National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for nano pico femto

  1. Using pico to edit files

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using pico to edit files. Someday you might want to learn emacs or vi. They are much more powerful editors than pico, but much more complicated, too. I have ...

  2. Femto-photography: capturing and visualizing the propagation of light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velten, Andreas

    We present femto-photography, a novel imaging technique to capture and visualize the propagation of light. With an effective exposure time of 1.85 picoseconds (ps) per frame, we reconstruct movies of ultrafast events at ...

  3. Computing High Accuracy Power Spectra with Pico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William A. Fendt; Benjamin D. Wandelt

    2007-12-02

    This paper presents the second release of Pico (Parameters for the Impatient COsmologist). Pico is a general purpose machine learning code which we have applied to computing the CMB power spectra and the WMAP likelihood. For this release, we have made improvements to the algorithm as well as the data sets used to train Pico, leading to a significant improvement in accuracy. For the 9 parameter nonflat case presented here Pico can on average compute the TT, TE and EE spectra to better than 1% of cosmic standard deviation for nearly all $\\ell$ values over a large region of parameter space. Performing a cosmological parameter analysis of current CMB and large scale structure data, we show that these power spectra give very accurate 1 and 2 dimensional parameter posteriors. We have extended Pico to allow computation of the tensor power spectrum and the matter transfer function. Pico runs about 1500 times faster than CAMB at the default accuracy and about 250,000 times faster at high accuracy. Training Pico can be done using massively parallel computing resources, including distributed computing projects such as Cosmology@Home. On the homepage for Pico, located at http://cosmos.astro.uiuc.edu/pico, we provide new sets of regression coefficients and make the training code available for public use.

  4. Femto-Molar Sensitive Field Effect Transistor Biosensors Based on Silicon Nanowires and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    Femto-Molar Sensitive Field Effect Transistor Biosensors Based on Silicon Nanowires and AntibodiesNW-FET biosensors can be realized by linking recognition groups to the surface of the nanowire [5], [6], [7

  5. West Pico Food | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia: Energy Resources JumpChicago,Islip, NewMilton,NewOrange,PowerPico

  6. Nano Databases Nano Business

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    Home News Nano Databases Nano Business Nano Jobs Resources Introduc on to Nanotechnology Open menu's lab. A team of interna onal researchers, led by Lieber, the Mark Hyman, Jr. Professor of Chemistry

  7. Dynamics of femto-and nanosecond laser ablation plumes investigated using optical emission spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Dynamics of femto- and nanosecond laser ablation plumes investigated using optical emission (40 fs, 800 nm) or from a Nd:YAG laser (6 ns, 1064 nm). Optical emission spectroscopy is used to infer method. At similar fluence levels, continuum and ion emission are dominant in ns LPP at early times (

  8. Dmarche qualit au sein d'un laboratoire de recherche du CNRS: FEMTO-ST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    également lancés dans la mise en place de la norme NF EN ISO 9001 afin d'obtenir une certification décennies des laboratoires accrédités par le COFRAC selon le référentiel NF EN ISO/CEI 17025. Ainsi, le : recherche, qualité, laboratoires, label Carnot, ISO 9001, ISO/CEI 17025, Université de Franche-Comté, FEMTO

  9. The PICO-NARE Station Project Description and Initial Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honrath, Richard E.

    that air qual- ity measurements at Pico are needed, and Section 3 de- scribes the station itself. Initial.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Portugal Foundation for Science and Technology U.S. Air was developed to study the impacts that air pollutant emissions from the surrounding continents have

  10. PicoDBMS: Validation and Experience Nicolas Anciaux*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouganim, Luc

    1 PicoDBMS: Validation and Experience Nicolas Anciaux* , Christophe Bobineau* , Luc Bouganim a DBMS is undoubtedly the best candidate to host data in a highly-available and secure way. This makes of popular DBMS (e.g., Oracle 8i Lite, DB2 Everywhere) have been designed for portable computers and PDA

  11. arXiv:cond-mat/0408137v16Aug2004 Proposal for a spintronic femto-Tesla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahay, Marc

    arXiv:cond-mat/0408137v16Aug2004 Proposal for a spintronic femto-Tesla magnetic field sensor S of Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA Abstract We propose a spintronic magnetic field sensor, fashioned out of quantum incursion detection and anti-submarine warfare. Key words: spintronics, magnetic sensors, spin orbit

  12. PICO: An Object-Oriented Framework for Branch and Bound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ECKSTEIN,JONATHAN; HART,WILLIAM E.; PHILLIPS,CYNTHIA A.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the design of PICO, a C++ framework for implementing general parallel branch-and-bound algorithms. The PICO framework provides a mechanism for the efficient implementation of a wide range of branch-and-bound methods on an equally wide range of parallel computing platforms. We first discuss the basic architecture of PICO, including the application class hierarchy and the package's serial and parallel layers. We next describe the design of the serial layer, and its central notion of manipulating subproblem states. Then, we discuss the design of the parallel layer, which includes flexible processor clustering and communication rates, various load balancing mechanisms, and a non-preemptive task scheduler running on each processor. We describe the application of the package to a branch-and-bound method for mixed integer programming, along with computational results on the ASCI Red massively parallel computer. Finally we describe the application of the branch-and-bound mixed-integer programming code to a resource constrained project scheduling problem for Pantex.

  13. Pico Vermelho-Ribeira Grande Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) | Open EnergyPhoenicia, NewPicket Lake,Vermelho GeothermalPico

  14. An Exploratory Study on the Use of Camera Phones and Pico Projectors in Rural India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    An Exploratory Study on the Use of Camera Phones and Pico Projectors in Rural India Akhil Mathur* , Divya Ramachandran# , Edward Cutrell , Ravin Balakrishnan * Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs, Bangalore, India, USA Microsoft Research, Bangalore, India akhil@dgp.toronto.edu, ravin@dgp.toronto.edu ABSTRACT We

  15. Nano Facts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatialDevelopment of09Sponsor GuidelinesGlennNancy M.Nano Facts

  16. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; et al

    2015-05-29

    The PICASSO and COUPP collaborations use superheated liquid detectors to search for cold dark matter through the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These experiments, located in the underground laboratory of SNOLAB, Canada, detect phase transitions triggered by nuclear recoils in the keV range induced by interactions with WIMPs. We present details of the construction and operation of these detectors as well as the results, obtained by several years of observations. We also introduce PICO, a joint effort of the two collaborations to build a second generation ton-scale bubble chamber with 250 liters of active liquid.

  17. 78.1: Ultra Compact Polarization Recycling System for White Light LED based Pico-Projection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    78.1: Ultra Compact Polarization Recycling System for White Light LED based Pico-Projection System polarization recycling system, for white light LED based projectors, is proposed. White light LED is applied as the light source, which is composed of blue LED die and yellow phosphor. By optimizing the illumination

  18. Nano-composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  19. Nano Research Facility Lab Safety Manual Nano Research Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    1 Nano Research Facility Lab Safety Manual Nano Research Facility: Weining Wang Office: Brauer---chemical, biological, or radiological. Notify the lab manager, Dr. Yujie Xiong at 5-4530. Eye Contact: Promptly flush

  20. http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=6934.php Ads by Google MEMS Design Tata Nano Nano Devices iTrip Nano Nano Optic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=6934.php Ads by Google MEMS Design Tata Nano Nano Devices i generation of combined optical and electronic platforms essential for future computers," added Sridhar-2802 or via email at j.eriksen@neu.edu. Ads by Google MEMS Design Tata Nano Nano Devices iTrip Nano Nano Optic

  1. Direct Nano-Patterning With Nano-Optic Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meenashi Sundaram, Vijay

    2011-08-08

    In this study nano-patterning was carried out using two different nano-optic devices namely- the NSOM and Fresnel zone plate. In the first study, NSOM was used to generate nano-patterns on selected semiconducting (Si and Ge) and metallic (Cr, Cu...

  2. Responses of Heterotrophic and Autotrophic Pico- and Nano-Plankton to Nutrient Availability and Enrichment across Marine Systems in the Northern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepard, Alicia Kail

    2015-08-13

    relationships between inorganic nutrients and marine microbial communities. Correlations specifically indicated the importance of temperature, salinity and inorganic nutrients to changes in microbial physiological community structure. Heterotrophic microbes...

  3. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano-aerosol and nano-structured materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Charles L. (Cross Junction, VA); Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA); Vsevolodov, Nikolai N. (Kensington, MD)

    2010-08-17

    The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano-aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano-clusters and nano-fibers. Nano-aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase. Neutralization of electrospan nano-fibers with molecular ions and charged nano-clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano-mats. Nano-mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano-filters.

  4. Pi-CO? aqueous post-combustion CO? capture: Proof of concept through thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and gas-lift pump modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blount, G.; Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; O’Neil, K.; Kervévan, C.; Beddelem, M. -H.

    2014-12-31

    Partnering in Innovation, Inc. (Pi-Innovation) introduces an aqueous post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO?) capture system (Pi-CO?) that offers high market value by directly addressing the primary constraints limiting beneficial re-use markets (lowering parasitic energy costs, reducing delivered cost of capture, eliminating the need for special solvents, etc.). A highly experienced team has completed initial design, modeling, manufacturing verification, and financial analysis for commercial market entry. Coupled thermodynamic and thermal-hydraulic mass transfer modeling results fully support proof of concept. Pi-CO? has the potential to lower total cost and risk to levels sufficient to stimulate global demand for CO? from local industrial sources.

  5. Bio2Nano

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura|Bilayer Graphene Gets aVehicles and FuelsBio2Nano

  6. Controlled Dispensing and Mixing of Pico- to Nanoliter Volumes Using On-Demand Droplet-Based Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2013-07-08

    We present an integrated droplet-on-demand microfluidic platform for dispensing, mixing, incubating, extracting and analyzing by mass spectrometry pico- to nanoliter sized droplets. Droplet generation is accomplished using computer-controlled pneumatic valves. Controlled actuation of valves for different aqueous streams enables controlled dosing and rapid mixing of reagents within droplets in the droplet generation area or in a region with widening channel cross-section. Following incubation, which takes place while droplets travel in the oil stream, the droplet contents are extracted to an aqueous channel for subsequent ionization at an integrated nanoelectrospray emitter. As an initial demonstration of the platform, rapid enzymatic digestions of a model protein are performed in droplets and detected on-line by nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  7. Grain Boundary (GB) Studies in Nano- and Micro- Crystalline Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanju, Mst Sohanazaman

    2011-01-01

    in Nano- and Micro- Crystalline Materials A Dissertationdense nano and micron crystalline materials were measuredStudies in Nano- and Micro- Crystalline Materials by Mst.

  8. Nano-optomechanical transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rakich, Peter T; El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Su, Mehmet Fatih; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Wang, Zheng; Davids, Paul

    2013-12-03

    A nano-optomechanical transducer provides ultrabroadband coherent optomechanical transduction based on Mach-wave emission that uses enhanced photon-phonon coupling efficiencies by low impedance effective phononic medium, both electrostriction and radiation pressure to boost and tailor optomechanical forces, and highly dispersive electromagnetic modes that amplify both electrostriction and radiation pressure. The optomechanical transducer provides a large operating bandwidth and high efficiency while simultaneously having a small size and minimal power consumption, enabling a host of transformative phonon and signal processing capabilities. These capabilities include optomechanical transduction via pulsed phonon emission and up-conversion, broadband stimulated phonon emission and amplification, picosecond pulsed phonon lasers, broadband phononic modulators, and ultrahigh bandwidth true time delay and signal processing technologies.

  9. Direct measurement of the extraordinary optical momentum using a nano-cantilever

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Antognozzi; S. Simpson; R. Harniman; J. Senior; R. Hayward; H. Hoerber; M. R. Dennis; A. Y. Bekshaev; K. Y. Bliokh; F. Nori

    2015-06-13

    Radiation pressure has been known since Kepler's observation that a comet's tail is always oriented away from the sun, and in the past centuries this phenomenon stimulated remarkable discoveries in electromagnetism, quantum physics and relativity [1-3]. In modern terms, the pressure of light is associated with the momentum of photons, which plays a crucial role in a variety of systems, from atomic [4-7] to astronomical [8,9] scales. Experience from these cases leads us to assume that the direction of the optical momentum and the radiation-pressure force are naturally aligned with the propagation of light, i.e., its wavevector. Here we report the direct observation of an extraordinary optical momentum and force directed perpendicular to the wavevector, and proportional to the optical spin (i.e., degree of circular polarization). This transverse spin-dependent optical force, a few orders of magnitude weaker than the usual radiation pressure, was recently predicted for evanescent waves [10] and other structured fields [11]. Fundamentally, it can be associated with the enigmatic "spin momentum," introduced by Belinfante in field theory 75 years ago [12-14]. We measure this unusual transverse momentum using a nano-cantilever with extremely low compliance (capable of femto-Newton resolution), which is immersed in an evanescent optical field directly above the total-internal-reflecting glass surface. Such sensors, perpendicular to a substrate, have already shown an extreme force resolution in various systems [15-19]. Our findings revisit fundamental momentum properties of light, while the experimental technique opens the way for precision measurements of fine optical forces in structured fields at subwavelength scales.

  10. Pi-CO2 Aqueous Post-combustion CO2 Capture: Proof of Concept Through Thermodynamic, Hydrodynamic, and Gas-Lift Pump Modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blount, G.; Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; O’Neil, K.; Kervévan, C.; Beddelem, M.-H.

    2014-12-31

    Partnering in Innovation, Inc. (Pi-Innovation) introduces an aqueous post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system (Pi-CO2) that offers high market value by directly addressing the primary constraints limiting beneficial re-use markets (lowering parasitic energy costs, reducing delivered cost of capture, eliminating the need for special solvents, etc.). A highly experienced team has completed initial design, modeling, manufacturing verification, and financial analysis for commercial market entry. Coupled thermodynamic and thermal-hydraulic mass transfer modeling results fully support proof of concept. Pi-CO2 has the potential to lower total cost and risk to levels sufficient to stimulate global demand for CO2 from local industrial sources.

  11. Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Structure in Genotoxicity Studies to Support Engineering Development of Emission Controls Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure in...

  12. Back The Pico Mountain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura BeaneCardwell, ScottGreat:10,-2014 SignJR DTih Y c

  13. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-23

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  14. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-03-11

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  15. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search...

  16. Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Parts (AMD-704) Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium...

  17. 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis...

  18. Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel ThermoelectricMaterials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking &...

  19. Usage Policies Notebook for 2 inch Nano Furnace Revision date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Usage Policies Notebook for 2 inch Nano Furnace Revision date September 2014 #12;2 Emergency Plan for 2 inch Nano Furnace Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies Contact information Person Phone;4 Usage Policies for 2 inch Nano Furnace Standard policies for usage The nano furnace can accept up to 2

  20. DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Oleg Gang

    2010-01-08

    Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

  1. Alexander A. Balandin Nano-Device Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    generation computer logic devices (Intel, AMD) are ;Alexander A. Balandin Hybrid Virus-Inorganic Nanostructures Plant Viruses as Nano-Templates Nanofabrication, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 86, 253108 (2005). #12;Alexander A. Balandin Nanofabrication Using Virus

  2. A nano-stepping robotic instrumentation platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahab, Adam Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The development of an Autonomous Nano-stepping Tool (ANT) system is presented. Each ANT is a small, tripodal, robotic instrument capable of untethered precision motion within a quasi-three-dimensional workspace of arbitrary ...

  3. Pool boiling on nano-finned surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sriraman, Sharan Ram

    2008-10-10

    The effect of nano-structured surfaces on pool boiling heat transfer is explored in this study. Experiments are conducted in a cubical test chamber containing fluoroinert coolant (PF5060, Manufacturer: 3M Co.) as the working fluid. Pool boiling...

  4. Pool boiling on nano-finned surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sriraman, Sharan Ram

    2009-05-15

    The effect of nano-structured surfaces on pool boiling heat transfer is explored in this study. Experiments are conducted in a cubical test chamber containing fluoroinert coolant (PF5060, Manufacturer: 3M Co.) as the working ...

  5. Nano structural anodes for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Serkiz, Steven M.; McWhorter, Christopher S.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-07-07

    Anodes for proportional radiation counters and a process of making the anodes is provided. The nano-sized anodes when present within an anode array provide: significantly higher detection efficiencies due to the inherently higher electric field, are amenable to miniaturization, have low power requirements, and exhibit a small electromagnetic field signal. The nano-sized anodes with the incorporation of neutron absorbing elements (e.g., .sup.10B) allow the use of neutron detectors that do not use .sup.3He.

  6. Nanoscale Light Focusing and Imaging with Nano-Optical Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meenashi Sundaram, Vijay

    2014-09-23

    Energy transport analysis of micro/nano optics as well as their optimization to achieve high-throughput deep nanoscale patterning and microscopy is the goal of this study. To understand the energy transport in nano-optical ...

  7. Carbon nano-relays for low power switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milaninia, Kaveh Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis two unique carbon based nanoelectromechanical switches or carbon nano-relays are demonstrated as a toolkit for investigating NEMs based low power switching. The first is a vertical carbon nano-relay, consisting ...

  8. Exploring PropertiesSurface Coatings: Nano-Toss! Try this!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exploring Properties­Surface Coatings: Nano-Toss! Try this! 1. Presenter. Visitors experiment with modifying nano-ball's surface with different coatings: polymers, or decorative rhinestone-like stickers, or electrical tape.) 3. Visitors throw the coated

  9. Sustainable Nano-Materials: What is happening at the cellular...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Level NanoCellulose Balls Cellulose Whiskers Cellulosics Artificial SkinBlood Vessels High surface area, Hydrophilicity, Biocompatibility, and Biodegradability...

  10. Nano-scale Sensor Networks for Chemical Eisa Zarepour1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    natural gas to liquid fuel. Given that reliable wireless communi- cation at nano-scale is at very early

  11. Dynamics of heat transfer between nano systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs; Girish S. Agarwal

    2012-10-18

    We develop a dynamical theory of heat transfer between two nano systems. In particular, we consider the resonant heat transfer between two nanoparticles due to the coupling of localized surface modes having a finite spectral width. We model the coupled nanosystem by two coupled quantum mechanical oscillators, each interacting with its own heat bath, and obtain a master equation for the dynamics of heat transfer. The damping rates in the master equation are related to the lifetimes of localized plasmons in the nanoparticles. We study the dynamics towards the steady state and establish connection with the standard theory of heat transfer in steady state. For strongly coupled nano particles we predict Rabi oscillations in the mean occupation number of surface plasmons in each nano particle.

  12. Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Nano Materials Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogawa, Mizuhito

    started in April 2002 as a renewal of the former Center for New Materials originally established as oneJapan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Nano Materials Technology (Lecture) Course Center for Nano Materials and Technology #12;The Center for Nano Materials and Technology (CNMT) has

  13. Nano-Manufacturing While nanotechnology promises to revolutionize everything from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Nano-Manufacturing While nanotechnology promises to revolutionize everything from energy production futuristic systems will remain science fiction without practical and scalable nano-manufacturing capabilities. Researchers at the University of Maryland's NanoCenter have the manufacturing capabilities needed for turning

  14. Peristaltic pumps work in nano scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farnoush Farahpour; Mohammad Reza Ejtehadi

    2013-08-05

    A design for a pump is suggested which is based on well-known peristaltic pumps. In order to simply describe the operation of the proposed pump, an innovative interpretation of low Reynolds number swimmers is presented and thereafter a similar theoretical model would be suggested to quantify the behavior of the pumps. A coarse-grained molecular dynamic simulation is used to examine the theoretical predictions and measure the efficiency of the pump in nano scales. It is shown that this pump with a modest design is capable of being a good option for transport processes in nano scale.

  15. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  16. Electrochemical method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Joan; Jang, Bor Z.

    2013-09-03

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets with an average thickness smaller than 30 nm from a layered graphite material. The method comprises (a) forming a carboxylic acid-intercalated graphite compound by an electrochemical reaction; (b) exposing the intercalated graphite compound to a thermal shock to produce exfoliated graphite; and (c) subjecting the exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce the nano-scaled graphene platelets. Preferred carboxylic acids are formic acid and acetic acid. The exfoliation step in the instant invention does not involve the evolution of undesirable species, such as NO.sub.x and SO.sub.x, which are common by-products of exfoliating conventional sulfuric or nitric acid-intercalated graphite compounds. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  17. Investigation of Rheological and Nano-Rheological Properties of Asphalt Binders 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kabir, Pooyan

    2014-08-04

    to the asphalt microstructure and nano-rheology. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the application of dynamic shear rheometer for macro scale and the application of atomic force microscopy imaging for nano-scale. Extraction of nano-scale engineering properties...

  18. New nano-mechanical plasmonic phase modulator offers electronics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nano-mechanical plasmonic phase modulator offers electronics potential April 3, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint By using standard semiconductor manufacturing equipment, a team of scientists...

  19. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured...

  20. Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: RTI International 2002deervenkatasubramanian1.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  1. Haptic Simulation for Micro/Nano-Scale Optical Fiber Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Jing

    for designing leaning- based controller for automated micro/nano-scale optical fiber assembly. I. INTRODUCTION prototying is useful in prod- uct design and manufacturing in general, it is particularly crucial for manufacturing at micro/nano-scale [2] [3] [4]. Unlike normal-scale operations, visual feedback (through mi

  2. NanoEner Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures Ltd Jump to: navigation, search59Naknek,C Jump to:NanoEner

  3. NanoeXa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures Ltd Jump to: navigation, search59Naknek,C JumpNanoeXa Jump to:

  4. Nano Design Works | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatialDevelopment of09Sponsor GuidelinesGlennNancy M. HaegelNano

  5. C3Nano, inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank, Maine:Kansas: Energy Resources Jump to:Energy Inc -6 -Energy22 -3 -Nano,

  6. Method of producing nano-scaled inorganic platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites.

  7. Fundamental limitations for quantum and nano thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micha? Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim

    2014-10-25

    The relationship between thermodynamics and statistical physics is valid in the thermodynamic limit - when the number of particles becomes very large. Here, we study thermodynamics in the opposite regime - at both the nano scale, and when quantum effects become important. Applying results from quantum information theory we construct a theory of thermodynamics in these limits. We derive general criteria for thermodynamical state transformations, and as special cases, find two free energies: one that quantifies the deterministically extractable work from a small system in contact with a heat bath, and the other that quantifies the reverse process. We find that there are fundamental limitations on work extraction from nonequilibrium states, owing to finite size effects and quantum coherences. This implies that thermodynamical transitions are generically irreversible at this scale. As one application of these methods, we analyse the efficiency of small heat engines and find that they are irreversible during the adiabatic stages of the cycle.

  8. Nano-High: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lecture on Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nano-High, a program of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a series of free Saturday morning talks by internationally recognized leaders in scientific research. The talks are designed...

  9. Nano Research Kinetics of Molecular Recognition Mediated Nanoparticle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Nano Research Kinetics of Molecular Recognition Mediated Nanoparticle Self-Assembly Chinmay Soman1 using nanoparticle self-assembly mediated by molecular interactions, including polynucleotide Directed self-assembly of nanostructures into microstructures through intermolecular interactions

  10. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important...

  11. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Nano Self-Assembly Print Wednesday, 24 February 2010 00:00 If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of...

  12. Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings Laser Processing Techniques Used for the Production of Wear-Resistant Steel Coatings from Iron-Based Glassy Powders Introduction Steel...

  13. Nano-scale scratching in chemical-mechanical polishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eusner, Thor

    2008-01-01

    During the chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) process, a critical step in the manufacture of ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) semiconductor devices, undesirable nano-scale scratches are formed on the surfaces being ...

  14. NREL: Awards and Honors - NanoCeram Nanoalumina Fiber

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of time. For bone tissue engineering, NanoCeram provides a strong fibrous material, molding a scaffolding to which bone-forming osteoblast cells can adhere and build. Trials...

  15. Latent heat fluxes through nano-engineered porous materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traum, Matthew J. (Matthew Jason), 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Micro- and nano-scale truss architectures provide mechanical strength, light weight, and breatheability in polymer barriers. Liquid evaporation and transport of resulting vapor through truss voids (pores) cools surfaces ...

  16. Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2014-12-15

    In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer.

  17. Adsorbed Polymer and NOM Limits Adhesion and Toxicity of Nano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Adsorbed Polymer and NOM Limits Adhesion and Toxicity of Nano Scale Zerovalent Iron to E. coli Z H. Here we assess the effect that adsorbed synthetic polymers and natural organic matter

  18. In situ XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with Applications to Fuel Cells and Batteries Friday, July 12, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Qingying...

  19. Supramolecular NanoStamping (SuNS) : fabricating nano/bio devices using DNA as a movable type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Arum Amy

    2007-01-01

    When a useful device is developed, it always requires a mass-production technique to industrialize it. In the era of nano/biotechnology, the development of printing techniques has not followed the speed of the inventions ...

  20. Formation of surface nano-structures by plasma expansion induced by highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moslem, W. M.; El-Said, A. S.

    2012-12-15

    Slow highly charged ions (HCIs) create surface nano-structures (nano-hillocks) on the quartz surface. The formation of hillocks was only possible by surpassing a potential energy threshold. By using the plasma expansion approach with suitable hydrodynamic equations, the creation mechanism of the nano-hillocks induced by HCIs is explained. Numerical analysis reveal that within the nanoscale created plasma region, the increase of the temperature causes an increase of the self-similar solution validity domain, and consequently the surface nano-hillocks become taller. Furthermore, the presence of the negative (positive) nano-dust particles would lead to increase (decrease) the nano-hillocks height.

  1. Compact Modeling of Threshold Voltage in Nanoscale Strained-Si/SiGe MOSFETs Nano Science and Technology Institute Home | Subscribe | Site Map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Cleantech 2007 q CD Set Special Offer nanoPRwireTM News Headlines q Breaking News q Nanotech Week © Nano

  2. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C. (MesoCoat, Inc.)

    2012-07-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

  3. Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits Project objective: To develop ultra-hard and wear...

  4. Formation of nano-crystalline todorokite from biogenic Mn Xiong Han Feng a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Formation of nano-crystalline todorokite from biogenic Mn oxides Xiong Han Feng a,1 , Mengqiang Zhu oxides in the environment. Additionally this method may be a viable biosynthesis route for porous, nano-crystalline

  5. Nano scale devices for plasmonic nanolithography and rapid sensing of bacteria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Sungkyu

    2009-05-15

    This dissertation contains two different research topics. One is a ‘Nano Scale Device for Plasmonic Nanolithography – Optical Antenna’ and the other is a ‘Nano Scale Device for Rapid Sensing of Bacteria – SEPTIC’. Since these two different research...

  6. A Three-Dimensional Carbon Nano-Network for High Performance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Three-Dimensional Carbon Nano-Network for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Three-Dimensional Carbon Nano-Network for High...

  7. Chemical imaging of biological materials by NanoSIMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P K; Smith, J B; Hutcheon, I D; Shmakov, A; Rybitskaya, I; Curran, H

    2004-08-23

    The NanoSIMS 50 represents the state -of-the-art for in situ microanalysis for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), combining unprecedented spatial resolution (as good as 50 nm) with ultra-high sensitivity (MDL of 200 atoms). The NanoSIMS incorporates an array of detectors, enabling simultaneous collection of 5 elements or isotopes originating from the same sputtered volume of a sample. The primary ion beam (Cs{sup +} or O{sup -}) can be scanned across the sample to produce quantitative secondary ion images. This capability for multiple isotope imaging with high spatial resolution is unique to the NanoSIMS and provides a novel new approach to the study of the distribution of elements in biological materials. We have applied this technique extensively to mammalian cells and bacterial spores. Results from these studies and critical analytical issues such as sample preparation, instrument tuning, and data processing will be discussed.

  8. Nonlinear viscoelastic dynamics of nano-confined water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tai-De Li; Elisa Riedo

    2007-07-17

    The viscoelastic dynamics of nano-confined water is studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). We observe a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior remarkably similar to that widely observed in metastable complex fluids. We show that the origin of the measured nonlinear viscoelasticity in nano-confined water is a strain rate dependent relaxation time and slow dynamics. By measuring the viscoelastic modulus at different frequencies and strains, we find that the intrinsic relaxation time of nano-confined water is in the range 0.1-0.0001 s, orders of magnitude longer than that of bulk water, and comparable to the dielectric relaxation time measured in supercooled water at 170-210 K.

  9. The All Terrain Bio nano Gear for Space Radiation Detection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavroidis, Constantinos

    The All Terrain Bio nano Gear for Space Radiation Detection System Ajay Ummat, Constantinos in real-time while an astronaut is in the mission. All Terrain Bio-nano (ATB) gear system is one the current or any other future space suits. The proposed All Terrain Bio nano (ATB) gear is one such concept

  10. Nanoconstriction-based spin-Hall nano-oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demidov, V. E.; Urazhdin, S.; Zholud, A.; Sadovnikov, A. V.; Demokritov, S. O.

    2014-10-27

    We experimentally demonstrate magnetic nano-oscillators driven by pure spin current produced by the spin Hall effect in a bow tie-shaped nanoconstriction. These devices exhibit single-mode auto-oscillation and generate highly-coherent electronic microwave signals with a significant power and the spectral linewidth as low as 6.2?MHz at room temperature. The proposed simple and flexible device geometry is amenable to straightforward implementation of advanced spintronic structures such as chains of mutually coupled spin-Hall nano-oscillators.

  11. Design of Chemotaxis Devices Using Nano-Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phil Attard

    2012-09-07

    Several designs for micro-devices for chemotaxis based on nano-motors are proposed. The nano- or micro-motors are the conventional Janus rods or spheres that are powered by the catalytic reaction of fuels such as hydrogen peroxide. It is shown how these can be linked to make a device that can follow a concentration gradient of the fuel. The feasibility of assembling the devices using micromanipulation or metallic deposition is discussed. A possible design principle is suggested for a device that follows the concentration gradient of an analyte other than the fuel.

  12. Design of Chemotaxis Devices Using Nano-Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Several designs for micro-devices for chemotaxis based on nano-motors are proposed. The nano- or micro-motors are the conventional Janus rods or spheres that are powered by the catalytic reaction of fuels such as hydrogen peroxide. It is shown how these can be linked to make a device that can follow a concentration gradient of the fuel. The feasibility of assembling the devices using micromanipulation or metallic deposition is discussed. A possible design principle is suggested for a device that follows the concentration gradient of an analyte other than the fuel.

  13. Method for nano-pumping using carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Insepov, Zeke (Darien, IL); Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates generally to the field of nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and, more specifically, to a method and system for nano-pumping media through carbon nanotubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for nano-pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more carbon nanotubes, the one or more nanotubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more nanotubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the carbon nanotubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the nanotube.

  14. Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Evaluation of Nano-Miniature Connectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilton, J.W.

    2001-07-30

    Because of their small size (0.025-inch spacing), nano-miniature connectors have been chosen for JTA telemetry applications. At the time they were chosen, extensive testing had not been done to determine the mechanical, electrical, and environmental characteristics of these connectors at the levels required for use by weapon systems. Since nano-miniature connectors use some unique plating and wire crimping processes not used in most design agency connectors, it was decided that these properties should be tested thoroughly. This report describes the results of that testing.

  15. NanoMas Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures Ltd Jump to: navigation, search59Naknek,C Jump to:NanoEnerNanoMas

  16. Suitability of boron-nitride single-walled nanotubes as fluid-flow conduits in nano-valve applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Suitability of boron-nitride single-walled nanotubes as fluid-flow conduits in nano-valve the suitability of boron-nitride single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) as fluid- flow conduits in the nano-valve reserved. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.11.007 #12;control nano-valve based on a silicon nano-beam actuator

  17. Mask Making in the NanoLab (Optical Pattern Generator)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    design or arcs. Pattern Generator charge: $40.80/hour. There is a minimum 30 minute pattern generatorMask Making in the NanoLab (Optical Pattern Generator) Layout To submit a design, use any CAD software which generates a GDS, TDB or CIF file. GDS and TDB files need to be converted for the pattern

  18. Superconducting Wires Enabled by Nanodots wins Nano50TM Award

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    includes nanoscale columns of non-superconducting material embedded within the superconductorSuperconducting Wires Enabled by Nanodots wins Nano50TM Award HTS Wires Enabled via 3D Self-Assembly of Insulating Nanodots Background · For most large-scale applications of high-temperature superconducting (HTS

  19. Polymer Communication Fibers from polypropylene/nano carbon ber composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasarao, Mohan

    unique properties [1], they have been produced in limited quantities to date and are expensive. Vapor natural gas or coal as feedstock [2,3]. Nano carbon ®bers have typical diameters of 50±200 nm, inner previously demonstrated to increase physi- cal properties of the matrix materials. Such studies include pitch

  20. Minimum Energy Coding for Wireless NanoSensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihada, Basem

    Minimum Energy Coding for Wireless NanoSensor Networks Murat Kocaoglu Ozgur B. Akan Next-generation nodes. With their extremely small size, nanosensor nodes can only provide limited energy. Hence, power for their realization. Authors in [1] provide a detailed survey on the state-of-the-art in nanosensors and emphasize

  1. NANO-SCALE CALORIMETRY OF ISOLATED POLYETHYLENE SINGLE CRYSTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    #12;NANO-SCALE CALORIMETRY OF ISOLATED POLYETHYLENE SINGLE CRYSTALS BY ALEX TAN KWAN B.S., Stanford) device, the nanocalorimeter, it was possible to investigate the melting of isolated polyethylene (PE, a simple Ni-foil calorimeter, to measure the heat capacity of a thin polyethylene film to verify

  2. NANO REVIEW Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiencies through 1-D Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Junhong

    energy is not occurring due to the high cost and inadequate efficiencies of existing solar cells of solar energy is the high cost and inadequate efficiencies of existing solar cells. InnovationsNANO REVIEW Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiencies through 1-D Nanostructures Kehan Yu Æ Junhong Chen

  3. "Interdisciplinary research on nano-enabled and bioinspired materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    energy systems, surface engineering, biological and bio-inspired systems and devices, biomaterials, nano/biomechanics, and mechanics and tribology in nuclear and/or turbine energy systems. The laboratory has been heavily sponsored Research Fund, Intel, GE Energy, GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy, General Motors Cooperation, and Westinghouse

  4. NANO-SCALE MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT FOR FUTURE MAGNETIC APPLICATIONSp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    evolution, it is clear that development of new materials and their understanding on a smaller and smaller in the development of new mag- netic materials for a variety of important appli- cations [2±5]. In recent yearsNANO-SCALE MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT FOR FUTURE MAGNETIC APPLICATIONSp M. E. McHENRY and D. E. LAUGHLIN

  5. Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical Martin Aeschlimann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeschlimann, Martin

    LETTERS Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields Martin Aeschlimann1 , Michael Bauer2 , Christian Spindler3 & Felix Steeb1 Adaptive shaping of the phase and amplitude of femtosecond laser pulses to approximately half the wavelength of the light field (that is, several hundred nanometres). Theory has indicated

  6. Hosts: Sponsors: NorTex Nano Summit: Agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayhan Deputy Minister, Norwegian Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries Nanotechnology for the Oil University Technology Commercialization Tom Kraft Director of Technology Ventures Development Rice Alliance and Communications, NTNU Pawel Sikorski Professor of Physics, NTNU Nano Energy 1 ­ Oil & Gas Session Chairs: Mc

  7. Information Nano-Technologies: Transition from Classical to Quantum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Yu. Vlasov

    2009-12-04

    In this presentation are discussed some problems, relevant with application of information technologies in nano-scale systems and devices. Some methods already developed in quantum information technologies may be very useful here. Here are considered two illustrative models: representation of data by quantum bits and transfer of signals in quantum wires.

  8. SYLLABUS FINDING NANO 2015 DISCOVERING NANOTECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE IN GERMANY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Nanophysics and Nanotechnology: An Introduction to Modern Concepts in Nanoscience, 2nd ed., Wiley-VCH, 2006SCI Course title: NanoSCI - Electronic Properties of Nanoengineered Materials Catalog description: Physics. John H. Davies: The Physics of Low Dimensional Semiconductors: An Introduction, Cambridge University

  9. NANO EXPRESS Fabrication of Large Area Periodic Nanostructures Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohseni, Hooman

    , such as photonic band-gap materials, high dense data storage, and photonic devices. We have developed a maskless areas, such as photonic band-gap materials [1], high dense data storage [2], and photonic devices [3NANO EXPRESS Fabrication of Large Area Periodic Nanostructures Using Nanosphere Photolithography

  10. LCLS Femto-Second Timing and Synchronization System Update (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy of aerosols(Technical Report) |Connect LC Recommendations

  11. LCLS Femto-Second Timing and Synchronization System Update (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy of aerosols(Technical Report) |Connect LC

  12. Field Testing of Nano-PCM Enhanced Building Envelope Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program s goal of developing high-performance, energy efficient buildings will require more cost-effective, durable, energy efficient building envelopes. Forty-eight percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced envelope components can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Field-testing of prototype envelope components is an important step in estimating their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conducive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. During 2012, two test walls with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards were installed in a natural exposure test (NET) facility at Charleston, SC. The first test wall was divided into four sections, which were separated by wood studs and thin layers of foam insulation. Two sections contained nano-PCM-enhanced wallboards: one was a three-layer structure, in which nano-PCM was sandwiched between two gypsum boards, and the other one had PCM dispersed homogeneously throughout graphite nanosheets-enhanced gypsum board. The second test wall also contained two sections with interior PCM wallboards; one contained nano-PCM dispersed homogeneously in gypsum and the other was gypsum board containing a commercial microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM) for comparison. Each test wall contained a section covered with gypsum board on the interior side, which served as control or a baseline for evaluation of the PCM wallboards. The walls were instrumented with arrays of thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Further, numerical modeling of the walls containing the nano-PCM wallboards were performed to determine their actual impact on wall-generated heating and cooling loads. The models were first validated using field data, and then used to perform annual simulations using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data. This article presents the measured performance and numerical analysis to evaluate the energy-saving potential of the nano-PCM-enhanced building components.

