National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for naics coal subbituminous

  1. Liquefaction of sub-bituminous coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1986-01-01

    Sub-bituminous coal is directly liquefied in two stages by use of a liquefaction solvent containing insoluble material as well as 850.degree. F.+ material and 850.degree. F.- material derived from the second stage, and controlled temperature and conversion in the second stage. The process is in hydrogen balance.

  2. High-pressure gasification of Montana subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, A.; Bryan, B.; Rehmat, A.

    1991-01-01

    A data base for the fluidized-bed gasification of different coals at elevated pressures has been developed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with different ranks of coal at pressures up to 450 psig and at temperatures dictated by the individual coals. Adequate data have been obtained to characterize the effect of pressure on the gasification of Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite. The results obtained with Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal are presented here. This program was funded by the Gas Research Institute. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Method for providing improved solid fuels from agglomerated subbituminous coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for separating agglomerated subbituminous coal and the heavy bridging liquid used to form the agglomerates. The separation is performed by contacting the agglomerates with inert gas or steam at a temperature in the range of 250.degree. to 350.degree. C. at substantially atmospheric pressure.

  4. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  5. Liquefaction of calcium-containing subbituminous coals and coals of lower rank

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorbaty, Martin L. (Sanwood, NJ); Taunton, John W. (Seabrook, TX)

    1980-01-01

    A process for the treatment of a calcium-containing subbituminous coal and coals of lower rank to form insoluble, thermally stable calcium salts which remain within the solids portions of the residue on liquefaction of the coal, thereby suppressing the formation scale, made up largely of calcium carbonate deposits, e.g., vaterite, which normally forms within the coal liquefaction reactor (i.e., coal liquefaction zone), e.g., on reactor surfaces, lines, auxiliary equipment and the like. A solution of a compound or salt characterized by the formula MX, where M is a Group IA metal of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X is an anion which is capable of forming water-insoluble, thermally stable calcium compounds, is maintained in contact with a particulate coal feed sufficient to impregnate said salt or compound into the pores of the coal. On separation of the impregnated particulate coal from the solution, the coal can be liquefied in a coal liquefaction reactor (reaction zone) at coal liquefaction conditions without significant formation of vaterite or other forms of calcium carbonate on reactor surfaces, auxiliary equipment and the like; and the Group IA metal which remains within the liquefaction bottoms catalyzes the reaction when the liquefaction bottoms are subjected to a gasification reaction.

  6. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values across the APCDs are 2.1% and 39.4% with standard deviations (STDs) of 1990 and 75%, respectively for the ICR and SEC tests. This clearly demonstrates that variability is an issue irrespective of using 'similar' fuels at the plants and the same source sampling team measuring the species. The study also concluded that elemental mercury is the main Hg specie that needs to be controlled. 2004 technologies such as activated carbon injection (ACI) may capture up to 60% with double digit lb/MMacf addition of sorbent. PRB coal-fired units have an Hg input of 7-15 lb/TBtu; hence, these units must operate at over 60% mercury efficiency in order to bring the emission level below 5.8 lb/TBtu. This was non-achievable with the best technology available as of 2004. Other key findings include: (1) Conventional particulate collectors, such as Cold-side Electro-Static Precipitators (CESPs), Hot-side Electro-Static Precipitator (HESP), and Fabric Filter (FF) remove nearly all of the particulate bound mercury; (2) CESPs perform better highlighting the flue gas temperature effect on the mercury removal. Impact of speciation with flue gas cooling is apparent; (3) SDA's do not help in enhancing adsorption of mercury vapor species; and (4) Due to consistently low chlorine values in fuels, it was not possible to analyze the impact of chlorine. In summary, it is difficult to predict the speciation at two plants that burn the same fuel. Non-fuel issues, such as flue gas cooling, impact the speciation and consequently mercury capture potential.

  7. Table 35. U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Table 35. U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Year to Date NAICS Code April - June 2014 January - March 2014

  8. Table 40. U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Table 40. U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 NAICS Code June 30, 2014 March 31, 2014 June 30, 2013 Percent Change (June

  9. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Phuoc

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  10. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  11. Application of /sup 13/C, /sup 2/H, /sup 1/H NMR and GPC to the study of structural evolution of subbituminous coal in tetralin at 427/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz, J.A.; Camaioni, D.M.; Skiens, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The products from the treatment of subbituminous coal at 427/sup 0/C in tetralin or 1,1-d/sub 2/-tetralin for times varying from 2.5 to 120 min were examined by /sup 13/C, /sup 2/H, and /sup 1/H Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance (FTNMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and elemental and hydroxyl group analysis. NMR and elemental analysis revealed that the flash hydroliquefaction products contained about 10% of aromatic ether carbon and phenolic carbon in roughly equal amounts, but no aliphatic ether, carboxyl, or quinine carbon. The combined asphaltenes and preasphaltenes from a 10-min reaction exhibited 68% carbon, 30% hydrogen, and 30% deuterium aromaticity, with aromaticity slowly increasing at longer reaction times. GPC analysis revealed that approximately 10% of the products were greater than 1500 mol wt, with number-average molecular weights reduced from 840 to 500 over a 2-hr reaction. Deuterium NMR revealed that the majority of deuterium transferred to coal appeared at benzylic carbons.

  12. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0.5 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Residual Fuel Oil(b) Alternative Energy Sources(c) Coal Coke NAICS Total Establishments Not Electricity Natural Distillate and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consuming Residual Fuel Oil(d Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Gas Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food

  13. Top NAICS Codes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Related Products Manufacturing for Measuring, Displaying, Top Ten NAICS Codes Dollar Value 511210 Software Publishers 334516 Analytical Laboratory Instrument Manufacturing...

  14. EIA - Weekly U.S. Coal Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rounding. Bituminous and Lignite Total includes bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite, and Anthracite Total includes Pennsylvania anthracite. The States in...

  15. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,"Coke" ,,,,"Net",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)",,"LPG and","Coal","and Breeze" "NAICS",,"Total",,"Electricity(b)",,"Fuel Oil","Fuel

  16. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,,,,,,,"Coke" ,,,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze" "NAICS",,"Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  17. NAICS Codes @ Headquarters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NAICS Codes @ Headquarters NAICS Codes @ Headquarters A listing of NAICS codes used at Headquarters Procurement Services PDF icon NAICS Codes @ Headquarters.pdf More Documents & Publications Product Service Codes @ Headquarters Historical Procurement Information Historical Procurement Information - by Location

  18. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Reasons that Made Coal Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Million short tons. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS Coal Consumed Unswitchable Capable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmenta Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry as a Fuel Coal Fuel Use Another Fuel the Products Fuel

  19. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Electricity Natural Distillate Residual and Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed(d) Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 2,920 325 1,945 171 174 25 W 0 0 15 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 269 36 152 Q Q W W 0 0 W

  20. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Natural Gas(b) Alternative Energy Sources(c) Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Electricity Distillate Residual and Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed(d) Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 11,395 1,830 6,388 484 499 245 Q 555 0 203 3112

  1. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Residual Fuel Oil(b) Alternative Energy Sources(c) Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Electricity Natural Distillate and Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed(d) Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Gas Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 326 178 23 0 150 Q 0 Q 0 W 3112 Grain and

  2. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Natural Distillate Residual and Code(a) Subsector and Industry Receipts(d) Switchable Switchable Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 14,109 708 8,259 384 162 0 Q 105 0 84 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 580 27 472 3 Q 0 W W 0 W 311221 Wet

  3. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Electricity Natural Residual and Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed(d) Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Gas Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 1,462 276 900 Q 217 8 0 25 0 16 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 174 10 131 W 4 W 0 W 0 W 311221

  4. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. NAICS Total Establishments Not Electricity Natural Distillate Residual Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consuming Coal(d) Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil LPG Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 64 19 54 0 17 6 W W W 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 30 13 24 0 12 W 0 W W 311221 Wet

  5. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Coal Coke NAICS Total Establishments Not Electricity Natural Distillate Residual and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consuming LPG(d) Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 4,039 600 2,860 356 221 Q W 0 0 16 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling

  6. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Natural Gas(b) Alternative Energy Sources(c) Coal Coke NAICS Total Establishments Not Electricity Distillate Residual and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consuming Natural Gas(d Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 10,373 1,667

  7. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Coal Coke NAICS Total Establishments Not Natural Distillate Residual and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry with Electricity Receipts(d Switchable Switchable Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 13,265 765 11,829 482 292 Q Q 51 Q Q 3112 Grain and Oilseed

  8. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Coal Coke NAICS Total Establishments Not Electricity Natural Residual and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consuming Distillate Fuel Oil(d Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Gas Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 2,416 221 2,115 82 160 Q 0 Q 0 30 3112 Grain and

  9. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Million Barrels. Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Electricity Natural Distillate Residual and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consumed(c) Switchable Switchable Receipts(d) Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 1 * 1 * * * * 0 0 * 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling * * * * * * * 0

  10. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Million Barrels. Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Electricity Natural Residual and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consumed(c) Switchable Switchable Receipts(d) Gas Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 4 * 3 * * * 0 * 0 * 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling * * * * * * 0 *

  11. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Coal(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  12. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Coal(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate","Residual"

  13. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Coal(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" "NAICS"," ","Total Establishments"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate","Residual"

  14. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2.4 Number of Establishments by Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2006 Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources Unit: Establishment Counts. Any Combustible NAICS Energy Residual Distillate LPG and Coke Code(a) Subsector and Industry Source(b) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coal and Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 183 0 105 38 Q 0 W 8 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 36 0 Q 13 W 0 0 6 311221 Wet Corn Milling W 0 0 0 0 0 0 W 31131 Sugar

  15. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3.4 Number of Establishments by Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources Unit: Establishment Counts. Any NAICS Energy Net Residual Distillate LPG and Coke Code(a) Subsector and Industry Source(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Natural Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal and Breeze Other(g) Total United States 311 Food 14,128 14,113 326 1,462 11,395 2,920 67 13 1,240 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 580 580 15 174 445 269 35 0 148 311221 Wet Corn Milling 47 47 W 17

  16. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2.4 Number of Establishments by Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Any Combustible NAICS Energy Residual Distillate LPG and Coke Code(a) Subsector and Industry Source(b) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coal and Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 592 W Q Q Q 0 0 345 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 85 0 W 15 Q 0 0 57 311221 Wet Corn Milling 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 31131 Sugar

  17. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4.4 Number of Establishments by Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Any NAICS Energy Residual Distillate LPG and Coke Code(a) Subsector and Industry Source(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Natural Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal and Breeze Other(g) Total United States 311 Food 13,269 13,265 144 2,413 10,373 4,039 64 W 1,496 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 602 602 9 201 489 268 30 0 137 311221 Wet Corn

  18. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. NAICS Total Not Electricity Natural Distillate Residual Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed(d) Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil LPG Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 67 21 49 W 19 10 W W W 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 35 7 29 W 7 3 0 W W 311221 Wet Corn Milling 18 4 17 0 4 W 0 W

  19. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  20. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Levels of Price Difference;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Percent of Establishments by Levels of Price Difference that Would Cause Fuel Switching from Coal to a Less Expensive Substitute, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Levels of Price Difference; Unit: Establishment Counts. Would Switch Would Not Estimate to More NAICS Establishments Switch Due 1 to 10 11 to 25 26 to 50 Over 50 Cannot Expensive Code(a) Subsector and Industry Able to Switch(b) to Price Percent Percent Percent Percent Be Provided Substitute Total United States

  1. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"LPG(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  2. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Natural Gas(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  3. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Residual Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  4. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Electricity Receipts(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  5. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  6. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"LPG(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  7. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Natural Gas(b)",,,," Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  8. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Residual Fuel Oil(b)",,,," Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  9. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Electricity Receipts(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  10. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  11. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"LPG(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total Establishments","

  12. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Natural Gas(b)",,,," Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total Establishments","

  13. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.5 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Residual Fuel Oil(b)",,,," Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total Establishments","

  14. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; " " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Electricity Receipts(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total Establishments ","

  15. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total Establishments","

  16. " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Billion Cubic Feet." ,,"Natural Gas",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  17. " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Million Barrels." ,,"Residual Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  18. " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; " " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Million Kilowatthours." ,,"Electricity Receipts",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  19. " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; " " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Million Barrels." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  20. Good-Bye, SIC - Hello, NAICS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home > Industrial > Manufacturing > Good-Bye, SIC - Hello, NAICS Good-Bye, SIC - Hello, NAICS The North American Industry...

