation energy for nanocrystallite growth was calculated during the calcinations procedure and the aforementioned crystallite growth was found to be conducted in the light of interfacial reactions. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sized CeO{sub 2} powder was investigated via mechanochemical reactions between hydrate cerium chloride and sodium hydroxide as the starting materials. The process was followed by a subsequent calcination procedure. Characterization of as-synthesized powder was performed using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, BrunnerEmmettTeller (BET) nitrogen gas absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size analyzer (PSA). The precursors were milled for different milling times and then were subjected to different heat treatment procedure at variable temperatures from 100 to 700 C. According to the results, milling time and calcination temperatures induce paramountal effects on crystallite size and surface area of as-synthesized powders. In addition, the average activation energy for the growth of nanocrystals during calcination was determined to be about 12.53 kJ/mol, suggesting the influence of interfacial reactions on the crystallite growth during the calcination procedure.

  17. Nano-crystalline p-ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/n-Si as a new heterojunction diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakr, G.B.; Fouad, S.S.; Yahia, I.S.; Abdel Basset, D.M.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/Si thin film was prepared by thermal evaporation technique. ? XRD and AFM graphs support the nano-crystalline of the studied device. ? Dark currentvoltage characteristics of the heterojunction diode were investigated. ? Electrical parameters and conduction mechanism were determined. ? Conduction mechanisms were controlled by TE, SCLC and TCLC. -- Abstract: In this communication, ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin film was prepared by thermal evaporation technique on n-Si substrate. P-ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/n-Si heterojunction diode was fabricated. The structure of ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin film was checked by XRD pattern and confirmed by AFM micrographs. The dark currentvoltage characteristics of the heterojunction diode were investigated to determine the electrical parameters and conduction mechanism as a function of forward and reverse biasing conditions in the range (?10 V to 10 V) at temperature interval (303423 K). The conduction mechanism was controlled by thermionic emission, space charge limited (SCLC) and trap-charge limited current (TCLC) mechanisms. The basic parameters such as the series resistance R{sub s}, the shunt resistance R{sub sh}, the ideality factor n and the barrier height ?{sub b} of the diode, the total density of trap states N{sub 0} and the exponential trapping distribution P{sub o} were determined. The obtained results showed that ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} is a good candidate for the applications of electronic devices.

  18. Dark matter search results from the PICO-60 CF 3 I bubble chamber...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Debris, F. ; Dhungana, N. ; Fallows, S. more ; Farine, J. ; Felis, I. ; Filgas, R. ; Girard, F. ; Giroux, G. ; Grandison, A. ; Hai, M. ; Hall, J. ; Harris, O. ; Jin, M. ; Krauss, ...

  19. Dark matter search results from the PICO-60 CF3I bubble chamber...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Debris, F. ; Dhungana, N. ; Fallows, S. more ; Farine, J. ; Felis, I. ; Filgas, R. ; Girard, F. ; Giroux, G. ; Grandison, A. ; Hai, M. ; Hall, Jeter C. ; Harris, O. ; Jin, M. ; ...

  20. Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Jin, M. ; Krauss, C. B. ; Lafrenire, M. ; Laurin, M. ; Lawson, I. ; Leblanc, A. ; Levine, I. ; Lippincott, W. H. ; Mann, E. ; Martin, J. P. ; Maurya, D. ; Mitra, P. ; Olson, ...

  1. Dark matter search results from the PICO-2L C$_3$F$_8$ bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amole, C.

    2015-06-11

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2 liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg days at four different energy thresholds below 10 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron-recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds. The chamber exhibits an electron-recoil sensitivity of < 3.5 × 10–10 and an alpha rejection factor of > 98.2%. These data also include the first observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. Lastly, these data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with significant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  2. Detection of pico-Tesla magnetic fields using magneto-electric sensors at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhai Junyi; Xing Zengping; Dong Shuxiang; Li Jiefang; Viehland, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2006-02-06

    The measurement of low-frequency (10{sup -2}-10{sup 3} Hz) minute magnetic field variations (10{sup -12} Tesla) at room temperature in a passive mode of operation would be critically enabling for deployable neurological signal interfacing and magnetic anomaly detection applications. However, there is presently no magnetic field sensor capable of meeting all of these requirements. Here, we present new bimorph and push-pull magneto-electric laminate composites, which incorporate a charge compensation mechanism (or bridge) that dramatically enhances noise rejection, enabling achievement of such requirements.

  3. Dark matter search results from the PICO-2L C$_3$F$_8$ bubble chamber

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amole, C.

    2015-06-11

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2 liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg days at four different energy thresholds below 10 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron-recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds. The chamber exhibits an electron-recoil sensitivity of < 3.5 × 10–10 and an alpha rejection factor of > 98.2%. These data also include the first observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate eventsmore » exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. Lastly, these data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with significant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.« less

  4. Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Leblanc, A. ; Levine, I. ; Lippincott, W. H. ; Mann, E. ; Martin, J. P. ; Maurya, D. ; Mitra, P. ; Olson, S. ; Neilson, R. ; Noble, A. J. ; Plante, A. ; Podviianiuk, R. B. ; Priya, ...

  5. Growth of nano-particles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlN and iron oxide with different crystalline phases in a thermal plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Naveen V.; Karmakar, Soumen; Banerjee, Indrani; Sahasrabudhe, S.N.; Das, A.K.; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2009-03-05

    The paper presents the experimental results showing that the crystalline phase of the nano-particles, synthesized in a DC transferred arc thermal plasma reactor, critically depend on the operating pressure in the reaction zone. The paper reports about the changes in crystalline phases of three different compounds namely: aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminium nitride (AlN) and iron oxide (Fe{sub x}O{sub y}) synthesized at 760 Torr and 500 Torr of operating pressures. The major outcome of the present work is that the phases having higher defect densities are more probable to form at the sub-atmospheric operating pressures. The variations in the crystalline structures are discussed on the basis of the change in the temperature during the nucleation process, prevailing at the boundary of the plasma, on account of the ambient pressures. The as-synthesized nano-particles were examined by X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the confirmatory analysis of the crystalline phases of iron oxides was carried out with the help of Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  6. Stabilized Spinels and Nano Olivines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  7. Nano-composite stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  8. Transparent conductive nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David Bruce; Ivanov, Ilia N; Puretzky, Alexander A; Jesse, Stephen; Hu, Bin; Garrett, Matthew; Zhao, Bin

    2013-09-24

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of forming an organic electric device that includes providing a plurality of carbon nanostructures; and dispersing the plurality of carbon nanostructures in a polymeric matrix to provide a polymeric composite, wherein when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a first concentration an interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix is characterized by charge transport when an external energy is applied, and when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a second concentration the interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix are characterized by exciton dissociation when an external energy is applied, wherein the first concentration is less than the second concentration.

  9. Water nano-filtration device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R. [Knoxville, TN

    2009-02-03

    A water filter includes a porous support characterized by a mean porosity in the range of 20 to 50% and a mean pore size of 2 to 5 .mu.m; and a carbon filter membrane disposed thereon which is characterized by a mean particle size of no more than 50 .mu.m and a mean pore size of no more than 7.2 .mu.m.

  10. Transparent conductive nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David Bruce; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Jesse, Stephen; Hu, Bin; Garrett, Matthew; Zhao, Bin

    2011-04-12

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of forming an organic electric device that includes providing a plurality of carbon nanostructures; and dispersing the plurality of carbon nanostructures in a polymeric matrix to provide a polymeric composite, wherein when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a first concentration an interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix is characterized by charge transport when an external energy is applied, and when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a second concentration the interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix are characterized by exciton dissociation when an external energy is applied, wherein the first concentration is less than the second concentration.

  11. Nano-laminate-based ignitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Simpson, Randall L.; Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2011-05-31

    Sol-gel chemistry is used to prepare igniters comprising energetic multilayer structures coated with energetic booster materials. These igniters can be tailored to be stable to environmental aging, i.e., where the igniters are exposed to extremes of both hot and cold temperatures (-30 C to 150 C) and both low (0%) and high relative humidity (100%).

  12. Nano-laminate-based ignitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Simpson, Randall L.; Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-12-11

    Sol-gel chemistry is used to prepare igniters comprising energetic multilayer structures coated with energetic materials. These igniters can be tailored to be stable to environmental aging, i.e., where the igniters are exposed to extremes of both hot and cold temperatures (-30 C to 150 C) and both low (0%) and high relative humidity (100%).