  13. Mirror profile optimization for nano-focusing KB mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Lin; Baker, Robert; Barrett, Ray; Cloetens, Peter; Dabin, Yves

    2010-06-23

    A KB focusing mirror width profile has been optimized to achieve nano-focusing for the nano-imaging end-station ID22NI at the ESRF. The complete mirror and flexure bender assembly has been modeled in 3D with finite element analysis using ANSYS. Bender stiffness, anticlastic effects and geometrical non-linear effects have been considered. Various points have been studied: anisotropy and crystal orientation, stress in the mirror and bender, actuator resolution and the mirror-bender adhesive bonding... Extremely high performance of the mirror is expected with residual slope error smaller than 0.6 {mu}rad, peak-to-valley, compared to the bent slope of 3000 {mu}rad.

  14. Small footprint nano-mechanical plasmonic phase modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksyuk, V A; Haftel, M I; Czaplewski, D A; Lopez, D; Blumberg, G

    2015-01-01

    The authors' recent Nature Photonics article titled "Compact Nano-Mechanical Plasmonic Phase Modulators" [1] is reviewed which reports a new phase modulation principle with experimental demonstration of a 23 {\\mu}m long non-resonant modulator having 1.5 {\\pi} rad range with 1.7 dB excess loss at 780 nm. Analysis showed that by decreasing all dimensions, a low loss, ultra-compact {\\pi} rad phase modulator is possible. Application of this type of nano-mechanical modulator in a miniature 2 x 2 switch is suggested and an optical design numerically validated. The footprint of the switch is 0.5 {\\mu}m x 2.5 {\\mu}m.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of two coupled nano-electromechanical resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Chotorlishvili; A. Ugulava; G. Mchedlishvili; A. Komnik; S. Wimberger; J. Berakdar

    2011-06-26

    As a model of coupled nano-electromechanical resonantors we study two nonlinear driven oscillators with an arbitrary coupling strength between them. Analytical expressions are derived for the oscillation amplitudes as a function of the driving frequency and for the energy transfer rate between the two oscillators. The nonlinear restoring forces induce the expected nonlinear resonance structures in the amplitude-frequency characteristics with asymmetric resonance peaks. The corresponding multistable behavior is shown to be an efficient tool to control the energy transfer arising from the sensitive response to small changes in the driving frequency. Our results imply that the nonlinear response can be exploited to design precise sensors for mass or force detection experiments based on nano-electromechanical resonators.

  16. High frequency nano-optomechanical disk resonators in liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gil-Santos, E; Nguyen, D T; Hease, W; Lemaître, A; Ducci, S; Leo, G; Favero, I

    2015-01-01

    Vibrating nano- and micromechanical resonators have been the subject of research aiming at ultrasensitive mass sensors for mass spectrometry, chemical analysis and biomedical diagnosis. Unfortunately, their merits diminish dramatically in liquids due to dissipative mechanisms like viscosity and acoustic losses. A push towards faster and lighter miniaturized nanodevices would enable improved performances, provided dissipation was controlled and novel techniques were available to efficiently drive and read-out their minute displacement. Here we report on a nano-optomechanical approach to this problem using miniature semiconductor disks. These devices combine mechanical motion at high frequency above the GHz, ultra-low mass of a few picograms, and moderate dissipation in liquids. We show that high-sensitivity optical measurements allow to direct resolve their thermally driven Brownian vibrations, even in the most dissipative liquids. Thanks to this novel technique, we experimentally, numerically and analytically...

  17. Method for forming a nano-textured substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Cui, Yi

    2015-04-07

    A method for forming a nano-textured surface on a substrate is disclosed. An illustrative embodiment of the present invention comprises dispensing of a nanoparticle ink of nanoparticles and solvent onto the surface of a substrate, distributing the ink to form substantially uniform, liquid nascent layer of the ink, and enabling the solvent to evaporate from the nanoparticle ink thereby inducing the nanoparticles to assemble into an texture layer. Methods in accordance with the present invention enable rapid formation of large-area substrates having a nano-textured surface. Embodiments of the present invention are well suited for texturing substrates using high-speed, large scale, roll-to-roll coating equipment, such as that used in office product, film coating, and flexible packaging applications. Further, embodiments of the present invention are well suited for use with rigid or flexible substrates.

  18. In Conversation with Jim Schuck: Nano-optics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jim Schuck and Alice Egan

    2010-01-08

    Sponsored by Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD), "In Conversation with" is a next generation science seminar series. Host Alice Egan is the assistant to MSD Director Miquel Salmeron. Alice conducts a fun and informative interview, touching on the lives and work of the guest. The first In Conversation With took place July 9 with Jim Schuck, a staff scientist in the Molecular Foundry's Imaging and Manipulation Facility as our first guest. He discussed the world of Nano-optics.

  19. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  20. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Landingham, Richard Lee (Livermore, CA); Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA)

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  1. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  2. Shenzhen Institute of Nano Materials and Technology | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity for LowInformation Nano Materials and Technology Jump to:

  3. Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Shi, Jinjun (Columbus, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

    2010-11-02

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  4. Complex Dynamics of Nano-Mechanical Membrane in Cavity Optomechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhammad Javed Akram; Farhan Saif

    2014-11-03

    Theoretical analysis of a suspended nano-mechanical membrane subject to an optical driving field in cavity optomechanics is presented, which is confirmed through numerical simulations. In the presence of an optical field between its mirrors a high finesse nano-mechanical resonator acts as an oscillator driven by radiation pressure force. The periodic nature of the radiation pressure force makes the nano-mechanical membrane in the optomechanical system as kicked harmonic oscillator. Mathematically the physical system displays a stochastic web map that helps to understand several properties of the kicked membrane in classical phase space. We find that our web map is area preserving, and displays quasi-periodic symmetrical structures in phase space which we express as q-fold symmetry. It is shown that under appropriate control of certain parameters, namely the frequency ratio (q) and the kicking strength (K), the dynamics of kicked membrane exhibits chaotic dynamics. We provide the stability analysis by means of Lyapunov exponent and survival probability.

  5. 31Nano-Islands on Plastically Deformed Substrates with Disclinations Corresponding author: I.A. Ovid'ko, e-mail: ovidko@def.ipme.ru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ovid'ko Ilya A.

    is capable of causing preferable spatial positions of nano-islands. The parameters of the substrate/nano-island systems are theoretically revealed that control spatial positions of nano-islands on disclinated

  6. Engineering Physics: From Nano-Electronics and Photonics to Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smy, Tom

    Engineering Physics: From Nano-Electronics and Photonics to Renewable Energy Tom Smy Department Software Engineering Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering #12;A System-level Design Circuit

  7. Design of bulk nanocrystalline tungsten alloys via nano-phase separation sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Mansoo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    An accelerated sintering method called 'nano-phase separation sintering' is developed, with specific applicability to nanostructured tungsten alloys. Nanocrystalline tungsten alloys containing minority additions of chromium ...

  8. Theoretical study of physisorption of nucleobases on boron nitride nanotubes: a new class of hybrid nano-biomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandey, Ravi

    nano-biomaterials This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full on boron nitride nanotubes: a new class of hybrid nano-biomaterials Saikat Mukhopadhyay1 , S Gowtham1

  9. A Review Of Recent Progress On Nano/micro Scale Nucleate Boiling Fundamentals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research progress in the area of nano/micro scale nucleate boiling is reviewed and an up-to-date summary is provided with a focus on the advances of fundamental boiling physics. This review examines nano/micro scale ...

  10. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2013-12-17

    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  11. Usage Policies Notebook for NanoFurnace Furnace (EasyTube 3000 System)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Usage Policies Notebook for NanoFurnace Furnace (EasyTube 3000 System) Revision date October 2014 #12;2 Emergency Plan for Nano Furnace Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies ContactTube3000 Furnace to grow carbon nanotubes, graphene, and annealing. To avoid any potential fire

  12. Physical Channel Characterization for Medium-Range Nano-Networks using Flagellated Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Physical Channel Characterization for Medium-Range Nano-Networks using Flagellated Bacteria Maria-µm): flagellated bacteria. This tech- nique is based on the transport of DNA-encoded information between emit- ters-machines. Keywords: Nano-networks; Molecular Communication; Flagellated Bacteria; DNA Packet; Propagation delay

  13. Self-Powered Wireless Nano-scale Sensor Networks within Chemical Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    Self-Powered Wireless Nano-scale Sensor Networks within Chemical Reactors Eisa Zarepour1 Mahbub, Australia #12;Abstract Because of their small size and unique nanomaterial properties, nano-scale sen- sor networks (NSNs) can be applied in many chemical applications to monitor and control the chemical process

  14. Characterization of Graphene-based Nano-antennas in the Terahertz Band

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Characterization of Graphene-based Nano-antennas in the Terahertz Band (Invited Paper) Ignacio and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 16640 Kista, Sweden Email: lemme@kth.se Abstract--Graphene communications at the nanoscale. Indeed, graphene- based nano-antennas just a few micrometers in size have been

  15. Nanotechnology Today 2010: NanoReg & Keller and Heckman Announce Continuation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Nanotechnology Today 2010: NanoReg & Keller and Heckman Announce Continuation of Popular Nanotechnology Webinar Series Building on last year's popular webinars on the regulation of nanotechnology, Keller and Heckman & NanoReg are pleased to announce Nanotechnology Today 2010, a series of four new

  16. Ion irradiation-induced amorphization and nano-crystal formation in garnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    Ion irradiation-induced amorphization and nano-crystal formation in garnets S. Utsunomiya a , L been examined by 1.0 MeV Kr2þ irradiation with in situ transmission electron microscopy over ion irradiation of the G3 garnet at a temperature of 1023 K near the Tc, nano-crystals were produced

  17. Phase diagram of magnetic domain walls in spin valve nano-stripes N. Rougemaille,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Phase diagram of magnetic domain walls in spin valve nano-stripes N. Rougemaille,1 V. Uhlí,2, 1 O walls in Co/Cu/Py spin valve nano-stripes (Py: Permalloy), in which the Co layer is mostly single domain Magneto- Resistance. These stacking are called spin valve for a metal spacer layer, and pseudo spin valve

  18. High speed nano-scale positioning using a piezoelectric tube actuator with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    ], nanofabrication systems [4, 5] and nano- manipulation devices [6]. In many applications, piezoelectric tubesHigh speed nano-scale positioning using a piezoelectric tube actuator with active shunt control S. Aphale, A.J. Fleming and S.O.R. Moheimani Abstract: Piezoelectric tube scanners are the actuators

  19. Thin-Film Active Nano-PWAS for Structural Health Monitoring , Victor Giurgiutiu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    Thin-Film Active Nano-PWAS for Structural Health Monitoring Bin Lin1 , Victor Giurgiutiu1 , Amar S 3 University of Texas Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 ABSTRACT Structural health monitoring (SHM is to develop the fabrication and optimum design of thin-film nano-PWAS for structural health monitoring

  20. Nano-structured vanadium: processing and mechanical properties under quasi-static and dynamic compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Qiuming

    Nano-structured vanadium: processing and mechanical properties under quasi-static and dynamic compression Q. Wei a,*, T. Jiao a , K.T. Ramesh a , E. Ma b a Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Johns that the grain size of the consolidated V is around 100 nm. Mechanical properties of the nano-structured V were

  1. Relaxation Times of Nano-Colloid Flocculation Induced by Adsorbing and Non-adsorbing Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahlers, Guenter

    Relaxation Times of Nano-Colloid Flocculation Induced by Adsorbing and Non-adsorbing Polymers Alexander I. Chervanyov and Gert Heinrich Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, D-01069 Dresden nano-colloids mediated by adsorbing and non-adsorbing polymers. By making use of this theory, we have

  2. Graphene-based nano-patch antenna for terahertz radiation Ignacio Llatser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Graphene-based nano-patch antenna for terahertz radiation Ignacio Llatser Nanonetworking Center The scattering of terahertz radiation on a graphene-based nano-patch antenna is numerically analyzed of surface plasmon polaritons supported by the graphene lm. A strong tunability of the antenna resonances via

  3. Coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics Simulation Approach for Polymer Nano-Composites Rubber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    -composite materials are widely used in our daily life. Improvements by nano science and technology are required in orCoarse-grained Molecular Dynamics Simulation Approach for Polymer Nano-Composites Rubber Katsumi dynamics of entangled long- polymer melts and filled polymer rubber by us- ing coarse-grained model. We

  4. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Single-chain Nanoparticles: Synthesis of Nano-scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Single-chain Nanoparticles: Synthesis of Nano-scale Architectures:00 AM, IMS Room 20 Recent efforts by our lab to fold single polymer chains into nano as a reliable method to measure the change in solution conformation of polymer chains when folded via intra

  5. Optimization of Nano-Carbon Materials for Hydrogen Sorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakobson, Boris I [Rice University

    2013-08-02

    Research undertaken has added to the understanding of several critical areas, by providing both negative answers (and therefore eliminating expensive further studies of unfeasible paths) and positive feasible options for storage. Theoretical evaluation of the early hypothesis of storage on pure carbon single wall nanotubes (SWNT) has been scrutinized with the use of comprehensive computational methods (and experimental tests by the Center partners), and demonstrated that the fundamentally weak binding energy of hydrogen is not sufficiently enhanced by the SWNT curvature or even defects, which renders carbon nanotubes not practical media. More promising direction taken was towards 3-dimensional architectures of high porosity where concurrent attraction of H2 molecule to surrounding walls of nano-scale cavities can double or even triple the binding energy and therefore make hydrogen storage feasible even at ambient or somewhat lower temperatures. An efficient computational tool has been developed for the rapid capacity assessment combining (i) carbon-foam structure generation, (ii) accurate empirical force fields, with quantum corrections for the lightweight H2, and (iii) grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. This made it possible to suggest optimal designs for carbon nanofoams, obtainable via welding techniques from SWNT or by growth on template-zeolites. As a precursor for 3D-foams, we have investigated experimentally the synthesis of VANTA (Vertically Aligned NanoTube Arrays). This can be used for producing nano-foams. On the other hand, fluorination of VANTA did not show promising increase of hydrogen sorption in several tests and may require further investigation and improvements. Another significant result of this project was in developing a fundamental understanding of the elements of hydrogen spillover mechanisms. The benefit of developed models is the ability to foresee possible directions for further improvement of the spillover mechanism.

  6. r XXXX American Chemical Society A dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl201787r |Nano Lett. XXXX, XXX, 000000 pubs.acs.org/NanoLett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    for smaller, lighter, and longer-lasting energy storage devices has increased.1,2 Silicon is considered one­000 LETTER pubs.acs.org/NanoLett Anomalous Shape Changes of Silicon Nanopillars by Electrochemical Lithiation

  7. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Brownsboro, AL); Antony, Leo V. M. (Huntsville, AL); O'Dell, Scott (Arab, AL); Power, Chris (Guntersville, AL); Tabor, Terry (Huntsville, AL)

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  8. A Nano-visualization software for education and research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oetting, Lillian C; Raza, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of a user-friendly nano-visualization software program which can acquaint high-school students with nanotechnology. The visual introduction to atoms and molecules, which are the building blocks of this technology, is an effective way to introduce the key concepts in this area. The software's graphical user interface enables multidimensional atomic visualization by using ball and stick schematics. Additionally, the software provides the option of wavefunction visualization for arbitrary nanomaterials and nanostructures by using extended Huckel theory. The software is instructive, application oriented and may be useful not only in high school education but also for the undergraduate research and teaching.

  9. Droplet Impingement Cooling Experiments on Nano-structured Surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Yen-Po

    2011-10-21

    design of surface structure used in Sriraman and Banerjee's study [15] was adopted and fabricated using step and flash imprinting lithography (S- FIL) followed by several steps of thin film heater deposition. The purpose of this work is to obtain thin... Step and Flash Imprinting Lithography (S-FIL) is a nano fabrication technique developed by C.G. Willson and S. V. Sreenivasan's research group [16, 17] at the University of Texas at Austin. S-FIL defines and reproduces surface features based on a...

  10. Efficiency of autonomous soft nano-machines at maximum power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udo Seifert

    2010-11-11

    We consider nano-sized artificial or biological machines working in steady state enforced by imposing non-equilibrium concentrations of solutes or by applying external forces, torques or electric fields. For unicyclic and strongly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power is not bounded by the linear response value 1/2. For strong driving, it can even approach the thermodynamic limit 1. Quite generally, such machines fall in three different classes characterized, respectively, as "strong and efficient", "strong and inefficient", and "balanced". For weakly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power has lost any universality even in the linear response regime.

  11. Synchronization of spin torque nano-oscillators through dipolar interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hao-Hsuan, E-mail: d95222014@ntu.edu.tw; Wu, Jong-Ching, E-mail: phjcwu@cc.ncue.edu.tw; Horng, Lance [Department of Physics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Lee, Ching-Ming [Graduate School of Materials Science, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, 64002, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ching-Ray, E-mail: crchang@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Chang, Jui-Hang [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Sciences and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-07

    In an array of spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that combine a perpendicular polarized fixed layer with strong in-plane anisotropy in the free layers, magnetic dipolar interactions can effectively phase-lock the array, thus further enhancing the power of the output microwave signals. We perform a qualitative analysis of the synchronization of an array based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, with a spin-transfer torque that assumes strong in-plane anisotropy. Finally, we present the numerical results for four coupled STNOs to provide further evidence for the proposed theory.

  12. Nano Particles - Supercritical Fluid Process - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatialDevelopment of09Sponsor GuidelinesGlennNancy M.Nano

  13. Nano Structure Control and Selectivity of Hydrogen Release from Hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatialDevelopment of09Sponsor GuidelinesGlennNancy M.NanoStorage -

  14. Stabilized Spinels and Nano Olivines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4EnergySolidof2 SpecialSpent| DepartmentNano Olivines

  15. Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center KANC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:onItronKanoshKetchikanKlondike III I WindKohl'sAdvanced Nano

  16. Los Alamos shares Nano 50 award for directed assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion to local UnitedtoHOPENew mechanism forAmericanNano

  17. A non-planar organic molecule with non-volatile electrical bistability for nano-scale data storage{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    A non-planar organic molecule with non-volatile electrical bistability for nano-scale data storage-planar organic molecule with electron donor and acceptor capabilities was synthesized for nano-scale data storage possesses good electrical bistability. Nano-scale recording dots with an average diameter of 2.5 nm were

  18. Laser-like instabilities in quantum nano-electromechanical systems S. D. Bennett and A. A. Clerk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Steven D.

    Laser-like instabilities in quantum nano-electromechanical systems S. D. Bennett and A. A. Clerk; published 9 November 2006 We discuss negative damping regimes in quantum nano-electromechanical systemsRevB.74.201301 PACS number s : 73.23.Hk, 85.85. j, 72.70. m At their heart, quantum nano-electromechanical

  19. Nano/Microfluidics for diagnosis of infectious diseases in developing countries Won Gu Lee a,b,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirci, Utkan

    Nano/Microfluidics for diagnosis of infectious diseases in developing countries Won Gu Lee a,b,1 history: Received 15 June 2009 Accepted 14 September 2009 Available online 30 November 2009 Keywords: Nano/Microfluidics Infectious diseases HIV/AIDS Point-of-care Diagnostics Global health Nano/Microfluidic technologies

  20. Design Optimization of Radionuclide Nano-Scale Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenfeld, D.W.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Smith, B.

    2004-10-06

    Radioisotopes have been used for power sources in heart pacemakers and space applications dating back to the 50's. Two key properties of radioisotope power sources are high energy density and long half-life compared to chemical batteries. The tritium battery used in heart pacemakers exceeds 500 mW-hr, and is being evaluated by the University of Florida for feasibility as a MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) power source. Conversion of radioisotope sources into electrical power within the constraints of nano-scale dimensions requires cutting-edge technologies and novel approaches. Some advances evolving in the III-V and II-IV semiconductor families have led to a broader consideration of radioisotopes rather free of radiation damage limitations. Their properties can lead to novel battery configurations designed to convert externally located emissions from a highly radioactive environment. This paper presents results for the analytical computational assisted design and modeling of semiconductor prototype nano-scale radioisotope nuclear batteries from MCNP and EGS programs. The analysis evaluated proposed designs and was used to guide the selection of appropriate geometries, material properties, and specific activities to attain power requirements for the MEMS batteries. Plans utilizing high specific activity radioisotopes were assessed in the investigation of designs employing multiple conversion cells and graded junctions with varying band gap properties. Voltage increases sought by serial combination of VOC s are proposed to overcome some of the limitations of a low power density. The power density is directly dependent on the total active areas.

  1. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  2. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Li-jun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rupich, Martin W. [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  3. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  4. Remote optical sensing on the nanometer scale with a bowtie aperture nano-antenna on a SNOM fiber tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atie, Elie M; Eter, Ali El; Salut, Roland; Nedeljkovic, Dusan; Tannous, Tony; Baida, Fadi I; Grosjean, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nano-antennas have proven the outstanding ability of sensing chemical and physical processes down to the nano-meter scale. Sensing is usually achieved within the highly confined optical fields generated resonantly by the nano-antennas, i.e. in contact to the nano-structures. In these paper, We demonstrate the sensing capability of nano-antennas to their larger scale environment, well beyond their plasmonic confinement volume, leading to the concept of 'remote' (non contact) sensing on the nano-meter scale. On the basis of a bowtie-aperture nano-antenna (BNA) integrated at the apex of a SNOM fiber tip, we introduce an ultra-compact, move-able and background-free optical nano-sensor for the remote sensing of a silicon surface (up to distance of 300 nm). Sensitivity of the BNA to its large scale environment is high enough to expect the monitoring and control of the spacing between the nano-antenna and a silicon surface with sub-nano-meter accuracy. This work paves the way towards a new class of nano-po...

  5. Wetting kinetics of water nano-droplet containing non-surfactant nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Gui; Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 ; Hu, Han; Sun, Ying E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu; Duan, Yuanyuan E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu

    2013-12-16

    In this Letter, dynamic wetting of water nano-droplets containing non-surfactant gold nanoparticles on a gold substrate is examined via molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the addition of non-surfactant nanoparticles hinders the nano-second droplet wetting process, attributed to the increases in both surface tension of the nanofluid and friction between nanofluid and substrate. The droplet wetting kinetics decreases with increasing nanoparticle loading and water-particle interaction energy. The observed wetting suppression and the absence of nanoparticle ordering near the contact line of nano-sized droplets differ from the wetting behaviors reported from nanofluid droplets of micron size or larger.

  6. Dilution-Free Analysis from Picoliter Droplets by Nano-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Page, Jason S.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-09-01

    The expanding role of microfluidics for chemical and biochemical analysis is due to factors including the favorable scaling of separation performance with reduced channel dimensions,[1] flexibility afforded by computer-aided device design, and the ability to integrate multiple sample handling and analysis steps into a single platform.[2] Such devices enable smaller liquid volumes and sample sizes to be handled than can be achieved on the benchtop, where sub-microliter volumes are difficult to work with and where sample losses to the surfaces of multiple reaction vessels become prohibitive. A particularly attractive microfluidic platform for sample-limited analyses employs aqueous droplets or plugs encapsulated by an immiscible oil.[3,4] Each droplet serves as a discrete compartment or reaction chamber enabling, e.g., high throughput screening[5,6] and kinetic studies[7-9] of femto- to nanoliter samples, as well as the encapsulation[10-12] and lysis[10] of individual cells with limited dilution of the cellular contents

  7. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1995-05-09

    A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  8. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-01-23

    A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  9. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  10. Optical gradient force nano-imaging and -spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Honghua U

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale forces play an important role in different scanning probe microscopies, most notably atomic force microscopy (AFM). In contrast, in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) a light-induced coupled local optical polarization between tip and sample is typically detected by scattering to the far field. Measurements of the optical gradient force associated with that optical near-field excitation would offer a novel optical scanning probe modality. Here we provide a generalized theory of optical gradient force nano-imaging and -spectroscopy. We quantify magnitude and distance dependence of the optical gradient force and its spectral response. We show that the optical gradient force is dispersive for single particle electronic and vibrational resonances, distinct from recent claims of its experimental observation. In contrast, the force can be absorptive for collective resonances. We provide a guidance for its measurements and distinction from competing processes such as thermal expansion.

  11. Artificial ciliary bundles with nano fiber tip links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensory ciliary bundles in fishes are the inspiration for carefully engineered artificial flow sensors. We report the development of a new class of ultrasensitive MEMS flow sensors that mimic the intricate morphology of the ciliary bundles, including the stereocilia, tip links, and the cupula, and thereby achieve threshold detection limits that match the biological example. An artificial ciliary bundle is achieved by fabricating closely-spaced arrays of polymer micro-pillars with gradiating heights. Tip links that form the fundamental sensing elements are realized through electrospinning aligned PVDF piezoelectric nano-fibers that link the distal tips of the polymer cilia. An optimized synthesis of hyaluronic acid-methacrylic anhydride hydrogel that results in properties close to the biological cupula, together with drop-casting method are used to form the artificial cupula that encapsulates the ciliary bundle. In testing, fluid drag force causes the ciliary bundle to slide, stretching the flexible nan...

  12. Synthesis of nano-crystalline multifibrous zirconia needle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Mridula; Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zirconia needles have been successfully prepared by simple inorganic sol–gel route. • The shape of the needles was retained after firing with aspect ratio > 400. • Needles are composed of multiple fibres. • Fibres are composed of nano crystals. - Abstract: Zirconia needles have been successfully synthesized using a simple inorganic sol–gel process without using any template. The method employs mixture of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and sulphuric acid in aqueous medium. This process requires heat treatment at 40 °C for 2 h in an oven for nucleus formation. Complete formation of needle occurs after 17 days. The green needle retained its original shape after calcination at 1200 °C. Fired needles were of 1–2 cm in length and 5–50 ?m in diameter and possess monoclinic phase. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Depending on the heat treatment temperature, crystallite size varies in the range of 8 to around 300 nm.

  13. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  14. Nano-electromechanical oscillators (NEMOs) for RF technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Czaplewski, David A.; Gibson, John Murray (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Webster, James R.; Carton, Andrew James; Keeler, Bianca Elizabeth Nelson; Carr, Dustin Wade; Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Tallant, David Robert; Boyce, Brad Lee; Sullivan, John Patrick; Dyck, Christopher William; Chen, Xidong (Cedarville University, Cedarville, OH)

    2004-12-01

    Nano-electromechanical oscillators (NEMOs), capacitively-coupled radio frequency (RF) MEMS switches incorporating dissipative dielectrics, new processing technologies for tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films, and scientific understanding of dissipation mechanisms in small mechanical structures were developed in this project. NEMOs are defined as mechanical oscillators with critical dimensions of 50 nm or less and resonance frequencies approaching 1 GHz. Target applications for these devices include simple, inexpensive clocks in electrical circuits, passive RF electrical filters, or platforms for sensor arrays. Ta-C NEMO arrays were used to demonstrate a novel optomechanical structure that shows remarkable sensitivity to small displacements (better than 160 fm/Hz {sup 1/2}) and suitability as an extremely sensitive accelerometer. The RF MEMS capacitively-coupled switches used ta-C as a dissipative dielectric. The devices showed a unipolar switching response to a unipolar stimulus, indicating the absence of significant dielectric charging, which has historically been the major reliability issue with these switches. This technology is promising for the development of reliable, low-power RF switches. An excimer laser annealing process was developed that permits full in-plane stress relaxation in ta-C films in air under ambient conditions, permitting the application of stress-reduced ta-C films in areas where low thermal budget is required, e.g. MEMS integration with pre-existing CMOS electronics. Studies of mechanical dissipation in micro- and nano-scale ta-C mechanical oscillators at room temperature revealed that mechanical losses are limited by dissipation associated with mechanical relaxation in a broad spectrum of defects with activation energies for mechanical relaxation ranging from 0.35 eV to over 0.55 eV. This work has established a foundation for the creation of devices based on nanomechanical structures, and outstanding critical research areas that need to be addressed for the successful application of these technologies have been identified.

  15. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with optical nano-antennae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berggren, Karl K.

    Optical nano-antennae have been integrated with semiconductor lasers to intensify light at the nanoscale and photodiodes to enhance photocurrent. In quantum optics, plasmonic metal structures have been used to enhance ...

  16. Mid-Infrared Single-Photon Detection Using Superconducting Nanowires Integrated with Nano-Antennae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berggren, Karl K.

    We present some major challenges of mid-infrared superconducting nanowire single-photon detector technology and our device design with nano-antenna integration to address these challenges.

  17. Nano-High: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lecture on the "compassionate instinct"

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nano-High, a program of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a series of free Saturday morning talks by internationally recognized leaders in scientific research. The talks are designed...

  18. Nano-High: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lecture on Bad Sugars

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nano-High, a program of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a series of free Saturday morning talks by internationally recognized leaders in scientific research. The talks are designed...

  19. "Plastic" Solar Cells: Self-Assembly of Bulk HeterojunctionNano...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Plastic" Solar Cells: Self-Assembly of Bulk Heterojunction Nano-Materials by Spontaneous Phase Separation October 20, 2009 at 3pm36-428 Alan Heeger Department of Chemistry,...

  20. Characterization of interphase in natural fiber reinforced polymer composites using nano-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    1 Characterization of interphase in natural fiber reinforced polymer composites using nano Results · Future works INTRODUCTION Natural fiberNatural fiber--reinforcedreinforced polymer consumption,properties, low energy consumption, carbon dioxide neutral, no residuescarbon dioxide neutral

  1. Phase transformations of nano-sized cubic boron nitride to white graphene and white graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Hongli; Liu, Yingdi; Xue, Wenhua; Anderson, Ryan S.; Sewell, Cody R. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Xue, Sha; Crunkleton, Daniel W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Institute of Alternate Energy, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Shen, Yaogen [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang, Sanwu, E-mail: sanwu-wang@utulsa.edu [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Institute of Alternate Energy, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States)

    2014-03-03

    We report quantum-mechanical investigations that predict the formation of white graphene and nano-sized white graphite from the first-order phase transformations of nano-sized boron nitride thin-films. The phase transformations from the nano-sized diamond-like structure, when the thickness d?>?1.4?nm, to the energetically more stable nano-sized white graphite involve low activation energies of less than 1.0?eV. On the other hand, the diamond-like structure transforms spontaneously to white graphite when d???1.4?nm. In particular, the two-dimensional structure with single-layer boron nitride, the so-called white graphene, could be formed as a result of such transformation.

  2. Nano-High: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lecture on Good Sugars

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nano-High, a program of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a series of free Saturday morning talks by internationally recognized leaders in scientific research. The talks are designed...

  3. Transport modeling of simple fluids and nano-colloids : thermal conduction mechanisms and coarse projection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eapen, Jacob, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis, the modes of microscopic energy fluctuations governing heat flow in nano-colloids are quantitatively assessed by combining linear response theory with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. ...

  4. Toughening of Epoxies Based on Self-Assembly of Nano-Sized Amphiphilic Block Copolymer Micelles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jia

    2010-01-16

    to be BCP micelle nanoparticle cavitation, followed by matrix shear banding, which mainly accounted for the observed remarkable toughening effect. The unexpected ?nano-cavitation? phenomenon cannot be predicted by existing physical models. The plausible...

  5. Ion Irradiation-induced nano-crystallization metallic glasses (amorphous metal) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tran, Minh Hong

    2013-02-28

    This project idea is proposed in order to develop the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for Nano-crystal phase formation when metallic glasses (amorphous) is exposed under the high energy ion irradiation and is quantified the resulting...

  6. X-ray and neutron scattering from nano-mgantic clusters | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray and neutron scattering from nano-mgantic clusters The student will participate in hands on X-ray scattering experiments on bio-inspired inorganic materials (i.e., magnetic...

  7. Direct and quantitative broadband absorptance micro/nano spectroscopy using FTIR and bilayer cantilever probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wei-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Optical properties of micro/nano materials are important for many applications in biology, optoelectronics, and energy. In this thesis, a method is described to directly measure the quantitative absorptance spectra of ...

  8. Fabrication and testing of nano-optical structures for advanced photonics and quantum information processing applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Mughees Mahmood

    2009-05-15

    Interest in the fabrication of nano-optical structures has increased dramatically in recent years, due to advances in lithographic resolution. In particular, metallic nanostructures are of interest because of their ability ...

  9. Floating-point unit (FPU) designs with nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Sumit, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays are an alternative to CMOS transistors as the fabric of digital circuits. Circuits with NEM relays offer energy-efficiency benefits over CMOS since they have zero leakage power and are ...

  10. Design and characterization of Hover Nano Aerial Vehicle (HNAV) propulsion system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sato, Sho, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    On October 4th 2005, DARPA released a request for proposals for a Nano-Air Vehicle (NAV) program. The program sought to develop an advanced urban reconnaissance vehicle. According the requirement imposed by DARPA, the NAV ...

  11. Modelling Heat Transport Across Nano-scale Material Interfaces for Next-generation Electronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    ) thermal boundary resistance between two dissimilar semiconductor materials using a combinationModelling Heat Transport Across Nano-scale Material Interfaces for Next-generation Electronic) with customized thermal transport properties. The scattering of thermal energy carriers at fabricated interfaces

  12. Scanning tunneling microscopic studies of SiO2 thin film supported metal nano-clusters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min, Byoung Koun

    2005-11-01

    This dissertation is focused on understanding heterogeneous metal catalysts supported on oxides using a model catalyst system of SiO2 thin film supported metal nano-clusters. The primary technique applied to this study is scanning tunneling...

  13. MRI Magnetic Signature Imaging, Tracking and Navigation for Targeted Micro/Nano-capsule Therapeutics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - back for the microdevice and a propulsion sequence to enable interleaved magnetic propulsionMRI Magnetic Signature Imaging, Tracking and Navigation for Targeted Micro J. Nelson, Antoine Ferreira and Sergej Fatikow Abstract-- The propulsion of nano

  14. Hybrid Nano Carbon Fiber/Graphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es009jang2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Hybrid Nano...

  15. Charge-Transfer Induced Magnetic Field Effects of Nano-Carbon Heterojunctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Wei; Gong, Maogang; Shastry, Tejas; Hersam, Mark C.; Ren, Shenqiang

    2014-08-22

    modeling. By controlling SWCNT concentrations and interfacial interactions, nano-carbon heterojunctions exhibit tunability of charge-transfer density and room temperature magnetoconductance of 2.8% under 100?mT external magnetic field. External stimuli...

  16. Nano-Continuum Modeling of a Nuclear Glass Specimen Altered for 25 Years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steefel, Carl

    2014-01-06

    The purpose of this contribution is to report on preliminary nano-continuum scale modeling of nuclear waste glass corrosion. The focus of the modeling is an experiment involving a French glass SON68 specimen leached for 25 years in a granitic environment. In this report, we focus on capturing the nano-scale concentration profiles. We use a high resolution continuum model with a constant grid spacing of 1 nanometer to investigate the glass corrosion mechanisms.