  1. Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Thousand Barrels. Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Electricity Natural Distillate Residual and Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed(c) Switchable Switchable Receipts(d) Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 850 159 549 Q 86 8 * 0 0 Q 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling Q 2 Q 1 Q

  2. Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Billion Cubic Feet. Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Electricity Distillate Residual and Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed(c) Switchable Switchable Receipts(d) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 618 165 379 8 109 12 1 38 0 10 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 115

  3. Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Thousand Barrels. Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Electricity Natural Distillate and Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed(c) Switchable Switchable Receipts(d) Gas Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 4,124 2,134 454 0 1,896 284 0 Q 0 Q 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling

  4. Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Million Kilowatthours. Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Natural Distillate Residual and Code(a) Subsector and Industry Receipts(c) Switchable Switchable Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(d) Total United States 311 Food 73,551 1,887 55,824 711 823 0 111 45 0 205 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling

  5. Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Thousand Barrels. Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Electricity Natural Residual and Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed(c) Switchable Switchable Receipts(d) Gas Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 2,723 127 2,141 4 111 * 0 5 0 7 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 153 6

  6. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coke and Breeze) NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) (billion NGL(e) (million Other(f) Code(a) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States

  7. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Other(f) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel --

  8. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Billion Cubic Feet. Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Electricity Distillate Residual and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consumed(c) Switchable Switchable Receipts(d) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 563 139 416 12 72 26 4 35 * 13 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling

  9. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Million Barrels. Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Electricity Natural Distillate and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consumed(c) Switchable Switchable Receipts(d) Gas Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 2 1 1 * 1 * 0 0 0 * 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling * * * 0 * * 0 0

  10. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Million Kilowatthours. Coal Coke NAICS Total Not Natural Distillate Residual and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Receipts(c) Switchable Switchable Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(d) Total United States 311 Food 75,673 2,403 70,987 666 1,658 Q 406 Q Q 141 3112 Grain and Oilseed

  11. Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Thousand Short Tons. NAICS Total Not Electricity Natural Distillate Residual Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed(c) Switchable Switchable Receipts(d) Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil LPG Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 6,603 1,013 5,373 27 981 303 93 271 86 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 5,099 658 4,323

  12. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4.4 Number of Establishments by Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources Unit: Establishment Counts. Any NAICS Energy Residual Distillate LPG and Coke Code(a) Subsector and Industry Source(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Natural Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal and Breeze Other(g) Total United States 311 Food 14,128 14,109 326 1,462 11,395 2,920 67 13 1,149 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 580 580 15 174 445 269 35 0 144 311221

  13. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1.4 Number of Establishments by First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments Unit: Establishment Counts. Any Shipments NAICS Energy Net Residual Distillate LPG and Coke and of Energy Sources Code(a) Subsector and Industry Source(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Natural Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal Breeze Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Total United States 311 Food 14,128 14,113 326 1,475 11,399 2,947 67 15

  14. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    .4 Number of Establishments by First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Establishment Counts. Any Shipments NAICS Energy Net Residual Distillate LPG and Coke and of Energy Sources Code(a) Subsector and Industry Source(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Natural Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal Breeze Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Total United States 311 Food 13,269 13,265 151 2,494 10,376 4,061 64 7

  15. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Million Short Tons. NAICS Total Not Electricity Natural Distillate Residual Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consumed(c) Switchable Switchable Receipts(d) Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil LPG Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 8 2 7 * 1 * * * * 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6 1 4 0 1 * 0 * * 311221 Wet Corn

  16. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Reasons that Made Coal Unswitchable, 2006;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable;" " Unit: Million short tons." ,,,,"Reasons that Made Coal Unswitchable" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,," " ,,"Total Amount of ","Total Amount of","Equipment is Not","Switching","Unavailable

  17. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 5.3 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coke and Breeze) NAICS for Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) (billion NGL(e) (million Code(a) End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons)

  18. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use for Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23

  19. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  20. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources

  1. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping

  2. Chemicals Sector (NAICS 325) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    39 2.2 CHEMICALS SECTOR (NAICS 325) 2.2.1. Overview of the Chemicals Manufacturing Sector The chemicals manufacturing sector is an integral component of the U.S. economy, converting raw materials such as petroleum, natural gas, minerals, coal, air, and water into more than 70,000 diverse products. Chemical products are critical components of consumer goods and are found in everything from automobiles to plastics to electronics. This sector creates its diverse output from raw materials of two

  3. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2013 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 Table 6. Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2013 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Anthracite Total Coal-Producing State and Region 1 Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Number of Mines

  4. North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Search Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the standard used by Federal statistical agencies in classifying business establishments for the purpose of collecting, analyzing, and...

  5. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Number of Establishments by Usage of Cogeneration Technologies, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within Cogeneration Technologies;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Establishments" " "," ",,"with Any"," Steam Turbines","Supplied","by Either","Conventional","Combustion","Turbines"," ","

  6. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.1. Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Floorspace and Buildings;" " Unit: Floorspace Square Footage and Building Counts." ,,"Approximate",,,"Approximate","Average" ,,"Enclosed Floorspace",,"Average","Number","Number" ,,"of All Buildings",,"Enclosed Floorspace","of All

  7. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Number of Establishments by Usage of Cogeneration Technologies, 2002; " " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within Cogeneration Technologies;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal

  8. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Floorspace and Buildings;" " Unit: Floorspace Square Footage and Building Counts." ,,"Approximate",,,"Approximate","Average" ,,"Enclosed Floorspace",,"Average","Number","Number" ,,"of All Buildings",,"Enclosed Floorspace","of All

  9. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Number of Establishments by Usage of Cogeneration Technologies, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within Cogeneration Technologies;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Establishments" ,,,"with Any"," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion

  10. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.1 Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Floorspace and Buildings;" " Unit: Floorspace Square Footage and Building Counts." ,,"Approximate",,,"Approximate","Average" ,,"Enclosed Floorspace",,"Average","Number","Number" ,,"of All Buildings",,"Enclosed Floorspace","of All

  11. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.1 Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Floorspace and Buildings;" " Unit: Floorspace Square Footage and Building Counts." ,,"Approximate",,,"Approximate","Average" ,,"Enclosed Floorspace",,"Average","Number","Number" ,,"of All Buildings",,"Enclosed Floorspace","of All

  12. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Number of Establishments by Usage of Cogeneration Technologies, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within Cogeneration Technologies;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Establishments" ,,,"with Any"," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion

  13. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) | Department of Energy - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) PDF icon steel_footprint_2012.pdf More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Iron and Steel Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Cement

  14. NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labbe, D.

    2009-11-15

    Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2013 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 Table 31. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2013 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 Coal-Producing State Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Anthracite Total Alabama 88.20 - - - 88.20 Alaska - w - - w Arizona w - - - w Arkansas w - - - w Colorado w w - - 37.58 Illinois 47.82 - - -

  16. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Floorspace and Buildings;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9.1 Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Floorspace and Buildings; Unit: Floorspace Square Footage and Building Counts. Approximate Approximate Average Enclosed Floorspace Average Number Number of All Buildings Enclosed Floorspace of All Buildings of Buildings Onsite NAICS Onsite Establishments(b) per Establishment Onsite per Establishment Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million sq ft) (counts) (sq ft) (counts) (counts)

  17. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity Components;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity Components;" " Unit: Million Kilowatthours." " "," " " "," ",,,"Total ","Sales and","Net Demand" "NAICS"," ",,"Transfers ","Onsite","Transfers","for" "Code(a)","Subsector and

  18. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","

  19. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","

  20. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Number of Establishments by Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any",,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS","

  1. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","

  2. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.4 Number of Establishments by Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any Combustible" "NAICS","

  3. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." "NAICS",,,,"Net",,"Residual","Distillate",,,"LPG and",,,"Coke" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total",,"Electricity(b)",,"Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural

  4. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.4 Number of Establishments by Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any" "NAICS","

  5. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." "NAICS",,,,,,"Residual","Distillate",,,"LPG and",,,"Coke" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total",,"Electricity(b)",,"Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural

  6. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." "NAICS",,,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural

  7. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.4 Number of Establishments by Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any" "NAICS","

  8. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed: Technical progress report for the second quarter, January 19--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-05-01

    This research project is for the development of a technically and economically feasible process for drying and stabilizing of fine particles of high-moisture subbituminous coal. Research activities were initiated with efforts concentrating on characterization of the two feed coals: Eagle Butte coal from AMAX Coal Company's mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming; and coal from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc.'s mine located in central Alaska. Both of the feed coals are high-moisture subbituminous coals with ''as received'' moisture contents of 29% and 22% for the Eagle Butte and Usibelli coals, respectively. However, physical analyses of the crushed coal samples (--28-mesh particle size range) indicate many differences. The minimum fluidization velocity (MFV) of the feed coals were experimentally determined. The MFV for --28-mesh Eagle Butte coal is approximately 1 ft/min, and the MFV for --28-mesh Usibelli coal is approximately 3 ft/min. 2 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(f)","Factors" ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE ... raw" "Natural Gas Liquids '(NGL).'" " (f) 'Other' includes energy that respondents ...

  10. Effect of coal rank and process conditions on temperature distribution in a liquefaction reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalitham, R.V.; Moniz, M.

    1986-04-01

    The temperature distribution in a liquefaction reactor in the integrated TSL process is studied. The effects of gas and slurry superficial velocities, process solvent characteristics, reactor length, and catalyst sulfiding agent on the exotherm and temperature difference in the reactor are studied. A substantial temperature difference is observed with subbituminous coal as compared with bituminous coal, at comparable reactor conditions. Some of the factors that are believed to have contributed to the large exotherm and temperature difference in the reactor are slow kinetics and high reaction heat for subbituminous coal conversion and pyrrhotite catalysis.

  11. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coke and Shipments Net Residual Distillate Natural LPG and Coal Breeze of Energy Sources NAICS Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Gas(e) NGL(f) (million (million Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) (billion cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) (trillion Btu) Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.9 1 1.2 1.8 1 1.6 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.4 311 Food 1,123 67,521 2 3 567 1 8 * 89 0 311221 Wet

  12. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Potential of Charqueadas Coal Field in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanov, V

    2012-10-23

    The I2B coal seam in the Charqueadas coal field has been evaluated as a target for enhanced coal bed methane production and CO{sub 2} sequestration. The samples were low rank coals (high volatile bituminous and sub-bituminous) obtained from the I2B seam as �3� cores. Such properties as sorption capacity, internal structure of the samples, porosity and permeability were of primary interest in this characterization study.

  13. Level: National Data; Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar of Value NAICS per Employee of Value Added of Shipments Code(a) Economic Characteristic(b) (million Btu) (thousand Btu) (thousand Btu) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Employment Size Under 50 562.6 4.7 2.4 50-99 673.1 5.1 2.4 100-249 1,072.8 6.5 3.0 250-499 1,564.3

  14. Level: National Data; Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar of Value NAICS per Employee of Value Added of Shipments Code(a) Economic Characteristic(b) (million Btu) (thousand Btu) (thousand Btu) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Employment Size Under 50 625.5 3.3 1.7 50-99 882.3 5.8 2.5 100-249 1,114.9 5.8 2.5 250-499 2,250.4

  15. Level: National Data; Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar of Value NAICS per Employee of Value Added of Shipments Code(a) Economic Characteristic(b) (million Btu) (thousand Btu) (thousand Btu) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Value of Shipments and Receipts (million dollars) Under 20 330.6 3.6 2.0 20-49 550.0 4.5 2.2

  16. Level: National Data; Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar of Value NAICS per Employee of Value Added of Shipments Code(a) Economic Characteristic(b) (million Btu) (thousand Btu) (thousand Btu) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Value of Shipments and Receipts (million dollars) Under 20 405.4 4.0 2.1 20-49 631.3 4.7 2.2

  17. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity Components;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity Components;" " Unit: Million Kilowatthours." " "," ",,,,,," " " "," ",,,"Total ","Sales and","Net Demand","RSE" "NAICS"," ",,"Transfers ","Onsite","Transfers","for","Row"

  18. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity Components;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.1 Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity Components;" " Unit: Million Kilowatthours." " "," " " "," ",,,"Total ","Sales and","Net Demand" "NAICS"," ",,"Transfers ","Onsite","Transfers","for" "Code(a)","Subsector and

  19. " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS",,"per

  20. " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS",,"per

  1. " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic

  2. " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic

  3. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Number of Establishments by Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any",,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS","

  4. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," " "NAICS"," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," "

  5. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(g)","Factors" ... marketing subsidiaries of utilities." " (f) Examples of Liquefied Petroleum Gases ...

  6. Coal desulfurization by chlorinolysis: production and combustion-test evaluation of product coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalvinskas, J.; Daly, D.

    1982-04-30

    Laboratory-scale screening tests were carried out on PSOC 276, Pittsburgh Coal from Harrison County, Ohio to establish chlorination and hydrodesulfurization conditions for the batch reactor production of chlorinolysis and chlorinolysis-hydrodesulfurized coals. In addition, three bituminous coals, Pittsburgh No. 8 from Greene County, PA, Illinois No. 6 from Jackson County, Illinois and Eagle No. 5 from Moffat County, Colorado were treated on the lab scale by the chlorinolysis process to provide 39 to 62% desulfurization. Two bituminous coals (PSOC 276, Pittsburgh Coal from Harrison County, Ohio and 282, Illinois No. 6 Coal from Jefferson County, Illinois) and one subbituminous coal (PSOC 230, Rosebud Coal fom Rosebud County, Montana) were then produced in 11 to 15 pound lots as chlorinolysis and hydrodesulfurized coals. The chlorinolysis coals had a desulfurization of 29 to 69%, reductions in volatiles (12 to 37%) and hydrogen (6 to 31%). Hydrodesulfurization provided a much greater desulfurization (56 to 86%), reductions in volatiles (77 to 84%) and hydrogen (56 to 64%). The three coals were combustion tested in the Penn State plane flame furance to determine ignition and burning characteristics. All three coals burned well to completion as: raw coals, chlorinolysis processed coals and hydrodesulfurized coals. The hydrodesulfurized coals experienced greater ignition delays and reduced burning rates than the other coals because of the reduced volatile content. It is thought that the increased open pore volume in the desulfurized-devolatilized coals compensates in part for the decreased volatiles effect on ignition and burning. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Two-stage, close coupled catalytic liquefaction of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Panvelker, S.V.; Popper, G.A.; Smith, T.O.