  13. Development of an Innovative High-Thermal Conductivity UO2 Ceramic Composites Fuel Pellets with Carbon Nano-Tubes Using Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subhash, Ghatu; Wu, Kuang-Hsi; Tulenko, James

    2014-03-10

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the most common fuel material in commercial nuclear power reactors. Despite its numerous advantages such as high melting point, good high-temperature stability, good chemical compatibility with cladding and coolant, and resistance to radiation, it suffers from low thermal conductivity that can result in large temperature gradients within the UO2 fuel pellet, causing it to crack and release fission gases. Thermal swelling of the pellets also limits the lifetime of UO2 fuel in the reactor. To mitigate these problems, we propose to develop novel UO2 fuel with uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that can provide high-conductivity thermal pathways and can eliminate fuel cracking and fission gas release due to high temperatures. CNTs have been investigated extensively for the past decade to explore their unique physical properties and many potential applications. CNTs have high thermal conductivity (6600 W/mK for an individual single- walled CNT and >3000 W/mK for an individual multi-walled CNT) and high temperature stability up to 2800C in vacuum and about 750C in air. These properties make them attractive candidates in preparing nano-composites with new functional properties. The objective of the proposed research is to develop high thermal conductivity of UO2CNT composites without affecting the neutronic property of UO2 significantly. The concept of this goal is to utilize a rapid sintering method (515 min) called spark plasma sintering (SPS) in which a mixture of CNTs and UO2 powder are used to make composites with different volume fractions of CNTs. Incorporation of these nanoscale materials plays a fundamentally critical role in controlling the performance and stability of UO2 fuel. We will use a novel in situ growth process to grow CNTs on UO2 particles for rapid sintering and develop UO2-CNT composites. This method is expected to provide a uniform distribution of CNTs at various volume fractions so that a high thermally conductive UO2-CNT composite is obtained with a minimal volume fraction of CNTs. The mixtures are sintered in the SPS facility at a range of temperatures, pressures, and time durations so as to identify the optimal processing conditions to obtain the desired microstructure of sintered UO2-CNT pellets. The second objective of the proposed work is to identify the optimal volume fraction of CNTs in the microstructure of the composites that provides the desired high thermal conductivity yet retaining the mechanical strength required for efficient function as a reactor fuel. We will systematically study the resulting microstructure (grain size, porosity, distribution of CNTs, etc.) obtained at various SPS processing conditions using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). We will conduct indentation hardness measurements and uniaxial strength measurements as a function of volume fraction of CNTs to determine the mechanical strength and compare them to the properties of UO2. The fracture surfaces will be studied to determine the fracture characteristics that may relate to the observed cracking during service. Finally, we will perform thermal conductivity measurements on all the composites up to 1000 C. This study will relate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal properties at various volume fractions of CNTs. The overall intent is to identify optimal processing conditions that will provide a well-consolidated compact with optimal microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. The deliverables include: (1) fully characterized UO2-CNT composite with optimal CNT volume fraction and high thermal conductivity and (2) processing conditions for production of UO2-CNT composite pellets using SPS method.

  14. Reduced ultraviolet light induced degradation and enhanced light harvesting using YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} down-shifting nano-phosphor layer in organometal halide perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, Nikhil; Chandrasekhar, P. S.; Thouti, Eshwar; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh; Komarala, Vamsi K.; Khan, A. F.

    2014-07-21

    We report a simple method to mitigate ultra-violet (UV) degradation in TiO{sub 2} based perovskite solar cells (PSC) using a transparent luminescent down-shifting (DS) YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nano-phosphor layer. The PSC coated with DS phosphor showed an improvement in stability under prolonged illumination retaining more than 50% of its initial efficiency, whereas PSC without the phosphor layer degraded to ?35% of its initial value. The phosphor layer also provided ?8.5% enhancement in photocurrent due to DS of incident UV photons into additional red photons. YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} layer thus served a bi-functional role in PSC by reducing photo-degradation as well as enhancing energy conversion efficiency.

  15. Fabrication of nano Delafossite LiCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} as the new adsorbent in efficient removal of reactive blue 5 from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khosravi, Iman; Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad; Eftekhar, Melika; Haddadi, Zohreh

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Fabrication of nano Delafossite LiCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} by solgel method. ? Kinetic study of the adsorption properties. ? Removal of reactive blue 5 (RB5) as a reactive dye by the prepared new nanocatalyst. - Abstract: In this paper, nanoparticles of delafossite-type LiCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} were prepared by solgel method in the presence of maleic acid as a chelating agent. The nanoparticles were characterized using differential thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. The nanoparticles showed the excellent adsorption properties towards reactive dye, reactive blue 5 (RB5). The adsorption studies were carried out at different pH values, various adsorbent dosages and contact time in a batch experiments. The kinetic studies indicate that the removal process obeys the second-order kinetic equation. Also, the isotherm evaluations reveal that the adsorption of RB5 by the nanoparticles follows the Freundlich model.

  16. Application of microwave discharge for the synthesis of TiB{sub 2} and BN nano- and microcrystals in a mixture of Ti-B powders in a nitrogen atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batanov, G. M. Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Borzosekov, V. D.; Iskhakova, L. D.; Kolik, L. V.; Konchekov, E. M.; Letunov, A. A.; Malakhov, D. V.; Milovich, F. O.; Obraztsova, E. A.; Obraztsova, E. D.; Petrov, A. E.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Skvortsova, N. N.; Stepakhin, V. D.; Kharchev, N. K.

    2013-10-15

    Synthesis of titanium diboride and boron nitride nano- and microcrystals by means of a pulsed microwave discharge in a mixture of Ti-B powders in a nitrogen atmosphere is considered. For this purpose, a new type of reactor with a free surface of the powder mixture was used. The reactor design permits free expansion of the reaction products into the reactor volume and their deposition on the reactor walls. Conditions for the synthesis of TiB{sub 2} and BN compounds were studied as functions of the energy input in the discharge, the powder component ratio, the rate of the nitrogen flow through the reactor, and the structure and phase composition of the compounds deposited on the reactor walls. The synthesis of boron nitride and titanium diboride in crystal structures is proven. An important role in the process of synthesis is played by the heating of the mixture due to the titanium diboride synthesis reaction, its behavior in the bulk of the reactor, and the titanium concentration in the powder mixture. It is also found that, as the number of discharges in the bulk of the reactor increases, a dust cloud forms. The luminescence of this cloud indicates that the initiated discharge proceeds not only on the powder surface and in the powder bulk, but also in the reactor volume.

  17. NanoPV Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation Place: Ewing, New Jersey Zip: 8618 Product: A New Jersey-based thin film PV cell producer and technology provider. Coordinates: 36.638474, -83.428453 Show Map...

  18. Nano Particles - Supercritical Fluid Process - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods. Oak Ridge National Laboratory 02022011...

  19. Nano-composite Structures for OPV Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, Henning

    2010-11-23

    Improved material for use in organic photovoltaics (OPV) devices, also called polymer-solar cells (PSC), has been developed. Increased ordering of the active layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cells has been achieved by the use of inert silica spheres in conjunction with suitable fullerene derivatives. Silica spheres with average diameters between 10 and 15 nm, consistent with the exciton diffusion length in the active layer, have been added. The potential for significantly improved device performance due to a higher degree of photon absorption, enabled by increased light scattering, and a maximized interface between electron donor and acceptor, ensuring efficient exciton dissociation, has been demonstrated. A method allowing for the covalent attachment of fullerene derivatives to the silica sphere surface has been developed.

  20. Nano-ceramics and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Gash, Alex; Simpson, Randall; Landingham, Richard; Reibold, Robert A.

    2006-08-08

    Disclosed herein is a method to produce ceramic materials utilizing the sol-gel process. The methods enable the preparation of intimate homogeneous dispersions of materials while offering the ability to control the size of one component within another. The method also enables the preparation of materials that will densify at reduced temperature.

  1. NanoeXa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 94010 Sector: Vehicles Product: Nanoexa offers safe, long lasting, and powerful lithium batteries for portable devices, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Electric Vehicles...

  2. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Yang, Xiaofan; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Mullins, David R; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Wu, Zili

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging conditions were provided by our collaborators at John Deere Power Systems. Among various zeolites reported here, CuFe-SSZ-13 offers the best NO{sub x} conversion activity in 150-650 C range and is hydrothermally stable when tested under accelerated aging conditions. It is important to note that Cu-SSZ-13 is now a commercial catalyst for NO{sub x} treatment on diesel passenger vehicles. Thus, our catalyst performs better than the commercial catalyst under fast SCR conditions. We initially focused on fast SCR tests to enable us to screen catalysts rapidly. Only the catalysts that exhibit high NO{sub x} conversion at low temperatures are selected for screening under varying NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio. The detailed tests of CuFe-SSZ-13 show that CuFe-SSZ-13 is more effective than commercial Cu-SSZ-13 even at NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio of 0.1. The mechanistic studies, employing stop-flow diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy (DRIFTS), suggest that high concentration of NO{sup +}, generated by heterobimetallic zeolites, is probably responsible for their superior low temperature NO{sub x} activity. The results described in this report clearly show that we have successfully completed the first step in a new emission treatment catalyst which is synthesis and laboratory testing employing simulated exhaust. The next step in the catalyst development is engine testing. Efforts are in progress to obtain follow-on funding to carry out scale-up and engine testing to facilitate commercialization of this technology.

  3. NanoBio Interfaces | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interfaces Group develops and utilizes hybrid nanomaterials that are not found in nature but that are inspired by nature's principles. Natural systems adopt a large degree of...

  4. Nano-fabricated plasmonic optical transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choo, Hyuck; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P. James; Liang, Xiaogan; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides a plasmonic optical transformer to produce a highly focuses optical beam spot, where the transformer includes a first metal layer, a dielectric layer formed on the first metal layer, and a second metal layer formed on the dielectric layer, where the first metal layer, the dielectric layer, and the second layer are patterned to a shape including a first section having a first cross section, a second section following the first section having a cross-section tapering from the first section to a smaller cross-section, and a third section following the second section having a cross-section matching the tapered smaller cross-section of the second section.

  5. Nano-soldering to single atomic layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girit, Caglar O.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2011-10-11

    A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

  6. Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon deer07wallace.pdf More Documents & Publications IN VITRO MUTAGENIC AND DNA AND CHROMOSOMAL DAMAGE ACTIVITY BY SURFACTANT DISPERSION OR SOLVENT EXTRACT OF A REFERENCE ...

  7. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    than GAC. This performance could result in REDUCING CHANGEOUT FREQUENCY BY A ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 99 GENERAL AND ...

  8. Nano-composite materials - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar...

  9. NanoEner Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fort Lauderdale, Florida Product: Develops and markets nanomaterials and related nanotechnology processes that have applications in primary and rechargeable batteries, super...