  17. Preparations, properties, and applications of periodic nano arrays using anodized aluminum oxide and di-block copolymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noh, Kunbae

    2011-01-01

    alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition. Nano Letters,example, by using atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxidedeposition or atomic layer deposition, for various other

  18. r XXXX American Chemical Society A dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl202386p |Nano Lett. XXXX, XXX, 000000 pubs.acs.org/NanoLett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    work demonstrated the preparation of vitrified protein samples across graphene oxide supports.17­000 LETTER pubs.acs.org/NanoLett Oxidative Doping Renders Graphene Hydrophilic, Facilitating Its Use the use of thin crystalline supports in biological TEM. Graphene hasrenewedinterestin crystalline

  19. r XXXX American Chemical Society A dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl201470j |Nano Lett. XXXX, XXX, 000000 pubs.acs.org/NanoLett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    , and the storage of renewable energy.1,2 To meet these demanding applications, Li-ion batteries with high specific­000 LETTER pubs.acs.org/NanoLett Interconnected Silicon Hollow Nanospheres for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes-performance Li-ion batteries is critically important for use in portable electronics, electric vehicles

  20. r XXXX American Chemical Society A dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl202630n |Nano Lett. XXXX, XXX, 000000 pubs.acs.org/NanoLett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    S Supporting Information Rechargeable Li-ion batteries are currently one of the most important energy storage­000 LETTER pubs.acs.org/NanoLett Novel Size and Surface Oxide Effects in Silicon Nanowires as Lithium Battery it is important to design Received: July 31, 2011 ABSTRACT: With its high specific capacity, silicon

  1. Diffraction-limited ultrasensitive molecular nano-arrays with singular nano-cone Yunshan Wang, Ting-Chou Chang, Paul R. Stoddart, and Hsueh-Chia Chang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    Wang, Ting-Chou Chang, Paul R. Stoddart, and Hsueh-Chia Chang Citation: Biomicrofluidics 8, 021101-arrays with singular nano-cone scattering Yunshan Wang,1 Ting-Chou Chang,1 Paul R. Stoddart,2 and Hsueh-Chia Chang1 1

  2. Photocatalytic studies of Ho–Zr–O nano-composite with controllable composition and defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Weimin, E-mail: duweimin75@gmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455000 (China); Zhao, Guoyan; Chang, Hongxun; Shi, Fei; Zhu, Zhaoqiang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455000 (China); Qian, Xuefeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2013-09-15

    With the help of sol–gel method assisted by melting salt, a series of Ho–Zr–O nano-composite with controllable composition and defects have been successfully prepared. Characterization results show that the positions, intensity, and width of the X-ray diffraction peaks of the products have a regular variation with the increase of zirconium element which implies the gradual changes of crystal spacing and product size. At the same time, the molar ratios between holmium and zirconium ions are consistent with the chemical formula and both of them are uniformly distributed in products further showing the perfect formation of targeted materials. Optical properties reveal that diversified defect forms of Ho–Zr–O nano-composite lead to the different absorptions of visible light. Photocatalytic experiments demonstrate Zr{sub 0.8}Ho{sub 0.2}O{sub 2??} nano-crystals have excellent visible-light-responsive photocatalytic activities on some familiar dyes (e.g.: methylene blue and Rhodamine B) which results from the special defect structure, better absorption of visible light and larger specific surface area. It follows that Zr{sub 0.8}Ho{sub 0.2}O{sub 2??} nano-crystals are a new kind of visible-light-responsive photocatalysts with better prospects in conversion and utilization of solar energy. Also, the present melting salt assisted route might be generalized to synthesize other AxByOz composite oxide nano-crystals with more complicated structures. - Highlights: • Ho–Zr–O nano-composite with controllable composition and defects has been obtained. • Diversified defect forms of products lead to the different visible light absorption. • Zr{sub 0.8}Ho{sub 0.2}O{sub 2??} nano-crystals have excellent photocatalytic activities.

  3. Protection of cisplatin-induced spermatotoxicity, DNA damage and chromatin abnormality by selenium nano-particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Ali; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Ahmadi, Abbas; Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-02-01

    Cisplatin (CIS), an anticancer alkylating agent, induces DNA adducts and effectively cross links the DNA strands and so affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. The present study investigated the cellular/biochemical mechanisms underlying possible protective effect of selenium nano-particles (Nano-Se) as an established strong antioxidant with more bioavailability and less toxicity, on reproductive toxicity of CIS by assessment of sperm characteristics, sperm DNA integrity, chromatin quality and spermatogenic disorders. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of CIS gonadotoxicity, the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) as a marker of nitrosative stress (NS) and testosterone (T) concentration as a biomarker of testicular function were measured in the blood and testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. A single IP dose of CIS (7 mg/kg) and protective dose of Nano-Se (2 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination. The CIS-exposed rats showed a significant increase in testicular and serum LPO and ONOO level, along with a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants levels, diminished serum T concentration and abnormal histologic findings with impaired sperm quality associated with increased DNA damage and decreased chromatin quality. Coadministration of Nano-Se significantly improved the serum T, sperm quality, and spermatogenesis and reduced CIS-induced free radical toxic stress and spermatic DNA damage. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that Nano-Se may be useful to prevent CIS-induced gonadotoxicity through its antioxidant potential. Highlights: ? Cisplatin (CIS) affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. ? Effect of Nano-Se on CIS-induced spermatotoxicity was investigated. ? CIS-exposure induces oxidative sperm DNA damage and impairs steroidogenesis. ? Nano-Se retained sperm quality against CIS-induced free radicals toxic stress.

  4. Modeling and simulation of electronic structure, material interface and random doping in nano-electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Duan [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wei Guowei [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: wei@math.msu.edu

    2010-06-20

    The miniaturization of nano-scale electronic devices, such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), has given rise to a pressing demand in the new theoretical understanding and practical tactic for dealing with quantum mechanical effects in integrated circuits. Modeling and simulation of this class of problems have emerged as an important topic in applied and computational mathematics. This work presents mathematical models and computational algorithms for the simulation of nano-scale MOSFETs. We introduce a unified two-scale energy functional to describe the electrons and the continuum electrostatic potential of the nano-electronic device. This framework enables us to put microscopic and macroscopic descriptions in an equal footing at nano-scale. By optimization of the energy functional, we derive consistently coupled Poisson-Kohn-Sham equations. Additionally, layered structures are crucial to the electrostatic and transport properties of nano-transistors. A material interface model is proposed for more accurate description of the electrostatics governed by the Poisson equation. Finally, a new individual dopant model that utilizes the Dirac delta function is proposed to understand the random doping effect in nano-electronic devices. Two mathematical algorithms, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method and the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping (DNM) technique, are introduced to improve the computational efficiency of nano-device simulations. Electronic structures are computed via subband decomposition and the transport properties, such as the I-V curves and electron density, are evaluated via the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) formalism. Two distinct device configurations, a double-gate MOSFET and a four-gate MOSFET, are considered in our three-dimensional numerical simulations. For these devices, the current fluctuation and voltage threshold lowering effect induced by the discrete dopant model are explored. Numerical convergence and model well-posedness are also investigated in the present work.

  5. Intrinsic dissipation in a nano-mechanical resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunal, K.; Aluru, N. R., E-mail: aluru@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-09-07

    We investigate the effect of size on intrinsic dissipation in nano-structures. We use molecular dynamics simulation and study dissipation under two different modes of deformation: stretching and bending mode. In the case of stretching deformation (with uniform strain field), dissipation takes place due to Akhiezer mechanism. For bending deformation, in addition to the Akhiezer mechanism, the spatial temperature gradient also plays a role in the process of entropy generation. Interestingly, we find that the bending modes have a higher Q factor in comparison with the stretching deformation (under the same frequency of operation). Furthermore, with the decrease in size, the difference in Q factor between the bending and stretching deformation becomes more pronounced. The lower dissipation for the case of bending deformation is explained to be due to the surface scattering of phonons. A simple model, for phonon dynamics under an oscillating strain field, is considered to explain the observed variation in dissipation rate. We also studied the scaling of Q factor with initial tension, in a beam under flexure. We develop a continuum theory to explain the observed results.

  6. Bioforensics: Characterization of biological weapons agents by NanoSIMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P K; Ghosal, S; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-02-26

    The anthrax attacks of Fall 2001 highlight the need to develop forensic methods based on multiple identifiers to determine the origin of biological weapons agents. Genetic typing methods (i.e., DNA and RNA-based) provide one attribution technology, but genetic information alone is not usually sufficient to determine the provenance of the material. Non-genetic identifiers, including elemental and isotopic signatures, provide complementary information that can be used to identify the means, geographic location and date of production. Under LDRD funding, we have successfully developed the techniques necessary to perform bioforensic characterization with the NanoSIMS at the individual spore level. We have developed methods for elemental and isotopic characterization at the single spore scale. We have developed methods for analyzing spore sections to map elemental abundance within spores. We have developed rapid focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning techniques for spores to preserve elemental and structural integrity. And we have developed a high-resolution depth profiling method to characterize the elemental distribution in individual spores without sectioning. We used these newly developed methods to study the controls on elemental abundances in spores, characterize the elemental distribution of in spores, and to study elemental uptake by spores. Our work under this LDRD project attracted FBI and DHS funding for applied purposes.

  7. Electromechanically induced absorption in a circuit nano-electromechanical system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fredrik Hocke; Xiaoqing Zhou; Albert Schliesser; Tobias J. Kippenberg; Hans Huebl; Rudolf Gross

    2012-09-20

    A detailed analysis of electromechanically induced absorption (EMIA) in a circuit nano-electromechanical hybrid system consisting of a superconducting microwave resonator coupled to a nanomechanical beam is presented. By performing two-tone spectroscopy experiments we have studied EMIA as a function of the drive power over a wide range of drive and probe tone detunings. We find good quantitative agreement between experiment and theoretical modeling based on the Hamiltonian formulation of a generic electromechanical system. We show that the absorption of microwave signals in an extremely narrow frequency band (\\Delta\\omega/2\\pi <5 Hz) around the cavity resonance of about 6 GHz can be adjusted over a range of more than 25 dB on varying the drive tone power by a factor of two. Possible applications of this phenomenon include notch filters to cut out extremely narrow frequency bands (< Hz) of a much broader band of the order of MHz defined by the resonance width of the microwave cavity. The amount of absorption as well as the filtered frequency is tunable over the full width of the microwave resonance by adjusting the power and frequency of the drive field. At high drive power we observe parametric microwave amplification with the nanomechanical resonator. Due to the very low loss rate of the nanomechanical beam the drive power range for parametric amplification is narrow, since the beam rapidly starts to perform self-oscillations.

  8. Surface nano-patterning through styrene adsorption on Si(100)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Calzolari; A. Ruini; M. J. Caldas; E. Molinari

    2005-07-27

    We present an ab initio study of the structural and electronic properties of styrene molecules adsorbed on the dimerized Si(100) surface at different coverages, ranging from the single-molecule to the full monolayer. The adsorption mechanism primarily involves the vinyl group via a [2+2] cycloaddition process that leads to the formation of covalent Si-C bonds and a local surface derelaxation, while it leaves the phenyl group almost unperturbed. The investigation of the functionalized surface as a function of the coverage (e.g. 0.5 -- 1 ML) and of the substrate reconstruction reveals two major effects. The first results from Si dimer-vinyl interaction and concerns the controlled variation of the energy bandgap of the interface. The second is associated to phenyl-phenyl interactions, which gives rise to a regular pattern of electronic wires at surface, stemming from the pi-pi coupling. These findings suggest a rationale for tailoring the surface nano-patterning of the surface, in a controlled way.

  9. Photoluminescence emission at room temperature in zinc oxide nano-columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocha, L.S.R.; Deus, R.C.; Foschini, C.R.; Simões, A.Z.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by microwave-hydrothermal method. • X-ray diffraction reveals a hexagonal structure. • Photoluminescence emission evidenced two absorption peaks, at around 480 nm and 590 nm wavelengths. - Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-columns at the temperature of 120 °C with a soaking time of 8 min. ZnO nano-columns were characterized by using X-ray analyses (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TG-DTA), field emission gun and transmission electron microscopy (FEG-SEM and TEM) and photoluminescence properties (PL). XRD results indicated that the ZnO nano-columns are free of any impurity phase and crystallize in the hexagonal structure. Typical FT-IR spectra for ZnO nano-columns presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. PL spectra consist of a broad band at 590 nm and narrow band at 480 nm corresponding to a near-band edge emission related to the recombination of excitons and level emission related to structural defects. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain ZnO nano-columns in the temperature of 120 °C for 8 min.

  10. Nano Databases Nano Business

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    used materials for touchscreens, plasma displays, and flexible electronics. But its rapidly escalating needed for flexible electronics. "These silver nanowires show mechanical properties that are quite price has forced the electronics industry to search for other alternatives. One potential and more

  11. A comparative study of nano-scale coatings on gold electrodes for bioimpedance studies of breast cancer cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heflin, Randy

    with that of gold microelectrodes coated with gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, or electroplated gold to inA comparative study of nano-scale coatings on gold electrodes for bioimpedance studies of breast- troduce nano-scale roughness on the surface of the electrodes. For biological solutions, the electroplated

  12. Engaging stakeholders in nano-EHS risk governance Jacqueline A. Isaacs Carol Lynn Alpert Matthew Bates Christopher J. Bosso

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    for decision-making concerning manufactured chemicals and nano-materials (Department of Health and Human categories. Information about a given product is analyzed from the extraction of the necessary raw materials on an unusually frank and wide-rang- ing discussion concerning nano-manufacturing environmen- tal health

  13. Probing the adhesion of submicron thin films fabricated on a polymer substrate via nano-transfer printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Teng

    Probing the adhesion of submicron thin films fabricated on a polymer substrate via nano- transfer.1088/0960-1317/22/9/095002 Probing the adhesion of submicron thin films fabricated on a polymer substrate via nano-transfer printing/095002 Abstract Determining the interfacial adhesion of ultrathin functional films in micro

  14. Resource Letter: Bio-molecular Nano-machines: where Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Technology meet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debashish Chowdhury

    2008-07-17

    Cell is the structural and functional unit of life. This Resource Letter serves as a guide to the literature on nano-machines which drive not only intracellular movements, but also motility of the cell. These machines are usually proteins or macromolecular assemblies which require appropriate fuel for their operations. Although, traditionally, these machines were subjects of investigation in biology and biochemistry, increasing use of the concepts and techniques of physics in recent years have contributed to the quantitative understanding of the fundamental principles underlying their operational mechanisms. The possibility of exploiting these principles for the design and control of artificial nano-machines has opened up a new frontier in the bottom-up approach to nano-technology.

  15. Modification of phonon processes in nano-structured rare-earth-ion-doped crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Thomas; Thiel, Charles W; Cone, Rufus L; Barclay, Paul E; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Nano-structuring impurity-doped crystals affects the phonon density of states and thereby modifies the atomic dynamics induced by interaction with phonons. We propose the use of nano-structured materials in the form of powders or phononic bandgap crystals to enable, or improve, persistent spectral hole-burning and optical coherence for inhomogeneously broadened absorption lines in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. This is crucial for applications such as ultra-precise radio-frequency spectrum analyzers and certain approaches to optical quantum memories. We specifically discuss how phonon engineering can enable spectral hole burning in erbium-doped materials operating in the telecommunication band, and present simulations for density of states of nano-sized powders and phononic crystals for the case of Y$_2$SiO$_5$, a widely-used material in current quantum memory research.

  16. Energy-efficient tunable silicon photonic micro-resonator with graphene transparent nano-heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Longhai; Dai, Daoxin; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    Thermally-tuning silicon micro-cavities are versatile and beneficial elements in low-cost large-scale photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Traditional metal heaters used for thermal tuning in silicon micro-cavities usually need a thick SiO2 upper-cladding layer, which will introduce some disadvantages including low response speed, low heating efficiency, low achievable temperature and complicated fabrication processes. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate thermally-tuning silicon micro-disk resonators by introducing graphene transparent nano-heaters, which contacts the silicon core directly without any isolator layer. This makes the graphene transparent nano-heater potentially to have excellent performances in terms of the heating efficiency, the temporal response and the achievable temperature. It is also shown that the graphene nano-heater is convenient to be used in ultrasmall photonic integrated devices due to the single-atom thickness and excellent flexibility of graphene. Both experi...

  17. Selective nano-patterning of graphene using a heated atomic force microscope tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Young-Soo; Wu, Xuan; Lee, Dong-Weon, E-mail: mems@jnu.ac.kr [MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)] [MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In this study, we introduce a selective thermochemical nano-patterning method of graphene on insulating substrates. A tiny heater formed at the end of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is optimized by a finite element method. The cantilever device is fabricated using conventional micromachining processes. After preliminary tests of the cantilever device, nano-patterning experiments are conducted with various conducting and insulating samples. The results indicate that faster scanning speed and higher contact force are desirable to reduce the sizes of nano-patterns. With the experimental condition of 1 ?m/s and 24 mW, the heated AFM tip generates a graphene oxide layer of 3.6 nm height and 363 nm width, on a 300 nm thick SiO{sub 2} layer, with a tip contact force of 100 nN.

  18. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, VF; Wu, LJ; Rupich, MW; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP; Li, Q

    2014-12-15

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2 nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 mu m long nano-rods with an average diameter of approximate to 20 nm. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The maximum efficiency of nano heat engines depends on more than temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mischa P. Woods; Nelly Ng; Stephanie Wehner

    2015-06-07

    Sadi Carnot's theorem regarding the maximum efficiency of heat engines is considered to be of fundamental importance in the theory of heat engines and thermodynamics. Here, we show that at the nano and quantum scale, this law needs to be revised in the sense that more information about the bath other than its temperature is required to decide whether maximum efficiency can be achieved. In particular, we derive new fundamental limitations of the efficiency of heat engines at the nano and quantum scale that show that the Carnot efficiency can only be achieved under special circumstances, and we derive a new maximum efficiency for others.

  20. Next Generation Hole Injection/Transport Nano-Composites for High Efficiency OLED Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King Wang

    2009-07-31

    The objective of this program is to use a novel nano-composite material system for the OLED anode coating/hole transport layer. The novel anode coating is intended to significantly increase not only hole injection/transport efficiency, but the device energy efficiency as well. Another goal of the Core Technologies Program is the optimization and scale-up of air-stable and cross-linkable novel HTL nano-composite materials synthesis and the development of low-cost, large-scale mist deposition processes for polymer OLED fabrication. This proposed technology holds the promise to substantially improve OLED energy efficiency and lifetime.

  1. Nano-magnetism of magnetostriction in Fe{sub 35}Co{sub 65}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisfi, A.; Ren, T.; Wuttig, M.; Khachaturyan, A.

    2014-03-03

    The nature of the large magnetostriction in body-centered Fe-based solid solutions has been widely discussed in the literature. Here, we use a combination of magnetostriction, magnetization, torque, and transmission electron microscopy measurements of specially annealed Co{sub 65}Fe{sub 35} to show that the magnetostriction is caused by coherent uniaxial nano-precipitates. We show further that these nano-precipitates lower the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in these alloys to K{sub 1}?=??2.16?×?10{sup 4}?J/m{sup 3}.

  2. Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    -patterned AGOG sapphire demonstrated a 24% enhancement of output power enhancement over that of LEDs grown) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on both templates were compared. The InGaN QWs LEDs grown on the nano- emitting diodes (LEDs) in solid state lighting applications [1 À11]. In conventional metalorganic vapor

  3. Industry Symposium on Micro and Nano scale Cellular Polymers Department of Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Vipin

    .00 Gas-Assisted Thermoforming of Recycled PET Stephen Probert and Krishna Nadella 11.30 Porous PolymersIndustry Symposium on Micro and Nano scale Cellular Polymers Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Professor Mark Tuttle, Chair, ME 8.30 State of Art of Microcellular Polymers Prof

  4. Flame-Retardant Electrical Conductive Nanopolymers Based on Bisphenol F Epoxy Resin Reinforced with Nano Polyanilines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    for obtaining epoxy resin polymer nano- composites (PNCs). The effects of nanofiller morphology and loading The development of conductive or semiconductive polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) from insulating polymers hasFlame-Retardant Electrical Conductive Nanopolymers Based on Bisphenol F Epoxy Resin Reinforced

  5. Author's personal copy The behaviors of ferromagnetic nano-particles in and around blood vessels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Author's personal copy The behaviors of ferromagnetic nano-particles in and around blood vessels Blood vessels Treatment depth Non-dimensional parameters In-vivo experiments a b s t r a c t In magnetic, and the applied magnetic fields. Using physical first-principles and a sophisticated vessel-membrane-tissue (VMT

  6. Nano Res. 2012, 5(2): 828782 Studies of Graphene-Based Nanoelectromechanical Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    Nano Res. 2012, 5(2): 82­8782 Studies of Graphene-Based Nanoelectromechanical Switches Zhiwen Shi1 and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011 ABSTRACT Electromechanical switch devices employing suspended switches, due to their excellent on­off current characteristics including an essentially zero off current

  7. The Recursive NanoBox Processor Grid: A Reliable System Architecture for Unreliable Nanotechnology Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    The Recursive NanoBox Processor Grid: A Reliable System Architecture for Unreliable Nanotechnology, Minneapolis, MN 55455 Telephone: 612-625-5007 Fax: 612-625-4583 Abstract Advanced molecular nanotechnology designed for fabrication with unreliable nanotechnology devices. This architecture is composed of many

  8. Nano-optical Trapping of Rayleigh Particles and Escherichia coli Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nano-optical Trapping of Rayleigh Particles and Escherichia coli Bacteria with Resonant Optical demonstrate a novel optical trapping scheme that allows us to hold living Escherichia coli bacteria bacteria are trapped simultaneously with their orientation fixed by the asymmetry of the antennas

  9. Nano Res. 2011, 4(12): 124212471242 Chemical Versus Thermal Folding of Graphene Edges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    Nano Res. 2011, 4(12): 1242­12471242 Chemical Versus Thermal Folding of Graphene Edges Ninghai Su dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the kinetics of the graphene edge folding processV/Å (or about 120 meV per edge atom) for folding the edges of intrinsic clean single-layer graphene (SLG

  10. IT/Nano IFF Scientific Report 2007 Nanoscale Phase Transitions in Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IT/Nano · IFF Scientific Report 2007 158 I 159 Nanoscale Phase Transitions in Phase Change, and phase change (PC) materials are familiar to us as rewritable media (CD-RW, DVD- RW, DVD-RAM). Recently commercially available DVD-RW stor- age devices and DVD-RAM, are based on films of alloys of Ge, Sb, and Te

  11. Micro/Nano Materials for Energy Storage, Fuel Cells and Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakamura, Iku

    15 Micro/Nano Materials for Energy Storage, Fuel Cells and Sensors Speaker: Prof. Dr. Li-Xian Sun energy including hydrogen storage material, fuel cells such as biofuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, clean combustion of coal, etc.; 3) Bio/chemical sensors based

  12. Nano-structured textiles as high-performance aqueous cathodes for microbial Mauro Pasta,bc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can recover energy from waste due to the catalytic activity of microorganismsNano-structured textiles as high-performance aqueous cathodes for microbial fuel cells Xing Xie)­textile­Pt cathode for aqueous-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was prepared by electrochemically depositing Pt

  13. Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    for converting natural gas to the liquid hydrocarbons [1]. However, the reaction is a complex network of manyNano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts Eisa 2052, Australia #12;Abstract Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, a major process for converting natural gas

  14. Author's personal copy Unified nano-mechanics based probabilistic theory of quasibrittle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Author's personal copy Unified nano-mechanics based probabilistic theory of quasibrittle and brittle structures: I. Strength, static crack growth, lifetime and scaling Jia-Liang Le a,1 , Zdenek P 2011 Keywords: Strength statistics Fracture Probabilistic mechanics Size effect Activation energy a b

  15. NANO EXPRESS Open Access Improvement of performance of InAs quantum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    in this material system. Record effi- ciencies around 40% [2] are achieved in triple junction cells with an InNANO EXPRESS Open Access Improvement of performance of InAs quantum dot solar cell by inserting A new measure to enhance the performance of InAs quantum dot solar cell is proposed and measured. One

  16. The HARPSS Process for Fabrication of Nano-Precision Silicon Electromechanical Resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    The HARPSS Process for Fabrication of Nano-Precision Silicon Electromechanical Resonators Seong-Stiff electromechanical resonators are introduced and compared with their Ultra-Light counterparts. RF ultra acoustical coupling of individual electromechanical resonators [1-3], which are based on the flexural

  17. Nano Today (2013) 8, 531--554 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    . It is safe to say that machines powered by water, wind, electricity, and fuel have played a major role homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/nanotoday REVIEW Small power: Autonomous nano- and micromotors propelled principles are introduced for readers to understand the physics of powered movement on small length scales

  18. eNANOS Grid Resource Broker Ivan Rodero, Julita Corbaln, Rosa M. Badia, Jess Labarta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corbalan, Julita

    Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) [7], Grid Resource Allocation and Management (GRAM) [8], DataeNANOS Grid Resource Broker Ivan Rodero, Julita Corbalán, Rosa M. Badia, Jesús Labarta CEPBA}@ac.upc.es Abstract. Grid computing has been presented as a way to share geographically and organizationally

  19. Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Li

    Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum form 27 July 2010 Accepted 3 September 2010 Keywords: High-energy-density fuels Droplet combustion n-decane-based fuels. Five distinctive stages (preheating and ignition, classical combustion

  20. NanoFermentationTM Process Wins R&D 100 Award

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;NanoFermentationTM Process Wins R&D 100 Award New Process Developed for Manufacturing Nanoscale, which in turn result in part from concerns about reliability of manufacturing techniques. The Project temperature, incubation time, and choice of electron donor or the addition of certain chemical additives

  1. Marvell NanoLab Member login Lab Manual Contents MercuryWeb Chapter 6.23

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    : (a) low temperature nano-skin oxide formation; (b) Low temp polymer curing, (c) surface treatment Sheets for FOTS, DDMS, APTMS (Copies in Office and Lobby). 4.3 Gelest Chemicals Catalog #3000-A 5 (DI Water) specification is 110°± 2°. Vendor pro

  2. PERSPECTIVES Nano-to-Microscale Mechanical Switches and Fuses Mediate Adhesive Contacts between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinrich, Volkmar

    PERSPECTIVES Nano-to-Microscale Mechanical Switches and Fuses Mediate Adhesive Contacts between, the leukocyte adhesion cascade involves the capture of white blood cells at the vascular endothelium, a progressively slowing, "roll- ing" motion of cells along the vessel walls, firm cell adhesion at target sites

  3. Nano Res. 2011, 4(3): 290296290 Hybrid Silicon-Carbon Nanostructured Composites as Superior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    2­B nano- wires have been shown to have a higher specific capacity than TiO2­B nanoparticle as components for next-generation electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices [9­11]. For instance, TiO nanotubes with a surface area of 300­600 m2/g) and short ion diffusion length, and have been viewed

  4. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE AIXTRON (formerly NanoInstruments) Carbon Nanotube Deposition System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    1 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE AIXTRON (formerly NanoInstruments) Carbon Nanotube Deposition System Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) Figure 1. The TRL PECVD CNT Reactor (CCNT voltages to produce plasma. Typically, the catalyst metals #12;2 are Nickel, Iron or Cobalt. Representative

  5. Biomaterials 26 (2005) 75877595 Nano-C60 cytotoxicity is due to lipid peroxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natelson, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Biomaterials 26 (2005) 7587­7595 Nano-C60 cytotoxicity is due to lipid peroxidation Christie M conducted to probe the mechanisms governing the ARTICLE IN PRESS www.elsevier.com/locate/biomaterials 0142-9612/$ - see front matter r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005

  6. BioSystems Review 59 BioNano/Micro System in Nanobiotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Je-Kyun

    of BioNano/Micro System applies both nanotechnology and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) to solve nanotechnology and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) to solve biological and medical problems as well biological and medical problems as well as biological structures and principles to solve engineering MEMS

  7. NanoPSE: Nanoscience Problem Solving Environment for atomistic electronic structure of semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongarra, Jack

    -Wang Wang2, Jack Dongarra3 and Alex Zunger1 1 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 37996-3450, U.S.A. E-mail: wesley jones@nrel.gov Abstract. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy project in the development stage. Components of NanoPSE include codes for atomistic nanostructure

  8. Influence of Annealing Treatment on the Formation of Nano/Submicron Grain Size AISI 301 Austenitic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Paulo J.

    austenitic stainless steels are heavily cold-worked, and annealed to convert the deformation of annealing temperature. In this work, an AISI 301 metastable austenitic stainless steel is 90 pct coldInfluence of Annealing Treatment on the Formation of Nano/Submicron Grain Size AISI 301 Austenitic

  9. An Ultrasonic Standing-Wave-Actuated Nano-Positioning Walking Robot: Piezoelectric-Metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sitti, Metin

    An Ultrasonic Standing-Wave-Actuated Nano- Positioning Walking Robot: Piezoelectric-Metal Composite to the patterned piezoelectric element. Two standing waves corresponding to the third and fourth bending vibration frame was constructed that uses standing waves induced by the bending vibration of a piezoelectric (PZT

  10. Polymer Thermodynamics and Chain Structure Polymers display some similarities and some differences with nano-aggregates.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    Polymer Thermodynamics and Chain Structure Polymers display some similarities and some differences with nano-aggregates. Both materials are composed of basic units, Kuhn units for polymers which are rod an aggregate in nanomaterials and a polymer coil in Polymer Science. The mass-fractal or minimum dimension

  11. Catalyzed Nano-Framework Stablized High Density Reversible Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Xia; Opalka, Susanne M.; Mosher, Daniel A; Laube, Bruce L; Brown, Ronald J; Vanderspurt, Thomas H; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Ronnebro, Ewa; Boyle, Tim; Cordaro, Joseph

    2010-06-30

    A wide range of high capacity on-board rechargeable material candidates have exhibited non-ideal behavior related to irreversible hydrogen discharge / recharge behavior, and kinetic instability or retardation. This project addresses these issues by incorporating solvated and other forms of complex metal hydrides, with an emphasis on borohydrides, into nano-scale frameworks of low density, high surface area skeleton materials to stabilize, catalyze, and control desorption product formation associated with such complex metal hydrides. A variety of framework chemistries and hydride / framework combinations were investigated to make a relatively broad assessment of the method's potential. In this project, the hydride / framework interactions were tuned to decrease desorption temperatures for highly stable compounds or increase desorption temperatures for unstable high capacity compounds, and to influence desorption product formation for improved reversibility. First principle modeling was used to explore heterogeneous catalysis of hydride reversibility by modeling H2 dissociation, hydrogen migration, and rehydrogenation. Atomic modeling also demonstrated enhanced NaTi(BH4)4 stabilization at nano-framework surfaces modified with multi-functional agents. Amine multi-functional agents were found to have more balanced interactions with nano-framework and hydride clusters than other functional groups investigated. Experimentation demonstrated that incorporation of Ca(BH4)2 and Mg(BH4)2 in aerogels enhanced hydride desorption kinetics. Carbon aerogels were identified as the most suitable nano-frameworks for hydride kinetic enhancement and high hydride loading. High loading of NaTi(BH4)4 ligand complex in SiO2 aerogel was achieved and hydride stability was improved with the aerogel. Although improvements of desorption kinetics was observed, the incorporation of Ca(BH4)2 and Mg(BH4)2 in nano-frameworks did not improve their H2 absorption due to the formation of stable alkaline earth B12H12 intermediates upon rehydrogenation. This project primarily investigated the effect of nano-framework surface chemistry on hydride properties, while the effect of pore size is the focus area of other efforts (e.g., HRL, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) etc.) within the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The projects were complementary in gaining an overall understanding of the influence of nano-frameworks on hydride behavior.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of novel zinc germanate nano-materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boppana, Venkata Bharat Ram; Hould, Nathan D.; Lobo, Raul F.

    2011-05-15

    We report the first instance of a hydrothermal synthesis of zinc germanate (Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}) nano-materials having a variety of morphologies and photochemical properties in surfactant, template and catalyst-free conditions. A systematic variation of synthesis conditions and detailed characterization using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering led to a better understanding of the growth of these particles from solution. At 140 {sup o}C, the zinc germanate particle morphology changes with pH from flower-shaped at pH 6.0, to poly-disperse nano-rods at pH 10 when the Zn to Ge ratio in the synthesis solution is 2. When the Zn to Ge ratio is reduced to 1.25, mono-disperse nano-rods could be prepared at pH 7.5. Nanorod formation is also independent of the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in contrast to previous reports. Photocatalytic tests show that Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nano-rods (by weight) and flower shaped (by surface area) are the most active for methylene blue dye degradation among the synthesized zinc germanate materials. -- Graphical abstract: Zinc germanate materials were synthesized possessing unique morphologies dependent on the hydrothermal synthesis conditions in the absence of surfactant, catalyst or template. These novel materials are characterized and evaluated for their photocatalytic activities. Display Omitted highlights: > Zinc germanate synthesized hydrothermally (surfactant free) with unique morphologies. > Flower-shaped, nano-rods, globular particles obtained dependent on synthesis pH. > At 140 {sup o}C, they possess the rhombohedral crystal irrespective of synthesis conditions. > They are photocatalytically active for the degradation of methylene blue. > Potential applications could be photocatalytic water splitting and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  13. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gapsmore »in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAh·cm–2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 µm-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g–1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.« less

  14. Bubble nucleation on nano- to micro-size cavities and posts: An experimental validation of classical theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, B.

    Recently reported data suggest that bubble nucleation on surfaces with nano-sized features (cavities and posts) may occur close to the thermodynamic saturation temperature. However, according to the traditional theory of ...

  15. Development of Micro/Nano-Scale Sensors for Investigation of Heat Transfer in Multi-Phase Flows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Sae Il

    2012-10-19

    The objective of this investigation was to develop micro/nano-scale temperature sensors for measuring surface temperature transients in multi-phase flows and heat transfer. Surface temperature fluctuations were measured on substrates exposed...

  16. Fabrication and optical characterization of nano-hole arrays in gold and gold/palladium films on glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    Fabrication and optical characterization of nano-hole arrays in gold and gold/palladium films in a 200-nm thick layer of gold (Au), palladium (Pd), and gold/palladium (Au/Pd ¼ 60/40) alloy on glass

  17. Predictive design and fabrication of complex micro and nano patterns via wrinkling for scalable and affordable manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saha, Sourabh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    There is a demonstrated need for scalable and affordable manufacturing of complex micro and nano scale structures for applications such as fluidics-based medical diagnostics and photonicsbased sensing. Although high-rate ...

  18. Production of ultra-thin nano-scaled graphene platelets from meso-carbon micro-beads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-11-11

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets (NGPs) having an average thickness no greater than 50 nm, typically less than 2 nm, and, in many cases, no greater than 1 nm. The method comprises (a) intercalating a supply of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMBs) to produce intercalated MCMBs; and (b) exfoliating the intercalated MCMBs at a temperature and a pressure for a sufficient period of time to produce the desired NGPs. Optionally, the exfoliated product may be subjected to a mechanical shearing treatment, such as air milling, air jet milling, ball milling, pressurized fluid milling, rotating-blade grinding, or ultrasonicating. The NGPs are excellent reinforcement fillers for a range of matrix materials to produce nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  19. Glass softening, crystallization, and vaporization of nano-aggregates of Amorphous Solid Water: Fast Scanning Calorimetry studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deepanjan Bhattacharya; Liam OReilly; Vlad Sadtchenko

    2014-10-31

    Fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) was employed to investigate glass softening dynamics in amorphous solid water (ASW) nano-aggregates with thicknesses ranging from 2 to 20 nm. ASW nano-aggregates were prepared by vapor-deposition on the surface of a tungsten filament near 141 K and then heated at a rate of 100 kK/s. The resulting thermogram complex endo- and exothermal features were analyzed using a simple model. The results of the analysis show that glass softening of ASW nano-aggregates takes place at 160 K and vaporization of ASW nano-aggregates can take place at temperatures as low as 185 K. The results of these studies are discussed in conjunction with results of past studies of glass softening dynamics in water in various confining geometries.

  20. Centrifugal casting and fast curing of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for the manufacture of micro and nano featured components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzeo, Aaron D. (Aaron David), 1979-

    2009-01-01

    The thermosetting resin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is commonly used to prototype micro and nano featured components. In the field of microfluidics, PDMS-based devices have been used for cell sorting, cell culturing, ...

  1. Fault modeling, delay evaluation and path selection for delay test under process variation in nano-scale VLSI circuits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiang

    2006-04-12

    Delay test in nano-scale VLSI circuits becomes more difficult with shrinking technology feature sizes and rising clock frequencies. In this dissertation, we study three challenging issues in delay test: fault modeling, ...