    1990-09-01

    During the first quarter of 1990, work was carried out in the microautoclave, microreactor, and Bench-Scale units. An economics analysis on sub-bituminous coal processing at two space velocities was also completed. Several supported catalysts and a sample of iron oxide were screened in the microautoclave unsulfided and sulfided with DMDS and TNPS. A second shipment of Black Thunder coal from Wilsonville, oil agglomerated cleaned Illinois {number sign}6 coal from Homer City, OTISCA cleaned coal a New Mexico coal were evaluated for relative conversions with and without catalyst. Results of Bench-Scale developments with cleaned, oil agglomerated, Illinois {number sign}6 coal from Homer City(CC-6), Dispersed Catalyst/Supported Catalyst Two-Stage and reversed sequential operation (CC-7), on Black Thunder Coal (CC-7), and preliminary observations on OTISCA cleaned coal are presented. The oil agglomerated cleaned coal gave higher conversion and distillate production than the OTISCA cleaned coal. The Dispersed/Supported Two-Stage operation yielded higher gas production than the reverse sequence but also showed the higher coal conversion. Economic analysis of sub-bituminous coal processing at two space velocities showed a 3% higher return on investment with a 50% increase in space velocity. 13 tabs.

  8. Forest Products Sector (NAICS 321 and 322) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis 2.3 FOREST PRODUCTS SECTOR (NAICS 321 AND 322) 2.3.1. Overview of the Forest Products Manufacturing Sector The forest products sector produces thousands of products from renewable raw materials (wood) that are essential for communication, packaging, consumer goods, and construction. The sector is divided into two major categories: Wood Product Manufacturing (NAICS 321) and Paper Manufacturing (NAICS 322). These industries are

  9. Recent two-stage coal liquefaction results from Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, A.K.; Udani, L.H.; Nalitham, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents results from two recent runs conducted at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D facility of Wilsonville, Alabama. The first run was an extended demonstration of sub-bituminous coal liquefaction using an integrated two-stage liquefaction (ITSL) process. The second run employed a bituminous coal in a reconfigured two-stage process (RITLS) wherein the undeashed products from the first stage were hydrotreated prior to separation of coal ash. Good operability and satisfactory yield structure were demonstrated in both the runs.

  10. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," ","

  11. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," ","

  12. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," ","

  13. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",,,," "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," ","

  14. Leaching characteristics of arsenic and selenium from coal fly ash: role of calcium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian Wang; Jianmin Wang; Yulin Tang; Honglan Shi; Ken Ladwig

    2009-05-15

    Understanding the leaching behavior of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) in coal fly ash is important in evaluating the potential environmental impact of coal fly ash. Batch experiments were employed to systematically investigate the leaching behavior of As and Se in two major types of coal fly ashes, bituminous coal ash and sub-bituminous coal ash, and to determine the underlying processes that control As and Se leaching. The effects of pH, solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, calcium addition, and leaching time on the release of As and Se were studied. Overall, bituminous coal ash leached significantly more As and Se than sub-bituminous coal ash, and Se was more readily leachable, in both absolute concentration and relative fraction, than As for both types of fly ashes. Adsorption/desorption played a major role on As and Se leaching from bituminous coal ashes. However, calcium precipitation played the most important role in reducing As and Se leaching from sub-bituminous coal ashes in the entire experimental pH range. The leaching of As and Se from bituminous coal ashes generally increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. However, for sub-bituminous coal ashes, the leaching of As was not detected under most experimental conditions, while the leaching of Se increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. As{sup V} and Se{sup IV} were found to be the major species in all ash leachates in this study. 46 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," ","

  16. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural

  17. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural

  18. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural

  19. The leaching characteristics of selenium from coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, T.; Wang, J.; Burken, J.G.; Ban, H.; Ladwig, K.

    2007-11-15

    The leaching characteristics of selenium from several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes under different pH conditions were investigated using batch methods. Results indicated that pH had a significant effect on selenium leaching from bituminous coal ash. The minimum selenium leaching occurred in the pH range between 3 and 4, while the maximum selenium leaching occurred at pH 12. The release of selenium from subbituminous coal ashes was very low for the entire experimental pH range, possibly due to the high content of calcium which can form hydration or precipitation products as a sink for selenium. The adsorption results for different selenium species indicated that Se(VI) was hardly adsorbable on either bituminous coal ashes or subbitumminous coal ashes at any pH. However, Se(I) was highly adsorbed by bituminous coal ashes under acidic pH conditions and was mostly removed by subbitumminous coal ashes across the entire pH range. This result suggests that the majority of selenium released from the tested fly ashes was Se(IV). A speciation-based model was developed to simulate the adsorption of Se(IV) on bituminous coal fly ash, and the pH-independent adsorption constants of HSeO{sup 3-} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} were determined. The modeling approach is useful for understanding and predicting the release process of selenium from fly ash.

  20. "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.4;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of...

  1. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  2. Catalytic steam gasification reactivity of HyperCoals produced from different rank of coals at 600-775{degree}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi

    2008-11-15

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with ash content <0.05 wt %. HyperCoals were prepared from a brown coal, a sub-bituminous coal, and a bituminous raw coal by solvent extraction method. Catalytic steam gasification of these HyperCoals was carried out with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 775, 700, 650, and 600 {degree}C, and their rates were compared. HyperCoals produced from low-rank coals were more reactive than those produced from the high-rank coals. XRD measurements were carried out to understand the difference in gasification reactivity of HyperCoals. Arrhenius plot of ln (k) vs 1/T in the temperature range 600-825{degree}C was a curve rather than a straight line. The point of change was observed at 700{degree}C for HyperCoals from low-rank coals and at 775{degree}C for HyperCoals from high-rank coals. Using HyperCoal produced from low-rank coals as feedstock, steam gasification of coal may be possible at temperatures less than 650{degree}C. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Reasons that Made Electricity Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Million kWh. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS Electricity Consumed Unswitchable Capable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmenta Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry as a Fuel Electricity Fuel Use Another Fuel the Products

  4. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Reasons that Made Natural Gas Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Billion cubic feet. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS Natural Gas Unswitchable Capable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmenta Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed as a FueNatural Gas Fuel Use Another Fuel the

  5. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Reasons that Made LPG Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Million barrels. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS LPG Consumed Unswitchable Capable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmenta Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry as a Fuel LPG Fuel Use Another Fuel the Products Fuel

  6. " Row: Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Number of Establishments by Participation in Energy-Management Activity, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Participation and Source of Financial Support for Activity;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," ",,,,," " " "," ",,," Source of Financial Support for Activity",,,"RSE" "NAICS","

  7. " Row: General Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Number of Establishments by Participation in General Energy-Management Activities, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: General Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Participation and Source of Assistance;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,," Source of Assistance" "NAICS Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No

  8. " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.4 Number of Establishments by Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any" "NAICS","

  9. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.4 Number of Establishments by First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Any",,,,,,,,,"Shipments" "NAICS",,"Energy","Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and",,"of Energy Sources"

  10. " Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Number of Establishments by Participation in Specific Energy-Management Activities, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Participation;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." "NAICS Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No Participation","Participation(b)","Don't Know","Not Applicable" ,,"Total United States" "

  11. " Row: General Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Number of Establishments by Participation in General Energy-Management Activities, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: General Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Participation and Source of Assistance;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,," Source of Assistance" "NAICS Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No

  12. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito

    2008-05-15

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  14. table7.1_02.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Bituminous and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum NAICS TOTAL Acetylene Breeze Total Anthracite Coal Lignite Coke Coke Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (cu ft) (short tons) (short tons) (short tons) (short tons) (short tons) (short tons) (gallons) Total United States RSE Column Factors: 1.1 2.1 0.6 1 0.6

  15. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Levels of Price Difference;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be fielded in 2015 Table 10.17 Percent of Establishments by Levels of Price Difference that Would Cause Fuel Switching from LPG to a Less Expensive Substitute, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Levels of Price Difference; Unit: Establishment Counts. Would Switch Would Not Estimate to More NAICS Establishments Switch Due 1 to 10 11 to 25 26 to 50 Over 50 Cannot Expensive Code(a) Subsector and Industry Able to Switch(b) to Price Percent Percent Percent Percent

  16. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within Cogeneration Technologies;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Number of Establishments by Usage of Cogeneration Technologies, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within Cogeneration Technologies; Unit: Establishment Counts. Establishments with Any Cogeneration NAICS Technology Code(a) Subsector and Industry Establishments(b) in Use(c) In Use(d) Not in Use Don't Know In Use(d) Not in Use Don't Know In Use(d) Not in Use Don't Know In Use(d) Not in Use Don't Know In Use(d) Not in Use Don't Know Total United States 311 Food 14,128 297

  17. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within Cogeneration Technologies;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Number of Establishments by Usage of Cogeneration Technologies, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within Cogeneration Technologies; Unit: Establishment Counts. Establishments with Any Cogeneration NAICS Technology Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Establishments(b) in Use(c) In Use(d) Not in Use(e) Don't Know In Use(d) Not in Use(e) Don't Know In Use(d) Not in Use(e) Don't Know In Use(d) Not in Use(e) Don't Know In Use(d) Not in Use(e) Don't Know Total United

  18. Level: National Data; Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 8.4 Number of Establishments by Participation in Specific Energy-Management Activities, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes; Column: Participation; Unit: Establishment Counts. NAICS Code(a) Energy-Management Activity No Participation Participation(b) Don't Know Not Applicable Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Full-Time Energy Manager (c) 159,258 9,922 25,553 -- Set Goals for

  19. Level: National Data; Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be fielded in 2015 Table 8.4 Number of Establishments by Participation in Specific Energy-Management Activities, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes; Column: Participation; Unit: Establishment Counts. NAICS Code(a) Energy-Management Activity No Participation Participation(b) Don't Know No Steam Used Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Full-Time Energy Manager (c) 142,267 12,536 15,365 -- Set Goals for

  20. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity Components;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1.1 Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity Components; Unit: Million Kilowatthours. Total Sales and Net Demand NAICS Transfers Onsite Transfers for Code(a) Subsector and Industry Purchases In(b) Generation(c) Offsite Electricity(d) Total United States 311 Food 73,242 309 4,563 111 78,003 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 15,283 253 2,845 72 18,310 311221 Wet Corn Milling 6,753 48 2,396 55 9,142 31131 Sugar Manufacturing

  1. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 6.1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006 Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar of Value NAICS per Employee of Value Added of Shipments Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (thousand Btu) (thousand Btu) Total United States 311 Food 879.8 5.0 2.2 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6,416.6 17.5 5.7 311221 Wet Corn Milling 21,552.1 43.6

  2. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be fielded in 2015 Table 6.1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar of Value NAICS per Employee of Value Added of Shipments Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (thousand Btu) (thousand Btu) Total United States 311 Food 871.7 4.3 1.8 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6,239.5 10.5 3.6 311221 Wet Corn Milling 28,965.0 27.1

  3. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Onsite-Generation Components;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Electricity: Components of Onsite Generation, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Onsite-Generation Components; Unit: Million Kilowatthours. Renewable Energy (excluding Wood NAICS Total Onsite and Code(a) Subsector and Industry Generation Cogeneration(b) Other Biomass)(c) Other(d) Total United States 311 Food 4,563 4,249 * 313 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 2,845 2,819 0 27 311221 Wet Corn Milling 2,396 2,370 0 27 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 951 951 0 * 3114 Fruit

  4. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Utility and Nonutility Purchasers;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 11.5 Electricity: Sales to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Utility and Nonutility Purchasers; Unit: Million Kilowatthours. Total of NAICS Sales and Utility Nonutility Code(a) Subsector and Industry Transfers Offsite Purchaser(b) Purchaser(c) Total United States 311 Food 111 86 25 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 72 51 21 311221 Wet Corn Milling 55 42 13 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 7 3 4

  5. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    August 2009 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2006 Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0

  6. " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","

  7. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    N7.1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS"," ","per

  8. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS"," ","per

  9. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(million

  10. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " "Next MECS will be fielded in 2015" "Table 6.1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments"

  11. " Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Number of Establishments by Participation in Specific Energy-Management Activities, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Participation;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." "NAICS Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No Participation","Participation(b)","Don't Know","No Steam Used" ,,"Total United States" "

  12. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

  13. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  14. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  15. CO2 sequestration potential of Charqueadas coal field in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanov, V; Santarosa, C; Crandall, D; Haljasmaa, I; Hur, T -B; Fazio, J; Warzinski, R; Heemann, R; Ketzer, J M

    2013-02-01

    Although coal is not the primary source of energy in Brazil there is growing interest to evaluate the potential of coal from the south of the country for various activities. The I2B coal seamin the Charqueadas coal field has been considered a target for enhanced coal bed methane production and CO2 sequestration. A detailed experimental study of the samples from this seam was conducted at the NETL with assistance from the Pontif?cia Universidade Cat?lica Do Rio Grande Do Sul. Such properties as sorption capacity, internal structure of the samples, porosity and permeability were of primary interest in this characterization study. The samples used were low rank coals (high volatile bituminous and sub-bituminous) obtained from the I2B seam. It was observed that the temperature effect on adsorption capacity correlates negatively with as-received water and mineral content. Langmuir CO2 adsorption capacity of the coal samples ranged 0.61?2.09 mmol/g. The upper I2B seam appears to be overall more heterogeneous and less permeable than the lower I2B seam. The lower seam coal appears to have a large amount of micro-fractures that do not close even at 11 MPa of confining pressure.