  10. News Item

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    List 3010 INSITU 80+ Reactive Ion Etcher (tool referred to as the RIE by nanofab staff) AAPPTec Apex 396 Peptide Synthesizer AB Sciex TF4800 MALDI-TOF-TOF - Ideal for small molecules and (bio)polymers between 500 and 150,000 Da molecular weights ABM optical contact printer Agilent (Molecular Imaging) PicoPlus Scanning Probe Microscope Agilent 1100 series (ion trap) LC-MS-MS Mass spectrometer Agilent 1100 Series Agilent 1200 nanoHPLC System Agilent 1260 Infinity Agilent analytical HPLC Agilent

  11. Improving electronic structure methods to predict nano-optoelectronics and nano-catalyst functions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, Ida Marie B.; Marzari, Nicola; Shelnutt, John Allen; Kulik, Heather J.; Medforth, Craig John; Leung, Kevin

    2009-10-01

    This report focuses on quantum chemistry and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations applied to elucidate the mechanism of the multi-step, 2-electron, electrochemical reduction of the green house gas molecule carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to carbon monoxide (CO) in aqueous media. When combined with H{sub 2} gas to form synthesis ('syn') gas, CO becomes a key precursor to methane, methanol, and other useful hydrocarbon products. To elucidate the mechanism of this reaction, we apply computational electrochemistry which is a fledgling, important area of basic science critical to energy storage. This report highlights several approaches, including the calculation of redox potentials, the explicit depiction of liquid water environments using AIMD, and free energy methods. While costly, these pioneering calculations reveal the key role of hydration- and protonation-stabilization of reaction intermediates, and may inform the design of CO{sub 2}-capture materials as well as its electrochemical reduction. In the course of this work, we have also dealt with the challenges of identifying and applying electronic structure methods which are sufficiently accurate to deal with transition metal ion complex-based catalyst. Such electronic structure methods are also pertinent to the accurate modeling of actinide materials and therefore to nuclear energy research. Our multi-pronged effort towards achieving this titular goal of the LDRD is discussed.

  12. SSRL HEADLINES Feb 2007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Bismuth - a Femto-second Pump-probe SPPS Study XAS Course for Structural Molecular Biology Applications - March 13-16 SSRL Advisory Committees Convene in February John Zachara...

  13. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... National Science Foundation; DuPont; 3M; Japan Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture; and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). ...

  14. Electrosynthesis of nanofibers and nano-composite films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yuehe; Liang, Liang; Liu, Jun

    2006-10-17

    A method for producing an array of oriented nanofibers that involves forming a solution that includes at least one electroactive species. An electrode substrate is brought into contact with the solution. A current density is applied to the electrode substrate that includes at least a first step of applying a first substantially constant current density for a first time period and a second step of applying a second substantially constant current density for a second time period. The first and second time periods are of sufficient duration to electrically deposit on the electrode substrate an array of oriented nanofibers produced from the electroactive species. Also disclosed are films that include arrays or networks of oriented nanofibers and a method for amperometrically detecting or measuring at least one analyte in a sample.

  15. Nano-focused Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (nBIS) Determinatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Tobin, J G ; Butterfield, M ; Teslich, N ; Bliss, A ; Chung, B ; Gross, J ; McMahan, A ; Schwartz, A Publication Date: 2006-12-20 OSTI Identifier: 898443 Report Number(s): ...

  16. Single-crystalline monolayer and multilayer graphene nano switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Peng; Cui, Tianhong; Jing, Gaoshan; Zhang, Bo; Sando, Shota

    2014-03-17

    Growth of monolayer, bi-layer, and tri-layer single-crystalline graphene (SCG) using chemical vapor deposition method is reported. SCG's mechanical properties and single-crystalline nature were characterized and verified by atomic force microscope and Raman spectroscopy. Electro-mechanical switches based on mono- and bi-layer SCG were fabricated, and the superb properties of SCG enable the switches to operate at pull-in voltage as low as 1 V, and high switching speed about 100 ns. These devices exhibit lifetime without a breakdown of over 5000 cycles, far more durable than any other graphene nanoelectromechanical system switches reported.

  17. Iran Thomas Auditorium, 8600 Nano Carbon: From Solar Cells to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stiffness comparable to a lipid bilayer but stretching stiffness similar to diamond. Meter-scale polycrystalline graphene films can now be produced cheaply and easily, opening...

  18. Future nano- and micro-systems using nanobonding technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howlader, Matiar M. R. E-mail: jamal@mcmaster.ca; Deen, M. Jamal E-mail: jamal@mcmaster.ca

    2014-03-31

    In this paper, some of the recent achievements in surface-activation-based nanobonding technology are described. This bonding technology allows for the combination of electronic, photonic, fluidic and mechanical functionalities into small form-factor systems for emerging applications in health diagnostics and screening, for example. These nanobonding technologies provide void-free, strong, and nanoscale bonding at room temperature or at low temperatures (<200 C), and they do not require chemicals, adhesives, or high external pressure. The interfaces of the nanobonded materials in ultra-high vacuum and in air correspond to the covalent bonds, and hydrogen and hydroxyl bonds, respectively, which gives rise to excellent bonding properties. Further, these nanobonding technologies are well-suited for the development of low-cost, high-performance miniaturized systems such as biophotonic imaging systems.

  19. Nano-Cone Textures Generate Extremely "Robust" Water- Repellant Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-30

    High-speed video of water droplets bouncing off a surface textured with nanocones.The scientists filmed the droplets using a camera capable of capturing 30,000 frames per second.

  20. Measurement of Single Electronic Charging of Semiconductor Nano-Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kastner, Marc A.

    2014-10-09

    We have studied charge transport in nanopatterned arrays of PbS colloidal quantum dots using conventional two-probe measurements as well as with an integrated chargesensor.

  1. Sandia National Labs: Physical, Chemical and Nano Sciences Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vision & MissionValues Strengths & Capabilities Center Thrusts Resources Organization Chart Departments News Partnering Research Center 1100 Vision & MissionValues Strengths &...

  2. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the surface of a block copolymer and be repositioned to another location along the polymeric chain. SAXS studies of the samples, performed at ALS Beamline 7.3.3, confirmed...

  3. Nano-mechanics of Tunable Adhesion using Non Covalent Forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Liechti

    2012-09-08

    The objective of this program was to examine, via experiment and atomistic and continuum analysis, coordinated noncovalent bonding over a range of length scales with a view to obtaining modulated, patterned and reversible bonding at the molecular level. The first step in this project was to develop processes for depositing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) bearing carboxylic acid and amine moieties on Si (111) surfaces and probe tips of an interfacial force microscope (IFM). This allowed the adhesive portion of the interactions between functionalized surfaces to be fully captured in the force-displacement response (force profiles) that are measured by the IFM. The interactionswere extracted in the form of traction-separation laws using combined molecular and continuum stress analyses. In this approach, the results of molecular dynamics analyses of SAMs subjected to simple stress states are used to inform continuum models of their stress-strain behavior. Continuum analyses of the IFM experiment were then conducted, which incorporate the stress-strain behavior of the SAMs and traction-separation relations that represent the interactions between the tip and functionalized Si surface. Agreement between predicted and measured force profiles was taken to imply that the traction-separation relations have been properly extracted. Scale up to larger contact areas was considered by forming Si/SAM/Si sandwiches and then separating them via fracture experiments. The mode 1 traction-separation relations have been extracted using fracture mechanics concepts under mode 1 and mixed-mode conditions. Interesting differences were noted between the three sets of traction-separation relations.

  4. Membranes and surfaces nano-engineered for pathogen capture and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File ...

  5. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the microelectronic and storage industries and perhaps others, such as photovoltaics. Self-Assembling Molecular Legos Tom Russell (UMass) and Ting Xu (UCBerkeley) had...

  6. Toward a new nanoLIFT transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezel, C.; Hallo, L.; Breil, J.; Souquet, A.; Guillemot, F.; Bourgeade, A.; Hebert, D.; Saut, O.

    2010-02-02

    The Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is a direct-write technique used to print biological materials such as living cells or molecules. During the LIFT process, the biomaterial to be printed is deposited on a target submitted to a nanosecond laser shot, and the ejecta are collected onto a receiving substrate. Despite the several advantages of this technique (control of the propelled quantity, no spoiling of the substrate), it remains difficult to be employed due to the high sensitivity of its control parameters. Recently, Duocastella published some experimental results which exhibit the real-time jet formation process, under conditions similar to those present in the LIFT process. In the first Section, a typical experimental setup for LIFT process is presented. Then, simulations of Duocastella's and Guillemot's experiments are carried out to model the jet formation in water when irradiated by an ultraviolet nanosecond laser pulse. The 2D axisymmetric hydrodynamic code CHIC (Code d'Hydrodynamique et d'Implosion du CELIA) is used for these simulations with included equations of state (EOS) to take into account the behavior of water under standard conditions. Finally, an improvement of the LIFT technique which consists in using femtosecond lasers instead of nanosecond ones, is presented. It would allow to process smaller bioelements and to control the jet diameter, as it is directly related to the laser beam waist.

  7. Shape error analysis for reflective nano focusing optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modi, Mohammed H.; Idir, Mourad

    2010-06-23

    Focusing performance of reflective x-ray optics is determined by surface figure accuracy. Any surface imperfection present on such optics introduces a phase error in the outgoing wave fields. Therefore converging beam at the focal spot will differ from the desired performance. Effect of these errors on focusing performance can be calculated by wave optical approach considering a coherent wave field illumination of optical elements. We have developed a wave optics simulator using Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral to calculate the mirror pupil function. Both analytically calculated and measured surface topography data can be taken as an aberration source to outgoing wave fields. Simulations are performed to study the effect of surface height fluctuations on focusing performances over wide frequency range in high, mid and low frequency band. The results using real shape profile measured with long trace profilometer (LTP) suggest that the shape error of {lambda}/4 PV (peak to valley) is tolerable to achieve diffraction limited performance. It is desirable to remove shape error of very low frequency as 0.1 mm{sup -1} which otherwise will generate beam waist or satellite peaks. All other frequencies above this limit will not affect the focused beam profile but only caused a loss in intensity.