  2. Strategic Research Orientation `NanoMaterials for Energy' 1 Energy projects within MESA+ research groups, February 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    Strategic Research Orientation `NanoMaterials for Energy' 1 Energy projectsMaterials for Energy' Information: www.utwente.nl/mesaplus/nme/ Project title Group Ph water splitting and CO2 reduction OS / PCS Sun-Young Park Jennifer Herek

  3. In vitro biocompatibility study of nano TiO2 materials , Y.D. Wang2,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Company, LTD. TiO2 nanotube, with mean diameter 20nm, was provided by Department of Physics, HongkongIn vitro biocompatibility study of nano TiO2 materials W. Han1, a , Y.D. Wang2,b and Y.F. Zheng3,c yfzheng@pku.edu.cn Keywords: nano TiO2, in vitro, biocompatibility, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis

  4. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic studies on anatase nano-TiO{sub 2} at internal air lift circulating photocatalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hang, E-mail: xhinbj@126.com; Li, Mei; Jun, Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: The micro morphological structure of the nano-TiO{sub 2} particles was also observed with TEM, as shown in figure. The TEM images clearly exhibited the homogeneous microstructure of particles with a size of around 10–15 nm. - Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2} was prepared by complex techniques of sol–gel, micro-emulsion and solvent thermal. • The size of TiO{sub 2} was nano level and uniformity. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} exhibited high photo-catalytic activity at internal air lift circulating reactor. • The best nano-TiO{sub 2} dosage was obtained. - Abstract: Anatase nano-titania (TiO{sub 2}) powder was prepared by using a sol–gel process mediated in reverse microemulsion combined with a solvent thermal technique. The structures of the obtained TiO{sub 2} were characterized by TG-DSC, XRD, TEM. The photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue (MB) on nano-TiO{sub 2} was studied by using an internal air lift circulating photocatalytic reactor. The results show that the anatase structure appears in the calcination temperature range of 400–510 °C, while the transformation of anatase into rutile takes place above 510 °C. The homogeneous microstructure of nano-TiO{sub 2} particles was obtained with a size of around 10–15 nm. In the photocatalytic performance, degradation process follows pseudo first order kinetics with different dosages of photocatalyst and initial MB concentrations and optimal TiO{sub 2} dosage is 0.1 g/L with neutral medium.

  5. Self-Assembled Silica Nano-Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Synthesis, Rheology & Electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Saad A.: Fedkiw Peter S.; Baker, Gregory L.

    2007-01-24

    The ultimate objectives of this research are to understand the principles underpinning nano-composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) and facilitate development of novel CPEs that are low-cost, have high conductivities, large Li+ transference numbers, improved electrolyte-electrode interfacial stability, yield long cycle life, exhibit mechanical stability and are easily processable. Our approach is to use nanoparticulate silica fillers to formulate novel composite electrolytes consisting of surface-modified fumed silica nano-particles in polyethylene oxides (PEO) in the presence of lithium salts. We intend to design single-ion conducting silica nanoparticles which provide CPEs with high Li+ transference numbers. We also will develop low-Mw (molecular weight), high-Mw and crosslinked PEO electrolytes with tunable properties in terms of conductivity, transference number, interfacial stability, processability and mechanical strength

  6. SiN-SiC nanofilm: A nano-functional ceramic with bipolar magnetic semiconducting character

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiahui; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Jinlong

    2014-04-28

    Nowadays, functional ceramics have been largely explored for application in various fields. However, magnetic functional ceramics for spintronics remain little studied. Here, we propose a nano-functional ceramic of sphalerite SiN-SiC nanofilm with intrinsic ferromagnetic order. Based on first principles calculations, the SiN-SiC nanofilm is found to be a ferromagnetic semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 1.71?eV. By mean field theory, the Curie temperature is estimated to be 304?K, close to room temperature. Furthermore, the valence band and conduction band states of the nanofilm exhibit inverse spin-polarization around the Fermi level. Thus, the SiN-SiC nanofilm is a typical bipolar magnetic semiconductor in which completely spin-polarized currents with reversible spin polarization can be created and controlled by applying a gate voltage. Such a nano-functional ceramic provides a possible route for electrical manipulation of carrier's spin orientation.

  7. Modulating light with light via giant nano-opto-mechanical nonlinearity of plasmonic metamaterial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ou, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Jianfa; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    From the demonstration of saturable absorption by Vavilow and Levshin in 1926, and with invention of the laser, unavailability of strongly nonlinear materials was a key obstacle for developing optical signal processing, in particular in transparent telecommunication networks. Today, most advanced photonic switching materials exploit gain dynamics and near-band and excitonic effects in semiconductors, nonlinearities in organic media with weakly-localized electrons and nonlinearities enhanced by hybridization with metamaterials. Here we report on a new type of artificial nonlinearity that is nano-opto-mechanical in nature. It was observed in an artificial metamaterial array of plasmonic meta-molecules supported by a flexible nano-membrane. Here nonlinearity is underpinned by the reversible reconfiguration of its structure induced by light. In a film of only 100 nanometres thickness we demonstrated modulation of light with light using milliwatt power telecom diode lasers.

  8. Metastability in a nano-bridge based hysteretic DC-SQUID embedded in superconducting microwave resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eran Segev; Oren Suchoi; Oleg Shtempluck; Fei Xue; Eyal Buks

    2010-07-29

    We study the metastable response of a highly hysteretic DC-SQUID made of a Niobium loop interrupted by two nano-bridges. We excite the SQUID with an alternating current and with direct magnetic flux, and find different stability zones forming diamond-like structures in the measured voltage across the SQUID. When such a SQUID is embedded in a transmission line resonator similar diamond structures are observed in the reflection pattern of the resonator. We have calculated the DC-SQUID stability diagram in the plane of the exciting control parameters, both analytically and numerically. In addition, we have obtained numerical simulations of the SQUID equations of motion, taking into account temperature variations and non-sinusoidal current-phase relation of the nano-bridges. Good agreement is found between experimental and theoretical results.

  9. Formation of Single-mode Laser in Perovskite Nanowire via Nano-manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Kaiyang; Liu, Shuai; Li, Jiankai; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite based micro- and nano- lasers have attracted considerable research attention in past two years. However, the properties of perovskite devices are mostly fixed once they are synthesized. Here we demonstrate the tailoring of lasing properties of perovskite nanowire lasers via nano-manipulation. By utilizing a tungsten probe, one nanowire has been lifted from the wafer and re-positioned its two ends on two nearby perovskite blocks. Consequently, the conventional Fabry-Perot lasers are completely suppressed and a single laser peak has been observed. The corresponding numerical model reveals that the single-mode lasing operation is formed by the whispering gallery mode in the transverse plane of perovskite nanowire. Our research provides a simple way to tailor the properties of nanowire and it will be essential for the applications of perovskite optoelectronics.

  10. Is it viable to improve light output efficiency by nano-light-emitting diodes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yu-Wen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wu, Shang-En [Genesis Photonics Incorporation, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Genesis Photonics Incorporation, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chuan-Pu, E-mail: cpliu@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-02

    Nanopillar arrays with InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-disks (MQDs) are fabricated by focused-ion-beam milling with surface damage layer removed by KOH wet etching. Nano-light-emitting diodes (Nano-LEDs) made of the InGaN/GaN MQD nanopillars are found to have 19.49% less output power than that of a conventional LED. The reasons are analyzed in detail and considering their current-voltage and electroluminescence characteristics, internal quantum efficiency, external quantum efficiency, light extraction, and wall-plug efficiency. Our results suggest that nanopillar-LED can outperform if the density can be increased to 2.81?×?10{sup 9}?cm{sup ?2} with the size unchanged or the size can be increased to 854.4?nm with the density unchanged.

  11. Study of nano imprinting using soft lithography on Krafty glue and PVDF polymer thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankar, M. S. Ravi, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu; Gangineni, Ramesh Babu, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R. V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry - 605014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The present work reveals soft lithography strategy based on self assembly and replica molding for carrying out micro and nanofabrication. It provides a convenient, effective and very low cost method for the formation and manufacturing of micro and nano structures. Al-layer of compact disc (sony CD-R) used as a stamp with patterned relief structures to generate patterns and structures with pattern size of 100nm height, 1.7 ?m wide. In literature, PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) solution is widely used to get negative copy of the Al-layer. In this work, we have used inexpensive white glue (Polyvinylacetate + water), 15gm (?5) and PVDF (Polyvinylidene difluoride) spin coated films and successfully transferred the nano patterns of Al layer on to white glue and PVDF films.

  12. Nano-Scale Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC S) for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Hu, Michael Z.

    2010-06-01

    A one-year project was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nano-scale Interpenetrating Phase Composite (IPC) components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real applications such as high wear/corrosion resistant refractory shapes for industrial applications, lightweight vehicle braking system components, or lower cost/higher performance military body and vehicle armor. Nano-scale IPC s with improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties have previously been demonstrated at the lab scale, but have been limited in size. The work performed under this project was focused on investigating the ability to take the current traditional lab scale processes to a manufacturing scale through scaling of these processes or through the utilization of an alternative high-temperature process.

  13. Realizing three-dimensional artificial spin ice by stacking planar nano-arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chern, Gia-Wei; Reichhardt, Charles; Nisoli, Cristiano

    2014-01-06

    Artificial spin ice is a frustrated magnetic two-dimensional nano-material, recently employed to study variety of tailor-designed unusual collective behaviours. Recently proposed extensions to three dimensions are based on self-assembly techniques and allow little control over geometry and disorder. We present a viable design for the realization of a three-dimensional artificial spin ice with the same level of precision and control allowed by lithographic nano-fabrication of the popular two-dimensional case. Our geometry is based on layering already available two-dimensional artificial spin ice and leads to an arrangement of ice-rule-frustrated units, which is topologically equivalent to that of the tetrahedra in a pyrochlore lattice. Consequently, we show, it exhibits a genuine ice phase and its excitations are, as in natural spin ice materials, magnetic monopoles interacting via Coulomb law.

  14. Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

    2010-09-07

    This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic behavior of Co/MCM-41 nano-composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuello, N.; Elías, V.; Crivello, M.; Oliva, M.; Eimer, G.

    2013-09-15

    Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of Co/MCM-41 as magnetic nano-composites have been investigated. Mesoporous materials with different degrees of metal loading were prepared by wet impregnation and characterized by ICP, XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption, UV–vis DRS, TPR and EPMA-EDS. Cobalt oxide clusters and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles could be confined inside the mesopores of MCM-41, being this fact favored by the Co loading increasing. In addition, larger crystals of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} detectable by XRD also grow on the surface when the Co loading is enhanced. The magnetic characterization was performed in a SQUID magnetometer using a maximum magnetic applied field µ{sub 0}Ha=1 T. While the samples with the higher Co loadings showed a behavior typically paramagnetic, a superparamagnetic contribution is more notorious for lower loadings, suggesting high Co species dispersion. - Graphical abstract: Room temperature hysteresis loops as a function of the Co content. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Co species as isolated Co{sup 2+}, oxide clusters and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles were detected. • For higher Co loads were detected, by XRD, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles on the external surface. • The confining of Co species inside the mesopores was achieved by increasing Co load. • Paramagnetism from oxide clusters/nano-particles becomes dominant for higher Co loads. • Superparamagnetism can be assigned to Co species of small size and finely dispersed.

  16. A Nano-Quantum Photonic Model for Justification of Dispersion in Single Crystal Film of NPP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassan Kaatuzian; AliAkbar Wahedy Zarch

    2006-11-28

    In this paper, we present a nano-quantum photonic model for justification of normal dispersion in a thin crystal film of NPP. In this method, we assume a laser beam consists of a flow of energetic particles. By precise analyzing of photon interaction with pi-electron system of benzene ring in NPP crystal, we will attain refractive index (RI) in any wavelength and compare the results with experimental data.

  17. Voltage-controlled switching and thermal effects in VO{sub 2} nano-gap junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joushaghani, Arash; Jeong, Junho; Stewart Aitchison, J.; Poon, Joyce K. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Paradis, Suzanne; Alain, David [Defence Research and Development Canada - Valcartier, 2459 Pie-XI Blvd. North, Quebec, Quebec G3J 1X5 (Canada)

    2014-06-02

    Voltage-controlled switching in lateral VO{sub 2} nano-gap junctions with different gap lengths and thermal properties was investigated. The effect of Joule heating on the phase transition was found to be strongly influenced by the device geometry, the contact material, and the current. Our results indicate that the VO{sub 2} phase transition was likely initiated electronically, which was sometimes followed by a secondary thermally induced transition.

  18. Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shimoda, Kazuya [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Kondo, Sosuke [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Hinoki, Tatsuya [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Ozawa, Kazumi [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 °C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. Microstructural observation and data analysis were performed.

  19. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with optical nano-antennae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, X.; Dauler, E.; Molnar, R.; Berggren, K. K.

    2010-12-20

    Optical nano-antennae have been integrated with semiconductor lasers to intensify light at the nanoscale and photodiodes to enhance photocurrent. In quantum optics, plasmonic metal structures have been used to enhance nonclassical light emission from single quantum dots. Absorption and detection of single photons from free space could also be enhanced by nanometallic antennae, but this has not previously been demonstrated. Here, we use nano-optical transmission effects in a one-dimensional gold structure, combined with optical cavity resonance, to form optical nano-antennae, which are further used to couple single photons from free space into a 80-nm-wide superconducting nanowire. This antenna-assisted coupling enables a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 47% device efficiency at the wavelength of 1550 nm and 9-?m-by-9-?m active area while maintaining a reset time of only 5 ns. We demonstrate nanoscale antenna-like structures to achieve exceptional efficiency and speed in single-photon detection.

  20. Efficient gas sensitivity in mixed bismuth ferrite micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waghmare, Shivaji D.; Jadhav, Vijaykumar V.; Gore, Shaym K.; Yoon, Seog-Joon; Ambade, Swapnil B.; Lokhande, B.J.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Micro (cubes) structure embedded in nano (plates) of bismuth ferrite was prepared by a chemical method. ? These structures were characterized by XRD and SEM. ? LPG, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 4} gases were exposed. ? Properties related to gas sensors were measured and reported. -- Abstract: Mixed micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures of bismuth ferrite (BFO) have been synthesized by a simple and cost-effective wet-chemical method. Structural, morphological and phase confirmation characteristics are measured using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. The digital FE-SEM photo-images of BFO sample confirmed an incubation of discrete micro-cubes into thin and regularly placed large number of nano-plates. The bismuth ferrite, with mixed structures, films show considerable performance when used in liquefied petroleum (LPG), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and ammonium (NH{sub 3}) gas sensors application. Different chemical entities in LPG have made it more efficient with higher sensitivity, recovery and response times compared to CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} gases. Furthermore, effect of palladium surface treatment on the gas sensitivity and the charge transfer resistances of BFO mixed structures is investigated and reported.

  1. Effect of morphology and solvent on two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kavitha, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); Haripadmam, P.C.; Gopinath, Pramod; Krishnan, Bindu [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? ZnO nanospheres and triangular structures synthesis by novel precipitation technique. ? The effect of precursor concentration on the size and shape of nano ZnO. ? Open aperture Z-scan measurements of the ZnO nanoparticle dispersions. ? Nanospheres exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than triangular nanostructures. ? Nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than its dispersion in 2-propanol. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the effect of morphology and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Zinc oxide nanoparticles in two different morphologies like nanospheres and triangular nanostructures are synthesized by novel precipitation technique and their two-photon absorption coefficient is measured using open aperture Z-scan technique. Experimental results show that the zinc oxide nanospheres exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than the zinc oxide triangular nanostructures. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than that of its dispersion in 2-propanol. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water shows a decrease in two-photon absorption coefficient with an increase in on-axis irradiance. The result confirms the dependence of shape and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide.

  2. Ground state study of the thin ferromagnetic nano-islands for artificial spin ice arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vieira Júnior, D. S.; Leonel, S. A. Dias, R. A. Toscano, D. Coura, P. Z. Sato, F.

    2014-09-07

    In this work, we used numerical simulations to study the magnetic ground state of the thin elongated (elliptical) ferromagnetic nano-islands made of Permalloy. In these systems, the effects of demagnetization of dipolar source generate a strong magnetic anisotropy due to particle shape, defining two fundamental magnetic ground state configurations—vortex or type C. To describe the system, we considered a model Hamiltonian in which the magnetic moments interact through exchange and dipolar potentials. We studied the competition between the vortex states and aligned states—type C—as a function of the shape of each elliptical nano-islands and constructed a phase diagram vortex—type C state. Our results show that it is possible to obtain the elongated nano-islands in the C-state with aspect ratios less than 2, which is interesting from the technological point of view because it will be possible to use smaller islands in spin ice arrays. Generally, the experimental spin ice arrangements are made with quite elongated particles with aspect ratio approximately 3 to ensure the C-state.

  3. Combined experimental and numerical evaluation of a prototype nano-PCM enhanced wallboard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; LuPh.D., Jue; Soroushian, Parviz; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, forty-eight (48) percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced building envelopes can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Combined experimental testing and numerical modeling of PCM-enhanced envelope components are two important aspects of the evaluation of their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conductive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. A wall with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards was built and tested in a natural exposure test (NET) facility in a hot-humid climate location. The test wall contained PCM wallboards and regular gypsum wallboard, for a side-by-side annual comparison study. Further, numerical modeling of the walls containing the nano-PCM wallboard was performed to determine its actual impact on wall-generated heating and cooling loads. The model was first validated using experimental data, and then used for annual simulations using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY3) weather data. This article presents the measured performance and numerical analysis evaluating the energy-saving potential of the nano-PCM-enhanced wallboard.

  4. Raster-scanning serial protein crystallography using micro- and nano-focused synchrotron beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coquelle, Nicolas; Brewster, Aaron S.; Kapp, Ulrike; Shilova, Anastasya; Weinhausen, Britta; Burghammer, Manfred; Colletier, Jacques -Philippe

    2015-04-25

    High-resolution structural information was obtained from lysozyme microcrystals (20 µm in the largest dimension) using raster-scanning serial protein crystallography on micro- and nano-focused beamlines at the ESRF. Data were collected at room temperature (RT) from crystals sandwiched between two silicon nitride wafers, thereby preventing their drying, while limiting background scattering and sample consumption. In order to identify crystal hits, new multi-processing and GUI-driven Python-based pre-analysis software was developed, named NanoPeakCell, that was able to read data from a variety of crystallographic image formats. Further data processing was carried out using CrystFEL, and the resultant structures were refined to 1.7 Åmore »resolution. The data demonstrate the feasibility of RT raster-scanning serial micro- and nano-protein crystallography at synchrotrons and validate it as an alternative approach for the collection of high-resolution structural data from micro-sized crystals. Advantages of the proposed approach are its thriftiness, its handling-free nature, the reduced amount of sample required, the adjustable hit rate, the high indexing rate and the minimization of background scattering.« less

  5. Assessing the Feasibility of Pico Hydro Technology on TESC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Objective/Motivation · Hydroelectric Power is very clean on small scales · Pacific NW: Lots of water Measure the flow of the stream to estimate the available hydroelectric power #12;Stream Flow Measurements

  6. MHK Projects/OWC Pico Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK5 < MHK ProjectsHawaii <|Information OSUOWC

  7. Pico Rivera, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) | Open EnergyPhoenicia, NewPicket Lake,

  8. Pico Vermelho Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) | Open EnergyPhoenicia, NewPicket Lake,Vermelho Geothermal

  9. MHK Technologies/European Pico Pilot Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050Enermar < MHK Technologies Jump to:

  10. [15] A. D. McFarland, R. P. Van Duyne, Nano Lett. 2003, 3, 1057. [16] D. A. Schultz, Curr. Opin. Biotech. 2003, 14, 13.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    . Biotech. 2003, 14, 13. [17] J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 2003, 3, 485. [18] J. J. Mock

  11. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcinek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-tert-butoxide by a one step microwave plasma chemical vaporBatteries; Anode; Plasma; Microwave Corresponding author. E-

  12. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setala V. Naidu

    2003-01-01

    We have produced Co, Cu, and Fe nano-particles by Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) as evidenced by TEM investigations. Sizes of the nano-particles created are in the order of 5 nm. The LISD system could generate nano-particles in quantities only in the order of a milligram. This may be mainly due to the limited photo induced reactions taking place on the surface of the solutions. We have designed experiments to use drop flow technique with LISD for nano-particle deposition on microreactors. Preliminary work has been done on Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors. We are also investigating the catalytic properties of nano-particles of FeO and CoO prepared by ball milling and dispersed into sol-gel prepared alumina granules. We have continued our investigation of catalytic reactions of Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe on alumina support. The metal oxides were first reduced with hydrogen and used for the conversion of CO/H{sub 2}. The surface area of the catalysts has been determined by nitrogen disorption. They are in the range of 200-300 m{sup 2}/g. Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe showed increasing order of catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion. We are also studying catalytic conversion rates for CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures using these catalysts. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. We have used vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to study the magnetic characteristics of as prepared, reduced, post-reaction catalysts. Comparative study of the ferromagnetic component of these samples gives the reduction efficiency and the changes in metal centers during catalytic reactions. Magnetic studies of post-reaction Co and Fe micro-reactors show that more carbide formation occurs for iron compared to cobalt.

  13. High surface area neodymium phosphate nano particles by modified aqueous sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankar, Sasidharan [Materials Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Thiruvananthapuram 695 019, Kerala (India)] [Materials Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Thiruvananthapuram 695 019, Kerala (India); Warrier, Krishna Gopakumar, E-mail: wwarrierkgk@yahoo.co.in [Materials Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Thiruvananthapuram 695 019, Kerala (India); Komban, Rajesh [Institut fuer Chemie, Anorganische Chemie 1, Universitaet Osnabrueck, Barbarastrasse 7, 49069 Osnabrueck (Germany)] [Institut fuer Chemie, Anorganische Chemie 1, Universitaet Osnabrueck, Barbarastrasse 7, 49069 Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Synthesis of nano rod shaped neodymium phosphate particles with specific surface area as high as 107 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and particles could be compacted and sintered at as low as 1300 Degree-Sign C to a density of 98.5% (theoretical) with an average grain size of {approx}1 {mu}m. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano size neodymium phosphate is synthesized and characterized using a novel modified aqueous sol gel process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific surface area above 100 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} achieved without the addition of any complexing agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sintered density reported than the density obtained for powder synthesized through conventional solid state reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The particles are nano sized and have rod shape morphology and are retained at higher temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An average grain size of {approx}1 {mu}m obtained for sintered NdPO{sub 4} after thermal etching at 1400 Degree-Sign C. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nano rod shaped neodymium phosphate (NdPO{sub 4}) particles with specific surface area as high as 107 m{sup 2}g{sup -1} and an average length of 50 nm with aspect ratio 5 was achieved using modified sol gel method. Crystallite size calculated from the X-ray diffraction data by applying Scherer equation was 5 nm for the precursor gel after calcination at 400 Degree-Sign C. NdPO{sub 4} was first precipitated from neodymium nitrate solution using phosphoric acid followed by peptization using dilute nitric acid and further gelation in ammonia atmosphere. The calcined gel powders were further characterized by surface area (Brunauer-Emmet-Teller nitrogen adsorption analysis), Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis and FT-IR analysis. Transmission electron microscopy confirms the formation of rod like morphology from the sol, gel and the calcined particles in nano size range. These particles could be compacted and sintered at as low as 1300 Degree-Sign C to a density of 98.5% (theoretical) with an average grain size of {approx}1 {mu}m.

  14. FINAL REPORT: Room Temperature Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Confined Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAJO, JOHN

    2014-06-12

    DOE continues to seek solid-state hydrogen storage materials with hydrogen densities of ?6 wt% and ?50 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at room temperature and moderate pressures enabling widespread use in transportation applications. Meanwhile, development including vehicle engineering and delivery infrastructure continues for compressed-gas hydrogen storage systems. Although compressed gas storage avoids the materials-based issues associated with solid-state storage, achieving acceptable volumetric densities has been a persistent challenge. This project examined the possibility of developing storage materials that would be compatible with compressed gas storage technology based on enhanced hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquid solvents. These materials would store hydrogen in molecular form eliminating many limitations of current solid-state materials while increasing the volumetric capacity of compressed hydrogen storage vessels. Experimental methods were developed to study hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquids. These methods included 1) fabrication of composites comprised of volatile liquid solvents for hydrogen confined within the nano-sized pore volume of nanoporous scaffolds and 2) measuring the hydrogen uptake capacity of these composites without altering the composite composition. The hydrogen storage capacities of these nano-confined solvent/scaffold composites were compared with bulk solvents and with empty scaffolds. The solvents and scaffolds were varied to optimize the enhancement in hydrogen solubility that accompanies confinement of the solvent. In addition, computational simulations were performed to study the molecular-scale structure of liquid solvent when confined within an atomically realistic nano-sized pore of a model scaffold. Confined solvent was compared with similar simulations of bulk solvent. The results from the simulations were used to formulate a mechanism for the enhanced solubility and to guide the experiments. Overall, the combined experimental measurements and simulations indicate that hydrogen storage based on enhanced solubility in nano-confined liquids is unlikely to meet the storage densities required for practical use. Only low gravimetric capacities of < 0.5 wt% were achieved. More importantly, solvent filled scaffolds had lower volumetric capacities than corresponding empty scaffolds. Nevertheless, several of the composites measured did show significant (>~ 5x) enhanced hydrogen solubility relative to bulk solvent solubility, when the hydrogen capacity was attributed only to dissolution in the confined solvent. However, when the hydrogen capacity was compared to an empty scaffold that is known to store hydrogen by surface adsorption on the scaffold walls, including the solvent always reduced the hydrogen capacity. For the best composites, this reduction relative to an empty scaffold was ~30%; for the worst it was ~90%. The highest capacities were obtained with the largest solvent molecules and with scaffolds containing 3- dimensionally confined pore geometries. The simulations suggested that the capacity of the composites originated from hydrogen adsorption on the scaffold pore walls at sites not occupied by solvent molecules. Although liquid solvent filled the pores, not all of the adsorption sites on the pore walls were occupied due to restricted motion of the solvent molecules within the confined pore space.

  15. FemtoHaul: Using Femtocells with Relays to Increase Macrocell Backhaul Bandwidth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panwar, Shivendra S.

    an obvious solution to fill this gap, high CAPEX and OPEX costs (more than $10000 per line and $50000 per

  16. Ad hoc wireless networks with femto-cell deployment: a study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharucha, Zubin Rustam

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, with a worldwide market penetration of over 50% in the mobile telecommunications sector, there is also an unrelenting demand from the subscribers for ever increasing transmission rates and availability of ...

  17. Fig. 1: (a) Tuning fork resonator with two electromechanical transistors on the outer tips of the nano-resonator, i.e. boxed region on the left.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    Fig. 1: (a) Tuning fork resonator with two electromechanical transistors on the outer tips of the transistor: evaporated gold contacts on single crytalline silicon (purple) with spring constants k+/- . Nano-Electromechanical as a phase sensitive bi-polar current switch. Index Terms -- Nanotechnology, nano-electromechanical systems

  18. Materials Science and Engineering B 117 (2005) 5361 Finite element analysis-based design of a fluid-flow control nano-valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    2005-01-01

    Materials Science and Engineering B 117 (2005) 53­61 Finite element analysis-based design A finite element method-based procedure is developed for the design of molecularly functionalized nano of a fluid-flow control nano-valve. The results obtained suggest that the finite element-based procedure

  19. 216 Int. J. Nano and Biomaterials, Vol. 2, Nos. 1/2/3/4/5, 2009 Copyright 2009 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekki, Abdelkarim

    216 Int. J. Nano and Biomaterials, Vol. 2, Nos. 1/2/3/4/5, 2009 Copyright © 2009 InderscienceO thin films', Int. J. Nano and Biomaterials, Vol. 2, Nos. 1/2/3/4/5, pp.216­225. Biographical notes

  20. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutting, R. S.; Coker, V. S.; Telling, N. D.; Kimber, R. L.; Pearce, C. I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-09-09

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion ({approx}10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a {gamma}-camera to obtain real time images of a {sup 99m}Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more ({approx}20%) {sup 99m}Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral substrate supplied to Fe(III)-reducing bacteria.

  1. Self-organized Nano-lens Arrays by Intensified Dewetting of Electron Beam Modified Polymer Thin-films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ankur Verma; Ashutosh Sharma

    2011-09-18

    Sub-100 nm polymeric spherical plano-convex nano-lens arrays are fabricated using short electron beam exposures to selectively modify the ultrathin (beam locally modifies the polymer chains to effectively change the viscosity of the film in small domains, thus bringing in the dynamical dewetting contrast in the film that produces aligned and ordered dewetted nanostructures. Both negative and positive e-beam tone polymers are thus used to produce array of nano-lenses. The intensified self-organized dewetting under a water-organic solvent mixture overcomes the limitations on surface tension and dewetting force and thus facilitates the formation of sub-100 nm diameter polymer nanolenses of tunable curvature. By varying the extent of e-beam exposure, various configurations from isolated to connected nano-lens arrays can be fabricated.

  2. Comparative Study of Structural Damage Under Irradiation in SiC Nano-structured and Conventional Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leconte, Yann; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Reynaud, Cecile; Thome, Lionel

    2008-07-01

    In the context of research on new materials for next generation nuclear reactors, it becomes more and more interesting to know what can be the advantages of nano-structured materials for such applications. In this study, we performed irradiation experiments on micro-structured and nano-structured {beta}-SiC samples, with 95 MeV Xe and 4 MeV Au ions. The structure of the samples was characterized before and after irradiation by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the occurrence of a synergy between electronic and nuclear energy loss in both samples with 95 MeV Xe ions, while the nano-structured pellet was found to have a better resistance to the irradiation with 4 MeV Au ions. (authors)

  3. The Enzyme-mimic Activity of Ferric Nano-Core Residing in Ferritin and Its Biosensing Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong J.; Zhang, Youyu; Li, Zhaohui; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-11-15

    Ferritins are nano-scale globular protein cages encapsulating a ferric core. They widely exist in animals, plants, and microbes, playing indispensable roles in iron homeostasis. Interestingly, our study clearly demonstrates that ferritin has an enzyme-mimic activity derived from its ferric nano-core, but not the protein cage. Further study revealed that the mimic-enzyme activity of ferritin is more thermally stable and pH-tolerant compared with horseradish peroxidase. Considering the abundance of ferritin in numerous organisms, this finding may indicate a new role of ferritin in antioxidant and detoxification metabolisms. In addition, as a natural protein-caged nanoparticle with an enzyme-mimic activity, ferritin is readily conjugated with biomolecules to construct nano-biosensors, thus holds promising potential for facile and biocompatible labeling for sensitive and robust bioassays in biomedical applications.

  4. Kinetics of solid-gas reactions characterized by scanning AC nano-calorimetry with application to Zr oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Kechao; Lee, Dongwoo; Vlassak, Joost J., E-mail: vlassak@esag.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Scanning AC nano-calorimetry is a recently developed experimental technique capable of measuring the heat capacity of thin-film samples of a material over a wide range of temperatures and heating rates. Here, we describe how this technique can be used to study solid-gas phase reactions by measuring the change in heat capacity of a sample during reaction. We apply this approach to evaluate the oxidation kinetics of thin-film samples of zirconium in air. The results confirm parabolic oxidation kinetics with an activation energy of 0.59?±?0.03 eV. The nano-calorimetry measurements were performed using a device that contains an array of micromachined nano-calorimeter sensors in an architecture designed for combinatorial studies. We demonstrate that the oxidation kinetics can be quantified using a single sample, thus enabling high-throughput mapping of the composition-dependence of the reaction rate.

  5. Synchronization of an array of spin torque nano oscillators in periodic applied external magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Subash; V. K. Chandrasekar; M. Lakshmanan

    2013-04-03

    Considering an array of spin torque transfer nano oscillators (STNOs), we have investigated the synchronization property of the system under the action of a common periodically driven applied external magnetic field by numerically analyzing the underlying system of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equations for the macro-spin variables. We find the novel result that the applied external magnetic field can act as a medium to induce synchronization of periodic oscillations, both in-phase and anti-phase, even without coupling through spin current, thereby leading to the exciting possibility of enhancement of microwave power in a straightforward way.

  6. Study of Nano-Precipitates Using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Small-Angle-Neutron-Scattering (SANS) experiments were performed on a Ni-based nano-precipitate strengthened superalloy. A theoretical model for SANS absolute intensity distribution, I(Q), was developed to extract the structural properties. During the deformation process, a change in the morphology of precipitates was discovered. However, the average inter-precipitate distance and the average volume of precipitate were found to remain invariant. This microstructural information resolved by SANS is in good agreement with the results obtained from the quantitative transmission-electron-microscopy (TEM) image analysis.

  7. The effect of ultrasonication on the size and morphology of iron oxide - chitosan nano and microparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ak?n, Deniz; Yakar, Arzu; Gündüz, Ufuk

    2013-12-16

    The aim of this study is to synthesize magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-chitosan nano and microparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CPs) by suspension cross-linking and ionic gelation methods and investigate the effect of ultrasonication on the size, morphology and magnetic properties. The synthesized particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results showed that the ultrasonication decreased the mean particle diameter and enhanced magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CPs due to the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} content.

  8. Dissipative soliton dynamics in a discrete magnetic nano-dot chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kyeong-Dong; You, Chun-Yeol; Song, Hyon-Seok; Shin, Sung-Chul; Park, Byong-Guk

    2014-02-03

    Soliton dynamics is studied in a discrete magnetic nano-dot chain by means of micromagnetic simulations together with an analytic model equation. A soliton under a dissipative system is driven by an applied field. The field-driven dissipative soliton enhances its mobility nonlinearly, as the characteristic frequency and the intrinsic Gilbert damping decrease. During the propagation, the soliton emits spin waves which act as an extrinsic damping channel. The characteristic frequency, the maximum velocity, and the localization length of the soliton are found to be proportional to the threshold field, the threshold velocity, and the initial mobility, respectively.

  9. Failure by fracture and fatigue in 'NANO' and 'BIO'materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritchie, R.O.; Muhlstein, C.L.; Nalla, R.K.

    2003-12-19

    The behavior of nanostructured materials/small-volumestructures and biologi-cal/bio-implantable materials, so-called "nano"and "bio" materials, is currently much in vogue in materials science. Oneaspect of this field, which to date has received only limited attention,is their fracture and fatigue properties. In this paper, we examine twotopics in this area, namely the premature fatigue failure ofsilicon-based micron-scale structures for microelectromechanical systems(MEMS), and the fracture properties of mineralized tissue, specificallyhuman bone.

  10. Effects of jamming on non-equilibrium transport times in nano-channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anton Zilman; John Pearson; Golan Bel

    2009-07-17

    Many biological channels perform highly selective transport without direct input of metabolic energy and without transitions from a 'closed' to an 'open' state during transport. Mechanisms of selectivity of such channels serve as an inspiration for creation of artificial nano-molecular sorting devices and bio-sensors. To elucidate the transport mechanisms, it is important to understand the transport on the single molecule level in the experimentally relevant regime when multiple particles are crowded in the channel. In this paper we analyze the effects of inter-particle crowding on the non-equilibrium transport times through a finite-length channel by means of analytical theory and computer simulations.

  11. Research and development of RHIC injection kicker upgrade with nano second FID pulse generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Hahn, H.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.J.; Pai, C.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2012-05-20

    Our recent effort to test a 50 kV, 1 kA, 50 ns pulse width, 10 ns pulse rise time FID pulse generator with a 250 ft transmission cable, resistive load, and existing RHIC injection kicker magnet has produced unparalleled results. This is the very first attempt to drive a high strength fast kicker magnet with a nano second high pulsed power (50 MVA) generator for large accelerator and colliders. The technology is impressive. We report here the result and future plan of RHIC Injection kicker upgrade.

  12. Irradiation-induced nano-voids in strained tin precipitates in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaiduk, P. I., E-mail: gaiduk@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy/iNANO, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Physical Electronics and Nanotechnology, Belarusian State University, prosp. Nezavisimosti, 4, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Lundsgaard Hansen, J., E-mail: johnlh@phys.au.dk; Nylandsted Larsen, A., E-mail: anl@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy/iNANO, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-04-14

    We report on self-assembling of spherically shaped voids in nanometer size strained Sn precipitates after irradiation with He{sup +} ions in different conditions. It is found that high-temperature irradiation induces vacancies which are collected by compressively strained Sn precipitates enhancing of out-diffusion of Sn atoms from the precipitates. Nano-voids formation takes place simultaneously with a ?- to ?-phase transformation in the Sn precipitates. Post-irradiation thermal treatment leads to the removal of voids and a backward transformation of the Sn phase to ?-phase. Strain-enhanced separation of point defects along with vacancy assisted Sn out-diffusion and precipitate dissolution are discussed.

  13. Catalytic Templating Approaches for Three-Dimensional Hollow Carbon/Graphene Oxide Nano-Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Gun-Hee; Shin, Yongsoon; Choi, Daiwon; Arey, Bruce W.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Wang, Chong M.; Choi, Wonyong; Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We report a catalytic templating method to synthesize well-controlled, three-dimensional (3D) nano-architectures with graphene oxide sheets. The 3D composites are prepared via self-assembly of carbon, GO, and spherical alumina-coated silica (ACS) templates during a catalytic reaction porcess. By changing the GO content, we can systematically tune the architecture from layered composites to 3D hollow structures to microporous materials. The composites show a synergistic effect with significantly superior properties than either pure carbon or r-GO prepared with a significant enhancement to its capacitance at high current density.