  16. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Number of Establishments by Usage of General Energy-Saving Technologies, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies; Unit: Establishment Counts. NAICS Code(a) Subsector and Industry Establishments(b) In Use(e) Not in Use Don't Know In Use(e) Not in Use Don't Know In Use(e) Not in Use Don't Know In Use(e) Not in Use Don't Know In Use(e) Not in Use Don't Know Total United States 311 Food 14,128 1,632 9,940 2,556 3,509 8,048 2,571 1,590

  17. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Number of Establishments by Usage of General Energy-Saving Technologies, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies; Unit: Establishment Counts. NAICS Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Establishments(b) In Use(e) Not in Use(f) Don't Know In Use(e) Not in Use(f) Don't Know In Use(e) Not in Use(f) Don't Know In Use(e) Not in Use(f) Don't Know In Use(e) Not in Use(f) Don't Know Total United States 311 Food 13,271 1,849 10,454 968

  18. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Reasons that Made LPG Unswitchable, 2006;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable;" " Unit: Million barrels." ,,,,"Reasons that Made LPG Unswitchable" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,," " ,,"Total Amount of ","Total Amount of","Equipment is Not","Switching","Unavailable

  19. " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable;" " Unit: Million barrels." ,,,,"Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,," " ,,"Total Amount of ","Total Amount of","Equipment is Not","Switching","Unavailable

  20. " Row: Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    C9.1. Number of Establishments by Participation in Energy-Management Activity, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Participation and General Amounts of Establishment-Paid Activity Cost;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," ",,,,,," " " "," ",,,"General","Amount of

  1. Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    69 2.4 PETROLEUM REFINING SECTOR (NAICS 324110) 2.4.1. Overview of the Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Sector Petroleum refining is a complex industry that generates a diverse slate of fuel products and petrochemicals, from gasoline to asphalt. Refining requires a range of processing steps, including distillation, cracking, reforming, and treating. Most of these processes are highly reliant on process heating and steam energy. Petroleum refineries are an essential part of the U.S. economy.

  2. Food and Beverage Sector (NAICS 311 and 312) Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis 2.5 FOOD AND BEVERAGE SECTOR (NAICS 311 AND 312) 2.5.1. Overview of the Food and Beverage Manufacturing Sector The food and beverage sector is an integral component of the U.S. economy, transforming livestock and agricultural products into intermediate and final food and beverage products. Food and beverage is one of the largest manufacturing sectors, resulting in considerable consumer expenditures for food and beverage

  3. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  4. Gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maas, D.J.; Smith, F.J.

    1986-06-01

    Five low-rank coals from the western United States were cleaned in a bench-scale heavy media separation procedures followed by acid leaching and hydrothermal processing. The objective of these cleaning steps was to determine the amenability of preparing gas turbine quality fuel from low-rank coal. The best candidate for scale-up was determined to be a Wyoming subbituminous coal from the eagle Butte mine. Two hundred thirty kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water fuel were prepared in pilot-scale equipment to determine process parameters and fuel characteristics. After establishing operating conditions, two thousand kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water and powdered coal fuel were produced for testing in a pilot-scale gas turbine combustor. An economic analysis was completed for a commercial-scale plant designed to produce clean gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal using the most promising process steps identified form the bench- and pilot-scale studies. 21 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. End-Use Sector Flowcharts, Energy Intensity Indicators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Economy Transportation Sector Commercial Sector Residential Sector Electric Power Sector Industrial Sector Manufacturing NAICS 311-339 Food, Beverages, & Tobacco NAICS 311/312 Textile Mills and Products NAICS 313/314 Apparel & Leather Products NAICS 315/316 Wood Products NAICS 321 Paper NAICS 322 Printing & Related Support NAICS 323 Petroleum & Coal Products NAICS 324 Chemicals NAICS 325 Plastics & Rubber Products NAICS 326 Nonmetallic Mineral Products NAICS 327 Primary

  6. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Markets Release date: February 8, 2016 | Next release date: February 16, 2016 | Archive Coal Markets Weekly production Dollars per short ton Dollars per mmbtu Average weekly...

  7. KINETIC STUDY OF COAL AND BIOMASS CO-PYROLYSIS USING THERMOGRAVIMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ping; Hedges, Sheila; Chaudharib, Kiran; Turtonb, Richard

    2013-10-29

    The objectives of this study are to investigate thermal behavior of coal and biomass blends in inert gas environment at low heating rates and to develop a simplified kinetic model using model fitting techniques based on TGA experimental data. Differences in thermal behavior and reactivity in co-pyrolysis of Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal and pelletized southern yellow pine wood sawdust blends at low heating rates are observed. Coal/wood blends have higher reactivity compared to coal alone in the lower temperature due to the high volatile matter content of wood. As heating rates increase, weight loss rates increase. The experiment data obtained from TGA has a better fit with proposed two step first order reactions model compared single first order reaction model.

  8. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  9. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  10. A perspective on syngas from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rath, L.K.; Longanbach, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, has been produced from coal for more than 100 years. But today most syngas is produced from noncoal feedstocks, by catalytic steam reforming of natural gas and naphtha or partial oxidation of heavy hydrocarbons such as petroleum resid. Three types of syngas, characterized by their H{sub 2}/CO ratio, are needed. Low ratio, H{sub 2}/CO = 0.4-0.8, syngas can be used in recently developed processes such as the Liquid Phase Methanol synthesis and the Shell Fischer-Tropsch wax synthesis; moderate ratio, H{sub 2}/CO = 0.8-1.5, syngas is used in the Tennessee Eastman coal based synthesis of methanol and acetic anhydride; high ratio, H{sub 2}/CO = 1.8-2.5, syngas is used in traditional methanol synthesis and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis at Sasol. Different types of gasifiers are available for the production of syngas. These include Lurgi fixed-bed dry bottom and slagging gasifiers, agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifiers, single and two-stage entrained slurry feed gasifiers, and single-stage entrained dry feed gasifiers. The cost of syngas from subbituminous coal is shown to be relatively insensitive to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio produced and may soon be competitive with natural gas-based syngas in some parts of the country due to the increasing demand for and cost of natural gas. Recent in this paper, DOE sponsored research on three topics on the production of syngas from coal, coal gasifiers for the direct production of high hydrogen content syngas, advanced methods to separate hydrogen from syngas at elevated temperatures and biological conversion of coal to syngas, are also discussed.

  11. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

  12. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Glass (NAICS 3272, 327993), October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (NAICS 3272, 327993) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 5 Nonprocess Losses 466 162 Steam Distribution Losses 4 12 Nonprocess Energy 267 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 466 0 Prepared for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) by Energetics Incorporated 30 292 63 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 0 136 Onsite Generation 321 306 24 330 199 0 19 0.0 12.0 12.0 1.5 1.5 12.1 22.8 2.0 26 14.3 26.3 0.6 Fuel Total Energy

  13. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Plastics (NAICS 326), October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (NAICS 326) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 16 Nonprocess Losses 729 89 Steam Distribution Losses 13 36 Nonprocess Energy 154 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 729 0 Prepared for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) by Energetics Incorporated 84 223 182 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 0 393 Onsite Generation 307 255 81 336 575 0 65 0.0 34.8 34.8 5.1 4.9 2.3 28.9 9.7 44 8.9 43.7 1.7 Fuel Total Energy Total

  14. " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Number of Establishments by Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," ","Any "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Combustible",,,,,,,,"RSE"

  15. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .1. Number of Establishments by First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any",," "," ",,"

  16. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Number of Establishments by First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any",," "," ",,"

  17. Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311 and 3312) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    99 2.6 IRON AND STEEL SECTOR (NAICS 3311, 3312) 2.6.1. Overview of the Iron and Steel Manufacturing Sector The iron and steel sector is an essential part of the U.S. manufacturing sector, providing the necessary raw material for the extensive industrial supply chain. U.S. infrastructure is heavily reliant on the U.S. iron and steel sector, as it provides the foundation for construction (bridges, buildings), transportation systems (railroads, cars, trucks), utility systems (municipal water

  18. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Alumina and Aluminum (NAICS 3313), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Alumina and Aluminum (NAICS 3313) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 3 Nonprocess Losses 456 105 Steam Distribution Losses 3 7 Nonprocess Energy 99 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 456 5 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 16 198 116 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 2 234 214 207 13 220 351 7 10 0.4 20.3 20.8 4.2 24.0 1.3 26 5.3 26.1 0.4 Fuel Total

  19. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Cement (NAICS 327310), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cement (NAICS 327310) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 1 Nonprocess Losses 307 101 Steam Distribution Losses 1 3 Nonprocess Energy 214 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 307 0 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 6 237 31 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 0 62 243 240 5 245 93 0 4 0.0 5.4 5.4 18.5 23.5 0.6 25 19.1 24.6 0.2 Fuel Total Primary Energy, 2010

  20. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Chemicals (NAICS 325), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Chemicals (NAICS 325) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 381 Nonprocess Losses 4,252 871 Steam Distribution Losses 247 86 Nonprocess Energy 2,447 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 4,252 324 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 229 2,364 450 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 126 905 2,594 1,745 1,476 3,221 1,355 450 1,095 28.5 78.6 107.2 52.4 145.9 15.4 252

  1. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Fabricated Metals (NAICS 332), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fabricated Metals (NAICS 332) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 6 Nonprocess Losses 557 90 Steam Distribution Losses 4 35 Nonprocess Energy 174 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 557 0 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 80 211 127 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 0 255 291 275 26 301 382 1 20 0.0 22.2 22.2 5.6 22.4 7.7 32 9.3 31.5 2.3 Fuel Total Primary

  2. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Food and Beverage (NAICS 311, 312), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Food and Beverage (NAICS 311, 312) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 128 Nonprocess Losses 1,836 455 Steam Distribution Losses 104 72 Nonprocess Energy 919 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 1,836 41 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 178 835 285 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 16 574 1,014 620 625 1,245 860 57 497 3.6 50.0 53.6 13.5 55.8 13.7 109 55.5

  3. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Forest Products (NAICS 321, 322), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Forest Products (NAICS 321, 322) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 530 Nonprocess Losses 3,152 1,016 Steam Distribution Losses 287 87 Nonprocess Energy 2,135 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 3,152 186 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 224 1,538 252 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 72 507 1,762 656 1,917 2,573 759 258 1,393 16.4 45.1 61.5 10.6 64.2 9.2

  4. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Foundries (NAICS 3315), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Foundries (NAICS 3315) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 1 Nonprocess Losses 173 34 Steam Distribution Losses 0 8 Nonprocess Energy 59 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 173 0 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 19 77 38 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 0 76 96 95 2 97 114 0 2 0.0 6.6 6.6 1.8 7.2 1.9 9 2.6 9.2 0.6 Fuel Total Primary Energy, 2010 Total

  5. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Glass (NAICS 3272, 327993), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Glass and Glass Products (NAICS 3272, 327993) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 1 Nonprocess Losses 294 100 Steam Distribution Losses 0 7 Nonprocess Energy 149 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 294 0 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 16 180 48 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 0 97 196 195 2 197 145 0 1 0.0 8.4 8.4 7.3 14.3 1.7 16 7.7 16.1 0.4 Fuel

  6. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 49 Nonprocess Losses 1,463 404 Steam Distribution Losses 34 37 Nonprocess Energy 846 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 1,463 8 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 96 877 201 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 3 404 973 830 226 1,056 605 12 177 0.7 35.1 35.9 17.7 50.1 4.8 58 22.0 57.9 1.4

  7. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Machinery (NAICS 333), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Machinery (NAICS 333) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 1 Nonprocess Losses 288 37 Steam Distribution Losses 1 27 Nonprocess Energy 77 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 288 0 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 67 78 70 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 0 141 144 139 8 147 211 1 7 0.0 12.2 12.3 1.8 8.9 6.9 16 4.2 16.4 2.0 Fuel Total Primary Energy, 2010

  8. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 234 Nonprocess Losses 3,542 689 Steam Distribution Losses 150 22 Nonprocess Energy 2,873 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 3,542 150 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 59 2,734 153 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 58 308 2,793 2,285 891 3,176 461 208 657 13.2 26.7 40.0 139.2 176.3 3.2

  9. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Plastics (NAICS 326), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plastics and Rubber Products (NAICS 326) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 12 Nonprocess Losses 586 72 Steam Distribution Losses 8 28 Nonprocess Energy 115 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 586 1 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 64 187 156 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 1 314 251 218 54 272 470 2 42 0.1 27.3 27.4 1.9 23.5 7.0 34 6.4 33.8 1.3 Fuel

  10. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Textiles (NAICS 313-316), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Textiles (NAICS 313-316) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 6 Nonprocess Losses 242 47 Steam Distribution Losses 6 12 Nonprocess Energy 59 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 242 6 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 26 84 58 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 2 117 111 91 32 123 175 8 27 0.5 10.1 10.7 1.4 9.1 3.1 14 3.7 14.3 0.3 Fuel Total Primary Energy,

  11. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Transportation Equipment (NAICS 336), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transportation Equipment (NAICS 336) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 10 Nonprocess Losses 541 68 Steam Distribution Losses 6 48 Nonprocess Energy 143 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 541 0 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 115 145 132 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 0 266 259 234 41 275 398 0 32 0.0 23.1 23.1 3.0 16.6 11.9 31 7.9 31.0 2.6 Fuel

  12. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P.