  8. New nano-mechanical plasmonic phase modulator offers electronics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jared Sagoff at (630) 252-5549 or media@anl.gov. Connect Find an Argonne expert by subject. Follow Argonne on Twitter, Facebook, Google+ and LinkedIn. For inquiries on...

  9. CRYOGENIC ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES OVER NANO-STRUCTURED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, S.; Heung, L.

    2010-10-07

    Porous materials such as zeolites, activated carbon, silica gels, alumina and a number of industrial catalysts are compared and ranked for hydrogen and deuterium adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature. All samples show higher D{sub 2} adsorption than that of H{sub 2}, in which a HY sample has the greatest isotopic effect while 13X has the highest hydrogen uptake capacity. Material's moisture content has significant impact to its hydrogen uptake. A material without adequate drying could result in complete loss of its adsorption capacity. Even though some materials present higher H{sub 2} adsorption capacity at full pressure, their adsorption at low vapor pressure may not be as good as others. Adsorption capacity in a dynamic system is much less than in a static system. A sharp desorption is also expected in case of temperature upset.

  10. High energy storage capacitor by embedding tunneling nano-structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holme, Timothy P; Prinz, Friedrich B; Van Stockum, Philip B

    2014-11-04

    In an All-Electron Battery (AEB), inclusions embedded in an active region between two electrodes of a capacitor provide enhanced energy storage. Electrons can tunnel to/from and/or between the inclusions, thereby increasing the charge storage density relative to a conventional capacitor. One or more barrier layers is present in an AEB to block DC current flow through the device. The AEB effect can be enhanced by using multi-layer active regions having inclusion layers with the inclusions separated by spacer layers that don't have the inclusions. The use of cylindrical geometry or wrap around electrodes and/or barrier layers in a planar geometry can enhance the basic AEB effect. Other physical effects that can be employed in connection with the AEB effect are excited state energy storage, and formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC).

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - Xiao_NanoLett-2013.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of GaS nanosheet photodetectors made on SiO 2 Si substrates and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates exhibit a photo-responsivity at 254nm up to 4.2 AW...

  12. Helium Nano-Bubble Evolution in Aging Metal Tritides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowgill, Donald F.

    2005-07-15

    A continuum-scale, evolutionary model of bubble nucleation, growth and He release for aging metal tritides is described which accounts for major features of the tritide database. Bubble nucleation, modeled as self-trapping of interstitially diffusing He atoms, occurs during the first few days following tritium introduction into the metal. Bubble growth by dislocation loop punching yields good agreement between He atomic volumes and bubble pressures determined from bulk swelling and {sup 3}He NMR data. The bubble spacing distribution determined from NMR is shown to remain fixed with age, justifying the separation of nucleation and growth phases and providing a sensitive test of the growth formulation. Late in life, bubble interactions are proposed to produce cooperative stress effects, which lower the bubble pressure. Helium generated near surfaces and surface-connected porosity accounts for the low-level early helium release. Use of an average ligament stress criterion predicts an onset of inter-bubble fracture in good agreement with the He/Metal ratio observed for rapid He release. From the model, it is concluded that He retention can be controlled through control of bubble nucleation.

  13. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    consisting of a central polymer (blue) linked to a surrounding polymer (red). An atomic-force microscope image (center) shows the densely packed cylinders, dark in the...

  14. Microwave plasma CVD of NANO structured tin/carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marcinek, Marek; Kostecki, Robert

    2012-07-17

    A method for forming a graphitic tin-carbon composite at low temperatures is described. The method involves using microwave radiation to produce a neutral gas plasma in a reactor cell. At least one organo tin precursor material in the reactor cell forms a tin-carbon film on a supporting substrate disposed in the cell under influence of the plasma. The three dimensional carbon matrix material with embedded tin nanoparticles can be used as an electrode in lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Nano transfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melechko, Anatoli V.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2012-03-27

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoconduit material coupled to a surface of the substrate. The substrate defines an aperture and the nanoconduit material defines a nanoconduit that is i) contiguous with the aperture and ii) aligned substantially non-parallel to a plane defined by the surface of the substrate.

  16. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    potential for breakthroughs that reverberate through nearly every sector of the economy (medicine, computing, energy, homeland security) is so great that it has already...

  17. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Jose Nainaparampil

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL'?s feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  18. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    upright from the surface of the sapphire. The structures were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) performed at...

  19. Los Alamos shares Nano 50 award for directed assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Contact Communications...

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - Chen_NanoLett-2013.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for producing individual and dispersible MCNs, including MCNs, HMCNs, and YSMCNs. The synthesis with high yield (76.6%) can be carried out on a relatively large scale (grams) by...

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - NanoLett_Zhang_2013.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    quasi-1D electronic transport in nanowires and nanowire arrays by combining epitaxial synthesis, 4-probe STM measurements, phenomelogical modeling and first-principles electronic...

  2. Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Nuclear Materials; Journal Volume: 455; Journal Issue: 1-3; Conference: 16. International...

  3. Method to fabricate micro and nano diamond devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M; Anderson, Richard J; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Skinner, Jack L; Rye, Michael J

    2014-10-07

    A method including forming a diamond material on the surface of a substrate; forming a first contact and a separate second contact; and patterning the diamond material to form a nanowire between the first contact and the second contact. An apparatus including a first contact and a separate second contact on a substrate; and a nanowire including a single crystalline or polycrystalline diamond material on the substrate and connected to each of the first contact and the second contact.

  4. Ultrafast electron transport across nano gaps in nanowire circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potma, Eric O.

    2015-07-31

    In this Program we aim for a closer look at electron transfer through single molecules. To achieve this, we use ultrafast laser pulses to time stamp an electron tunneling event in a molecule that is connected between two metallic electrodes, while reading out the electron current. A key aspect of this project is the use of metallic substrates with plasmonic activity to efficiently manipulate the tunneling probability. The first Phase of this program is concerned with developing highly sensitive tools for the ultrafast optical manipulation of tethered molecules through the evanescent surface field of plasmonic substrates. The second Phase of the program aims to use these tools for exercising control over the electron tunneling probability.

  5. Microsoft PowerPoint - NanoRes_Sumpter_2013.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    material semiconducting, while an uniaxial strain varying from compressive to tensile causes the spin-resolved selective self-doping to increase the half-metallic character of the...

  6. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cut crystal was heated to over 1300 C and annealed in air for 24 hours to form saw-tooth patterns of parallel facets. A thin film of block copolymers was applied to the...

  7. Membranes and surfaces nano-engineered for pathogen capture and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Nyman, May Devan ; Stewart, Thomas Austin Publication Date: 2011-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1055912 Report Number(s): SAND2011-9417 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 ...

  8. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compares thermo-hydraulic performance and cost of micro-honeycombs to conventional heat exchange structures to highlight performance enhancement mechanisms PDF icon ...

  9. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Legos assemble themselves into functional units without any complicated chemistry or processing. During the course of a long-distance phone call, Russell and Xu saw in a flash of...

  10. Nano-engineering by optically directed self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furst, Eric; Dunn, Elissa; Park, Jin-Gyu; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Sainis, Sunil; Merrill, Jason; Dufresne, Eric; Reichert, Matthew D.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Molecke, Ryan A.; Koehler, Timothy P.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Grillet, Anne Mary; Gorby, Allen D.; Singh, John; Lele, Pushkar; Mittal, Manish

    2009-09-01

    Lack of robust manufacturing capabilities have limited our ability to make tailored materials with useful optical and thermal properties. For example, traditional methods such as spontaneous self-assembly of spheres cannot generate the complex structures required to produce a full bandgap photonic crystals. The goal of this work was to develop and demonstrate novel methods of directed self-assembly of nanomaterials using optical and electric fields. To achieve this aim, our work employed laser tweezers, a technology that enables non-invasive optical manipulation of particles, from glass microspheres to gold nanoparticles. Laser tweezers were used to create ordered materials with either complex crystal structures or using aspherical building blocks.

  11. Plasma meets nano at PPPL | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the facility "to fabricate nanomaterials that are not easily fabricated by other means," said lead engineer Charles Gentile, who oversaw the development of the new laboratory. The...

  12. Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering | Department of Energy Presents new concepts for high performance nanostructured bulk thermoelectric materials PDF icon lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Materials for Automotive Applications The Bottom-Up Approach forThermoelectric Nanocomposites, plusƒ Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials

  13. Nano-structured Materials as Anodes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2_whittingham.pdf More Documents & Publications Nanostructured Materials as Anodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Density Lithium Battery Metal-Based, High-Capacity Lithium

  14. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    critical to tailoring the macroscopic properties during nanoparticle assembly. Although DNA has been used to induce self-assembly of nanoparticles with a high degree of...

  15. Hearing Nano-Structures: A Case Study in Timbral Sonification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schedel, M.; Yager, K.

    2012-06-18

    We explore the sonification of x-ray scattering data, which are two-dimensional arrays of intensity whose meaning is obscure and non-intuitive. Direct mapping of the experimental data into sound is found to produce timbral sonifications that, while sacrificing conventional aesthetic appeal, provide a rich auditory landscape for exploration. We discuss the optimization of sonification variables, and speculate on potential real-world applications. We have presented a case study of sonifying x-ray scattering data. Direct mapping of the two-dimensional intensity values of a scattering dataset into the two-dimensional matrix of a sonogram is a natural and information-preserving operation that creates rich sounds. Our work supports the notion that many problems in understanding rather abstract scientific datasets can be ameliorated by adding the auditory modality of sonification. We further emphasize that sonification need not be limited to time-series data: any data matrix is amenable. Timbral sonification is less obviously aesthetic, than tonal sonification, which generate melody, harmony, or rhythm. However these musical sonifications necessarily sacrifice information content for beauty. Timbral sonification is useful because the entire dataset is represented. Non-musicians can understand the data through the overall color of the sound; audio experts can extract more detailed insight by studying all the features of the sound.