  14. A Nano Surface Icephobic Coating Delays Ice Formation | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ionAAEngine Applications |Nano

  15. Nano compartments may aid drug delivery, catalyst design > Archived News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatialDevelopment of09Sponsor GuidelinesGlennNancy M.NanoStorage

  16. RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu) composite oxide nano-materials: Synthesis and applications in photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Weimin, E-mail: duweimin75@gmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China); Zhu, Zhaoqiang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001 (China); Zhang, Xiaofen; Wang, Dacheng; Liu, Donghe [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China); Qian, Xuefeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Du, Jimin, E-mail: djm@aynu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu) nano-materials have been successfully synthesized. • Defect and electron structures determine the absorption properties on visible light. • Nano-sized Zr{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2??} has good visible-light-responsive photocatalytic activities. • In the future, it can be used in wastewater treatment and environmental protection. - Abstract: Zirconia modified by Samarium/Europium, RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu), composite oxide nano-materials have been successfully synthesized by improved sol–gel method. Characterization results show that X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks of products gradually shift to the lower angle with the increase of rare earth which implies that the lattice distances of RE/ZrO{sub 2} nano-materials are gradually enlarged. Moreover, the molar ratios between zirconium and rare earth are consistent with the chemical formula and both of them are uniformly distributed in samples. Optical properties indicate that defect structures and electron configurations of RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu) with single phase determine their absorption properties on visible light. Photocatalytic experiments indicate Zr{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2??} nano-crystals have excellent visible-light-responsive photocatalytic activities on Methylene blue and Rhodamine B which results from the special defect structure, suitable electronic configuration, and larger specific surface area. It follows that Zr{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2??} nano-crystals are new visible-light-responsive photocatalysts which can be applied in dye wastewater treatment and environmental protection in the future.

  17. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  18. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Li-jun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rupich, Martin W. [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  19. Influence of germanium nano-inclusions on the thermoelectric power factor of bulk bismuth telluride alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satyala, Nikhil; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tahmasbi Rad, Armin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Nanocomposite thermoelectric compound of bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) with 5 at. % germanium nano-inclusions was prepared via mechanically alloying and sintering techniques. The influence of Ge nano-inclusions and long duration annealing on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were investigated. It was found that annealing has significant effect on the carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and the power factor of the thermoelectric compound. The systematic heat treatment also reduced the density of donor type defects thereby decreasing the electron concentration. While the as-pressed nanocomposite materials showed n-type properties, it was observed that with the increase of annealing time, the nanocomposite gradually transformed to an abundantly hole-dominated (p-type) sample. The long duration annealing (?500 h) resulted in a significantly enhanced electrical conductivity pertaining to the augmentation in the density and the structural properties of the sample. Therefore, a simultaneous enhancement in both electrical and Seebeck coefficient characteristics resulted in a remarkable increase in the thermoelectric power factor.

  20. NanoSIMS, TEM, and XANES studies of a unique presolar supernova graphite grain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groopman, Evan; Bernatowicz, Thomas; Zinner, Ernst; Nittler, Larry R.

    2014-07-20

    We report on isotopic and microstructural investigations of a unique presolar supernova (SN) graphite grain, referred to as G6, isolated from the Orgueil CI chondrite. G6 contains complex heterogeneities in its isotopic composition and in its microstructure. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometer isotope images of ultramicrotome sections reveal heterogeneities in its C, N, and O isotopic compositions, including anomalous shell-like structures. Transmission electron microscope studies reveal a nanocrystalline core surrounded by a turbostratic graphite mantle, the first reported nanocrystalline core from a low-density SN graphite grain. Electron diffraction analysis shows that the nanocrystalline core consists of randomly oriented 2-4 nm graphene particles, similar to those in cores of high-density (HD) presolar graphite grains from asymptotic giant branch stars. G6's core also exhibits evidence for planar stacking of these graphene nano-sheets with a domain size up to 4.5 nm, which was unobserved in the nanocrystalline cores of HD graphite grains. We also report on X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements of G6. The complex isotopic- and micro-structure of G6 provides evidence for mixing and/or granular transport in SN ejecta.

  1. Controllable synthesis of hollow mesoporous silica spheres and application as support of nano-gold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Tao; Ma, Weihua Shangguan, Junnan; Jiang, Wei; Zhong, Qin

    2014-07-01

    Hollow silica spheres with mesoporous structure were synthesized by sol–gel/emulsion method. In the process, the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used to stabilize the oil droplet and also used as structure direct agent. The diameter of the hollow silica spheres, ranging from 895 nm to 157 nm, can be controlled by changing the ratio of ethanol to water and the concentration of the surfactant as well. The shell thickness of the spheres decreased when the ratio of ethanol to water decreased. The proposed mechanism of the formation of silica spheres could elucidate the experimental results well. Furthermore, the resultant hollow mesoporous silica spheres were then employed as support of nano-gold which was used to catalyze the isomerization reaction of propylene oxide to produce allyl alcohol. - Graphical abstract: It is the schematic mechanism for the formation of hollow mesoporous silica spheres. - Highlights: • The formation mechanism of the hollow spheres is proposed. • The isomerization of propylene oxide can be catalyzed by the nano-gold/SiO{sub 2}. • The hollow silica spheres can be prepared controllably.

  2. Photoactive transparent nano-crystalline glass-ceramic for remazole red dye degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gad-Allah, Tarek A.; Margha, Fatma H.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Preparation and characterization of novel transparent nanocrystalline glass-ceramic. ? Precipitation of photoactive phases by using controlled heat-treatment. ? Conservation of transparency along with photoactivity. ? Using the prepared nanocrystalline glass-ceramic in water purification. -- Abstract: Transparent glass ceramic material was prepared from alkali-borosilicate glass containing titania by proper heat treatment scheme. The prepared samples were characterized using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction and UV–visible spectroscopy. The applied heat treatment program allowed the crystallization of nano-crystalline anatase, rutile, barium titanate, titanium borate and silicate phases while maintaining the transparency. The precipitated nano-crystalline anatase and rutile phases were responsible for the observed high photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples. Samples of 24.29 and 32.39 TiO{sub 2} wt% showed better efficiency for the decolorization of remazole red dye compared with commercial-TiO{sub 2} used in preparation of glass-ceramic. The reuse of prepared glass-ceramic photocatalyst with nearly same efficiency for different times was also proved.

  3. Coupling of a nano mechanical oscillator and an atomic three-level medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanz-Mora, A; Wüster, S; Rost, J -M

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the coupling of an ultracold three-level atomic gas and a nano-mechanical mirror via classical electromagnetic radiation. The radiation pressure on the mirror is modulated by absorption of a probe light field, caused by the atoms which are electromagnetically rendered nearly transparent, allowing the gas to affect the mirror. In turn, the mirror can affect the gas as its vibrations generate opto-mechanical sidebands in the control field. We show that the sidebands cause modulations of the probe intensity at the mirror frequency, which can be enhanced near atomic resonances. Through the radiation pressure from the probe beam onto the mirror, this results in resonant driving of the mirror. Controllable by the two photon detuning, the phase relation of the driving to the mirror motion decides upon amplification or damping of mirror vibrations. This permits direct phase locking of laser amplitude modulations to the motion of a nano-mechanical element opening a perspective for cavity-f...

  4. Coupling of a nano mechanical oscillator and an atomic three-level medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Sanz-Mora; A. Eisfeld; S. Wüster; J. -M. Rost

    2015-11-04

    We theoretically investigate the coupling of an ultracold three-level atomic gas and a nano-mechanical mirror via classical electromagnetic radiation. The radiation pressure on the mirror is modulated by absorption of a probe light field, caused by the atoms which are electromagnetically rendered nearly transparent, allowing the gas to affect the mirror. In turn, the mirror can affect the gas as its vibrations generate opto-mechanical sidebands in the control field. We show that the sidebands cause modulations of the probe intensity at the mirror frequency, which can be enhanced near atomic resonances. Through the radiation pressure from the probe beam onto the mirror, this results in resonant driving of the mirror. Controllable by the two photon detuning, the phase relation of the driving to the mirror motion decides upon amplification or damping of mirror vibrations. This permits direct phase locking of laser amplitude modulations to the motion of a nano-mechanical element opening a perspective for cavity-free cooling through coupling to an atomic gas.

  5. M413E Extreme Materials M262 Biomaterial Sensing N001 Fabrication of Nano-Devices N001 Fabrication of Nano-Devices (MaenosonoNagao (Yuzuru Takamura) with Training Course(*) with Training Course(*)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogawa, Mizuhito

    3 M413E Extreme Materials M262 Biomaterial Sensing N001 Fabrication of Nano-Devices N001 Biomaterial Sensing M225 Structure Analysis N004 Structural Analysis of Solids on N004 Structural Analysis Advanced Biomaterials (HiratsukaTsutsuiHamadaNagai): Dates to be announced OfficeHours(1330

  6. The Seventh International Conference on Quantum, Nano and Micro Technologies ISBN: 978-1-61208-303-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Privman, Vladimir

    , with hulls that are composed of carbon fibers, a light weight high strength material. Electronic devices. As an example, carbon nano-tubes have been created that are 250 times stronger than steel, 10 times lighter, and transparent. Similar advances are occurring in glass, plastics and concrete. Spacecraft are being launched

  7. Inferring orientation distributions in anisotropic powders of nano-layered crystallites from a single two-dimensional WAXS image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yves Meheust; Kenneth Dahl Knudsen; Jon Otto Fossum

    2006-02-01

    The wide-angle scattering of X-rays by anisotropic powders of nano-layered crystallites (nano-stacks) is addressed. Assuming that the orientation distribution probability function f of the nano-stacks only depends on the deviation of the crystallites' orientation from a fixed reference direction, we derive a relation providing f from the dependence of a given diffraction peak's amplitude on the azimuthal angle. The method is applied to two systems of Na-fluorohectorite (NaFH) clay particles, using synchrotron radiation and a WAXS setup with a two-dimensional detector. In the first system, which consists of dry-pressed NaFH samples, the orientation distribution probability function corresponds to a classical uniaxial nematic order. The second system is observed in bundles of polarized NaFH particles in silicon oil; in this case, the nanostacks have their directors on average in a plane normal to the reference direction, and f is a function of the angle between a nano-stack's director and that plane. In both cases, a suitable Maier-Saupe function is obtained for the distributions, and the reference direction is determined with respect to the laboratory frame. The method only requires one scattering image. Besides, consistency can be checked by determining the orientation distribution from several diffraction peaks independently.

  8. Contributions to the Theory of Thermostated Systems II: Least Dissipation of Helmholtz Free Energy in Nano-Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronald F. Fox

    2015-03-12

    In this paper, we develop further the theory of thermostated systems along the lines of our earlier paper. Two results are highlighted: 1) in the Markov limit of the contracted description, a least dissipation of Helmholtz free energy principle is established; and 2) a detailed account of the appropriateness of this principle for nano-biology, including the evolution of life, is presented.

  9. Parallelization of the Nanoscale Device Simulator nanoMOS2.0 Using a 100 Nodes Linux Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butt, Ali R.

    the Portable Batch System. NanoMOS2.0 is also modified to speed up the energy integration by distributing through the Purdue University Network Computing Hub (PUNCH) that interoperates with the cluster through the energy grid over several processors. A 88% speed-up is achieved using the Parallel Matlab Interface . I

  10. QUASI-STATIC AND DYNAMIC TORSION TESTING OF CERAMIC MICRO AND NANO-STRUCTURED COATINGS USING SPECKLE PHOTOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    QUASI-STATIC AND DYNAMIC TORSION TESTING OF CERAMIC MICRO AND NANO-STRUCTURED COATINGS USING and WC/Co coatings on aluminum substrates is presented. A stored energy Kolsky bar apparatus was used of deformation mechanisms as a function of coating grain size. The interaction between coating and substrate

  11. Thermal properties of the hybrid graphene-metal nano-micro-composites: Applications in thermal interface materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal properties of the hybrid graphene-metal nano-micro-composites: Applications in thermal) The authors report on synthesis and thermal properties of the electrically conductive thermal interface materials with the hybrid graphene-metal particle fillers. The thermal conductivity of resulting composites

  12. 60GHz Wireless Nano-Sensors Network for Structure Health Monitoring as Enabler for Safer, Greener Aircrafts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    60GHz Wireless Nano-Sensors Network for Structure Health Monitoring as Enabler for Safer, Greener-objects for Structure Health Monitoring in the aircrafts and the improvements bring by the nanotechnologies. The main the cabin of an aircraft and the choice of the network architecture. Keywords: Structure Health Monitoring

  13. Controlled synthesis of CoFe2O4 nano-octahedra Andr Lus Lopes-Moriyamaa,b *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Title Controlled synthesis of CoFe2O4 nano-octahedra Authors André Luís Lopes cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) hindered the formation of goethite, which favored the production of a pure CoFe2O4" DOI : 10.1016/j.powtec.2014.01.080 #12;2 Hydrothermal synthesis; nanoparticles; cobalt ferrite; shape

  14. Microfluidics for Tissue and Cell Applications JST CREST, "Cell and Tissue Showcasing by Micro-Nano Integrated Devices" Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    Microfluidics for Tissue and Cell Applications JST CREST, "Cell and Tissue Showcasing by Micro-Nano Integrated Devices" Project JST-VINNOVA/SSF SICP, "Microfluidic Cancer Diagnosis Platform" Project JST ERATO 2 : Prof. Shuichi Takayama (University of Michigan) "Microfluidic Tools to Model and Analyze

  15. Start | Author Index 742-3 Rates and Mechanisms of Arsenite Oxidation by Nano-Mn(IV) Oxide Mineral Phases.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Start | Author Index 742-3 Rates and Mechanisms of Arsenite Oxidation by Nano-Mn(IV) Oxide Mineral is thought to generally occur through either biologically or mineral-surface mediated Mn(II) oxidation. These two oxidation pathways result in the formation of nanometer-size Mn(IV) minerals. Compared

  16. Aero-Sol-Gel (ASG) Reactor For Nano-Powder Synthesis G. Beaucage, J. Hyeon-Lee, D. J. Kohls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    Aero-Sol-Gel (ASG) Reactor For Nano-Powder Synthesis G. Beaucage, J. Hyeon-Lee, D. J. Kohls-structured oxides where sol- gel reactions are carried out in aerosol droplets. This aero-sol-gel reactor (ASG-scale structure and high specific surface areas (100 to 700 m2 /g) [1, 2]. This aero-sol- gel reactor (ASG

  17. Subscriber access provided by Georgia Tech Library Nano Letters is published by the American Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    consumption of nanodevices, typically in the nano- to microwatt range, harvesting energy from the environment studied solar5 and thermal energy,6 vibration energy and mechanical energy are probably the most popular Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington, DC 20036 Letter Converting Biomechanical Energy

  18. Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water 2010 Keywords: AMD Energy Iron oxide Microbial fuel cell Particles a b s t r a c t Acid mine drainage rights reserved. 1. Introduction Acid-mine drainage (AMD) and acid rock drainage (ARD) are caused

  19. Hierarchical interconnections in the nano-composite material bone: Fibrillar cross-links resist fracture on several length scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Everett A.

    to its biomedical significance, bone has been used as a model for many artificial bio-ceramic composites [10,11]. In many of these artificial composites, a combina- tion of a soft polymer matrix reinforcedHierarchical interconnections in the nano-composite material bone: Fibrillar cross-links resist

  20. Subscriber access provided by UNIV OF VERMONT Nano Letters is published by the American Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sansoz, Frederic

    Subscriber access provided by UNIV OF VERMONT Nano Letters is published by the American Chemical and Frederic Sansoz* School of Engineering and Materials Science Program, The UniVersity of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 Received November 24, 2008; Revised Manuscript Received February 3, 2009 ABSTRACT By using

  1. Marvell NanoLab Member login Lab Manual Contents MercuryWeb Berkeley Microlab Chapter 1.3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Marvell NanoLab Member login Lab Manual Contents MercuryWeb Berkeley Microlab Chapter 1.3 Table of Contents (Click on MOD to go to the appropriate section.) Wafer Cleaning MOD1 Standard Wafer Cleaning (quick dump rinse, DI water tank) at the station. (3) Immerse wafers in hot piranha for 10 minutes

  2. A Systematic Study of the Formation of Nano-Tips on Silicon Thin Films by Excimer Laser Irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avrutsky, Ivan

    A Systematic Study of the Formation of Nano-Tips on Silicon Thin Films by Excimer Laser Irradiation cone is formed when a single-crystal silicon film on an insulator substrate is irradiated in air of the laser fluence, the film thickness, and the diameter of the irradiated spot. Atomic force microscopy

  3. Mechanochemical synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles by using WO{sub 3}/Zn/C powder mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoseinpur, Arman; Vahdati Khaki, Jalil; Marashi, Maryam Sadat

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Nano particles of WC are synthesized by mechanochemical process. ? Zn was used to reduce WO{sub 3}. ? By removing ZnO from the milling products with an acid leaching, WC will be the final products. ? XRD results showed that the reduction reactions were completed after 36 h. ? TEM and SEM images showed that the morphology of produced powder is nearly spherical like. -- Abstract: In this research we introduce a new, facile, and economical system for fabrication of tungsten carbide (WC) nano particle powder. In this system WO{sub 3}, Zn, and C have been ball-milled for several hours, which led to the synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles. The synthesized WC can successfully be separated from the ball-milled product by subjecting the product powder to diluted HCl for removing ZnO and obtaining WC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the reduction of WO{sub 3} will be completed gradually by increasing milling time up to 36 h. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that after 36 h of milling the particle size of the fabricated powder is nano metric (about 20 nm). Results have shown that this system can surmount some main problems occurred in previous similar WC synthesizing systems. For example carbothermic reduction reactions, which lead to the synthesis of W{sub 2}C instead of WC, would not be activated because in this system reactions take place gradually.

  4. High Aspect Ratio Polymer Micro/Nano-Structure Manufacturing using Nanoembossing, Nanomolding and Directed Self-Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sitti, Metin

    . The second one uses a self-organized polycarbonate nano-pore membrane as the molding template. PDMS is molded-assembly. In this technique, a thin liquid polymer film is coated on a flat conductive substrate, and a closely spaced another

  5. Ultra low noise YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} nano superconducting quantum interference devices implementing nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arpaia, R.; Arzeo, M.; Nawaz, S.; Charpentier, S.; Lombardi, F.; Bauch, T.

    2014-02-17

    We present results on ultra low noise YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7–?} (YBCO) nano Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (nanoSQUIDs). To realize such devices, we implemented high quality YBCO nanowires, working as weak links between two electrodes. We observe critical current modulation as a function of an externally applied magnetic field in the full temperature range below the transition temperature T{sub C}. The white flux noise below 1??{sub 0}/?(Hz) at T=8?K makes our nanoSQUIDs very attractive for the detection of small spin systems.

  6. Non-linear non-local molecular electrodynamics with nano-optical fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Y. Chernyak; Prasoon Saurabh; Shaul Mukamel

    2015-10-06

    The interaction of optical fields sculpted on the nano-scale with matter may not be described by the dipole approximation since the fields vary appreciably across the molecular length scale. Rather than incrementally adding higher multipoles it is advantageous and more physically transparent to describe the optical process using non-local response functions that intrinsically include all multipoles. We present a semi-classical approach to the non-linear response functions based on the minimal coupling Hamiltonian. The first, second and third order non-local response functions are expressed in terms of correlation functions of the charge and the current densities. This approach is based on the gauge invariant current rather than the polarization, and on the vector potential rather than the electric and magnetic fields.

  7. Nano-scale electron bunching in laser-triggered ionization injection in plasma accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, X L; Li, F; Wan, Y; Wu, Y P; Hua, J F; Pai, C -H; Lu, W; An, W; Yu, P; Mori, W B; Joshi, C

    2015-01-01

    Ionization injection is attractive as a controllable injection scheme for generating high quality electron beams using plasma-based wakefield acceleration. Due to the phase dependent tunneling ionization rate and the trapping dynamics within a nonlinear wake, the discrete injection of electrons within the wake is nonlinearly mapped to discrete final phase space structure of the beam at the location where the electrons are trapped. This phenomenon is theoretically analyzed and examined by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations which show that three dimensional effects limit the wave number of the modulation to between $> 2k_0$ and about $5k_0$, where $k_0$ is the wavenumber of the injection laser. Such a nano-scale bunched beam can be diagnosed through coherent transition radiation upon its exit from the plasma and may find use in generating high-power ultraviolet radiation upon passage through a resonant undulator.

  8. Out of equilibrium anomalous elastic response of a water nano-meniscus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Carpentier; Mario S. Rodrigues; Luca Costa; Miguel V. Vitorino; Elisabeth Charlaix; Joel Chevrier

    2015-09-15

    We report the observation of a transition in the dynamical properties of water nano-menicus which dramatically change when probed at different time scales. Using a AFM mode that we name Force Feedback Microscopy, we observe this change in the simultaneous measurements, at different frequencies, of the stiffness G'(N/m), the dissipative coefficient G''(kg/sec) together with the static force. At low frequency we observe a negative stiffness as expected for capillary forces. As the measuring time approaches the microsecond, the dynamic response exhibits a transition toward a very large positive stiffness. When evaporation and condensation gradually lose efficiency, the contact line progressively becomes immobile. This transition is essentially controlled by variations of Laplace pressure.

  9. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrents around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials’ photosensitivity.

  10. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrentsmore »around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials’ photosensitivity.« less

  11. Dynamics of the fast component of nano-confined water under electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. O. Diallo; E. Mamontov; A. Podlesnyak; G. Ehlers; N. Wada; S. Inagaki; Y. Fukushima

    2013-06-27

    We report the diffusion of water molecules confined in the pores of folded silica materials (FSM-12 with average pore diameter of $\\sim$ 16 \\AA), measured by means of quasielastic neutron scattering using the cold neutron chopper spectrometer (CNCS). The goal is to investigate the effect of electric field on the previously observed fast component of nano-confined water. The measurements were taken at temperatures between 220 K and 245 K, and at two electric field values, 0 kV/mm and 2 kV/mm. Similar to the recently observed electric field induced enhancement of the slow translational motion of confined water, there is a an equally important impact of the field on the faster diffusion.

  12. Optical properties of PrAlO{sub 3} nano ceramic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remya, G. R.; Thomas, J. K., E-mail: j-annamma@yahoo.com; John, Annamma, E-mail: j-annamma@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695015, Kerala (India); Solomon, Sam [Department of Physics, St. John's College, Anchal 691306, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Nano crystals of PrAlO{sub 3} ceramic are prepared by the modified combustion technique. The structural analysis of the as prepared powder is done using the X-ray diffraction technique, shows that the compound possesses rhombohedral structure with R3c space group. The lattice constants are a=b=5.332Åand c=12.97Å. The crystallite size determined from the XRD and the TEM image is,33nm and 35nm respectively. The FT-IR spectral analysisconfirms the phase purity of the prepared sample. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum shows main peaks in the wavelength range 440–490 nm. The optical band gap determined from the Tauc’s plot is 4.67eV. Photoluminescence spectrum obtained at the excitation wavelength 370 nm of sample is also recorded and analyzed.

  13. Dynamics of the fast component of nano-confined water under electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar Diallo, Souleymane [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Podlesnyak, Andrey A [ORNL; Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Wada, Nobuo [Nagoya University, Japan; Inagaki, S [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc.; Fukushima, Y [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc.

    2013-01-01

    We report the diffusion of water molecules confined in the pores of folded silica materials (FSM-12 with average pore diameter of $\\sim$ 16 \\AA), measured by means of quasielastic neutron scattering using the cold neutron chopper spectrometer (CNCS). The goal is to investigate the effect of electric field on the previously observed fast component of nano-confined water. The measurements were taken at temperatures between 220 K and 245 K, and at two electric field values, 0 kV/mm and 2 kV/mm. Similar to the recently observed electric field induced enhancement of the slow translational motion of confined water, there is a an equally important impact of the field on the faster diffusion.

  14. ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO/MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendez-Torres, A.; Torres, R.; Lam, P.

    2011-07-15

    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  15. ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, R.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Lam, P.

    2011-06-09

    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  16. Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate architecture for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Todd H.

    2015-09-15

    Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate lattices, of a spinel block type, and which are resistant to carbon deposition and metal sulfide formation are provided. The catalysts are designed for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. The hexametallate lattices are doped with noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh, Ru) which are atomically dispersed as isolated sites throughout the lattice and take the place of hexametallate metal ions such as Cr, Ga, In, and/or Nb. Mirror cations in the crystal lattice are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the lanthanide metals, so as to reduce the acidity of the catalyst crystal lattice and enhance the desorption of carbon deposit forming moieties such as aromatics. The catalysts can be used at temperatures as high as 1000.degree. C. and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. A method for producing these catalysts and applications of their use also is provided.

  17. A general procedure for thermomechanical calibration of nano/micro-mechanical resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, B.D., E-mail: bhauer@ualberta.ca; Doolin, C.; Beach, K.S.D., E-mail: kbeach@ualberta.ca; Davis, J.P., E-mail: jdavis@ualberta.ca

    2013-12-15

    We describe a general procedure to calibrate the detection of a nano/micro-mechanical resonator’s displacement as it undergoes thermal Brownian motion. A brief introduction to the equations of motion for such a resonator is presented, followed by a detailed derivation of the corresponding power spectral density (PSD) function, which is identical in all situations aside from a system-dependent effective mass value. The effective masses for a number of different resonator geometries are determined using both finite element method (FEM) modeling and analytical calculations. -- Highlights: •Model micro- and nanomechanical resonators displaced by their own thermal motion. •Review the theoretical framework for describing thermomechanical systems. •Present a recipe for measurement calibration on devices of arbitrary shape. •Point out and correct inconsistencies in the existing literature. •Provide an authoritative guide and reference for practitioners in this area.

  18. Tracer diffusion of hard-sphere binary mixtures under nano-confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umberto Marini Bettolo Marconi; Paolo Malgaretti; Ignacio Pagonabarraga

    2015-09-29

    The physics of diffusion phenomena in nano and micro channels has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, due to its close connection with many technological, medical and industrial applications. In the present paper we employ a kinetic approach to investigate how the confinement in nanostructured geometries affects the diffusive properties of fluid mixtures and leads to the appearance of properties different from those of bulk systems. In particular, we derive an expression for the friction tensor in the case of a bulk fluid mixture confined to a narrow slit having undulated walls. The boundary roughness leads to a new mechanism for transverse diffusion, and can even lead to an effective diffusion along the channel larger than the one corresponding to a planar channel of equivalent section. Finally we discuss a reduction of the previous equation to a one dimensional effective diffusion equation in which an entropic term encapsulates the geometrical information on the channel shape.

  19. Anomalously augmented charge transport capabilities of biomimetically transformed collagen intercalated nano graphene based biocolloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhar, Purbarun; Nayar, Suprabha; Das, Sarit K

    2015-01-01

    Collagen micro fibrils bio mimetically intercalate graphitic structures in aqueous media to form graphene nano platelets collagen complex (G Cl). Synthesized G Cl based stable, aqueous bio nanocolloids exhibit anomalously augmented charge transportation capabilities over simple collagen or graphene based colloids. The concentration tunable electrical transport properties of synthesized aqueous G Cl bio nanocolloids has been experimentally observed, theoretically analyzed and mathematically modeled. A comprehensive approach to mathematically predict the electrical transport properties of simple graphene and collagen based colloids has been presented. A theoretical formulation to explain the augmented transport characteristics of the G Cl bio nanocolloids based on the physico chemical interactions among the two entities, as revealed from extensive characterizations of the G Cl bio complex, has also been proposed. Physical interactions between the zwitterionic amino acid molecules within the collagen triple heli...

  20. Low-temperature method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets and their nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Shi, Jinjun (Columbus, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

    2012-03-13

    A method of exfoliating a layered material to produce separated nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm. The method comprises: (a) providing a graphite intercalation compound comprising a layered graphite containing expandable species residing in an interlayer space of the layered graphite; (b) exposing the graphite intercalation compound to an exfoliation temperature lower than 650.degree. C. for a duration of time sufficient to at least partially exfoliate the layered graphite without incurring a significant level of oxidation; and (c) subjecting the at least partially exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce separated platelets. The method can further include a step of dispersing the platelets in a polymer or monomer solution or suspension as a precursor step to nanocomposite fabrication.

  1. Boride-based nano-laminates with MAX-phase-like behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Telle, Rainer . E-mail: telle@ghi.rwth-aachen.de; Momozawa, Ai; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-09-15

    MAX-phases being usually composed of transition metals, group A elements and carbon/nitrogen are considered interesting materials for many applications because of their tremendous bulk modulus, 'reversible' plasticity, and machinability. This is mainly due to their unique kind of bonding comprising covalent, ionic as well as metallic bonds providing 'easy' planes of rupture and deformability due to the layered crystal structures. In transition metal boride systems, similar types of bonding are available. In particular the W{sub 2}B{sub 5}-structure type and its stacking variations allow the synthesis of strongly layered crystal structures exhibiting unique delamination phenomena. The paper presents ab initio calculations showing the similarities of bonding between the ternary carbides and the corresponding ternary or quaternary borides. Formation of boride-based nano-laminates from auxiliary liquid phases, from the melt as well as during sintering and precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions will be discussed by means of SEM and TEM studies. The role of impurities weakening the interlayer bonding will be addressed in particular. The pronounced cleavage parallel to the basal plane gives rise for crack deflection and pull-out mechanisms if the laminates are dispersed in brittle matrices such as boron carbide, silicon carbide or other transition metal borides. - Graphical abstract: Some transition metal borides crystallise in a layered structure of alternating stacks of metal and boron atoms giving rise for strongly anisotropic properties. Their preferred cleavage parallel and the deformability perpendicular to the basal plan are similar to the peculiar mechanical behaviour recently described for MAX-phases. Ab initio calculations of the crystal structure prove the weak bonds between the layers for a variety of borides which can be used to reinforce ceramic materials on a nano-scale level.

  2. Singular perturbations approach to localised surface-plasmon resonance: nearly touching metal nano-spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ory Schnitzer

    2015-10-13

    Metallic nano-structures featuring multiple length scales support low-frequency surface-plasmon modes, which enable strong light localisation and field enhancement. We suggest to study such configurations using singular perturbation methods. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach by considering, in the quasi-static limit, a pair of nearly touching metal nano-spheres subjected to an incident electromagnetic wave polarised with the electric field along the line of centres. Rather than attempting an exact analytical solution, we construct eigen-modes by matching relatively simple asymptotic expansions valid in overlapping spatial domains. We thereby arrive at an effective boundary eigenvalue problem in a half-space representing the metal region in the vicinity of the gap. Coupling with the gap field gives rise to a mixed-type non-constant-coefficients boundary condition, whereas coupling with the particle-scale field enters through an integral eigenvalue-selection rule involving the electrostatic capacitance of the configuration. Solution of the reduced problem yields accurate closed-form expressions for the resonance values of the dielectric function. We further show that the eigen-solutions found can be used to derive closed-form approximations for the induced-dipole moment and gap-field enhancement at resonance. These expressions are shown to be in excellent agreement with a semi-numerical computation in the case of silver nanospheres. The analysis, underpinned by asymptotic scaling arguments, elucidates how metal polarisation in conjunction with geometrical confinement gives rise to a strong frequency redshift and amplified near-field at resonance.

  3. Tool fabrication system for micro/nano milling—function analysis and design of a six-axis Wire EDM machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, X.; Wang, Z. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakamoto, K.; Yamazaki, K.

    2010-01-01

    nano milling—function analysis and design of a six-axis Wirepaper, a function analysis and design of a six-axis Wireon the function analysis and design of a six-axis WEDM

  4. Revealing lithium-silicide phase transformations in nano-structured silicon based lithium ion batteries via in-situ NMR spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogata, K.; Salager, E.; Kerr, C. J.; Fraser, A. E.; Ducati, C.; Morris, A. J.; Hofmann, Stephan; Grey, Clare P.

    2014-02-03

    Nano-structured silicon anodes are attractive alternatives to graphitic carbons in rechargeable Li-ion batteries, owing to their extremely high capacities. Despite their advantages, numerous issues remain to be addressed, the most basic being...

  5. Multivalent ion effects on electrostatic stability of virus-like nano-shells Leili Javidpour, Anze Losdorfer Bozi, Ali Naji, and Rudolf Podgornik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    Multivalent ion effects on electrostatic stability of virus-like nano-shells Leili Javidpour, Anze Anze Losdorfer Bozic,2 Ali Naji,1,3,a) and Rudolf Podgornik2,4,5 1 School of Physics, Institute

  6. The National Nanotechnology Initiative's nanoEHS Workshop Series: February 24-25, 2009: Human and Environmental Exposure Assessment of Nanomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Nanotechnology Initiative's nanoEHS Workshop Series: February 24-25, 2009: Human & Ethical, Legal, and Societal Implications of Nanotechnology National Nanotechnology Initiative Save in the National Nanotechnology Initiative's Strategy for Nanotechnology-related Environmental, Health, and Safety

  7. Structural Study of SiC Nanoparticles Grown by Inductively Coupled Plasma and Laser Pyrolysis for Nano-structured Ceramics Elaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leconte, Yann; Portier, Xavier; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Reynaud, Cecile

    2008-07-01

    Refractory carbide nano-structured ceramics as SiC constitute interesting materials for high temperature applications and particularly for fourth generation nuclear plants. To elaborate such nano-materials, weighable amounts of SiC nano-powders have to be synthesized first with an accurate control of the grain size and stoichiometry. The inductively coupled plasma and the laser pyrolysis techniques, respectively developed at EMPA Thun and CEA Saclay, allow meeting these requirements. Both techniques are able to produce dozens of grams per hour of silicon carbide nano-powders. The particle size can be adjusted down to around 20 nm for the plasma synthesis and even down to 5-10 nm for the laser pyrolysis. The stoichiometry Si/C can be tuned by the addition of methane into the plasma and acetylene for the laser process. (authors)

  8. Low-Cost Nano-Patterning Process Makes Millions of Holes in Silver Film, Boosting Light-Capturing Qualities of Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    NREL researchers have demonstrated a simple, low-cost way to pattern nano-sized holes in thin silver films in order to trap light waves and boost the transmission of photons into usable energy.

  9. Effect of heat treatment on pore structure in nano-crystalline NiO: A small angle neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahadur, J. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: jbahadur@barc.gov.in; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ramanathan, S. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2008-05-15

    Nano-crystalline nickel oxide powder was synthesized by a precipitation route. Powder samples were heat treated at 300, 600 and 900 deg. C, and pore structure evolution was followed by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique. SANS measurements were carried out also on pelleted samples in order to study the modifications of pore morphology due to heat treatment. SANS data reveal scattering from pores at two different length scales. The pore structure at various heat treatment temperatures does not follow any scaling behavior. - Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph shows the microstructure of the nano-crystalline NiO. An average agglomerate size of {approx}1 {mu}m is evident from SEM and LS. SANS profiles for the samples heat treated at 300, 600 and 900 deg. C, respectively, are shown. A significant variation in the profile shape due to the modification in the intra-agglomerate pore structure under heat treatment is visible.

  10. Uncertainty Analysis of Melting and Resolidification of Gold Film Irradiated by Nano- to Femtosecond Lasers Using Stochastic Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afrin, Nazia; Chen, J K

    2015-01-01

    A sample-based stochastic model is presented to investigate the effects of uncertainties of various input parameters, including laser fluence, laser pulse duration, thermal conductivity constants for electron, and electron-lattice coupling factor, on solid-liquid phase change of gold film under nano- to femtosecond laser irradiation. Rapid melting and resolidification of a free standing gold film subject to nano- to femtosecond laser are simulated using a two-temperature model incorporated with the interfacial tracking method. The interfacial velocity and temperature are obtained by solving the energy equation in terms of volumetric enthalpy for control volume. The convergence of variance (COV) is used to characterize the variability of the input parameters, and the interquartile range (IQR) is used to calculate the uncertainty of the output parameters. The IQR analysis shows that the laser fluence and the electron-lattice coupling factor have the strongest influences on the interfacial location, velocity, an...

  11. Barrier properties of PE, PP and EVA (nano)composites - The influence of filler type and concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merinska, D.; Kalendova, A. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T. G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin, Czech Republic and Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 0 (Czech Republic); Tesarikova, A. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T. G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-15

    Nanocomposite materials with layered clay used as nanofiller and polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and copolymer ethylene and vinyl acetate matrix (EVA, the content of VA component 19 wt. %) were prepared by compounding the individual components in Brabender kneader. The MMT Na+ and four types of commercial products such as Nanofil N 5 and N3000, Cloisite 93A and 30B were used as nanofillers. Next to the clays microprecipitated CaHCO{sub 3}, nanosilica and Halloysite tubes were used. The quantity of all the above-mentioned (nano)fillers was 1, 3 and 5 wt. % in relation to the content of montmorillonite. The aim was to evaluate the influence of (nano)filler type and concentration on nanocomposite barrier properties. The morphology of nanocomposite samples was examined by means of XRD analysis illustrated by transmission electronic microscopy TEM. Furthermore, permeability for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were observed.