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  13. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  14. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

  15. Table 4.8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons) Region and State Anthracite Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite Total Underground Surface Underground Surface Underground Surface Surface 1 Underground Surface Total Appalachian 4.0 3.3 68.2 21.9 0.0 0.0 1.1 72.1 26.3 98.4 Alabama .0 .0 .9 2.1 .0 .0 1.1 .9 3.1 4.0 Kentucky, Eastern .0 .0 .8 9.1 .0 .0 .0 .8 9.1 9.8 Ohio .0 .0 17.4 5.7 .0 .0 .0 17.4 5.7 23.1 Pennsylvania 3.8 3.3 18.9 .8 .0 .0 .0 22.7 4.2 26.9 Virginia .1

  16. Table 7.2 Coal Production, 1949-2011 (Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production, 1949-2011 (Short Tons) Year Rank Mining Method Location Total 1 Bituminous Coal 1 Subbituminous Coal Lignite Anthracite 1 Underground Surface 1 East of the Mississippi 1 West of the Mississippi 1 1949 437,868,000 [2] [2] 42,702,000 358,854,000 121,716,000 444,199,000 36,371,000 480,570,000 1950 516,311,000 [2] [2] 44,077,000 421,000,000 139,388,000 524,374,000 36,014,000 560,388,000 1951 533,665,000 [2] [2] 42,670,000 442,184,000 134,151,000 541,703,000 34,632,000 576,335,000

  17. Table 7.9 Coal Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Short Ton)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Short Ton) Year Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite 1 Anthracite Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 1949 4.90 [4] 33.80 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.37 16.35 [R] 8.90 61.38 [R] 5.24 36.14 [R] 1950 4.86 [4] 33.16 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.41 16.44 [R] 9.34 63.73 [R] 5.19 35.41 [R] 1951 4.94 [4] 31.44 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.44 15.53 [R] 9.94 63.26 [R] 5.29 33.67 [R] 1952 4.92 [4] 30.78 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.39 14.95 [R] 9.58 59.94 [R]

  18. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid--solid reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe2O4) and calcium ferrite (CaFe2O4). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe2O4 and CaFe2O4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO2) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  19. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.; Huang, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-04-01

    This work is a fundamental study of catalytic pretreatments as a potential preconversion step to low-severity liquefaction. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide the basis for the design of an improved liquefaction process and to facilitate our understanding of those processes that occur when coals are initially dissolved. The main objectives of this project are to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on the subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank and influence of solvent will be examined. We have made significant progress in the following four aspects during this quarterly period: (1) influence of drying and oxidation of coal on the conversion and product distribution in catalytic liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal using a dispersed catalyst; (2) spectroscopic characterization of dried and oxidized Wyodak coal and the insoluble residues from catalytic and thermal liquefaction; (3) the structural alteration of low-rank coal in low-severity liquefaction with the emphasis on the oxygen-containing functional groups; and (4) effects of solvents and catalyst dispersion methods in temperature-programmed and non-programmed liquefaction of three low-rank coals.

  20. Flash hydropyrolysis of coal. Quarterly report No. 11, October 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.; Bhatt, B.L.

    1980-02-01

    The following conclusions can be drawn from this work: (1) when the caking bituminous coals are used with diluents, only 20% Pittsburgh No. 8 coal can be added to the diluent swhile 40% Illinois No. 6 could be added due to the higher free swelling index of the Pittsburgh No. 8; (2) When limestone is used as a diluent, considerably more sulfur is retained in the char than when using sand; (3) when the char from an experiment using limestone is recycled as the diluent for another experiment, the char continually retains additional sulfur through at least three recycles; (4) decomposition of the limestone and reduction is indicated by the high concentrations of CO observed at 900/sup 0/C; (5) increasing the coal feed rate by a factor of 4 from 2.4 to 10.7 lb/hr at low H/sub 2//Coal ratios (approx. = 0.6) results in no appreciable change in gaseous HC yields (approx. = 27%) or concentration (approx. = 45%) but higher BTX yields (1.1% vs. 5.4%); (6) although only one experiment was conducted, it appears that hydrogasification of untreated New Mexico sub-bituminous coal at 950/sup 0/C does not give an increase in yield over hydrogasification at 900/sup 0/C; (7) the hydrogasification of Wyodak lignite gives approximately the same gaseous HC yields as that obtained from North Dakota lignite but higher BTX yields particularly at 900/sup 0/C and 1000 psi (9% vs. 2%); (8) treating New Mexico sub-bituminous coal with NaCO/sub 3/ does not increase its hydrogasification qualities between 600/sup 0/C and 900/sup 0/C at 1000 psi but does decrease the BTX yield.

  1. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  2. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal In response to concerns of climate change, the United States is contemplating a complete and rapid transformation of the way it both produces and consumes energy to significantly reduce its carbon emissions. The integrated Coal Program focuses on retaining the benefits of continuing to use coal to produce electric power. This strategy can help us depend less on foreign sources of energy, respond to the world's growing climate concerns, and compete economically. It also will ensure that our

  3. Coal Markets

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Markets Release date: March 14, 2016 | Next release date: March 21, 2016 | Archive Coal Markets Weekly production Dollars per short ton Dollars per mmbtu Average weekly coal commodity spot prices dollars per short ton Week ending Week ago change Central Appalachia 12,500 Btu, 1.2 SO2 Northern Appalachia 13,000 Btu, < 3.0 SO2 Illinois Basin 11,800 Btu, 5.0 SO2 Powder River Basin 8,800 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Uinta Basin 11,700 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Source: With permission, SNL Energy Note: Coal prices shown

  4. STUDIES OF THE SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF LOW RANK COALS AND LIGNITES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph M. Okoh; Joseph N.D. Dodoo

    2005-07-26

    Spontaneous combustion has always been a problem in coal utilization especially in the storage and transportation of coal. In the United States, approximately 11% of underground coal mine fires are attributed to spontaneous coal combustion. The incidence of such fires is expected to increase with increased consumption of lower rank coals. The cause is usually suspected to be the reabsorption of moisture and oxidation. To understand the mechanisms of spontaneous combustion this study was conducted to (1) define the initial and final products during the low temperature (10 to 60 C) oxidation of coal at different partial pressures of O{sub 2}, (2) determine the rate of oxidation, and (3) measure the reaction enthalpy. The reaction rate (R) and propensity towards spontaneous combustion were evaluated in terms of the initial rate method for the mass gained due to adsorbed O{sub 2}. Equipment that was used consisted of a FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer), an accelerated surface area porosimeter (ASAP, Micromeritics model 2010), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, Cahn Microbalance TG 121) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, Q1000, thermal analysis instruments). Their combination yielded data that established a relation between adsorption of oxygen and reaction enthalpy. The head space/ gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer system (HS/GC/MS) was used to identify volatiles evolved during oxidation. The coal samples used were Beulah lignite and Wyodak (sub-bituminous). Oxygen (O{sub 2}) absorption rates ranged from 0.202 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.20 (Beulah pyrolyzed at 300 C) to 6.05 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.8 (wyodak aged and pyrolyzed at 300 C). Aging of coal followed by pyrolysis was observed to contribute to higher reaction rates. Reaction enthalpies ranged from 0.42 to 1580 kcal/gm/mol O{sub 2}.

  5. Linkages and aromatic clusters in a bituminous coal: Final report, September 1, 1985--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, K.E.

    1988-10-01

    The distribution and arrangement of aromatic clusters, oxygen functional groups, and linkages in an Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal were determined by controlled solubilization of the coal, followed by solvent fractionation of the soluble product and detailed analyses of the product fractions. The solubilization was carried out in reactions with NaOH/ethanol/H/sub 2/O at temperatures of 260/degree/, 300/degree/ and 320/degree/C. Elemental balance and spectroscopic data revealed that the oxygen functional groups of the coal were attacked selectively in the solubilization process, resulting in an orderly definable diminution of the complex coal structure. Also aliphatic linkages present in selected solubilized product fractions were subjected to a transalkylation reaction. A molecular structural model specific to the Illinois coal was constructed, and the hydroliquefaction behavior of the coal was evaluated in terms of potential product distribution and hydrogen consumption. The structural characteristics are compared with those of a Wyoming subbituminous coal in our previous study. 9 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.3. Number of Establishments by Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,,"Natural","Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components"

  7. " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Number of Establishments by Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,,"Natural","Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components"

  8. " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Number of Establishments by Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,,"Natural","Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components"

  9. " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Number of Establishments by Usage of General Energy-Saving Technologies, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," ",,"Computer Control of Building Wide Evironment(c)",,,"Computer Control of Processes or Major Energy-Using Equipment(d)",,,"Waste Heat Recovery",,,"Adjustable - Speed

  10. " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Number of Establishments by Usage of General Energy-Saving Technologies, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Computer Control of Building Wide Evironment(c)",,,"Computer Control of Processes or Major Energy-Using Equipment(d)",,,"Waste Heat Recovery",,,"Adjustable - Speed Motors",,,"Oxy - Fuel

  11. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

    2014-07-31

    The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage Transmission Line Route, and Natural Gas Pipeline Route Permits for a Large Electric Power Generating Plant to be located in Taconite, Minnesota. In addition, major pre-construction permit applications have been filed requesting authorization for the Project to i) appropriate water sufficient to accommodate its worst case needs, ii) operate a major stationary source in compliance with regulations established to protect public health and welfare, and iii) physically alter the geographical setting to accommodate its construction. As of the current date, the Water Appropriation Permits have been obtained.

  12. Low-severity catalytic two-stage liquefaction process: Illinois coal conceptual commercial plant design and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrams, L.M.; Comolli, A.G.; Popper, G.A.; Wang, C.; Wilson, G.

    1988-09-01

    Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) is conducting a program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate a Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. This program which runs through 1987, is a continuation of an earlier DOE sponsored program (1983--1985) at HRI to develop a new technology concept for CTSL. The earlier program included bench-scale testing of improved operating conditions for the CTSL Process on Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Wyoming sub-bituminous coal, and engineering screening studies to identify the economic incentive for CTSL over the single-stage H-Coal/reg sign/ Process for Illinois No. 6 coal. In the current program these engineering screening studies are extended to deep-cleaned Illinois coal and use of heavy recycle. The results from this comparison will be used as a guide for future experiments with respect to selection of coal feedstocks and areas for further process optimization. A preliminary design for CTSL of Illinois deep-cleaned coal was developed based on demonstrated bench-scale performance in Run No. 227-47(I-27), and from HRI's design experience on the Breckinridge Project and H-Coal/reg sign/ Process pilot plant operations at Catlettsburg. Complete conceptual commercial plant designs were developed for a grassroots facility using HRI's Process Planning Model. Product costs were calculated and economic sensitivities analyzed. 14 refs., 11 figs., 49 tabs.

  13. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: March 9, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2016 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination

  14. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Processing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal Users" and Form EIA-7A, "Coal Production and Preparation Report." Appendix A Assigning Missing Data to EIA-923...

  15. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  16. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  17. table7.2_02.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Bituminous and NAICS Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Code(a) Subsector and Industry TOTAL Acetylene Breeze Total Anthracite Coal Lignite Coke Coke Total United States RSE Column Factors: 1.1 2.1 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.9 1.4 0.7 0.9 311 Food 6.42 113.78 0 1.46 W 1.46 0 5.18 0 311221 Wet Corn Milling 3.11 106.84 0 1.32 0 1.32 0 0

  18. Keystone coal industry manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The 1994 Keystone Coal Industry Manual is presented. Keystone has served as the one industry reference authority for the many diverse organizations concerned with the supply and utilization of coal in the USA and Canada. Through the continuing efforts of coal producers, buyers, users, sellers, and equipment designers and manufacturers, the coal industry supplies an abundant and economical fuel that is indispensable in meeting the expanding energy needs of North America. The manual is divided into the following sections: coal sales companies, coal export, transportation of coal, consumer directories, coal associations and groups, consulting and financial firms, buyers guide, industry statistics and ownership, coal preparation, coal mine directory, and coal seams.

  19. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ...

  20. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, method of transportation; foreign coal distribution by major coal-exporting state and method of transportation; and domestic and foreign coal distribution by origin state. Year Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin

  1. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  2. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The modifications of the existing bench scale reactor were completed in order to use it in the next phase of the project. In Phase II, the optimum looping medium was selected, and bench scale demonstrations were completed using them. Different types of coal char such as those obtained from bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite were tested. Modifications were made on the existing sub-pilot scale unit for coal injection. Phase III focused on integrated CDCL demonstration in the sub-pilot scale unit. A comprehensive ASPEN® simulations and economic analysis was completed by CONSOL t is expected that the CDCL process will be ready for further demonstrations in a scale up unit upon completion of the proposed project.