  16. Semiconductive micro- and nano-wire array manufacturing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Emily L.; Audesirk, Heather A.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2015-06-02

    The disclosure provides methods of manufacturing semiconductive structures using stamping and VLS techniques.

  17. Nano compartments may aid drug delivery, catalyst design > Archived...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researcher Teeraporn Suteewong and graduate student Hiroaki Sai, have tweaked familiar "sol-gel" chemistry used to self-assemble porous silica particles, making the assembly shift...

  18. High Density Nano-Electrode Array for Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mano Misra

    2010-05-07

    Bulk single crystals of Cd1-xZnxTe (x=0.04 to x=0.2) compound semiconductor is used for room temperature radiation detection. The production of large volume of Cd1-xZnxTe with low defect density is expensive. As a result there is a growing research interest in the production of nanostructured compound semiconductors such as Cd1-xZnxTe in an electrochemical route. In this investigation, Cd1-xZnxTe ternary compound semiconductor, referred as CZT, was electrodeposited in the form of nanowires onto a TiO2 nanotubular template from propylene carbonate as the non-aqueous electrolyte, using a pulse-reverse electrodeposition process at 130 C. The template acted as a support in growing ordered nanowire of CZT which acts as a one dimensional conductor. Cyclic Voltammogram (CV) studies were conducted in determining the potentials for the growth of nanowires of uniform stoichiometry. The morphologies and composition of CZT were characterized by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The STEM mapping carried out on the nanowires showed the uniform distribution of Cd, Zn and Te elements. TEM image showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline in nature. The Mott-Schottky analysis carried on the nanowires showed that the nanowires were a p-type semiconductor. The carrier density, band gap and resistivity of the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te nanowires were 4.29x1013 cm-3, 1.56 eV and 2.76x1011?-cm respectively. The high resistivity was attributed to the presence of deep defect states such as cadmium vacancies or Te antisites which were created by the anodic cycle of the pulse-reverse electrodeposition process. Stacks of series connected CZT nanowire arrays were tested with different bias potentials. The background current was in the order of tens of picoamperes. When exposed to radiation source Amerecium-241 (60 KeV, 4 ?Ci), the stacked CZT nanowires arrays showed sensing behavior. The sensitivity of the nanowire arrays increased as the number of stacks increased. The preliminary results indicate that the CZT nanowire arrays can be used as a potential X-ray and low energy gamma ray detector material at room temperature with a much low bias potential (0.7 4V) as against 300 500 V applied in the commercial bulk detector materials.

  19. Sustainable Nano-Materials: What is happening at the cellular...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    organic medium Coating of nanoparticles surface with a surfactant High specific area : high amount of surfactant Chemical modification of nanoparticles surface O O O ( ) n ( ) m ...

  20. High-precision micro/nano-scale machining system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kapoor, Shiv G.; Bourne, Keith Allen; DeVor, Richard E.

    2014-08-19

    A high precision micro/nanoscale machining system. A multi-axis movement machine provides relative movement along multiple axes between a workpiece and a tool holder. A cutting tool is disposed on a flexible cantilever held by the tool holder, the tool holder being movable to provide at least two of the axes to set the angle and distance of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. A feedback control system uses measurement of deflection of the cantilever during cutting to maintain a desired cantilever deflection and hence a desired load on the cutting tool.

  1. Unique Methodologies for Nano/Micro Manufacturing Job Training...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close Cite: APA ...

  2. Electrosynthesis of nanofibers and nano-composite films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An electrode substrate is brought into contact with the solution. A current density is applied to the electrode substrate that includes at least a first step of applying a first ...

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - ACS_Nano-Strelcov_2013.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    operation of numerous electrochemical devices, such as batteries, fuel cells, gas sensors, memristors, etc., relies on the electronic and ionic transport, which is often controlled...

  4. Carbon Nanotubes and Nano-Structure Manufacturing at TJNAF |...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Typical tabletop lasers use tens of watts to make nanotubes at around 200 milligrams per hour. Michael W. Smith, a staff scientist at NASA Langley Research Center, and his ...

  5. Deciphering the structure of nano-nickel composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Oliver K

    2009-01-01

    A model has been developed to predict piezoresistivity in Silicone/Nickel Nanostrand composites. This model combines the theory of quantum mechanical tunneling with percolation theory to obtain macroscopic composite resistivity as a function of strain from quantum mechanical principles and statistical characterization of constituent morphology. It has been shown that a model incorporating quantum mechanical tunneling and percolation theory can be used to predict piezoresistivity in Silicone/Nickel Nanostrand composites. The predictions of this model qualitatively demonstrate the large drop in resistivity with strain that these composites exhibit. The quantitative accuracy of the model was shown to be usually within one order of magnitude. Further work must be done to obtain an empirical distribution of inter-nanostrand gap distances, the tunneling barrier height ({lambda}), and the fraction of conductive junctions as a function of strain for these composites.

  6. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced thermoelectric energy recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented PDF icon ...

  7. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic...

  8. Micro- and nano-domain engineering in lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Baturin, I. S.

    2015-12-15

    The physical basis of the domain engineering in ferroelectrics and its application to lithium niobate crystals were reviewed. The unified kinetic approach to the domain structure evolution in electric field was formulated and its validity for understanding the variety of observed domain evolution scenarios was demonstrated. The kinetics and statics of the domain structure in the crystals of lithium niobate family including congruent, stoichiometric, and MgO doped ones have been discussed. The main stages of the periodical poling process and related problems have been pointed out. The basic poling techniques applied for creation of the periodical domain structures in bulk crystals and waveguides were compared. The recent applications of the periodically poled lithium niobate for light frequency conversion using second harmonic generation and optical parametric oscillation, excitation of the surface acoustic waves, and generation of terahertz radiation have been discussed. The special attention has been paid for achievements in fabrication of high-power optical parametric oscillation and integrated optical devices with periodically poled lithium niobate. The future trends in periodical poling and development of the nanodomain engineering which will allow to create the nanoscale domain patterns necessary for utilization of the new nonlinear interactions were reviewed.

  9. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly...

  10. Future Roles of Milli-, Micro-, and Nano- Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Nordman, Bruce; Lai, Judy

    2011-07-01

    Although it has slowed considerably, consumption of electricity continues to grow in developed economies. Further, there are some unknowns which might accelerate this growth, such as electrification of vehicle fleets and geothermal heat pump space and water heating. Most analysts anticipate that distributed energy resources (DER) will provide a large share of the expanded generation capacity required to meet this seemingly inexorably increasing electricity demand. Further, given the urgency of tackling the climate change problem, most of the added assets must be carbonfree renewables or nuclear, end-use efficiency improvements, or highly efficient fossil-fired technologies. In developed economies worldwide, the current power delivery paradigm has been in place for more than a century, i.e. since the emergence of polyphase AC systems around the turn of the last century. A key feature of this structure is that, in principle, universal service is delivered at a consistent level of power quality and reliability (PQR) throughout large regions. This paper describes a future possible structure for the electricity generation and delivery system that leaves the existing high voltage meshed grid paradigm in place, but involves radical reorganization of parts of the distribution network and customer sites. Managing a much more diverse dispersed system poses major challenges to the current centralized grid paradigm, particularly since many of these assets are small to tiny by macrogrid standards and they may ultimately number in the millions. They are also not ones that centralized control can rely upon to function in traditionally dependable ways, e.g. renewable generation can be highly variable and changes in output of generators are not independent. Although most involved in the industry agree that a paradigm shift is both necessary and desirable to manage the new system, the nature of the future system remains quite unclear. In the possible structure described here, the traditional grid, or macrogrid, remains similar at the high voltage meshed level. Three new entities are added more locally: community grids or milligrids that operate a segment of the existing distribution system, microgrids which are akin to current customer sites but which have automonous control, and nanogrids, such as telecom or Ethernet networks that currently distribute power to many low-power devices. The latter exist currently in the local electrical systems but are not typically considered a part of the traditional electricity supply system. Because all these new entities exhibit some localized control, providing appropriate local heterogeneous PQR becomes a possibility. These new grid concepts enable a more"bottom-up" approach to electricity distribution, in contrast to the historic 'top-down' model. The future will almost certainly include a mix of the two, but the balance among them and the interface (if any) between them is unclear.

  11. In situ XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Applications to Fuel Cells and Batteries Friday, July 12, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, ... proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), as well as catalysts for lithium batteries. ...

  12. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office; National Science Foundation; DuPont; 3M; Japan Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture; and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences...

  13. Biochemical physics modeling of biological nano-motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santamara-Holek, I.; Lpez-Alamilla, N. J.

    2014-01-14

    We present a biochemical physics model accounting for the dynamics and energetics of both translational and rotational protein motors. A modified version of the hand-over-hand mechanism considering competitive inhibition by ADP is presented. Transition state-like theory is used to reconstruct the time dependent free-energy landscape of the cycle catalyst process that allows to predicting the number of steps or rotations that a single motor can perform. In addition, following the usual approach of chemical kinetics, we calculate the average translational velocity and also the stopping time of processes involving a collectivity of motors, such as exocytosis and endocytosis processes. Finally, we formulate a stochastic model reproducing very well single realizations of kinesin and rotary ATPases.

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - NanoLett_Strelcov_2013.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and electric-field-driven resistance changes in Ca-BFO. The FORC-IV is shown to be a simple, powerful and flexible method for studying electrochemical activity of materials at...

  15. Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The goal of the project is to develop laser processing of amor- phous and nanocrystalline ... technology for production of iron-based amor- phous and nanocrystalline powders with ...

  16. Fabrication and characterization of nano-gas sensor arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, H. S. Kashyout, A. B.; Morsi, I. Nasser, A. A. A. Raafat, A.

    2015-03-30

    A novel structures of Nanomaterials gas sensors array constructed using ZnO, and ZnO doped with Al via sol-gel technique. Two structure arrays are developed; the first one is a double sensor array based on doping with percentages of 1% and 5%. The second is a quadrature sensor array based on several doping ratios concentrations (0%, 1%, 5% and 10%). The morphological structures of prepared ZnO were revealed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal a highly crystallized wurtzite structure and used for identifying phase structure and chemical state of both ZnO and ZnO doped with Al under different preparation conditions and different doping ratios. Chemical composition of Al-doped ZnO nanopowders was performed using energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) analysis. The electrical characteristics of the sensor are determined by measuring the two terminal sensors output resistance for O{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases as a function of temperature.

  17. Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Protection of Magnesium Parts (AMD-704) | Department of Energy 12 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm052_osborne_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications AMD 405: Improved Automotive Suspension Components Cast with B206 Alloy 2011 Annual Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - Cover and Contents

  18. Nano-fabricated superconducting radio-frequency composites, method for producing nano-fabricated superconducting rf composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norem, James H.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2013-06-11

    Superconducting rf is limited by a wide range of failure mechanisms inherent in the typical manufacture methods. This invention provides a method for fabricating superconducting rf structures comprising coating the structures with single atomic-layer thick films of alternating chemical composition. Also provided is a cavity defining the invented laminate structure.

  19. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  20. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    31, 2010 [Facility News] Instruments on Mt. Pico to Supplement Measurements from Graciosa Island Bookmark and Share At an elevation of about 2225 meters-usually above the marine boundary layer-the Pico Observatory is able to measure properties in the atmosphere transported from North America and Europe. Located high on Mount Pico in the Azores, the University of the Azores, the University of Colorado, and Michigan Technological University operate an instrumented observation station, the Pico

  1. Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells. Tech Team Meeting Presentaion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, Eric L.; Elbaz Alon, Lior; Henson, Neil J.; Rockward, Tommy; Roy, Aaron; Serov, Alexey; Ward, Timothy

    2012-08-13

    Catalyst support durability is currently a technical barrier for commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, especially for transportation applications. Degradation and corrosion of the conventional carbon supports leads to losses in active catalyst surface area and, consequently, reduced performance. As a result, the goal of this work is to develop support materials that interact strongly with Pt, yet sustain bulk-like catalytic activities with very highly dispersed particles. Ceramic materials that are prepared using conventional solid-state methods have large grain sizes and low surface areas that can only be minimally ameliorated through grinding and ball milling. Other synthesis routes to produce ceramic materials must be investigated and utilized in order to obtain desired surface areas. In this work, several different synthesis methods are being utilized to prepare electronically conductive ceramic boride, nitride, and oxide materials with high surface areas and have the potential for use as PEMFC catalyst supports. Polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) and aerosol-through plasma (A-T-P) torch are among several methods used to obtain ceramic materials with surface areas that are equal to, or exceed Vulcan XC-72R supports. Cubic Mo-based ceramic phases have been prepared with average XRD-determined crystallite sizes as low as 1.6 nm (from full profile, XRD fitting) and a BET surface area exceeding 200 m{sup 2}/g. Additionally, black, sub-stoichiometric TiO{sub 2-x}, have been prepared with an average crystallite size in the 4 nm range and surface areas exceeding 250 m{sup 2}/gr. Pt disposition using an incipient wetness approach produced materials with activity for hydrogen redox reactions and ORR. Cyclic voltammetry data will be shown for a variety of potential Pt/ceramic catalysts. Initial experiments indicate enhanced Pt metal-support interactions as well. Plane wave periodic density functional calculations (VASP) are being used to predict the thermodynamic and activation barriers for fundamental electrode processes occurring at platinum surfaces supported on thin films of the ceramic support materials. The results of this work will be used in order to optimize support properties.

  2. "Plastic" Solar Cells: Self-Assembly of Bulk HeterojunctionNano...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Academy of Science. Prof. Heeger founded UNIAX Corporation in 1990; UNIAX was acquired by DuPont in 2000. Prof. Heeger is Chairman and Co-founder of CBrite Inc. in Santa Barbara.

  3. Effect of temperature on the nano/microstructure and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned Ag films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Huan; Geng, Jie; Ott, Ryan T.; Besser, Matthew F.; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2015-06-24

    In situ and ex situ annealed nanotwinned (NT) Ag thin films have been investigated by TEM and tensile testing to reveal the thermal stability of the twin boundaries, grain boundaries, dislocation densities, and their respective influence of the macroscopic yield stress. The NT Ag films synthesized by magnetron sputtering form both coherent (CTB, Σ3{111}) and incoherent (ITB, Σ3{112}) twin boundaries that are thermally stable up to 473 K (200 Celsius), i.e., no obvious changes in grain size, twin spacing, and yield stress. In situ TEM observations show the dislocations become mobile at 453 K (180 Celsius) resulting in dislocation annihilationmore » primarily at twin and grain boundaries. Rotation of grains with low-angle grain boundaries was observed during in situ heating, resulting in the growth of columnar grains above 453 K (180 Celsius). However, no noticeable changes in the spacings of CTBs were observed during the entire in situ and ex situ annealing [up to 873 K (600 Celsius)]. The increase in grain size and concomitant decrease in yield stress following annealing at various temperatures can be described by the Hall-Petch relationship, demonstrating that grain size rather than twin spacing is most sensitive to thermal annealing and plays a dominant role in the deformation of NT Ag films.« less

  4. Supplying materials needed for grain growth characterizations of nano-grained UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mo, Kun; Miao, Yinbin; Yun, Di; Jamison, Laura M.; Lian, Jie; Yao, Tiankei

    2015-09-30

    This activity is supported by the US Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Product Line (FPL) and aims at providing experimental data for the validation of the mesoscale simulation code MARMOT. MARMOT is a mesoscale multiphysics code that predicts the coevolution of microstructure and properties within reactor fuel during its lifetime in the reactor. It is an important component of the Moose-Bison-Marmot (MBM) code suite that has been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to enable next generation fuel performance modeling capability as part of the NEAMS Program FPL. In order to ensure the accuracy of the microstructure based materials models being developed within the MARMOT code, extensive validation efforts must be carried out. In this report, we summarize our preliminary synchrotron radiation experiments at APS to determine the grain size of nanograin UO2. The methodology and experimental setup developed in this experiment can directly apply to the proposed in-situ grain growth measurements. The investigation of the grain growth kinetics was conducted based on isothermal annealing and grain growth characterization as functions of duration and temperature. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy for grain growth for UO2 with different stoichiometry are obtained and compared with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.

  5. A hybrid aluminium alloy and its zoo of interacting nano-precipitates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenner, Sigurd; Marioara, Calin Daniel; Andersen, Sigmund Jarle; Ervik, Martin; Holmestad, Randi

    2015-08-15

    An alloy with aluminium as its base element is heat treated to form a multitude of precipitate phases known from different classes of industrial alloys: Al–Cu(–Mg), Al–Mg–Si–Cu, and Al–Zn–Mg. Nanometer-sized needle-shaped particles define the starting point of the phase nucleation, after which there is a split in the precipitation sequence into six phases of highly diverse compositions and morphologies. There are several unique effects of phases from different alloy systems being present in the same host lattice, of which we concentrate on two: the replacement of Ag by Zn on the Ω interface and the formation of combined plates of the θ′ and C phases. Using atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we investigate the formation mechanisms, crystal structures and compositions of the precipitates. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • An aluminium alloy composition in-between the 2/6/7xxx systems was investigated. • Six different phases from the three systems coexist in an over-aged state. • All phases with 〈001〉{sub Al} coherencies can nucleate on 6xxx needle precipitates. • Modified theta′ and omega interfaces are observed.

  6. Micro/nano devices fabricated from Cu-Hf thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luber, Erik J; Ophus, Colin; Mitlin, David; Olsen, Brian; Harrower, Christopher; Radmilovi, Velimir

    2013-06-04

    An all-metal microdevice or nanodevice such as an atomic force microscope probe is manufactured from a copper-hafnium alloy thin film having an x-ray amorphous microstructure.

  7. Theory and Manufacturing Processes of Solar NanoAntenna Electromagnetic Collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale K. Kotter; Steven D. Novack

    2010-02-01

    DRAFT For Submittal to Journal of Solar Energy - Rev 10.1 ---SOL-08-1091 SOLAR Nantenna Electromagnetic Collectors Dale K. Kotter Idaho National Laboratory Steven D. Novack Idaho National Laboratory W. Dennis Slafer MicroContinuum, Inc. Patrick Pinhero University of Missouri ABSTRACT The research described in this paper explores a new and efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun, using nanoantenna (nantenna) electromagnetic collectors (NECs). NEC devices target mid-infrared wavelengths, where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells are inefficient and where there is an abundance of solar energy. The initial concept of designing NECs was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory to the infrared and visible regions. This approach initially proved unsuccessful because the optical behavior of materials in the terahertz (THz) region was overlooked and, in addition, economical nanofabrication methods were not previously available to produce the optical antenna elements. This paper demonstrates progress in addressing significant technological barriers, including: 1) development of frequency-dependent modeling of double-feedpoint square spiral nantenna elements; 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties; and 3) development of novel manufacturing methods that could potentially enable economical large-scale manufacturing. We have shown that nantennas can collect infrared energy and induce THz currents, and we have also developed cost-effective proof-of-concept fabrication techniques for the large-scale manufacture of simple square loop nantenna arrays. Future work is planned to embed rectifiers into the double-feedpoint antenna structures. This work represents an important first step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity. This could lead to a broadband, high conversion efficiency low-cost solution to complement conventional PV devices.

  8. Materials Data on NaNO (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Antimicrobial polymers - The antibacterial effect of photoactivated nano titanium dioxide polymer composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huppmann, T. Leonhardt, S. E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Krampe, E. E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Wintermantel, E.; Yatsenko, S. Radovanovic, I. E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de; Bastian, M. E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de

    2014-05-15

    To obtain a polymer with antimicrobial properties for medical and sanitary applications nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles have been incorporated into a medical grade polypropylene (PP) matrix with various filler contents (0 wt %, 2 wt %, 10 wt % and 15 wt %). The standard application of TiO{sub 2} for antimicrobial efficacy is to deposit a thin TiO{sub 2} coating on the surface. In contrast to the common way of applying a coating, TiO{sub 2} particles were applied into the bulk polymer. With this design we want to ensure antimicrobial properties even after application of impact effects that could lead to surface defects. The filler material (Aeroxide® TiO{sub 2} P25, Evonik) was applied via melt compounding and the compounding parameters were optimized with respect to nanoscale titanium dioxide. In a next step the effect of UV-irradiation on the compounds concerning their photocatalytic activity, which is related to the titanium dioxide amount, was investigated. The photocatalytic effect of TiO{sub 2}-PP-composites was analyzed by contact angle measurement, by methylene blue testing and by evaluation of inactivation potential for Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria. The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the filler content was evaluated, and on the basis of different titanium dioxide fractions adequate amounts of additives within the compounds were discussed. Specimens displayed a higher photocatalytic and also antimicrobial activity and lower contact angles with increasing titania content. The results suggest that the presence of titania embedded in the PP matrix leads to a surface change and a photocatalytic effect with bacteria killing result.

  10. Nano-scale nitride-particle-strengthened high-temperature wrought ferritic and martensitic steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klueh, Ronald L; Hashimoto, Naoyuki; Maziasz, Philip J

    2009-04-21

    A method of making a steel composition includes the steps of: a. providing a steel composition that includes up to 15% Cr, up to 3% Mo, up to 4% W, 0.05-1% V, up to 2% Si, up to 3% Mn, up to 10% Co, up to 3% Cu, up to 5% Ni, up to 0.3% C, 0.02-0.3% N, balance iron, wherein the percentages are by total weight of the composition; b. austenitizing the composition at a temperature in the range of 1000.degree. C. to 1400.degree. C.; c. cooling the composition of steel to a selected hot-working temperature in the range 500.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C.; d. hot-working the composition at the selected hot-working temperature; e. annealing the composition for a time period of up to 10 hours at a temperature in the range of 500.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C.; and f. cooling the composition to ambient temperature to transform the steel composition to martensite, bainite, ferrite, or a combination of those microstructures.

  11. Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Phase Diamond at High Temperature and Its Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tushar K Ghosh

    2008-10-13

    The objectives of this proposed research were: 91) Separation and storage of hydrogen on nanophase diamonds. It is expected that the produced hydrogen, which will be in a mixture, can be directed to a nanophase diamond system directly, which will not only store the hydrogen, but also separate it from the gas mixture, and (2) release of the stored hydrogen from the nanophase diamond.

  12. Report on the Gaithersburg NanoNuclear Workshop and Strategic Planning Recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Winston; Mike Cappiello; Robert Price; Jim Buelt; Stuart Maloy

    2012-09-01

    Not applicable. This report not written by INL personnel--Is only being screened through STIMS by Jon Carmack of INL, Battelle. No Abstract or brief Summary/Introduction was included.

  13. Nano-Thermal Effect: A Direct Route for Fast Molecular Recognition of Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senesac, Larry R; Yi, Dechang; Greve, Anders; Hales, Jan; Davis, Zachary; Nicholson, Don M; Boisen, Anja; Thundat, Thomas George

    2009-01-01

    Although micromechanical sensors enable chemical vapor sensing with unprecedented sensitivity using variations in mass and stress, obtaining chemical selectivity using the micromechanical response still remains as a crucial challenge. Chemoselectivity in vapor detection using immobilized selective layers that rely on weak chemical interactions provides only partial selectivity. Here we show that the very low thermal mass of micromechanical sensors can be used to produce unique responses that can be used for achieving chemical selectivity without losing sensitivity or reversibility. We demonstrate that this method is capable of differentiating explosive vapors from nonexplosives and is additionally capable of differentiating individual explosive vapors such as trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and cyclotrimethylenetrinitromine. This method, based on a microfabricated bridge with a programmable heating rate, produces unique and reproducible thermal response patterns within 50 ms that are characteristic to classes of adsorbed explosive molecules. We demonstrate that this micro-differential thermal analysis technique can selectively detect explosives, providing a method for fast direct detection with a limit of detection of 600 x 10{sup -12} g.

  14. SHAPE SELECTIVE NANO-CATALYSTS: TOWARD DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murph, S.

    2010-06-16

    A series of bimetallic core-shell-alloy type Au-Pt nanomaterials with various morphologies, aspect ratios and compositions, were produced in a heterogenous epitaxial fashion. Gold nanoparticles with well-controlled particle size and shape, e.g. spheres, rods and cubes, were used as 'seeds' for platinum growth in the presence of a mild reducing agent, ascorbic acid and a cationic surfactant cethyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The reactions take place in air and water, and are quick, economical and amenable for scaling up. The synthesized nanocatalysts were characterized by electron microscopy techniques and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Nafion membranes were embedded with the Au-Pt nanomaterials and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for their potential in direct methanol fuel cells applications.

  15. Packaging Materials of the 21st Century: "Sustainable Nano-Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ecology Renewable energy Green Nanotechnology Waves of Innovation Source: Natural ... ecology Renewable energy Green Nanotechnology Waves of Innovation Source: Natural ...

  16. GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National ... Our current research direction aims to move beyond self-assembly of the basic quantum dot ...

  17. Oxidative Remobilization of Technetium Sequestered by Sulfide-Transformed Nano Zerovalent Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Dimin; Anitori, Roberto; Tebo, Bradley M.; Tratnyek, P. G.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Kovarik, Libor; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.

    2014-06-02

    The dissolution of Tc(IV) sulfide and concurrent transformation of sulfidated ZVI during 2 oxidation were examined. Kinetic data obtained with 10 mL batch reactors showed that Tc(VII) 3 reduced by sulfidated nZVI has significantly slower reoxidation rates than Tc(VII) reduced by 4 nZVI only. In a 50 mL batch reactor, initial inhibition of Tc(IV) dissolution was apparent and 5 lasted until 120 hours at S/Fe = 0.112, presumably due to the redox buffer capacity of FeS. This 6 is evidenced by the parallel trends in oxidation-reduction potentials (ORP) and Tc dissolution 7 kinetics. M?ssbauer spectra and micro X-ray diffraction of S/Fe = 0.112 suggested the 8 persistence of FeS after 24-h oxidation although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated 9 substantial surface oxidation. After 120-h oxidation, all characterizations showed complete 10 oxidation of FeS, which further indicates that FeS inhibits Tc oxidation. X-ray absorption 11 spectroscopy for S/Fe = 0.011 showed significantly increasing percentage of TcS2 in the solid 12 phase after 24-h oxidation, indicating TcS2 is more resistant to oxidation than TcO2. At S/Fe = 13 0.112, the XAS results revealed significant transformation of Tc speciation from TcS2 to TcO2 14 after 120-h oxidation at S/Fe = 0.112. Given that no apparent Tc dissolution occurred during this 15 period, the speciation transformation might play a secondary role in hindering Tc oxidation, 16 especially as redox buffer capacity approached depletion.

  18. Bismuth nano-droplets for group-V based molecular-beam droplet epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, C.; Zeng, Z. Q.; Hirono, Y.; Morgan, T. A.; Hu, X.; Salamo, G. J.; Fan, D. S.; Wu, J.; Yu, S. Q.; Wang, Zh. M.

    2011-12-12

    Self-assembly of bismuth droplets at nanoscale on GaAs(100) surface using molecular beam epitaxy was demonstrated. Fine control of density and size was achieved by varying growth temperature and total bismuth deposition. Droplet density was tuned by roughly 3 orders of magnitude, and the density-temperature dependence was found to be consistent with classical nucleation theory. These results may extend the flexibility of droplet epitaxy by serving as templates for group V based droplet epitaxy, which is in contrast to conventional group III based droplet epitaxy and may encourage nanostructure formation of bismuth-containing materials.

  19. Thermoelectric properties of nano-meso-micro β-MnO₂ powders...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1931-7573 Publisher: Springer Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los ...

  20. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced thermoelectric energy recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented

  1. Effect of temperature on the nano/microstructure and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned Ag films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Huan; Geng, Jie; Ott, Ryan T.; Besser, Matthew F.; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2015-06-24

    In situ and ex situ annealed nanotwinned (NT) Ag thin films have been investigated by TEM and tensile testing to reveal the thermal stability of the twin boundaries, grain boundaries, dislocation densities, and their respective influence of the macroscopic yield stress. The NT Ag films synthesized by magnetron sputtering form both coherent (CTB, ?3{111}) and incoherent (ITB, ?3{112}) twin boundaries that are thermally stable up to 473 K (200 Celsius), i.e., no obvious changes in grain size, twin spacing, and yield stress. In situ TEM observations show the dislocations become mobile at 453 K (180 Celsius) resulting in dislocation annihilation primarily at twin and grain boundaries. Rotation of grains with low-angle grain boundaries was observed during in situ heating, resulting in the growth of columnar grains above 453 K (180 Celsius). However, no noticeable changes in the spacings of CTBs were observed during the entire in situ and ex situ annealing [up to 873 K (600 Celsius)]. The increase in grain size and concomitant decrease in yield stress following annealing at various temperatures can be described by the Hall-Petch relationship, demonstrating that grain size rather than twin spacing is most sensitive to thermal annealing and plays a dominant role in the deformation of NT Ag films.

  2. Enhanced High Temperature Corrosion Resistance in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems by Nano-Passive Layer Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold R. Marder

    2007-06-14

    Due to their excellent corrosion resistance, iron aluminum alloys are currently being considered for use as weld claddings in fossil fuel fired power plants. The susceptibility to hydrogen cracking of these alloys at higher aluminum concentrations has highlighted the need for research into the effect of chromium additions on the corrosion resistance of lower aluminum alloys. In the present work, three iron aluminum alloys were exposed to simulated coal combustion environments at 500 C and 700 C for both short (100 hours) and long (5,000 hours) isothermal durations. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the corrosion products. All alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the short term tests. For longer exposures, increasing the aluminum concentration was beneficial to the corrosion resistance. The addition of chromium to the binary iron aluminum alloy prevented the formation iron sulfide and resulted in lower corrosion kinetics. A classification of the corrosion products that developed on these alloys is presented. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of the as-corroded coupons revealed that chromium was able to form chromium sulfides only on the higher aluminum alloy, thereby preventing the formation of deleterious iron sulfides. When the aluminum concentration was too low to permit selective oxidation of only aluminum (upon initial exposure to the corrosion environment), the formation of chromium oxide alongside the aluminum oxide led to depletion of chromium beneath the oxide layer. Upon penetration of sulfur through the oxide into this depletion layer, iron sulfides (rather than chromium sulfides) were found to form on the low aluminum alloy. Thus, it was found in this work that the role of chromium on alloy corrosion resistance was strongly effected by the aluminum concentration of the alloy. STEM analysis also revealed the encapsulation of external iron sulfide products with a thin layer of aluminum oxide, which may provide a secondary layer of a corrosion protection in these regions. In a separate set of experiments, in-situ oxidation performed in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) equipment showed that the formation of aluminum oxide in a pure oxygen environment at 500 C was slowed by the addition of chromium.

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - Lin_2014_CNMS_UserScienceHighlight_NatNano...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    show the fabrication of flexible metallic nanowires and their Y-junction structures from a semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayer via electron irradiation...

  4. Microsoft PowerPoint - Belianinov_2015_UserProjectHighlight_NanoLett...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Physics, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania LT-01513 3a Institute for Problems of Material Sciences, 3b Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv,...

  5. The Correlation of Stress-State and Nano-Mechanical Properties in Au

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOUSTON,JACK E.; JARAUSCH,K.F.; KIELY,J.D.; RUSSELL,P.E.

    1999-10-07

    A dependence of elastic response on the stress-state of a thin film has been demonstrated using the interfacial force microscope (IFM). Indentation response was measured as a function of the applied biaxial stress-state for 100 nm thick Au films. An increase in measured elastic modulus with applied compressive stress, and a decrease with applied tensile stress was observed. Measurements of elastic modulus before and after applying stress were identical indicating that the observed change in response is not due to a permanent change in film properties.

  6. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Asif, Syed Amanula Syed

    2013-05-07

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  7. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Syed Asif, Syed Amanula

    2014-07-29

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  8. Microsoft PowerPoint - Gong_CNMS User Project Highlight_NanoLett...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    band gap of molybdenum disulfide has been tuned between 1.85 and 1.60 eV by changing Se concentration. Controlling and quantifying dopant concentration within each atomic layer...

  9. Sustainable Nano-Materials: What is happening at the cellular level?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation for the Sustainable Nanomaterials Workshop by Georgia Institute of Technology held on June 26, 2012

  10. Adsorbate-driven morphological changes on Cu(111) nano-pits

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mudiyanselage, K.; Xu, F.; Hoffmann, F. M.; Hrbek, J.; Waluyo, I.; Boscoboinik, J. A.; Stacchiola, D. J.

    2014-12-09

    Adsorbate-driven morphological changes of pitted-Cu(111) surfaces have been investigated following the adsorption and desorption of CO and H. The morphology of the pitted-Cu(111) surfaces, prepared by Ar+ sputtering, exposed a few atomic layers deep nested hexagonal pits of diameters from 8 to 38 nm with steep step bundles. The roughness of pitted-Cu(111) surfaces can be healed by heating to 450-500 K in vacuum. Adsorption of CO on the pitted-Cu(111) surface leads to two infrared peaks at 2089-2090 and 2101-2105 cm-1 for CO adsorbed on under-coordinated sites in addition to the peak at 2071 cm-1 for CO adsorbed on atop sitesmore » of the close-packed Cu(111) surface. CO adsorbed on under-coordinated sites is thermally more stable than that of atop Cu(111) sites. Annealing of the CO-covered surface from 100 to 300 K leads to minor changes of the surface morphology. In contrast, annealing of a H covered surface to 300 K creates a smooth Cu(111) surface as deduced from infrared data of adsorbed CO and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) imaging. The observation of significant adsorbate-driven morphological changes with H is attributed to its stronger modification of the Cu(111) surface by the formation of a sub-surface hydride with a hexagonal structure, which relaxes into the healed Cu(111) surface upon hydrogen desorption. These morphological changes occur ~150 K below the temperature required for healing of the pitted-Cu(111) surface by annealing in vacuum. In contrast, the adsorption of CO, which only interacts with the top-most Cu layer and desorbs by 160 K, does not significantly change the morphology of the pitted-Cu(111) surface.« less

  11. ON-DEMAND SERIAL DILUTION USING QUANTIZED NANO/PICOLITER-SCALE DROPLETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jambovane, Sachin R.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sheen, Allison M.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2014-10-29

    This paper describes a fully automated droplet-based microfluidic device for on-demand serial dilution that is capable of achieving a dilution ratio of >6000 (concentration ranges from 1 mM to 160nM) over 35 nanoliter-scale droplets. This serial diluter can be applied to high throughput and label-free kinetic assays by integrating with our previously developed on-demand droplet-based microfluidic with mass spectrometry detection.

  12. Microsoft PowerPoint - Sacci_2015_UserProjectHighlight_NanoLett...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium dendrite formation is a major safety concern existing in Li-ion and Li-metal batteries. In situ ec-STEM (a liquid cell electron microscopy based characterization method)...

  13. nano-energy | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    transfer, molecular rearrangement, and chemical reactions) take place at the nanoscale, ... Matter such as gases, liquids, and solids can exhibit unusual physical, chemical, and ...

  14. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Compares thermo-hydraulic performance and cost of micro-honeycombs to conventional heat exchange structures to highlight performance enhancement mechanisms

  15. Microsoft PowerPoint - Copy of Boron-Based nanoPCs.ppt [Compatibility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has investigated an alternative to conventionally constructed gas-filled PCs using a boron-coated nanostructured array affixed on an insulating substrate to replace the...

  16. Nano, photonic research gets boost from new 3-D visualization technology |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Using a new x-ray imaging technique, scientists were able to get a 3-dimensional reconstruction of the Argonne National Laboratory logo with a nanometer resolution from the surface layer of a sample. Figure A shows an image produced with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), figure B shows the Argonne logo and figure C shows the image as 2-D coherent surface scattering imaging (CSSI) data. Using a new x-ray imaging technique, scientists were able to get a

  17. Microsoft Word - Final formatted Nano-Vol_II-Field_Reports.doc

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    are met. The questionnaire is given to employees annually and when they change jobs. It flags individuals as nanomaterial workers and informs appropriate site personnel...

  18. 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckstein, James N.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2011-10-19

    We have very recently discovered a new hydrogen-producing photocatalyst is BiNbO4. BiNbO4 powders prepared by solid state reaction were tested for photocatalytic activity in methanol solutions under UV irradiation. When the material is tested without the presence of a Pt co-catalyst, photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution is superior to that of TiO2. It was also found that BiNbO4 photodegrades into metallic Bi and reduced Nb oxides after use; materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, and XPS. Adding Pt to the surface of the photocatalyst increases photocatalytic activity and importantly, helps to prevent photodegradation of the oxide material. With 1 wt. % Pt loading, photodegradation is essentially absent. BiNbO4 photodegrades into metallic Bi and reduced Nb oxides after use; materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, and XPS. Adding Pt to the surface of the photocatalyst increases photocatalytic activity and importantly, helps to prevent photodegradation of the oxide material. With 1 wt. % Pt loading, photodegradation is essentially absent.

  19. The nano-microfibrous R11Ni4In9 intermetallics: New compounds...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 91; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy ...

  20. Adsorbate-driven morphological changes on Cu(111) nano-pits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudiyanselage, K.; Xu, F.; Hoffmann, F. M.; Hrbek, J.; Waluyo, I.; Boscoboinik, J. A.; Stacchiola, D. J.

    2014-12-09

    Adsorbate-driven morphological changes of pitted-Cu(111) surfaces have been investigated following the adsorption and desorption of CO and H. The morphology of the pitted-Cu(111) surfaces, prepared by Ar+ sputtering, exposed a few atomic layers deep nested hexagonal pits of diameters from 8 to 38 nm with steep step bundles. The roughness of pitted-Cu(111) surfaces can be healed by heating to 450-500 K in vacuum. Adsorption of CO on the pitted-Cu(111) surface leads to two infrared peaks at 2089-2090 and 2101-2105 cm-1 for CO adsorbed on under-coordinated sites in addition to the peak at 2071 cm-1 for CO adsorbed on atop sites of the close-packed Cu(111) surface. CO adsorbed on under-coordinated sites is thermally more stable than that of atop Cu(111) sites. Annealing of the CO-covered surface from 100 to 300 K leads to minor changes of the surface morphology. In contrast, annealing of a H covered surface to 300 K creates a smooth Cu(111) surface as deduced from infrared data of adsorbed CO and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) imaging. The observation of significant adsorbate-driven morphological changes with H is attributed to its stronger modification of the Cu(111) surface by the formation of a sub-surface hydride with a hexagonal structure, which relaxes into the healed Cu(111) surface upon hydrogen desorption. These morphological changes occur ~150 K below the temperature required for healing of the pitted-Cu(111) surface by annealing in vacuum. In contrast, the adsorption of CO, which only interacts with the top-most Cu layer and desorbs by 160 K, does not significantly change the morphology of the pitted-Cu(111) surface.