  12. Determination of reactive oxygen species from ZnO micro-nano structures with shape-dependent photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Weiwei; Zhao, Hongxiao; Jia, Huimin; Yin, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Zhi

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with shape dependent photocatalytic activity were prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were identified precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Highlights: • ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies were prepared by solvothermal reaction. • Multi-pod like ZnO structures exhibited superior photocatalytic activity. • The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were characterized precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. • The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies have been prepared by the changing solvents used during their synthesis by solvothermal reaction. Three typical shapes of ZnO structures including hexagonal, bell bottom like and multi-pod formed and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Multi pod like ZnO structures exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity toward degradation of methyl orange. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy coupled with spin trapping techniques, we demonstrate an effective way to identify precisely the generation of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide and singlet oxygen from the irradiated ZnO multi pod structures. The type of reactive oxygen species formed was predictable from the band gap structure of ZnO. These results indicate that the shape of micro-nano structures significantly affects the photocatalytic activity of ZnO, and demonstrate the value of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for characterizing the type of reactive oxygen species formed during photoexcitation of semiconductors.

  13. Interlayer Water Regulates the Bio-nano Interface of a \\b{eta}-sheet Protein stacking on Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenping Lv; Guiju Xu; Hongyan Zhang; Xin Li; Shengju Liu; Huan Niu; Dongsheng Xu; Renan Wu

    2014-12-03

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated an integrated bio-nano interface consisting of a \\b{eta}-sheet protein stacked onto graphene. We found that the stacking assembly of the model protein on graphene could be controlled by water molecules. The interlayer water filled within interstices of the bio-nano interface could suppress the molecular vibration of surface groups on protein, and could impair the CH...{\\pi} interaction driving the attraction of the protein and graphene. The intermolecular coupling of interlayer water would be relaxed by the relative motion of protein upon graphene due to the interaction between water and protein surface. This effect reduced the hindrance of the interlayer water against the assembly of protein on graphene, resulting an appropriate adsorption status of protein on graphene with a deep free energy trap. Thereby, the confinement and the relative sliding between protein and graphene, the coupling of protein and water, and the interaction between graphene and water all have involved in the modulation of behaviors of water molecules within the bio-nano interface, governing the hindrance of interlayer water against the protein assembly on hydrophobic graphene. These results provide a deep insight into the fundamental mechanism of protein adsorption onto graphene surface in water.

  14. Electrical, optical and vibrational characteristics of nano structured yttrium barium stannous oxide synthesized through a modified combustion method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vidya, S.; Rejith, P.P. [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695015, Kerala (India)] [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695015, Kerala (India); John, Annamma; Solomon, Sam [Dielectric Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, St. John's College, Kollam District, Anchal 691306, Kerala (India)] [Dielectric Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, St. John's College, Kollam District, Anchal 691306, Kerala (India); Deepa, A.S. [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695015, Kerala (India)] [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695015, Kerala (India); Thomas, J.K., E-mail: jkthomasemrl@yahoo.com [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695015, Kerala (India)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Synthesis of YBa{sub 2}SnO{sub 5.5} nano particles through a novel single step auto igniting combustion process. {yields} Phase purity, thermal stability, vibrational analysis, UV-vis absorption and photo luminescent studies were carried out. {yields} Chemical non-reactivity of YBa{sub 2}SnO{sub 5.5} with high T{sub c} superconductor YBCO was studied. -- Abstract: A single step combustion process for the preparation of nanoparticles of yttrium barium stannous oxide is reported in this paper. The structure, phase purity and particulate properties of the as prepared nano YBa{sub 2}SnO{sub 5.5} powder were examined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The as prepared powder obtained itself is phase pure and possess cubic structure with lattice constant 8.240 A. The particle size of the as prepared sample from Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis is in the range of {approx}15 nm. Vibrational studies carried out on the as prepared powder also confirm the cubic structure of the as prepared sample. The thermal stability of the nano particle is analyzed by thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The material is a semiconductor with excellent luminescent properties. Chemical compatibility of the sample with YBCO is analyzed. The YBCO-YBa{sub 2}SnO{sub 5.5} composite showed T{sub c}(0) at 92 K.

  15. Water confined in self-assembled ionic surfactants nano-structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel Hanot; Sandrine Lyonnard; Stefano Mossa

    2014-12-02

    We present a coarse-grained model for ionic surfactants in explicit aqueous solutions, and study by computer simulation both the impact of water content on the morphology of the system, and the consequent effect of the formed interfaces on the structural features of the adsorbed fluid. On increasing the hydration level at ambient conditions, the model exhibits a series of three distinct phases: lamellar, cylindrical and micellar. We characterize the different structures in terms of diffraction patterns and neutron scattering static structure factors. We demonstrate that the rate of variation of the nano-metric sizes of the self-assembled water domains shows peculiar changes in the different phases. We also analyse in depth the structure of the water/confining matrix interfaces, the implications of their tunable degree of curvature, and the properties of water molecules in the different restricted environments. Finally, we discuss our results compared to experimental data and their impact on a wide range of important scientific and technological domains, where the behavior of water at the interface with soft materials is crucial.

  16. Nano-Scale Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Two-Dimensional Transport Experiments, and Application for Uranium Remediation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kanel, S. R.; Clement, T. P.; Barnett, M. O.; Goltz, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic nano-scale hydroxyapatite (NHA) was prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The XRD data confirmed that the crystalline structure and chemical composition of NHA correspond to Ca 5 OH(PO 4 ) 3 . The SEM data confirmed the size of NHA to be less than 50?nm. A two-dimensional physical model packed with saturated porous media was used to study the transport characteristics of NHA under constant flow conditions. The data show that the transport patterns of NHA were almost identical to tracer transport patterns. This result indicates that the NHA material canmore »move with water like a tracer, and its movement was neither retarded nor influenced by any physicochemical interactions and/or density effects. We have also tested the reactivity of NHA with 1?mg/L hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) and found that complete removal of U(VI) is possible using 0.5?g/L NHA at pH?5 to 6. Our results demonstrate that NHA has the potential to be injected as a dilute slurry for in situ treatment of U(VI)-contaminated groundwater systems. « less

  17. Nano/bio treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls with evaluation of comparative toxicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le, Thao Thanh; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Nguyen, Hoang Khanh; Jeon, Jong -Rok; Chang, Yoon -Seok

    2015-04-01

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 in soils and sediments is a major concern because of its toxicity and presence at high concentrations. In this study, we developed an integrated remediation system for PCBs using chemical catalysis and biodegradation. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1248 was achieved by treatment with bimetallic nanoparticles Pd/nFe under anoxic conditions. Among the 32 PCB congeners of Aroclor 1248 examined, our process dechlorinated 99%, 92%, 84%, and 28% of tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated biphenyls, respectively. The resulting biphenyl was biodegraded rapidly by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Benzoic acid was detected as an intermediate during the biodegradation process. The toxicity of the residual PCBs after nano-bio treatment was evaluated in terms of toxic equivalent values which decreased from 33.8 × 10-5 ?g g-1 to 9.5 × 10-5 ?g g-1. The residual PCBs also had low cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli as demonstrated by lower reactive oxygen species levels, lower glutathione peroxidase activity, and a reduced number of dead bacteria.

  18. The structure of nano-palladium deposited on carbon-based supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikna, ?ubomír, E-mail: lubomir.pikna@tuke.sk [Faculty of Metallurgy, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Milkovi?, Ondrej, E-mail: ondrej.milkovic@tuke.sk [Faculty of Metallurgy, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Saksl, Karel, E-mail: ksaksl@imr.saske.sk [Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Heželová, Mária, E-mail: maria.hezelova@tuke.sk [Faculty of Metallurgy, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Smr?ová, Miroslava, E-mail: miroslava.smrcova@tuke.sk [Faculty of Metallurgy, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Puliš, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.pulis@tuke.sk [Faculty of Metallurgy, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Michalik, Štefan, E-mail: stefan.michalik@upjs.ke [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, UPJŠ, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Gamcová, Jana, E-mail: jana.gamcova@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestraße 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Nano-palladium catalysts, prepared using the same procedure with the same metal content (3 wt%) and two different supports, activated carbon (Pd/C) and activated carbon—multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Pd/C/CNT), are discussed. The simple technique of deposition reduction was applied in the preparation of these two types of Pd catalysts. TEM, XRD analysis, EXAFS signal analysis, and XANES were used for sample characterization. In both samples, transmission electron microscopy identified nanosized Pd particles with nearly spherical morphology but different sizes. The mean diameters of the particles on Pd/C and Pd/C/CNT were estimated to be 5.4 nm and 7.8 nm, respectively. The EXAFS signal analysis showed that Pd atoms on the particle surfaces were coordinated by 4 oxygens to form a PdO monolayer covering a metallic core. The XANES signal analysis indicated a smaller particle size for Pd/C (? 5 nm) than for Pd/C/CNT (? 10 nm), in good agreement with the TEM observations. - Graphical abstract: Visualization of metallic core (left), oxide monolayer (middle) and nanoparticle of diameter 5 nm (right). - Highlights: • Pd catalysts were prepared on two types of supports: carbon and carbon nanotubes. • BET, TEM, XRD characterization of prepared catalysts. • XAFS: Concentration of Pd in samples Pd/C and Pd/C/CNT. • EXAFS and XANES signal analysis of catalysts. • Visualisation of atoms arrangement at the Pd nanoparticle surface.

  19. Nano/bio treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls with evaluation of comparative toxicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le, Thao Thanh; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Nguyen, Hoang Khanh; Jeon, Jong -Rok; Chang, Yoon -Seok

    2015-02-03

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 in soils and sediments is a major concern because of its toxicity and presence at high concentrations. In this study, we developed an integrated remediation system for PCBs using chemical catalysis and biodegradation. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1248 was achieved by treatment with bimetallic nanoparticles Pd/nFe under anoxic conditions. Among the 32 PCB congeners of Aroclor 1248 examined, our process dechlorinated 99%, 92%, 84%, and 28% of tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated biphenyls, respectively. The resulting biphenyl was biodegraded rapidly by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Benzoic acid was detected as an intermediate duringmore »the biodegradation process. The toxicity of the residual PCBs after nano-bio treatment was evaluated in terms of toxic equivalent values which decreased from 33.8 × 10-5 ?g g-1 to 9.5 × 10-5 ?g g-1. The residual PCBs also had low cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli as demonstrated by lower reactive oxygen species levels, lower glutathione peroxidase activity, and a reduced number of dead bacteria.« less

  20. Switchable and non-switchable zero backscattering of dielectric nano-resonators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Feng; Wei, Qi -Huo; Htoon, Han

    2015-02-27

    Previous studies have shown that two-dimensional (2D) arrays of high-permittivity dielectric nanoparticles are capable of fully suppressing backward light scattering when the resonant frequencies of electrical and magnetic dipolar modes are coincident. In this paper, we numerically demonstrate that the zero-backscattering of 2D Si nanocuboid arrays can be engineered to be switchable or non-switchable in response to a variation in the environmental refractive index. For each cuboid width/length, there exist certain cuboid heights and orthogonal periodicity ratio for which the electrical and magnetic resonances exhibit similar spectra widths and equivalent sensitivities to the environmental index changes, so that the zero-backscatteringmore »is non-switchable upon environmental change. For some other cuboid heights and certain anisotropic periodicity ratios, the electric and magnetic modes exhibit different sensitivities to environmental index changes, making the zero-backscattering sensitive to environmental changes. We also show that by using two different types of nano-resonators in the unit cell, Fano resonances can be introduced to greatly enhance the switching sensitivity of zero-backscattering.« less

  1. Resonant bowtie aperture nano-antenna for the control of optical nanocavities resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baida, Fadi Issam

    2015-01-01

    Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) has been successful in finely tuning the optical properties of photonic crystal (PC) nanocavities. The SNOM nanoprobes proposed so far allowed for either redshifting or blueshifting the resonance peak of the PC structures. In this Letter, we theoretically demonstrate the possibility of redshifting (up to +0.65nm) and blueshifting (up to $-5$~nm) PC cavity resonance with a single SNOM probe. This probe is obtained by opening a bowtie-aperture nano-antenna (BNA) at the apex of a metal-coated tip. This double-way PC tunability is the result of a competition between the effects of the BNA resonance (induced electric dipole leading to a redshift) and the metal-coated tip (induced magnetic dipole giving rise to a blueshift) onto the PC mode volume. The sign of the spectral shift is modified by simply controlling the tip-to-PC distance. This study opens the way to the full postproduction control of the resonance wavelength of high quality factor optical cavities.

  2. Quantum ground state effect on fluctuation rates in nano-patterned superconducting structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eftekharian, Amin; Jafari Salim, Amir; University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 ; Atikian, Haig; Akhlaghi, Mohsen K.; Hamed Majedi, A.

    2013-12-09

    In this Letter, we present a theoretical model with experimental verifications to describe the abnormal behaviors of the measured fluctuation rates occurring in nano-patterned superconducting structures below the critical temperature. In the majority of previous works, it is common to describe the fluctuation rate by defining a fixed ground state or initial state level for the singularities (vortex or vortex-antivortex pairs), and then employing the well-known rate equations to calculate the liberation rates. Although this approach gives an acceptable qualitative picture, without utilizing free parameters, all the models have been inadequate in describing the temperature dependence of the rate for a fixed width or the width dependence of the rate for a fixed temperature. Here, we will show that by defining a current-controlled ground state level for both the vortex and vortex-antivortex liberation mechanisms, the dynamics of these singularities are described for a wide range of temperatures and widths. According to this study, for a typical strip width, not only is the vortex-antivortex liberation higher than the predicted rate, but also quantum tunneling is significant in certain conditions and can not be neglected.

  3. Method of producing nano-scaled graphene and inorganic platelets and their nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH); Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH)

    2011-02-22

    Disclosed is a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm, and often between 0.34 nm and 1.02 nm. The method comprises: (a) subjecting the layered material in a powder form to a halogen vapor at a first temperature above the melting point or sublimation point of the halogen at a sufficient vapor pressure and for a duration of time sufficient to cause the halogen molecules to penetrate an interlayer space of the layered material, forming a stable halogen-intercalated compound; and (b) heating the halogen-intercalated compound at a second temperature above the boiling point of the halogen, allowing halogen atoms or molecules residing in the interlayer space to exfoliate the layered material to produce the platelets. Alternatively, rather than heating, step (a) is followed by a step of dispersing the halogen-intercalated compound in a liquid medium which is subjected to ultrasonication for exfoliating the halogen-intercalated compound to produce the platelets, which are dispersed in the liquid medium. The halogen can be readily captured and re-used, thereby significantly reducing the impact of halogen to the environment. The method can further include a step of dispersing the platelets in a polymer or monomer solution or suspension as a precursor step to nanocomposite fabrication.

  4. Method of producing nano-scaled graphene and inorganic platelets and their nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH); Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH)

    2012-02-14

    Disclosed is a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm, and often between 0.34 nm and 1.02 nm. The method comprises: (a) subjecting the layered material in a powder form to a halogen vapor at a first temperature above the melting point or sublimation point of the halogen at a sufficient vapor pressure and for a duration of time sufficient to cause the halogen molecules to penetrate an interlayer space of the layered material, forming a stable halogen-intercalated compound; and (b) heating the halogen-intercalated compound at a second temperature above the boiling point of the halogen, allowing halogen atoms or molecules residing in the interlayer space to exfoliate the layered material to produce the platelets. Alternatively, rather than heating, step (a) is followed by a step of dispersing the halogen-intercalated compound in a liquid medium which is subjected to ultrasonication for exfoliating the halogen-intercalated compound to produce the platelets, which are dispersed in the liquid medium. The halogen can be readily captured and re-used, thereby significantly reducing the impact of halogen to the environment. The method can further include a step of dispersing the platelets in a polymer or monomer solution or suspension as a precursor step to nanocomposite fabrication.

  5. Different ways of looking at the force between two nano crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Lange; Fabian Danecker; Gernot Bauer; Nadezda Gribova; Joachim Gross

    2015-03-25

    The potential of mean force (PMF) between two nano crystals (NCs) represents an effective interaction potential that can be used to study the assembly of NCs to various superstructures. For a given temperature, the effective interaction is obtained best from molecular dynamics simulations. Based on a density functional approach, this study proposes three methods of predicting the PMF for any temperature based on a single molecular dynamics simulation for one temperature. The three methods construct the PMF by considering the ligands as an ideal gas, as hard-sphere chains, or as Lennard-Jones interaction sites. To apply this methodology, the density of the interaction centers must be extracted from the simulation data. For the ideal gas model, a straightforward sampling procedure with a fixed lattice in space leads to free energies that are too large in order to consistently explain the simulation data for different temperatures. Naive sampling does not account for the small momenta added to the NCs when coupled to a thermostat. A method is proposed that corrects for the unphysical steps during the simulation. The ideal gas contribution computed for the corrected density is significantly smaller than the one obtained from naive sampling and can thus explain the temperature dependence of the PMF correctly. For the hard-sphere chain model, where a weighted density is used, the correction of the particle density is not essential. However, the PMF calculated based on the corrected density confirms our approach. All three models predict PMF curves in very good agreement with simulation results, but they differ in the number of input parameters and the computational effort. Based on the modeling results, we predict the existence of an additional attractive force at small distances of the NCs - a depletion force.

  6. Ultra-HighDensity Board Technologyfor suh-100pn Pitch nano-WaferLevel Packaging Venky Sundaram, Fuhan Liu, Ankur 0.Aggarwal, Seyed M. Hosseini, Sharath Mekala, George E. White, Rao R. Tummala,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    Ultra-HighDensity Board Technologyfor suh-100pn Pitch nano-WaferLevel Packaging Venky Sundaram, Packaging Research Center, Georgia Institute of Technology, 813 Ferst Dr, Atlanta, GA 30332-0560, USA and the package increases tremendously. With the shift towards nano ICs by 2004 with cl00 nm feature sizes

  7. NanoSIMS Imaging Alternation Layers of a Leached SON68 Glass Via A FIB-made Wedged Crater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yi-Chung; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Neeway, James J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Zhu, Zihua; Wei, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Currently, nuclear wastes are commonly immobilized into glasses because of their long-term durability. Exposure to water for long periods of time, however, will eventually corrode the waste form and is the leading potential avenue for radionuclide release into the environment. Because such slow processes cannot be experimentally tested, the prediction of release requires a thorough understanding the mechanisms governing glass corrosion. In addition, due to the exceptional durability of glass, much of the testing must be performed on high-surface-area powders. A technique that can provide accurate compositional profiles with very precise depth resolution for non-flat samples would be a major benefit to the field. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) depth profiling is an excellent tool that has long been used to examine corrosion layers of glass. The roughness of the buried corrosion layers, however, causes the corresponding SIMS depth profiles to exhibit erroneously wide interfaces. In this study, NanoSIMS was used to image the cross-section of the corrosion layers of a leached SON68 glass sample. A wedged crater was prepared by a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument to obtain a 5× improvement in depth resolution for NanoSIMS measurements. This increase in resolution allowed us to confirm that the breakdown of the silica glass network is further from the pristine glass than a second dissolution front for boron, another glass former. The existence of these two distinct interfaces, separated by only ~20 nm distance in depth, was not apparent by traditional ToF-SIMS depth profiling but has been confirmed also by atom probe tomography. This novel sample geometry will be a major benefit to efficient NanoSIMS sampling of irregular interfaces at the nanometer scale that would otherwise be obscured within ToF-SIMS depth profiles.

  8. Preparation and characterization on nano-hybrid composite solid polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP /MG49-ZrO{sub 2} for battery application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, T. K.; Ahmad, A. [Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor D. E. Malaysia and School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology (Malaysia); Hasyareeda, N. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Initial study on nano composite polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP/MG49-ZrO{sub 2} has been done. The zirconium was synthesis via in-situ sol-gel method in a dissolved polymer blends. The effects of different concentrations of zirconium and pH values have been investigated on nano composite polymer (NCP). Analysis impedance show that only at 6 wt. % of zirconium for all pH values show a semi-circle arc which have lowest value of bulk resistance. No ionic conductivity value is obtain due to the absent of ion charge carriers. Analysis of XRD revealed that crystallinity phase of the nano composite polymer was affect by different pH values. However, no significant changes have been observed in IR bands. This could well indicate that different pH medium did not affect the chemical bonding in the structure.

  9. Enhanced synchronization in an array of spin torque nano oscillators in the presence of oscillating external magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Subash; V. K. Chandrasekar; M. Lakshmanan

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate that the synchronization of an array of electrically coupled spin torque nano-oscillators (STNO) modelled by Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation can be enhanced appreciably in the presence of a common external microwave magnetic field. The applied microwave magnetic field stabilizes and enhances the regions of synchronization in the parameter space of our analysis, where the oscillators are exhibiting synchronized oscillations thereby emitting improved microwave power. To characterize the synchronized oscillations we have calculated the locking range in the domain of external source frequency.

  10. X-ray nano-diffraction study of Sr intermetallic phase during solidification of Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manickaraj, Jeyakumar; Gorny, Anton; Shankar, Sumanth, E-mail: shankar@mcmaster.ca [Light Metal Casting Research Centre (LMCRC), Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street W, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Cai, Zhonghou [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-02-17

    The evolution of strontium (Sr) containing intermetallic phase in the eutectic reaction of Sr-modified Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy was studied with high energy synchrotron beam source for nano-diffraction experiments and x-ray fluorescence elemental mapping. Contrary to popular belief, Sr does not seem to interfere with the Twin Plane Re-entrant Edge (TPRE) growth mechanism of eutectic Si, but evolves as the Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sr phase during the eutectic reaction at the boundary between the eutectic Si and Al grains.

  11. Effect of martensite to austenite reversion on the formation of nano/submicron grained AISI 301 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karimi, M.; Najafizadeh, A.; Kermanpur, A.; Eskandari, M.

    2009-11-15

    The martensite to austenite reversion behavior of 90% cold rolled AISI 301 stainless steel was investigated in order to refine the grain size. Cold rolled specimens were annealed at 600-900 deg. C, and subsequently characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Feritscope, and hardness measurements. The effects of annealing parameters on the formation of fully-austenitic nano/submicron grained structure and the mechanisms involved were studied. It was found that annealing at 800 deg. C for 10 s exhibited the smallest average austenite grain size of 240 {+-} 60 nm with an almost fully-austenitic structure.

  12. Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, W. S. Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H.; Zhang, J.; Luo, J. K.; Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB

    2014-02-15

    Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

  13. Characterization, organic modification of wollastonite coated with nano-Mg(OH){sub 2} and its application in filling PA6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Caili; Wang, Dong; Zheng, Shuilin

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Wollastonite is first inorganic modified by coating nano-Mg(OH){sub 2} and then organic modified with silane. • Filling 30% of this composite powder in PA6 the mechanical properties, the heat distortion temperature and oxygen index of the PA6 composites were notably enhanced. - Abstract: Nano-Mg(OH){sub 2} was deposited on the surface of wollastonite (MW) powder with heterogeneous nucleation method and then modified with silane. The microstructure and surface properties of wollastonite (W) and MW powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The microstructure of W, MW and silane modified MW (SMW) powders were characterized by Fourier translation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The mechanical properties, heat distortion temperature (HDT) and oxygen index (OI) of PA6 composites having different fillers were discussed. It was shown that the surface of wollastonite was coated with a layer of 33 nm thickness of Mg(OH){sub 2} grains and the distribution of which was uniform. The number of the hydroxyl groups on the surface of wollastonite powder increased after coated with Mg(OH){sub 2}. Filling 30% of SMW powder in PA6 the mechanical properties, HDT and OI were notably enhanced.

  14. Simulation of a broadband nano-biosensor based on an onion-like quantum dot-quantum well structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Absalan, H; SalmanOgli, A; Rostami, R

    2013-07-31

    The fluorescence resonance energy transfer is studied between modified quantum-dots and quantum-wells used as a donor and an acceptor. Because of the unique properties of quantum dots, including diverse surface modification flexibility, bio-compatibility, high quantum yields and wide absorption, their use as nano-biosensors and bio-markers used in diagnosis of cancer is suggested. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer is simulated in a quantum dot-quantum well system, where the energy can flow from donor to acceptor. If the energy transfer can be either turned on or off by a specific interaction, such as interaction with any dyes, a molecular binding event or a cleavage reaction, a sensor can be designed (under assumption that the healthy cells have a known effect or unyielding effect on output parameters while cancerous cells, due to their pandemic optical properties, can impact the fluorescence resonance energy transfer parameters). The developed nano-biosensor can operate in a wide range of wavelengths (310 - 760 nm). (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  15. TeV/m Nano-Accelerator: Investigation on Feasibility of CNT-Channeling Acceleration at Fermilab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Y M; Thurman-Keup, R M

    2015-01-01

    The development of high gradient acceleration and tight phase-space control of high power beams is a key element for future lepton and hadron colliders since the increasing demands for higher energy and luminosity significantly raise costs of modern HEP facilities. Atomic channels in crystals are known to consist of 10 -- 100 V/{\\AA} potential barriers capable of guiding and collimating a high energy beam providing continuously focused acceleration with exceptionally high gradients (TeV/m). However, channels in natural crystals are only angstrom-size and physically vulnerable to high energy interactions, which has prevented crystals from being applied to high power accelerators. Carbon-based nano-crystals such as carbon-nanotubes (CNTs) and graphenes have a large degree of dimensional flexibility and thermo-mechanical strength, which could be suitable for channeling acceleration of MW beams. Nano-channels of the synthetic crystals can accept a few orders of magnitude larger phase-space volume of channeled par...

  16. Three-dimensional fabrication and characterisation of core-shell nano-columns using electron beam patterning of Ge-doped SiO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Three-dimensional fabrication and characterisation of core-shell nano-columns using electron beam; accepted 9 June 2012; published online 28 June 2012) A focused electron beam in a scanning transmission with a focused beam of electrons to detect the scat- tered electron intensity to form an image. Besides providing

  17. Synthesis and characterization of high power LiFePO4/C nano-plate thin films Nan Zhou a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    years to accommodate our increasingly mobile and technology driven society [1]. These batteries exhibit of Applied Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617, China a r t i c l e i n battery Solvothermal growth Nano-carbon coating a b s t r a c t Tunable LiFePO4/C thin films demonstrating

  18. Optimizing white light luminescence in Dy{sup 3+}-doped Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haritha, P.; Linganna, K.; Venkatramu, V.; Martín, I. R.; Monteseguro, V.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Babu, P.; León-Luis, S. F.; Jayasankar, C. K.; Lavín, V.

    2014-11-07

    Trivalent dysprosium-doped Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets have been prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and laser excited spectroscopy. Under a cw 457?nm laser excitation, the white luminescence properties of Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets have been studied as a function of the optically active Dy{sup 3+} ion concentration and at low temperature. Decay curves for the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+} ion exhibit non-exponential nature for all the Dy{sup 3+} concentrations, which have been well-fitted to a generalized energy transfer model for a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction between Dy{sup 3+} ions without diffusion. From these data, a simple rate-equations model can be applied to predict that intense white luminescence could be obtained from 1.8?mol% Dy{sup 3+} ions-doped nano-garnets, which is in good agreement with experimental results. Chromaticity color coordinates and correlated color temperatures have been determined as a function of temperature and are found to be within the white light region for all Dy{sup 3+} concentrations. These results indicate that 2.0?mol% Dy{sup 3+} ions doped nano-garnet could be useful for white light emitting device applications.

  19. Array of Cu{sub 2}O nano-columns fabricated by oblique angle sputter deposition and their application in photo-assisted proton reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Chaudhary, Y. S.; Thakur, I.; Kulkarni, N. A.; Ayyub, P.

    2015-01-14

    Nano-columnar arrays of Cu{sub 2}O were grown by the oblique angle sputter deposition technique based on the self-shadowing principle. The as-grown nano-columnar samples are oriented along (111) direction, and they are highly transmitting in the visible range with a low reflectance. In this work, we show the photo-electrochemical activity of nano-columnar array of Cu{sub 2}O, which shows a higher (?25%) photocurrent density and a two-fold enhancement in the incident-to-photon conversion efficiency as compared to continuous thin film of Cu{sub 2}O in photo-assisted proton reduction type reaction. The improvement in electrochemical activity of nano-columnar Cu{sub 2}O photocathode can be attributed to the change in morphology, crystal structure, as well as electrical property, which shows a higher degree of band bending, increased donor carrier (e?) density and lower width of space charge region as revealed by capacitance measurements and Mott-Schottky analysis.

  20. Appeared in Robotica, vol. 23, pp. 435-439 (2005). Manufacturing of Two and Three-Dimensional Micro/Nano-Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sitti, Metin

    2005-01-01

    linkages for fabricating 2D and 3D micro/nanostructures. A holographic multiple trap optical tweezers manipulation, bonding, 3D micro/nano- assembly, and limitations to specific materials, environments, and sizes with organic and inorganic materials. Keywords ­ Micro/Nanorobotics, Optical Tweezers, Chemical Assembly, Micro

  1. Datadriven modeling of nano-nose gas sensor arrays Tommy S. Alstrma, Jan Larsena, Claus H. Nielsenb,c and Niels B. Larsenb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Data­driven modeling of nano-nose gas sensor arrays Tommy S. Alstrøma, Jan Larsena, Claus H. Nielsenb,c and Niels B. Larsenb aDTU Informatics, Technical Univ. of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark; bDTU Nanotech, Technical Univ. of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark; cDept. of Chemistry

  2. Published: June 21, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 2962 dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl201501s |Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 29622967

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    EngineeringandAppliedSciencesand DepartmentofPhysics,HarvardUniversity,Cambridge,Massachusetts02138,UnitedStates Energy storage is a crucial Lett. 2011, 11, 2962­2967 LETTER pubs.acs.org/NanoLett Lithium-Assisted Plastic Deformation of Silicon high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.13 For example, the extremely high capacity of silicon, which can

  3. CHSLT -Center for Holographic Studies and Laser micro-mechaTronics Mechanical Engineering Department/NEST -NanoEngineering, Science, and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furlong, Cosme

    CHSLT - Center for Holographic Studies and Laser micro-mechaTronics Mechanical Engineering 2014 WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Optical Metrology and NDT ME-593 and Laser micro-mechaTronics Mechanical Engineering Department/NEST - NanoEngineering, Science

  4. CHSLT -Center for Holographic Studies and Laser micro-mechaTronics WPI Mechanical Engineering Department/NEST -NanoEngineering, Science, and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furlong, Cosme

    CHSLT - Center for Holographic Studies and Laser micro-mechaTronics WPI Mechanical Engineering - Center for Holographic Studies and Laser micro-mechaTronics Mechanical Engineering Department Worcester-mechaTronics WPI Mechanical Engineering Department/NEST - NanoEngineering, Science, and Technology #12;CHSLT

  5. Published: January 11, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 786 dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl104004d |Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 786790

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    to strain the material. Thus at large scales, applications of piezoelectric devices are typically limited Lett. 2011, 11, 786­790 LETTER pubs.acs.org/NanoLett Giant Piezoelectric Size Effects in Zinc Oxide investigation for their piezoelectric properties and suitability as building blocks for next-generation self

  6. Superior destabilization e ects of LiBH4 with the addition of nano-sized nickel ferrite NiFe2O4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    BH4. In this paper the e ects of nano-sized nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) on the hydrogen storage innovative hydrogen storage systems. Solid hydrogen storage materials have recently emerged as a new solution considerable attention for potential hydrogen storage due to high hydrogen reserve mass and light weight.5

  7. Pressure tuned ferroelectric reentrance in nano-BaTiO3 ceramics J. L. Zhu, S. Lin, S. M. Feng, L. J. Wang, Q. Q. Liu et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Pressure tuned ferroelectric reentrance in nano-BaTiO3 ceramics J. L. Zhu, S. Lin, S. M. Feng, L. J polarization and strain of Bi-based ceramic composites J. Appl. Phys. 112, 124109 (2012) Nonlinear dielectric (2012) The dominance of paramagnetic loss in microwave dielectric ceramics at cryogenic temperatures

  8. Hetero-twin formation during growth of nano-scale Al-TiN composites - experimental and DFT studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, Dhriti [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Xiang - Yang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoagland, Richard G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Misra, Amit [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Genc, A [MSE, OSU; Fraser, H L [MSE, OSU

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that high stacking fault energy metals such as Al do not form either growth twins or mechanical twins easily. Although mechanical twins in nanocrystalline Al have been observed under certain conditions, growth twins have never been observed. In this work, the authors report for the first time, through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), that Al layers, when deposited on TiN layers, tend to grow in a twin relationship to both the TiN layer and the underlying Al layer. The TiN layers assume the orientation of the Al layers below. Calculations using density functional theory (DFT) show that nitrogen termination in the {l_brace}111{r_brace} growth plane of the TiN layers favors the growth of twin oriented Al layers over these TiN layers. This finding provides a way to create a twin-modulated structure in Al with the inclusion of intermediate nm-scale layer of an ionic solid such as TiN. Al metal is resistant to twinning, as it has a high stacking fault energy (SFE) of > 150 mJ/m. Although twins have been observed in nano-scale grains of Al, and predicted by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in conditions when the nanoscale grains are plastically deformed, no process or phenomenon has been reported yet in which the deposition of an intermediate layer of a different material phase causes the subsequent layer of Al to be deposited in the twin orientation. The authors show in this paper that it is possible to form Al layers in twin orientation to each other across polar TiN layers, if these are grown so that both the Al and TiN layers have a {l_brace}111{r_brace} surface as their growth front. Since the deposition of Al and TiN layers is used in the formation of diffusion barriers, and the mechanical properties of these nanoscale multilayers are also seen to be exceptional, it is important to investigate and understand their structure at the nanometer length scale, and thence to be able to control it. Moreover, these findings point out a method of introducing nano-scale twins in high SFE materials in general, and can potentially improve the properties of nano-layered materials.

  9. Generation of steep phase anisotropy with zero-backscattering by arrays of coupled dielectric nano-resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng; Wei, Qi-Huo; Htoon, Han

    2014-09-22

    The interaction of light with high-permittivity dielectric nano-resonators can lead to zero-backscattering (i.e., full transmission), attributed to the simultaneous excitation of electric and magnetic dipolar modes in these resonators. In this paper, we numerically demonstrate that 2-dimensional Si nanocuboid arrays with anisotropic periodicity and finely tuned cuboid height can generate up to 2? optical phase anisotropy with zero-backscattering. Especially, by introducing strong Fano-type coupling into unit cells of the array, the induced phase anisotropy becomes ultra-steep with excitation wavelength. These special optical properties promise applications in various transmissive photonic devices, and we discuss their potential applications in transmissive polarization conversion and sensing.

  10. Alternation of the Pd Lattice in Nano-Sized-Pd/ZrO2 Composite during Hydrogen Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arachi, Yoshinori; Asai, Takeshi; Emura, Shuichi; Omura, Akira; Nunogaki, Masanobu; Yamaura, Shunichi; Inoue, Akihisa; Arata, Yoshiaki

    2007-02-02

    Structural analysis of high Deuterium absorbed 5 nm Pd particles in dispersed ZrO2 has been carried out using XAFS techniques. X-ray absorption spectra around the Pd K-absorption edge were observed and analyzed. The Pd-Pd bonding distance in the fcc Pd lattice was enlarged by 0.08 {approx} 0.09 A during absorption of deuterium, and it completely reverted to its original state with the release of deuterium while maintaining the crystal lattice symmetry. These changes provide evidence that deuterium locates not on the surface of the Pd particle, but rather within the Pd crystal lattice. XANES spectra clearly indicate that any change in the oxidation state of Pd are not observed, resulting in no reaction of the absorbed Deuterium atoms with Pd atoms. This paper reports the alternation of Pd lattice in nano-sized composite during hydrogen absorption. The possible models of deuterium position in the Pd lattice are also discussed.

  11. Sub-cm Resolution Distributed Fiber Optic Hydrogen Sensing with Nano-Engineered TiO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, Zsolt; Yan, Aidong; Lin, Yuankun; Chen, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The 3D nano-structuring on the 2) to be reduced and matched with the cladding of optical fiber(n~1.46) for low-loss integration. A high temperature capable hydrogen sensor composed of D-shaped optical fiber with palladium nanoparticles infused nanoporous (~5nm) TiO2 film is demonstrated. The behavior of the developed sensor was characterized by examining the wavelength of an incorporated Fiber Bragg Grating and by observing the transmission losses at temperatures up to 700C. In addition, with frequency domain reflectometry the distributed sensing potential of the developed sensor for hydrogen concentrations of up to 10% is examined. The results show the possibility of detecting chemical gradients with sub-cm resolution at very high temperatures(>500C).

  12. The NanoJapan Program is jointly administered by Rice University and the University of Tulsa and is funded by a NSF Partnerships for International Research and Education grant (OISE-0968405).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The NanoJapan Program is jointly administered by Rice University and the University of TulsaJapan Program is jointly administered by Rice University and the University of Tulsa and is funded by a NSF

  13. Please cite this article in press as: D.J. Gillich, et al., Nano Today (2009), doi:10.1016/j.nantod.2009.04.004 ARTICLE IN PRESS+Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    2009-01-01

    Please cite this article in press as: D.J. Gillich, et al., Nano Today (2009), doi:10.1016/j.nantod.2009.04.004 ARTICLE IN PRESS+Model NANTOD-37; No. of Pages 8 Nano Today (2009) xxx, xxx--xxx available reserved. doi:10.1016/j.nantod.2009.04.004 #12;Please cite this article in press as: D.J. Gillich, et al

  14. Blue light emitting SrSn(OH){sub 6} nano-rods doped with lanthanide ions (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, D.K.; Nuwad, J.; Rajeswari, B.; Vishwanadh, B.; Sudarsan, V.; Vatsa, R.K.; Kadam, R.M.; Pillai, C.G.S.; Kulshreshtha, S.K.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Room temperature synthesis of blue light emitting SrSn(OH){sub 6} nano-rods. ? Blue light emission originates from the recombination of self trapped excitons. ? There exists energy transfer from host to lanthanide ions in SrSn(OH){sub 6}:Ln nano-rods. ? Solubility of Eu{sup 3+} ions in SrSn(OH){sub 6} nano-rods is around 1.5 at%. -- Abstract: Blue light emitting SrSn(OH){sub 6} nano-rods were prepared in aqueous medium at room temperature. Presence of lanthanide ions in reaction medium during synthesis of nano-rods, leads to significant changes in the morphology of the nano-rods. Based on luminescence studies emission in the blue region from SrSn(OH){sub 6} nano-rods has been attributed to radiative recombination of self trapped excitons in the lattice. SrSn(OH){sub 6} nano-rods were doped with lanthanide ions like Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} and their luminescence studies revealed that there exists energy transfer from host to lanthanide ions. From the luminescence studies on Eu{sup 3+} doped samples, it is confirmed that up to 1.5 at%, Eu{sup 3+} ions get incorporated at Sr{sup 2+} site in SrSn(OH){sub 6} lattice and beyond which a separate Eu{sup 3+} containing phase is formed. Part of the europium ions also exists as Eu{sup 2+} species in the lattice as confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies.

  15. From micro- to nano-scale molding of metals : size effect during molding of single crystal Al with rectangular strip punches.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.; Meng, W. J.; Mei, F.; Hiller, J.; Miller, D. J. (Materials Science Division); (Louisiana State Univ.); (Enervana Tech. LLC)

    2011-02-01

    A single crystal Al specimen was molded at room temperature with long, rectangular, strip diamond punches. Quantitative molding response curves were obtained at a series of punch widths, ranging from 5 {micro}m to 550 nm. A significant size effect was observed, manifesting itself in terms of significantly increasing characteristic molding pressure as the punch width decreases to 1.5 {micro}m and below. A detailed comparison of the present strip punch molding results was made with Berkovich pyramidal indentation on the same single crystal Al specimen. The comparison reveals distinctly different dependence of the characteristic pressure on corresponding characteristic length. The present results show the feasibility of micro-/nano-scale compression molding as a micro-/nano-fabrication technique, and offer an experimental test case for size-dependent plasticity theories.

  16. An experimental study of external reactor vessel cooling strategy on the critical heat flux using the graphene oxide nano-fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, S. D.; Lee, S. W.; Kang, S.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Bang, I. C.

    2012-07-01

    External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) for in-vessel retention (IVR) of corium as a key severe accident management strategy can be achieved by flooding the reactor cavity during a severe accident. In this accident mitigation strategy, the decay heat removal capability depends on whether the imposed heat flux exceeds critical heat flux (CHF). To provide sufficient cooling for high-power reactors such as APR1400, there have been some R and D efforts to use the reactor vessel with micro-porous coating and nano-fluids boiling-induced coating. The dispersion stability of graphene-oxide nano-fluid in the chemical conditions of flooding water that includes boric acid, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was checked in terms of surface charge or zeta potential before the CHF experiments. Results showed that graphene-oxide nano-fluids were very stable under ERVC environment. The critical heat flux (CHF) on the reactor vessel external wall was measured using the small scale two-dimensional slide test section. The radius of the curvature is 0.1 m. The dimension of each part in the facility simulated the APR-1400. The heater was designed to produce the different heat flux. The magnitude of heat flux follows the one of the APR-1400 when the severe accident occurred. All tests were conducted under inlet subcooling 10 K. Graphene-oxide nano-fluids (concentration: 10 -4 V%) enhanced CHF limits up to about 20% at mass flux 50 kg/m{sup 2}s and 100 kg/m{sup 2}s in comparison with the results of the distilled water at same test condition. (authors)

  17. Published: June 28, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 3026 dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl201766h |Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 30263033

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yat

    observed in anatase H:TiO2 nanotubes. The capability of making highly photoactive H:TiO2 nanowires Lett. 2011, 11, 3026­3033 LETTER pubs.acs.org/NanoLett Hydrogen-Treated TiO2 Nanowire Arrays the performance of TiO2 nanowires for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Hydrogen-treated rutile TiO2 (H:TiO

  18. AOI [3] High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 and - H2S Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perepezko, John; Lu-Steffes, Otto

    2014-08-31

    The emissions from coal-fired power plants remain a significant concern for air quality. This environmental challenge must be overcome by controlling the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) throughout the entire coal combustion process. One of the processes which could specifically benefit from robust, low cost, and high temperature compatible gas sensors is the coal gasification process which converts coal and/or biomass into syngas. Hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur compounds make up 33%, 43% and 2% of syngas, respectively. Therefore, development of a high temperature (>500°C) chemical sensor for in-situ monitoring of H2, H2S and SO2 levels during coal gasification is strongly desired. The selective detection of SO2/H2S in the presence of H2, is a formidable task for a sensor designer. In order to ensure effective operation of these chemical sensors, the sensor system must inexpensively function within harsh temperature and chemical environment. Currently available sensing approaches, which are based on gas chromatography, electrochemistry, and IR-spectroscopy, do not satisfy the required cost and performance targets. This work focused on the development microsensors that can be applied to this application. In order to develop the high- temperature compatible microsensor, this work addressed various issues related to sensor stability, selectivity, and miniaturization. In the research project entitled “High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 and -H2S Sensors”, the team worked to develop micro-scale, chemical sensors and sensor arrays composed of nano-derived, metal-oxide composite materials to detect gases like H2, SO2, and H2S within high-temperature environments (>500?C). The research was completed in collaboration with NexTech Materials, Ltd. (Lewis Center, Ohio). NexTech assisted in the testing of the sensors in syngas with contaminate levels of H2S. The idea of including nanomaterials as the sensing material within resistive-type chemical sensor platforms was to increase the sensitivity (as shown for room temperature applications). Unfortunately, nanomaterials are not stable at high temperatures due to sintering and coarsening processes that are driven by their high surface to volume ratio. Therefore, new hydrogen and sulfur selective nanomaterial systems with high selectivity and stability properties in the proposed harsh environment were investigated. Different nano-morphologies of zirconate, molybdate, and tungstate compounds were investigated. The fabrication of the microsensors consisted of the deposition of the selective nanomaterial systems over metal based interconnects on an inert substrate. This work utilized the chemi-resistive (resistive- type) microsensor architecture where the chemically and structurally stable, high temperature compatible electrodes were sputtered onto a ceramic substrate. The nanomaterial sensing systems were deposited over the electrodes using a lost mold method patterned by conventional optical lithography. The microsensor configuration with optimized nanomaterial system was tested and compared to a millimeter-size sensor e outcomes of this research will contribute to the economical application of sensor arrays for simultaneous sensing of H2, H2S, and SO2.

  19. Synthesis of uniform nano-structured lead oxide by sonochemical method and its application as cathode and anode of lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karami, Hassan [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Abhar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: karami_h@yahoo.com; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Haghdar, Saeed [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Ardakan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-11-03

    This paper discusses the results of a research aimed at investigating the synthesis of nano-structured lead oxide through reaction of lead nitrate solution and sodium carbonate solution by the sonochemical method. At the first, lead carbonate was obtained in a synthesized solution and then, after filtration, it was calcinated at the temperature of 320 deg. C so that nano-structured lead oxide can be produced. The effects of different parameters on particle size and morphology of final lead oxide powder were optimized by a 'one at a time' method. The prepared lead oxide powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Under optimum conditions, uniformed and homogeneous nano-structured lead oxide powder with more spongy morphology and particle size of 20-40 nm was obtained. The synthesized lead oxide, as anode and cathode of lead-acid batteries, showed an excellent discharge capacity (140 mA h/g)

  20. Effect of substrates on microstructure and mechanical properties of nano-eutectic 1080 steel produced by aluminothermic reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La, Peiqing, E-mail: pqla@lut.cn; Li, Zhengning; Li, Cuiling; Hu, Sulei; Lu, Xuefeng; Wei, Yupeng; Wei, Fuan

    2014-06-01

    Nano-eutectic bulk 1080 carbon steel was prepared on glass and copper substrates by an aluminothermic reaction casting. The microstructure of the steel was analyzed by an optical microscope, transmission electron microscopy, an electron probe micro-analyzer, a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Results show that the microstructure of the steel consisted of a little cementite and lamellar eutectic pearlite. Average lamellar spacing of the pearlite prepared on copper and glass substrates was about 230 nm and 219 nm, respectively. Volume fraction of the pearlite of the two steels was about 95%. Hardness of the steel was about 229 and 270 HV. Tensile strength was about 610 and 641 MPa and tensile elongation was about 15% and 8%. Compressive strength was about 1043 and 1144 MPa. Compared with the steel prepared on copper substrate, the steel prepared on glass substrate had smaller lamellar spacing of the pearlite phase and higher strength, and low ductility due to the smaller spacing. - Highlights: • 1080-carbon steels were successfully prepared by an aluminothermic reaction casting. • Lamellar spacing of the nanoeutetic pearlite is less than 250 nm. • The compressive strength of the steel is about 1144 MPa. • The tensile ductility of the steel is about 15%.

  1. Effect of carbon dioxide and nitrogen on the diffusivity of methane confined in nano-porous carbon aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavila Chathoth, Suresh; He, Lilin; Mamontov, Eugene; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    2012-01-01

    The microscopic diffusivity of methane (CH{sub 4}) confined in nano-porous carbon aerogel was investigated as a function of added carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) pressure using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). In the range of the external pressure of 1-2.5 MPa, the self-diffusivity of methane was found to increase with CO{sub 2} pressure and remain practically unchanged in the N{sub 2} environment. Increasing mobility of methane with CO{sub 2} pressure suggests that the adsorbed CH4 molecules become gradually replaced by CO{sub 2} on the surface of carbon aerogel pores, whereas the presence of N{sub 2} does not induce the replacement. The molecular mobility of the methane, with or without added carbon dioxide and nitrogen, is described by the unrestricted diffusion model, which is characteristic of methane compressed in small pores. On the other hand, both nitrogen and carbon dioxide molecules in carbon aerogel, when studied alone, with no methane present, follow a jump diffusion process, characteristic of the molecular mobility in the densified adsorbed layers on the surface of the aerogel pores.

  2. Nano-fabricated perpendicular magnetic anisotropy electrodes for lateral spin valves and observation of Nernst-Ettingshausen related signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chejanovsky, N.; Sharoni, A.

    2014-08-21

    Lateral spin valves (LSVs) are efficient structures for characterizing spin currents in spintronics devices. Most LSVs are based on ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes for spin-injection and detection. While there are advantages for using perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) FM, e.g., stability to nano-scaling, these have almost not been studied. This is mainly due to difficulties in fabricating PMA FMs in a lateral geometry. We present here an efficient method, based on ion-milling through an AlN mask, for fabrication of LSVs with multi-layered PMA FMs such as Co/Pd and Co/Ni. We demonstrate, using standard permalloy FMs, that the method enables efficient spin injection. We show the multi-layer electrodes retain their PMA properties as well as spin injection and detection in PMA LSVs. In addition, we find a large asymmetric voltage signal which increases with current. We attribute this to a Nernst-Ettingshausen effect caused by local Joule heating and the perpendicular magnetic easy axis.

  3. Film Breakdown and Nano-Porous Mg(OH)2 Formation from Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys in Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P; Rother, Gernot; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Littrell, Ken; Unocic, Kinga A; Elsentriecy, Hassan H; Song, GuangLing; Thomson, Jeffery K; Gallego, Nidia C; Davis, Dr. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and cross-section scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to study film formation by magnesium alloys AZ31B (Mg-3Al-1Zn base) and ZE10A (Elektron 717, E717: Mg-1Zn + Nd, Zr) in H2O and D2O with and without 1 or 5 wt.% NaCl. No SANS scattering changes were observed after 24 h D2O or H2O exposures compared with unreacted alloy, consistent with relatively dense MgO-base film formation. However, exposure to 5 wt.% NaCl resulted in accelerated corrosion, with resultant SANS scattering changes detected. The SANS data indicated both particle and rough surface scattering, but with no preferential size features. The films formed in 5 wt.% NaCl consisted of a thin, inner MgO-base layer, and a nano-porous and filamentous Mg(OH)2 outer region tens of microns thick. Chlorine was detected extending to the inner MgO-base film region, with segregation of select alloying elements also observed in the inner MgO, but not the outer Mg(OH)2. Modeling of the SANS data suggested that the outer Mg(OH)2 films had very high surface areas, consistent with loss of film protectiveness. Implications for the NaCl corrosion mechanism, and the potential utility of SANS for Mg corrosion, are discussed.

  4. Complete hyperfine Paschen-Back regime at relatively small magnetic fields realized in Potassium nano-cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargsyan, A; Hakhumyan, G; Leroy, C; Pashayan-Leroy, Y; Sarkisyan, D

    2015-01-01

    A one-dimensional nano-metric-thin cell (NC) filled with potassium metal has been built and used to study optical atomic transitions in external magnetic fields. These studies benefit from the remarkable features of the NC allowing one to use $\\lambda/2$- and $\\lambda$-methods for effective investigations of individual transitions of the K D_1 line. The methods are based on strong narrowing of the absorption spectrum of the atomic column of thickness L equal to $\\lambda/2$ and to $\\lambda$(with $\\lambda = 770\\un{nm}$ being the resonant laser radiation wavelength). In particular, for a $\\pi$-polarized radiation excitation the $\\lambda$-method allows us to resolve eight atomic transitions (in two groups of four atomic transitions) and to reveal two remarkable transitions that we call Guiding Transitions (GT). The probabilities of all other transitions inside the group (as well as the frequency slope versus magnetic field) tend to the probability and to the slope of GT. Note that for circular polarization there ...

  5. MoS{sub 2}@ZnO nano-heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalysis and field emission properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Ying-Hua; Yu, Ke Li, Jin-Zhu; Fu, Hao; Zhu, Zi-Qiang

    2014-08-14

    The molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2})@ZnO nano-heterojunctions were successfully fabricated through a facile three-step synthetic process: prefabrication of the ZnO nanoparticles, the synthesis of MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers, and the fabrication of MoS{sub 2}@ZnO heterojunctions, in which ZnO nanoparticles were uniformly self-assembled on the MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers by utilizing polyethyleneimine as a binding agent. The photocatalytic activities of the composite samples were evaluated by monitoring the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB). Compared with pure MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers, the composites show higher adsorption capability in dark and better photocatalytic efficiency due to the increased specific surface area and improved electron-hole pair separation. After irradiation for 100?min, the remaining MB in solution is about 7.3%. Moreover, the MoS{sub 2}@ZnO heterojunctions possess enhanced field emission properties with lower turn-on field of 3.08?V ?m{sup ?1}and lower threshold field of 6.9?V ?m{sup ?1} relative to pure MoS{sub 2} with turn-on field of 3.65?V ?m{sup ?1} and threshold field of 9.03?V ?m{sup ?1}.

  6. Evaluation of Radiation Dose Reduction during CT Scans Using Oxide Bismuth and Nano-Barium Sulfate Shields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seoung, Youl-Hun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate radiation dose reduction and image quality during CT scanning by using a new dose reduction fiber sheet (DRFS) with commercially available bismuth shields. These DRFS were composed of nano-barium sulfate (BaSO4), filling the gaps left by the large oxide bismuth (Bi2O3) particle sizes. The radiation dose was measured five times at directionss of 12 o'clock from the center of the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) head phantom to calculate an average value using a CT ionization chamber. The image quality measured CT transverse images of the PMMA head phantom depending on X-ray tube voltages and the type of shielding. Two regions of interest in CT transverse images were chosen from the right and left areas under the surface of the PMMA head phantom and from ion chamber holes located at directions of 12 o'clock from the center of the PMMA head phantom. The results of this study showed that the new DRFS shields could reduce dosages to 15.61%, 23.05%, and 22.71% more in ...

  7. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  8. PicoServer Revisited: On the Profitability of Eliminating Intermediate Cache Levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenisch, Thomas F.

    interest in single-chip servers as building blocks for scalable data-centric system design. These chips investigate the bandwidth, latency, and energy filter- ing afforded by an L2 cache. For data-centric interest in single- chip servers as building blocks for scalable data-centric system design [23

  9. Experimental detection of 1pico-molar concentration from high-Q photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    biosensors Yi Zou1 , Swapnajit Chakravarty2 , Wei-Cheng Lai1 and Ray T. Chen1 1 Department of Electrical.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com, and raychen@uts.cc.utexas.edu Abstract--We experimentally demonstrate a photonic crystal microcavity biosensor Microcavity; Biosensor; Chemical Sensing; Photonic Crystal Waveguide I. INTRODUCTION Photonic crystal (PC

  10. picoCTF: Teaching 10,000 High School Students to Hack Preliminary Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brumley, David

    computer science and computer security. Over the 10-day competition nearly 10,000 middle and high schoolpicoCTF: Teaching 10,000 High School Students to Hack Preliminary Report Peter Chapman peter-lead organizations, the Plaid Parliament of Pwning and Team Osiris, designed and hosted a computer security

  11. On Coordination Tools in the PicOS Tuples System Benny Shimony

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gburzynski, Pawel

    2011 ACM 978-1-4503-0583-9/11/05 ...$10.00. (memory, CPU power, and energy) which is additionally plagued by inherent reliability problems (whimsical connec- tivity, interference, mobility for coping with the reliability problems, as it facilitates various persistent and idempotent algorithms

  12. Microbiological, chemical, and sensory quality changes in Pico de gallo as affected by gamma radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Gerald Howard

    1994-01-01

    by radiation and storage. Pectin solubility was affected by radiation treatment and storage. Radiation resulted in conversion of CSP to NXP. Levels of WSP and NXP increased in both treatments during storage, while levels of CSP and OHSP decreased. Pectins were...

  13. THREE AXIS ATTITUDE DETERMINATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A PICO-SATELLITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    and Fredrik Mietle Indergaard Department of Engineering Cybernetics and a Department of Telecommunications Norwegian University of Science and Technology N-7491 TRONDHEIM NORWAY Revised version October 7, 2003 are Narvik University College, Norwegian Univer- sity of Science and Technology (NTNU), Agricultural

  14. Detection of pico-Tesla magnetic fields using magneto-electric sensors at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhai Junyi; Xing Zengping; Dong Shuxiang; Li Jiefang; Viehland, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2006-02-06

    The measurement of low-frequency (10{sup -2}-10{sup 3} Hz) minute magnetic field variations (10{sup -12} Tesla) at room temperature in a passive mode of operation would be critically enabling for deployable neurological signal interfacing and magnetic anomaly detection applications. However, there is presently no magnetic field sensor capable of meeting all of these requirements. Here, we present new bimorph and push-pull magneto-electric laminate composites, which incorporate a charge compensation mechanism (or bridge) that dramatically enhances noise rejection, enabling achievement of such requirements.

  15. A Morphometric Analysis Of The Submarine Volcanic Ridge South-East Of Pico

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton JumpProgram | OpenEnergyEvaluation |Island, Azores | Open

  16. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collidertransfer (Journal Article)Journal Article: Dark

  17. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collidertransfer (Journal Article)Journal Article: DarkArticle) |

  18. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to(Conference) |ofPDV workshop(Conference) |

  19. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to(Conference) |ofPDV workshop(Conference) |(Journal Article)

  20. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abramowitz, M. and Stegun, I.A., Handbook of Mathematical Functions, 10th ed,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    OF MEASUREMENT The following units, abbreviations and prefixes are from the Syst`eme International d'Unit nano 10-9 n pico 10-12 p Basic Units. Basic units of measurement Unit Name Symbol Length meter m Mass.L., Schild, A., Tensor Calculus, Toronto:Univ. Toronto Press, 1956. Bibliography #12;353 APPENDIX A UNITS

  1. BIBLIOGRAPHY . Abramowitz, M. and Stegun, I.A., Handbook of Mathematical Functions, 10th ed,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    OF MEASUREMENT The following units, abbreviations and prefixes are from the Systâ??eme International d'Unit 10 -6 µ nano 10 -9 n pico 10 -12 p Basic Units. Basic units of measurement Unit Name Symbol Length.L., Schild, A., Tensor Calculus, Toronto:Univ. Toronto Press, 1956. Bibliography #12; 353 APPENDIX A UNITS

  2. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 195418 (2012) Gold-embedded zigzag graphene nanoribbons as spin gapless semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    2012-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 195418 (2012) Gold-embedded zigzag graphene nanoribbons as spin gapless semiconductors Xiaohui Hu,1 Wei Zhang,2 Litao Sun,1,* and Arkady V. Krasheninnikov3,4 1 SEU-FEI Nano-Pico Center properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) with gold (Au) atoms embedded into different sites

  3. Surfactant-Free Synthesis of Bi?Te?-Te Micro-Nano Heterostructure with Enhanced Thermoelectric Figure of Merit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yichi; Wang, Heng; Kraemer, Stephan; Shi, Yifeng; Zhang, Fan; Snedaker, Matt; Ding, Kunlun; Moskovits, Martin; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Stucky, Galen D.

    2011-01-01

    An ideal thermoelectric material would be a semiconductor with high electrical conductivity and relatively low thermal conductivity: an “electron crystal, phonon glass”. Introducing nanoscale heterostructures into the bulk TE matrix is one way of achieving this intuitively anomalous electron/phonon transport behavior. The heterostructured interfaces are expected to play a significant role in phonon scattering to reduce thermal conductivity and in the energy-dependent scattering of electrical carriers to improve the Seebeck coefficient. A nanoparticle building block assembly approach is plausible to fabricate three-dimensional heterostructured materials on a bulk commercial scale. However, a key problem in applying this strategy is the possible negative impact on TE performance of organic residue from the nanoparticle capping ligands. Herein, we report a wet chemical, surfactant-free, low-temperature, and easily up-scalable strategy for the synthesis of nanoscale heterophase Bi?Te?-Te via a galvanic replacement reaction. The micro-nano heterostructured material is fabricated bottom-up, by mixing the heterophase with commercial Bi?Te?. This unique structure shows an enhanced zT value of ~0.4 at room temperature. This heterostructure has one of the highest figures of merit among bismuth telluride systems yet achieved by a wet chemical bottom-up assembly. In addition, it shows a 40% enhancement of the figure of merit over our lab-made material without nanoscale heterostructures. This enhancement is mainly due to the decrease in the thermal conductivity while maintaining the power factor. Overall, this cost-efficient and room-temperature synthesis methodology provides the potential for further improvement and large-scale thermoelectric applications.

  4. Identification and design of novel polymer-based mechanical transducers: A nano-structural model for thin film indentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villanueva, Joshua; Huang, Qian; Sirbuly, Donald J.

    2014-09-14

    Mechanical characterization is important for understanding small-scale systems and developing devices, particularly at the interface of biology, medicine, and nanotechnology. Yet, monitoring sub-surface forces is challenging with current technologies like atomic force microscopes (AFMs) or optical tweezers due to their probe sizes and sophisticated feedback mechanisms. An alternative transducer design relying on the indentation mechanics of a compressible thin polymer would be an ideal system for more compact and versatile probes, facilitating measurements in situ or in vivo. However, application-specific tuning of a polymer's mechanical properties can be burdensome via experimental optimization. Therefore, efficient transducer design requires a fundamental understanding of how synthetic parameters such as the molecular weight and grafting density influence the bulk material properties that determine the force response. In this work, we apply molecular-level polymer scaling laws to a first order elastic foundation model, relating the conformational state of individual polymer chains to the macroscopic compression of thin film systems. A parameter sweep analysis was conducted to observe predicted model trends under various system conditions and to understand how nano-structural elements influence the material stiffness. We validate the model by comparing predicted force profiles to experimental AFM curves for a real polymer system and show that it has reasonable predictive power for initial estimates of the force response, displaying excellent agreement with experimental force curves. We also present an analysis of the force sensitivity of an example transducer system to demonstrate identification of synthetic protocols based on desired mechanical properties. These results highlight the usefulness of this simple model as an aid for the design of a new class of compact and tunable nanomechanical force transducers.

  5. Effect of Dual-Function Nano-Structured Silicon Oxide Thin Film on Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, B.; Sivec, L.; Yue, G.; Jiang, C. S.; Yang, J.; Guha, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present our recent study of using nano-structured hydrogenated silicon oxide films (nc-SiO{sub x}:H) as a dual-function layer in multi-junction solar cells. The nc-SiO{sub x}:H films were deposited using very high frequency glow discharge of a SiH{sub 4} (or Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}), CO{sub 2}, PH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2} gas mixture. By optimizing deposition parameters, we obtained 'dual function' nc-SiO{sub x}:H material characterized by a conductivity suitable for use as an n layer and optical properties suitable for use as an inter-reflection layer. We tested the nc-SiO{sub x}:H by replacing the normal n-type material in the tunnel junction of a multi-junction structure. The advantage of the dual-function nc-SiO{sub x}:H layer is twofold; one is to simplify the cell structure, and the other is to reduce any optical loss associated with the inter-reflection layer. Quantum efficiency measurements show the gain in top cell current is equal to or greater than the loss in bottom cell current for a-Si:H/nc-Si:H structures. In addition, a thinner a-Si:H top cell with the nc-SiO{sub x}:H n layer improves the top-cell stability, thereby providing higher stabilized solar cell efficiency. We also used the dual-function layer between the middle and the bottom cells in a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/nc-Si:H triple-junction structures. The gain in the middle cell current is {approx}1.0 mA/cm{sup 2}, leading to an initial active-area efficiency of 14.8%.

  6. A comparative study on the optical limiting properties of different nano spinel ferrites with Z-scan technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Jeevan Job; Krishnan, Shiji [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India)] [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India); Sridharan, K.; Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)] [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Kalarikkal, Nandakumar, E-mail: nkkalarikkal@mgu.ac.in [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India) [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India); Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ? First report in which the optical limiting properties of five different nano spinel ferrites are compared. ? The obtained nonlinearity fits to a two-photon like absorption process. ? Except for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, the observed nonlinearity has contributions from excited state absorption. ? A size dependent optical limiting response is obtained. ? Among the investigated ferrites, ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is found to be a better candidate for the optical limiting applications. -- Abstract: We report the optical limiting properties of five different spinel ferrites, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with an average particle grain size of 8 nm. The optical limiting properties are investigated using the open aperture Z-scan technique. The obtained nonlinearity fits to a two-photon like absorption process. Except for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, the observed nonlinearity has contributions from excited state absorption. The optical limiting response is also studied against particle size and the nonlinearity is found to increase with increasing particle size within the range of our investigations. On comparing the optical limiting properties, ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is found to be a better candidate for the optical limiting applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report where the optical limiting properties of spinel ferrites are compared.

  7. Self-assembled nano- to micron-size fibers from molten R11Ni4In9 intermetallics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provino, Alessia; Manfrinetti, Pietro; Gschneidner, Karl A.; Dhar, Sudesh K.; Schlagel, Deborah L.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Miller, Gordon J.; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Wang, Hui; Russell, Alan M.; Becker, Andrew; Mudryk, Yaroslav

    2014-07-01

    A study of the formation of Gd11M4In9 (M = Ni, Pd, Pt) and R11Ni4In9 (R = rare earth) compounds revealed a unique and peculiar property, which is to naturally crystallize in a bundle of self-assembled fibers when cooled from the melt. The fibers, which are nano- to millimeters in cross-section and approximate to 11-40 mm long, grow unidirectionally along a temperature gradient. These compounds adopt the orthorhombic Nd11Pd4In9 structure type (oC48-Cmmm). This structure is layered, with slabs of R atoms alternating with slabs of Ni/In atoms along a short c-axis (much shorter than either the a- or b-axis). The growth direction of the fibers is along the crystallographic c-axis, orthogonal to the a-b plane. Two strong and short In In bonds lie in the a-b plane, which are even shorter than in In metal. Integrated crystal orbital Hamilton population calculations show that the In In bonds create isolated "R8Ni4In9" rods growing along the c-axis, with the In In bonds being part of the rods. This appears to be an important factor explaining the microfibrous nature of these phases. Some physical properties have been measured on the Gd11Ni4In9 homolog. The compound orders ferrimagnetically at T-c approximate to 88 K, and at lower temperatures (46 and 10 K), two other magnetic anomalies were observed, probably due to spin reorientations. As expected from the bonding features, the mechanical, magnetic and electrical properties are strongly anisotropic. (C) 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Large voltage modulation in magnetic field sensors from two-dimensional arrays of Y-Ba-Cu-O nano Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cybart, Shane A. Dynes, R. C.; Cho, E. Y.; Wong, T. J.; Glyantsev, V. N.; Huh, J. U.; Yung, C. S.; Moeckly, B. H.; Beeman, J. W.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Wu, S. M.

    2014-02-10

    We have fabricated and tested two-dimensional arrays of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} superconducting quantum interference devices. The arrays contain over 36?000 nano Josephson junctions fabricated from ion irradiation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} through narrow slits in a resist-mask that was patterned with electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Measurements of current-biased arrays in magnetic field exhibit large voltage modulations as high as 30?mV.

  9. Nano-scale NiSi and n-type silicon based Schottky barrier diode as a near infra-red detector for room temperature operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, S.; Midya, K.; Duttagupta, S. P.; Ramakrishnan, D.

    2014-09-28

    The fabrication of nano-scale NiSi/n-Si Schottky barrier diode by rapid thermal annealing process is reported. The characterization of the nano-scale NiSi film was performed using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The thickness of the film (27 nm) has been measured by cross-sectional Secondary Electron Microscopy and XPS based depth profile method. Current–voltage (I–V) characteristics show an excellent rectification ratio (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} = 10?) at a bias voltage of ±1 V. The diode ideality factor is 1.28. The barrier height was also determined independently based on I–V (0.62 eV) and high frequency capacitance–voltage technique (0.76 eV), and the correlation between them has explained. The diode photo-response was measured in the range of 1.35–2.5 ?m under different reverse bias conditions (0.0–1.0 V). The response is observed to increase with increasing reverse bias. From the photo-responsivity study, the zero bias barrier height was determined to be 0.54 eV.

  10. Suppression of the spin pumping in Pd/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayers with nano-oxide layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Duck-Ho; Kim, Hong-Hyoun; You, Chun-Yeol

    2011-08-15

    We demonstrate that the spin pumping effect can be effectively suppressed with a nano-oxide layer. Spin pumping effect manifests itself by an enhancement of the Gilbert damping parameter in normal metal/ferromagnetic hetero-structures, while many spintronics devices prefer smaller damping parameter. Since the spin pumping effect is directly related with the spin dependent interface conductance, we can modify the spin pumping by altering the interface conductance with the nano-oxide layer. We prepared series of Pd/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayers with different pausing time between Pd and Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} depositions in order to control the interface conductance. The Gilbert damping parameters are determined from the line-width measurements in the ferromagnetic resonance spectra for each pausing time sample. They are 0.0490, 0.0296, 0.0278, and 0.0251 for 0, 6, 30, and 60 s pausing time, respectively. We find that the damping parameter of Pd/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} is almost recovered to one of the Cu/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayer with 60 s pausing time, while the static magnetic properties are not noticeably changed.

  11. Towards sub-200?nm nano-structuring of linear giant magneto-resistive spin valves by a direct focused ion beam milling process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedmüller, Benjamin; Huber, Felix; Herr, Ulrich

    2014-02-14

    In this work, we present a detailed investigation of a focused ion beam (FIB) assisted nano-structuring process for giant magneto-resistive (GMR) spin valve sensors. We have performed a quantitative study of the dependence of the GMR ratio as well as the sensor resistance on the ion dose, which is implanted in the active region of our sensors. These findings are correlated with the decrease of magneto-resistive properties after micro- and nano-structuring by the FIB and reveal the importance of ion damage which limits the applicability of FIB milling to GMR devices in the low ?m range. Deposition of a protective layer (50?nm SiO{sub 2}) on top of the sensor structure before milling leads to a preservation of the magneto-resistive properties after the milling procedure down to sensor dimensions of ?300?nm. The reduction of the sensor dimensions to the nanometer regime is accompanied by a shift of the GMR curves, and a modification of the saturation behavior. Both effects can be explained by a micromagnetic model including the magnetic interaction of free and pinned layer as well as the effect of the demagnetizing field of the free layer on the sensor behavior. The results demonstrate that the FIB technology can be successfully used to prepare spintronic nanostructures.

  12. Time-Dependent Measure of a Nano-Scale Force-Pulse Driven by the Axonemal Dynein Motors in Individual Live Sperm Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M J; Rudd, R E; McElfresh, M W; Balhorn, R

    2009-04-23

    Nano-scale mechanical forces generated by motor proteins are crucial to normal cellular and organismal functioning. The ability to measure and exploit such forces would be important to developing motile biomimetic nanodevices powered by biological motors for Nanomedicine. Axonemal dynein motors positioned inside the sperm flagellum drive microtubule sliding giving rise to rhythmic beating of the flagellum. This force-generating action makes it possible for the sperm cell to move through viscous media. Here we report new nano-scale information on how the propulsive force is generated by the sperm flagellum and how this force varies over time. Single cell recordings reveal discrete {approx}50 ms pulses oscillating with amplitude 9.8 {+-} 2.6 nN independent of pulse frequency (3.5-19.5 Hz). The average work carried out by each cell is 4.6 x 10{sup -16} J per pulse, equivalent to the hydrolysis of {approx}5,500 ATP molecules. The mechanochemical coupling at each active dynein head is {approx}2.2 pN/ATP, and {approx}3.9 pN per dynein arm, in agreement with previously published values obtained using different methods.

  13. First principles assessment of helium trapping in Y{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} in nano-featured ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Yanan; Jiang, Yong E-mail: odette@engineering.ucsb.edu; Yang, Litong; Lan, Guoqiang; Robert Odette, G. E-mail: odette@engineering.ucsb.edu; Yamamoto, Takuya; Shang, Jiacheng; Dang, Ying

    2014-10-14

    Nano-scale Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Y{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} oxides are the major features that provide high strength and irradiation tolerance in nano-structured ferritic alloys. Here, we employ density functional theory to study helium trapping in Y{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}. The results suggest that helium is more deeply trapped in Y{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} compared to Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Helium occupies open channels in Y{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}, where it weakly chemically interacts with neighboring oxygen anions, and results in less volume expansion compared to Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, reducing strains in the iron matrix. The corresponding helium mobility in these channels is very high. While its ultimate fate is to form oxide/matrix interface bubbles, transient deep trapping of helium in oxides plays a major role in the ability of NFA to manage helium distribution.

  14. Effect of sintering in ball-milled K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} thermoelectric nano-composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatzikraniotis, E.; Ioannou, M.; Chrissafis, K.; Chung, D.Y.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Kyratsi, Th.

    2012-09-15

    K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} has many attractive features for thermoelectric applications. Recently, K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposite materials, consisting of nano-crystalline, micro-crystalline and amorphous phases, have been fabricated based on powder technology techniques. The Seebeck coefficient has been enhanced while the thermal conductivity has been decreased presenting, thus, interesting behavior. The behavior of the materials under heat treatment conditions is now of interest, as the application of sintering process is necessary for the development of thermoelectric modules. In this work, the crystallization of the K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nano-composites is studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results show that crystallization follows a multiple-step process with different activation energies. The thermoelectric properties are also discussed in the range that crystallization occurs. - Graphical Abstract: {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposites follow a multiple-step crystallization process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based composites consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sintering results multiple-step crystallization with variable activation energies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties follow a step-like behavior during sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties are attributed to the strain relaxation, nucleation and grain growth.

  15. Multi-resonant silver nano-disk patterned thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells for Staebler-Wronski effect compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vora, Ankit; Pearce, Joshua M; Bergstrom, Paul L; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2014-01-01

    We study polarization independent improved light trapping in commercial thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar photovoltaic cells using a three-dimensional silver array of multi-resonant nano-disk structures embedded in a silicon nitride anti-reflection coating (ARC) to enhance optical absorption in the intrinsic layer (i-a-Si:H) for the visible spectrum for any polarization angle. Predicted total optical enhancement (OE) in absorption in the i-a-Si:H for AM-1.5 solar spectrum is 18.51% as compared to the reference, and producing a 19.65% improvement in short-circuit current density (JSC) over 11.7 mA/cm2 for a reference cell. The JSC in the nano-disk patterned solar cell (NDPSC) was found to be higher than the commercial reference structure for any incident angle. The NDPSC has a multi-resonant optical response for the visible spectrum and the associated mechanism for OE in i-a-Si:H layer is excitation of Fabry-Perot resonance facilitated by surface plasmon resonances. The detrimental Staebl...