  3. " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Number of Establishments by Usage of General Energy-Saving Technologies, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," ",,,"Computer","Control of","Processes"," "," "," ",,,," ",," " " "," ","Computer

  4. "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.1;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States"

  5. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Computer, Electronics and Appliances (NAICS 334, 335), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Computers, Electronics and Electrical Equipment (NAICS 334, 335) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 5 Nonprocess Losses 493 46 Steam Distribution Losses 4 41 Nonprocess Energy 80 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 493 0 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 103 105 137 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 0 276 208 193 24 217 413 0 19 0.0 23.9 23.9 1.4 14.4 12.4

  6. Critical studies of the rapid pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of coal. Final project report, January 1, 1977-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.A.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes major findings from a study of the effects of reaction conditions on the rapid pyrolysis behavior of coal in inert and hydrogen atmospheres. The independent effects of final temperature (150 to 1100/sup 0/C), reaction time at final temperature (0 to 30 s), heating rate (10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 4/ /sup 0/C/s), total pressure (0.0001 to 100 atm), hydrogen partial pressure (0 to 69 atm), and particle size (45 to 1000 ..mu..m), on product yields and compositions were determined for a Montana lignite and a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam bituminous coal. Kinetic data were obtained for formation of specific pyrolysis products from each coal. A new mass transfer model for rapid hydrogasification of softening coal was also formulated. Effects of native mineral matter and selected inorganic additives on the pyrolysis behavior of the Pittsburgh Seam coal and of a Wyodak subbituminous coal were also studied. Detailed project findings are included in papers appended to the main body of the report. Important results include: (1) temperature and residence time are major parameters in determining pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis behavior; (2) coal type is also important, since major differences are observed in the yields, compositions, and evolution kinetics of products from rapid pyrolysis of the bituminous coal and of the lignite; (3) hydrogen can react rapidly with decomposing coal during the early stages of pyrolysis and, under conditions minimizing the elevated temperature contacting of hydrogen and pyrolysis tars, methane accounts for most of the resulting increased conversion; (4) secondary reactions of tar have a major role in determining product yields, compositions, and evolution kinetics in pyrolysis of the bituminous coal; and (5) increased CO production and decreased tar evolution are obtained by treating the bituminous coal with lime or calcite before pyrolysis.

  7. New technology concept for two-stage liquefaction of coal. Final summary report, 1 July 1983-30 September 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, A.G.; Duddy, J.E.; Koziel, M.L.; MacArthur, J.B.; McLean, J.B.; Smith, T.O.

    1986-02-01

    Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) has completed a series of studies for the evaluation of a ''New Technology Concept for Two-Stage Liquefaction of Coal''. The time period of studies covered May 26, 1983 to November 25, 1985, a total of thirty months, with the major effort devoted to Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and the balance devoted to Wyodak sub-bituminous coal. A two-stage coal liquefaction process, based on two close-coupled catalytic ebullated-bed reactors with the first stage operating at low temperature for maximum hydrogenation, has been developed and demonstrated on Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals. This final report presents an executive summary of the program and completes the reporting requirements of Contract No. DE-AC22-83PC60017. A summary of the studies and process demonstrations is presented along with references to the Topical Reports on Illinois No. 6 coal, Wyodak coal, Conceptual Commercial Plant Design and Economics and reports by DOE sponsored support contractors. Experimental details are contained in the referenced reports. The accomplishments of this program and recommendations for a follow-on program are presented. By application of this new hydrogenation concept in this study, distillate yields of greater than 65 W % of M.A.F. Coal or 4.2 barrels per ton of M.A.F. coal were demonstrated on both Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals. This was accompanied by a ten-fold reduction in bottoms viscosity and the production of low sulfur environmentally clean fuels. As reported by Conoco, Inc. and Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, a higher level of hydrogenation is evident and the liquids produced are more petroleum-like than coal liquids derived from other liquefaction processes. Upgrading studies on the Wyodak products are being performed by Chevron. 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, December 1992--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.; Huang, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-04-01

    This work is a fundamental study of catalytic pretreatments as a potential preconversion step to low-severity liquefaction. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide the basis for the design of an improved liquefaction process and to facilitate our understanding of those processes that occur when coals are initially dissolved. The main objectives of this project are to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on the subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank and influence of solvent will be examined. We have made significant progress in the following four aspects during this quarterly period: (1) influence of drying and oxidation of coal on the conversion and product distribution in catalytic liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal using a dispersed catalyst; (2) spectroscopic characterization of dried and oxidized Wyodak coal and the insoluble residues from catalytic and thermal liquefaction; (3) the structural alteration of low-rank coal in low-severity liquefaction with the emphasis on the oxygen-containing functional groups; and (4) effects of solvents and catalyst dispersion methods in temperature-programmed and non-programmed liquefaction of three low-rank coals.

  9. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  10. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  11. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  12. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

    1999-05-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics.

  13. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  14. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  15. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  16. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  17. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Destination State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal

  18. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Origin State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal

  19. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Coal-Biomass to Liquids Turning coal into liquid fuels like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel, with biomass to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, is the main goal of the Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids program. The program also aims to reduce the cost of these low-emission fuels, and will take advantage of carbon capture and sequestration technologies to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids (C&CBTL) Program Activities: The C&CBTL Program

  20. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  1. Coal Research FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Research FAQs faq-header-big.jpg COAL RESEARCH Q: Why is coal research needed? A: The energy resources that currently fuel the Nation's economy are approximately 82 percent fossil-based, with coal playing a significant role. All segments of U.S. society rely on America's existing multibillion-dollar investment in its highly reliable and affordable coal-based energy infrastructure. In the power-generation industry, coal is affordably producing approximately 40 percent of U.S. electricity.

  2. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed: Technical progress report for the third quarter, April 1, 1989-June 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-07-01

    This research project is for the development of a technical and economical feasible process for drying and stability fine particles of high-moisture subbituminous coal. Research conducted in this quarter focused upon thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of both feed coals; continuation of the bench-scale IFB drying experiments; and initiation of the characterization of the products from the bench-scale drying experiments to determine their moisture reabsorption, dustiness, and spontaneous ignition properties. Thirty 4-hr and six 12-hr bench-scale IFB drying tests were conducted this quarter making a total of forty-one 4-hr (19 using Eagle Butte feed coal and 22 using Usibelli feed coal) and six 12-hr (3 using each feed coal) tests conducted thus far. IFB reactor slopes of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 degrees were investigated for each feed coal. During the tests using Eagle Butte coal, gas-to-solids ratios ranging from approximately 0.7 to 9.7 lb/lb (kg/kg) and average IFB reactor temperatures ranging from approximately 370 to 700/degree/F (188 to 371/degree/C) were tested. 5 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. NETL: Coal Gasification Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems Coal Gasification is a process that can turn coal into clean power, chemicals, hydrogen and transportation fuels, and can be used to capture the carbon from ...

  4. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  5. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  6. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  7. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  8. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  9. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  10. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  11. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  12. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  13. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  14. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  15. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  16. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  17. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  18. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  19. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  20. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  1. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  2. Coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  3. Coal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Coal Coal Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation's electricity. The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. The Department is also investing in development of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy

  4. Measurement and Modeling of Sorption-Induced Strain and Permeability Changes in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2005-10-01

    Strain caused by the adsorption of gases was measured in samples of subbituminous coal from the Powder River basin of Wyoming, U.S.A., and high-volatile bituminous coal from the Uinta-Piceance basin of Utah, U.S.A. using a newly developed strain measurement apparatus. The apparatus can be used to measure strain on multiple small coal samples based on the optical detection of the longitudinal strain. The swelling and shrinkage (strain) in the coal samples resulting from the adsorption of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, helium, and a mixture of gases was measured. Sorption-induced strain processes were shown to be reversible and easily modeled with a Langmuir-type equation. Extended Langmuir theory was applied to satisfactorily model strain caused by the adsorption of gas mixtures using the pure gas Langmuir strain constants. The amount of time required to obtain accurate strain data was greatly reduced compared to other strain measurement methods. Sorption-induced changes in permeability were also measured as a function of pres-sure. Cleat compressibility was found to be variable, not constant. Calculated variable cleat-compressibility constants were found to correlate well with previously published data for other coals. During permeability tests, sorption-induced matrix shrinkage was clearly demonstrated by higher permeability values at lower pore pressures while holding overburden pressure constant. Measured permeability data were modeled using three dif-ferent permeability models from the open literature that take into account sorption-induced matrix strain. All three models poorly matched the measured permeability data because they overestimated the impact of measured sorption-induced strain on permeabil-ity. However, by applying an experimentally derived expression to the measured strain data that accounts for the confining overburden pressure, pore pressure, coal type, and gas type, the permeability models were significantly improved.

  5. Energy recycling by co-combustion of coal and recovered paint solids from automobile paint operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achariya Suriyawong; Rogan Magee; Ken Peebles; Pratim Biswas

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of particulate emission and the fate of 13 trace elements (arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)) during combustion tests of recovered paint solids (RPS) and coal. The emissions from combustions of coal or RPS alone were compared with those of co-combustion of RPS with subbituminous coal. The distribution/partitioning of these toxic elements between a coarse-mode ash (particle diameter (d{sub p}) > 0.5 {mu}m), a submicrometer-mode ash (d{sub p} < 0.5 {mu}m), and flue gases was also evaluated. Submicrometer particles generated by combustion of RPS alone were lower in concentration and smaller in size than that from combustion of coal. However, co-combustion of RPS and coal increased the formation of submicrometer-sized particles because of the higher reducing environment in the vicinity of burning particles and the higher volatile chlorine species. Hg was completely volatilized in all cases; however, the fraction in the oxidized state increased with co-combustion. Most trace elements, except Zn, were retained in ash during combustion of RPS alone. Mo was mostly retained in all samples. The behavior of elements, except Mn and Mo, varied depending on the fuel samples. As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, and Pb were vaporized to a greater extent from cocombustion of RPS and coal than from combustion of either fuel. Evidence of the enrichment of certain toxic elements in submicrometer particles has also been observed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni during co-combustion. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  7. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  8. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  9. Coal feed lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, I. Irving (Fairview Park, OH)

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  10. Pelletization of fine coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1991-09-01

    The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

  11. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  12. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  13. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  15. Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically through the process of coal gasification with carbon capture, utilization, and storage.

  16. Annual Coal Report

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    Provides information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience, including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public.

  17. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  18. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  19. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  20. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, John L. (Skokie, IL); Scott, Robert G. (Westmont, IL); Studier, Martin H. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  1. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  2. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | Revision/Correction Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report 2013 data The 2013 Annual Coal Distribution Report has been republished to include final 2013 electric power sector data as well as domestic and foreign distribution data. Contact:

  3. Coal Combustion Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge.

  4. Coal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  5. NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-09-24

    Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable fuel. These fuels will be converted to energy while reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power generating boilers and mitigating global warming concerns. This report describes the sludge analysis, solid fuel preparation and production, combustion performance, environmental emissions and required equipment.

  6. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  7. Selenium And Arsenic Speciation in Fly Ash From Full-Scale Coal-Burning Utility Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.E.; Senior, C.L.; Chu, P.; Ladwig, K.; Huffman, G.P.; /Kentucky U. /Reaction Engin. Int. /Elect. Power Res. Inst., Palo Alto

    2007-07-09

    X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to determine directly the oxidation states and speciation of selenium and arsenic in 10 fly ash samples collected from full-scale utility plants. Such information is needed to assess the health risk posed by these elements in fly ash and to understand their behavior during combustion and in fly ash disposal options, such as sequestration in tailings ponds. Selenium is found predominantly as Se(IV) in selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) species, whereas arsenic is found predominantly as As(V) in arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) species. Two distinct types of selenite and arsenate spectra were observed depending upon whether the fly ash was derived from eastern U.S. bituminous (Fe-rich) coals or from western subbituminous or lignite (Ca-rich) coals. Similar spectral details were observed for both arsenic and selenium in the two different types of fly ash, suggesting that the post-combustion behavior and capture of both of these elements are likely controlled by the same dominant element or phase in each type of fly ash.

  8. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  9. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an

  10. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TF RailroadVesselShip Fuel It is also noted that Destination State code of "X Export" indicates movements to foreign destinations. 1 68 Domestic Coal Distribution...

  11. Coal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assuming no additional constraints on CO2 emissions, coal remains the largest source of electricity generation in the AEO2011 Reference case because of continued reliance on...

  12. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The use of coals with sub- optimal characteristics carries with it penalties in operating efficiency, maintenance cost, and system reliability. Such penalties range from the...

  13. British coal privatization procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The form in which British Coal is to be privatized has finally been announced. Offers are to be invited for the operating underground and opencast mines which will be grouped into five regionally based companies. Additionally, offers will be invited for a number of collieries which are currently under care and maintenance. The five Regional Coal Companies to be formed are Central North, which will comprise the assets in the Yorkshire and Durham coalfields, including the five collieries in the Selby Complex; Central South, which will contain the assets located in the Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire, and Warwickshire coalfields; North East, which has four opencast sites, Scotland, which has nine operating open-cast sites and a single underground mine, Longannet; and South Wales with its nine operating opencast sites. Tower colliery, the last underground mine in South Wales, was finally put on care and maintenance on April 20, 1994. Details of the five Regional Coal Companies are given. A new public sector body, the Coal Authority will be set up to which all British Coal's title to unworked coal and coal mines will be transferred. All the relevant property rights and liabilities of British Coal will be transferred into the Regional Coal Companies prior to their sun.

  14. Balancing coal pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earley, D.; Kirkenir, B.

    2009-11-15

    Balancing coal flow to the burners to optimise combustion by using real-time measurement systems (such as microwave mass measurement) is discussed. 3 figs.

  15. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  16. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    California (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total...

  17. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by...

  18. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is...

  19. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Data For: 2001 Next Release Date: October 2003 U. S. Coal-Producing Districts...

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2013" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Bituminous",,"Subbituminous",,"Lignite",,"Anthracite",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Number ...

  1. U.S. Coal Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Coal Data Browser new! Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal transportation rates International All coal data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption Environment Imports & exports Industry characteristics Prices Production Projections Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud ‹ See all Coal Reports U.S. Coal Reserves

  2. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  3. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  4. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  5. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  6. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Tonawanda, NY); Smol, Robert (East Patchogue, NY); Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY); Naphtali, Leonard M. (Washington, DC)

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  7. Coal. [Great Plains Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The status of various research projects related to coal is considered: gasification (approximately 30 processes) and in-situ gasification. Methanol production, retrofitting internal combustion engines to stratified charge engines, methanation (Conoco), direct reduction of iron ores, water resources, etc. Approximately 200 specific projects related to coal are considered with respect to present status. (LTN)

  8. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  9. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  10. Coal in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchener, A.J.

    2005-07-01

    The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  12. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J.

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  13. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  14. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  15. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  16. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  17. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

    1989-10-30

    A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

  18. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 2 (Jan 2016) Archived Editions: Coal ...

  19. Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other ...

  20. Puda Coal Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Puda Coal Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Puda Coal, Inc Place: Taiyuan, Shaanxi Province, China Product: Specializes in coal preparation by applying a water jig washing...

  1. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  2. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  3. Clean Coal Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

  4. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  5. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  6. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  7. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  8. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  9. Coal repository. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The Coal Repository Project was initiated in 1980 by the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to provide a centralized system for the collection of well characterized coal samples, and distribution to organizations involved in the chemical beneficiation of coal and related research. TRW Energy Development Group, together with its subcontractor Commercial Testing and Engineering Company, established the Coal Repository at the TRW Capistrano Chemical Facility, which is the location of the DOE-owned Multi-Use Fuel and Energy Processes Test Plant (MEP). Twenty tons each of three coals (Illinois No. 6, Kentucky No. 11 (West), and Pittsburgh No. 8 (from an Ohio mine)) were collected, characterized, and stored under a nitrogen atmosphere. Ten tons of each coal are 3/8-inch x 0, five tons of each are 14-mesh x 0, and five tons of each are 100-mesh x 0. Although TRW was within budget and on schedule, Department of Energy funding priorities in this area were altered such that the project was terminated prior to completion of the original scope of work. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  10. " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Industry","Establishments(b)","In Use(e)","Not in Use(f)","Don't Know","In Use(e)","Not in Use(f)","Don't Know","In Use(e)","Not in Use(f)","Don't Know","In ...

  11. STEO November 2012 - coal supplies

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to

  12. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-10-23

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

  13. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  14. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  15. Coal production, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons).

  16. Coal combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  17. 2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  18. 2008 Coal Age buyers guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  19. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  20. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  1. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Morgan C. (Upper Montclair, NJ); Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  2. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  3. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  4. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  5. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  6. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2014 | Release Date: February 23, 2016 | Next Release Date: January 2017 | Previous Data Years Year: 2013 2011 2010 2008 2002 Go Background and Methodology The data in the tables are based on primary data collected by EIA from plant owners and operators on the Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report" (EIA-923 Data) and supplement data and analysis of coal transportation costs released by EIA in June

  7. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  8. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs faq-header-big.jpg BASICS Q: How are gasoline and diesel fuel made from coal? A: Gasoline and diesel fuels can be produced from coal in two distinct processes: Indirect Liquefaction and Direct Liquefaction. In Indirect Liquefaction, coal is first gasified to produce synthesis gas (syngas for short), which is a mixture containing primarily hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases. The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a commercial process that can be used

  9. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  10. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  11. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  12. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. ); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. ); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. ); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. )

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  13. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  14. Catalytic coal hydroliquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal in a hydrogen donor solvent in the presence of hydrogen and a co-catalyst combination of iron and a Group VI or Group VIII non-ferrous metal or compounds of the catalysts.

  15. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

  16. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal. The IBM PC version contains two auxiliary programs, DATAPREP and FORLIST. DATAPREP is an interactive preprocessor for creating and editing COALPREP input data. FORLIST converts carriage-control characters in FORTRAN output data to ASCII line-feed (X''0A'') characters.« less

  17. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal.« less

  18. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143...

  19. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maa, Peter S.

    1978-01-01

    A process for liquefying a particulate coal feed to produce useful petroleum-like liquid products which comprises contacting; in a series of two or more coal liquefaction zones, or stages, graded with respect to temperature, an admixture of a polar compound; or compounds, a hydrogen donor solvent and particulate coal, the total effluent being passed in each instance from a low temperature zone, or stage to the next succeeding higher temperature zone, or stage, of the series. The temperature within the initial zone, or stage, of the series is maintained about 70.degree. F and 750.degree. F and the temperature within the final zone, or stage, is maintained between about 750.degree. F and 950.degree. F. The residence time within the first zone, or stage, ranges, generally, from about 20 to about 150 minutes and residence time within each of the remaining zones, or stages, of the series ranges, generally, from about 10 minutes to about 70 minutes. Further steps of the process include: separating the product from the liquefaction zone into fractions inclusive of a liquid solvent fraction; hydrotreating said liquid solvent fraction in a hydrogenation zone; and recycling the hydrogenated liquid solvent mixture to said coal liquefaction zones.

  20. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  2. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  3. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  4. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    current Coal Distribution Report Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: January 2016 | full report | Revision/Correction Archive Domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, method of transportation; foreign coal distribution by major coal-exporting state and method of transportation; and domestic and foreign coal distribution by origin state. Year Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin

  5. Appalachian recapitalization: United Coal comes full circle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-05-15

    The article recounts the recent history of the United Coal Co. which exited from the coal business between 1992 and 1997 and has recently returned. More coal reserves have been added by its four companies Sapphire Coal, Carter Roag Coal, Pocahontas Coal and Wellmore, bringing the grand total to 222.6 Mtons. United Coal's developments and investment strategy are discussed. The company headquarters are in Bristol, Va., USA. 1 tab., 7 photos.

  6. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  7. Summary of coal export project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Through the international coal project and related activities, SSEB has called attention to the problems and potential of the US coal industry. The program has provided an excellent format for frank discussions on the problems facing US coal exports. Every effort must be made to promote coal and its role in the southern economy. Coal is enjoying its best years in the domestic market. While the export market is holding its own, there is increased competition in the world market from Australia, Columbia, China and, to a lesser extent, Russia. This is coming at a time when the US has enacted legislation and plans are underway to deepen ports. In addition there is concern that increased US coal and electricity imports are having a negative impact on coal production. These limiting factors suggest the US will remain the swing supplier of coal on the world market in the near future. This presents a challenge to the US coal and related industry to maintain the present market and seek new markets as well as devote research to new ways to use coal more cleanly and efficiently.

  8. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Nicholas S.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Litster, Shawn; Berry, David A.

    2013-08-15

    We present experimental results of coal gasification with and without the addition of calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide as dual-functioning catalyst-capture agents. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect of these catalyst-capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO2 and H2S capture, and (3) the steam-coal gasification kinetic rate. The syngas composition from the gasifier was roughly 20% methane, 70% hydrogen, and 10% other species when a CaO/C molar ratio of 0.5 was added. We demonstrated significantly enhanced steam–coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when operating a CaO-CaCO3 chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate increased 250% when dry mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 with a sub-bituminous coal, and the kinetic rate increased 1000% when aqueously mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 along with potassium hydroxide at a K/C molar ratio of 0.06. In addition, we conducted multi-cycle studies in which CaCO3 was calcined by heating to 900 °C to regenerate the CaO, which was then reused in repeated CaO-CaCO3 cycles. The increased steam-coal gasification kinetics rates for both CaO and CaO + KOH persisted even when the material was reused in six cycles of gasification and calcination. The ability of CaO to capture carbon dioxide decreased roughly 2-4% per CaO-CaCO3 cycle. We also discuss an important application of this combined gasifier-calciner to electricity generation and selling the purge stream as a precalcined feedstock to a cement kiln. In this scenario, the amount of purge stream required is fixed not by the degradation in the capture ability but rather by the requirements at the cement kiln on the amount of CaSO4 and ash in the precalcined feedstock.

  9. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  10. Coal-Producing Region

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Coal Production by State (thousand short tons) Year to Date Coal-Producing Region and State July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change Alabama 3,192 3,504 4,331 10,718 12,345 -13.2 Alaska 255 345 372 866 1,178 -26.5 Arizona 1,762 1,912 2,165 5,429 5,979 -9.2 Arkansas 26 27 18 74 58 27.4 Colorado 5,123 5,078 6,574 15,464 18,367 -15.8 Illinois 13,967 13,360 14,816 44,105 42,575 3.6 Indiana 9,124 8,577 9,805 27,164 29,328 -7.4 Kansas 42 49 5 144 16 NM

  11. "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,"Distillate" ,,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS",,,"Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"...

  12. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-12-15

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  13. COAL & POWER SYSTEMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COAL & POWER SYSTEMS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY GREENER, SOONER... THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION .......... i-1 STRATEGIC PLAN ........ 1-1 PROGRAM PLANS Vision 21 .......................... 2-1 Central Power Systems ...... 3-1 Distributed Generation ..... 4-1 Fuels ................................ 5-1 Carbon Sequestration ....... 6-1 Advanced Research ........... 7-1 TABLE OF CONTENTS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM

  14. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  15. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    The coal liquefaction process disclosed uses three stages. The first stage is a liquefaction. The second and third stages are hydrogenation stages at different temperatures and in parallel or in series. One stage is within 650.degree.-795.degree. F. and optimizes solvent production. The other stage is within 800.degree.-840.degree. F. and optimizes the C.sub.5 -850.degree. F. product.

  16. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: catalog of bituminous coals and site selection. Appendix A. National coal resource data system: Ecoal, Wcoal, and Bmalyt. Final report, Phase I. [Bituminous coal; by state; coal seam depth and thickness; identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-31

    Appendix A is a catalog of the bituminous coal in 29 states of the contiguous United States which contain identified bituminous coal resources.

  17. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  18. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  19. Environmental development plan: coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This Environmental Development plan (EDP) examines environmental concerns that are being evaluated for the technologies in DOE's Coal Liquefaction Program. It identifies the actions that are planned or underway to resolve these concerns while the technologies are being developed. Research is scheduled on the evaluation and mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This EDP updates the FY 1977 Coal Liquefaction Program EDP. Chapter II describes the DOE Coal Liquefaction Program and focuses on the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), H-Coal, and Exxon donor solvent (EDS) processes because of their relatively advanced R and D stages. The major unresolved environmental concerns associated with the coal liquefaction subactivities and projects are summarized. The concerns were identified in the 1977 EDP's and research was scheduled to lead to the resolution of the concerns. Much of this research is currently underway. The status of ongoing and planned research is shown in Table 4-1.

  20. "Annual Coal Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Report Data Released: January 20, 2015 Data for: 2013 Re-Release Date: April 23, 2015 (CORRECTION) Annual Coal Report 2013 Correction/Update April 23, 2015 The Annual Coal Report (ACR) 2013 has been republished in order to update electric power sector data with finalized data. Contact: JenAlyse Arena Phone: 202-586-4866 Email: JenAlyse Arena Fax: 202-287-1944

  1. Coal Data Publication Revision Policy

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Publication Revision Policy IF this occurs: THEN Survey Manager determines impact: WHAT happens next to the database and in our coal reports: Respondent provides data that are clearly incorrect or revised data for any period in the current reporting year. If National level percentage is > 1%, or If Regional level percentage is > 5%, or If State level percentage is > 10%. Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) and Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) will be reposted no further back than the

  2. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  4. Clean Coal Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of harmful pollutants from coal, including mercury, sulfur and coal tars. References: Clean Coal Technologies1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it....

  5. FE Clean Coal News | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Clean Coal News FE Clean Coal News RSS December 2, 2015 DOE Selects Projects To Enhance Its Research into Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has selected 10 projects to receive funding for research in support of the lab's program on Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts. The selected research projects will further program goals by focusing on the development of

  6. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 2 (Jan 2016) Archived Editions: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 1 (Oct 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 1, Issue 4 (July 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 1, Issue 3 (Apr 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 1,

  7. Quarterly Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Quarterly Coal Distribution Report Release Date: March 9, 2016 | Next Release Date: May 2016 | full report The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of transportation, and consuming sector. Quarterly data for all years are preliminary and will be superseded by the release of the corresponding "Annual Coal Distribution Report." Highlights for the fourth quarter 2014: Total

  8. Quarterly Coal Report - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Coal Data Browser new! Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal transportation rates International All coal data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption Environment Imports & exports Industry characteristics Prices Production Projections Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud ‹ See all Coal Reports Quarterly Coal

  9. EIA - Weekly U.S. Coal Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Coal Data Browser new! Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal transportation rates International All coal data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption Environment Imports & exports Industry characteristics Prices Production Projections Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Weekly U.S. Coal Production Coal producing

  10. coal contacts | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coal contacts Strategic Center for Coal Director: Sean Plasynski 412-386-4867 Senior Management & Technical Advisor: Gregory Kawalkin 412-386-6135 Senior Management & Technical ...