  16. Edge sharpness Dependence of MNP in plasmonic solar cell In this article we show that in a a-Si ultra thin plsmonic solar cell with silver nano-particle, the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    , and M. L. Brongersma, Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements that in a a-Si ultra thin plsmonic solar cell with silver nano-particle, the absorption of the light can Edge sharpness Dependence of MNP in plasmonic solar cell *, , In this article we show

  17. Director, Smalley Nano & Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Dallas Board of Councilors December 7, 1995 #12;#12;Oil will become scarce, and then gas & Gas 14 World Oil Reserves Top Ten Owner Companies Venezuela 10% Abu Dhabi 7% Mexico 6% Libya 3% Nigeria 3% China 2% Iran 11% Kuwait 12% Iraq 14% Saudi Aramco 32% Source: The Oil Daily, 12/23/1999 Total

  18. NanoDays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesofPublications The NREL windTeacher Programs5fourSauer

  19. Co-localised Raman and force spectroscopy reveal the roles of hydrogen bonds and ?-? interactions in defining the mechanical properties of diphenylalanine nano- and micro-tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinjab, Faris; Bondakov, Georgi; Notingher, Ioan, E-mail: ioan.notingher@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-23

    An integrated atomic force and polarized Raman microscope were used to measure the elastic properties of individual diphenylalanine (FF) nano- and micro-tubes and to obtain quantitative information regarding the inter-molecular interactions that define their mechanical properties. For individual tubes, co-localised force spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements allowed the calculation of the Young's and shear moduli (25?±?5?GPa and 0.28?±?0.05?GPa, respectively) and the contribution of hydrogen bonding network to the Young's modulus (?17.6?GPa). The ?-? interactions between the phenyl rings, dominated by T-type arrangements, were estimated based on previously published X-ray data to only 0.20?GPa. These results provide experimental evidence obtained from individual FF tubes that the network of H-bonds dominates the elastic properties of the FF tubes.

  20. The effects of side-chain-induced disorder on the emission spectra and quantum yields of oligothiophene nano-aggregates: A combined experimental and MD-TDDFT study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Jiyun; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Jeon, SuKyung; Kim, Janice J.; Devi, Diane; Chacon-Madrid, Kelly; Lee, Wynee; Koo, Seung Moh; Wildeman, Jurjen; Peteanu, Linda A.; Wen, Jin; Ma, Jing

    2014-11-13

    Oligomeric thiophenes are commonly-used components in organic electronics and solar cells. These molecules stack and/or aggregate readily under the processing conditions used to form thin films for these applications, significantly altering their optical and charge-transport properties. To determine how these effects depend on the substitution pattern of the thiophene main chains, nano-aggregates of three sexi-thiophene (6T) oligomers having different alkyl substitution patterns were formed using solvent poisoning techniques and studied using steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. The results indicate the substantial role played by the side-chain substituents in determining the emissive properties of these species. Both the measured spectral changes and their dependence on substitution are well modeled by combined quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations connect the side-chain-induced disorder, which determines the favorable chain packing configurations within the aggregates, with their measured electronic spectra.

  1. An investigation of the effects of history dependent damage in time dependent fracture mechanics: nano-scale studies of damage evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brust, F.W. (Bud) Jr; Mohan, R.; Yang, Y.P.; Oh, J.; Katsube, N.

    2002-12-01

    High-temperature operation of technical engineering systems is critical for system efficiency, and will be a key driver in the future US DOE energy policy. Developing an understanding of high-temperature creep and creep-fatigue failure processes is a key driver for the research work described here. The focus is on understanding the high-temperature deformation and damage development on the nano-scale (50 to 500 nm) level. The high-temperature damage development process, especially with regard to low and high cyclic loading, which has received little attention to date, is studied. Damage development under cyclic loading develops in a fashion quite different from the constant load situation. The development of analytical methodologies so that high-temperature management of new systems can be realized is the key goal of this work.

  2. The effects of side-chain-induced disorder on the emission spectra and quantum yields of oligothiophene nano-aggregates. A combined experimental and MD-TDDFT study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hong, Jiyun; Jeon, SuKyung; Kim, Janice J.; Devi, Diane; Chacon-Madrid, Kelly; Lee, Wynee; Koo, Seung Moh; Wildeman, Jurjen; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Peteanu, Linda A.; et al

    2014-07-24

    Oligomeric thiophenes are commonly-used components in organic electronics and solar cells. These molecules stack and/or aggregate readily under the processing conditions used to form thin films for these applications, significantly altering their optical and charge-transport properties. To determine how these effects depend on the substitution pattern of the thiophene main chains, nano-aggregates of three sexi-thiophene (6T) oligomers having different alkyl substitution patterns were formed using solvent poisoning techniques and studied using steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. The results indicate the substantial role played by the side-chain substituents in determining the emissive properties of these species. Both the measured spectral changesmore »and their dependence on substitution are well modeled by combined quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations connect the side-chain-induced disorder, which determines the favorable chain packing configurations within the aggregates, with their measured electronic spectra.« less

  3. Modeling and Analysis of SiNW BioFET as Molecular Antenna for Bio-Cyber Interfaces towards the Internet of Bio-NanoThings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuscu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Seamless connection of molecular nanonetworks to macroscale cyber networks is envisioned to enable the Internet of Bio-NanoThings, which promises for cutting-edge applications, especially in the medical domain. The connection requires the development of an interface between the biochemical domain of molecular nanonetworks and the electrical domain of conventional electromagnetic networks. To this aim, in this paper, we propose to exploit field effect transistor based biosensors (bioFETs) to devise a molecular antenna capable of transducing molecular messages into electrical signals. In particular, focusing on the use of SiNW FET-based biosensors as molecular antennas, we develop deterministic and noise models for the antenna operation to provide a theoretical framework for the optimization of the device from communication perspective. We numerically evaluate the performance of the antenna in terms of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) at the electrical output.

  4. A transmission electron microscopy study of the deformation behavior underneath nanoindents in nano-scale Al-TiN multilayered composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, Dhriti; Mara, Nathan A; Dickerson, Patricia O; Misra, Amit; Hoagland, R G

    2009-01-01

    Nano-scale multilayered Al-TiN composites were deposited with DC magnetron sputtering technique in two different layer thickness ratios - Al:TiN = 1:1 and Al:TiN = 9:1. The Al layer thickness varied from 2 nm to 450 nm. The hardness of the samples was tested by nanoindentation using a Berkovich tip. Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was carried out on samples extracted with Focused Ion Beam (FIB) from below the nanoindents. This paper presents the results of the hardness tests in the Al-TiN multilayers with the two different thickness ratios and the observations from the cross-sectional TEM studies of the regions underneath the indents. These studies showed remarkable strength in the multilayers, as well as some very interesting deformation behavior in the TiN layers at extremely small length scales, where the hard TiN layers undergo co-deformation with the Al layers.

  5. Nano-Structured Mesoporous Silica Wires with Intra-Wire Lamellae via Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly in Space-Confined Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Shi, Donglu [University of Cincinnati; Blom, Douglas Allen [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of silica sol-gel ethanol-water solution mixtures with block-copolymer were studied inside uniform micro/nano channels. Nano-structured mesoporous silica wires, with various intra-wire self-assembly structures including lamellae, were prepared via EISA process but in space-confined channels with the diameter ranging from 50 nm to 200 nm. Membranes made of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) and track-etched polycarbonate (EPC) were utilized as the arrays of space-confined channels (i.e., 50, 100, and 200-nm EPC and 200-nm AAO) for infiltration and drying of mixture solutions; these substrate membranes were submerged in mixture solutions consisting of a silica precursor, a structure-directing agent, ethanol, and water. After the substrate channels were filled with the solution under vacuum impregnation, the membrane was removed from the solution and dried in air. The silica precursor used was tetra-ethyl othosilicate (TEOS), and the structure-directing agent employed was triblock copolymer Pluronic-123 (P123). It was found that the formation of the mesoporous nanostructures in silica wires within uniform channels were significantly affected by the synthesis conditions including (1) pre-assemble TEOS aging time, (2) the evaporation rate during the vacuum impregnation, and (3) the air-dry temperature. The obtained intra-wire structures, including 2D-hexagonal rods and lamellae, were studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). A steric hindrance effect seems to explain well the observed polymer-silica mesophase formation tailored by TEOS aging time. The evaporation effect, air-drying effect, and AAO-vs-EPC substrate effect on the mesoporous structure of the formed silica wires were also presented and discussed.

  6. Surface plasmon coupled emission studies on engineered thin film hybrids of nano ??Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on silver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulpur, Pradyumna; Chunduri, Avinash; Rattan, Tanu Mimani; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah [Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthi Nilayam, Andhra Pradesh, India 515134 (India); Lingam, Kiran; Rao, Apparao M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 202C Kinard Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    We report the first time engineering and fabrication of a novel thin film hybrid of nano ?-alumina doped in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix along with rhodamine b (Rh.B) on a silver thin film. Silver films of 50 nm thickness on glass slides were fabricated by thermal evaporation. Nano ?-alumina was synthesized through the combustion route and characterized by XRD. The ?-alumina was dispersed in the PVA-Rh.B matrix by tip sonication. The resultant solution was spin coated on the Ag thin film at 3000 rpm to generate an overcoat of ?30 nm. We have designed and constructed an opto-mechanical setup for performing the SPCE studies. Excitation with a 532 nm continuous laser, led to the coupling of the energy of Rh.B emission to the surface plasmon modes of silver. The emission @ 580 nm was recorded using an Ocean Optics(copyright, serif) fiber optic spectrometer. Calculation of the ratio of signal intensity between the directional SPCE and isotropic fluorescence gives us the factor of signal enhancements which SPCE offers. We report an '8 fold' signal enhancement attributed to SPCE arising from the metal oxide doped thin film hybrid. We observed only a '5 fold' signal enhancement in the case of a thin film hybrid without ?-alumina. The emission was also 92% P-polarized which is in coherence with the theory of SPCE. The greater degree of signal enhancement observed in the ?-alumina doped thin film substrate can be attributed to the surface roughness which alumina offers to silver, which along with the porous nature of alumina enables a greater degree of adsorption of Rh.B which results in a higher emission intensity. Computational modeling was also performed, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) calculations to provide theoretical background to observed experimental data. The ?-alumina thin film hybrid can be extended as an economical sensing platform towards the high sensitive detection of analytes.

  7. Solvothermal synthesis and tunable luminescence of Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} codoped YF{sub 3} nano- and micro-crystals with uniform morphologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Yue [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China) [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Chen, Baojiu, E-mail: chenmbj@sohu.com [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)] [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Jinsu; Tian, Bining; Sun, Jiashi; Cheng, Lihong; Zhong, Haiyang; Zhong, Hua [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)] [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Hua, Ruinian, E-mail: rnhua@dlnu.edu.cn [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China)] [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} codoped YF{sub 3} nano- and micro-crystals with the morphologies of ellipsoid-like nanoplate, spindle, sandwich-structural rhombus and nanoaggregate were synthesized through a solvothermal method. The morphologies of the prepared products can be tailored by controlling the volume ratio of ethylene glycol (EG) to H{sub 2}O, solvent type or the reaction time. A possible formation mechanism of the sandwich-structural rhombus like YF{sub 3} phosphor was proposed. The emitting colors of YF{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+} phosphors can be easily tuned from yellowish green, yellow to orange by increasing Eu{sup 3+} concentration. The energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} in YF{sub 3} phosphors was studied. It was found that the interaction type between Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} is electric dipole-dipole interaction. - Graphical abstract: Sandwich-structural rhombus like YF{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized through a solvothermal process. The formation mechanism of the sandwich-structural rhombus like YF{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} phosphors was studied. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YF{sub 3} nano- and micro-crystals were synthesized through solvothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A formation mechanism of the sandwich-structural rhombus like YF{sub 3} was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The emitting colors of YF{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+} phosphors can be tuned. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} is confirmed as electric dipole-dipole interaction.

  8. Development and Integration of Single-Asperity Nanotribology Experiments & Nanoscale Interface Finite Element Modeling for Prediction and Control of Friction and Damage in Micro- and Nano-mechnical Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.W. Carpick; M.E. Plesha

    2007-03-03

    This report describes the accomplishments of the DOE BES grant entitled "Development and Integration of Single-Asperity Nanotribology Experiments & Nanoscale Interface Finite Element Modeling for Prediction and Control of Friction and Damage in Micro- and Nano-mechnical Systems". Key results are: the determination of nanoscale frictional properties of MEMS surfaces, self-assembled monolayers, and novel carbon-based films, as well as the development of models to describe this behavior.

  9. In situ derivation of sulfur activated TiO{sub 2} nano porous layers through pulse-micro arc oxidation technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayati, M.R.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-195, Tehran ; Moshfegh, A.Z.; Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 14588-89694, Tehran ; Molaei, Roya

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} S-TiO{sub 2} layers were grown by MAO technique under pulse current for the first time. {yields} Effect of growth parameters on chemical composition, topography, and morphology of the layers was studied. {yields} A correlation between photocatalytic performance and growth conditions was proposed. -- Abstract: Micro arc oxidation technique, as a facile and efficient process, was employed to grow sulfur doped titania porous layers. This research sheds light on the photocatalytic performance of the micro arc oxidized S-TiO{sub 2} nano-porous layers fabricated under pulse current. Morphological and topographical studies, performed by SEM and AFM techniques, revealed that increasing the frequency and/or decreasing the duty cycle resulted in formation of finer pores and smoother surfaces. XRD and XPS results showed that the layers consisted of anatase and rutile phases whose fraction was observed to change depending on the synthesis conditions. The highest anatase relative content was obtained at the frequency of 500 Hz and the duty cycle of 5%. Furthermore, photocatalytic activity of the layers was examined by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue under both ultraviolet and visible photo irradiations. Maximum photodegradation reaction rate constants over the pulse-grown S-TiO{sub 2} layers were respectively measured as 0.0202 and 0.0110 min{sup -1} for ultraviolet and visible irradiations.

  10. Mid-infrared ultra-short mode-locked fiber laser utilizing topological insulator Bi2Te3 nano-sheets as the saturable absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Ke; Zheng, Xin; Yu, Hao; Cheng, Xiangai; Hou, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The newly-emergent two-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) have shown their unique electronic and optical properties, such as good thermal management, high nonlinear refraction index and ultrafast relaxation time. Their narrow energy band gaps predict their optical absorption ability further into the mid-infrared region and their possibility to be very broadband light modulators ranging from the visible to the mid-infrared region. In this paper, a mid-infrared mode-locked fluoride fiber laser with TI Bi2Te3 nano-sheets as the saturable absorber is presented. Continuous wave lasing, Q-switched and continuous-wave mode-locking (CW-ML) operations of the laser are observed sequentially by increasing the pump power. The observed CW-ML pulse train has a pulse repetition rate of 10.4 MHz, a pulse width of ~6 ps, and a center wavelength of 2830 nm. The maximum achievable pulse energy is 8.6 nJ with average power up to 90 mW. This work forcefully demonstrates the promising applications of two-dimensional TIs for ...

  11. Cimbelina en 1900 y pico: Las tácticas de la (re)escritura en el teatro de Alfonsina Storni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prieto, Julio

    1998-10-01

    mujer "pura," inocente: mujer definida en función del deseo masculino - y lo rearticula según sus propios intereses; y una femineidad estratégica,9 que rechaza frontalmente los modelos heredados y propone una posibilidad excluida por el sistema... las dramaticpersonae deja claramente establecida esta dicotomía entre una femineidad táctica (Zarcillo) y una femineidad estratégica (Margara). Así, Zarcillo "Es toda imaginación, cálculo, mimo y astucia. Su modo de hablar ligero, despreocupado...

  12. Experimental Plan to Verify the YPCP Model: "Yukawa Pico Chemistry and Physics" Implications in the CF-Lenr Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dufour, Jacques; Murat, Denis; Foos, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    In the CF-LERN field (Cold Fusion and Low Energy Nuclear reactions) many experimental results are available: unexplained energy production, presence of unusual patterns of classical fusion reaction products, isotopic composition variations, sporadic emission of nuclear radiations. These effects are not always observed, for similar experimental conditions. Should a fundamental reason exist for these effects to occur, funding would be justified, to make them repeatable and more intense (this step being likely to be a trial and error process, might require a substantial amount of money). In this article, a possible fundamental explanation of the phenomenon is described, together with the experimental plan to assess it.

  13. Proposition of a new cabin optics increasing the field of view of the Pico Veleta 30m telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leclercq, Samuel

    ) The optical elements must neither cut the beam nor touch the walls, roof and ground of the cabin. 4 M3 must be efficient and simple. 10) It is desirable that both horizontal and vertical orientations

  14. An investigation on the influence of milling time and calcination temperature on the characterization of nano cerium oxide powder synthesized by mechanochemical route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aminzare, M.; Amoozegar, Z.; Sadrnezhaad, S.K.

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? Synthesis of nanosized CeO{sub 2} was carried out using mechanochemical reactions plus sequential calcinations procedure. ? The effect of milling time and calcinations procedure on crystallite size and surface area of the as-synthesized powders was investigated. ? The extended milling times were exposed to result in the smaller crystallite size, and hence higher surface area for the as-synthesized powder. ? Higher calcinations temperatures, on the other hand, led to the as-synthesized powder with a larger crystallite size and therefore, lower surface area. ? Activation energy for nanocrystallite growth was calculated during the calcinations procedure and the aforementioned crystallite growth was found to be conducted in the light of interfacial reactions. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sized CeO{sub 2} powder was investigated via mechanochemical reactions between hydrate cerium chloride and sodium hydroxide as the starting materials. The process was followed by a subsequent calcination procedure. Characterization of as-synthesized powder was performed using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, Brunner–Emmett–Teller (BET) nitrogen gas absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size analyzer (PSA). The precursors were milled for different milling times and then were subjected to different heat treatment procedure at variable temperatures from 100 to 700 °C. According to the results, milling time and calcination temperatures induce paramountal effects on crystallite size and surface area of as-synthesized powders. In addition, the average activation energy for the growth of nanocrystals during calcination was determined to be about 12.53 kJ/mol, suggesting the influence of interfacial reactions on the crystallite growth during the calcination procedure.

  15. Growth of nano-particles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlN and iron oxide with different crystalline phases in a thermal plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Naveen V.; Karmakar, Soumen; Banerjee, Indrani; Sahasrabudhe, S.N.; Das, A.K.; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2009-03-05

    The paper presents the experimental results showing that the crystalline phase of the nano-particles, synthesized in a DC transferred arc thermal plasma reactor, critically depend on the operating pressure in the reaction zone. The paper reports about the changes in crystalline phases of three different compounds namely: aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminium nitride (AlN) and iron oxide (Fe{sub x}O{sub y}) synthesized at 760 Torr and 500 Torr of operating pressures. The major outcome of the present work is that the phases having higher defect densities are more probable to form at the sub-atmospheric operating pressures. The variations in the crystalline structures are discussed on the basis of the change in the temperature during the nucleation process, prevailing at the boundary of the plasma, on account of the ambient pressures. The as-synthesized nano-particles were examined by X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the confirmatory analysis of the crystalline phases of iron oxides was carried out with the help of Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  16. Nano-Power Africa Nano-Power Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    Corporation 59 5.20 Procter and Gamble Corporation 59 5.21 Exxon Mobil Corporation 59 Section 6 Current) 68 7.1 National Science Foundation 68 7.2 ExxonMobil 69 7.3 Soros Foundation 69 7.4 State of Ohio

  17. Water nano-filtration device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2009-02-03

    A water filter includes a porous support characterized by a mean porosity in the range of 20 to 50% and a mean pore size of 2 to 5 .mu.m; and a carbon filter membrane disposed thereon which is characterized by a mean particle size of no more than 50 .mu.m and a mean pore size of no more than 7.2 .mu.m.

  18. Dirk Windelberg NANO-GEOMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Windelberg, Dirk

    and martensite: " is a given steel austenite or martensite?" · by the problem of detecting the origin the solidification of steel " lath martensite" can appear, and this kind of steel can be seen by the pattern) 1 structure of martensite steel 2 definition of " elliptic spot" 3 statistical solutions #12;D

  19. Nano-laminate-based ignitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Simpson, Randall L.; Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-12-11

    Sol-gel chemistry is used to prepare igniters comprising energetic multilayer structures coated with energetic materials. These igniters can be tailored to be stable to environmental aging, i.e., where the igniters are exposed to extremes of both hot and cold temperatures (-30 C to 150 C) and both low (0%) and high relative humidity (100%).

  20. Transparent conductive nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David Bruce; Ivanov, Ilia N; Puretzky, Alexander A; Jesse, Stephen; Hu, Bin; Garrett, Matthew; Zhao, Bin

    2013-09-24

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of forming an organic electric device that includes providing a plurality of carbon nanostructures; and dispersing the plurality of carbon nanostructures in a polymeric matrix to provide a polymeric composite, wherein when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a first concentration an interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix is characterized by charge transport when an external energy is applied, and when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a second concentration the interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix are characterized by exciton dissociation when an external energy is applied, wherein the first concentration is less than the second concentration.

  1. Transparent conductive nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David Bruce (Knoxville, TN); Ivanov, Ilia N. (Knoxville, TN); Puretzky, Alexander A. (Knoxville, TN); Jesse, Stephen (Knoxville, TN); Hu, Bin (Knoxville, TN); Garrett, Matthew (Knoxville, TN); Zhao, Bin (Easley, SC)

    2011-04-12

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of forming an organic electric device that includes providing a plurality of carbon nanostructures; and dispersing the plurality of carbon nanostructures in a polymeric matrix to provide a polymeric composite, wherein when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a first concentration an interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix is characterized by charge transport when an external energy is applied, and when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a second concentration the interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix are characterized by exciton dissociation when an external energy is applied, wherein the first concentration is less than the second concentration.

  2. Nano-laminate-based ignitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

    2011-05-31

    Sol-gel chemistry is used to prepare igniters comprising energetic multilayer structures coated with energetic booster materials. These igniters can be tailored to be stable to environmental aging, i.e., where the igniters are exposed to extremes of both hot and cold temperatures (-30 C to 150 C) and both low (0%) and high relative humidity (100%).

  3. Nano C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures Ltd Jump to: navigation, search59Naknek,C Jump to: navigation,

  4. Development of an Innovative High-Thermal Conductivity UO2 Ceramic Composites Fuel Pellets with Carbon Nano-Tubes Using Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subhash, Ghatu; Wu, Kuang-Hsi; Tulenko, James

    2014-03-10

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the most common fuel material in commercial nuclear power reactors. Despite its numerous advantages such as high melting point, good high-temperature stability, good chemical compatibility with cladding and coolant, and resistance to radiation, it suffers from low thermal conductivity that can result in large temperature gradients within the UO2 fuel pellet, causing it to crack and release fission gases. Thermal swelling of the pellets also limits the lifetime of UO2 fuel in the reactor. To mitigate these problems, we propose to develop novel UO2 fuel with uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that can provide high-conductivity thermal pathways and can eliminate fuel cracking and fission gas release due to high temperatures. CNTs have been investigated extensively for the past decade to explore their unique physical properties and many potential applications. CNTs have high thermal conductivity (6600 W/mK for an individual single- walled CNT and >3000 W/mK for an individual multi-walled CNT) and high temperature stability up to 2800°C in vacuum and about 750°C in air. These properties make them attractive candidates in preparing nano-composites with new functional properties. The objective of the proposed research is to develop high thermal conductivity of UO2–CNT composites without affecting the neutronic property of UO2 significantly. The concept of this goal is to utilize a rapid sintering method (5–15 min) called spark plasma sintering (SPS) in which a mixture of CNTs and UO2 powder are used to make composites with different volume fractions of CNTs. Incorporation of these nanoscale materials plays a fundamentally critical role in controlling the performance and stability of UO2 fuel. We will use a novel in situ growth process to grow CNTs on UO2 particles for rapid sintering and develop UO2-CNT composites. This method is expected to provide a uniform distribution of CNTs at various volume fractions so that a high thermally conductive UO2-CNT composite is obtained with a minimal volume fraction of CNTs. The mixtures are sintered in the SPS facility at a range of temperatures, pressures, and time durations so as to identify the optimal processing conditions to obtain the desired microstructure of sintered UO2-CNT pellets. The second objective of the proposed work is to identify the optimal volume fraction of CNTs in the microstructure of the composites that provides the desired high thermal conductivity yet retaining the mechanical strength required for efficient function as a reactor fuel. We will systematically study the resulting microstructure (grain size, porosity, distribution of CNTs, etc.) obtained at various SPS processing conditions using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). We will conduct indentation hardness measurements and uniaxial strength measurements as a function of volume fraction of CNTs to determine the mechanical strength and compare them to the properties of UO2. The fracture surfaces will be studied to determine the fracture characteristics that may relate to the observed cracking during service. Finally, we will perform thermal conductivity measurements on all the composites up to 1000° C. This study will relate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal properties at various volume fractions of CNTs. The overall intent is to identify optimal processing conditions that will provide a well-consolidated compact with optimal microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. The deliverables include: (1) fully characterized UO2-CNT composite with optimal CNT volume fraction and high thermal conductivity and (2) processing conditions for production of UO2-CNT composite pellets using SPS method.

  5. Reduced ultraviolet light induced degradation and enhanced light harvesting using YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} down-shifting nano-phosphor layer in organometal halide perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, Nikhil; Chandrasekhar, P. S.; Thouti, Eshwar; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh; Komarala, Vamsi K.; Khan, A. F.

    2014-07-21

    We report a simple method to mitigate ultra-violet (UV) degradation in TiO{sub 2} based perovskite solar cells (PSC) using a transparent luminescent down-shifting (DS) YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nano-phosphor layer. The PSC coated with DS phosphor showed an improvement in stability under prolonged illumination retaining more than 50% of its initial efficiency, whereas PSC without the phosphor layer degraded to ?35% of its initial value. The phosphor layer also provided ?8.5% enhancement in photocurrent due to DS of incident UV photons into additional red photons. YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} layer thus served a bi-functional role in PSC by reducing photo-degradation as well as enhancing energy conversion efficiency.

  6. Investigation of structural and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano powders prepared by self combustion method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudheesh, V.D.; Nehra, J.; Vinesh, A. [Department of Physics, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India)] [Department of Physics, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India); Sebastian, V. [Department of Physics, Nirmalagiri College, Kuthuparamba 670701, Kerala (India)] [Department of Physics, Nirmalagiri College, Kuthuparamba 670701, Kerala (India); Lakshmi, N., E-mail: nambakkat@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India); Dutta, Dimple P. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)] [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Reddy, V.R. [UGC-DAE CSR, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001, M.P. (India)] [UGC-DAE CSR, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001, M.P. (India); Venugopalan, K. [Department of Physics, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India)] [Department of Physics, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India); Gupta, Ajay [UGC-DAE CSR, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001, M.P. (India)] [UGC-DAE CSR, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001, M.P. (India)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared by self combustion with uniform/nonuniform heating. ? Characterized using TEM, XRD, in-field Mössbauer and DC magnetometry. ? Leads to bimodal (S1) and very narrow size distribution (S2) type nano samples. ? S1 has magnetic properties of bulk Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ? Although very even sized, S2 large magnetic anisotropy distribution. -- Abstract: Nano powders of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been synthesized by the self-combustion method at a relatively low temperature of 473 K under conditions of non-uniform and uniform heating. Rietveld fitting of X-ray diffractograms confirm the formation of the pure spinel phase in both samples. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that the sample prepared under non-uniform heating has a bimodal particle size distribution (average values 16 nm and 6 nm) while the one prepared under uniform heating has a very narrow particle size distribution (average size 4 nm). Low temperature, in-field Mössbauer spectroscopic studies clearly show surface spin contributions. The hyperfine fields and Curie temperature of the non-uniformly heated sample are in good agreement with those reported for the corresponding bulk samples. Despite having a very narrow particle size distribution, the uniformly heated sample has a large anisotropy distribution which is evident in the broad transition visible in the temperature dependent magnetization curve. It is also corroborated by the fact that the experimental magnetization curve at room temperature requires two Langevin functions for satisfactory reproduction.

  7. Nano Patents and Innovations: Sandia And UNM Lead Effort To Use Nanotechnology To Destroy Cancers http://nanopatentsandinnovations.blogspot.com/2011/04/sandia-and-unm-lead-effort-to-use.html[4/21/2011 11:20:54 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    Nano Patents and Innovations: Sandia And UNM Lead Effort To Use Nanotechnology To Destroy Cancers http://nanopatentsandinnovations.blogspot.com/2011/04/sandia-and-unm-lead-effort-to-use.html[4/21/2011 11:20:54 AM] M O N D A Y , A P R I L 1 8 , 2 0 1 1 Sandia And UNM Lead Effort To Use Nanotechnology

  8. Fabrication of nano Delafossite LiCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} as the new adsorbent in efficient removal of reactive blue 5 from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khosravi, Iman; Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad; Eftekhar, Melika; Haddadi, Zohreh

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Fabrication of nano Delafossite LiCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} by sol–gel method. ? Kinetic study of the adsorption properties. ? Removal of reactive blue 5 (RB5) as a reactive dye by the prepared new nanocatalyst. - Abstract: In this paper, nanoparticles of delafossite-type LiCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} were prepared by sol–gel method in the presence of maleic acid as a chelating agent. The nanoparticles were characterized using differential thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. The nanoparticles showed the excellent adsorption properties towards reactive dye, reactive blue 5 (RB5). The adsorption studies were carried out at different pH values, various adsorbent dosages and contact time in a batch experiments. The kinetic studies indicate that the removal process obeys the second-order kinetic equation. Also, the isotherm evaluations reveal that the adsorption of RB5 by the nanoparticles follows the Freundlich model.

  9. Facile synthesis, structural characterization, and photoluminescence mechanism of Dy{sup 3+} doped YVO{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+} co-doped YVO{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} nano-lattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhiren Meetei, Sanoujam, E-mail: sdmdhiren@gmail.com; Dorendrajit Singh, Shougaijam, E-mail: dorendrajit@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: mdebensingh@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal-795003, Manipur (India); Deben Singh, Mutum, E-mail: dorendrajit@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: mdebensingh@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Thambal Marik College, Oinam-795134, Bishnupur, Manipur (India)

    2014-05-28

    Light plays a vital role in the evolution of life. From sunlight to candle-light and then to other form of lighting devices, human beings are utilizing light since time immemorial. Lighting devices such as conventional incandescent lamp and fluorescent lamp have been replaced by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) for the later is cheap, durable, etc. Now-a-days, phosphor converted LEDs have been burning issues in the fabrication of lighting devices. Especially, lanthanide ion(s) doped phosphors are of great interest for the same. However, doped phosphors have a limitation of luminescence quenching, i.e., instead of increasing luminescence on increasing dopant concentration, the luminescence decreases. Therefore, it must be rectified by one or other means so as to get maximum desirable intensity for uses in display or lighting devices. In the present work, YVO{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} and YVO{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+}/Ca{sup 2+} nano-lattices are synthesized by a facile technique. Structural characterizations such as x-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) of the samples are reported. Photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission, enhanced mechanism, and lifetime are thoroughly discussed. PL intensity of the quenched YVO{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} is made increased up to 432.63% by Ca{sup 2+} co-doping. Role of the Ca{sup 2+} on the luminescence enhanced mechanism of YVO{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+}/Ca{sup 2+} is elucidated.

  10. Faceting oscillations in nano-ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, J. F., E-mail: jfs32@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: jfs32@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Delhi (India)

    2014-08-04

    We observe periodic faceting of 8-nm diameter ferroelectric disks on a 10?s time-scale when thin Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} film is exposed to constant high-resolution transmission electron microscopy beams. The oscillation is between circular disk geometry and sharply faceted hexagons. The behavior is analogous to that of spin structure and magnetic domain wall velocity oscillations in permalloy [Bisig et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013)], involving overshoot and de-pinning from defects [Amann et al., J. Rheol. 57, 149–175 (2013)].

  11. Stabilized Spinel and Nano Olivine Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  12. Nano-optomechanical Nonlinear Dielectric Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karvounis, Artemios; MacDonald, Kevin F; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    By harnessing the resonant nature of localized electromagnetic modes in a nanostructured silicon membrane, an all-dielectric metamaterial can act as nonlinear medium at optical telecommunications wavelengths. We show that such metamaterials provide extremely large optomechanical nonlinearities, operating at intensities of only a few {\\mu}W per unit cell and modulation frequencies as high as 152 MHz, thereby offering a path to fast, lossless, compact and energy efficient all-optical metadevices.

  13. INTERNSHIP OPENINGS On nano-biotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galis, Frietson

    in bioscience that is difficult to be solved using general methods. What you learn: (1) Preparation of proteins using carbon nanotube and graphene (2) DNA-protein interactions on high density of DNA using carbon nanotube (3) Efficient gene delivery vectors made of carbon nanotube and graphene (4

  14. Engineering Nano- and Microparticles to Tune Immunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, James J.

    The immune system can be a cure or cause of disease, fulfilling a protective role in attacking cancer or pathogenic microbes but also causing tissue destruction in autoimmune disorders. Thus, therapies aimed to amplify or ...

  15. Nano- and mesoscale modeling of cement matrix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Zechuan

    Atomistic simulations of cementitious material can enrich our understanding of its structural and mechanical properties, whereas current computational capacities restrict the investigation length scale within 10 nm. In ...

  16. Nano-Optoelectronic Integration on Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Roger

    2012-01-01

    version 39),” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research andefficiency,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and

  17. Nano Acousto Mechanics with Surface Acoustic Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    nm SAW: F=300MHz,=9µm SAW are easily generated by interdigitated transducers (IDTs. Wixforth, R. H. Blick IEEE Sensors 2002 WHY ? #12;Q-Tuning by cw SAW Pres=-40dBm, B=12Tesla, Fsaw=303MHz, T

  18. Advanced Materials & NanoSciences Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenaway, Alan

    of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Heriot-Watt, Paisley, St Andrews, Strathclyde, and the joint Chemistry Research School

  19. Synthesis of Micro/Nano Crystalline Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Philip; Isac, Jayakumari [Centre for Condensed Matter, Department of Physics, CMS College, Kottayam, Kerala, India Department of Physics, CMS College, Kottayam, Kerala (India); Isac, Sheelakumari [Department of Chemistry, UC College, Aluva, Kerala (India); Abraham, Rosalin [Department of Physics, St. Dominics College, Kanjirappally, Kottayam, Kerala (India)

    2008-04-23

    As a matter of fact almost every industrial production line, office and home is dependant on ceramic materials. Newly designed devices incorporate ceramic materials because of their useful chemical, electrical, mechanical, thermal and structural properties. The effectiveness of a large system depends critically on its ceramic components. That is ceramics are important, first because they comprise a large basic industry and second because their properties are essential for many applications. Ceramics are more stable than metals both in chemical and thermal environments. In this work the authors describes a method for the preparation of PBT ceramics material from lead oxide (PbO), barium carbonate and titanium oxide based on pre-calcinations of oxides. The results were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and TGA. XRD and SEM studies revealed that its particle size is in nanometer range. Dielectric studies were conducted at a frequency range of 100 KHz to 13 MHz. Mechanical properties were calculated.

  20. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Yang, Xiaofan; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Mullins, David R; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Wu, Zili

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging conditions were provided by our collaborators at John Deere Power Systems. Among various zeolites reported here, CuFe-SSZ-13 offers the best NO{sub x} conversion activity in 150-650 C range and is hydrothermally stable when tested under accelerated aging conditions. It is important to note that Cu-SSZ-13 is now a commercial catalyst for NO{sub x} treatment on diesel passenger vehicles. Thus, our catalyst performs better than the commercial catalyst under fast SCR conditions. We initially focused on fast SCR tests to enable us to screen catalysts rapidly. Only the catalysts that exhibit high NO{sub x} conversion at low temperatures are selected for screening under varying NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio. The detailed tests of CuFe-SSZ-13 show that CuFe-SSZ-13 is more effective than commercial Cu-SSZ-13 even at NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio of 0.1. The mechanistic studies, employing stop-flow diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy (DRIFTS), suggest that high concentration of NO{sup +}, generated by heterobimetallic zeolites, is probably responsible for their superior low temperature NO{sub x} activity. The results described in this report clearly show that we have successfully completed the first step in a new emission treatment catalyst which is synthesis and laboratory testing employing simulated exhaust. The next step in the catalyst development is engine testing. Efforts are in progress to obtain follow-on funding to carry out scale-up and engine testing to facilitate commercialization of this technology.