  11. FE Clean Coal News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity from Innovative DOE-Supported Clean Coal Project An innovative clean coal technology project in Texas will supply electricity to the largest municipally owned...

  12. FMI NewCoal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    developer focused on upgrading low rank coals to improve combustion efficiency and reduce production of greenhouse emissions for coal fired utility and industrial power generation...

  13. American Clean Coal Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    American Clean Coal Fuels Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAmericanCleanCoalFuels&oldid768408" Categories: Organizations Energy Generation Organizations...

  14. Jamestown Oxy Coal Alliance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxy Coal Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jamestown Oxy-Coal Alliance Place: New York Product: The Jamestown Alliance has been formed to develop a CCS demonstration...

  15. SciTech Connect: "clean coal"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clean coal" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "clean coal" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  16. "NAICS Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No Participation","Participation(b)","Don't Know","Not Applicable"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.4;" " Unit: Percents." "NAICS Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No Participation","Participation(b)","Don't Know","Not Applicable" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES" ,"Full-Time Energy Manager (c)",0.7,4.8,3.9,"--" ,"Set Goals for Improving Energy Efficiency",1.2,2.8,3,"--"

  17. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  18. Coal: Energy for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  19. Coal Age buyers guide 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-15

    The buyers guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  20. Coal Age buyers guide 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  1. Coal Age buyers guide 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-15

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  2. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  3. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharucha, N.

    1994-12-31

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  4. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  5. 1990,"AK","Total Electric Power Industry","All Sources",4208809...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cogen","Petroleum",49092,1984,263 1990,"AK","Industrial Non-Cogen","All ... 1991,"OK","IPP NAICS-22 Cogen","Coal",1984516,4744,7324 1991,"OK","IPP NAICS-22 ...

  6. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  7. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  8. Coal Technology '80. Volume 5. Synthetic fuels from coal. Volume 6. Industrial/utility applications for coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The 3rd international coal utilization exhibition and conference Coal Technology '80 was held at the Astrohall, Houston, Texas, November 18-20, 1980. Volume 5 deals with coal gasification and coal liquefaction. Volume 6 deals with fluidized-bed combustion of coal, cogeneration and combined-cycle power plants, coal-fuel oil mixtures (COM), chemical feedstocks via coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Thirty-six papers have been entered individually into EDB and seven also into ERA; three had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  9. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  10. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  11. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  12. Mechanism of instantaneous coal outbursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, P.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhang, Y.X.

    2009-10-15

    Thousands of mine workers die every year from mining accidents, and instantaneous coal outbursts in underground coal mines are one of the major killers. Various models for these outbursts have been proposed, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesize that the mechanism of coal outbursts is similar to magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions; i.e., it is caused by high gas pressure inside coal but low ambient pressure on it, breaking coal into pieces and releasing the high-pressure gas in a shock wave. Hence, coal outbursts may be regarded as another type of gas-driven eruption, in addition to explosive volcanic, lake, and possible ocean eruptions. We verify the hypothesis by experiments using a shock-tube apparatus. Knowing the mechanism of coal outbursts is the first step in developing prediction and mitigation measures. The new concept of gas-driven solid eruption is also important to a better understanding of salt-gas outbursts, rock-gas outbursts, and mud volcano eruptions.

  13. DOE - Fossil Energy: Introduction to Coal Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal COAL is our most abundant fossil fuel. The United States has more coal than the rest of the world has oil. There is still enough coal underground in this country to provide energy for the next 200 to 300 years. But coal is not a perfect fuel. Trapped inside coal are traces of impurities like sulfur and nitrogen. When coal burns, these impurities are released into the air. While floating in the air, these substances can combine with water vapor (for

  14. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  16. Coal Study Guide for Elementary School | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Elementary School Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Focuses on the basics of coal, history of coal use, conversion of coal into electricity, and climate change concerns. PDF icon Fossil Energy Study Guide: Coal (for Elementary School) More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide - High School Secondary Energy Infobook and Secondary Infobook Activities (19 Activities)

  17. Interest in coal chemistry intensifies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggin, J.

    1982-08-09

    Research on coal structure has increased greatly in recent years as the future role of coal as a source of gaseous and liquid fuels, as well as chemicals, becomes more apparent. This paper reviews in some detail work being carried out in the US, particularly in the laboratories of Mobil and Exxon, and in the universities. New ideas on the chemical and physical structure of coal are put forward, and a proposal for a new classification system based on the fundamental properties of the vitrinite macerals is introduced.

  18. STEO December 2012 - coal demand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    coal demand seen below 1 billion tons in 2012 for fourth year in a row Coal consumption by U.S. power plants to generate electricity is expected to fall below 1 billion tons in 2012 for the fourth year in a row. Domestic coal consumption is on track to total 829 million tons this year. That's the lowest level since 1992, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new monthly energy forecast. Utilities and power plant operators are choosing to burn more lower-priced natural gas

  19. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  20. Coal gasification vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  1. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  2. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FE-0514 Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2007 Includes Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) Projects As of September 2007 U.S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Washington, DC 20585 January 2008 T E C H N O L O G Y DOE/FE-0514 Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2007 Includes Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant

  3. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | Revision/Correction The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for 2013 are final and this report supersedes the 2013 quarterly coal distribution reports. Highlights

  4. Sustainable Coal Use | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sustainable Coal Use Sustainable Coal Use Coal is a vital energy resource, not only for the United States, but also for many developed and developing economies around the world. Finding ways to use coal cleanly and more efficiently at lower costs is a major R&D challenge, and an ongoing focus of activities by the DOE's Office of Fossil Energy. PDF icon Fossil Energy Research Benefits - Sustainable Coal Use More Documents & Publications Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

  5. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies.

  6. Southern Coal finds value in the met market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-11-15

    The Justice family launches a new coal company (Southern Coal Corp.) to serve metallurgical and steam coal markets. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  7. Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-exporting State. This Final 2008 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the Preliminary...

  8. Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-exporting State. This Final 2008 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the Preliminary...

  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Institutional: Form EIA-3, "Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report, Manufacturing and TransformationProcessing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal...

  10. DOE/EIA-M060(2007) Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  11. Coal Market Module of the Energy Modeling System Model Documentation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  12. Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System Model...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  13. Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal made up more than 80% of retired electricity generating capacity in 2015 electricitystatesgenerationcapacityretirements U.S. coal exports declined 23% in 2015, as coal imports ...

  14. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  15. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Grimes, R. William (Laramie, WY); Tweed, Robert E. (Laramie, WY)

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  16. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  17. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  18. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.; Eddings, E.; Lighty, J.; Ring, T.; Smith, P.; Thornock, J.; Y Jia, W. Morris; Pedel, J.; Rezeai, D.; Wang, L.; Zhang, J.; Kelly, K.

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  19. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  20. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  1. Two stage liquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuworth, Martin B. (Chevy Chase, MD)

    1981-01-01

    A two stage coal liquefaction process and apparatus comprising hydrogen donor solvent extracting, solvent deashing, and catalytic hydrocracking. Preferrably, the catalytic hydrocracking is performed in an ebullating bed hydrocracker.

  2. Which route to coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nene, R.G.

    1981-11-01

    Two main methods for producing liquid fuels from coal are currently undergoing intensive evaluation. One, direct liquefaction (e.g., SRC-II, Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and H-Coal) produces liquid fuels directly from coal; the other, indirect liquefaction (e.g., Lurgi gasifier followed by Fischer-Tropsch, and Shell-Koppers gasifier followed by methanol synthesis and Mobil's MTG process) first gasifies coal and then converts the gaseous material into liquid products. This paper compares both routes basing its assessment on yields, thermal efficiencies, elemental balances, investment, complexity, and state of development. It is shown that direct liquefaction is more efficient and produces more product per investment dollar. Higher efficiency for direct liquefaction is verified bY stoichiometric and thermodynamic analysis. All approaches require about the same capital investment per unit of feed. Indirect liquefaction can be either more or less complex than direct liquefaction, depending upon the process. Direct liquefaction is least developed. 8 refs.

  3. Upgrading coal plant damper drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hood, N.R.; Simmons, K. [Alamaba Power (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The replacement of damper drives on two coal-fired units at the James H. Miller Jr. electric generating plant by Intelligent Contrac electric rotary actuators is discussed. 2 figs.

  4. Coal and Biomass to Liquids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Over the last several decades, the Office of Fossil Energy performed RD&D activities that made significant advancements in the areas of coal conversion to liquid fuels and chemicals. Technology...

  5. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the ninth quarter, electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal and coal pyrite. In addition, electrokinetic tests were done on Upper Freeport coal pyrite.

  6. Apparatus for entrained coal pyrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy (Culver City, CA)

    1982-11-16

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  7. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

    1983-11-08

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

  8. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platt, Robert J. (Dover, NJ); Shadbolt, Edward A. (Basking Ridge, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces.

  9. Coal liquefaction and gasification technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangold, E.C.; Muradaz, M.A.; Ouellette, R.P.; Farah, O.G.; Cheremisinoff, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of selected coal liquefaction and gasification processes developed with support from the United States are reviewed. The Exxon Donor Solvent, H-Coal, SRC-I, SRC-II, Mobile Gasoline Synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, and Zinc Halide Hydrocracking liquefaction processes and the Slagging Lurgi, Texaco, Combustion Engineering, COGAS, and Shell-Koppers gasification processes are covered. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 chapters.

  10. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  11. 2015 Gasification Systems and Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Gasification Systems and Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids Workshop Workshop Summary Additional materials will be added when they are received from the author. Presentations ...

  12. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2013: Prices and Expenditures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Coal prices are developed for the following three categories: coking coal; steam coal (all noncoking coal); and coal coke imports and exports. Coking coal, used in the industrial sector only, is a high-quality bituminous coal that is used to make coal coke. Steam coal, which may be used by all sectors, includes anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite. In the industrial sector, coal consumption is the sum of coking coal and steam coal. The industrial coal price is the

  13. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  14. Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

  15. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  16. Coal Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High School Coal Study Guide - High School PDF icon Coal Study Guide - High School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Fossil Energy Today - First Quarter, 2011

  17. Coal Study Guide - Middle School | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Middle School Coal Study Guide - Middle School PDF icon Coal Study Guide - Middle School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Coal Study Guide - High School Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

  18. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  19. Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    University Coal Research Program | Department of Energy Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program July 5, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The Department of Energy has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and

  20. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  1. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  2. Proceedings, twenty-fourth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    Topics covered include: gasification technologies; coal production and preparation; combustion technologies; environmental control technologies; synthesis of liquid fuels, chemicals, materials and other non-fuel uses of coal; hydrogen from coal; advanced synthesis gas cleanup; coal chemistry, geosciences and resources; Fischer-Tropsch technology; coal and sustainability; global climate change; gasification (including underground gasification); materials, instrumentation and controls; and coal utilisation byproducts.

  3. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  4. Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants (data update 12132010) January 14, 2011 b National ... Office of Strategic Energy Analysis & Planning Erik Shuster 2 Tracking New Coal-Fired ...

  5. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  6. Clean Coal Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Coal Ltd Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: W1F 8QE Product: London-based company which specialises in underground coal gasification project management and project...

  7. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  8. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  9. NAICS Codes @ Headquarters Description: NAICS Codes used at Headquarte...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... PUBLISHERS 8 1,742,744.89 524292 THIRD PARTY ADMINISTRATION OF INSURANCE AND PENSION ... BUSINESS, PROFESSIONAL, LABOR, AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS) 1 3,240.00 333319 OTHER ...

  10. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, pH, Photosynthetically Activate Radiation (PAR) and dissolved oxygen (DO); and a ~2 gallons per minute (gpm) algae culture dewatering system. Among the three algae strains, Scenedesmus showed the most tolerance to temperature and irradiance conditions in Phoenix and the best self-settling characteristics. Experimental findings and operational strategies determined through these tests guided the operation of the algae cultivation system for the scale-up study. Effect of power plant flue gas, especially heavy metals, on algae growth and biomass adsorption were evaluated as well.

  11. Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio estimation from the given equation below; ̂ () = () × × { + ( - )} (1) ℎ ̂ () =

  12. Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umansky, R.Z.; Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

  13. U.S. monthly coal production increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    monthly coal production increases U.S. coal production in July totaled 88.9 million short tons, the highest level since August 2012, according to preliminary data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Total production during July 2013 was up 3 percent from the previous July's output. The turnaround comes as power plants are using more coal to generate electricity, reflecting higher electricity demand....and the fact that coal prices this year are more competitive with higher-priced

  14. National Coal celebrates its fifth anniversary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-06-15

    The growth and activities of the National Coal Corp since its formation in 2003 are described. 5 photos.

  15. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate change mitigation. The possibility of a large coal gap suggests that Chinese and international policy makers should maximize institutional and financial support to moderate demand and improve energy efficiency.

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Industrial Sector by State, 2013 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Census Division and State Receipts...

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Independent Power Producers by State, 2013 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Census Division and State...

  19. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  20. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Kenneth J. (Floreffe, PA); Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA)

    1989-01-01

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow.