Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block. Pinnavaia and coworkers6 have reported the synthesis of MSU-X mesoporous materials with several non- ionic and cowork- ers7 have reported the synthesis of SBA mesoporous silica materials, which have well

Kim, Ji Man

2

Sodium-Silicate Route to Submicrometer Hybrid PEG@Silica Particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sodium-Silicate Route to Submicrometer Hybrid PEG@Silica Particles ... Supported by the Nano Functional Materials (NFM) MAGNET Program of the Israel Ministry of Trade and Industry, by the Infrastructure (Tashtiot) Program of the Israel Ministry of Science, and by the European Functionalized Advanced Materials and Engineering Hybrids and Ceramic (FAME) Network of Excellence (NOE). ...

Hila Elimelech; David Avnir

2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

3

Mechanical relaxation behavior of polyurethanes reinforced with the in situ-generated sodium silica-polyphosphate nanophase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Further exploration of hybrid organic/inorganic composites (polyurethane based with inorganic material sodium silica polyphosphate) properties with mechanical relaxometer gives ability to analyze microstructure of such materials in terms of chain reptation tubes filler's fractal aggregates and stress amplification.

V. O. Dupanov; S. M. Ponomarenko

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

4

silica glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...any amorphous, pale yellow to pale green natural silica glass such as moldavite, Libyan Desert glass, contains nearly 98% silica. RI:...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Silica Scaling Removal Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Silica Scaling Removal Process Silica Scaling Removal Process Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel technology to remove both dissolved and colloidal...

6

Silica extraction from geothermal water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing silica from geothermal fluid containing low concentration of the silica of less than 275 ppm includes the steps of treating the geothermal fluid containing the silica by reverse osmosis treatment thereby producing a concentrated fluid containing the silica, seasoning the concentrated fluid thereby producing a slurry having precipitated colloids containing the silica, and separating the silica from the slurry.

Bourcier, William L; Bruton, Carol J

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

7

Silica Scaling Removal Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Silica Scaling Removal Process Silica Scaling Removal Process Silica Scaling Removal Process Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel technology to remove both dissolved and colloidal silica using small gel particles. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Silica Scaling Removal Process Applications: Cooling tower systems Water treatment systems Water evaporation systems Potential mining applications (produced water) Industry applications for which silica scaling must be prevented Benefits: Reduces scaling in cooling towers by up to 50% Increases the number of cycles of concentration substantially Reduces the amount of antiscaling chemical additives needed Decreases the amount of makeup water and subsequent discharged water (blowdown) Enables considerable cost savings derived from reductions in

8

Nanoengineering Strong Silica Aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanoengineering Strong Silica Aerogels ... In the quest for strong lightweight materials, silica aerogels would be very attractive, if they were not fragile. ... Robust, Highly Thermally Stable, Core–Shell Nanostructured Metal Oxide Aerogels as High-Temperature Thermal Superinsulators, Adsorbents, and Catalysts ...

Nicholas Leventis; Chariklia Sotiriou-Leventis; Guohui Zhang; Abdel-Monem M. Rawashdeh

2002-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

9

Novel silica-based ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Viscosity of silica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental measurements of the viscosity of silica ( SiO 2 ) are critically examined; the best measurements show an activation energy of 515 kJ/mole above 1400 °C and 720 kJ/mole below this temperature. The diffusion of silicon and oxygen in silica have temperature dependencies close to that of the high temperature viscosity. Mechanisms of viscous flow and diffusion of silicon and oxygen in silica are proposed that involve motion of SiO molecules. Viscous flow is proposed to result from the motion of line defects composed of SiO molecules At temperatures below 1400 °C the fraction of SiO molecules in line defects changes with temperature. The relaxation of this fraction to an equilibrium value depends on the time. These proposed mechanisms are consistent with experimental measurements of silicaviscosity.

Robert H. Doremus

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Recycling of sodium waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recycling of sodium waste ... Methods for handling and recycling a dangerous and costly chemical. ...

Bettina Hubler-Blank; Michael Witt; Herbert W. Roesky

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Silica Geothermometers | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Silica Geothermometers Silica Geothermometers Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Silica Geothermometers Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geochemical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Geochemical Data Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Liquid Geothermometry Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Used to estimate reservoir temperatures. Dictionary.png Silica Geothermometers: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Introduction Some experts have stated that the factor that changes the risk assessment of a geothermal prospect the fastest is obtaining attractive chemical confirmation (geothermometry, gas analyses) that a thermal resource exists

13

New Antifouling Silica Hydrogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are several potential applications for these materials (e.g., blood filtration, scaffold design, and carriers for drug delivery, among many others). ... For example, this new material can be used as a filter medium for the separation of bacterial impurities from air and water, where silica hydrogels fulfill the high-surface-area requirements for a good separation medium and the antifouling characteristics of the pCBMA brush can prevent biofilm formation, thus extending the service life of the separation medium. ... Samples were prepared by dissolving 20 mg of the polymer in 5 mL of the solvent and filtered with 0.2 ?m PTFE filters. ...

Ángela A. Beltrán-Osuna; Bin Cao; Gang Cheng; Sadhan C. Jana; Matthew P. Espe; Bimala Lama

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

14

Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.  

SciTech Connect

The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Sample Desorption/Ionization From Mesoporous Silica  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sample Desorption/Ionization From Mesoporous Silica Sample Desorption/Ionization From Mesoporous Silica Sample Desorption/Ionization From Mesoporous Silica Mesoporous silica is shown to be a sample holder for laser desorption/ionization of mass spectrometry. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Sample Desorption/Ionization From Mesoporous Silica Mesoporous silica is shown to be a sample holder for laser desorption/ionization of mass spectrometry. Supported mesoporous silica was prepared by coating an ethanolic silicate solution having a removable surfactant onto a substrate to produce a self-assembled, ordered, nanocomposite silica thin film. The surfactant was chosen to provide a desired pore size between about 1 nanometer diameter and 50 nanometers diameter. Removal of the surfactant resulted in a mesoporous silica thin

16

Submersible sodium pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

17

Hydrophobic silica aerogel reinforced with carbon nanotube for oils removal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrophobic silica aerogel reinforced with carbon nanotube (CNT/silica aerogel) has been prepared by forming silica layer on carboxylated CNT via a sol–gel process. The prepared CNT/silica aerogel can bear a l...

Tao Sun; Qin Zhuo; Xin Liu; Zhaopeng Sun; Zhanjun Wu…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Detection of alkali-silica reaction swelling in concrete by staining  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobalt nitrite and rhodamine B is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na-K-Ca-Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca-Si gels are identified by pink staining.

Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Carey, J.W.

1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

19

Detection of alkali-silica reaction swelling in concrete by staining  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobaltinitrite and rhodamine B is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na--K--Ca--Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca--Si gels are identified by pink staining.

Guthrie, Jr., George D. (Santa Fe, NM); Carey, J. William (Santa Fe, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Purification, Recovery, and Laser-Driven Fluorination of Silicon from Dissolved and Particulate Silica for the Measurement of Natural Stable Isotope Abundances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purification, Recovery, and Laser-Driven Fluorination of Silicon from Dissolved and Particulate Silica for the Measurement of Natural Stable Isotope Abundances ... At least three simple techniques exist for this:? fusion of SiO2 with Na2CO3 to form water-soluble sodium silicate, dissolution in HF, or dissolution in NaOH. ...

Christina L. De La Rocha; Mark A. Brzezinski; Michael J. DeNiro

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Electroactive Silica Nanoparticles for Biological Labeling. ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

novel electrochemical immuno-biosensor based on poly(guanine)-functionalized silica nanoparticle labels and mediator-generated catalytic reaction was described. The functionalized...

22

INTERACTION OF MARINE SEDIMENTS WITH DISSOLVED SILICA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In situ, these sediments had been in contact with seawater ... with seawater of high- and low-silica con- .... water after Five months storage with sediments.

2000-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

23

Silica Supported Ceria Nanoparticles: A Hybrid Nanostructure...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoparticles: A Hybrid Nanostructure To Increase Stability And Surface Reactivity Of Nano-crystalline Silica Supported Ceria Nanoparticles: A Hybrid Nanostructure To Increase...

24

Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles with Efficient Urinary Excretion for Nanomedicine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles with Efficient Urinary Excretion for Nanomedicine ... The emerging nanomedicine landscape ... Core-shell silica nanoparticles as fluorescent labels for nanomedicine ...

Andrew A. Burns; Jelena Vider; Hooisweng Ow; Erik Herz; Oula Penate-Medina; Martin Baumgart; Steven M. Larson; Ulrich Wiesner; Michelle Bradbury

2008-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

25

Synthesis of supported carbon nanotubes in mineralized silica...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

supported carbon nanotubes in mineralized silica-wood composites. Synthesis of supported carbon nanotubes in mineralized silica-wood composites. Abstract: Multiwall carbon...

26

Structure of Random Porous Materials: Silica Aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using small-angle x-ray scattering, we show that porous silica aerogel has a fractal backbone structure. The observed structure is traced to the underlying chemical (polymerization) and physical (colloid aggregation) growth processes. Comparison of scattering curves for aerogel with silica aggregates confirms this interpretation.

Dale W. Schaefer and Keith D. Keefer

1986-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

27

It's Elemental - The Element Sodium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neon Neon Previous Element (Neon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Magnesium) Magnesium The Element Sodium [Click for Isotope Data] 11 Na Sodium 22.98976928 Atomic Number: 11 Atomic Weight: 22.98976928 Melting Point: 370.95 K (97.80°C or 208.04°F) Boiling Point: 1156 K (883°C or 1621°F) Density: 0.97 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 1 Group Name: Alkali Metal What's in a name? From the English word soda and from the Medieval Latin word sodanum, which means "headache remedy." Sodium's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for sodium carbonate, natrium. Say what? Sodium is pronounced as SO-dee-em. History and Uses: Although sodium is the sixth most abundant element on earth and comprises

28

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: New York | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

November 23, 2009 November 23, 2009 CX-000091: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cheektowaga's Installation of Photovoltaic Solar Panels CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): Cheektowaga, New York Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy November 23, 2009 CX-000207: Categorical Exclusion Determination NaSi (Sodium Silicide) and Na-SG (Sodium Silica Gell) Powder Hydrogen Fuel Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): New York Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office November 23, 2009 CX-000097: Categorical Exclusion Determination Mount Vernon's Energy Efficiency Retrofits and Programs CX(s) Applied: B5.1, B1.32, A1, A9, A11 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): Mount Vernon, New York Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

29

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Office of Energy Efficiency and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

23, 2009 23, 2009 CX-000208: Categorical Exclusion Determination Recovery Act - PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) Fuel Cell Systems Providing Emergency Reserve and Backup Power CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): Washington Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office November 23, 2009 CX-000207: Categorical Exclusion Determination NaSi (Sodium Silicide) and Na-SG (Sodium Silica Gell) Powder Hydrogen Fuel Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): New York Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office November 23, 2009 CX-000206: Categorical Exclusion Determination Michigan Biogas Center of Excellence CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): Flint, Michigan Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

30

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3, 2009 3, 2009 CX-000207: Categorical Exclusion Determination NaSi (Sodium Silicide) and Na-SG (Sodium Silica Gell) Powder Hydrogen Fuel Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): New York Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office November 23, 2009 CX-000445: Categorical Exclusion Determination Sulfur Dioxide resistant Immobilized Amine Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.1 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): Akron, Ohio Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 23, 2009 CX-000206: Categorical Exclusion Determination Michigan Biogas Center of Excellence CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): Flint, Michigan Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

31

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

11 - 4820 of 29,416 results. 11 - 4820 of 29,416 results. Download CX-000207: Categorical Exclusion Determination NaSi (Sodium Silicide) and Na-SG (Sodium Silica Gell) Powder Hydrogen Fuel Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): New York Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-000207-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-001522: Categorical Exclusion Determination Activity 8 CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 04/01/2010 Location(s): Sacramento County, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-001522-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010683: Categorical Exclusion Determination Glen Canyon Substation Stage 09- 50MVA 230/69KV Transformer addition

32

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B3.6 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

24, 2009 24, 2009 CX-000549: Categorical Exclusion Determination Solubility Testing of Boron and Gadolinium in Nitric Acid CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/24/2009 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office November 23, 2009 CX-000207: Categorical Exclusion Determination NaSi (Sodium Silicide) and Na-SG (Sodium Silica Gell) Powder Hydrogen Fuel Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): New York Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office November 23, 2009 CX-000206: Categorical Exclusion Determination Michigan Biogas Center of Excellence CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): Flint, Michigan Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

33

New York | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

November 23, 2009 November 23, 2009 CX-000091: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cheektowaga's Installation of Photovoltaic Solar Panels CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): Cheektowaga, New York Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy November 23, 2009 CX-000207: Categorical Exclusion Determination NaSi (Sodium Silicide) and Na-SG (Sodium Silica Gell) Powder Hydrogen Fuel Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): New York Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office November 23, 2009 CX-000097: Categorical Exclusion Determination Mount Vernon's Energy Efficiency Retrofits and Programs CX(s) Applied: B5.1, B1.32, A1, A9, A11 Date: 11/23/2009 Location(s): Mount Vernon, New York Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

34

Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride Solutions and Their Effects on Fluid Flow in Unsaturated Media Tianfu Xu and Karsten Pruess Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 ABSTRACT. Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO 3 solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of

35

Sodium loop framework structural analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the structural analysis of the Sodium Loop framework in a drop condition. The drop is similar to the US Department of Transportation non-bulk, performance-oriented packaging (Packaging Group I) drop test. The drop height evaluated for the Sodium Loop framework is 5.9 ft.

Nguyen, P.M.

1995-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

36

Silica Nanoparticles and Frameworks from Rice Husk Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silica Nanoparticles and Frameworks from Rice Husk Biomass ... silica nanoparticles; rice husk; porous; biomass; hierarchical ... (22-25) Although the silica structures from RHs appear to be much less complicated and less visually attractive compared to the ones from diatoms, the large quantities of RH biomass offer an opportunity for mass production of nanostructured silica for industrial applications. ...

Weixing Wang; Jarett C. Martin; Xiaotian Fan; Aijie Han; Zhiping Luo; Luyi Sun

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

37

Synthesis, adsorption and regeneration of nanoporous silica aerogel and silica aerogel-activated carbon composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Usage of aerogels as an adsorbent has become more widespread because of its specifications such as high porosity and specific surface. Nanometer silica aerogel and silica aerogel-activated carbon composites were synthesized using a water glass precursor by ambient pressure drying method. Then, the adsorption capacity of synthesized adsorbents was studied in terms of benzene and ethyl benzene adsorption by chromatography method for continuous and batch testing. Results showed that silica aerogel and silica aerogel-activated carbon composites had high tendency for benzene and ethyl benzene adsorption. Silica aerogel showed maximum adsorption capacity of 2.3 g g?1 and 0.7 g g?1 in static adsorption of benzene and ethyl benzene respectively. Also, in dynamic adsorption of benzene and ethyl benzene, silica aerogel had maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity of 0.954 g g?1 and 0.219 g g?1 respectively. Minimum equilibrium adsorption capacity in benzene and ethyl benzene static adsorption was related to activated carbon with 0.7 g g?1 and silica aerogel–2 wt% activated carbon with 0.25 g g?1 respectively. After adsorption process, silica aerogel and silica aerogel–0.5 wt% activated carbon composite were regenerated by solvent extraction–thermal treatment method and, after at least 15 adsorption/desorption cycles, their adsorption capacity became fixed.

Akbar Mohammadi; Jafarsadegh Moghaddas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

Fink, J.K.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Federal - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Federal - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project -...

40

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Contractor - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Contractor - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

Huh, Kang Yul

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Properties and Structures of Sulfonated Syndiotactic Polystyrene Aerogel and Syndiotactic Polystyrene/Silica Hybrid Aerogel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study focuses on hybrid aerogels of syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) and silica where silica concentration is varied and silica condensation conditions are varied to produce… (more)

Zhang, Huan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Ground beef shelf life assessment as influenced by sodium lactate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, and soy protein concentrate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In phase I all-beef and soy-added ground beef patties containing sodium lactate, sodium propionate, and sodium diacetate at various levels and combinations were stored for nine months at -10°C. Upon cooking, the addition of sodium lactate increased...

Grones, Kelly Leann

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

44

Vibrational amplitudes in vitreous silica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model structure of vitreous silica, for which the vibrational frequencies and eigenmodes were calculated from first principles, is used to investigate vibrational amplitudes. Calculated mean-square displacements for oxygen and silicon atoms are obtained as a function of temperature. The square displacement tensors of oxygen atoms show a marked anisotropic character, which is related to the local geometry. The displacements of oxygen atoms along the three principal directions can be associated to distinct parts of the vibrational spectrum, as evidenced by their thermal dependence. These anisotropic effects directly affect the elastic and the static structure factors, which are sensitive to the correlation between displacements of different atoms along their connecting direction. This description shows that the observed widths for Si-O and O-O correlations mainly derive from atomic vibrations rather than from structural disorder. Anisotropic correlations between different atoms are shown to be important up to a distance of 4 Ĺ, i.e., involving atoms that belong to corner-sharing tetrahedra. The scattering functions, calculated at finite temperature and in the harmonic approximation, show good agreement with experiment. In particular, the comparison between the static and the elastic structure factors yields a characterization of the correlated displacements in accord with experimental observations. The static structure factor is significantly affected by anisotropic correlations, but shows only a weak dependence on temperature between 0 and 300 K.

Alfredo Pasquarello

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

A New Phenomenon of Compressive Strain Recovery in Gelatin-silica Aerogel Composites with SDS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Silica aerogels are nano-structured, highly porous solids with extremely low density but fragile and brittleness. To enhance the applicability of aeorgels, gelatin-silica aerogel (GSA) composite blocks were produced by mixing the hydrophobic aerogel-granules in a gelatin-SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) foamed-solution by frothing method. Gelatin essentially acts as binder whereas SDS enhances the foaming capacity of the mixture to the overall binding of the aerogels. The characteristics of these blocks depend on fabrication process and the gelatin-SDS composition. Especially, the strain recovery exhibited after compression is an unusual phenomenon observed with brittle silica aerogels. This paper discusses the effects of SDS on the density and the strain recovery of GSA composites. The fabrication process is explained; compression testing of these blocks is presented and associated strain recovery observed upon unloading is studied. The process variables such amount of gelatin/aerogel/SDS mix; compressive strain; and strain rates were analysed through Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). An empirical model that relates these variables to achieve the optimal strain recovery is established. In addition, the rule of mixture model with a correction factor was developed to estimate the densities of GSA-SDS composites. These composites can be used for heat protection, sound barrier, impact-resistance and shock-absorption.

Mahesh Sachithanadam; Sunil Chandrakanth Joshi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Fluoroalkylsilane versus alkylsilane as hydrophobic agents for silica and silicates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrophobic powders were obtained via surface modification of silica or magnesium silicate with selected silanes. A modified precipitation method, carried out in an emulsion system, was used for monodisperse silica synthesis, while magnesium silicate ...

Damian Ambrozewicz; Filip Ciesielczyk; Magdalena Nowacka; Joanna Karasiewicz; Adam Piasecki; Hieronim Maciejewski; Teofil Jesionowski

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Electrostatically Tuned Interactions in Silica Microsphere-Polystyrene Nanoparticle Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrostatically Tuned Interactions in Silica Microsphere-Polystyrene Nanoparticle Mixtures Angel: July 26, 2005 We explore the generality of nanoparticle haloing1 as a novel colloidal stabilization mechanism in binary mixtures of silica microspheres and polystyrene nanoparticles. By selectively tuning

Lewis, Jennifer

48

Nano-Macro Correlation of Nano-Silica Concrete  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Concrete mixes using progressively finer size nano-silica particles (7–150nm) were prepared to study the effect of nano-size pozzolans (nano-silica). Conventional compression tests demonstrated progressively high...

Joan Schoepfer; Arup Maji

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Silane Modification of Glass and Silica Surfaces to Obtain Equally...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Silane Modification of Glass and Silica Surfaces to Obtain Equally Oil-Wet Surfaces in Glass-Covered Silicon Micromodel Silane Modification of Glass and Silica Surfaces to Obtain...

50

Non-supercritically dried silica–silica composite aerogel and its possible application for confining simulated nuclear wastes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The simpler non-supercritical drying approach has been used for the first time for the preparation of silica–silica composite aerogels (CA) and the efficiency of the process being demonstrated by testing the u...

P. R. Aravind; P. Shajesh; P. Mukundan…

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Silica Sol as a Nanoglue: Flexible Synthesis of Composite Aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Vulcan carbon–silica aerogel composites are not conductive...low-reflectivity monoliths and coatings. Although light from...through a pure silica aerogel, no light passes through...low-reflectivity monoliths and coatings. Although light from...through a pure silica aerogel, no light passes through...

Catherine A. Morris; Michele L. Anderson; Rhonda M. Stroud; Celia I. Merzbacher; Debra R. Rolison

1999-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

52

The Sodium-Restricted Diet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The value of salt has long been known. Feuds and wars were waged for the possession of salt during man's early development. The common expressions "salt of the earth" and "worth his weight in salt" all show the high value placed on salt. Taxes were... collected for possession of salt. Even the word "salary" is connected with salt. Salt remains valuable to us as a source of sodium, an essential nutrient needed by our body to function properly. The body needs sodium to form tissue - to aid a child...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Abstract: Sodium ion (Na+) batteries...

54

Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1975). When operated without sludge r e c i r c u l a t i ot o c o l l o i d a l silica. sludge accumulation there. thel a t i o n of part of the sludge coming out of The l a r g

Weres, O.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1975). When operated without sludge r e c i r c u l a t i ot o c o l l o i d a l silica. sludge accumulation there. thel a t i o n of part of the sludge coming out of The l a r g

Weres, Oleh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Origin of Libyan Desert Silica-Glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of germanium, using a modified method of Schneider and Sandell4, in Libyan Desert silica-glass, Libyan Desert sandstone, a Libyan Desert quartzite, two Libyan Desert sands, Aouelloul crater ... Desert sandstone, a Libyan Desert quartzite, two Libyan Desert sands, Aouelloul crater 'impactite' glass, two obsidians, the average for tektites from eleven different localities, including all known ...

ALVIN J. COHEN

1959-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

57

Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film.

Raman, Narayan K. (400 Maple St. SE., Apartment 112, Albuquerque, NM 87106); Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film.

Raman, Narayan K. (Monroeville, PA); Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Iron acetylacetonate complex anchored on silica xerogel polymer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Iron(III) acetylacetonate complex immobilized on silica surface was obtained by the following three steps synthesis: (i) synthesis of organic precursor (acacsil) containing the acetylacetonate (acac) group; (ii) simultaneous polycondensation of the acacsil with the tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) by the sol–gel method resulting in the acac/silica xerogel; and (iii) complexation of the Fe(III) on the acac sites of the xerogel surface forming a Fe-acac/silica xerogel. The xerogels, acac/silica and Fe-acac/silica, are hybrid polymers that present a covalent organic/inorganic interface between the acac groups and silica. Xerogels were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, N2 adsorption desorption isotherms (pore size distribution and surface area) and elemental analysis. The Fe-acac/silica xerogel was tested as heterogeneous catalyst for the cis-cyclooctene epoxidation, employing the same conditions of the homogeneous Mukaiyama system.

Marcia C. Brasil; Edilson V. Benvenutti; José R. Gregório; Annelise E. Gerbase

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Interaction of silica nano-particles with a flat silica surface through neutron reflectometry  

SciTech Connect

Neutron reflectometry (NR) was employed to study the interaction of nanosized silica particles with a flat silica surface in aqueous solutions. Unlike other experimental tools that are used to study surface interactions, NR can provide information on the particle density profile in the solution near the interface. Two types of silica particles (25 and 100 nm) were suspended in aqueous solutions of varying ionic strength. Theoretical calculations of the surface interaction potential between a particle and a flat silica surface using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory were compared to the experimental data. The theory predicts that the potential energy is highly dependent on the ionic strength. In high ionic strength solutions, NR reveals a high concentration of particles near the flat silica surface. Under the same conditions, theoretical calculations show an attractive force between a particle and a flat surface. For low ionic strength solutions, the particle concentration near the surface obtained from NR is the same as the bulk concentration, while depletion of particles near the surface is expected because of the repulsion predicted by the DLVO theory.

Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Halbert, Candice E [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Cryogenic properties of optomechanical silica microcavities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the optical and mechanical properties of high-Q fused silica microtoroidal resonators at cryogenic temperatures (down to 1.6 K). A thermally induced optical multistability is observed and theoretically described; it serves to characterize quantitatively the static heating induced by light absorption. Moreover the influence of structural defect states in glass on the toroid mechanical properties is observed and the resulting implications of cavity optomechanical systems on the study of mechanical dissipation discussed.

Olivier Arcizet; Rémi Rivičre; Albert Schliesser; Tobias J. Kippenberg

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

62

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

1996-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

64

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Defect Migration and Recombination in Nanoindentation of Silica...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Defect Migration and Recombination in Nanoindentation of Silica Glass Authors: Nomura, K., Chen, Y., Kalia, R.K., Nakano, A., Vashishta, P. Deformation, plasticity, and flow in...

67

Characterisation of Dust Particles Trapped in Silica Aerogels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This thesis involves the study of dust particles trapped in silica aerogel for fusion dust diagnostics purpose. The low velocity impact experiments are done… (more)

Liu, Bing

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Feasibility of using silica aerogel as insulation for buildings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? For recent years, silica aerogel has attracted great attention and been extensively used in different technical fields owning to its remarkable properties in optics,… (more)

Huang, Lang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Bearing Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 November 2012 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project This...

70

Viscosity of Liquid Sodium and Potassium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

2 November 1936 research-article Viscosity of Liquid Sodium and Potassium Y. S. Chiong The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend...

1936-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Sodium sulfide leaching of low-grade jamesonite concentrate in production of sodium pyroantimoniate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sodium sulfide leaching of a low-grade jamesonite concentrate in the production of sodium pyroantimoniate through the air oxidation process and the influencing factors on the leaching rate of antimony were...

Tian-zu Yang PhD; Ming-xi Jiang…

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

EXAFS studies of sodium silicate glasses containing dissolved actinides  

SciTech Connect

Sodium silicate glasses containing dissolved Th, U, Np, and Pu have been studied using the EXAFS technique. Th/sup 4 +/, U/sup 4 +/, Np/sup 4 +/, and Pu/sup 4 +/ ions in the silicate glasses are 8-fold coordinated to oxygen neighbors. The higher valent U/sup 6 +/ and Np/sup 5 +/ ions have complex local symmetries. The U/sup 6 +/ ions appear in a uranyl configuration with 2 oxygen atoms at 1.85A and 4 at 2.25A from the U ion. The Np/sup 5 +/ local symmetry is more complex and difficult to determine uniquely. The U/sup 6 +/ glasses show substantial clustering of the uranium atoms. A structural model, with nearly planar uranyl sheets sandwiched between alkali and silica layers, is used to explain the U/sup 6 +/ EXAFS data. This model allows us to understand why U/sup 6 +/ ions are much more soluble in the glasses than the actinide 4/sup +/ ions. 4 references, 2 figures.

Knapp, G.S.; Veal, B.W.; Paulikas, A.P.; Mitchell, A.W.; Lam, D.J.; Klippert, T.E.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Fibrous composites comprising carbon nanotubes and silica  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fibrous composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes; and a silica-containing moiety having one of the structures: (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NR.sub.1R.sub.2) or (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NCO; where n is from 1 to 6, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2H.sub.5.

Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

74

Cryogenic properties of optomechanical silica microcavities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the study of the optical and mechanical properties of high-Q fused silica microtoroidal resonators at cryogenic temperatures (down to 1.6 K). A thermally induced optical multistability is observed and theoretically described, originating from the reverse thermally induced optical frequency shift. Moreover the influence of structural defect states (two level fluctuators) on their mechanical properties is observed and probed at an unprecedentedly achieved low phonon number. The resulting implications for cavity optomechanics and studies of mechanical decoherence are also discussed.

O. Arcizet; R. Rivičre; A. Schliesser; G. Anetsberger; T. J. Kippenberg

2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

75

Suspended bridge-like silica 2×2 beam splitter on silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report a successful experimental realization of a 2×2 suspended silica splitter integrated on a silicon substrate. The silica splitter was photo-lithographically patterned,...

Zhang, Xiaomin; Armani, Andrea M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Silica Bridge Impact on Hollow-Core Bragg Fiber Transmission Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The silica bridges impact on the hollow-core Bragg fiber guiding properties is investigated. Results demonstrate that silica nanosupports are responsible for the surface mode...

Poli, Federica; Foroni, Matteo; Giovanelli, Daniele; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Selleri, Stefano; Jensen, Jesper Bo; Lćgsgaard, Jesper; Bjarklev, Anders; Vienne, Guillaume; Jakobsen, Christian; Broeng, Jes

77

Tailoring Structure Property Relationships and Elastic Phenomenon in Native and Polymer Reinforced Silica Aerogels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The focus of this work was to study the effects of flexible silica backbones on elastic properties of silica aerogels. Two routes were examined.… (more)

Randall, Jason P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Preparation of superhydrophobic and transparent micro-nano hybrid coatings from polymethylhydroxysiloxane and silica ormosil aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Superhydrophobic and transparent polymethylhydroxysiloxane (PMHOS)/silica ormosil aerogel hybrids were prepared successfully by mixing of PMHOS with various weight percentages of silica ormosil aerogels (as sy...

Saravanan Nagappan; Jin Joo Park; Sung Soo Park; Chang-Sik Ha

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticle Labels/Protein Microarray for Detection...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticle LabelsProtein Microarray for Detection of Protein Biomarkers. Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticle LabelsProtein Microarray for Detection of Protein...

80

Single molecule studies of meso/macro porous silica materials and gradient films.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The preparation of mesoporous/macroporous silica materials and polarity gradient thin film are introduced in this thesis. These porous silica materials and gradient materials have the… (more)

Ye, Fangmao

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Recovery of acids and sodium hydroxide from solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride with the use of bipolar membranes  

SciTech Connect

The authors examined the kinetic laws governing the electrodialysis recovery of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, as well as sodium hydroxide, from 1M sodium chloride and 0.5 M sodium sulfate solutions and from a mixture of these salts with the use of the MB-1, MB-2, and MB-3 bipolar membranes. Kinetic plots of the current density and the concentration of the acid and the base in the chambers next to the bipolar membranes during the electrodialysis treatment of 1M sodium chloride, 0.5 M sodium sulfate, and solutions are presented. It was established that it is better to use the MB-3 membrane for the electrodialysis conversion of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate into acids and sodium hydroxide owing to the high rate and current efficiency and low expenditure of electrical energy and degree of contamination of the products obtained by the salts. It was also established that the resistance of the MB-1 and MB-2 bipolar membranes is almost an order of magnitude higher than that of the MB-3 membrane.

Bobrinskaya, G.A.; Pavlova, T.V.; Shatalov, A.Ya.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Controlled morphogenesis of amorphous silica and its relevance to biosilicification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to silica in areas where silica...component of all plasma membranes...in a flow air atmosphere. 29Si MAS NMR...spectrometer at 79.49 MHz under single...Specific surface areas were calculated...particles at a large scale. Table...also show a large increase at...BET surface area and pore volume...

Jia-Yuan Shi; Qi-Zhi Yao; Xi-Ming Li; Gen-Tao Zhou; Sheng-Quan Fu

83

Community Geothermal Technology Program: Silica bronze project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Objective was to incorporate waste silica from the HGP-A geothermal well in Pohoiki with other refractory materials for investment casting of bronze sculpture. The best composition for casting is about 50% silica, 25% red cinders, and 25% brick dust; remaining ingredient is a binder, such as plaster and water.

Bianchini, H.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Supercritical carbon dioxide behavior in porous silica aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Supercritical carbon dioxide within a porous silica aerogel behaves as a two-phase system formed by a film next to the silica walls and a remaining fluid phase. Small-angle neutron scattering allows one to determine the structural parameters of the involved phases.

Ciccariello, S.

2010-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

85

Simulations Reveal That Earth's Silica Is Predominantly Superficial - NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reveal Reveal Earth's Silica Is Predominantly Superficial Simulations Reveal Earth's Silica Is Predominantly Superficial May 24, 2010 Silica is one of the most common minerals on Earth. Not only does it make up two-thirds of our planet's crust, it is also used to create a variety of materials from glass to ceramics, computer chips and fiber optic cables. Yet new quantum mechanics results generated by a team of physicists from Ohio State University (OSU) show that this mineral only populates our planet superficially-in other words, silica is relatively uncommon deep within the Earth. Cross-section of the Earth Using several of the largest supercomputers in the nation, including the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center's (NERSC) Cray XT4 "Franklin" system, the team simulated the behavior of silica in

86

Preparation and properties of PMMA modified silica aerogels from diatomite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diatomite was used as raw material to prepare sodium silicate with a modulus of 3.1 by alkali dissolution method and the resulted sodium silicate solution was employed as a precursor. Methyl methacrylate monom...

Hainan Ma ???; Baomin Wang ???; Lei Zhao…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Atlas Sodium Automated Batch Synthesis System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atlas Sodium Automated Batch Synthesis System (Syrris) June 2013 #12;Introduction to the system · The Atlas Sodium system consists of an Atlas base equipped with a 400ºC hotplate, a stacking dry bath systemL) for automated addition and/or removal of solution. · The system is computer controlled by the Atlas software

Subramanian, Venkat

88

Sodium Heat Engine Development Program  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

90

In-situ method for treating residual sodium  

SciTech Connect

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

91

Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C  

SciTech Connect

Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Phase behavior of methane hydrate in silica sand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Two kinds of silica sand powder with different particle size were used to investigate the phase behavior of methane hydrate bearing sediment. In coarse-grained silica sand, the measured temperature and pressure range was (281.1 to 284.2) K and (5.9 to 7.8) MPa, respectively. In fine-grained silica sand, the measured temperature and pressure range was (281.5 to 289.5) K and (7.3 to 16.0) MPa, respectively. The results show that the effect of coarse-grained silica sand on methane hydrate phase equilibrium can be ignored; however, the effect of fine-grained silica sand on methane hydrate phase equilibrium is significant, which is attributed to the depression of water activity caused by the hydrophilicity and negatively charged characteristic of silica particle as well as the pore capillary pressure. Besides, the analysis of experimental results using the Gibbs–Thomson equation shows that methane hydrate phase equilibrium is related to the pore size distribution of silica sand. Consequently, for the correct application of phase equilibrium data of hydrate bearing sediment, the geological condition and engineering requirement should be taken into consideration in gas production, resource evaluation, etc.

Shi-Cai Sun; Chang-Ling Liu; Yu-Guang Ye; Yu-Feng Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

SciTech Connect: Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in this critical assessment. Thermodynamic properties of sodium liquid and vapor that have been assessed...

94

High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. Abstract: A substantial effort worldwide has been...

95

Total Neutron Scattering in Vitreous Silica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The structure of Corning superpure vitreous silica glass has been investigated with neutrons. A new method of analysis using variable neutron wavelengths and the measurement of total scattering cross sections from transmission experiments is developed and the results are compared with those from differential x-ray scattering. The total neutron scattering method permits a simple and direct structure analysis with resolution apparently superior to x-rays. The preliminary results compare well in a first approximation analysis with the basic structure model of Warren and others and in addition the neutron-determined atomic radial distribution curve exhibits some finer details than the x-ray results. Thermal inelastic scattering of neutrons was corrected for in an approximate way.

R. J. Breen; R. M. Delaney; P. J. Persiani; A. H. Weber

1957-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ``Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core`` problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Preparation and humidity controlling behaviors of sepiolite/polyacrylic acid (sodium) composite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sepiolite/polyacrylic acid (sodium) nanocomposite was synthesized using inverse suspension polymerization method under different sepiolite content, dispersant content and neutralization degree with orthogonal experiments. The surface morphology and structure of sepiolite/polyacrylic acid composite were observed and analyzed, and the humidity controlling properties of composites were determined by absorption and desorption testing. The results showed that sepiolite/polyacrylic acid composite was in a fine particle with rough surface. During the polymerization process, acrylic acid monomer was grafted with hydroxyl on the surface of sepiolite and then intercalated successfully into the tetrahedral silica layers of sepiolite. With the increasing of sepiolite content, dispersant conten, neutralization degree and the humidity controlling behaviors of composite rose initially and then dropped down. The impact of three factors on the humidity controlling behavior of composites increased by the order of sepiolite content, dispersant content and neutralization degree. The optimum preparation parameters are sepiolite content of 4%, dispersant content of 15% and neutralization degree of 90%.

Jihui Wang; Shuping Ren; Mengjie Guo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Sodium Alanate Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Preparation and characterization of sodium alanate (NaAlH4) based hydrogen storage materials are described in this book. The effect of the NaAlH4 particle size, particularly in… (more)

Baldé, C.P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Polymer/Silica Composite Films as Luminescent Oxygen Sensors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

10-14 In this technique, an object (a model airplane or wing, a turbine blade, or an automobile) coated with an oxygen-sensing polymer coating (“pressure-sensitive paint,” PSP) is examined in a wind tunnel. ... To examine the influence of the silica particles on oxygen diffusion and oxygen permeation in these films, we carried out both time-scan and pulsed-laser experiments as a function of silica content on films containing PtOEP. ... We rationalize this result by imagining that oxygen adsorption onto the silica surface is diffusion-controlled. Fickian diffusion through the PDMS matrix controls the rate of quenching of dye molecules bound to the silica particles. ...

Xin Lu; Ian Manners; Mitchell A. Winnik

2001-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

102

Smectic ordering in polymer liquid crystal-silica aerogel nanocomposites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two series of side chain liquid crystal (SCLC) polyacrylate-silica aerogel nanocomposites have been investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The first se...

H. Westfahl Jr.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Different methods to derive pure silica from agriculture waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rice residues are important natural resources, the management of these residues is a major challenge for environment protection. The use of different techniques to produce silica with minimal mineral contaminants having high Specific Surface Area (SSA) has been investigated. The different methods used depended on treatment of rice hulls with different dilute organic acids and hydrochloric acid, without the risk of using corrosive, toxic and hazardous substances in the burning process. Different powdered silica obtained are characterised by particle size distribution, crystallographic structure, BET SSA and chemical analysis. X-ray Diffraction patterns revealed the amorphous nature of silica. The major impurities of silica produced from rice hulls were Na, K and Ca salts.

Azza El-Maghraby; Heba A. El-Deeb

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Scratch resistance of different silica filled resins for obturation materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scratch resistance of different silica filled resins for obturation materials B. Bilyeu1,2 , W have scratch resistance values in the range appropriate for applications as obturation materials. Keywords: Obturation materials, Polymerzsilica, Hybrids, Polymer tribology, Scratch resistance Introduction

North Texas, University of

105

Quantification of residual stress from photonic signatures of fused silica  

SciTech Connect

A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outer-most pane of Space Shuttle windows made from fused silica. A method and apparatus for calibration of the stress-optic coefficient using four-point bending is discussed. The results are validated on known material (acrylic) and are found to agree with literature values to within 6%. The calibration procedure is then applied to fused-silica specimens and the stress-optic coefficient is determined to be 2.43 ± 0.54 × 10{sup ?12} Pa{sup ?1}. Fused silica specimens containing impacts artificially made at NASA’s Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F), to simulate damage typical during space flight, are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses and examined with the GFP. The calibrated GFP measurements of residual stress patterns surrounding the damage sites are presented.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Hayward, Maurice [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

106

Operating Experience Level 3, Dangers of Respirable Silica  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides information on a safety concern related to recurring worker exposure to dust containing crystalline silica at Department of Energy (DOE) sites.

107

Electrospinning of silica nanofibers: characterization and application to biosensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; and the pore size is around several nanometers to a micrometer wide. In this work, the relationship between the diameter of electrospun silica fibers, experimental parameters such as concentration and voltage, and between pore size of the fiber membrane...

Tsou, Pei-Hsiang

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

108

Mesosynthesis of ZnO?Silica Composites for Methanol Nanocatalysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

5 Mesoporous silica materials mostly of the MCM-41-type hosting polymers,6 noble metals,7 and semiconductors such as gallium nitride8 have been prepared successfully. ... 29,30 These precursors are characterized by low thermolysis temperatures and high solubility in aprotic solvents. ... Because the porous silica materials were carefully dried in a vacuum at 150 °C for 24 h, it is rather unlikely that this hydrolysis results from water adsorbed in the pore system. ...

S. Polarz; F. Neues; M. W. E. van den Berg; W. Grünert; L. Khodeir

2005-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

109

The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

Thomas, D.M.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

Thomas, D.M.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Further Investigations of the Effect of Replacing Lithium by Sodium on Lithium Silicate Scintillating Glass Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Ce3+ doped lithium (6Li) silicate glasses are thermal neutron detectors. Prior work showed that when sodium (Na) is substituted for Li the scintillation efficiency, under beta particle stimulation, increased and then decreased as the sodium (Na) content was increased [1]. When all the 6Li was replaced by Na no scintillation was observed. Raman spectra, acquired using a visible excitation source provided no evidence of anomalous behavior. SEM microscopy did show some phase separation, but there was no obvious correlation with the scintillation efficiency. We have reexamined these glass samples using deep UV Raman excitation which reduces fluorescence interference. The newly acquired spectra show evidence of phase separation in the glasses. Specifically we see a peak at 800 cm-1 Raman shift which can be assigned to a vitreous silica moiety that results from phase separation. There is a strong correlation between this peak's area, the scintillation efficiency, and the Na content. The observed trend suggests that phase separation enhances scintillation and addition of Na reduces the amount of phase separation. We also see evidence of at least two defect structures that can be tentatively assigned to a three-membered ring structure and an oxygen vacancy. The latter is fairly strongly correlated with enhanced scintillation efficiency.

Bliss, Mary; Aker, Pamela M.; Windisch, Charles F.

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Title Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1998 Authors Ayers, Michael R., and Arlon J. Hunt Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 225 Pagination 343-347 Keywords aerogel, air pressure, oxygen concentration, oxygen molecules, photoluminescence Abstract Photoluminescent silica aerogel acts as the active element of an optical sensor for molecular oxygen. The luminescent aerogel is prepared by the action of energized reducing gases on a standard silica aerogel. Intensity of aerogel photoluminescence decreases as the collision frequency between oxygen molecules and the luminescent carriers in the aerogel matrix increases. This behavior is a characteristic of many photoluminescent materials and arises from a transfer of energy from the aerogel to surrounding oxygen molecules. A sensor for oxygen concentration or air pressure can therefore be simply constructed utilizing an ultraviolet source for excitation and a suitable detector for the emitted visible signal. Stern-Volmer quenching constants for the aerogel sensing element are 1.55Ă—10-2 Torr-1 for hydrophilic aerogel and 2.4Ă—10-3 Torr-1 for hydrophobic aerogel.

114

Surface characterization of silica glass substrates treated by atomic hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

Silica glass substrates with very flat surfaces were exposed to atomic hydrogen at different temperatures and durations. An atomic force microscope was used to measure root-mean-square (RMS) roughness and two-dimensional power spectral density (PSD). In the treatment with atomic hydrogen up to 900 °C, there was no significant change in the surface. By the treatment at 1000 °C, the changes in the RMS roughness and the PSD curves were observed. It was suggested that these changes were caused by etching due to reactions of atomic hydrogen with surface silica. By analysis based on the k-correlation model, it was found that the spatial frequency of the asperities became higher with an increase of the treatment time. Furthermore, the data showed that atomic hydrogen can flatten silica glass surfaces by controlling heat-treatment conditions. - Highlights: • Silica glass surface was treated by atomic hydrogen at various temperatures. • Surface roughness was measured by an atomic force microscope. • Roughness data were analyzed by two-dimensional power spectral density. • Atomic hydrogen can flatten silica glass surfaces.

Inoue, Hiroyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Masuno, Atsunobu, E-mail: masuno@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ishibashi, Keiji [Canon ANELVA Corporation, Asao-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 215-8550 (Japan); Tawarayama, Hiromasa [Kawazoe Frontier Technologies Corporation, Kuden 931-113, Sakae-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 247-0014 (Japan); Zhang, Yingjiu; Utsuno, Futoshi [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Koya, Kazuo; Fujinoki, Akira [Shin Etsu Quartz Prod. Co., Ltd., Res and Applicat Lab, Fukushima 963-0725 (Japan); Kawazoe, Hiroshi [Kawazoe Frontier Technologies Corporation, Kuden 931-113, Sakae-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 247-0014 (Japan)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Silica membranes for hydrogen separation from coal gas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project is a continuation of a previous DOE-UCR project (DE-FG22- 89PC89765) dealing with the preparation of silica membranes highly permselective to hydrogen at elevated temperatures, suitable for hydrogen separation from coal gas. The membranes prepared in the previous project had very high selectivity but relatively low permeance. Therefore, the general objectives of this project were to improve the permeance of these membranes and to obtain fundamental information about membrane structure and properties. The specific objectives were: (1) to explore new silylation reagents and reaction conditions with the purpose of reducing the thickness and increasing the permeance of silica membranes prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), (2) to characterize the membrane structure, (3) to delineate mechanism and kinetics of deposition, (4) to measure the permeability of silica layers at different extents of deposition, and (5) to mathematically model the relationship between structure and deposition kinetics.

Gavalas, G.R.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Potassium geopolymer foams made with silica fume pore forming agent for thermal insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Porous potassium based geopolymers with a mutli-scale porosity were synthesized. Silica fume is introduced as an additive to the geopolymer formulation. The free silicon contained inside this silica fume is ox...

Joseph Henon; Arnaud Alzina; Joseph Absi…

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Reinforcement of Silica Aerogels Using Silane-End-Capped Polyurethanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Such means of reinforcement may also result in nonuniform coating of the silica network by the polymer due to an imbalance of the rate of cross-linking reactions and the rate of molecular diffusion of polymer chains inside the gel network. ... Figure 3. SEM image of TA-PU-50 aerogel (modified with 50 wt % polymer II) showing polymer-coated silica particles. ... The presence of these polymer coatings in the aerogel structure was assumed as the origin of the high contact angle and their stress–strain curve similar to “soft” materials. ...

Yannan Duan; Sadhan C. Jana; Bimala Lama; Matthew P. Espe

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

118

Reaction of Sodium Borohydride with Wool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... It has recently been found that sodium borohydride in alkaline solution rapidly dissolves wool under conditions of temperature and pH milder than many in current use. The reaction ... in current use. The reaction has been studied as follows: 1 gm. of solvent-scoured Merino ...

J. M. GILLESPIE

1959-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

In sodium tests of ultrasonic transducers  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the in-service inspection and for the continuous surveillance of sodium cooled reactors (SFR). These techniques need the development and the qualification of immersed ultrasonic transducers, and materials. This paper presents some developments performed by CEA (DTN and LIST) and AREVA (NDE Solutions), and some results. (authors)

Lhuillier, C.; Descombin, O.; Baque, F. [CEA, DTN, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Marchand, B. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saillant, J. F. [AREVA/NDE Solutions, 4 rue Thomas Dumorey, 71109 Chalon sur Saone Cedex (France); Augem, J. M. [EDF, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne (France)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Hierarchical Silica Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae Yield Superior Deformability, Toughness, and Strength  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hierarchical Silica Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae Yield Superior Deformability, Toughness algae that is mainly composed of amorphous silica, which features a hierarchical structure that ranges in diatom algae as a basis to study a bioinspired nanoporous material implemented in crystalline silica. We

Buehler, Markus J.

122

Tailoring Elastic Properties of Silica Aerogels Cross-Linked with Polystyrene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of incorporating an organic linking group, 1,6-bis(trimethoxysilyl)hexane (BTMSH), into the underlying silica structure of a styrene cross-linked silica aerogel is examined. ... Silica aerogels with their low density and thermal conductivity are potential candidates for various thermal, optical, and acoustic applications for aerospace including multipurpose structures for vehicles, space suits, and habitats (1). ...

Baochau N. Nguyen; Mary Ann B. Meador; Marissa E. Tousley; Brian Shonkwiler; Linda McCorkle; Daniel A. Scheiman; Anna Palczer

2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

123

Multicomponent Transport of Sulfate in a Goethite-Silica Sand System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multicomponent Transport of Sulfate in a Goethite-Silica Sand System at Variable pH and Ionic of protons and sulfate on goethite and silica were used in combination with a one-dimensional mass-transport model to predict the transport of sulfate at variable pH and ionic strength in a goethite-silica system

Sparks, Donald L.

124

Gypsum and Polyacrylamide Soil Amendments Used With High Sodium Wastewater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using wastewater for irrigation of crops represents an attractive alternative to disposal. Typically, municipal wastewaters are high in sodium, and the resulting high sodium absorption ratio (SAR) alters the soil structure making it more impermeable...

Gardiner, Duane

125

Mechanized Silica Nanoparticles: A New Frontier in Theranostic Nanomedicine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mechanized Silica Nanoparticles: A New Frontier in Theranostic Nanomedicine ... This article is part of the Theranostic Nanomedicine special issue. ... With the growth of nanomedicine, one can envisage the possibility of fabricating a theranostic vector that could release powerful therapeutics and diagnostic markers simultaneously and selectively to diseased tissue. ...

Michael W. Ambrogio; Courtney R. Thomas; Yan-Li Zhao; Jeffrey I. Zink; J. Fraser Stoddart

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Atmospheric Plasma Deposited Dense Silica Coatings on Plastics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric Plasma Deposited Dense Silica Coatings on Plastics ... (8) Finally, some plasma techniques including atmospheric plasmas work at low gas temperature, are suitable for treating plastics with low glass transition temperatures, and can even be used on biological samples. ... These results suggest that the mechanism in the atm.-pressure plasma is the same as that in low-pressure plasmas. ...

Linying Cui; Alpana N. Ranade; Marvi A. Matos; Liam S. Pingree; Theo J. Frot; Geraud Dubois; Reinhold H. Dauskardt

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

127

Silica-Supported Tantalum Clusters: Catalyst for Alkane Conversion  

SciTech Connect

Silica-supported tantalum clusters (on average, approximately tritantalum) were formed by the treatment, in either H{sub 2} or ethane, of adsorbed Ta(CH{sub 2}Ph){sub 5}; the supported catalyst is active for ethane conversion to methane and propane at 523 K, with the used catalyst containing clusters of the same average nuclearity as the precursor.

Nemana ,S.; Gates, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Fabrication of magnetite/silica/titania core-shell nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized via a sol-gel method with the aid of sonication. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were being encapsulated within discrete silica nanospheres, ...

Suh Cem Pang; Sze Yun Kho; Suk Fun Chin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Formation of Hollow Gallium Nitride Spheres via Silica Sphere Templates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Formation of Hollow Gallium Nitride Spheres via Silica Sphere Templates ... To form reasonably uniform gallium oxide shells, the amounts of urea and water added to the reaction mixture were varied. ... Due to the low solubility of urea in 2-propanol, addition of a larger amount of urea than that used in this study is not desirable. ...

Chun-Neng Lin; Michael H. Huang

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

130

Moisture Transport in Silica Gel Packed Beds: II. Experimental Study  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed to obtain the transient response of a thin adiabatic packed bed of silica gel after a step change in inlet air conditions, comparisons are made with predictions using a solid-side resistance model and a pseudo-gas-side controlled model and better agreement obtained with the former model.

Pesaran, A. A.; Mills, A. F.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Surface Aggregate Structure of Nonionic Surfactants on Silica Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

against flat solid surfaces has been gained mainly by neutron reflectometry (NR)1,2,4 and atomic force light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) using a H2O/D2O mixture matching the silica

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

132

INSTRUMENTS-METHODS-36 Absorption and scattering lengths of high density silica aerogels with n = 1.07  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

angles could be the use of silica aerogels as radiator. Simultaneously, an aerogel ?erenkov counter is

L. Debenjak; P. Achenbach; J. Pochodzalla; T. Saito

133

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

134

Filtration of Sludge and Sodium Nonatitanate Solutions  

SciTech Connect

The proposed facility designs for the ion exchange and solvent extraction flowsheets under development to treat high level waste at the Savannah River Site use crossflow filtration to remove entrained sludge and monosodium titanate (MST). Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing performed with simulated feed streams showed much lower filtration rates than desired for the process. This report documents an investigation of the impact on filtration of using Honeywell sodium nonatitanate (ST), rather than MST, for strontium and actinide removal.

Poirier, M.R.

2000-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

135

Sodium Plugging Test Loop - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sodium Plugging Test Loop Sodium Plugging Test Loop Sodium Plugging Test Loop Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Sodium Plugging Test Loop This experimental setup is part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Fuel Cycle R&D work carried out at Argonne on advanced sodium component technology. Bookmark and Share For long range sodium technology research and development, employing supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion technology as an advanced balance of plant technology is being considered. The component that provides the interface between the sodium and supercritical CO2 is a compact heat exchanger known as a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE). This heat exchanger has very small coolant flow passages that may foul or

136

Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment March 28, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis CWI engineers Jeff Jones, David Tolman, right, and Kirk Dooley (seated) developed a treatment to safely dissolve a bicarbonate crust and treat and remove the sodium in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at the Idaho site. CWI engineers Jeff Jones, David Tolman, right, and Kirk Dooley (seated) developed a treatment to safely dissolve a bicarbonate crust and treat and remove the sodium in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at the Idaho site. Piping in the east boiler basement of the sodium processing building was color coded for easy identification. Orange indicates sodium and green identifies cooling water.

137

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:17am Addthis Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color rendition. Typical applications include highway and security lighting, where color is not important. Low-pressure sodium lamps work somewhat like fluorescent lamps. Like high-intensity discharge lighting, low-pressure sodium lamps require up to 10 minutes to start and have to cool before they can restart. Therefore, they are most suitable for applications in which they stay on for hours at a time. They are not suitable for use with motion detectors. The chart below compares low-pressure sodium lamps and high-intensity

138

Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment March 28, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis CWI engineers Jeff Jones, David Tolman, right, and Kirk Dooley (seated) developed a treatment to safely dissolve a bicarbonate crust and treat and remove the sodium in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at the Idaho site. CWI engineers Jeff Jones, David Tolman, right, and Kirk Dooley (seated) developed a treatment to safely dissolve a bicarbonate crust and treat and remove the sodium in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at the Idaho site. Piping in the east boiler basement of the sodium processing building was color coded for easy identification. Orange indicates sodium and green identifies cooling water.

139

Recent Sodium Technology Development for the Decommissioning of the Rapsodie and Superphenix Reactors and the Management of Sodium Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has recently developed and/or conducted experiments on several processes in support of the decommissioning of two French liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs), Rapsodie and Superphenix, as well as on the treatment of CEA sodium wastes. CEA has demonstrated that it is possible to define appropriate and efficient processes to meet the different situations encountered in decommissioning LMFRs. Mechanical techniques derived from standard technologies have been successfully applied to fast reactor decommissioning to complete primary vessel draining from sodium. In addition, specific chemical processes have been developed to deal safely with metallic sodium reactivity. Sodium-contaminated equipment has been successfully cleaned by reacting sodium with water mist in an atmosphere with carbon dioxide to form inert sodium carbonate. Bulk sodium has been successfully converted into aqueous caustic soda by injection of liquid-metallic sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. Several processes were also defined to deal with specific sodium wastes. In all cases the principle is based on a sodium/water chemical reaction where the released hydrogen and heat are controlled. With the development of a wide variety of processes, all steps in the decommissioning of LMFRs are assumed to be now properly mastered.

Rodriguez, G.; Gastaldi, O.; Baque, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Cadarache (France)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina  

SciTech Connect

Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

Buechele, A.C.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

1 LOST PRODUCTION AS CONSEQUENSE OF SILICA SCALING IN CERRO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mineral scale depositation occurs in many of the Cerro Prieto wells, but the main problems occurs by silica (SiO2) scale both pipes and reservoir zones close to the downhole. In Cerro Prieto geothermal field three types of scales are found; calcium carbonate (calcite), amorphous silica (SiO2), and metallic sulfides (mainly iron, and lesser lead and cooper). The scale causes lost production and it is necessary to make around 12 workover each year to recover the steam lost. When scaling problems occurred inside casing production is more easier to recover the production that scaling occurred in the reservoir zones, because it caused a skin damage (permeability decrease) in the reservoir zones close to the bottomhole. This paper analyze and discus the scaling problems and discuss the task developed to avoid and minimized the decline wells production, as to recover the production using workover alternatives.

Prieto Geothermal; Wells Mexico; Juan De; Dios Ocampo; Díaz Sara; Lilia Moya; Jesús De; León Vivar

142

Silica aerogels modified by functional and nonfunctional organic groups  

SciTech Connect

Organically substituted silica aerogels were prepared from RSi(OR`){sub 3}/Si(OR`){sub 4} mixtures, followed by supercritical drying. The typical microstructure and the resulting physical properties of silica aerogels are retained, if the portion of R-Si units is below 10-20%. However, new properties are supplemented, such as hydrophobicity (which makes the aerogels insensitive towards moisture), a higher compliance, and the possibility to incorporate functional organic groups. Controlled pyrolysis of the organically substituted aerogels allows to coat the inner surface of the aerogels with nanometer-sized carbon structures. This results in a very efficient infrared opacification and improved heat insulation properties at high temperatures. 5 refs., 2 figs.

Schubert, U.; Huesing, N.; Schwertfeger, F. [Universitaet Wien (Austria)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

Nimesulide adsorbed on silica aerogel using supercritical carbon dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silica aerogel (SA) was loaded with nimesulide, a drug model compound, to demonstrate the potentiality of adsorption processes based on the usage of supercritical carbon dioxide to treat poorly water-soluble drugs, forming new kinds of drug delivery systems. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics were measured and described by models. The effect of pressure, temperature and solution concentration on loaded SA were also studied. Modelling of kinetic data showed that the sorption process was best described by a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherm data were best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm. The drug/SA composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and FT-IR. Release kinetics of the adsorbed drug were also evaluated by in vitro dissolution tests. Results showed that nimesulide can be uniformly dispersed into the aerogel and that the release rate of nimesulide from the composite, constituted by drug and silica aerogel, is much faster than that of the crystalline drug.

Giuseppe Caputo; Mariarosa Scognamiglio; Iolanda De Marco

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Fluorescent Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Radioactive Material Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Mesoporous silica with covalently bound salicylic acid molecules incorporated in the structure was synthesized with a one-pot, co-condensation reaction at room temperature. The as-synthesized material has a large surface area, uniform particle size, and an ordered pore structure as determined by characterization with transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and infrared spectra, etc. Using the strong fluorescence and metal coordination capability of salicylic acid, functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) was developed to track and extract radionuclide contaminants, such as uranyl [U(VI)] ions encountered in subsurface environments. Adsorption measurements showed a strong affinity of the FMS toward U(VI) with a Kd value of 105 mL/g, which is four orders of magnitude higher than the adsorption of U(VI) onto most of the sediments in natural environments. The new materials have a potential for synergistic environmental monitoring and remediation of the radionuclide U(VI) from contaminated subsurface environments.

Li, Juan; Zhu, Kake; Shang, Jianying; Wang, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Guo, Ruisong; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Jun

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Supercritical carbon dioxide behavior in porous silica aerogel  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the tails of the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) intensities relevant to samples formed by porous silica and carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 0 to 20 MPa and at temperatures of 308 and 353 K confirms that the CO2 fluid must be treated as a two-phase system. The first of these phases is formed by the fluid closer to the silica wall than a suitable distance [delta] and the second by the fluid external to this shell. The sample scattering-length densities and shell thicknesses are determined by the Porod invariants and the oscillations observed in the Porod plots of the SANS intensities. The resulting matter densities of the shell regions (thickness 15-35 {angstrom}) are approximately equal, while those of the outer regions increase with pressure and become equal to the bulk CO2 at the higher pressures only in the low-temperature case.

Ciccariello, Salvino [Universita di Padova; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Silica microparticles precipitation by two processes using supercritical fluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silica microspheres are of great interest for several applications in areas such as medicine, biochemistry, colloidal chemistry and aerosol research. In this work, the sol–gel method was used to obtain such microparticles in two different ways. One of the methods applied was supercritical reaction; a high temperature process using ethanol as a supercritical fluid (SCF reaction). Another approach to obtaining silica microparticles was Supercritical AntiSolvent (SAS) process, as a low temperature process, using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). A tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and water solution (1:4 molar ratio) was dissolved in ethanol and then pumped into an autoclave at 100 bar and 523 K for the SCF reaction process, and at 120 bar and 313 K in the case of the SAS process. All the experiments led to a successful precipitation of silica microparticles, in the micrometer range. In all cases spherical morphology and no agglomeration was found. Furthermore, the main textural characteristics of such powders were obtained by nitrogen physisorption experiments. Results reveal spherical microparticles with nanopores smaller than 1 nm in size when using supercritical ethanol, and bulky microparticles with smooth surfaces when using scCO2.

A. Montes; M.D. Gordillo; C. Pereyra; N. de la Rosa-Fox; E.J. Martínez de la Ossa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sodium-Beta Batteries Sodium-Beta Batteries Improving the performance and reducing the cost of sodium-beta batteries for large-scale energy storage Sodium-beta batteries (Na-beta batteries or NBBs) use a solid beta-alumina (ß˝-Al 2 O 3 ) electrolyte membrane that selectively allows sodium ion transport between a positive electrode (e.g., a metal halide) and a negative sodium electrode. NBBs typically operate at temperatures near 350˚C. They are increasingly used in renewable storage and utility applications due to their high round-trip efficiency, high energy densities, and energy storage capacities ranging from a few kilowatt-hours to multiple megawatt-hours. In fact, U.S. utilities

148

Sodium/Phosphorus-Sulfur Cells II. Phase Equilibria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

II. Phase Equilibria II. Phase Equilibria Title Sodium/Phosphorus-Sulfur Cells II. Phase Equilibria Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1996 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Frank R. McLarnon, and John S. Newman Journal Journal of the Electrochemistry Society Volume 143 Issue 2 Pagination 412-417 Keywords 25 ENERGY STORAGE, 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE, ALUMINIUM OXIDES, equilibrium, performance, PHASE DIAGRAMS, PHOSPHIDES, PHOSPHORUS ADDITIONS, SODIUM COMPOUNDS, SODIUM SULFIDES, SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERIES Abstract Equilibrium open-circuit cell voltage data from a sodium/{beta}{double_prime}-alumina/phosphorus-sulfur cell utilizing P/S ratios of 0, 0.143, and 0.332 and a sodium atom fraction ranging from 0 to 0.4 were interpreted to construct ternary phase diagrams of the Na-P-S ternary system at 350 and 400 C.

149

Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Millennium Cell Inc. Prepared by Ying Wu Michael T. Kelly Jeffrey V. Ortega Under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14008 August 2004 Table of Contents Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 1 Section 1: Commercially Practiced Sodium Borohydride Synthesis Process ............................... 2 The Brown-Schlesinger Process ................................................................................................. 2 The Bayer Process.......................................................................................................................

150

Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) [1,2]. These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) [2]. A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) [3]. Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles [1]. Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust, versatile, and multi-functional platform to enhance in vivo detection sensitivity and non-invasively assay receptor expression/status of tumor cellular targets, including those of low abundance, using nuclear-NIR fluorescence imaging approaches [2]. Improvements in molecular diagnostics, refined by the availability of nanotechnology platforms, will be a key determinant in driving early-stage disease detection and prevention, ultimately leading to decreases in mortality.

Jason S. Lewis

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

151

The production of activated silica with carbon dioxide gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the titratable alkalinity is not reduced. The by-product of the reaction is ammonium hydroxI. de which keeps the alkalinity of the sol the same as that of the starting diluted sodium silicate. The usual method for producing N-Sol A Is to mix dI. lute sodium... safely at about twice the safe storage concen- tration of the Baylis sol. This permits a twofold de- crease in the capaci. ty of the storage tanks (10). Hay also has done a great deal of development wozk 10 in which he has suggested the use of carbon...

Hayes, William Bell

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Sodium cobalt bronze batteries and a method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state secondary battery utilizing a low cost, environmentally sound, sodium cobalt bronze electrode. A method is provided for producing same.

Doeff, Marca M. (Hayward, CA); Ma, Yanping (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard (Lafayette, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Internal temperatures of neutral sodium clusters: a “PIE-thermometer”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Distinct temperature effects could be observed in the threshold regions of photoionisation efficiency (PIE) measurements of sodium clusters. Simulations of the PIE thresholds at various temperatures were carried ...

U. Röthlisberger; M. Schär; E. Schumacher

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Aerosol synthesis of macroporous silica adsorbents with high performance in paclitaxel purification from plant cell cultures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Macroporous spherical silica particles having high performance for the purification of paclitaxel were synthesized by spray pyrolysis using polystyrene nanoparticles as a template. In terms of increasing the purity and yield of paclitaxel, the synthesized macroporous silica showed the better performance than mesoporous silica of high surface area as well as commercial sylopute. The generation of macroporous with the sacrifice of losing surface area was proved to be helpful for enhancing the performance of adsorbents for paclitaxel purification. As a result, the high purity (67.3%) and yield (80.0%) of paclitaxel was achieved by using macroporous silica prepared by spray pyrolysis.

Hye Ran Jang; Jin-Hyun Kim; Kyeong Youl Jung

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Polymer reinforced aerogels and composites A. Polyimide crosslinked aerogels B. Silica-polymethylmethacrylate composites .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??"Crosslinking of aerogels is a promising approach to combine the advantages of inorganic and polymeric materials. In the present study, two types of polyimide-silica hybrid… (more)

Patil, Vishal U., 1981-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Extensional rheology of shear-thickening fumed silica nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous polyethylene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

polyethylene oxide solution Sunilkumar Khandavalli and Jonathan P. Rothsteina) Mechanical and Industrial rheology of fumed silica nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous polyethylene oxide (PEO) solution

Rothstein, Jonathan

157

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash slag silica Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 91 By-Products Utilization Summary: pozzolans include coal fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and other combustion ashes. When...

158

Silica banding in the deep-sea lithistid sponge Corallistes undulatus ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ?14C results for organic carbon trapped in the silica desmas, deposited after the 1960s, supports this assertion; only a small atmospheric nuclear weapons ...

159

Lab Trials of an Electricity Transmission Line Voltage Sensor Based on Thermally Poled Silica Fibre  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Voltage sensing using helically coiled lengths of thermally poled twin-hole silica optical fibre is presented. Lab accuracy test results showing good linearity and signal to noise...

Michie, Andrew M; Hambley, Philip; Bassett, Ian M; Haywood, John H; Henry, Peter; Ingram, John

160

Improving the Performance of Heat Insulation Polyurethane Foams by Silica Nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat insulation polyurethane foam materials were doped by silica nano particles, ... , thermal and mechanical properties of polyurethane rigid foam were investigated. Thermal and mechanical properties were...

M. M. Alavi Nikje; A. Bagheri Garmarudi; M. Haghshenas…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Evaluation of concrete structures affected by alkali-silica reaction and delayed ettringite formation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and delayed ettringite formation (DEF) are expansive reactions that can lead to the premature deterioration of concrete structures. Both have been implicated… (more)

Giannini, Eric Richard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Nondestructive evaluation of reinforced concrete structures affected by alkali-silica reaction and delayed ettringite formation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and delayed ettringite formation (DEF) deterioration have been a problem for the concrete infrastructure in the state of Texas and around the… (more)

Kreitman, Kerry Lynn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Accelerated test methods for evaluating alkali-silica reactivity of recycled concrete aggregates.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis reports the findings of a study carried out to determine the effectiveness of Accelerated Tests in evaluating the Alkali-Silica Reactivity of Recycled Concrete… (more)

Johnson, Robert C (Author)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Function and Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ENA Sodium ATPase System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sodium when sodium is present in excess in the external medium relies...of sensitivity to sodium and lithium cations (31, 36, 70, 77...confer distinct sodium and lithium tolerances, with the former...The accumulation of sodium or lithium cations in calcineurin-deficient...

Amparo Ruiz; Joaquín Arińo

2007-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

165

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Sodium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neon Neon Previous Element (Neon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Magnesium) Magnesium Isotopes of the Element Sodium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 23 100% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 18 1.3Ă—10-21 seconds Proton Emission 100.00% 19 < 40 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 20 447.9 milliseconds Electron Capture with delayed Alpha Decay 20.05% Electron Capture 100.00% 21 22.49 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 22 2.6027 years Electron Capture 100.00% 23 STABLE - - 24 14.997 hours Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

166

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component Francois Leblanc a,*, R 2010 Accepted 27 April 2010 Available online 5 May 2010 Keywords: Mercury, Atmosphere Aeronomy a b s t r a c t Our understanding of Mercury's sodium exosphere has improved considerably in the last 5

Johnson, Robert E.

167

RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves cardiac performance in acute heart for the myocardium at rest and during stress. We tested the effects of half-molar sodium lactate infusion on cardiac by 1 ml/kg/h continuous infusion for 24 hours. The control group received only a 3 ml/kg bolus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

Sol–gel synthesis of sodium and lithium based materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sodium and lithium cobaltates are important materials for thermoelectric and ... the sol–gel synthesis of sodium- and lithium-based materials by using acetate precursors. The produced Na2/3CoO2, Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/...

Sandra Hildebrandt; Andreas Eva…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Alternatives for sodium-potassium alloy treatment  

SciTech Connect

Sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) is currently treated at the Y-12 Plant by open burning. Due to uncertainties with future permits for this process alternative treatment methods were investigated, revealing that two treatment processes are feasible. One process reacts the NaK with water in a highly concentrated molten caustic solution (sodium and potassium hydroxide). The final waste is a caustic that may be used elsewhere in the plant. This process has two safety concerns: Hot corrosive materials used throughout the process present handling difficulties and the process must be carefully controlled (temperature and water content) to avoid explosive NaK reactions. To avoid these problems a second process was developed that dissolves NaK in a mixture of propylene glycol and water at room temperature. While this process is safer, it generates more waste than the caustic process. The waste may possibly be used as a carbon food source in biological waste treatment operations at the Y-12 Plant. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate both processes, and they showed that both processes are feasible alternatives for NaK treatment. Process flow sheets with mass balances were generated for both processes and compared. While the caustic process generates less waste, the propylene glycol process is safer in several ways (temperature, material handling, and reaction control). The authors recommend that the propylene glycol alternative be pursued further as an alternative for NaK treatment. To optimize this process for a larger scale several experiments should be conducted. The amount of NaK dissolved in propylene glycol and subsequent waste generated should be optimized. The offgas processes should be optimized. The viability of using this waste as a carbon food source at one of the Y-12 Plant treatment facilities should be investigated. If the state accepts this process as an alternative, design and construction of a pilot-scale treatment system should begin.

Takacs, T.J.; Johnson, M.E.

1993-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

170

Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have identified two significant precursors of laser damage on fused silica surfaces at fluenes below {approx} 35 J/cm{sup 2}, photoactive impurities in the polishing layer and surface fractures. In the present work, isothermal heating is studied as a means of remediating the highly absorptive, defect structure associated with surface fractures. A series of Vickers indentations were applied to silica surfaces at loads between 0.5N and 10N creating fracture networks between {approx} 10{micro}m and {approx} 50{micro}m in diameter. The indentations were characterized prior to and following thermal annealing under various times and temperature conditions using confocal time-resolved photo-luminescence (CTP) imaging, and R/1 optical damage testing with 3ns, 355nm laser pulses. Significant improvements in the damage thresholds, together with corresponding reductions in CTP intensity, were observed at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). For example, the damage threshold on 05.N indentations which typically initiates at fluences <8 J/cm{sup 2} could be improved >35 J/cm{sup 2} through the use of a {approx} 750 C thermal treatment. Larger fracture networks required longer or higher temperature treatment to achieve similar results. At an annealing temperature > 1100 C, optical microscopy indicates morphological changes in some of the fracture structure of indentations, although remnants of the original fracture and significant deformation was still observed after thermal annealing. This study demonstrates the potential of using isothermal annealing as a means of improving the laser damage resistance of fused silica optical components. Similarly, it provides a means of further understanding the physics associated with optical damage and related mitigation processes.

Shen, N; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Laurence, T A; Suratwala, T I; Steele, W A; Feit, M D; Wang, L L

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

171

Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating. 11 figs.

Grabbe, A.; Michalske, T.A.; Smith, W.L.

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

172

Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

Grabbe, Alexis (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry Arthur (Cedar Crest, NM); Smith, William Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditons. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

Grabbe, Alexis (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry Arthur (Cedar Crest, NM); Smith, William Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

Grabbe, Alexis (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry Arthur (Cedar Crest, NM); Smith, William Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Contractor - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Contractor - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Contractor Operational Readiness Review This report documents the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), independent review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project-Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (SBWTP-IWTU) contractor Operational Readiness Review (C-ORR). The review was conducted at the Idaho Site from February 27 to March 6, 2012. This report discusses the background, scope, results, and conclusions of the review, as well as

176

Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 November 2012 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), conducted an independent assessment of nuclear safety culture at the DOE Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project (SBWTP). The primary objective of the evaluation was to provide information regarding the status of the safety culture at SBWTP. The data collection phase of the assessment occurred in April and May 2012. SBWTP is one of DOE's largest nuclear

177

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Federal - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Federal - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Federal Operational Readiness Review This report documents the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), independent review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project-Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (SBWTP-IWTU) DOE (Federal) Operational Readiness Review (D-ORR). The review was performed by the HSS Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations and was intended to assess the effectiveness of the CORR process as implemented for

178

EIS-0287: Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology EIS-0287: Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and Facilities Disposition In October 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) issued the Final Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0287 (Final EIS)). The Final EIS contains an evaluation of reasonable alternatives for the management of mixed transuranic waste/sodium bearing waste (SBW),1 mixed HLW calcine, and associated low-level waste (LLW), as well as disposition alternatives for HLW facilities when their missions are completed. DOE/EIS-0287, Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology, Office of Environmental Management, Idaho, 70 FR 44598 (August

179

Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Theoretical Adiabatic Temperature and Chemical Composition of Sodium Combustion Flame  

SciTech Connect

Sodium fire safety analysis requires fundamental combustion properties, e.g., heat of combustion, flame temperature, and composition. We developed the GENESYS code for a theoretical investigation of sodium combustion flame.Our principle conclusions on sodium combustion under atmospheric air conditions are (a) the maximum theoretical flame temperature is 1950 K, and it is not affected by the presence of moisture; the uppermost limiting factor is the chemical instability of the condensed sodium-oxide products under high temperature; (b) the main combustion product is liquid Na{sub 2}O in dry air condition and liquid Na{sub 2}O with gaseous NaOH in moist air; and (c) the chemical equilibrium prediction of the residual gaseous reactants in the flame is indispensable for sodium combustion modeling.

Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira [O-arai Engineering Center (Japan)

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Stress dependent activation entropy for dynamic fatigue of pristine silica optical fibers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Subcritical crack growth in fused silica is treated as a stress assisted chemical reaction between water distilled water and pH 7 buffer solution, and the results are found to be similar. The fatigue parameters to the barrier height. The results show subcritical crack growth in high strength silica is dominated by entropy

Matthewson, M. John

182

Glycine and lysine adsorption and reactivity on the surface of amorphous silica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...J., Fricke, J. (1997): Raman spectroscopy on silica aerogels. J. Non-Cryst. Solids , 120 , 294-298. Rimola, A...J., Fricke, J. (1997): Raman spectroscopy on silica aerogels. J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 120, 294-298. Rimola, A...

Lorenzo Stievano; Ling Yu Piao; Irčne Lopes; Ming Meng; Dominique Costa; Jean-François Lambert

183

Hybrid Silica-PVA Nanofibers via Sol-Gel Electrospinning Tahira Pirzada,,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hybrid Silica-PVA Nanofibers via Sol-Gel Electrospinning Tahira Pirzada,,§ Sara A. Arvidson,,§ Carl: We report on the synthesis of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-silica hybrid nanofibers via sol-gel electro is under- taken and reveals a composition window in which defect-free hybrid nanofibers with diameters

Khan, Saad A.

184

Integrated Optical Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing Device using 3-D Waveguides and a Silica PLC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PLC Binbin Guan,1 Ryan P. Scott,1 Nicolas K. Fontaine,2 Tiehui Su,1 Carlo Ferrari,3 Mark Cappuzzo,3 on a silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) coupled to a 3-D photonic circuit that efficiently generates planar lightwave circuit (PLC) with a silica 3-D PIC that supports up to 15 OAM modes, both TE and TM

Yoo, S. J. Ben

185

Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow MILIVOJE M@niu.edu * www.kostic.niu.edu Abstract: - An apparatus for exploring friction and heat transfer characteristics flow. Initial turbulent friction and heat transfer measurements for silica and carbon nanotube (CNT

Kostic, Milivoje M.

186

Sorption and Diffusion of Simple Paraffins in Silica-Alumina Cracking Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Paraffins in Silica-Alumina Cracking Catalyst R. M. Barrer T. Gabor Sorption and...propane in the silica-alumina cracking catalyst previously employed in similar measurements...behaviour in the micropore structure of the catalyst, for the species studied. The ratio...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Molten Gallium as a Catalyst for the Large-Scale Growth of Highly Aligned Silica Nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molten Gallium as a Catalyst for the Large-Scale Growth of Highly Aligned Silica Nanowires Zheng a small size (5-100 nm in diameter), high melting point metal (such as gold and iron) catalyst particle as an effective catalyst for the large-scale growth of highly aligned, closely packed silica nanowire bunches

Wang, Zhong L.

188

Ethylenediamine at Air/Liquid and Air/Silica Interfaces: Protonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surface and EDA protonated products at air/liquid interfaces. The SFG spectra of EDA adsorbedEthylenediamine at Air/Liquid and Air/Silica Interfaces: Protonation Versus Hydrogen BondingKa (HOSit)) is between the two pKa values of EDA (in the range of 7.56-10.71) at the air/silica interface

189

Developing a process for commercial silica production from Salton Sea brines  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this joint LLNL-CalEnergy project is to develop a method for precipitating marketable silica from spent Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brines. Many markets for silica exist. We have initially targeted production of silica as a rubber additive. Silica reinforced rubber gives tires less rolling resistance, greater tear strength, and better adhesion to steel belts. Previous silica precipitates produced by CalEnergy from Salton Sea brines were not suitable as rubber additives. They did not to disperse well in the rubber precursors and produced inferior rubber. CalEnergy currently minimizes silica scaling in some of their production facilities by acidifying the brine pH. The rate of silica precipitation slows down as the pH is lowered, so that energy extraction and brine reinfection are possible without unacceptable amounts of scaling even with more than 700 ppm SiO{sub 2} in solution. We are adding a step in which a small amount of base is added to the acidified brine to precipitate silica before reinfection. By carefully controlling the type, rate, and amount of base addition, we can optimize the properties of the precipitate to approach those of an ideal rubber additive.

Bourcier, W; McCutcheon, M; Leif, R; Bruton, C

2000-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

190

Modulating DNA adsorption on silica beads using an electrical switchw Oren Z. Gallb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

use electrolysis of water to alter pH in a packed bed of silica beads and switch the silica bead electrolysis of water.20,21 The two gold electrodes (200 mm wide) were 1000 mm apart from each other, higher voltage introduces more electrolysis of water which changes the pH more rapidly. However, we found

Lu, Chang

191

The onset of optical breakdown in KrF-laser-irradiated silica glass surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A synthetic fused silica obtained from Tosoh SGM Co., ESL-1000 (OH % 1200 wt. ppm), with a thick- ness of 2 mmThe onset of optical breakdown in KrF-laser-irradiated silica glass surfaces Y. Kawaguchia,* , A Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Central 5, 1

Dickinson, J. Thomas

192

The effect of silica nanoparticle-modified surfaces on cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization and function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of silica nanoparticle-modified surfaces on cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization investigate the effect of nanoparticle (NP) assemblies arranged on a flat substrate on cytoskeletal substrates were coated with monodispersed silica nanoparticles of 50, 100 and 300 nm in diameter. The impact

193

Surface Analysis of Silica Gel Particles after Mechanical Dry Coating with Magnesium Stearate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Surface Analysis of Silica Gel Particles after Mechanical Dry Coating with Magnesium Stearate particles (d50 = 55 µm) by coating with different mass ratios of magnesium stearate - MgSt2 (d50 = 4.6 µm Group). Keywords: AFM phase imaging, adhesion force, dry coating, silica, magnesium stearate. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

DENSIFICATION AS THE ONLY MECHANISM AT STAKE DURING INDENTATION OF SILICA GLASS?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DENSIFICATION AS THE ONLY MECHANISM AT STAKE DURING INDENTATION OF SILICA GLASS? Vincent Keryvin1 mariette.nivard@univ-rennes1.fr, f jean-christophe.sangleboeuf@univ-rennes1.fr Keywords: Indentation; Glass; Densification; Plasticity; Imprint; Modeling; Finite-Element Analysis; Fused quartz Abstract. Silica glass

Brest, Université de

195

9 - Microporous silica membranes: fundamentals and applications in membrane reactors for hydrogen separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: This chapter discusses the research and development of membrane reactors, incorporating microporous silica-based membranes, specifically for hydrogen production. Microporous silica membranes are first introduced alongside a discussion of relevant gas transport mechanisms, membrane performance parameters, membrane reactor designs and membrane reactor performance metrics. This is followed by an in-depth analysis of the various research investigations where silica membrane reactors have been used to produce hydrogen and/or syngas from hydrocarbon reforming reactions. Of particular importance here is the hydrothermal instability of silica-based membranes at the required operating temperatures and so the chapter closes by presenting the future research trends and industrial design challenges and considerations of silica-based membrane reactors.

S. Smart; J. Beltramini; J.C. Diniz da Costa; S.P. Katikaneni; T. Pham

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

The \\{LHCb\\} RICH silica aerogel performance with LHC data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the \\{LHCb\\} experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, powerful charged particle identification is performed by Ring Imaging \\{CHerenkov\\} (RICH) technology. In order to cover the full geometric acceptance and the wide momentum range (1–100 GeV/c), two detectors with three Cherenkov radiators have been designed and installed. In the medium (10–40 GeV/c) and high (30–100 GeV/c) momentum ranges, gas radiators are used (C4F10 and CF4, respectively). In the low momentum range (1–10 GeV/c), pion, kaon and proton separation is performed with solid silica aerogel radiator. A set of 16 tiles, with large transverse dimensions of up to 200 × 200 mm 2 and nominal refractive index 1.03 have been produced and integrated in the detector. These tiles have excellent optical properties and homogeneity of the refractive index at the percent level within the tile. The first data collected at the LHC are used to investigate the behaviour of the RICH; preliminary results of the performance of silica aerogel are presented and discussed.

D.L. Perego

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Macroscopic Subdivision of Silica Aerogel Collectors for Sample Return Missions  

SciTech Connect

Silica aerogel collector tiles have been employed for the collection of particles in low Earth orbit and, more recently, for the capture of cometary particles by NASA's Stardust mission. Reliable, reproducible methods for cutting these and future collector tiles from sample return missions are necessary to maximize the science output from the extremely valuable embedded particles. We present a means of macroscopic subdivision of collector tiles by generating large-scale cuts over several centimeters in silica aerogel with almost no material loss. The cut surfaces are smooth and optically clear allowing visual location of particles for analysis and extraction. This capability is complementary to the smaller-scale cutting capabilities previously described [Westphal (2004), Ishii (2005a, 2005b)] for removing individual impacts and particulate debris in tiny aerogel extractions. Macroscopic cuts enable division and storage or distribution of portions of aerogel tiles for immediate analysis of samples by certain techniques in situ or further extraction of samples suited for other methods of analysis.

Ishii, H A; Bradley, J P

2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

198

Natural hydrous amorphous silica: Quantitation of network speciation and hydroxyl content by 29Si MAS NMR and vibrational spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...included a volcanically derived silica coating on young basalt from Kilauea, Hawaii...sites, respectively. The Hawaiian silica coating and silicic acid samples displayed high...the structural Si-OH content of the coating was unusually high for a natural silica...

Steven M. Chemtob; George R. Rossman; Jonathan F. Stebbins

199

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 140, 224502 (2014) Search for a liquid-liquid critical point in models of silica  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from pure sil- ica are widely used by the telecommunications industry and, because silica and silicates in models of silica Erik Lascaris,1 Mahin Hemmati,2 Sergey V. Buldyrev,3 H. Eugene Stanley,1 and C. Austen indicated the possible existence of a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) in models of silica at high

Stanley, H. Eugene

200

Aluminum and silica intake in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline: findings of the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aluminum and silica intake in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive,2 , Commenges Daniel1,2 , Helmer Catherine2,3 , Jean-François Dartigues2,3 . Abbreviations: Al, Aluminum; AD, Alzheimer's Disease; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination; Si, Silica Running head: Aluminum, silica in water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetate sodium lactate Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sodium-high lactate infusion'. Of course, it is easy to demonstrate that high lactate infusion... . Also, sodium-lactate infusion in humans ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre...

202

High-resolution lidar observations of mesospheric sodium and implications for adaptive optics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations of sodium density variability in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere, obtained using a high-resolution lidar system, show rapid fluctuations in the sodium centroid...

Pfrommer, Thomas; Hickson, Paul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.  

SciTech Connect

Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

Denman, Matthew R; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Wheeler, Timothy A.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Pulse radiolysis of solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate  

SciTech Connect

Pulse radiolysis of solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh/sub 4/) indicates that the absorption observed in organic amides with lambda/sub max/ in the range 650-724 nm is not due to Na/sup -/, an electron adduct to BPh/sub 4//sup -/, a triplet excited state, or a proton-donating solvent cation. Experiments in aqueous solution are described in which the reactions of selected radicals with NaBPh/sub 4/ are studied. One-electron oxidation of NaBPh/sub 4/ by N/sub 3//sup .-/ radicals yields a species, assumed to be NaBPh/sub 4//sup ./, with absorption maxima at 335 and 800 nm. A similar spectrum is observed on pulse radiolysis of solutions of NaBPh/sub 4/ in tetramethylurea (TMU), but the long-wavelength absorption is shifted to 725 nm. The formation of an oxidizing radical in irradiated TMU was confirmed by the observation of I/sub 2//sup .-/ on pulse radiolysis of solutions of KI in this solvent. Pulse radiolysis of solution of NaBPh/sub 4/ and KI in TMU demonstrated that these solutes compete for the oxidizing intermediate.

Liu, K.J.; Langan, J.R.; Salmon, G.A.; Holton, D.M.; Edwards, P.P.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

205

Internal structure, hygroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Internal structure, hygroscopic and Internal structure, hygroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium methanesulfonate-sodium chloride particles Internal structure, hygroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium methanesulfonate-sodium chloride particles Print Friday, 13 May 2011 00:00 Scientists recently combined experimental approaches and molecular dynamics modeling to gain new insights into the internal structure of sea salt particles and relate it to their fundamental chemical reactivity in the atmosphere. This research shows that surface enhancement or depletion of chemical components in marine particles can occur because of the difference in the chemical nature of the species. Because the atmospheric chemistry of the salt particles takes place at the gas-particle interface, understanding their complex surfaces provides new insights about their effect on the environment and climate change. Article Link.

206

Loop simulation capability for sodium-cooled systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A one-dimensional loop simulation capability has been implemented in the thermal-hydraulic analysis code, THERMIT-4E. This code had been used to simulate and investigate flow in test sections of experimental sodium loops ...

Adekugbe, Oluwole A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Neutron Activation Analysis of Manganese and Sodium in Bacterial Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Metabolism and Products Neutron Activation Analysis of Manganese and Sodium...Columbus, Ohio 43210. The application of neutron activation analysis for mineral determinations...two elements. The results indicate that neutron activation analysis is readily applicable...

Woodrow B. Krueger; Walter E. Carey; Bruno J. Kolodzeij

1970-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Preparation of Activated Carbon and Silica Particles from Rice Straw  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass, such as agricultural crop residues, forestry byproducts, and municipal waste, is a rich source of renewable energy and materials. ... The LH powders were dried in oven at 60 °C for 12 h, placed in a quartz tube (2 cm inner diameter), and then dried in a furnace (Mini-Mite, Lindberg/Blue) at 10 °C/min to 105 °C and held for 0.5 h. ... TEM samples were prepared by dispersing a small amount of AC and silica particles in water (?0.01 g/L) and sonicated (2510, Branson) for 60 min first, and then a drop of the sonicated suspension was placed onto a carbon grid and dried in air. ...

Sixiao Hu; You-Lo Hsieh

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

209

Hydrogen and oxygen adsorption stoichiometries on silica supported ruthenium nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Treatment under H{sub 2} at 300 C of Ru(COD)(COT) dispersed on silica yields 2 nm ruthenium nanoparticles, [Ru{sub p}/SiO{sub 2}], according to EXAFS, HRTEM and XPS. H{sub 2} adsorption measurements on [Ru{sub p}/SiO{sub 2}] in the absence of O{sub 2} show that Ru particles adsorb up to ca. 2 H per surface ruthenium atoms (2H/Ru{sub s}) on various samples; this technique can therefore be used to measure the dispersion of Ru particles. In contrast, O{sub 2} adsorption on [Ru{sub p}/SiO{sub 2}] leads to a partial oxidation of the bulk at 25 C, to RuO{sub 2} at 200 C and to sintering upon further reduction under H{sub 2}, showing that O{sub 2} adsorption cannot be used to measure the dispersion of Ru particles.

Berthoud, Romain; Delichere, Pierre; Gajan, David; Lukens, Wayne; Pelzer, Katrin; Basset, Jean-Marie; Candy, Jean-Pierre; Coperet, Christophe

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction material  

SciTech Connect

The Cerro Prieto geothermal field generates 620 MW of electric power and in the process produces 11,000 tonnes of brine per hour that is disposed of in surface ponds. Approximately 1300 tonnes of silica waste is the residual product from this hourly production of brine. At present, there is no use for this waste silica. Some experimental work has been undertaken by CFE to utilize this waste silica such as for surfacing roads with a cement-silica mixture and making bricks with various additives. However, none of this research has been documented. Approximately two years ago, a joint USDOE/CFE research project was proposed to investigate the use of the waste silica. The proposal included using the silica mixed with asphalt and cement to produce a suitable road surfacing material, and to combine the silica with various additives to be used as bricks for low cost housing. It was thought, that the low specific gravity of the silica and the proposed mixtures would give the bricks a high insulating value (low-thermal conductivity), thus protecting the residents from high solar heating, typical of Baja California and the area around Mexicali. Finally, since the geothermal fields of the area extend into the Imperial Valley of California where 420 MW of geothermal power is generated, it was hoped that this research would also be applicable to the U.S. side of the border. Some attempt has been made by UNOCAL at their Imperial Valley plant (now owned by Magma Power) to use the waste silica stabilized with cement for roads and dikes around the plant.

Lund, J.W.; Boyd, T.; Monnie, D.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE.... ............... Salt content of feecls.. ......... Salt content of mixed feeds.. ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Studies of Immobilized Homogeneous Metal Catalysts on Silica Supports  

SciTech Connect

The tethered, chiral, chelating diphosphine rhodium complex, which catalyzes the enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl-{alpha}-acetamidocinnamate (MAC), has the illustrated structure as established by {sup 31}P NMR and IR studies. Spectral and catalytic investigations also suggest that the mechanism of action of the tethered complex is the same as that of the untethered complex in solution. The rhodium complexes, [Rh(COD)H]{sub 4}, [Rh(COD){sub 2}]{sup +}BF{sub 4}{sup -}, [Rh(COD)Cl]{sub 2}, and RhCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O, adsorbed on SiO{sub 2} are optimally activated for toluene hydrogenation by pretreatment with H{sub 2} at 200 C. The same complexes on Pd-SiO{sub 2} are equally active without pretreatments. The active species in all cases is rhodium metal. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, TEM, DRIFTS, and mercury poisoning experiments. Rhodium on silica catalyzes the hydrogenation of fluorobenzene to produce predominantly fluorocyclohexane in heptane and 1,2-dichloroethane solvents. In heptane/methanol and heptane/water solvents, hydrodefluorination to benzene and subsequent hydrogenation to cyclohexane occurs exclusively. Benzene inhibits the hydrodefluorination of fluorobenzene. In DCE or heptane solvents, fluorocyclohexane reacts with hydrogen fluoride to form cyclohexene. Reaction conditions can be chosen to selectively yield fluorocyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, or cyclohexane. The oxorhenium(V) dithiolate catalyst [-S(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}s-]Re(O)(Me)(PPh{sub 3}) was modified by linking it to a tether that could be attached to a silica support. Spectroscopic investigation and catalytic oxidation reactivity showed the heterogenized catalyst's structure and reactivity to be similar to its homogeneous analog. However, the immobilized catalyst offered additional advantages of recyclability, extended stability, and increased resistance to deactivation.

Keith James Stanger

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

Effect of Optical Coating and Surface Treatments on Mechanical Loss in Fused Silica  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the mechanical loss in fused silica samples with various surface treatments and compare them with samples having an optical coating. Mild surface treatments such as washing in detergent or acetone were not found to affect the mechanical loss of flame-drawn fused silica fibers stored in air. However, mechanical contact (with steel calipers) significantly increased the loss. The application of a high-reflective optical coating of the type used for the LIGO test masses was found to greatly increase the mechanical loss of commercially polished fused silica microscope slides. We discuss the implications for the noise budget of interferometers.

Andri M. Gretarsson; Gregory M. Harry; Steven D. Penn; Peter R. Saulson; John J. Schiller; William J. Startin

1999-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

214

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, Wayne H. (Richland, WA); Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

The nonlinear optical, magnetic, and Mössbauer spectral properties of some iron(III) doped silica xerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Iron(III) species dispersed in silica have been ... synthesized with a sol-gel process. The iron(III) was introduced as the acetylacetonate complex into a solution of tetraethoxysilane to...Z-scan experimental st...

L. Rebbouh; V. Rosso; Y. Renotte; Y. Lion; F. Grandjean…

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Effect of gel parameters on monolithicity and density of silica aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As part of continuing investigation of the preparation and characterization of silica aerogels, detailed experimental results on monolithicity and density of the aerogels as a function of catalysts and their c...

A. Venkateswara Rao; N. N. Parvathy

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Synthesis and characterization of transparent silica-based aerogels using methyltrimethoxysilane precursor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silica-based aerogels with high transparency and high bending strength were prepared using methyltrimethoxysilane and non-ionic surfactant under supercritical drying condition of CO2. Non-ionic surfactant, ethyle...

Masayuki Nogami; Shohei Hotta…

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

E-Print Network 3.0 - aperture fused silica Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

using a Kaufman type ion source to figure 8 cm diameter fused silica and silicon carbide samples... cases are shown in Table 1 and Figure 1. Using a 3 cm diameter Ion Tech...

219

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash-silica fume pastes Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

; Engineering 100 By-Products Utilization Summary: of Recycled Aggregates in Self-Compacting4 Concrete", Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag and Natural Pozzolans... (0.00028 in.). For...

220

Ammoniated silica-alumina gel and catalyst containing the same and processes for producing same  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to hydrothermally treated silica-alumina cogels resulting in a reduction in the NH/sub 4/ content of the gel and the employment of such gels as cracking catalysts.

Alafandi, H.; Stamires, D.

1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment of Fused Silica, Related Surface and Near-Surface Effects and Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment of fused silica and its related surface and near-surface effects. Such treatment was performed in order to improve laser ... process gas was used. By th...

Christoph Gerhard; Tobias Weihs; Daniel Tasche…

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Effects from Alkali-Silica Reacton and Delayed Ettringite Formation on Reinforced Concrete Column Lap Splices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reinforced concrete bridge columns can deteriorate prematurely due to the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and/or delayed ettringite formation (DEF), causing internal expansion and cracking on the surface of the concrete. The performance...

Eck, Mary

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

223

Silica-nanoparticle-dispersed methacrylate photopolymers with net diffraction efficiency near 100%  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate volume holographic recording in silica-nanoparticle-dispersed methacrylate photopolymers with reduced scattering loss as low as 2%. This is made possible by use of 13-nm...

Suzuki, Naoaki; Tomita, Yasuo

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Method for inhibiting silica precipitation and scaling in geothermal flow systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for inhibiting silica scaling and precipitation in geothermal flow systems by on-line injection of low concentrations of cationic nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly polymeric imines, polymeric amines, and quaternary ammonium compounds is described.

Harrar, J.E.; Lorensen, L.E.; Locke, F.E.

1980-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

225

Effects from Alkali-Silica Reacton and Delayed Ettringite Formation on Reinforced Concrete Column Lap Splices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Reinforced concrete bridge columns can deteriorate prematurely due to the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and/or delayed ettringite formation (DEF), causing internal expansion and cracking on the… (more)

Eck, Mary

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcali-silica reactions mechanisms Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

results for: alcali-silica reactions mechanisms Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 GTQ, Chemistry 212, Dr. Glaser, FS96 --1 --GTQ on Baeyer-Villiger Reaction. (20 points,...

227

Time-resolved plasma measurements in Ge-doped silica exposed to infrared femtosecond laser  

SciTech Connect

Using a time-resolved interferometric technique, we study the laser-induced carrier-trapping dynamics in SiO{sub 2} and Ge-doped SiO{sub 2}. The fast trapping of electrons in the band gap is associated with the formation of self-trapped excitons (STE). The STE trapping is doping dependent in SiO{sub 2}. The mean trapping time of electrons excited in the conduction band was found to be significantly lower in Ge-doped silica (75 {+-} 5 fs) when compared to pure silica (155 {+-} 5 fs). At our concentration level, this indicates that the plasma properties are determined by the presence of easily ionizable states such as the presence of Ge atoms in the glass network. Therefore, we suggest that in Ge-doped silica there exist an additional trapping pathway that leads to a significantly faster excitons trapping and a higher plasma density when compared to undoped silica.

Lancry, M.; Poumellec, B. [LPCES/ICMMO, UMR CNRS-UPS 8182, Universite Paris Sud 11, Batiment 410, 91405 Orsay (France); Groothoff, N.; Canning, J. [Interdisciplinary Photonics Laboratories, School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, 206 NIC, ATP, Eveleigh, NSW, 1340 (Australia); Guizard, S.; Fedorov, N. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies/CEA IRAMIS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Silica and acid-detergent fiber content of five varieties of bermudagrass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SILICA &ID ACID-DETERGENT FIBER CONTENT OF FIVE VARIETIES OF BERMUDAGRASS A Thesis by FREDERICK MICHAEL JUNGMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M Uniuersity in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1971 Major Subject: Agronomy SILICA AND ACID-DETERGENT FIBER CONTENT 01' FIVE VARIETIES OF BEI~DAGRASS A Thesis by FREDERICK MICHAEL OUNGMAN Approved as to style and content by: (Chai rman of Coamd t tee) (llead of. Department...

Jungman, Frederick Michael

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Modifications in the correlation function in poly(vinyl alcohol)/silica hybrid wet gels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to study modifications in the correlation function in tetraethoxysilane-derived poly(vinyl alcohol)/silica hybrids. An additional scattering at low q was found to overlap the fundamental mass-fractal scattering from the basic silica. The fraction of both contributions to the total correlation function was estimated; this is the first time that such a study has been carried out for mass-fractal structures.

Vollet, D.R.

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

230

The effect of lattice temperature on surface damage in fused silica optics  

SciTech Connect

We examine the effect of lattice temperature on the probability of surface damage initiation for 355nm, 7ns laser pulses for surface temperatures below the melting point to temperatures well above the melting point of fused silica. At sufficiently high surface temperatures, damage thresholds are dramatically reduced. Our results indicate a temperature activated absorption and support the idea of a lattice temperature threshold of surface damage. From these measurements, we estimate the temperature dependent absorption coefficient for intrinsic silica.

Bude, J; Guss, G; Matthews, M; Spaeth, M L

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

231

Mineralogical characteristics of the silica polymorphs in relation to their biological activities  

SciTech Connect

Numerous aspects of minerals (including the silica polymorphs) can effect their biological activities. These include periodic structures, compositional variations, dissolution characteristics, surface properties, and particle size/shape. In order to understand mineral-induced pathogenesis in a mechanistic way, the links between these properties and biochemical processes must be elucidated. This paper presents some of the basic properties of the silica polymorphs that may relate to pathogenicity and mineralogical strategies for designing biological assays to evaluate these properties.

Guthrie, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heaney, P.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geological and Geophysical Sciences

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Sodium removal process development for LMFBR fuel subassemblies  

SciTech Connect

Two 37-pin scale models of Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant fuel subassemblies were designed, fabricated and used at Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division in the development and proof-testing of a rapid water-based sodium removal process for the ORNL Hot Experimental Facility, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Cycle. Through a series of development tests on one of the models, including five (5) sodium wettings and three (3) high temperature sodium removal operations, optimum process parameters for a rapid water vapor-argon-water rinse process were identified and successfully proof-tested on a second model containing argon-pressurized, sodium-corroded model fuel pins simulating the gas plenum and cladding conditions expected for spent fuel pins in full scale subassemblies. Based on extrapolations of model proof test data, preliminary process parameters for a water vapor-nitrogen-water rinse process were calculated and recommended for use in processing full scale fuel subassemblies in the Sodium Removal Facility of the Fuel Receiving Cell, ORNL HEF.

Simmons, C.R.; Taylor, G.R.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Development of under sodium inspection techniques for FBR  

SciTech Connect

The reactor vessel of a fast breeder reactor (FBR) is filled with opaque liquid sodium and ultrasonic inspection techniques are effective and useful for observing the in-vessel structures under sodium. Firstly, in the development of the under sodium visual inspection technique, the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and cross-correlation processing have been applied to realize ultrasonic 3-dimensional cross-correlation image processing with high resolution. Cross-correlation processing improves the S/N ratio of the ultrasonic echoes which are deteriorated by sodium wetting, and realizes high-density integration of the matrix arrayed transducer. Matrix arrayed transducer, in which 100 piezoelectric elements are arranged as a 10 x 10 matrix array, has been manufactured for the in-water visualizing test. Secondly, in the development of the under sodium volumetric inspection technique, a prototype electric scanning UT sensor has been developed for the volumetric test of the core support structures in the reactor vessel. The UT sensor consists of 60 arrayed piezoelectric elements, non-organic materials such as ceramic backing. Ultrasonic echoes transmitted from the elements is scanned electronically and real-time B-scope images of the structures can be realized. A prototype UT sensor has been tested to evaluate the acoustic characteristics in water and confirm the heat-proof performance under high temperature silicon oil. The performance of the UT sensor satisfied the requirements.

Karasawa, H.; Suzuki, T.; Nagai, S.; Izumi, M.; Kobayashi, T. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Sasaki, S.; Ota, S.; Kai, M. [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Sodium-based Battery Development - Dave Ingersoll, SNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sodium-based Battery Development Sodium-based Battery Development A Family of Batteries for Large Scale Energy Storage D. Ingersoll, C. Apblett, E. Spoerke, K. Zavadil, R. Cygan, J. Ihlefeld, F. Delnick, & T. Anderson Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM Prof. E. Wachsman University of Maryland, College Park, MD Profs. R. Kee & J. Porter, Dr. H. Zhu Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO S. Bhavaraju & M. Robins Ceramatec, Inc, Salt Lake City, UT D. Beeaff CoorsTek, Inc, Golden, CO J. Martin Boulder Ionics, Golden CO US DOE Energy Storage Systems Research Program Peer Review, Washington, DC, Sept. 26-28, 2012 Sodium-based batteries  Purpose  Demonstrate a family of sodium-based battery chemistries  sodium-iodine, sodium-bromine, sodium-air, sodium insertion, sodium-metal, etc

235

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contractor - June 2012 Contractor - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Contractor - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Contractor Operational Readiness Review This report documents the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), independent review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project-Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (SBWTP-IWTU) contractor Operational Readiness Review (C-ORR). The review was conducted at the Idaho Site from February 27 to March 6, 2012. This report discusses the background, scope, results, and conclusions of the review, as well as opportunities for improvement (OFIs) and items identified for further

236

Generation IV International Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Sodium  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Generation IV International Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors February 17, 2006 - 11:58am Addthis FUKUI , JAPAN - The Department of Energy today announced that the United States signed a sodium-cooled fast reactor systems arrangement with France and Japan, providing the framework for collaboration among these countries on the research and development of these advanced nuclear reactors. The signing of the agreement took place on February 16, 2006. This arrangement will support the development of technologies associated with the U.S.-led Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), announced earlier this month by Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman. GNEP is a

237

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Federal - June 2012 Federal - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Federal - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Federal Operational Readiness Review This report documents the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), independent review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project-Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (SBWTP-IWTU) DOE (Federal) Operational Readiness Review (D-ORR). The review was performed by the HSS Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations and was intended to assess the effectiveness of the CORR process as implemented for the SBWTP-IWTU. This review also provides additional data regarding

238

Assistant template and co-template agents in modeling mesoporous silicas and post-synthesizing organofunctionalizations  

SciTech Connect

Mesoporous SBA-16 silicas were synthesized through a direct methodology using the template (F127) combined with co-templates (ethanol and n-butanol), with tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica source. These ordered mesoporous silica were characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance for {sup 13}C (CP/MAS) and {sup 29}Si (HP/DEC) nuclei, nitrogen sorption/desorption processes, small angle X-ray analyses (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SAXS and TEM results confirmed the space group Im3m and cubic 3D symmetry, typical for highly ordered SBA-16. The sorption/desorption data for SBA-16 and when functionalized gave type IV isotherms, with hysteresis loop H2. Surface areas of 836; 657 and 618 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and average pore diameters of 7.99; 8.10 and 9.85 nm, for SBA-16A, SBA-16B and SBA-16C were obtained, respectively. When functionalized the silicas presented a reduction in surface area, pore volume and pore diameter due to the pendant chains that interfere with nitrogen sorption in these measurements. The co-template ethanol favors the ordered mesopores with highest wall thicknesses. - Graphical Abstract: The mesoporous SBA-16 can be synthesized from binary (F127/TEOS) or ternary (F127/alcohol/TEOs) systems to give well-ordered mesoporous silicas. The co-templates ethanol or butanol gave the final material with highest wall thickness, mainly with ethanol. After these syntheses the pores were successfully organofunctionalized to give a good incorporation of the silylating agents. The final silicas presented of well-arranged solid characteristics as expressing by three distinct peaks, as indexed by the corresponding planes. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Syntheses of mesoporous silicas by using ternary (F127/agent/TEOS) and binary (F127/TEOS) systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of co-templates to synthesize mesoporous silicas with larger wall thicknesses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilization of pendant chains inside the porous silicas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ordered mesoposous silicas as new materials for possible applications on sorption and delivering drug systems.

Oliveira, Vaeudo V. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, PO Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)] [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, PO Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio, E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, PO Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)] [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, PO Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Numerical Methodology to Evaluate Fast Reactor Sodium Combustion  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, a numerical methodology for sodium combustion has been developed for the safety evaluation of a liquid-metal-cooled fast reactor. The methodology includes a fast-running zone model computer program for safety evaluation, a field model program for multidimensional thermal hydraulics, and a chemical reaction analysis program based on chemical equilibrium theory. Two recently performed experiments have been analyzed using the computer programs, and the numerical results are in good agreement with the experiments. Although sodium combustion is a complex phenomenon, use of these computer programs gives better understanding of the coupled thermal hydraulics and chemical reaction.

Yamaguchi, Akira; Takata, Takashi; Okano, Yasushi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (Japan)

2001-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

The magnesium nutrition of cotton as influenced by sodium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1964 Major Subject. Plant Physic logy THE MAGNESIUM NUTRITION OF COTTON AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM A Thesis By MERVYN M. THENABADU Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi. e Nun Head of Department Member Mem, er Member Member... REVIEW OF LITERATURE (a) Sodium as a plant nutrient (b) I'he role of magnesium in plant nutrition MATERIALS AND METHODS RESUL:S DISCUSSION 13 21 24 (a) The effect of treatments on grcwth and reproduction (b) The effect of treatments on the ccr...

Thenabadu, Mervyn Wellesly

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters  

SciTech Connect

Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium–aluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup ?}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnöckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

242

Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film ... Photo-aligning and micropatterning techniques for mesochannels of a silica thin film using a photo-cross-linkable polymer film with a cinnamoyl group are proposed. ... We propose herein a new photo-aligning and micropatterning technique for mesochannels of a silica thin film using a photo-cross-linkable polymer film with a cinnamoyl group. ...

Haruhiko Fukumoto; Shusaku Nagano; Nobuhiro Kawatsuki; Takahiro Seki

2006-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

243

Characterization of modified silica aerogel using sodium silicate precursor and its application as adsorbent of Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The N2...adsorption-desorption isotherms were measured by the BET method using nitrogen as an adsorption gas at 77?K using Belsorp Mini II instrument (BEL Japan, Inc., Sumida-ku, Tokyo, Japan). Samples were out g...

HR Pouretedal; M Kazemi

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect

This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Sodium hydroxide represented the initial test case and primary focus. It is a primary component of the waste1 and has the most value for recycle. A full explanation of the relevance of this research to USDOE Environmental Management needs will be given in the Relevance, Impact, and Technology Transfer section below. It should be noted that this effort was predicated on the need for sodium removal primarily from low-activity waste, whereas evolving needs have shifted attention to volume reduction of the high-activity waste. The results of the research to date apply to both applications, though treatment of high-activity wastes raises new questions that will be addressed in the renewal period. Toward understanding the extractive chemistry of sodium hydroxide and other sodium salts, it was the intent to identify candidate extractants and determine their applicable basic properties regarding selectivity, efficiency, speciation, and structure. A hierarchical strategy was to be employed in which the type of liquid-liquid-extraction system varied in sophistication from simple, single-component solvents to solvents containing designer host molecules. As an aid in directing this investigation toward addressing the fundamental questions having the most value, a conceptualization of an ideal process was advanced. Accordingly, achieving adequate selectivity for sodium hydroxide represented a primary goal, but this result is worthwhile for waste applications only if certain conditions are met.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Haverlock, Tamara J.

2002-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

Unsteady aspects of sodium–water–air reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One important issue for the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) concept is the reactivity of metallic sodium and its exothermal reaction with water. In particular during equipments washing operations, sodium needs to be firstly converted (‘destroyed’) into non reactive species via a chemical reaction with water. Today, such operations are performed in tanks that confine the system and mitigate the consequences of any possible abnormal condition. Some data were obtained from experiments run by the French Commissariat ŕ l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) and were used as a basis for modelling. Among the principal phenomena identified so far are rapid water vaporization, hydrogen emission and explosion in air. High explosive-like pressure waves are generated from which sodium fragmentation and dispersion in water may ensue increasing the overall reactivity. It is extremely important to clarify the phenomenology to allow realistic extrapolation to full scale plants. A state of the art is proposed in this paper, starting from available experimental data and present perception of the physics. A comparison with present modelling strategy is also performed, underlining the necessity to improve a different and more physical approach aimed to well represent dynamic aspects of reaction.

Sofia Carnevali; Christophe Proust; Michel Soucille

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Multiple reheat helium Brayton cycles for sodium fast reactors  

SciTech Connect

Sodium fast reactors (SFR) traditionally adopt the steam Rankine cycle for power conversion. The resulting potential for water-sodium reaction remains a continuing concern which at least partly delays the SFR technology commercialization and is a contributor to higher capital cost. Supercritical CO2 provides an alternative, but is also capable of sustaining energetic chemical reactions with sodium. Recent development on advanced inert-gas Brayton cycles could potentially solve this compatibility issue, increase thermal efficiency, and bring down the capital cost close to light water reactors. In this paper, helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling states are presented for SFRs with reactor outlet temperatures in the range of 510°C to 650°C. The resulting thermal efficiencies range from 39% and 47%, which is comparable with supercritical recompression CO2 cycles (SCO2 cycle). A systematic comparison between multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle and the SCO2 cycle is given, considering compatibility issues, plant site cooling temperature effect on plant efficiency, full plant cost optimization, and other important factors. The study indicates that the multiple reheat helium cycle is the preferred choice over SCO2 cycle for sodium fast reactors.

Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

FATE OF INGESTED SODIUM BICARBONATE IN THE FOWL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 100 calcium while rations 3 and4contained 3.85 p. 100 calcium. Sodium bicarbonate was added at a level. The duodenum was entered at the top of the loop and the electrode tip immersed its full length down the posterior side of the loop. The #12;mid-intestinal reading was taken with the incision at approximately

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Method of Manufacturing Micro-Disperse Particles of Sodium Borohydride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester. Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

250

Method of generating hydrogen gas from sodium borohydride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

251

Effect of silica on the properties of cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, a series of cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol-600 membranes, with varying ratios were prepared by 2-stage phase inversion protocol. The permeation properties were studied by subjecting membranes in indigenously fabricated reverse osmosis plant. After optimization of different CA/PEG ratios, the membrane with highest salt rejection capacity was selected and modified with varying amount of silica. The Modified membranes were characterized for their permeation properties, hydrophilicity, compositional analysis, thermal stability, mechanical strength and morphological studies. Silica significantly influenced the permeation performance of composite membrane. The flux enhanced from 0.35 to 2.46 L/h m2 along with an 11.41% relative increase in salt rejection. The hydrophilicity was significantly enhanced by the addition of silica. In FTIR spectra, the broadening of the peak around 3500 cm? 1 and emergence of peak at 950 cm? 1 specified the incorporation of silica particles. The thermal analysis indicated the relative increase in degradation temperature (Tmax) and glass transition temperature (Tg) for CPS-5 membrane. The mechanical stability of the modified membranes, increased initially, but declined with further addition of silica. The results indicated that the incorporation of SiO2 content in the casting solution improved the fouling resistance of the membranes.

Adnan Ahmad; Sidra Waheed; Shahzad Maqsood Khan; Sabad e-Gul; Muhammad Shafiq; Muhammad Farooq; Khairuddin Sanaullah; Tahir Jamil

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF-355. Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF DMR

Weston, Ken

253

Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Relationships between the crystal structures of two polymorphs of sodium naproxen dihydrate and its monohydrate and anhydrate phases provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system.

Bond, A.D.

2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

254

SnSb@carbon nanocable anchored on graphene sheets for sodium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of materials with unique nanostructures is an effective strategy for the improvement of sodium storage in sodium ion batteries to achieve stable cycling performance and good ... , SnSbcore/carbon-...

Li Li; Kuok Hau Seng; Dan Li; Yongyao Xia; Hua Kun Liu; Zaiping Guo

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Discovery of Sodium and Potassium Vapor in the Atmosphere of the Moon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...lunar atmosphere: Solar-wind implantation and subsequent release of sodium, solar wind-driven sputtering of sodium...internal release. Solar-wind implantation can only supply...near the south pole at large local solar zenith angles suggests...

A. E. Potter; T. H. Morgan

1988-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

256

Go No-Go Recommendation for Sodium Borohydride for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Independent review panel recommendation for go/no go decision on use of hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen storage.

257

Alkali-silica reaction products: Comparison between samples from concrete structures and laboratory test specimens  

SciTech Connect

Alkali-silica gels (ASG) were investigated in concrete from bridge structures (constructed from the 1920s to 2000), as well as in experimental specimens; employing optical microscopy, petrographic image analysis, and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The main differences were found in the chemical composition and morphology of the ASGs. ASGs which had formed in older concrete samples (50-80 years old) show a partly crystalline structure and higher Ca{sup 2+} content, indicating their aging and maturation. Younger concrete samples and experimental test specimens exhibit the presence of amorphous ASG. The chemistry of ASG from experimental specimens reflects the chemical composition of accelerating solutions. - Research Highlights: {yields} Quantitative analysis of alkali-silica gels {yields} Comparison of ASR in experimental conditions with ASR in bridge structures {yields} Investigation of factors affecting alkali-silica reaction {yields} Investigation of ASR of different types of aggregates.

Sachlova, Sarka, E-mail: lukschova@seznam.cz; Prikryl, Richard; Pertold, Zdenek

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

CALE EOS form 2 fits for high pressure fused silica Hugoniot data  

SciTech Connect

The Hugoniot data on fused silica that are displayed on page 321 of the well-known volume ''LASL Shock Hugoniot Data, Stanley P. Marsh, Editor'' are fit to the EOS form 2 such as is used in CALE and other hydrocodes. Two fits are given: one to represent that data set over its full range (up to 84 GPa (840 kbar)) as well as a better fit for the pressure range below about 33 GPa (330 kbar). These EOSs have the strong point of being relatively simple for the user to implement and should be used to roughly represent the beyond-elastic response of fused silica in hydrocode simulations. They will not correctly reproduce the complex multiple-wave ramp-shock structure known to exist in fused silica at lower pressures.

Hare, D E; Managan, R A

2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

259

A New Class of Silica Crosslinked Micellar Core-Shell /nanoparticles."  

SciTech Connect

Micellar nanoparticles made of surfactants and polymers have attracted wide attention in the materials and biomedical community for controlled drug delivery, molecular imaging and sensing; however, their long-term stability remains a topic of intense study. Here we report a new class of robust, ultrafine (10nm) silica core-shell nanoparticles formed from silica crosslinked, individual block copolymer micelles. Compared with pure polymer micelles, the new core-shell nanoparticles have significantly improved stability and do not break down during dilution. They also achieve much higher loading capacity for a wide range of chemicals, with the entrapped molecules slowly released over a much longer period of time. A wide range of functional groups can be easily incorporated through co-condensation with the silica matrix. The potential to deliver hydrophobic agents into cancer cells has been demonstrated. Because of their unique properties, these novel core-shell nanoparticles could potentially provide a new nanomedicine platform for imaging, detection and treatment.

Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Jun; Wang, Li Q.; Jiang, Yingbing; Lambert, Timothy N.; Fang, Erica

2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

260

Preparation and sintering of silica-doped zirconia by colloidal processing  

SciTech Connect

Silica-doped (SiO{sub 2} = 0--1.0 mass%) zirconia (3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}) compacts are prepared from hetero-coagulated and well-dispersed suspensions by colloidal processing. The suspensions are consolidated by a pressure filtration technique. The green density of the compacts consolidated from the well-dispersed suspensions is higher than that from the hetero-coagulated suspensions. The lower density of the latter compacts is improved by a subsequent cold isostatic pressing (CIP) at 400 MPa. The sinterability of the compacts at 1,200 C is greatly affected by the amount of doped silica. The densification and grain growth are hindered by silica doping above 0.3 wt% at 1,200 C. All the compacts are densificated to a relative density of above 99% by sintering at 1,300 C for 2 h.

Uchikoshi, T.; Sakka, Y.; Ozawa, K.; Hiraga, K. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

SANS study of interaction of silica nanoparticles with BSA protein and their resultant structure  

SciTech Connect

Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been carried out to study the interaction of anionic silica nanoparticles (88 Ĺ) with globular protein Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) (M.W. 66.4 kD) in aqueous solution. The measurements have been carried out on fixed concentration (1 wt %) of Ludox silica nanoparticles with varying concentration of BSA (0–5 wt %) at pH7. Results show that silica nanoparticles and BSA coexist as individual entities at low concentration of BSA where electrostatic repulsive interactions between them prevent their aggregation. However, as the concentration of BSA increases (? 0.5 wt %), it induces the attractive depletion interaction among nanoparticles leading to finally their aggregation at higher BSA concentration (2 wt %). The aggregates are found to be governed by the diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) morphology of fractal nature having fractal dimension about 2.4.

Yadav, Indresh, E-mail: vkaswal@barc.gov.in; Aswal, V. K., E-mail: vkaswal@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 PSI Villigen Switzerland (Switzerland)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

262

In situ atom transfer radical polymerization of styrene in the presence of nanoporous silica aerogel: Kinetic study and investigation of thermal properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene was performed at 110 °C in the presence of organically modified silica aerogel. A hydrophobic silica aerogel was prepared by a two-step, acid–base catalyz...

Seyed-Ataollah Mirshafiei-Langari; Vahid haddadi-Asl…

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Effect of sodium montmorillonite nanoclay on the water absorbency and cationic dye removal of carrageenan-based nanocomposite superabsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanocomposite superabsorbents were synthesized by simultaneously solution copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) and sodium acrylate (Na-AA) in the presence of carrageenan biopolymer and sodium montmorillonite (Na-...

Gholam Reza Mahdavinia; Bakhshali Massoumi; Karim Jalili…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

IMPROVING SILICA FUME FOR CONCRETE BY SURFACE TREATMENT X. Li and D.D.L. Chung1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Type I) from Lafarge Corp. (Southfield, MI). The silica fume (Elkem Materials, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, EMS 965) was used in the amount of 15% by weight of cement. Surface treatment of silica fume Printed in the USA. All rights reserved 0008-8846/98 $19.00 .00 PII S0008-8846(98)00017-9 493 #12;effect

Chung, Deborah D.L.

265

The influence of polyethyleneimine type and molecular weight on the CO2 capture performance of PEI-nano silica adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Amine–silica adsorbents are considered alternatives to aqueous solutions of amines, which have been traditionally used to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas. Among amine–silica adsorbents, polyethyleneimine (PEI)-silica is particularly effective at capturing CO2 from flue gas due to its high thermal stability. In this study, we investigated the influence of PEI type (i.e. branched vs. linear) and molecular weight on the CO2 capture performance of PEI-silica adsorbents. PEI molecular weight influenced the thermal stability of PEI-silica adsorbents; however, when the molecular weight was ?1200 Da the increase in stability was negligible in the temperature range of 25–160 °C. Branched \\{PEIs\\} (BPEIs) achieved higher CO2 saturated sorption capacities compared to linear \\{PEIs\\} (LPEIs); however, \\{LPEIs\\} were more stable than \\{BPEIs\\} during CO2 sorption–desorption cycling. PEI molecular weight also influenced the CO2 saturated sorption capacity; CO2 saturated sorption capacity decreased as PEI molecular weight increased, and among the adsorbents tested in this study BPEI/800-silica had the highest CO2 saturated sorption capacity (202 mg CO2/g adsorbent). Both PEI type and molecular weight exhibited influence on the sorption or desorption heat of PEI-silica adsorbents. The CO2 regeneration heat was much lower than that of MEA solution for all PEI-silica adsorbents tested in this study.

Kaimin Li; Jianguo Jiang; Feng Yan; Sicong Tian; Xuejing Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Am J Epidemiol . Author manuscript Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimers disease'  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Am J Epidemiol . Author manuscript Page /1 10 Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk associations between exposure to aluminum or silica from drinking water and risk of cognitive decline, dementia of dementia, aged' 65 years and over living in 91 civil drinking water areas in Southern France. Two measures

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Decomposition of cumyl hydroperoxide in the presence of sulphonated silica in a flow-type system  

SciTech Connect

An investigation has been made of the decomposition of cumyl hydroperoxide (CHP) in the presence of silica-based sulphocationites in a flow-type system. It was established that the given specimens are effective catalysts for the decomposition of CHP into phenol and acetone. It was shown that, in the course of the process, no irreversible poisoning of the surface of the catalyst by the products of CHP decomposition occurs. Data of chromatographic analysis of the products of CHP decomposition in the presence of sulphuric acid and silica-based sulphocationites are given.

Shelpakova, N.A.; Ioffa, A.F.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

268

Applications of Geothermally-Produced Colloidal Silica in Reservoir Management - Smart Gels  

SciTech Connect

In enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) the reservoir permeability is often enhanced or created using hydraulic fracturing. In hydraulic fracturing, high fluid pressures are applied to confined zones in the subsurface usually using packers to fracture the host rock. This enhances rock permeability and therefore conductive heat transfer to the circulating geothermal fluid (e.g. water or supercritical carbon dioxide). The ultimate goal is to increase or improve the thermal energy production from the subsurface by either optimal designs of injection and production wells or by altering the fracture permeability to create different zones of circulation that can be exploited in geothermal heat extraction. Moreover, hydraulic fracturing can lead to the creation of undesirable short-circuits or fast flow-paths between the injection and extraction wells leading to a short thermal residence time, low heat recovery, and thus a short-life of the EGS. A potential remedy to these problems is to deploy a cementing (blocking, diverting) agent to minimize short-cuts and/or create new circulation cells for heat extraction. A potential diverting agent is the colloidal silica by-product that can be co-produced from geothermal fluids. Silica gels are abundant in various surface and subsurface applications, yet they have not been evaluated for EGS applications. In this study we are investigating the benefits of silica gel deployment on thermal response of an EGS, either by blocking short-circuiting undesirable pathways as a result of diverting the geofluid to other fractures; or creating, within fractures, new circulation cells for harvesting heat through newly active surface area contact. A significant advantage of colloidal silica is that it can be co-produced from geothermal fluids using an inexpensive membrane-based separation technology that was developed previously using DOE-GTP funding. This co-produced silica has properties that potentially make it useful as a fluid diversion agent for subsurface applications. Colloidal silica solutions exist as low-viscosity fluids during their “induction period” but then undergo a rapid increase in viscosity (gelation) to form a solid gel. The length of the induction period can be manipulated by varying the properties of the solution, such as silica concentration and colloid size. We believe it is possible to produce colloidal silica gels suitable for use as diverting agents for blocking undesirable fast-paths which result in short-circuiting the EGS once hydraulic fracturing has been deployed. In addition, the gels could be used in conventional geothermal fields to increase overall energy recovery by modifying flow.

Hunt, Jonathan

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

The exchange rate for tritiated water vapor adsorbed on silica gel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EXCHANGE RATE FOR TRITIATED WATER VAPOR ADSORBED ON SILICA GEL A Thesis by PENNY ALANE SHAMBLIN Submitted to the Cnaduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfihmnt of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1987 Major Subject: Health Physics THE EXCHANGE RATE FOR ~TED WATER VAPOR ADSORBED ON SILICA GEL A Thesis by PENNY ALANE SHAMBUN Approved as to style and content by: Milton E. McLain (Chair of Committee) Gerald A. Schla (Member) Ric ard...

Shamblin, Penny Alane

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

270

Applications of Geothermally-Produced Colloidal Silica in Reservoir Management - Smart Gels  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

In enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) the reservoir permeability is often enhanced or created using hydraulic fracturing. In hydraulic fracturing, high fluid pressures are applied to confined zones in the subsurface usually using packers to fracture the host rock. This enhances rock permeability and therefore conductive heat transfer to the circulating geothermal fluid (e.g. water or supercritical carbon dioxide). The ultimate goal is to increase or improve the thermal energy production from the subsurface by either optimal designs of injection and production wells or by altering the fracture permeability to create different zones of circulation that can be exploited in geothermal heat extraction. Moreover, hydraulic fracturing can lead to the creation of undesirable short-circuits or fast flow-paths between the injection and extraction wells leading to a short thermal residence time, low heat recovery, and thus a short-life of the EGS. A potential remedy to these problems is to deploy a cementing (blocking, diverting) agent to minimize short-cuts and/or create new circulation cells for heat extraction. A potential diverting agent is the colloidal silica by-product that can be co-produced from geothermal fluids. Silica gels are abundant in various surface and subsurface applications, yet they have not been evaluated for EGS applications. In this study we are investigating the benefits of silica gel deployment on thermal response of an EGS, either by blocking short-circuiting undesirable pathways as a result of diverting the geofluid to other fractures; or creating, within fractures, new circulation cells for harvesting heat through newly active surface area contact. A significant advantage of colloidal silica is that it can be co-produced from geothermal fluids using an inexpensive membrane-based separation technology that was developed previously using DOE-GTP funding. This co-produced silica has properties that potentially make it useful as a fluid diversion agent for subsurface applications. Colloidal silica solutions exist as low-viscosity fluids during their “induction period” but then undergo a rapid increase in viscosity (gelation) to form a solid gel. The length of the induction period can be manipulated by varying the properties of the solution, such as silica concentration and colloid size. We believe it is possible to produce colloidal silica gels suitable for use as diverting agents for blocking undesirable fast-paths which result in short-circuiting the EGS once hydraulic fracturing has been deployed. In addition, the gels could be used in conventional geothermal fields to increase overall energy recovery by modifying flow.

Hunt, Jonathan

271

Method and composition in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a silica network  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A silica embedded metal hydride composition and a method for making such a composition. The composition is made via the following process: A quantity of fumed silica is blended with water to make a paste. After adding metal hydride particles, the paste is dried to form a solid. According to one embodiment of the invention, the solid is ground into granules for use of the product in hydrogen storage. Alternatively, the paste can be molded into plates or cylinders and then dried for use of the product as a hydrogen filter. Where mechanical strength is required, the paste can be impregnated in a porous substrate or wire network.

Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Monodisperse metal nanoparticle catalysts on silica mesoporous supports: synthesis, characterizations, and catalytic reactions  

SciTech Connect

The design of high performance catalyst achieving near 100% product selectivity at maximum activity is one of the most important goals in the modern catalytic science research. To this end, the preparation of model catalysts whose catalytic performances can be predicted in a systematic and rational manner is of significant importance, which thereby allows understanding of the molecular ingredients affecting the catalytic performances. We have designed novel 3-dimensional (3D) high surface area model catalysts by the integration of colloidal metal nanoparticles and mesoporous silica supports. Monodisperse colloidal metal NPs with controllable size and shape were synthesized using dendrimers, polymers, or surfactants as the surface stabilizers. The size of Pt, and Rh nanoparticles can be varied from sub 1 nm to 15 nm, while the shape of Pt can be controlled to cube, cuboctahedron, and octahedron. The 3D model catalysts were generated by the incorporation of metal nanoparticles into the pores of mesoporous silica supports via two methods: capillary inclusion (CI) and nanoparticle encapsulation (NE). The former method relies on the sonication-induced inclusion of metal nanoparticles into the pores of mesoporous silica, whereas the latter is performed by the encapsulation of metal nanoparticles during the hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous silica. The 3D model catalysts were comprehensively characterized by a variety of physical and chemical methods. These catalysts were found to show structure sensitivity in hydrocarbon conversion reactions. The Pt NPs supported on mesoporous SBA-15 silica (Pt/SBA-15) displayed significant particle size sensitivity in ethane hydrogenolysis over the size range of 1-7 nm. The Pt/SBA-15 catalysts also exhibited particle size dependent product selectivity in cyclohexene hydrogenation, crotonaldehyde hydrogenation, and pyrrole hydrogenation. The Rh loaded SBA-15 silica catalyst showed structure sensitivity in CO oxidation reaction. In addition, Pt-mesoporous silica core-shell structured NPs (Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2}) were prepared, where the individual Pt NP is encapsulated by the mesoporous silica layer. The Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} catalysts showed promising catalytic activity in high temperature CO oxidation. The design of catalytic structures with tunable parameters by rational synthetic methods presents a major advance in the field of catalyst synthesis, which would lead to uncover the structure-function relationships in heterogeneous catalytic reactions.

Somorjai, G.A.

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

273

Microsoft Word - EC Sodium coolant removal.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 SECTION A. Project Title: MFC - EBR-II Sodium Removal/RCRA Closure Activities SECTION B . Project Description The proposed action will remove the sodium from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR)-II piping system and tanks to achieve clean-closure for eventual decommissioning, deactivation and demolition (DD&D). The clean-closure will be completed in compliance with the EBR-II Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) Storage and Treatment Permit PER-120, which includes the closure plan. EBR-II is located at the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory. The EBR-II DD&D actions will be addressed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act, specifically, the Engineering Evaluation/Cost

274

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan  

SciTech Connect

Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Sodium boiling dryout correlation for LMFBR fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Under certain postulated accident conditions for a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), such as the failure of the shutdown heat removal system (SHRS), sodium boiling and clad dryout might occur in the fuel assemblies. It is important to predict the time from boiling inception to dryout, since sustained clad dryout will result in core damage. In this paper a dryout correlation is presented. This correlation is based on 21 boiling tests which resulted in dryout from the THORS BUNDLE 6A, a 19-pin full-length simulated LMFBR fuel assembly and from the THORS Bundle 9, a 61-pin full-length simulated LMFBR fuel assembly. All these tests were performed as follows: for each specified bundle power, an initial steady-state high sodium flow was established, for which sodium boiling did not occur in the bundle. The temperature at the outlet of the test section was approx. 700/sup 0/C. Then, using a programmable pump control system, the flow was reduced to a low value and boiling occurred.

Carbajo, J.J.; Rose, S.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear 306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Summary This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the proposed electrometallurgical treatment of DOE-owned sodium bonded spent nuclear fuel in the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). Public Comment Opportunities None available at this time. Documents Available for Download September 19, 2000 EIS-0306: Record of Decision Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel July 1, 2000 EIS-0306: Final Environmental Impact Statement Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel July 1, 1999 EIS-0306: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Treatment of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

277

Silica Scale Management: Lowering Operating Costs through Improved Scale Control, and Adding Value by Extracting Marketable By-Products  

SciTech Connect

We are using laboratory and field experiments to design modeling tools and technology that will improve silica scale management practices in geothermal plants. Our work will help to lower operating costs through improved scale prediction and add new revenue streams from sale of mineral byproducts extracted from geothermal fluids. Improving the economics and effectiveness of scale control programs and/or extraction systems in geothermal operations requires a coupled kinetic-thermodynamic model of silica behavior. Silica scale precipitation is a multi-step process, involving a nucleation-related induction period, aqueous polymerization, condensation of polymers to form colloids, and deposition onto a solid surface. Many chemical and physical variables influence the rates of these steps and their impacts must be quantified and predictable in order to optimally control silica behavior. To date, in laboratory studies, we have quantified the effects on silica polymerization of the following set of chemical variables: Na at 500 and 2000 ppm, pH values from 5 to 9, temperatures of 25 and 50 C, and silica saturation values from 1.2 to 6 at initial dissolved silica concentrations of 600 ppm. Lowering pH both increases the induction time prior to polymerization and decreases the polymerization rate. We have successfully used a multiple regression model to predict polymerization rates from these variables. Geothermal fluids contain significant dissolved concentrations of potentially valuable mineral resources such as zinc, lithium, cesium and rubidium, but silica fouling interferes with traditional extraction methods. We are developing customized and new technologies to extract the silica as a commercial-grade commodity as well as the valuable metals. We are conducting field testing of some of these techniques at a Mammoth, CA geothermal plant using a reverse osmosis unit to concentrate the fluid, adding a commercial agglomerating agent to promote silica precipitation, and then removing the silica using a tangential flow ultrafilter. The particle size, surface area and trace impurities of the silica are characterized for comparison with commercial-grade silica products. We are also testing ion exchange resins and other functionalized materials to extract potentially economic concentrations of lithium, cesium, and rubidium that are enriched in the reverse osmosis concentrate.

Burton, E A; Bourcier, W L; Wallce, A; Bruton, C J; Leif, R

2003-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

278

Enhancement in hydrophobicity of silica films using metal acetylacetonate and heat treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water is one of the most affecting chemicals that can cause damage to the solid surface. To protect the surface due to the action of water, the surface should be made hydrophobic. In the present study, the improvement in hydrophobicity of silica films using metal acetylacetonate (M-acac) by employing heat treatment to methyltrimethoxy silane (MTMS) based silica coatings is reported as a novel attempt. Instead of following the established trends of the surface derivatization or co-precursor method, iron acetylacetonate Fe(acac)3, copper acetylacetonate Cu(acac)2 and heat treatment were used to incorporate hydrophobicity with silica coatings. As M-acac is readily soluble in organic solvents, Fe(acac)3 and Cu(acac)2 were dissolved in methanol (MeOH) and their concentration was varied from 0 to 0.025 M. The coating solution was prepared by optimizing molar ratio of MTMS:MeOH:basic H2O to 1:7.15:6.34, respectively. Gelation time (tg) for Cu(acac)2 containing silica sol and that containing Fe(acac)3 were noted to be 30 and 55 min, respectively. The substrates were taken out after gelation and heat treated at 150 °C for 2 h. The heat treated films showed a dramatic increase in the static water contact angle from 82° to as high as 142°.

Sunetra L. Dhere; Uzma K.H. Bangi; Sanjay S. Latthe; A. Venkateswara Rao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Density hysteresis of heavy water confined in a nanoporous silica matrix  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A neutron scattering technique was developed to measure the density of heavy water confined in a nanoporous silica matrix in a temperature-pressure range, from 300 to 130 K and from 1 to 2,900 bars, where bulk water will ...

Zhang, Yang

280

Helium irradiation effects in polycrystalline Si, silica, and single crystal Si  

SciTech Connect

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to investigate the effects of room temperature 6 keV helium ion irradiation of a thin ({approx_equal}55 nm thick) tri-layer consisting of polycrystalline Si, silica, and single-crystal Si. The ion irradiation was carried out in situ within the TEM under conditions where approximately 24% of the incident ions came to rest in the specimen. This paper reports on the comparative development of irradiation-induced defects (primarily helium bubbles) in the polycrystalline Si and single-crystal Si under ion irradiation and provides direct measurement of a radiation-induced increase in the width of the polycrystalline layer and shrinkage of the silica layer. Analysis using TEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy has led to the hypothesis that these result from helium-bubble-induced swelling of the silicon and radiation-induced viscoelastic flow processes in the silica under the influence of stresses applied by the swollen Si layers. The silicon and silica layers are sputtered as a result of the helium ion irradiation; however, this is estimated to be a relatively minor effect with swelling and stress-related viscoelastic flow being the dominant mechanisms of dimensional change.

Abrams, K. J.; Greaves, G.; Berg, J. A. van den [Materials and Physics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford (United Kingdom); Hinks, J. A.; Donnelly, S. E. [School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Pawley, C. J. [Materials and Physics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford (United Kingdom); School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Eyidi, D. [Institut Pprime, Universite de Poitiers, Poitiers (France); Ward, M. B. [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

EFFECTS OF SAND AND SILICA FUME ON THE VIBRATION DAMPING BEHAVIOR OF CEMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The silica fume (Elkem Materials, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, EMS 965) was used in the amount of 15% by weight 14260-4400, USA (Received February 6, 1998; in final form June 26, 1998) ABSTRACT The addition of sand. 10, pp. 1353­1356, 1998 Copyright © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Chung, Deborah D.L.

282

Acid strength of silica-supported oxide catalysts studied by microcalorimetric measurements of pyridine adsorption  

SciTech Connect

Microcalorimetric measurements of the differential heat of pyridine adsorption were used to probe the distribution of acid strength on a series of silica-supported oxide catalysts. Depositing oxides of the following cations onto silica increased the acid strength of the catalyst: Ga{sup 3{plus}}, Zn{sup 2{plus}}, Al{sup 3{plus}}, Fe{sup 3{plus}}, Fe{sup 2{plus}}, Mg{sup 2{plus}}, and Sc{sup 3{plus}}. The acid strength distribution curves for the supported oxide samples showed either two or three regions of constant heat of adsorption while silica had an energetically homogeneous surface. The Ga, Al, and Sc samples were found to have both Bronsted and Lewis acidity while the remaining samples showed only Lewis acidity. Incremental adsorption of pyridine indicated that the initial region of highest heat corresponds to strong Lewis acidity while intermediate heats seemed to be due to weaker Lewis acid sites or a combination of Lewis and Bronsted acid sites. The final region of lowest heat was due to H-bonded pyridine on silica. Estimates of the entropies of adsorption were determined, providing information about the mobility of the adsorbed pyridine molecules. The initial differential heat of adsorption increases proportionally to the Sanderson electronegativity of the added oxide.

Cardona-Martinez, N.; Dumesic, J.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

The fatigue of high-strength fused silica optical fibers in low humidity q  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the effect of humidity on the kinetics of subcritical crack growth in high strength optical fibers that the rate of subcritical crack growth is given by dc dt ÂĽ A exp n KI KIC ; Ă°1Ă? where A and n are fatigue by assuming a simple chemical kinetics model for fatigue in which the reaction rate between water and silica

Matthewson, M. John

284

Activation energy and entropy of dynamic fatigue of pristine silica optical fibers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, NJ 08 854-8065 ABSTRACT Subcritical crack growth in fused silica can be modeled as a stress assisted chemical reaction between water and strained bonds at the crack tip. The stress influences the crack growth which has been most commonly used for brittle ceramic materials is the well-known subcritical crack

Matthewson, M. John

285

CHEMICAL KINETICS MODELS FOR THE FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF FUSED SILICA OPTICAL FIBER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of stress, temperature and activity of the corroding species (e.g. water). A power law degradation kinetics the degradation depends on the applied stress. Subcritical Crack Growth Model The reliability of silica optical fiber under stress is usually described by the subcritical crack growth model. It is assumed

Matthewson, M. John

286

Silica entrapment for significantly stabilized, energy-conducting light-harvesting complex (LHCII)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silica entrapment for significantly stabilized, energy-conducting light-harvesting complex (LHCII) ... The entrapped LHCII stayed functional at 50 °C for up to 24 h instead of a few minutes in detergent solution and clearly showed energy transfer between complexes. ...

Sebastian Röder; Stephan Hobe; Harald Paulsen

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

287

Spectroscopic Studies of Atmospheric Relevant Air-Aqueous and Air-Silica DISSERTATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

process in the atmosphere. As models of these phenomena, interfacial water vapor uptake by #12;iii to the air-water interface were examined. Sum frequency generation (SFG), a surface specific techniqueSpectroscopic Studies of Atmospheric Relevant Air-Aqueous and Air-Silica Interfaces DISSERTATION

288

Additive-Driven Dissolution Enhancement of Colloidal Silica. 3. Fluorine-Containing Additives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Add to ACS ChemWorx ... Among the former are silica removal by ion-exchange methods(13) and utilization of scale inhibitors. ... Therefore, we would like to broaden the scope of the potential utilization of fluorine-containing additives with the objective that a broader choice of additive selection will be available to end-users. ...

Konstantinos D. Demadis; Maria Somara; Eleftheria Mavredaki

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

289

Silica–titania aerogel monoliths with large pore volume and surface area by ambient pressure drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ambient pressure drying has been carried out for the synthesis of silica–titania aerogel monoliths. The prepared aerogels show densities in the range 0.34–0.38 g/cm3. The surface area and pore volume of these mix...

P. R. Aravind; P. Shajesh; P. Mukundan…

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Production of silica aerogel microparticles loaded with ammonia borane by batch and semicontinuous supercritical drying techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Silica aerogel microparticles were prepared by supercritical drying and used as support for hydrogen-storing ammonia borane (AB). The formation of aerogel microparticles was done using two different processes: batch supercritical fluid extraction and a semicontinuous drying process. Silica aerogel microparticles with a surface area ranging from 400 to 800 m2/g, a volume of pores of 1 cm3/g, and a mean particle diameter ranging from 12 to 27 ?m were produced using the two drying techniques. The particle size distribution (PSD) of the microparticles was influenced by shear rate, amount of catalyst, hydrophilic–hydrophobic solvent ratio and hydrophobic surface modification. In particular, irregular aerogel particles were obtained from hydrophilic gels, while regular, spherical particles with smooth surfaces were obtained from hydrophobic gels. AB was loaded into silica aerogel microparticles in concentrations ranging from 1% till 5% wt. Hydrogen release kinetics from the hydride-loaded aerogel was analyzed with a volumetric cell at 80 °C. By stabilization of AB into the silica aerogel microparticles, an improvement of the release rate of hydrogen from AB was observed.

Miriam Rueda; Luis Miguel Sanz-Moral; Antonio Nieto-Márquez; Pablo Longone; Facundo Mattea; Ángel Martín

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Application of stochastic weighted algorithms to a multidimensional silica particle model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Stochastic weighted algorithms (SWAs) are developed for a detailed silica model. •An implementation of SWAs with the transition kernel is presented. •The SWAs’ solutions converge to the direct simulation algorithm’s (DSA) solution. •The efficiency of SWAs is evaluated for this multidimensional particle model. •It is shown that SWAs can be used for coagulation problems in industrial systems. -- Abstract: This paper presents a detailed study of the numerical behaviour of stochastic weighted algorithms (SWAs) using the transition regime coagulation kernel and a multidimensional silica particle model. The implementation in the SWAs of the transition regime coagulation kernel and associated majorant rates is described. The silica particle model of Shekar et al. [S. Shekar, A.J. Smith, W.J. Menz, M. Sander, M. Kraft, A multidimensional population balance model to describe the aerosol synthesis of silica nanoparticles, Journal of Aerosol Science 44 (2012) 83–98] was used in conjunction with this coagulation kernel to study the convergence properties of SWAs with a multidimensional particle model. High precision solutions were calculated with two SWAs and also with the established direct simulation algorithm. These solutions, which were generated using large number of computational particles, showed close agreement. It was thus demonstrated that SWAs can be successfully used with complex coagulation kernels and high dimensional particle models to simulate real-world systems.

Menz, William J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Patterson, Robert I.A.; Wagner, Wolfgang [Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics, Mohrenstrasse 39, Berlin 10117 (Germany)] [Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics, Mohrenstrasse 39, Berlin 10117 (Germany); Kraft, Markus, E-mail: mk306@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb–Tb co-doped sintered silica nanoporous glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on a new kind of green-emitting (543 nm) high-silica luminous...3+–Tb3+...co-doped nanoporous glass. The fluorescence spectra show that there is an energy transfer between Yb3+ and Tb3+. The energy tran...

Yingbo Chu; Yu Yang; Zijun Liu; Lei Liao; Yibo Wang; Jiaming Li…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Silica Supported Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Modifier in Polyethylene Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Silica Supported Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Modifier in Polyethylene Composites Neal D. Mc.interscience.wiley.com). ABSTRACT: Composites have been made from single- wall carbon nanotubes in a polyethylene (PE) matrix: additives; composites; conducting polymers; nanocomposites; polyethylene INTRODUCTION Polyethylene (PE

Resasco, Daniel

294

Heavy metal phosphate nanophases in silica: influence of radiolysis probed via f-electron state properties  

SciTech Connect

We have assessed the feasibility of carrying out time- and wavelength-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements of radiation damage in glassy silica. The consequences of alpha decay of Es-253 in LaPO{sub 4} nanophases embedded in silica were probed based on excitation of 5f states of Cm{sup 3+}, Bk{sup 3+}, and Es{sup 3+} ions. The recorded emission spectra and luminescence decays showed that alpha decay of Es-253 ejected Bk-249 decay daughter ions into the surrounding silica and created radiation damage within the LaPO{sub 4} nanophases. This conclusion is consistent with predictions of an ion transport code commonly used to model ion implantation. Luminescence from the {sup 6}D{sub 7/2} state of Cm{sup 3+}was used as an internal standard. Ion-ion energy transfer dominated the dynamics of the observed emitting 5f states and strongly influenced the intensity of observed spectra. In appropriate sample materials, laser-induced fluorescence provides a powerful method for fundamental investigation of alpha-induced radiation damage in silica.

Beitz, James V. [Chemistry Division, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4831 (United States)]. E-mail: beitz@anl.gov; Williams, C.W. [Chemistry Division, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4831 (United States); Hong, K.-S. [Chemistry Division, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4831 (United States); Liu, G.K. [Chemistry Division, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4831 (United States)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Fluorescent silica colloids for study and visualization of skin care products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

due to long exposures to cold and dry air (7). Different skin care products are used to hy- drate dryFluorescent silica colloids for study and visualization of skin care products Swaminathan Iyer: The efficacy of skin care products depends on the time and dynamics of their absorbance by the skin, and its

Sokolov, Igor

296

Effects of Surface Modification Conditions on Hydrophobicity of Silica-based Coating Additives  

SciTech Connect

Superhydrophobic silica (SHS) powders are being evaluated as a potential additive to the polyurethane topcoats used in Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) systems, with the goal of improving water repellency and corrosion protection characteristics. The current generation of CARC topcoats is already highly loaded with solids, and thus there is a premium on minimization of the total SHS powder required to achieve the desired properties. Therefore, efficient surface modification of the silica and proper dispersion in the coating will be required. The effect of a dispersant on the surface modification of silica particles by chlorosilanes was addressed in this study. The properties of various SHS powders were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and mass spectroscopy. Correlations between powder modification conditions and the ultimate effects of the modified particles on hydrophobicity of CARC topcoats were assessed. The use of contact and rolling angle measurements along with scanning electron microscopy are discussed as they pertain to the ability to quantify the effects of modified silicas on corrosion prevention coatings. Furthermore, a systematic approach to modifying and testing both powders and top coats of corrosion prevention systems is presented.

Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL] [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL] [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL] [ORNL; Hillesheim, Daniel A [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Oxygen isotope fractionation between amorphous silica and water at 34–93°C  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... , P-3 and P-4) along the reinjection lines in the Otake and Hatchobaru geothermal power plants. Although it would have been preferable to obtain the amorphous silica at ... temperatures, these four points were the only ones available for this experiment. The same geothermal water from the Otake station flows at P-l and P-4; at P- ...

Itsuro Kita; Sachihiro Taguchi; Osamu Matsubaya

1985-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

298

Flame-Retardant Epoxy Resin Nanocomposites Reinforced with Polyaniline-Stabilized Silica Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Henry A. Colorado, Suying Wei,*,# and Zhanhu Guo*, Integrated Composites Lab (ICL), Dan F. Smith silsesquioxanes (POSS) reinforced epoxy composites.10 For the third method, the inorganic nanoparticles are often (ATH),13 silica (SiO2),14 nanoclay,15 and newly developed phosphorus- containing flame retardants 9

Guo, John Zhanhu

299

Mechanical behavior of silica optical fibers coated with low index, low surface energy perfluorinated polymer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

based on perfluorinated polymer were prepared for use as UV-curable optical cladding for silica fibers fibers, with a core doped with rare earth elements, could potentially be used as laser fibers but require special optical cladding. This cladding should have a low refractive index, low modulus of elasticity

Matthewson, M. John

300

Thulium-doped silica fibers with enhanced 3 H4 level lifetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of cheap mass production. With the cladding-pump technique, fiber lasers and amplifiers have proven-power, high-brightness laser beams. The most important multi-watt fiber lasers were reported using double-clad at 810 nm can be achieved for specific ranges of the laser cavity parameters in silica-based thulium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Acidity and catalytic activity of zeolite catalysts bound with silica and alumina  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Micropore surface area and micropore volume are reduced by about 19% and 18%, respectively, indicating some micropores of ZSM-5 are blocked on binding with silica. SiO2-bound ZSM-5 catalysts have less catalytic activity for butane transformation (cracking...

Wu, Xianchun

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

Alkanethiol-Induced Structural Rearrangements in Silica-Gold Core-Shell-type Nanoparticle Clusters: An  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alkanethiol-Induced Structural Rearrangements in Silica-Gold Core-Shell-type Nanoparticle Clusters 21, 2003. In Final Form: April 19, 2004 Electrostatically bonded SiO2,Au nanoparticle clusters form by reaction of 3-aminopropylsilane-modified SiO2 spheres (470 nm) with citrate-coated gold nanoparticles (9

Guo, Ting

303

MODELING THE MEAN INTERACTION FORCES BETWEEN POWDER APPLICATION TO SILICA GEL-MAGNESIUM STEARATE MIXTURES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 MODELING THE MEAN INTERACTION FORCES BETWEEN POWDER PARTICLES. APPLICATION TO SILICA GEL-MAGNESIUM) particles (d50 = 55 µm) were coated with fine invited particles of magnesium stearate (MS, d50 = 4.6 µm. Interaction forces between the material attached to the cantilever (Magnesium Stearate MS) and the surface

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

Monolithic Composites of Silica Aerogels by Reactive Supercritical Deposition of Hydroxy-Terminated Poly(Dimethylsiloxane)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The method involves dissolution of PDMS(OH) in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and then exposure of the aerogel samples to this single phase mixture of PDMS(OH)-CO2. ... Upon supercritical deposition, the polymer molecules were discovered to react with the hydroxyl groups on the silica aerogel surface and form a conformal coating on the surface. ...

D. Sanli; C. Erkey

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

305

9422 Stratospheric ice catalyzes chlorine reactions 9428 Fusing silk and silica  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, at temperatures this high, cirrus cloud formation could also be affected. -- P.D. ``Hydrogen chloride may lead to unique methods of prepar- ing spider silk and producing silica particles with precise in aqueous solutions. Wong Po Foo et al. say their technique may allow the production of other resilient

McFadden, Geoff

306

EPR study of the adsorption of dioxin vapours onto microporous carbons and mesoporous silica  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EPR study of the adsorption of dioxin vapours onto microporous carbons and mesoporous silica M 31 October 2010 Keywords: EPR AC MTS Surface characterization Dioxin a b s t r a c t Computer aided with a nitroxide radical (TCDD-T) was employed to investigate the adsorption of dioxin vapours onto two carbons

Turro, Nicholas J.

307

Anhydrous Phosphoric Acid Functionalized Sintered Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anhydrous Phosphoric Acid Functionalized Sintered Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells ... The cell performance and stability may be further improved through an optimization of the interfacial contact between the electrocatalytic layer and the inorganic membrane. ... polycondensation procedure was optimized for individual case of PBI synthesis in order to obtain inherent viscosity of ?1 dL/g. ...

Jie Zeng; Beibei He; Krystina Lamb; Roland De Marco; Pei Kang Shen; San Ping Jiang

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

308

First-principles calculations of defects in oxygen-deficient silica exposed to hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen-related defects and oxygen vacancies in silica are analyzed using first-principles density-functional calculations. Energetics, structures, charge-state levels, and hyperfine parameters are determined. These calculations identify the hydrogen bridge related to the E4? center as the defect responsible for the stress-induced leakage current, a forerunner of dielectric breakdown of gate oxides in transistors.

Peter E. Blöchl

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Study of pure-silica Zeolite Nucleation and Growth from Solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of silica precursor particles with size of 2-5 nm in these mixtures prior to and during hydrothermal treatments have been observed through dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However...

Li, Xiang

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

310

Apparent activation energy of fused silica optical fibers in static fatigue in aqueous environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to occur when ambient moisture reacts with the fiber surface causing subcritical crack growth.1Ă?3 Fatigue of silica optical fiber is therefore controlled by the crack growth rate, c : , which depends for the crack growth, which was originally proposed by Charles and Hillig, based on simple chemical kinetics

Matthewson, M. John

311

Acoustic and Thermal Characterization of Oil Migration, Gas Hydrates Formation and Silica Diagenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acoustic and Thermal Characterization of Oil Migration, Gas Hydrates Formation and Silica Rights Reserved #12;ABSTRACT Acoustic and Thermal Characterization of Oil Migration, Gas Hydrates-A to Opal-CT, the formation of gas hydrates, fluid substitution in hydrocarbon reservoirs, and fluid

Guerin, Gilles

312

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of high- level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid- liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Competitive adsorption of (phosphorylated) ethoxylated styrene oxide polymer and polyacrylic acid on silica coated iron oxide pigment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The colloidal stabilization in waterbased paint is poorly understood due to its complexity in composition, usually containing mixtures of particles and of surface active agents (“dispersants”). In this study we make a step forward by analyzing the competitive adsorption of a few widely used dispersants on a typical inorganic pigment (70 nm sized Fe2O3-based red pigment; surface treated with silica; negative zetapotential at pH ? 7). The supposition is that any particle type in paint needs sufficient adsorbed dispersant in order to be stable. Thus, we investigate, for two combinations of two dispersants, how they mutually affect their adsorption at that pigment. Also the “single” adsorption of these dispersants was investigated, thus in the absence of the other. The dispersants are an anionic, polyacrylic acid sodium salt (“PANa”; MW = 15,000 Da) in combination with a MW = 1500 Da blockcopolymer of styrene oxide (SO) and ethoxylene (EO), either or not endcapped by a phosphate group (P). The adsorption behavior was analyzed by size exclusion chromatography of the processed supernatant of the pigment dispersion. \\{PANa\\} and SO–EO–P adsorb for electrostatic reasons while SO–EO has affinity only to an organic surface. \\{PANa\\} and SO–EO–P show regular single adsorption with a plateau starting at the critical micelle concentration (cmc). SO–EO shows single adsorption only beyond its cmc based on the adsorption of full micelles. When in competition, with SO-EP-P/PANa the adsorption of SO–EO–P is lowered by ?65% while that of \\{PANa\\} is unchanged. With SO–EO/PANa the surface active species behave like in single adsorption below the cmc, but beyond the cmc a complicated phase separation occurs that cannot be based on mixed micelles. The adsorption data of \\{PANa\\} are compromised by depletion of \\{PANa\\} from interstices between particles. The anionic dispersants adsorb to the silicium oxide coated iron oxide pigment with negative surface potential because of the presence of a pH dependent relatively small number of positive iron oxide surface sites.

Wim K. Wijting; Alexander van Reenen; Jozua Laven; Rolf A.T.M. van Benthem; Gijsbertus de With

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Determination of silica scale deposition rates and thresholds applied toward protection of injection reservoirs. Quarterly progress report, July 1--September 30, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The program objective aims to identify the highest temperature at which silica scale will develop from partially evaporated and significantly cooled geothermal liquid. The approach involves tracking deposition of silica scale by monitoring the apparent electrical conductivity of the geothermal liquid in an isolation chamber. A decrease in apparent conductivity occurs because silica deposited on electrode surfaces is less conductive than the geothermal liquid. The major technical hurdle is building a conductivity monitoring system that is sensitive enough to distinguish between no silica deposition and almost no silica deposition, while accounting for other factors which also affect conductivity, such as temperature and varying fluid composition.

NONE

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Streamlined life cycle assessment of transparent silica aerogel made by supercritical drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When developing sustainable building fabric technologies, it is essential that the energy use and CO2 burden arising from manufacture does not outweigh the respective in-use savings. This study investigates this paradigm by carrying out a streamlined life cycle assessment (LCA) of silica aerogel. This unique, nanoporous translucent insulation material has the lowest thermal conductivity of any solid, retaining up to four times as much heat as conventional insulation, whilst being highly transparent to light and solar radiation. Monolithic silica aerogel has been cited as the ‘holy grail’ of future glazing technology. Alternatively, translucent granular aerogel is now being produced on a commercial scale. In each case, many solvents are used in production, often accompanied by intensive drying processes, which may consume large amounts of energy and CO2. To date, there has been no peer-reviewed LCA of this material conducted to the ISO 14000 standard. Primary data for this ‘cradle-to-factory gate’ LCA is collected for silica aerogel made by low and high temperature supercritical drying. In both cases, the mass of raw materials and electricity usage for each process is monitored to determine the total energy use and CO2 burden. Findings are compared against the predicted operational savings arising from retrofitting translucent silica aerogel to a single glazed window to upgrade its thermal performance. Results should be treated as a conservative estimate as the aerogel is produced in a laboratory, which has not been developed for mass manufacture or refined to reduce its environmental impact. Furthermore, the samples are small and assumptions to upscale the manufacturing volume occur without major changes to production steps or equipment used. Despite this, parity between the CO2 burden and CO2 savings is achieved in less than 2 years, indicating that silica aerogel can provide a measurable environmental benefit.

Mark Dowson; Michael Grogan; Tim Birks; David Harrison; Salmaan Craig

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Dynamic stability experiments in sodium-heated steam generators. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-two dynamic stability tests were performed in the sodium-heated boiling-water test facility at Argonne National Laboratory. A full-scale LMFBR steam generator tube was employed as the test section operating over the water parameter ranges of 6.9 to 15.9 MPa pressure and 170 to 800 kg/m/sup 2/.s mass flux. The stability thresholds from the test compared well to the predictions of a modified version of a correlation equation recently published by other investigators. Typical experimental data and the modified correlation equation are presented.

France, D.M.; Roy, R.; Carlson, R.D.; Chiang, T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Effects of the mycotoxin penicillic acid on electrogenic sodium transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Maximal 1nh1- bition of sodium transport (89. 7%) by PA was achieved after 40 minutes reaction time. The addition of d1thiothreitol to the test med1a prevented short-c1rc1ut current inhibition 1ndicating that the mode of PA action on sod1um flux may..., and 45 minutes . 47 15 C-PA binding to 1ntact toad urigry bladder with and without addit1on of DTT to the C-PA before bladder app1 i cati on. . . 48 Relationship of radiotoxin binding to intact bladder with respect to inhibition of the sod1um pump...

Wilczynski, Teresa Anne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

319

United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes February 1, 2008 - 11:13am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) today expanded cooperation to coordinate Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototype development through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed by DOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Dennis R. Spurgeon, CEA Chairman Alain Bugat and JAEA President Toshio Okazaki. The MOU establishes a collaborative framework with the ultimate goal of deploying sodium-cooled fast reactor prototypes. A sodium-cooled fast reactor uses liquid sodium

320

Biological Applications and Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The research presented and discussed within involves the development of novel biological applications of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) and an investigation of mesoporous material by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mesoporous silica nanoparticles organically functionalized shown to undergo endocytosis in cancer cells and drug release from the pores was controlled intracellularly and intercellularly. Transmission electron microscopy investigations demonstrated the variety of morphologies produced in this field of mesoporous silica nanomaterial synthesis. A series of room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) containing mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) materials with various particle morphologies, including spheres, ellipsoids, rods, and tubes, were synthesized. By changing the RTIL template, the pore morphology was tuned from the MCM-41 type of hexagonal mesopores to rotational moire type of helical channels, and to wormhole-like porous structures. These materials were used as controlled release delivery nanodevices to deliver antibacterial ionic liquids against Escherichia coli K12. The involvement of a specific organosiloxane function group, covalently attached to the exterior of fluorescein doped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (FITC-MSN), on the degree and kinetics of endocytosis in cancer and plant cells was investigated. The kinetics of endocystosis of TEG coated FITC-MSN is significantly quicker than FITC-MSN as determined by flow cytometry experiments. The fluorescence confocal microscopy investigation showed the endocytosis of TEG coated-FITC MSN triethylene glycol grafted fluorescein doped MSN (TEG coated-FITC MSN) into both KeLa cells and Tobacco root protoplasts. Once the synthesis of a controlled-release delivery system based on MCM-41-type mesoporous silica nanorods capped by disulfide bonds with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles was completed. The material was characterized by general methods and the dosage and kinetics of the antioxidant dependent release was measured. Finally, the biological interaction of the material was determined along with TEM measurements. An electron investigation proved that the pore openings of the MSN were indeed blocked by the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The biological interaction investigation demonstrated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-capped MSN endocytosis into HeLa cells. Not only does the material enter the cells through endocytosis, but it seems that fluorescein was released from the pores most probably caused by disulfide bond reducing molecules, antioxidants. In addition to endocytosis and release, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-capped MSN propelled the cells across a cuvette upon induction of a magnet force. Finally, an important aspect of materials characterization is transmission electron microscopy. A TEM investigation demonstrated that incorporating different functional groups during the synthesis (co-condensation) changed the particle and pore morphologies.

Brian G. Trewyn

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Natural hydrous amorphous silica: Quantitation of network speciation and hydroxyl content by 29Si MAS NMR and vibrational spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...technological and industrial applications (e.g., desiccants, aerogels, SiO2 films in semiconductors). In natural settings, amorphous...1990) NMR determination of the fractal dimension in silica aerogels. Physical Review Letters, 65, 614-617. Engelhardt, G...

Steven M. Chemtob; George R. Rossman; Jonathan F. Stebbins

322

Fast-neutron radiation effects in a silica-core optical fiber studied by a CCD-camera spectrometer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple CCD-camera spectrometer was deployed at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility to characterize fast-neutron irradiation effects in several silica-based optical...

Griscom, D L; Gingerich, M E; Friebele, E J; Putnam, M; Unruh, W

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Near-surface modification of optical properties of fused silica by low-temperature hydrogenous atmospheric pressure plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this Letter, we report on the near-surface modification of fused silica by applying a hydrogenous atmospheric pressure plasma jet at ambient temperature. A significant decrease in...

Gerhard, Christoph; Tasche, Daniel; Brückner, Stephan; Wieneke, Stephan; Viöl, Wolfgang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

DOI: 10.1002/chem.201203003 A Top-Down Synthesis Route to Ultrasmall Multifunctional Gd-Based Silica  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Based Silica Nanoparticles for Theranostic Applications Anna Mignot,[a, b, e] Charles Truillet,[a] Fran�ois Lux or sensitising for radiotherapy.[1­5] Nanoparticles for theranostic applications need to be bio- compatible

325

Binding Specificity of Amino Acids to Amorphous Silica Surfaces: Solid-State NMR of Glycine on SBA-15  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Herein, [1-13C,15N]glycine interactions with amorphous silica surface of SBA-15 were comprehensively characterized using multinuclear, solid-state NMR techniques (REDOR, TEDOR, SLF, 2D-HETCOR). ...

Ira Ben Shir; Shifi Kababya; Asher Schmidt

2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

326

Evaluation of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for Measurement of Silica on Filter Samples of Coal Dust  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Airborne silica dust (quartz) is common in coal mines and represents a respiratory hazard that can lead to silicosis, a potentially fatal lung disease. With an eye toward developing a...

Stipe, Christopher B; Miller, Arthur L; Brown, Jonathan; Guevara, Edward; Cauda, Emanuele

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Fabrication of ultrafine carbon fibers possessing a nanoporous structure from electrospun polyvinyl alcohol fibers containing silica nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultrafine carbon fibers with a nanoporous structure were fabricated by the template method using silica nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in fibers of approximate diameter 500 nm, electrospun from an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol, CoCl2, ...

Koichi Sawada, Shinji Sakai, Masahito Taya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous sodium chloride Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cholate... by the addition of sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate salt and then resuspension of the SWNTs... peroxidase (HRP) on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using...

329

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous sodium sulfate Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: by the addition of sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate salt and then resuspension of the SWNTs... peroxidase (HRP) on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using...

330

LOW FLAMMABILITY FOAM-LIKE MATERIALS BASED ON EPOXY, TANNIC ACID, SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE CLAY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Aerogels based on sodium montmorillonite clay, epoxy polymer, and tannic acid as a flame retardant additive were fabricated through a simple environmentally-friendly freeze drying process… (more)

Lang, Xiaolong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS: SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE AND ORGANOTIN HYDRIDES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane… (more)

McLafferty, Jason

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery - Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and a conductive polymer, while the solid electrolyte - based on cross-linked polyethylene oxide - forms a stable but ion-conducting barrier separating the liquid sodium...

333

A study of phase transitions in sodium stearate by means of nuclear magnetic resonance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The mesomorphic phase transitions of sodium stearate occurring between 23°C. and 200°C. were investigated by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of the hydrogen nuclei… (more)

Grant, Rowland Frederick

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Coherent population trapping on the sodium D1 line in high magnetic fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider the coherent-population-trapping (CPT) phenomenon in a sodium atomic vapor. The experiment leading to the first observation of CPT is revisited with an improved...

Höller, R; Renzoni, F; Windholz, L; Xu, J H

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

E-Print Network 3.0 - affecting sodium hypochlorite Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop Summary: equipment, vehicles Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) 200-500 ppm Nets, boots, clothing. Surfaces must be clean... hypochlorite solution.Note: Bleach is 5.25%...

336

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline sodium borohydride Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aardahl, PNNL) The most critical hurdle for the use of sodium ... Source: DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure...

337

E-Print Network 3.0 - aged sodium borophosphate Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is a pool-type, sodium- cooled fast reactor that uses a large core of depleted uranium and a "sparkplug Source: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Division,...

338

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum sodium chloride Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

agents Water Acetyl chloride, alkaline and alkaline... hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium ... Source: Hall, Sharon J. - School of Life Sciences, Arizona...

339

TRUEX partitioning studies applied to ICPP sodium-bearing waste  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located in southeast Idaho at the USDOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, formerly reprocessed highly enriched spent nuclear fuel to recover fissionable uranium. The HLW raffinates from the combined PUREX/REDOX type uranium recovery process were converted to solid oxides (calcine) in a high temperature fluidized bed. Liquid effluents from the calcination process were combined with liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW) generated primarily in conjunction with decontamination activities. Due to the high sodium content in the SBW, this secondary waste stream is not directly amenable to solidification via calcination. Currently, approximately 1.5 millon gallons of liquid SBW are stored at the ICPP in large tanks. Several treatment options for the SBW are currently being considered, including the TRansUranic EXtraction (TRUEX) process developed by Horwitz and co-workers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in preparation for the final disposition of SBW. Herein described are experimental results of radionuclide tracer studies with simulated SBW using the TRUEX process solvent.

Herbst, R.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Law, J.D.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Preliminary engineering design of sodium-cooled CANDLE core  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The CANDLE burning process is characterized by the autonomous shifting of burning region with constant reactivity and constant spacial power distribution. Evaluations of such critical burning process by using widely used neutron diffusion and burning codes under some realistic engineering constraints are valuable to confirm the technical feasibility of the CANDLE concept and to put the idea into concrete core design. In the first part of this paper it is discussed that whether the sustainable and stable CANDLE burning process can be reproduced even by using conventional core analysis tools such as SLAROM and CITATION-FBR. As a result it is certainly possible to demonstrate it if the proper core configuration and initial fuel composition required as CANDLE core are applied to the analysis. In the latter part an example of a concrete image of sodium cooled metal fuel 2000MWt rating CANDLE core has been presented by assuming an emerging inevitable technology of recladding. The core satisfies engineering design criteria including cladding temperature pressure drop linear heat rate and cumulative damage fraction (CDF) of cladding fast neutron fluence and sodium void reactivity which are defined in the Japanese FBR design project. It can be concluded that it is feasible to design CADLE core by using conventional codes while satisfying some realistic engineering design constraints assuming that recladding at certain time interval is technically feasible.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The role of effective stress on silica solubility and pressure solution: an experimental investigation in a flow-through system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE ROLE OF EFFECTIVE STRESS ON SILICA SOLUBILITY AND PRESSURE SOLUTION: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION IN A FLOW-THROUGH SYSTEM A Thesis by BRIAN PATRICK ELIAS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Geology THE ROLE OF EFFECTIVE STRESS ON SILICA SOLUBILITY AND PRES SURE SOLUTION: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION IN A FLOW-THROUGH SYSTEM A Thesis by BRIAN...

Elias, Brian Patrick

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

342

Infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper oxide  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of carbon monoxide at room temperature (0.1 to 50 Torr) on silica-supported copper oxide was studied by infrared spectroscopy. Catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation or impregnation. After calcination two types of adsorbed CO were identified showing absorption bands at 2136 +- 3 and 2204 +- 1 cm/sup -1/, which are ascribed to CO adsorbed on copper(II) oxide and on isolated copper(II) ions in the silica surface, respectively. Reduction and reoxidation removed the band at 2204 cm/sup -1/ with all samples and raised the intensity of the 2136-cm/sup -1/ band with the precipitated catalysts but not with the impregnation catalyst. Evidence is brought forward that the isolated copper ions are mobilized during reduction and generate new copper (oxide) surface. The change in background transmission of the samples could be used to obtain further information about the interaction of O/sub 2/ and CO with copper oxide.

De Jong, K.P.; Geus, J.W.; Joziasse, J.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Lasing characteristics of Er/sup 3 +/-doped silica fibers from 1553 up to 1603 nm  

SciTech Connect

The laser oscillations from 1553 up to 1603 nm have been demonstrated in Er/sup 3 +/-doped silica fibers with a doping rate of 2500 ppm. Wide changes in laser oscillation wavelengths are due to broad splitting of the upper sublevels in the /sup 4/I/sub 152/ manifold, caused by the random structure of the silica matrix. It has been shown that unpumped parts of the Er/sup 3 +/ ions in the end pumped fiber laser configuration play an important role in the wavelength changes of the laser oscillation. For an absorbed pump power of 320 mW at 514 nm, output power of 0.5 mW was obtained at 1603 nm.

Kimura, Y.; Nakazawa, M.

1988-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Experimental stress–strain analysis of tapered silica optical fibers with nanofiber waist  

SciTech Connect

We experimentally determine tensile force–elongation diagrams of tapered optical fibers with a nanofiber waist. The tapered optical fibers are produced from standard silica optical fibers using a heat and pull process. Both, the force–elongation data and scanning electron microscope images of the rupture points indicate a brittle material. Despite the small waist radii of only a few hundred nanometers, our experimental data can be fully explained by a nonlinear stress–strain model that relies on material properties of macroscopic silica optical fibers. This is an important asset when it comes to designing miniaturized optical elements as one can rely on the well-founded material characteristics of standard optical fibers. Based on this understanding, we demonstrate a simple and non-destructive technique that allows us to determine the waist radius of the tapered optical fiber. We find excellent agreement with independent scanning electron microscope measurements of the waist radius.

Holleis, S.; Hoinkes, T.; Wuttke, C.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A. [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, TU Wien—Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

345

Laser-driven formation of a high-pressure phase in amorphous silica  

SciTech Connect

A combination of electron diffraction and infrared reflectance measurements shows that synthetic silica transforms partially into stishovite under high-intensity (GW/cm2) laser irradiation, probably by the formation of a dense ionized plasma above the silica surface. During the transformation the silicon coordination changes from four-fold to six-fold and the silicon-oxygen bond changes from mostly covalent to mostly ionic, such that optical properties of the transformed material differ significantly from those of the original glass. This phase transformation offers one suitable mechanism by which laser-induced damage grows catastrophically once initiated, thereby dramatically shortening the service lifetime of optics used for high-power photonics applications such as inertial confinement fusion.

Salleo, Alberto; Taylor, Seth T.; Martin, Michael C.; Panero, Wendy R.; Jeanloz, Raymond; Genin, Francois Y.; Sands, Timothy

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

Influence of phosphate and silica on U(VI) precipitation from acidic and neutralized wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Uranium speciation and physical-chemical characteristics were studied in solids precipitated from synthetic acidic to circumneutral wastewaters in the presence and absence of dissolved silica and phosphate to examine thermodynamic and kinetic controls on phase formation. Composition of synthetic wastewater was based on disposal sites 216-U-8 and 216-U-12 Cribs at the Hanford site (WA, USA). In the absence of dissolved silica or phosphate, crystalline or amorphous uranyl oxide hydrates, either compreignacite or meta-schoepite, precipitated at pH 5 or 7 after 30 d of reaction, in agreement with thermodynamic calculations. In the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica representative of groundwater concentrations, amorphous phases dominated by compreignacite precipitated rapidly at pH 5 or 7 as a metastable phase and formation of poorly-crystalline boltwoodite, the thermodynamically stable uranyl silicate phase, was slow. In the presence of phosphate (3 mM), meta-ankoleite initially precipitated as the primary phase at pH 3, 5, or 7 regardless of the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica. Analysis of precipitates by U LIII-edge EXAFS indicated that “autunite-type” sheets of meta-ankoleite transformed to “phosphuranylite-type” sheets after 30 d of reaction, probably due to Ca substitution in the structure. Low solubility of uranyl phosphate phases limits dissolved U(VI) concentrations but differences in particle size, crystallinity, and precipitate composition vary with pH and base cation concentration, which will influence the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of these phases.

Kanematsu, Masakazu; Perdrial, Nicolas; Um, Wooyong; Chorover, Jon; O'Day, Peggy A.

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

347

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles in an efficient, solvent-free,green synthesis of acridinediones  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are employedin an efficient, biocompatible and neutralcatalyticgreen synthesis ofacridinediones,throughone-pot three-component reaction of dimedone with aromatic aldehydes, in the presence of a nitrogen source (ammonium acetate or aromatic amines), under neat conditions. There are several advantages for using \\{MSNsinthe\\} current processsuch as good yield, easy catalysis, short reaction time, easy work-up, and simplicity of operation.

Zahra Nasresfahani; M.Z. Kassaee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Molecular-dynamics simulations of thin polyisoprene films confined between amorphous silica substrates  

SciTech Connect

Constant temperature–constant pressure (NpT) molecular-dynamics computer simulations have been carried out for the united-atom model of a non-crosslinked (1,4) cis-polyisoprene (PI) melt confined between two amorphous, fully coordinated silica surfaces. The Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential was implemented to describe the polymer–silica interactions. The thickness H of the produced PI–silica film has been varied in a wide range, 1 < H/R{sub g} < 8, where R{sub g} is the individual PI chain radius of gyration measured under the imposed confinement. After a thorough equilibration, the PI film stratified structure and polymer segmental dynamics have been studied. The chain structure in the middle of the films resembles that in a corresponding bulk, but the polymer-density profile shows a pronounced ordering of the polymer segments in the vicinity of silica surfaces; this ordering disappears toward the film middles. Tremendous slowing down of the polymer segmental dynamics has been observed in the film surface layers, with the segmental relaxation more than 150 times slower as compared to that in a PI bulk. This effect increases with decreasing the polymer-film thickness. The segmental relaxation in the PI film middles shows additional relaxation process which is absent in a PI bulk. Even though there are fast relaxation processes in the film middle, its overall relaxation is slower as compared to that in a bulk sample. The interpretation of the results in terms of polymer glassy bridges has been discussed.

Guseva, D. V., E-mail: d.v.guseva@tue.nl [Theory of Polymers and Soft Matter, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Physics Department, Chair of Polymer and Crystal Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Komarov, P. V. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tver State University, Sadovyj per. 35, 170002 Tver, Russia and Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova st. 28, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tver State University, Sadovyj per. 35, 170002 Tver, Russia and Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova st. 28, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyulin, Alexey V. [Theory of Polymers and Soft Matter, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)] [Theory of Polymers and Soft Matter, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

349

Improved Adhesion of Dense Silica Coatings on Polymers by Atmospheric Plasma Pretreatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Improved Adhesion of Dense Silica Coatings on Polymers by Atmospheric Plasma Pretreatment ... In another study,(7) which compared the treatments of low- and atmospheric-pressure plasmas, the authors reported that the low-pressure plasma treatment increased the adhesion with extended treatment time but prolonged atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment decreased the adhesion to epoxy. ... The authors begin with a brief overview of adhesion theory, and of the physics and chem. of cold plasmas. ...

Linying Cui; Alpana N. Ranade; Marvi A. Matos; Geraud Dubois; Reinhold H. Dauskardt

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

350

Dielectric study of Poly(styrene-co-butadiene) Composites with Carbon Black, Silica, and Nanoclay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dielectric study of Poly(styrene-co-butadiene) Composites with Carbon Black, Silica, and Nanoclay ... Given the possible nanoscale dimensions and high surface to volume ratio of the added particles, the glassy interphase can comprise a large fraction of the composite and can strongly influence the mechanical properties of the composite. ... The potential of nanoclays to serve as matrix sensitive structure-directing agents in tailor-made materials is demonstrated. ...

Loan T. Vo; Spiros H. Anastasiadis; Emmanuel P. Giannelis

2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

351

Magnetic Silica Nanotubes: Synthesis, Drug Release, and Feasibility for Magnetic Hyperthermia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic Silica Nanotubes: Synthesis, Drug Release, and Feasibility for Magnetic Hyperthermia ... After removal of RhB@?-Fe2O3@SiO2 by magnet, 3 mL of the clear solution was extracted with a syringe at given time intervals and then analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy at a wavelength of 400–1000 nm. ... The work was supported by Foundation for Polish Science within Focus with contract F4/2010. ...

Xuecheng Chen; Rüdiger Klingeler; Matthias Kath; Ahmed A. El Gendy; Krzysztof Cendrowski; Ryszard J. Kalenczuk; Ewa Borowiak-Palen

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

352

Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

Dash, Monika

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Surface induced disorder of nematic MBBA near silica with grafted poly(ethylene oxide)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

909 Surface induced disorder of nematic MBBA near silica with grafted poly(ethylene oxide) H. Ben greffés, du polyoxyde d'ethylene 2000, a été étudié à l'aide des techniques suivantes : la résonance para with grafted polymers poly(ethylene oxide) 2000, has been investigated by the electron paramagnetic resonance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Energy transfer up-conversion in Tm3+ -doped silica fibre  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Energy transfer up-conversion in Tm3+ - doped silica fibre D. A. Simpson, G. W. Baxter and S. F responsible for the up-conversion: excited state absorption and energy transfer up-conversion. The decay equations, the energy transfer up- conversion process (3 F4,3 F43 H4,3 H6) is established at Tm2O3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

Apparent lattice expansion in ordered nanoporous silica during capillary condensation of fluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Bragg peak shift suggests a pore lattice expansion in ordered nanoporous silica at the onset of capillary condensation of fluids. In depth analysis by a numerical and an analytical approach leads to the conclusion that this shift is due not to a mechanical deformation of the pore lattice but to a subtle interplay between the form factor and the structure factor from crystallites of finite size.

Prass, J.

2012-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

356

Phase behavior of the liquid crystal 8CB in a silica aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Light scattering and precision calorimetry show that the nematic ordering of octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) filling the connected network of pores of a silica aerogel does not occur via the first-order phase transition characteristic of the bulk. Rather, ordering is continuous with an orientational correlation length never increasing beyond the aerogel pore size. The heat-capacity anomly of the second-order nematic–smectic-A phase transition seen in the bulk is absent or greatly broadened in the aerogel.

Tommaso Bellini; Noel A. Clark; Chris D. Muzny; Lei Wu; Carl W. Garland; Dale W. Schaefer; Bernard J. Oliver

1992-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

357

Self-fabrication of void array in fused silica by femtosecond laser processing  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate self-fabrication of a submicrometer-sized void array in fused silica using a 100 fs 0.2-3 {mu}J Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser and a high 0.9 numerical aperture (NA) objective lens. The effect of the focusing conditions of NA, laser energy, and pulse number on the shape of the fabricated void was investigated. The void has a linearly drawn shape in the direction of the laser irradiation when a single pulse is irradiated and an increasing number of incident pulses resulted in the break up of the long void into multiple spherical ones, leading to a periodically aligned void array. The void shape also varied with the depth of the focus point beneath the fused silica surface, because the amount of self-focusing has a significant effect on the generation of the voids. The void shape was narrower and longer when the laser pulse was focused with the higher NA (up to 0.9) objective lens in the deeper position (up to 70 {mu}m) in the fused silica.

Toratani, Eiji; Kamata, Masanao; Obara, Minoru [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

358

Production of potentially hazardous respirable silica airborne particulate from the burning of sugarcane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In some areas of the world where agricultural burning is practised, the airborne particles produced have been linked to respiratory disease in humans. Here, we investigate the abundance and form of silica (SiO2) minerals found within ash and aerosol produced by the experimental burning of sugarcane. Samples of sugarcane leaf were incinerated over a range of temperatures, time scales and airflow conditions, the latter to investigate the effects of wind and updrafts during natural fires. The silica content of the residual ash (from still air simulations) was measured using an improved wet chemical methodology, described here. This indicated that the release of silica from the plant material into the atmosphere increases with increasing temperature of combustion. Airborne particulate, sampled using air-pump-filter apparatus, was characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with automated image and elemental analysis. For airborne particulate formed at 1100 °C (with airflow), 17% of the particles are in the respirable size fraction (release of cristobalite to the atmosphere (as sampled on filters). This pilot study shows that potentially toxic particles could be released during sugarcane burning and reinforces the need for further study into the emissions and re-suspension of ash from the burning of biomass.

Jennifer S. Le Blond; Ben J. Williamson; Claire J. Horwell; Alex K. Monro; Caroline A. Kirk; Clive Oppenheimer

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Glucose oxidase enzyme immobilized porous silica for improved performance of a glucose biosensor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High activity of glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme (immobilized in porous silica particles) is desirable for a better glucose biosensor. In this work, effect of pore diameter of two porous hosts on enzyme immobilization, activity and glucose sensing was compared. The hosts were amine functionalized: (i) microporous silica (NH2-MS) and (ii) mesoporous silica (NH2-SBA-15). Based on whether the dimension of GOD is either larger or smaller than the pore diameter, GOD was immobilized on either external or internal surface of NH2-MS and NH2-SBA-15, with loadings of 512.5 and 634 mg/g, respectively. However, GOD in NH2-SBA-15 gave a higher normalized absolute activity (NAA), which led to an amperometric sensor with a larger linear range of 0.4–13.0 mM glucose. In comparison, GOD in NH2-MS had a lower NAA and a smaller linear range of 0.4–3.1 mM. In fact, the present GOD-NH2-SBA-15 electrode based sensor was better than other MS and SBA-15 based electrodes reported in literature. Thus, achieving only a high GOD loading (as in NH2-MS) does not necessarily give a good sensor performance. Instead, a host with a relatively larger pore than enzyme, together with optimized electrode composition ensures the sensor to be functional in both hyper- and hypoglycemic range.

Anees Y. Khan; Santosh B. Noronha; Rajdip Bandyopadhyaya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Controlled epitaxial growth of mesoporous silica/gold nanorod nanolollipops and nanodumb-bells  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we describe the controlled synthesis of novel heterogeneous nanostructures comprised of mesoporous silica-coated gold nanorods (MSGNRs) in the form of core–shell nanolollipops and nanodumb-bells, using a seed-mediated sol–gel method. Although MSGNR core–shell (?-MSGNR) structures have been reported previously by us and others, we herein discuss the first ever fabrication of MSGNR nanolollipops (?-MSGNR) and nanodumb-bells (?-MSGNR), achieved by simply controlling the aging time of gold nanorods (GNRs), the residual cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) coating of GNRs, and the addition of dimethyl formamide during incubation, centrifugation, and sonication, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy revealed two bare GNR isoforms, with aspect ratios of approximately 4 and 6, while scanning electron microscopy was used to further elucidate the morphology of ?-MSGNR and ?-MSGNR heterostructures. In agreement with the smaller dielectric constants afforded by incomplete silica encasement, spectroscopic studies of ?-MSGNR and ?-MSGNR, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands revealed 20-40 nm blue shifts relative to the SPR of ?-MSGNR. On the basis of the attributes and applications of more conventional ?-MSGNRs, ?-MSGNRs and ?-MSGNRs are anticipated to provide most of the utility of ?-MSGNRs, but with the additional functionalities that accompany their incorporation of both bare gold and mesoporous silica encased tips; with significant/unique implications for biomedical and catalytic applications.

Huang, Ching-Mao [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Material and Chemical Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 30011, Taiwan (China); Chung, Ming-Fang; Lo, Leu-Wei, E-mail: lwlo@nhri.org.tw [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Souris, Jeffrey S. [Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Sorption Behavior of Strontium-85 Onto Colloids of Silica and Smectite  

SciTech Connect

Strontium-90 is one of the sizable radioactive contaminants found in DP Canyon at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Radioactive surveys found the {sup 90}Sr is present in surface and groundwater in DP Canyon and Los Alamos Canyon. Colloids may influence the transport of this radionuclide in surface water and groundwater environments in both canyons. In this study, we investigated the sorption/desorption behavior of Sr on colloids of smectite and silica. Laboratory batch sorption experiments were conducted using {sup 85}Sr as a surrogate to {sup 90}Sr. Groundwater, collected from DP Canyon and from Well J-13 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and deionized water were used in this study. Our results show that 92% to 100% of {sup 85}Sr was rapidly adsorbed onto smectite colloids in all three waters. The concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} significantly influence the adsorption of {sup 85}Sr onto silica colloids. Desorption of {sup 85}Sr from smectite colloids is much slower than the sorption process. Desorption of {sup 85}Sr from silica colloids was rapid in DP groundwater and slow using J-13 groundwater and deionized water.

Lu, N.; Triay, I.R.; Mason, C.F.V.; Longmire, P.A.

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

362

Silica Polyamine Composites: New Supramolecular Materials for Cation and Anion Recovery and Remediation  

SciTech Connect

The surface coverage of amorphous silica gels used in the synthesis of silica polyamine composites has been investigated by 29Si NMR. By diluting the polyamine anchor silane, chloropropyl trichlorosilane, with methyl trichlorosilane it was found that surface coverage could be markedly improved for a range of amine polymers after grafting to the silica surface. The commensurate decrease in the number of anchor points and increase in the number of free amines results in an increase in metal capacity and/or an improvement in capture kinetics. Solid state CPMAS-13C NMR has been employed to investigate the structure and metal ion binding of a series of these composite materials. It is reported that the highly branched polymer, poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) exhibits much broader 13C NMR resonances than the linear polymers poly(allylamine) (PAA) and poly(vinylamine) (PVA). These results are understood in terms of the low energy conformations calculated from molecular modeling studies. Three new applications of the technology are also presented: (1) separation of lanthanides as a group from ferric ion and all other divalent ions; (2) a multi step process for recovering and concentrating the valuable metals in acid mine drainage; (3) a process for removing low level arsenic and selenium in the presence of sulfate using immobilized cations on the composite materials.

Hughes, Mark; Miranda, Paul; Nielsen, Daniel J.; Rosenberg, Edward; Gobetto, Roberto; Viale, Alessandra; Burton, Sarah D.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Remedial Action Certification Docket - Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE)  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

c~-?i-- c~-?i-- I ,3-l Remedial Action Certification Docket - Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) .Complex and the Hot Cave Facility (Bldg. 003), Santa Susana ,Fie!d Laboratory, Chatsworth, California ..:'..~::Yerlette Gatl in, MA-232 I am attaching for entry into the Public Document Room, one copy of the N -23 subject documentat ion. These documents are the backup data for the certification that the facilfties are radiologically acceptable for b- unrestricted use as noted in the certification statement published in the &aney Federal Register. Inasmuch as the certification for unrestricted use is 9/2(/85 being published in the Federal Register, it is prudent that the attached documentation also be available to the public. These documents should be retained In accordance with DOE Order 1324.2--disposal schedule 25.

364

Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Hybrid sodium heat pipe receivers for dish/Stirling systems  

SciTech Connect

The design of a hybrid solar/gas heat pipe receiver for the SBP 9 kW dish/Stirling system using a United Stirling AB V160 Stirling engine and the results of on-sun testing in alternative and parallel mode will be reported. The receiver is designed to transfer a thermal power of 35 kW. The heat pipe operates at around 800 C, working fluid is sodium. Operational options are solar-only, gas augmented and gas-only mode. Also the design of a second generation hybrid heat pipe receiver currently developed under a EU-funded project, based on the experience gained with the first hybrid receiver, will be reported. This receiver is designed for the improved SPB/L. and C.-10 kW dish/Stirling system with the reworked SOLO V161 Stirling engine.

Laing, D.; Reusch, M. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Screening Evaluation of Sodium Nonatitanate for Strontium and Actinide Removal from Alkaline Salt Solution  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results from screening tests evaluating strontium and actinide removal characteristics of a sodium titanate material developed by Clearfield and coworkers at Texas A and M University and offered commercially by Honeywell. Sodium nonatitanate may exhibit improved actinide removal kinetics and filtration characteristics compared to MST and thus merit testing.

Hobbs, D.T.

2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

368

Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Functionalized Graphene Measured by Conductometric Titration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applications, including graphene-metal oxide nano- composites for Li-ion battery electrodes,4,5 grapheneAdsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Functionalized Graphene Measured by Conductometric States ABSTRACT: We report on the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) onto functionalized graphene

Aksay, Ilhan A.

369

Preparation of frustule-like 1,2-ethylene-silica nanospheres through a chiral amphiphile/organic solvent dual-templating approach  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Frustule-like 1,2-ethylene-silicas were prepared through a dual-templating approach. ? The morphologies and pore architectures of the 1,2-ethylene-silicas are tunable. ? Mesoporous 1,2-ethylene-silica nanotubes were also prepared. -- Abstract: Hollow silica nanospheres with mesopores in the walls have been widely studied because of their potential applications in catalysis and drug release. Hollow organosilica nanospheres also attracted much attention because of their tunable wall backbones and wider applications. Herein, frustule-like 1,2-ethylene-silicas were obtained using a chiral amphiphile, CHCl{sub 3}, and a dual-templating approach. The morphologies and pore architectures of the 1,2-ethylene-silicas are tunable by changing the amount of CHCl{sub 3} in the reaction mixture. With the addition of CHCl{sub 3} in the reaction mixtures, hollow 1,2-ethylene-silica nanospheres with opened mesopores in the walls were feasible. Moreover, 1,2-ethylene-silicas with mesopores on the surfaces and coiled pore channels within the walls were obtained using the chiral amphiphile in a single-templating approach. These 1,2-ethylene-silicas were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and N{sub 2} sorptions.

Zhao, Yanwei; Huang, Zhibin; Yan, Zhuojun; Wang, Sibing; Li, Baozong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Design and Application, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Design and Application, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li, Yi, E-mail: liyi@suda.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Design and Application, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Design and Application, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Yang, Yonggang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Design and Application, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Design and Application, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Role of relative humidity in concrete expansion due to alkali-silica reaction and delayed ettringite formation: relative humidity thresholds, measurement methods, and coatings to mitigate expansion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Premature concrete deterioration due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and delayed ettringite formation (DEF) is a significant problem all over the world. In cases where these… (more)

Rust, Charles Karissa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of major sodium salts from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites. Disposal of high level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Since the residual bulk chemicals must still undergo expensive treatment and disposal after most of the hazardous radionuclides have been removed, large cost savings will result from processes that reduce the overall waste volume. It is proposed that major cost savings can be expected if sodium hydroxide needed for sludge washing can be obtained from the waste itself, thus avoiding the addition of yet another bulk chemical to the waste and still further increase of the waste volume and disposal cost. Secondary priority is given to separating potassium an d abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Mercury's sodium exosphere: Magnetospheric ion recycling Service d'Aeronomie du CNRS/IPSL, Verrie`res-Le-Buisson, France  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury's sodium exosphere: Magnetospheric ion recycling F. Leblanc Service d'Ae´ronomie du CNRS December 2003. [1] A three-dimensional Monte Carlo model of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere was used in the surface concentration of sodium along Mercury's motion around the Sun [Leblanc and Johnson, 2003]. Four

Johnson, Robert E.

373

Enhancement of T1 and T2 relaxation by paramagnetic silica-coated nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

We present the first comprehensive investigation on water-soluble nanoparticles embedded into a paramagnetic shell and their properties as an MRI contrast agent. The nanoprobes are constructed with an inorganic core embedded into an ultra-thin silica shell covalently linked to chelated Gd{sup 3+} paramagnetic ions that act as an MRI contrast agent. The chelator contains the molecule DOTA and the inorganic core contains a fluorescent CdSe/ZnS qdots in Au nanoparticles. Optical properties of the cores (fluorescence emission or plasmon position) are not affected by the neither the silica shell nor the presence of the chelated paramagnetic ions. The resulting complex is a MRI/fluorescence probe with a diameter of 8 to 15 nm. This probe is highly soluble in high ionic strength buffers at pH ranging from {approx}4 to 11. In MRI experiments at clinical field strengths of 60 MHz, the QDs probes posses spin-lattice (T{sub 1}) and a spin-spin (T{sub 2}) relaxivities of 1018.6 +/- 19.4 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1} and 2438.1 +/- 46.3 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1} respectively for probes having {approx}8 nm. This increase in relaxivity has been correlated to the number of paramagnetic ions covalently linked to the silica shell, ranging from approximately 45 to over 320. We found that each bound chelated paramagnetic species contributes by over 23 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1} to the total T{sub 1} and by over 54 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1} to the total T{sub 2} relaxivity respectively. The contrast power is modulated by the number of paramagnetic moieties linked to the silica shell and is only limited by the number of chelated paramagnetic species that can be packed on the surface. So far, the sensitivity of our probes is in the 100 nM range for 8-10 nm particles and reaches 10 nM for particles with approximately 15-18 nm in diameter. The sensitivities values in solutions are equivalent of those obtained with small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of 7 nm diameter clustered into a 100 nm polymeric shell. A thin paramagnetic silica shell as interface with the bioworld presents several advantages over polymeric coating or dendrimers in terms of in vivo biocompatibility and ease of functionalization with targeting biomolecules. Theoretically, these relaxivity values are high enough to be detected by MRI of a single cell labeled with 10{sup 5} probes. We briefly discuss the importance of probes coated with a paramagnetic silica shell for the detection and treatment of diseases in vivo.

Gerion, D; Herberg, J; Gjersing, E; Ramon, E; Maxwell, R; Gray, J W; Budinger, T F; Chen, F F

2006-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

374

Analysis and methodology for measuring oxygen concentration in liquid sodium with a plugging meter  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen concentration in liquid sodium is a critical measurement in assessing the potential for corrosion damage in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). There has been little recent work on sodium reactors and oxygen detection. Thus, the technical expertise dealing with oxygen measurements within sodium is no longer readily available in the U.S. Two methods of oxygen detection that have been investigated are the plugging meter and the galvanic cell. One of the overall goals of the Univ. of Wisconsin's sodium research program is to develop an affordable, reliable galvanic cell oxygen sensor. Accordingly, attention must first be dedicated to a well-known standard known as a plugging meter. Therefore, a sodium loop has been constructed on campus in effort to develop the plugging meter technique and gain experience working with liquid metal. The loop contains both a galvanic cell test section and a plugging meter test section. Consistent plugging results have been achieved below 20 [wppm], and a detailed process for achieving effective plugging has been developed. This paper will focus both on an accurate methodology to obtain oxygen concentrations from a plugging meter, and on how to easily control the oxygen concentration of sodium in a test loop. Details of the design, materials, manufacturing, and operation will be presented. Data interpretation will also be discussed, since a modern discussion of plugging data interpretation does not currently exist. (authors)

Nollet, B. K.; Hvasta, M.; Anderson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials for Applications in Catalysis, Sensing, Drug Delivery and Gene Transfection  

SciTech Connect

The central theme of this dissertation is represented by the versatility of mesoporous silica nanomaterials in various applications such as catalysis and bio-applications, with main focus on biological applications of Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres (MSN). The metamorphosis that we impose to these materials from catalysis to sensing and to drug and gene delivery is detailed in this dissertation. First, we developed a synthetic method that can fine tune the amount of chemically accessible organic functional groups on the pores surface of MSN by exploiting electrostatic and size matching between the cationic alkylammonium head group of the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant and various anionic organoalkoxysilane precursors at the micelle-water interface in a base-catalyzed condensation reaction of silicate. Aiming nature imitation, we demonstrated the catalytic abilities of the MSNs, We utilized an ethylenediamine functional group for chelating Cu{sup 2+} as a catalytic functional group anchored inside the mesopores. Thus, a polyalkynylene-based conducting polymer (molecular wire) was synthesized within the Cu-functionalized MSNs silica catalyst. For sensing applications, we have synthesized a poly(lactic acid) coated mesoporous silica nanosphere (PLA-MSN) material that serves as a fluorescence sensor system for detection of amino-containing neurotransmitters in neutral aqueous buffer. We exploited the mesoporosity of MSNs for encapsulating pharmaceutical drugs. We examined bio-friendly capping molecules such as polyamidoamine dendrimers of generations G2 to G4, to prevent the drug leaching. Next, the drug delivery system employed MSNs loaded with Doxorubicin, an anticancer drug. The results demonstrated that these nano-Trojan horses have ability to deliver Doxorubicin to cancer cells and induce their death. Finally, to demonstrate the potential of MSN as an universal cellular transmembrane nanovehicle, we anchored positively charged dendrimers on the surface of MSN and utilize them to complex cationic DNA. The p-EGFP-CI gene-coated MSN nanocomposite was able to transfect cancer cell lines, such as human HeLa and CHO cancer cell lines. The gene carrier ability of MSNs was further proved by transfecting primary cells and cotransfecting of two different genes in cancer cell lines. In sum, MSN are versatile partners in several types of applications.

Daniela Rodica Radu

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

376

Water purification by functionalised self-assembled monolayers on silica particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study focuses on a novel method to remove bio molecules and pathogens of different nature, such as proteins, viruses and oocysts, from water by silica particles coated with functionalised self-assembled monolayers. The results clearly show that organic species can efficiently be removed at pH ranges of drinking water by stirring the coated particles in the contaminated water for up to 60 min and finally filtering the powder. The removal is believed to be caused by electrostatic attraction and immobilisation of pathogens on the surface of the particles. At higher pH values above about 8, even chemisorption may occur.

Peter J. Majewski; Chiu Ping Chan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Effect of Support Corrugation on Silica Xerogel?Supported Phase-Separated Lipid Bilayers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Furthermore, the lateral mobility of the lipids was confirmed for lipid bilayers supported by porous silica xerogel and aerogel surfaces. ... The fluorescence recovery images were captured with the excitation light that was attenuated at least 400 times (by the use of neutral density filters) to prevent further bleaching. ... The emission light was filtered by a 568 nm notch filter (Kaiser Optical Systems, Ann Arbor, MI) and a confocal pinhole (50 ?m diameter, Thorlabs, Newton, NJ) and then split by a 50/50 beam-splitter before finally being focused into two avalanche photo diodes (APD) (PerkinElmer). ...

Emel I. Goksu; Barbara A. Nellis; Wan-Chen Lin; Joe H. Satcher, Jr.; Jay T. Groves; Subhash H. Risbud; Marjorie L. Longo

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

378

Applications for silica-based aerogel products on an industrial scale  

SciTech Connect

Aerogels, nanoporous lightweight materials, were discovered more than 60 years ago. The supercritical manufacturing process and expensive raw materials typically used to produce aerogels prohibited commercialization on an industrial scale. Recently a commercially attractive ambient pressure production process was developed which will allow broader commercialization of silica-aerogel products. Some aerogel products for insulation applications and their preparation are described. Sound insulation properties including a remarkable absorption in the difficult low frequency range was found. In the case of insulation plates performance depends on binder and can be positively influenced by choosing the right binding material.

Schmidt, M.; Schwertfeger, F. [Hoechst Research and Technology Deutschland GmbH and Co., Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

379

Click Synthesis of Monolithic Silicon Carbide Aerogels from Polyacrylonitrile-Coated 3D Silica Networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Monolithic highly porous (70% v/v) SiC aerogels are synthesized carbothermally from X-PAN-SiO2, i.e., monolithic silica aerogels are prepared and coated in one pot with a conformal poly acrylonitrile coating via a surface-initiated free radical process. ... Conformal PAN coatings would be obtained with other surface-confined initiators, including monodentate ones. ... An aerogel-like composite material was synthesized by casting a conformal 4-6 nm diisocyanate-derived polymer coating on the bird-nest like skeletal framework of mesoporous vanadia consisting of entangled 100-200 nm long, 30-40 nm thick worm-like objects. ...

Nicholas Leventis; Anand Sadekar; Naveen Chandrasekaran; Chariklia Sotiriou-Leventis

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

380

Structural Investigations of Silica Polyamine Composites: Surface Coverage, Metal Ion Coordination, and Ligand Modification  

SciTech Connect

Silanization of the silica gel surface in the synthesis of silica gel polyamine composites uses (chloropropyl)-trichlorosilane (CPTCS). It is possible to substitute a molar fraction of reagent CPTCS with methyltrichlorosilane (MTCS), creating a mixed silane surface layer. Two types of silica gels were modified with a series of MTCS:CPTCS molar ratios. Solid-state CP/MAS 29Si and 13C NMR spectroscopies were used to evaluate the surface silane composition. Surface silane coverage was markedly improved for the resulting gels. When polyamines were grafted to the resultant MTCS:CPTCS silane layers, it was shown that the decrease in the number of propyl attachments to the polyamine resulted in increased quantities of ''free amines''. Optimum MTCS:CPTCS ratios were determined for three polyamines grafted onto one silica gel. A substantial free amine increase was observed for poly(allylamine) (PAA). Metal uptake studies show increases in Cu(II) capacity and/or an improvement in Cu(II) mass-transfer kinetics. The effect of polymer molecular weight upon Cu(II) capacity was investigated for each polyamine. Substantial differences in Cu(II) capacity between 50,000 MW poly(vinylamine) (PVA) and >1000 MW PVA were evident. Similar differences between 25,000 MW poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and 1200 MW PEI were found. The mass-transfer kinetics was shown to be improved for composites prepared using a large fraction of MTCS in the reagent silane mixture. This resulted in substantial improvements in the 10% breakthrough Cu(II) capacity for PVA (50 000 MW). PEI composites were further modified to form an amino-acetate ligand. The impact of the MTCS:CPTCS silane ratio on the acetate ligand loading and ultimately on the Cu(II) capacity at pH 2 was investigated. A ratio of 12.5:1 was shown to result in an acetate modified PEI composite with a Cu(II) capacity 140% of the Cu(II) capacity of the same composite prepared with ''CPTCS only''.

Hughes, Mark; Nielsen, Daniel; Rosenberg, Edward; Gobetto, Roberto; Viale, Alessandra; Burton, Sarah D.; Ferel, Joseph

2006-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Fiber optic sensors for monitoring sodium circuits and power grid cables  

SciTech Connect

At Kalpakkam, India, a programme on development of Raman Distributed Temperature sensor (RDTS) for Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) application is undertaken. Leak detection in sodium circuits of FBR is critical for the safety and performance of the reactors. It is demonstrated that RDTS can be usefully employed in monitoring sodium circuits and in tracking the percolating sodium in case of any leak. Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cable is commonly used as overhead power transmission cable in power grid. A second application demonstrates the suitability of using RDTS to monitor this transmission cable for any defect. (authors)

Kasinathan, M.; Sosamma, S.; Pandian, C.; Vijayakumar, V.; Chandramouli, S.; Nashine, B. K.; Rao, C. B.; Murali, N.; Rajan, K. K.; Jayakumar, T. [IGCAR, Kalpakkam (India)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

X-ray spectroscopy study of electronic structure of laser-irradiated Au nanoparticles in a silica film  

SciTech Connect

The electronic structure of gold nanoparticles embedded in a silica film is studied, both before and after irradiation at 355 nm by a laser. The Au 5d occupied valence states are observed by x-ray emission spectroscopy. They show that before irradiation the gold atoms are in metallic states within the nanoparticles. After irradiation with a fluence of 0.5 J/cm{sup 2}, it is found that gold valence states are close to those of a metal-poor gold silicide; thanks to a comparison of the experimental Au 5d states with the calculated ones for gold silicides using the density-functional theory. The formation of such a compound is driven by the diffusion of the gold atoms into the silica film upon the laser irradiation. At higher fluence, 1 J/cm{sup 2}, we find a higher percentage of metallic gold that could be attributed to annealing in the silica matrix.

Jonnard, P.; Bercegol, H.; Lamaignere, L.; Morreeuw, J.-P.; Rullier, J.-L.; Cottancin, E.; Pellarin, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matiere et Rayonnement, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unite Mixte de Recherche (CNRS UMR) 7614, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique/Centre d'Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d'Aquitaine (CEA/CESTA), BP 2, F-33114, Le Barp (France); Centre Agregat Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Ionique et Moleculaire (LASIM) et Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee et Nanostructures (LPMCN), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report  

SciTech Connect

Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Development of high performance sodium/metal chloride cells  

SciTech Connect

Sodium/metal chloride (MCl{sub 2}) cells and batteries are being studied at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for stationary energy storage and transportation applications. The work is being directed toward (1) development of thin, high-capacity density electrodes and inexpensive {beta}{double prime}-alumina-glass composite electrolyte materials to replace {beta}{double prime}-alumina and (2) the development of models to project MCl{sub 2} system performances. In our NiCl{sub 2} electrode work, the effects of charge/discharge rates, temperature, electrode porosity, and sulfur content on electrode performance were determined using annular electrodes fabricated in the uncharged state. Of all electrode design parameters mentioned, electrode porosity, sulfur content, and charge rates have the greatest effect on utilization and on the area-specific impedance. The {beta}{double prime}-alumina-glass composite electrolyte work has led to the development of a highly conductive (3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}2}S/cm at 250{degree}C) composite material. Preliminary modeling studies indicate that the performance of the MCl{sub 2} electrodes can be fitted by a mathematic model very successfully and that cell electrolyte configurations of either multiple tubes joined at a header or compartmented flat structures of either {beta}{double prime}-alumina or of the composite material would result in high-performance batteries with power-to-energy ratios of about 5. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Vissers, D.R.; Bloom, I.D.; Hash, M.C.; Redey, L.; Hammer, C.L.; Dees, D.W.; Nelson, P.A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Structure of rhenium-containing sodium borosilicate glass  

SciTech Connect

A series of sodium borosilicate glasses were synthesized with increasing fractions of KReO4 or Re2O7, to 10000 ppm (1 mass%) target Re in glass, to assess the effects of large concentrations of rhenium on glass structure and to estimate the solubility of technetium, a radioactive component in typical low active waste nuclear waste glasses. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were performed to characterize the glasses as a function of Re source additions. In general, silicon was found coordinated in a mixture of Q2 and Q3 structural units, while Al was 4-coordinated and B was largely 3-coordinate and partially 4-coordinated. The rhenium source did not appear to have significant effects on the glass structure. Thus, at the up to the concentrations that remain in dissolved in glass, ~3000 ppm Re by mass maximum. , the Re appeared to be neither a glass-former nor a strong glass modifier., Rhenium likely exists in isolated ReO4- anions in the interstices of the glass network, as evidenced by the polarized Raman spectrum of the Re glass in the absence of sulfate. Analogous to SO42-¬ in similar glasses, ReO4- is likely a network modifier and forms alkali salt phases on the surface and in the bulk glass above solubility.

Goel, Ashutosh; McCloy, John S.; Windisch, Charles F.; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ferreira, Jose M.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

S9 -Kinetics & Mechanism of Metal Sorption/Release on Natural Materials ADSORPTION MECHANISMS OF PB ON AMORPHOUS SILICA: AN XAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S9 - Kinetics & Mechanism of Metal Sorption/Release on Natural Materials ADSORPTION MECHANISMS the sorption behavior and mechanisms of Pb on amorphous silica using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS t h o d s Pb sorption on silica was studied as a function of pH. The pH range used was pH 3

Sparks, Donald L.

388

“Nanocasting”:? Using SBA-15 Silicas as Hard Templates to Obtain Ultrasmall Monodispersed ?-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To avoid the growth of large FeOx iron oxide particles outside the silica grains, the iron precursor (iron nitrate) is deposited inside the mesopores of SBA-15 silicas using the two-solvents technique already described elsewhere and successfully applied to other oxides (manganese oxides, for instance25). ... 11 These nanoparticles are further oxidized by ferric nitrate in nitric acid and yield to cationic maghemite nanoparticles dispersible in nitric acid at pH 1.2. ... Figure 5 Raman spectra of selected references (Fe-SBA-B-1373,3-53 for epsilon, commercial hematite, dried ferrofluid for ? varieties; Fe-loaded SBA-B samples. ...

E. Delahaye; V. Escax; N. El Hassan; A. Davidson; R. Aquino; V. Dupuis; R. Perzynski; Y. L. Raikher

2006-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

389

Small-angle neutron scattering study of poly(methyl methacrylate-block-sodium acrylate-block-methyl methacrylate) and poly(sodium acrylate-block-methyl methacrylate-block-sodium acrylate) triblock copolymers in aqueous solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Small-angle neutron scattering experiments were made on poly(methyl methacrylate-block-sodium acrylate-block-methyl methacrylate) [p(MMA-b-NaA-b-MMA)] and p(NaA-b-MMA-b...-NaA) solutions by varying the compositi...

Szabolcs Vass; Kristina Haimer; Gerhard Meier…

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Molecular dynamics simulation of shock induced ejection on fused silica surface  

SciTech Connect

Shock response and surface ejection behaviors of fused silica are studied by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics combining with the Tersoff potential. First, bulk structure and Hugoniot curves of fused silica are calculated and compared with experimental results. Then, the dynamical process of surface ejection behavior is simulated under different loading velocities ranging from 3.5 to 5.0?km?s, corresponding to shock wave velocities from 7.1 to 8.8?km?s. The local atomistic shear strain parameter is used to describe the local plastic deformation under conditions of shock compression or releasing. Our result shows that the shear strain is localized in the bottom area of groove under the shock compression. Surface ejection is observed when the loading velocity exceeds 4.0?km?s. Meanwhile, the temperature of the micro-jet is ?5574.7?K, which is close to experiment measurement. Several kinds of structural defects including non-bridging oxygen are found in the bulk area of the sample after ejection.

Su, Rui [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xiang, Meizhen; Jiang, Shengli [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Chen, Jun, E-mail: jun-chen@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100087 (China); Wei, Han [Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

391

Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials  

SciTech Connect

A developed formalism for analyzing the power scaling of diffraction limited fiber lasers and amplifiers is applied to a wider range of materials. Limits considered include thermal rupture, thermal lensing, melting of the core, stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, optical damage, bend induced limits on core diameter and limits to coupling of pump diode light into the fiber. For conventional fiber lasers based upon silica, the single aperture, diffraction limited power limit was found to be 36.6kW. This is a hard upper limit that results from an interaction of the stimulated Raman scattering with thermal lensing. This result is dependent only upon physical constants of the material and is independent of the core diameter or fiber length. Other materials will have different results both in terms of ultimate power out and which of the many limits is the determining factor in the results. Materials considered include silica doped with Tm and Er, YAG and YAG based ceramics and Yb doped phosphate glass. Pros and cons of the various materials and their current state of development will be assessed. In particular the impact of excess background loss on laser efficiency is discussed.

Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Heebner, J E; Pax, P H; Sridharan, A K; Bullington, A L; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C P; Dubinskii, M

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T. [Ai-Farabi Kazakh National University, Chemical Faculty, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Galkin, A. [KATEP Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Bachilova, N. [NIISTROMPROEKT Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Blynskiy, A. [Nuclear Technology Safety Centre, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Maev, V. [MAEK-Kazatomprom Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Wells, D. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Herrick, A. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Caithness (United Kingdom); Michelbacher, J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Sodium/Phosphorus-Sulfur Cells I. Cell Performance Paul L. Ridgway,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sodium/Phosphorus-Sulfur Cells Sodium/Phosphorus-Sulfur Cells I. Cell Performance Paul L. Ridgway, Frank R. McLarnon, and Elton J. Cairns* Energy and Environment Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ABSTRACT Sodium/°-alumina/phosphorus-sulfur cells utilizing P/S ratios of 0, 0.143, 0.332, and 1.17 at temperatures from 350 to 500°C were studied by measurement of the equilibrium cell voltages at open circuit, and the steady-state cell voltages at current densities up to 70 mA/cm2. States of charge, represented by sodium atom fraction in the P-S electrode, ranged from 0 to 0.4. Open-circuit voltages up to 2.65 V were measured. Theoretical specific energies up to 825 Wh/kg were cal-

394

Thermal-hydraulic analysis of innovative fuel configurations for the sodium fast reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sodium fast reactor (SFR) is currently being reconsidered as an instrument for actinide management throughout the world, thanks in part to international programs such as the Generation-IV and especially the Global ...

Memmott, Matthew J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

The role of sodium bicarbonate in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the sublimation of H2O to bulk ice. A 1-dimensional model of sodium chemistry was then employed to show and particles; cloud physics and chemistry; middle atmosphere ± composition and chemistry) Introduction

Boyer, Edmond

396

SYNTHESIS OF HYDROCARBON STANDARDS Tetrahydrofuran (THF) was distilled from sodium/benzophenone under argon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SYNTHESIS OF HYDROCARBON STANDARDS Tetrahydrofuran (THF) was distilled from sodium Synthesis (Pelham, NH, USA). Other phosphonium salts were synthesized as follows. A solution, USA). Synthesis of Straight-chain Z-alkenes. Aldehydes needed for Wittig reactions that were

Hanks, Lawrence M.

397

Materials issues in high temperature ultrasonic transducers for under-sodium viewing  

SciTech Connect

Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970s and, over the intervening 30+ years, the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased-array 2-MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260 deg. C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260 deg. C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

Bond, L. J.; Griffin, J. W.; Posakony, G. J.; Harris, R. V.; Baldwin, D. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

398

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced fast sodium Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in HaleBopp M. E. Brown and A. H. Bouchez Summary: Sodium Velocities and Sources in Hale-Bopp M. E. Brown and A. H. Bouchez Division of Geological... resolved high-resolution...

399

Population strategies to decrease sodium intake : a global cost-effectiveness analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Excessive sodium consumption is both prevalent and very costly in many countries around the world. Recent research has found that more than 90% of the world's adult population live in countries with mean intakes exceeding ...

Webb, Michael William, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Development of a model to predict flow oscillations in low-flow sodium boiling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental and analytical program has been carried out in order to better understand the cause and effect of flow oscillations in boiling sodium systems. These oscillations have been noted in previous experiments with ...

Levin, Alan Edward

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Comparison of Nanocomposites Prepared from Sodium, Zinc, and Lithium Ionomers of Ethylene/Methacrylic Acid Copolymers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Morphology and mechanical properties of nanocomposites prepared by melt mixing a montmorillonite-based organoclay with lithium, sodium, and zinc ionomers of poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) are presented here. The effect of the type of neutralizing ...

Rhutesh K. Shah; D. R. Paul

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

Development of an improved sodium exposure test cell experiment for characterization of AMTEC electrode performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation into sources of inconsistencies in sodium exposure test cell (SETC) measurements, used to characterize AMTEC electrode performance, was conducted. Development of modifications to the SETC setup and operation was also accomplished...

Fiebig, Bradley Nelson

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

403

Development of Novel Nanomaterials for Lithium-Air and Sodium-Air Batteries.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lithium-air and sodium-air batteries are promising energy storage systems for future smart grids and electric vehicles due to their extremely high theoretical energy densities. However,… (more)

Li, Yongliang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Narrowband sodium lidar for the measurements of mesopause region temperature and wind  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report here a narrowband high-spectral resolution sodium temperature/wind lidar recently developed at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in Hefei, China...

Li, Tao; Fang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Gu, Sheng-Yang; Dou, Xiankang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Brain Tolerance in Dogs to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy with Borocaptate Sodium (BSH) or Boronophenylalanine (BPA)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Research programs investigating the potential use of BNCT for brain tumors have been initiated in Europe and in the U.S. using epithermal neutron beams and either borocaptate sodium (BSH) or boronophenylalanine (

R. Huiskamp; P. R. Gavin; J. A. Coderre; K. H. I. Philipp…

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

The Safe Use of Sodium Hydride on Scale: The Process Development of a Chloropyrimidine Displacement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Safe Use of Sodium Hydride on Scale: The Process Development of a Chloropyrimidine Displacement ... Global Pharmaceutical Commercialization, Merck Manufacturing Division, Rahway, New Jersey, 07065 ... This article is part of the Safety of Chemical Processes 11 special issue. ...

Jamie M. McCabe Dunn; Alicia Duran-Capece; Brendan Meehan; James Ulis; Tetsuo Iwama; Guy Gloor; George Wong; Evan Bekos

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

407

COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF INTRAVENOUS NICARDIPINE VERSUS SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE FOR POSTOPERATIVE HYPERTENSION AFTER CARDIAC SURGERY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Postoperative hypertension after cardiac surgery is common and associated with substantial morbidity. Both sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nicardipine (NIC) are effective in its management. SNP is inexpensive, but associated ...

Barnes, Brian Joseph

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

408

Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate. The copper exchange capacity (CuEC) and Na-Cu exchange reactions on Wyoming montmo- rillonite were studied

Sparks, Donald L.

409

Pilot scale gasification of spent cooking liquor from sodium sulfite based delignification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a pilot scale high pressure entrained flow gasification experiment with spent cooking liquor from a sodium sulfite based delignification process in the DP-1 black liquor gasifier in Piteĺ, Sweden. Approximately 92 tons of sulfite ...

Erik Furusjö; Ragnar Stare; Ingvar Landälv; Patrik Löwnertz

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

410

Evaporation of water from sodium chloride solutions under controlled climatic conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EVAPORATION OF WATER FROM SODIUM CELORIDE SOLUTIONS UNDER CONTROLLED CLIMATIC CONDITIONS A Thesis by Jaroy Moore Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE January 1967 Haj or Subject: Soil Physics EVAPORATION OF WATER FROM SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS UNDER CONTROLLED CLIMATIC CONDITIONS A Thesis by Jaroy Moore Approved as to style and content by: (Ch+jman of Committee) (Member) (, j. (Head...

Moore, Jaroy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

411

Transport parameter determination and modeling of sodium and strontium plumes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. , 1974] . . 7. Generalized plume with centerline 8. Strontium-90 distribution, 1970 [after Robertson et aL, 1974]. . . . 20 . 22 9. The sodium plume transverse dispersivity-Rnite source size in y iteration diagram. 10. The calculat. ed sodium plume.... There is flow there which picks up the contaminant ions dispersing them through the complex network of fractures and interconnected pore space of the saturated porous medium, the aquifer. Being able to model this spread of contaminant in the subsurface...

Londergan, John Thomas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

412

Evolution of Sodium Technology R and D Actions Supporting French Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the evolution of sodium technology research and development in parallel to sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) developments in France and provides information concerning operating plants and existing projects. This paper also discusses how supporting research has adapted to the decline in FBR activities since the decommissioning of Superphenix, while capitalizing on knowledge acquired over more than four decades to be passed down to future generations.

Rodriguez, G.; Baque, F.; Astegiano, J.C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Characterization of the liquid sodium spray generated by a pipework hole  

SciTech Connect

Due to its advantageous thermodynamic characteristics at high temperature (550 deg. C), liquid sodium is the main candidate to be the cooling fluid for Generation TV nuclear reactors SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors). Now, sodium reacts very violently, both with the water and the oxygen of the air. Only few data were known about the liquid sodium behaviour when spread in the environment through micro defects. These are often present in a cooling circuit in welded or sealed joints and more rarely in the pipes. Micro defects, on the other hand, can be also generated in a cooling circuit because of the vibrations always present in a circuit into which a fluid runs. A new set-up, named LISOF, was built for testing high temperature liquid sodium when passing through micro defects and generating sprays or jets. Sprays and jets were generated by means of nozzles embedding sub milli-metric holes the diameter of which was: 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm. Tests were performed by pressurizing liquid sodium (550 deg. C) at: 3, 6 and 9 barg. Normal and high speed cinematography were used for the direct observation of the liquid sodium sprays while Phase Doppler Interferometry was used for the measurement of the droplets characteristics and velocity. Tests concerning the behaviour of the high temperature liquid sodium firing in air or in contact with the cement cover applied to a scaled down core catcher simulacrum were also performed. The paper presents the built set-up and the collected results. (authors)

Torsello, G.; Parozzi, F.; Nericcio, L. [RSE - Nuclear and Industrial Plant Safety Team, Power Generation System Dept., via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, L.; Cozzi, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Dept., via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy); Carcassi, M.; Mattei, N. [Universita di Pisa-Facolta d'Ingegneria DIMNP-Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Dep., Largo L. Lazzarino 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Proper use of sodium bisulfite with minimal salt penetration during brine immersion freezing of shrimp  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PROPER USE OF SODIUM BISULFITE WITH MINIMAL SALT PENETRATION DURING BRINE IMMERSION FREEZING OF SHRIMP A Thesis by SUZANNE RENE BROUSSARD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the reguirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE MAY 1988 OC o Z m Z IJ III s Z Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PROPER USE OF SODIUM BISULFITE WITH MINIMAL SALT PENETRATION DURING BRINE IMMERSION FREEZING OF SHRIMP A Thesis by SUZANNE RENE...

Broussard, Suzanne Rene

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

415

The electrochemical analysis of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate in solutions containing oilfield impurities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE ELECTROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SODIUM DODECYLBENZENESULFONATE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING OILFIELD IMPURITIES A Thesis by MICHAEL CARL BECKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THE ELECTROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SODIUM DODECYLBENZENESULFONATE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING OILFIELD IMPURITIES A Thesis by MICHAEL CARL BECKER Approved as to style...

Becker, Michael Carl

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

416

Sodium and potassium levels in the serum of acutely irradiated and non-irradiated rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject: Zoology SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head...

Shepherd, David Preston

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

417

Growth and bone development in weanling quarter horses fed diets supplemented with sodium zeolite-A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT IN WEANLING QUARTER HORSES FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM ZEOLITE-A A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUZANNE FREY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... in Weanling Quarter Horses Fed Diets Supplemented with Sodium Zeolite-A. (December 1991) Kimberly Suzanne Frey, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Gary D. Potter Sixty Quarter Horse weanlings were used in a study to determine...

Frey, Kimberly Suzanne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

418

A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect

The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

419

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

420

An evaluation of neutralization for processing sodium-bearing liquid waste  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses an alternative concept for potentially managing the sodium-bearing liquid waste generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from the current method of calcining a blend of sodium waste and high-level liquid waste. The concept is based on removing the radioactive components from sodium-bearing waste by neutralization and grouting the resulting low-level waste for on-site near-surface disposal. Solidifying the sodium waste as a remote-handled transuranic waste is not considered to be practical because of excessive costs and inability to dispose of the waste in a timely fashion. Although neutralization can remove most radioactive components to provide feed for a solidified low-level waste, and can reduce liquid inventories four to nine years more rapidly than the current practice of blending sodium-bearing liquid waste with first-cycle raffinite, the alternative will require major new facilities and will generate large volumes of low-level waste. Additional facility and operating costs are estimated to be at least $500 million above the current practice of blending and calcining. On-site, low-level waste disposal may be technically difficult and conflict which national and state policies. Therefore, it is recommended that the current practice of calcining a blend of sodium-bearing liquid waste and high-level liquid waste be continued to minimize overall cost and process complexities. 17 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

Chipman, N.A.; Engelgau, G.O.; Berreth, J.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

THE DISPERSIVE EFFECT OF SODIUM SILICATE ON KAOLINITE PARTICLES IN PROCESS WATER: IMPLICATIONS FOR IRON-ORE PROCESSING  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contrast to polyacrylic acid (Figure 2...hinders the dispersants adsorption...low-molecular-weight polyacrylic acid on the coagulation...low-molecular-weight polyacrylic acid on silica...widely as a dispersant of silicate...

Mark Ma

422

Direct One-Step Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase in Well-Ordered Mesostructured Silica Using a Nonionic Fluorinated Surfactant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work describes the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) in mesostructured silica. ... The appearance of secondary or interparticular porosity has been correlated with the SEM observations that show the formation of very small particles with increasing pH values of the synthesis gel. ... With the 2nd method both the nanostructure and the particle morphol. ...

J. L. Blin; C. Gérardin; C. Carteret; L. Rodehüser; C. Selve; M. J. Stébé

2005-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

423

Hydrothermal Growth of Mesoporous SBA-15 Silica in the Presence of PVP-Stabilized Pt Nanoparticles: Synthesis,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrothermal Growth of Mesoporous SBA-15 Silica in the Presence of PVP-Stabilized Pt Nanoparticles hydrothermal synthesis. Characterization of the Pt/SBA-15 catalysts suggests that Pt particles are located are responsible for ethane decomposition to surface carbon. The ability to design catalytic structures

Yang, Peidong

424

Ultra-large bandwidth hollow-core guiding in all-silica Bragg fibers with nano-supports  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the literature. With only three rings of silica cladding layers, these Bragg fibers achieve propagation loss, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission," Nature cladding structures for air-core photonic bandgap fibers." Opt. Lett. 29, 349-351 (2004). 12. T. P. White

Huang, Yanyi

425

Ostwald ripening of cobalt precipitates in silica aerogels? An ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silica aerogels were doped with cobalt, reduced, and studied with ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering. A scattering pattern rich in structure extends over nearly four orders of magnitude in q space, covering real space from 5 to 3000 ?, exposing micropores, mesopores and macropores for all aerogels.

Braun, A.

2005-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

426

Atomistic simulation of the interface structure of Si nanocrystals embedded in amorphous silica Flyura Djurabekova and Kai Nordlund*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atomistic simulation of the interface structure of Si nanocrystals embedded in amorphous silica 11 February 2008; published 14 March 2008 An efficient means to obtain light emission from a silicon in industrial wafer manufacturing lines, this has opened up a promising avenue for using low-cost silicon chips

Nordlund, Kai

427

Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf nanostructures by nanoimprint on Silica Sol-gel films.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf nanostructures by nanoimprint on Silica Sol these biomimetics structures over large scales and at affordable price for industrial applications as for example have chosen to imprint the lotus leaf and butterfly wings in order to obtain superhydrophobic surfaces

428

Benign, 3D encapsulation of sensitive mammalian cells in porous silica gels formed by LysSil nanoparticle assembly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­Sil nanoparticle assembly Mark A. Snyder, Döne Demirgöz, Efrosini Kokkoli *, Michael Tsapatsis * Department 2008 Keywords: Silica gels Nanoparticles Mammalian cell encapsulation Laser scanning confocal nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of the basic amino acid L-Lysine for encapsulation of living mammalian cells

Kokkoli, Efie

429

Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Remediation of Phenol by Platinized Titania–Silica Mixed Oxides under Solar-Simulated Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Remediation of Phenol by Platinized Titania–Silica Mixed Oxides under Solar-Simulated Conditions ... In recent years, innovative research for the development of advanced products has realized nanomaterials that demonstrate the unique structural, mechanical, optical, electronic, and catalytic properties under light irradiation. ...

Harrison S. Kibombo; Ranjit T. Koodali

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

430

Borosilicate clad fused silica core fiber optical waveguide with low transmission loss prepared by a high?efficiency process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for making fused silica core?borosilicate clad optical fiberwaveguides is described. The process involves the growth of a needlelike layer of borosilicate glass onto the surface of a commercially available high?purity fused silica rod by an efficient flamereaction of boron and silicon hydrides with oxygen. The needlelike layer is subsequently heat treated at relatively low temperature to form a homogeneous bubble?free glass with a smooth surface. It is then covered with a thin protective jacket of silica and drawn into a fiber. These fibers have attenuation coefficients only slightly greater than the bulk loss of the fused silica core materials. Over the Al1?x Ga x As injection laser wavelength range 0.82–0.88 ?m the loss is 5 dB/km while at the YAG : Nd laser wavelength 1.06 ?m it is 3 dB/km. The process appears to be attractive for the economical manufacture of low?loss fibers due to its simplicity and high chemical conversion efficiency.

F. W. Dabby; D. A. Pinnow; F. W. Ostermayer; L. G. Van Uitert; M. A. Saifi; I. Camlibel

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Surface Complexation Model for Strontium Sorption to Amorphous Silica and Goethite  

SciTech Connect

Strontium sorption to amorphous silica and goethite was measured as a function of pH and dissolved strontium and carbonate concentrations at 25 C. Strontium sorption gradually increases from 0 to 100% from pH 6 to 10 for both phases and requires multiple outer-sphere surface complexes to fit the data. All data are modeled using the triple layer model and the site-occupancy standard state; unless stated otherwise all strontium complexes are mononuclear. Strontium sorption to amorphous silica in the presence and absence of dissolved carbonate can be fit with tetradentate Sr{sup 2+} and SrOH{sup +} complexes on the {beta}-plane and a monodentate Sr{sup 2+} complex on the diffuse plane to account for strontium sorption at low ionic strength. Strontium sorption to goethite in the absence of dissolved carbonate can be fit with monodentate and tetradentate SrOH{sup +} complexes and a tetradentate binuclear Sr{sup 2+} species on the {beta}-plane. The binuclear complex is needed to account for enhanced sorption at high strontium surface loadings. In the presence of dissolved carbonate additional monodentate Sr{sup 2+} and SrOH{sup +} carbonate surface complexes on the {beta}-plane are needed to fit strontium sorption to goethite. Modeling strontium sorption as outer-sphere complexes is consistent with quantitative analysis of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) on selected sorption samples that show a single first shell of oxygen atoms around strontium indicating hydrated surface complexes at the amorphous silica and goethite surfaces. Strontium surface complexation equilibrium constants determined in this study combined with other alkaline earth surface complexation constants are used to recalibrate a predictive model based on Born solvation and crystal-chemistry theory. The model is accurate to about 0.7 log K units. More studies are needed to determine the dependence of alkaline earth sorption on ionic strength and dissolved carbonate and sulfate concentrations for the development of a robust surface complexation database to estimate alkaline earth sorption in the environment.

Carroll, S; Robers, S; Criscenti, L; O'Day, P

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

432

Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process  

SciTech Connect

Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Büchi, Switzerland) with 115°C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

Moreira, B. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Passador, F. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Pessan, L. A., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br [Dep. de Engenharia de Materiais, Federal University of Săo Carlos (Brazil)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

In this project, now completing its third year of its second renewal period, a collaborative project involving Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of North Texas has been addressing outstanding questions regarding the separation of the bulk sodium constituents of alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit of this research is a major reduction in the volume of radioactive tank waste, obviating the building of expensive new tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. As a general approach, principles of ion recognition are being explored toward discovery and basic understanding of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium salts from waste-like matrices. Questions being addressed pertain to applicable extraction equilibria and how extraction properties relate to extractant structure. Progress has included the elucidation of the promising concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction (PHE), demonstration of crown-ether synergized PHE, demonstration of combined sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate separation, and synthesis of novel ditopic receptors for ditopic PHE. In future efforts (pending renewal), a thermochemical study of PHE relating extractant acidity to extraction strength is proposed, and this study will be extended to systems containing crown ethers, including proton-ionizable ones. A series of crown ethers will be synthesized for this purpose and to investigate the extraction of bulk sodium salts (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate), possibly in combination with sodium hydroxide. Simple proof-of-principle tests with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent designs that have desirable properties. In view of the upcoming milestone of completion of the second renewal period, this report will, in addition to providing a summary of the past year's progress, summarize all of the work completed since the start of this project.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

435

Synthesis and single crystal structure refinement of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica  

SciTech Connect

A sodium brittle mica with the ideal composition [Na{sub 4}]{sup inter}[Mg{sub 6}]{sup oct}[Si{sub 4}Al{sub 4}]{sup tet}O{sub 20}F{sub 4} was synthesized via melt synthesis in a gas tight crucible. This mica is unusual inasmuch as the known mica structure holds only room for two interlayer cations per unit cell and inasmuch as it readily hydrates despite the high layer charge while ordinary micas and brittle micas are non-swelling. The crystal structure of one-layer hydrate sodium brittle mica was determined and refined from single crystal X-ray data. Interlayer cations reside at the center of the distorted hexagonal cavities and are coordinated by the three inner basal oxygen atoms. The coordination of the interlayer cation is completed by three interlayer water molecules residing at the center of the interlayer region. The relative position of adjacent 2:1-layers thus is fixed by these octahedrally coordinated interlayer cations. Pseudo-symmetry leads to extensive twinning. In total five twin operations generate the same environment for the interlayer species and are energetically degenerate. - Graphical abstract: The sodium brittle mica has been successfully synthesized by melt synthesis and the crystal structure of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melt synthesis yielded coarse grained sodium brittle mica which showed little disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium brittle mica hydrated completely to the state of one-layer hydrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica could therefore be determined and refined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arrangement of upper and lower tetrahedral sheet encompassing interlayer cation were clarified.

Kalo, Hussein; Milius, Wolfgang [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Braeu, Michael [BASF Construction Chemicals GmbH, 83308 Trostberg (Germany)] [BASF Construction Chemicals GmbH, 83308 Trostberg (Germany); Breu, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Breu@uni-bayreuth.de [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

A New Concept for the Fabrication of Hydrogen Selective Silica Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New CoNCept for the fAbriCAtioN of New CoNCept for the fAbriCAtioN of hydrogeN SeleCtive SiliCA MeMbrANeS Background As stated in the National Research Council report on Novel Approaches to Carbon Management, a novel membrane is needed that can achieve the separation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and hydrogen (H 2 ) at a high temperature and pressure. Extensive efforts over the last several decades have explored high temperature H 2 -selective membranes made of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) and other oxides, palladium (Pd) and other metals or alloys and, more recently, various zeolites and non-aluminosilicate molecular sieves. Although promising separation results have been reported for many of them, these technologies, they all suffer from high production costs for membrane fabrication and from long term stability problems. This project revisits

437

Post-Harvest Processing Methods for Reduction of Silica and Alkali Metals in Wheat Straw  

SciTech Connect

Silica and alkali metals in wheat straw limit its use for bioenergy and gasification. Slag deposits occur via the eutectic melting of SiO2 with K2O, trapping chlorides at surfaces and causing corrosion. A minimum melting point of 950°C is desirable, corresponding to SiO2:K2O of about 3:1. Mild chemical treatments were used to reduce Si, K, and Cl, while varying temperature, concentration, %-solids, and time. Dilute acid was more effective at removing K and Cl, while dilute alkali was more effective for Si. Reduction of minerals in this manner may prove economical for increasing utilization of the straw for combustion or gasification.

Thompson, David Neal; Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Shaw, Peter Gordon

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Aminosilane-Grafted Polymer/Silica Hollow Fiber Adsorbents for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this approach, polymeric hollow fibers similar to those already prepared on commercial scales for membrane gas separations are prepared and loaded with large volumes of solid CO2 adsorbing materials. ... In this regard, the hollow fiber RTSA process is ideally suited for application of typical silica amine adsorbents, as it (i) allows for effective heat integration,(11) (ii) gives fast cycle times (expected to be on the order of 2–4 min),(8) and (iii) minimizes contact of aminosilica-adsorbents with high-temperature steam, which can degrade the adsorbent. ... The moles of CO2 adsorbed were calculated by integration of the area bounded by the CO2 breakthrough front and the He breakthrough front from the initial concentration to the final equilibration concentration. ...

Fateme Rezaei; Ryan P. Lively; Ying Labreche; Grace Chen; Yanfang Fan; William J. Koros; Christopher W. Jones

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

439

A molecular dynamics investigation of the unusual concentration dependencies of Fick diffusivities in silica mesopores  

SciTech Connect

Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to determine the self-diffusivitiy, D{sub i,self}, the Maxwell–Stefan diffusivity, Đ{sub i}, and the Fick diffusivity, D{sub i}, for methane (C1), ethane (C2), propane (C3), n-butane (nC4), n-pentane (nC5), n-hexane (nC6), n-heptane (nC7), and cyclohexane (cC6) in cylindrical silica mesopores for a range of pore concentrations. The MD simulations show that zero-loading diffusivity Đ{sub i}(0) is consistently lower, by up to a factor of 20, than the values anticipated by the classical Knudsen formula. The concentration dependence of the Fick diffusivity, D{sub i} is found to be unusually complex, and displays a strong minimum in some cases; this characteristic can be traced to molecular clustering.

Krishna, Rajamani; van Baten, Jasper M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a nickel/silica catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Temperature-programed desorption and reaction studies showed that increasing amounts of CO/sub 2/ adsorbed on silica-supported 6.9% nickel with increasing temperature to a maximum adsorption at approx. 443/sup 0/K, i.e., that the adsorption was activated; that CO/sub 2/ desorbed partly as CO/sub 2/ with the peak at 543/sup 0/K, and partly as CO with several peaks; that in the presence of hydrogen, nearly all adsorbed CO/sub 2/ desorbed as methane, and a small amount as CO; and that the methane desorption peaks from adsorbed CO and CO/sub 2/ both occurred at 473/sup 0/K. These results suggested that carbon dioxide adsorbed dissociatively as a carbon monoxide and an oxygen species. An observed absence of higher hydrocarbons in the methanation products of carbon dioxide was attributed to a high hydrogen/carbon monoxide surface ratio caused by the activated carbon dioxide adsorption.

Falconer, J.L.; Zagli, A.E.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Dynamics at the Polymer/Nanoparticle Interface in Poly(2-vinylpyridine)/Silica Nanocomposites.  

SciTech Connect

The static and dynamic properties of poly(2-vinylpyridine)/silica nanocomposites are investigated by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry, broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and transmission electron microscopy. Both BDS and SAXS detect the existence of an interfacial polymer layer on the surface of nanoparticles. The results show that whereas the calorimetric glass transition temperature varies only weakly with nanoparticle loading, the segmental mobility of the polymer interfacial layer is slower than the bulk polymer by 2 orders of magnitude. Detailed analysis of BDS and SAXS data reveal that the interfacial layer has a thickness of 4 6 nm irrespective of the nanoparticle concentration. These results demonstrate that in contrast to some recent articles on polymer nanocomposites, the interfacial polymer layer is by no means a dead layer . However, its existence might provide some explanation for controversies surrounding the dynamics of polymer nanocomposites.

Holt, Adam P [ORNL] [ORNL; Griffin, Phillip [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Bocharova, Vera [ORNL] [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL] [ORNL; Imel, Adam E [ORNL] [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL] [ORNL; Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL] [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Ultrafast laser induced electronic and structural modifications in bulk fused silica  

SciTech Connect

Ultrashort laser pulses can modify the inner structure of fused silica, generating refractive index changes varying from soft positive (type I) light guiding forms to negative (type II) values with void presence and anisotropic sub-wavelength modulation. We investigate electronic and structural material changes in the type I to type II transition via coherent and incoherent secondary light emission reflecting free carrier behavior and post-irradiation material relaxation in the index change patterns. Using phase contrast microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy, we determine in a space-resolved manner defect formation, redistribution and spatial segregation, and glass network reorganization paths in conditions marking the changeover between type I and type II photoinscription regimes. We first show characteristic patterns of second harmonic generation in type I and type II traces, indicating the collective involvement of free carriers and polarization memory. Second, incoherent photoemission from resonantly and non-resonantly excited defect states reveals accumulation of non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHCs) in positive index domains and oxygen deficiency centers (ODCs) with O{sub 2}{sup ?} ions segregation in void-like regions and in the nanostructured domains, reflecting the interaction strength. Complementary Raman investigations put into evidence signatures of the different environments where photo-chemical densification (bond rearrangements) and mechanical effects can be indicated. NBOHCs setting in before visible index changes serve as precursors for subsequent compaction build-up, indicating a scenario of cold, defect-assisted densification for the soft type I irradiation regime. Additionally, we observe hydrodynamic effects and severe bond-breaking in type II zones with indications of phase transition. These observations illuminate densification paths in fused silica in low power irradiation regimes, and equally in energetic ranges, characterized by the onset of thermo-mechanical effects.

Mishchik, K.; D'Amico, C.; Velpula, P. K.; Mauclair, C.; Boukenter, A.; Ouerdane, Y.; Stoian, R. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Université de Lyon, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 Saint Etienne (France)] [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Université de Lyon, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 Saint Etienne (France)

2013-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

443

Treatment and prevention of ARD using silica micro encapsulation[Acid Rock Drainage  

SciTech Connect

In response to the known drawbacks of liming and the ever-increasing regulatory demands on the mining industry, KEECO has developed a silica micro encapsulation (SME) process. SME is a cost-effective, high performance reagent that is utilized in conjunction with simple chemical delivery systems. By encapsulating metals in a silica matrix formation and rapidly precipitating them into a sand-like sludge, it offers all the advantages of liming without the negative drawbacks. Utilizing an injection technique via a high shear mixing device, a slurry form of the SME product called KB-1{trademark} was applied to ARD at the Bunker Hill Mine in Idaho and to ARD pumped from collection ponds at a remote mine site in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Flow rates at both sites ranged form 500 to 800 gallons per minute. Treated water from the Bunker Hill Mine operation achieved the site's NPDES criteria for all evaluated metals and US Drinking Water quality for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and zinc with a dosage rate of 1.34 grams KB-1{trademark} per liter. Treated water from the Sierra Nevada project focused on the control of aluminum, arsenic, copper, iron and nickel. All water samples displayed a >99.5% reduction in these metals, as well as an 84%--87% reduction in the concentration of sulfate. Testing on sludge generated form both operations achieved TCLP Action Limits. The SME process is currently under evaluation as a means to coat the pyrite surfaces of newly generated mine tailings to prevent oxidation and future acid generation.

Mitchell, P.; Rybock, J.; Wheaton, A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

SNAKE Sodium S-CO2 Interactions Experiment - Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SNAKE Sodium S-CO2 Interactions Experiment SNAKE Sodium S-CO2 Interactions Experiment Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Testing and Analysis Overview Nuclear Reactor Severe Accident Experiments MAX NSTF SNAKE Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr SNAKE Sodium S-CO2 Interactions Experiment 1 2 The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle, coupled with a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), has been identified as a new and innovative energy conversion technology that could contribute to improving the economics of advanced nuclear energy. For these reactors, a new generation of compact, highly-efficient heat exchangers (HXs) will be employed that show great promise in improving the safety and cost of SFRs; however, small HX leaks could still occur. SNAKE is designed to study S-CO2 leakage into sodium.

445

Nanocomposite hydrogel from grafting of acrylamide onto HPMC using sodium montmorillonite nanoclay and removal of crystal violet dye  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogel nanocomposites were synthesized from grafting of acrylamide onto hydroxypropyl methylcellulose using methylenebisacrylamide crosslinker and sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMt) nanoclay. The effect of nanoclay

Gholam Reza Mahdavinia; Javad Hasanpour; Zeinab Rahmani; Shiva Karami…

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

447

Sensory and physical characteristics of reduced sodium, chunked and formed hams from hot-processed, electrically stimulated pork carcasses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

treatment, were subdivided into two equal groups, deboned and injected with brine containing sodium nitrite (0. 1X), dextrose (1. 25X), sodium erythorbate (0. 42K), sodium phosphate (0. 5X), and chloride salt (15. 0X) consisting of either sodium chloride... (NaC1) or equivalent amounts of NaC1 and potassium chloride (KC1). Within each salt treatment, hams were tumbled for 1, 2 or 3 hr and vacuum stuffed into pre-stuck fibrous casings. All hams were cooked to an internal temperature of 65 C, chilled...

Bohac, Joseph John

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

448

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Sodium Intercalation Battery for Stationary Storage - David Ofer, Tiax  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sodium Intercalation Battery for Sodium Intercalation Battery for Stationary Storage Energy Storage Systems Program (ESS) Peer Review and Update Meeting 2012 David Ofer Ofer.david@tiaxllc.com Washington DC, September 27, 2012 Sodium Intercalation Battery for Stationary Storage Background and Purpose 2 Large-scale stationary energy storage for integration with renewables and for off-peak energy capture is a new application requiring new rechargeable batteries. * New combination of requirements - Long cycle life under deep cycling use profile - High cycling efficiency - Moderate rate capability - Very low cost - No requirement for particularly high specific energy or energy density * TIAX is developing a novel Na-ion battery - Leverages teachings of Li-ion technology - Targets novel low-cost chemistry and cell design

449

Cost Transfers at the Department's Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Facility Construction Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Audit Report Cost Transfers at the Department's Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Facility Construction Project OAS-M-13-03 August 2013 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 August 8, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SENIOR ADVISOR FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FROM: Rickey R. Hass Deputy Inspector General for Audits and Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Cost Transfers at the Department's Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Facility Construction Project" BACKGROUND In 2005, the Department of Energy (Department) awarded the Idaho Cleanup Project contract to CH2M ♦ WG Idaho, LLC (CWI) to remediate the Idaho National Laboratory. The Sodium

450

Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Beta Batteries (October 2012) Beta Batteries (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage Program is funding research to further develop a novel planar design for sodium-beta batteries (Na-beta batteries or NBBs) that will improve energy and power densities and simplify manufacturing. This project will demonstrate a planar prototype that operates at <300 degrees Celsius and will scale up the storage capacity to 5 kW, improving on the performance levels being pursued in related battery research projects. Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012) More Documents & Publications Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review Presentations - Poster Session 1 (Day 1): ARPA-E Projects Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review and Update Meeting Advanced Materials and Devices for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

451

Two-dimensional computational modeling of sodium boiling in simulated LMFBR fuel-pin bundles  

SciTech Connect

Extensive sodium boiling tests have been carried out in two simulated LMFBR fuel pin bundles in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Experimental results from a 19-pin bundle (THORS Bundle 6A) have been previously reported, and experimental results from a 61-pin bundle (THORS Bundle 9) will be reported soon. The results discussed here are from the 19-pin bundle. Preliminary analysis has shown that the computational methods used and conclusions reached are equally valid for the 61-pin bundle, as well as the 19-pin in-reactor Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-1 experiment. The main result of THORS sodium boiling experimentation is that boiling behavior is determined by two-dimensional effects, i.e., the rates of mass, momentum and energy transfer in the direction perpendicular to the axes of the fuel pins.

Dearing, J.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Development and application of modeling tools for sodium fast reactor inspection  

SciTech Connect

To support the development of in-service inspection methods for the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID) project led by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), several tools that allow situations specific to Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) to be modeled have been implemented in the CIVA software and exploited. This paper details specific applications and results obtained. For instance, a new specular reflection model allows the calculation of complex echoes from scattering structures inside the reactor vessel. EMAT transducer simulation models have been implemented to develop new transducers for sodium visualization and imaging. Guided wave analysis tools have been developed to permit defect detection in the vessel shell. Application examples and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît; Baronian, Vahan [CEA LIST, Centre de Saclay F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

453

Design and development of a high-temperature sodium compatibility testing facility  

SciTech Connect

The use of advanced alloys within sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) has been identified as a means of increasing plant efficiency and reducing construction costs. In particular, alloys such as NF-616, NF-709 and HT-UPS are promising because they exhibit greater strength than traditional structural materials such as 316-SS. However, almost nothing is known about the sodium compatibility of these new alloys. Therefore, research taking place at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison is focused on studying the effects of sodium corrosion on these materials under prototypic SFR operating conditions (600 [ deg. C], V Na=10 [m/s], C 0{approx} 1 [wppm]). This paper focuses on the design and construction of the testing facility with an emphasis on moving magnet pumps (MMPs). Corrosion data from a preliminary 500 [hr] natural convection test will also be presented. (authors)

Hvasta, M. G.; Nolet, B. K.; Anderson, M. H. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison - ERB 841, WI 53705 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Sodium sulfate–diatomite composite materials for high temperature thermal energy storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work explores the use of sodium sulfate and diatomite to formulate composite materials for high temperature thermal energy storage applications. Sodium sulfate in the composite functions as a phase change material (PCM) and diatomite as a structural skeleton for shape stabilization. It is found that sodium sulfate and diatomite have an excellent chemical compatibility with the PCM melting temperature at around 880 °C. It is shown that the composite containing 45% diatomite gives an optimal formulation in terms of energy density, salt leakage and mechanical strength. The results also suggest that the composite with the optimal formulation has an application window of 890–980 °C. Failures occur to the composite materials at temperatures above 1000 °C.

Yue Qin; Guanghui Leng; Xiang Yu; Hui Cao; Geng Qiao; Yunfeng Dai; Yelong Zhang; Yulong Ding

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams  

SciTech Connect

Sodium ion (Na+) batteries have attracted increased attention for energy storage due to the natural abundance of sodium, but their development is hindered by the poor intercalation property of Na+ in electrodes. This paper reports a detailed study of high capacity, high rate sodium ion energy storage in high-surface-area nanocellular carbon foams (NCCF). The energy storage mechanism is surface-driven reactions between Na+ and oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of NCCF. The surface reaction, rather than a Na+ bulk intercalation reaction, leads to high rate performance and cycling stability due to the enhanced reaction kinetics and the absence of electrode structure change. The NCCF makes more surface area and surface functional groups available for the Na+ reaction. It delivers 152 mAh/g capacity at the rate of 0.1 A/g and a capacity retention of 90% for over 1600 cycles.

Shao, Yuyan; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Chen, Xilin; Nie, Zimin; Gu, Meng; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

456

Comparison of the morphology of alkali–silica gel formed in limestones in concrete affected by the so-called alkali–carbonate reaction (ACR) and alkali–silica reaction (ASR)  

SciTech Connect

The morphology of alkali–silica gel formed in dolomitic limestone affected by the so-called alkali–carbonate reaction (ACR) is compared to that formed in a siliceous limestone affected by alkali–silica reaction (ASR). The particle of dolomitic limestone was extracted from the experimental sidewalk in Kingston, Ontario, Canada that was badly cracked due to ACR. The siliceous limestone particle was extracted from a core taken from a highway structure in Quebec, affected by ASR. Both cores exhibited marked reaction rims around limestone particles. The aggregate particles were polished and given a light gold coating in preparation for examination in a scanning electron microscope. The gel in the ACR aggregate formed stringers between the calcite crystals in the matrix of the rock, whereas gel in ASR concrete formed a thick layer on top of the calcite crystals, that are of the same size as in the ACR aggregate.

Grattan-Bellew, P.E., E-mail: p.grattan-bellew@sympatico.ca [Materials and Petrographic Research G-B Inc., 472 Edison Avenue, Ottawa, ON, Canada K2A 1T9 (Canada); Chan, Gordon [NRC Construction, Bldg., M20, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada)] [NRC Construction, Bldg., M20, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

Synthesis of antibodies-conjugated fluorescent dye-doped silica nanoparticles for a rapid single step detection of campylobacter jejuni in live poultry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The preparation of antibodies-conjugated fluorescent dye-doped silica nanoparticles (FDS-NPs) was developed to detect Campylobacter jejuni cells under a fluorescence microscope. The particles prepared by sol-gel microemulsion techniques have a round ...

Wachira Tansub; Kooranee Tuitemwong; Pichet Limsuwan; Supannee Theparoonrat; Pravate Tuitemwong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Improvement of Radiation-Induced Degradation in MOSFET by Using Glass Fiber/Epoxy/Silica Nanoparticles/?-APTES Composite as Shielding Materials for High-Energy Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our recent study showed that the trapping charges of the polysilicon wire sensor caused by ?-ray radiation primarily concentrated in the ?-APTES/silica nanoparticles composite layer covered on the sensor. In this...

Po-Yen Hsu; Shou-Sheu Lin; Cheng-Fu Yang…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Correlation of defect centers with second-harmonic generation in Ge-doped and Ge–P-doped silica-core single-mode fibers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The origin of frequency doubling in Ge-doped silica-core single-mode glass fibers has been investigated with electron-spin-resonance spectrometry. Correlations have been observed...

Tsai, T E; Saifi, M A; Friebele, E J; Österberg, U; Griscom, D L

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

1987-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Characterization of Sodium Emulsion Soaps Formed from Production Fluids of Kutei Basin, Indonesia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Kutei Basin soap emulsions are resolved by heating and treatment with relatively high dosages of acid demulsifiers. ... Two main types of soaps can form in production fluids:1 calcium naphthenate scales, which can manifest as in situ sticky or hardened deposits, and sodium emulsion soaps, which can create severe oil dehydration problems and lead to excessive slop oil/sludge volumes at crude-oil terminals. ... Similar sodium carboxylate soaps are also common to other basins around Borneo (e.g., Sarawak, Brunei, and Sabah)2 and in other parts of southeast Asia (e.g., the South China Sea, Malaysia, offshore Vietnam, Bohai Bay in China, and elsewhere in Indonesia). ...

Darrell L. Gallup; Joseph A. Curiale; P. Colin Smith

2007-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

462

Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P. [DEN/DTN/STPA/LIET, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Univ, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France)

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

463

Interstitial BiO molecule as a broadband IR luminescence centre in bismuth-doped silica glass  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data on absorption and luminescence in optical fibres with a Bi : SiO{sub 2} glass core are compared to experimentally determined and calculated spectroscopic properties of the BiO molecule. The results suggest that the IR luminescence of Bi : SiO{sub 2} glass is due to interstitial BiO molecules. This assumption is supported by quantum-chemical simulation results for a BiO molecule in a ring interstice of the silica glass network.

Sokolov, V O; Plotnichenko, V G; Dianov, Evgenii M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

464

BIMETALLIC NANOCATALYSTS IN MESOPOROUS SILICA FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL-DERIVED FUELS  

SciTech Connect

In steam reforming reactions (SRRs) of alkanes and alcohols to produce H{sub 2}, noble metals such as platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are extensively used as catalyst. These metals are expensive; so, to reduce noble-metal loading, bi-metallic nanocatalysts containing non-noble metals in MCM-41 (Mobil Composition of Material No. 41, a mesoporous material) as a support material with high-surface area were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal procedure with a surfactant such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. Bi-metallic nanocatalysts of Pd-Ni and Pd-Co with varying metal loadings in MCM-41 were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The BET surface area of MCM-41 (~1000 m{sup 2}/g) containing metal nanoparticles decreases with the increase in metal loading. The FTIR studies confirm strong interaction between Si-O-M (M = Pd, Ni, Co) units and successful inclusion of metal into the mesoporous silica matrix. The catalyst activities were examined in steam reforming of methanol (SRM) reactions to produce hydrogen. Reference tests using catalysts containing individual metals (Pd, Ni and Co) were also performed to investigate the effect of the bimetallic system on the catalytic behavior in the SRM reactions. The bimetallic system remarkably improves the hydrogen selectivity, methanol conversion and stability of the catalyst. The results are consistent with a synergistic behavior for the Pd-Ni-bimetallic system. The performance, durability and thermal stability of the Pd-Ni/MCM-41 and Pd-Co/MCM-41 suggest that these materials may be promising catalysts for hydrogen production from biofuels. A part of this work for synthesis and characterization of Pd-Ni-MCM-41 and its activity for SRM reactions has been published (“Development of Mesoporous Silica Encapsulated Pd-Ni Nanocatalyst for Hydrogen Production” in “Production and Purification of Ultraclean Transportation Fuels”; Hu, Y., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2011.)

Kuila, Debasish; Ilias, Shamsuddin

2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

465

Differences in pulmonary responses of rats, other animals, and humans to chronic inhalation of silica and other particles  

SciTech Connect

The pulmonary carcinogenicity of quartz in rats supports the plausibility of silica-induced lung cancer in humans. However, pulmonary responses of rats to dusts differ from those of other rodents, and may differ from those of humans. Dust-exposed rats have a greater propensity than mice or hamsters for epithelial hyperplasia, metaplasia, and fibrosis. Lung tumors occur in rats, but not mice or hamsters, treated with quartz, or exposed chronically to several other dusts. There are few opportunities for directly comparing the susceptibilities of rats and humans to dust-induced lung tumors. Because of the uncertain human responses to silica and many other particles, the negative human lung cancer response to coal dust may provide the best opportunity to calibrate responses of rats against those of humans. Historical dust lung burdens in coal miners were in the range of those associated with carcinogenicity in rats exposed to several dusts, but the carcinogenicity of coal dust in rats is unknown. The usefulness of tumor data from rats for predicting human lung cancer risk from inhaled silica and other dusts remains uncertain.

Mauderly, J.L.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

466

Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-frequency generation. The demonstrated conversion efficiency is 3.2% W-1 cm-1 . This compact solid-state light source applications involving the high- resolution sodium spectrum, including laser remote sensing, biology, communications, display technology [1], and Bose­Einstein condensation [2]. A narrow- band solid-state source

467

indirect study, coal was oxidatively de-graded with sodium dichromate and the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cleaning Technology (Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, N.J., 1981). 10. Z. Hussain, E. Umbach, D. Aindirect study, coal was oxidatively de- graded with sodium dichromate and the esterified products- vestigators concluded (17, p. 380) that "thiophene derivatives must be indige- nous to coal." The direct XANES

Howat, Ian M.

468

Pressure-Induced Structural Transformations of the Zintl Phase Sodium Silicide Ral Quesada Cabreraa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and reduction of Na+ to metallic sodium. We have combined our experimental studies with DFT calculations and germanides belong to the family of Zintl phases, in which polyanionic species, formed of the tetrelide atoms counterbalance the electropositive metal cations [1-3]. These compounds are interesting because the Si and Ge

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

469

Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Sodium in 7-Pin LMFBR Bundle Under Hypothetical Accident Conditions  

SciTech Connect

In the frame of safety analysis of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) under hypothetical Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) conditions two-phase flow of sodium is simulated in a 7-pin bundle, with hexagonal lattice. Molecular dynamics, with the application of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, and a macroscopic model describing rewetting sequences due to the flow of a sodium liquid film along the pin surfaces, are applied to simulate the coolant in the bundle. The pin surfaces and the inner surface of the hexagonal canning are treated in the Monte Carlo simulation as diffusively reflecting surfaces. Collisions of sodium molecules are computed with the 'hard-sphere' model. With respect to previous work the following improvements of the computational code were made: i) The full bundle is simulated, thus allowing for asymmetries, like a skewed power distribution, to be accounted for; ii) A pin model calculates detailed temperature distributions in the pins, so that temperature boundary conditions are computed and not imposed; iii) Post processing visualisation of computed results was developed. An out of pile sodium boiling experiment run at the Nuclear Research Center of Karlsruhe, Germany, is simulated and conclusions are drawn about the applicability of the methodology in computer codes dedicated to breeder reactors safety analysis. (authors)

Bottoni, Maurizio [University of Ferrara, Physics Department, Via Paradiso 12, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Bottoni, Claudio; Scanu, John [University of Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti, 43 - 56126 Pisa (Italy)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

NACOM code for analysis of postulated sodium spray fires in LMFBRs  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of potential sodium spills and fires in liquid metal fast breeder reactors has been made to assess the maximum equipment cell loading conditions. A computer code called NACOM (sodium combustion) has been developed at Brookhaven National Laobratory (BNL) to analyze sodium spray fires. This report contains a detailed description of physical models used in this code as well as programming aspects. The single droplet combustion model and the model describing the droplets' motion are verified. Comparisons between NACOM predictions and SPRAY-3A predictions of the Atomics International (AI) LTV Jet Tests are made. Good agreement is found between the NACOM predictions and the experimental data. NACOM predictions of the pressure rise are more accurate than SPRAY-3A predictions for most of the cases studied. The code has been verified for oxygen concentrations ranging from 0 to 21%. NACOM utilizes more realistic single droplet and spray combustion models than SPRAY-3A. Moreover, NACOM does not utilize adjustable parameters for the burning rate equations, contrary to the approach taken with SPRAY-3A. Thus, the NACOM code is a more reliable code for use in the analysis of large-scale sodium spray fires in LMFBR containment cells. 24 refs., 32 figs.

Tsai, S.S.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

A simple Markov model of sodium channels with a dynamic threshold  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Characteristics of action potential generation are important to understanding brain functioning and, thus, must be understood and modeled. It is still an open question what model can describe concurrently the phenomena of sharp spike shape, the spike ... Keywords: Conductance-based neurons, Divisive effect, Dynamic patch-clamp, Sodium channels, Spike shape, Spike threshold

A. V. Chizhov; E. Yu. Smirnova; K. Kh. Kim; A. V. Zaitsev

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Deficiencies of sodium and iodine in grazing sheep in northern China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deficiencies of sodium and iodine in grazing sheep in northern China DG Masters JR Lindsay SX Yu DX of Traditional Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Xiaoxihu, Lanzhou, Gansu, China An examination of the mineral status of grazing sheep at 3 sites in northern China has provided evidence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

473

Bonding in Sodium Chloride Nanotubes: A New Analysis via Madelung Constants and Cohesive Energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Bonding in Sodium Chloride Nanotubes: A New Analysis via Madelung Constants and Cohesive Energies is introduced which employs a linear relationship between nanotube cohesive energies determined via Density between ionic and cohesive bonding energies indicate that, as the nanotubes become longer, ionic bonding

Hanusa, Christopher

474

Advanced Materials for Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status, Challenges and Perspectives  

SciTech Connect

The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a ?"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300~350°C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Xia, Guanguang; Lemmon, John P.; Yang, Zhenguo

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion The corrosion of Ag contaminated with NaCl particles in gaseous environments containing humidity and ozone analyzed using a coulometric reduction technique. The atmospheric corrosion of Ag was greatly accelerated

476

Original article Increased late sodium current in myocytes from a canine heart failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original article Increased late sodium current in myocytes from a canine heart failure model and from failing human heart Carmen R. Valdivia, William W. Chu, Jielin Pu 1 , Jason D. Foell, Robert A December 2004 Abstract Electrophysiological remodeling of ion channels in heart failure causes action

Kamp, Tim

477

Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy and utility applications, such as pump hydro, compressed air, y-wheel and electrochemicalRoom-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage Huilin Pan attention particularly in large- scale electric energy storage applications for renewable energy and smart

Wang, Wei Hua

478

Evaluation of a sodium/Hastelloy-X heat pipe for wing leading edge cooling  

SciTech Connect

This report covers assembly of a sodium heat pipe, testing to verify performance during start-up and under steady-state conditions with stagnation point heat loads to about 80 W/cm{sup 2}, performance analysis and evaluation. Evaluation of this leading edge cooling concept is offered and recommendations for further research discussed.

Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Glass, D.E. [Analytical Services and Materials, Hampton, VA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

479

Physical and functional links between anion exchanger-1 and sodium pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pressure cooker containing 0.1 M sodium citrate buffer, pH 6.0 for 2 min. Following blocking with 10% FBS in PBST-1 (Blocking buffer), primary antibodies at 1:50 dilution in blocking buffer were applied and sections incubated at 4(C overnight. Fluorochrome...

Su, Ya; Al-Lamki, Rafia S.; Blake-Palmer, Katherine G.; Best, Alison; Golder, Zoe J.; Zhou, Aiwu; Karet Frankl, Fiona E.

2014-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

480

Determination of laser damage initiation probability and growth on fused silica scratches  

SciTech Connect

Current methods for the manufacture of optical components inevitably leaves a variety of sub-surface imperfections including scratches of varying lengths and widths on even the finest finishes. It has recently been determined that these finishing imperfections are responsible for the majority of laser-induced damage for fluences typically used in ICF class lasers. We have developed methods of engineering subscale parts with a distribution of scratches mimicking those found on full scale fused silica parts. This much higher density of scratches provides a platform to measure low damage initiation probabilities sufficient to describe damage on large scale optics. In this work, damage probability per unit scratch length was characterized as a function of initial scratch width and post fabrication processing including acid-based etch mitigation processes. The susceptibility of damage initiation density along scratches was found to be strongly affected by the post etching material removal and initial scratch width. We have developed an automated processing procedure to document the damage initiations per width and per length of theses scratches. We show here how these tools can be employed to provide predictions of the performance of full size optics in laser systems operating at 351 nm. In addition we use these tools to measure the growth rate of a damage site initiated along a scratch and compare this to the growth measured on an isolated damage site.

Norton, M A; Carr, C W; Cross, D A; Negres, R A; Bude, J D; Steele, W A; Monticelli, M V; Suratwala, T I

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "na-sg sodium silica" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime  

SciTech Connect

We present an experimental and numerical study of the damage and ablation thresholds at the surface of a dielectric material, e.g., fused silica, using short pulses ranging from 7 to 300 fs. The relevant numerical criteria of damage and ablation thresholds are proposed consistently with experimental observations of the laser irradiated zone. These criteria are based on lattice thermal melting and electronic cohesion temperature, respectively. The importance of the three major absorption channels (multi-photon absorption, tunnel effect, and impact ionization) is investigated as a function of pulse duration (7-300 fs). Although the relative importance of the impact ionization process increases with the pulse duration, our results show that it plays a role even at short pulse duration (<50 fs). For few optical cycle pulses (7 fs), it is also shown that both damage and ablation fluence thresholds tend to coincide due to the sharp increase of the free electron density. This electron-driven ablation regime is of primary interest for thermal-free laser-matter interaction and therefore for the development of high quality micromachining processes.

Chimier, B.; Uteza, O.; Sanner, N.; Sentis, M. [Laboratoire LP3, UMR 6182 CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee, C. 917, 163, Av. de Luminy, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Itina, T. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien - LaHC, UMR 5516 CNRS - Universite Jean Monnet, Bat. F, 18, rue Professeur B. Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Lassonde, P.; Legare, F.; Vidal, F.; Kieffer, J. C. [INRS, Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 bld Lionel Boulet, Varennes (Quebec), J3X 1S2 (Canada)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Molecular dynamics simulation of elevated temperature interfacial behavior between silica glass and a model crystal  

SciTech Connect

Elevated temperature atomistic behavior was investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulations of solid state interfaces. Initially, observations on a Lennard-Jones (LJ) crystal surface interfaced with an ideal vacuum were made. Assignment of temperatures associated with specific amounts of crystal surface disorder was possible. A temperature was observed at and above which disorder propagated through all planes of mobile atoms, making it possible to establish an approximate transition temperature for surface nucleated melting of the LJ crystal. Similar high temperature simulations were then performed on silica glass/LJ crystal interfaces at two system stress levels. No significant dependence of interface behavior on the stress states which were studied was observed. The presence of the glass surface resulted in a depression of the temperature needed for the surface most planes of crystal atoms to roughen. This allowed LJ atoms to sample and occupy sites in the glass surface. Additional data presented shows this behavior was at least partly a function of the open structure inherent in glassy oxide surfaces. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Webb, E.B. III; Garofalini, S.H. [Department of Ceramics, Interfacial Molecular Science Laboratory, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855 (United States)] [Department of Ceramics, Interfacial Molecular Science Laboratory, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855 (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Transient heat transfer characteristic of silica aerogel insulating material considering its endothermic reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the current work, we present an experimental study to investigate the reaction mechanism of silica aerogel material at high temperature. The experimental study is based on simultaneous thermal analyzer 449F3 as well as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that when the material is exposed at high temperature, the mass of material will decrease about 1.98% accompanying with endothermic effect. Via FTIR analysis, it is found that the mass loss of material may be caused by the removal of adsorbed water. Besides the experimental study, a numerical heat transfer model is constructed to study the transient heat transfer characteristic of aerogel material by taking the endothermic reaction into account. The numerical heat transfer model is validated by a classical Stefan problem and a corresponding experimental measurement. Afterwards, a parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of two parameters, reaction temperature and reaction heat, on transient heat transfer characteristics of aerogel insulating material. The results show that: (1) Before reaching the reaction temperature Treaction, the material that with lower Treaction possesses lower temperature. However, when it exceeds the reaction temperature, the material shows the highest temperature among other materials. (2) With the increase of reaction heat, the increasing trend of temperature is weakened and the emergent of the turning point that separates the temperature platform and temperature-rise period appears later.

Tao Xie; Ya-Ling He; Zi-Xiang Tong; Wei-Xu Yan; Xiang-Qian Xie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a nickel/silica catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a nickel/silica catalyst were studied using temperature-programmed desorption and temperature-programmed reaction. Carbon dioxide adsorption on nickel was found to be activated; almost no adsorption occurred at room temperature, but large coverages were obtained between 383 and 473 K. The data indicate CO/sub 2/ dissociates upon adsorption at elevated temperatures to yield carbon monoxide and oxygen atoms. These oxygen atoms react with hydrogen at room temperature, so the methane and water observed during programmed heating in flowing hydrogen are identical for adsorbed CO and adsorbed CO/sub 2/. Single CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O peaks, each with a peak temperature at 473 K, were observed. This peak temperature did not change with initial coverage, indicating methanation is first order in CO surface coverage. The activated adsorption of CO/sub 2/ allowed these coverage variation experiments to be carried out. Thus, following adsorption, CO and CO/sub 2/ methanation proceed by the same mechanism. However, the activated adsorption of CO/sub 2/ may create a higher H/sub 2/:CO surface ratio during steady-state hydrogenation, causing CO/sub 2/ hydrogenation to favor methane over higher hydrocarbons. 5 figures.

Falconer, J.L.; Zagli, A.E.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Inhibition of total oxygen uptake by silica nanoparticles in activated sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nanoparticle toxicity to biological activities in activated sludge is largely unknown. Among the widely used nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles (SNP) have a limited number of studies associated with inhibition to the activated sludge process (ASP). We demonstrated SNP inhibition of activated sludge respiration through oxygen uptake rate (OUR) measurement. Based on the percentage inhibition of total oxygen consumption (IT), we observed that smaller \\{SNPs\\} (12 nm, IT = 33 ± 3%; 151 nm, IT = 23 ± 2%) were stronger inhibitors than larger \\{SNPs\\} (442 and 683 nm, IT = 5 ± 1%). Transmission electron micrographs showed that some of the \\{SNPs\\} were adsorbed on and/or apparently embedded somewhere in the microbial cell membrane. Whether \\{SNPs\\} are directly associated with the inhibition of total oxygen uptake warrants further studies. However, it is clear that \\{SNPs\\} statistically significantly altered the composition of microbial membrane lipids, which was more clearly described by principal component analysis and weighted Euclidian distance (PCA-ED) of the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data. This study suggests that \\{SNPs\\} potentially affect the biological activity in activated sludge through the inhibition of total oxygen uptake.

Mark Sibag; Byeong-Gyu Choi; Changwon Suh; Kwan Hyung Lee; Jae Woo Lee; Sung Kyu Maeng; Jinwoo Cho

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Solar powered heat pump construction. [silica gel adsorbent with solar regenerator  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a solar powered heat pump useful for both heating and cooling building space and for providing refrigeration. The device operates on a chemical effect (Adsorption) intermittent heat pump cycle in which the moderately high temperature heat generated by insolation is used to drive the desorber. The device has inherent thermal storage, can be factory built, sealed, and tested, can be electronically controlled for completely automatic operation, and includes a built-in back-up heater which obviates the need for installation of a separate back-up heating system. It can be manufactured from inexpensive materials such as glass, and implodes rather than explodes on failure. A preferred embodiment of the device is designed as a modular unit which can readily be combined with others of identical design to produce a solar powered battery panel for heating and cooling. This embodiment preferably comprises a tubular enclosure defining a pair of chambers separated by a valve. A first chamber is packed with silica gel (Or an equivalent adsorbent material) arranged such that mass and heat transfer through the gel take place rapidly and in comparable time periods. The first chamber is surrounded by a larger diameter, solar radiation transparent housing and the annular space between the chamber and housing is evacuated. The enclosure is mounted together with a diffuse light reflector which focuses sunlight toward the first chamber. Heat exchangers provide thermal communication between respective chambers and a pair of duct portions adapted for connection to a building heat distribution system.

Berg, C.A.

1980-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

487

Rapid Extraction of Dust Impact Tracks from Silica Aerogel by Ultrasonic Micro-blades  

SciTech Connect

In January 2006, NASA's Stardust Mission will return with its valuable cargo of cometary dust particles, the first brought back to Earth, captured at hypervelocity speeds in silica aerogel collectors. Aerogel, a proven capture medium, is also a candidate for future sample return missions and low-earth orbit (LEO) deployments. Critical to the science return of Stardust and future missions using aerogel is the ability to efficiently extract impacted particles from collector tiles. Researchers will be eager to obtain Stardust samples as quickly as possible, and tools for the rapid extraction of particle impact tracks that require little construction, training, or investment would be an attractive asset. To this end, we have experimented with diamond and steel micro-blades. Applying ultrasonic frequency oscillations to these micro-blades via a piezo-driven holder produces rapid, clean cuts in the aerogel with minimal damage to the surrounding collector tile. With this approach, impact tracks in aerogel fragments with low-roughness cut surfaces have been extracted from aerogel tiles flown on NASA's Orbital Debris Collector Experiment. The smooth surfaces produced during cutting reduce imaging artifacts during analysis by SEM. Some tracks have been dissected to expose the main cavity for eventual isolation of individual impact debris particles and further analysis by techniques such as TEM and nanoSIMS.

Ishii, H; Graham, G; Kearsley, A T; Grant, P G; Snead, C J; Bradley, J P

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

488

Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175°C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350°C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of ?"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200°C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150°C. The cells can even operate at 95°C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Intraparticle heat and mass transfer characteristics of silica-gel/water vapor adsorption  

SciTech Connect

Recently, highly efficient energy utilization systems which extensively employ adsorption phenomena such as pressure swing adsorption, heat storage, adsorption heat pump, etc. are being regarded as one of the countermeasures for environmental issues such as green house effect and ozone layer destruction. An Adsorption Heat Pump (AHP) has been investigated as one of the important techniques via which cold heat energy is obtained from waste thermal energy below 373K without using electricity and CFCs. An AHP normally consists of an adsorber and an evaporator/condenser and cold heat energy is generated by latent heat of evaporation during adsorption process. For realizing the AHP technology, it has been pointed out that the development of an adsorber with optimum heat and mass transfer characteristics is essentially important. In this study, experimental studies were carried out which was based on the data of temperature inside the adsorbent particle and adsorptivity profiles at the adsorption/desorption process by volumetric method. To clarify adsorption mechanism relatively large silica-gel particle (7 mm f) was used. Temperature distribution in the particle is determined at the center, at one half radius in the radial direction and at the surface by using very thin (30 mm f) thermocouples. The temperatures at these points simultaneously increase/decrease as soon as the adsorption/desorption started, reached their respective maximum/minimum values and then return to initial temperature. The temperature profiles for the adsorption process show that the temperature at the surface is initially slightly higher than the other two points. All three points reached their respective maximum temperature at the same time with the temperature at the center point the highest and at the surface the lowest. The temperature profiles during the desorptive process are almost exactly the opposite to that of the adsorption process. This shows that the adsorption phenomena can take place not only at the surface but inside the adsorbent particle, implying that intraparticle vapor diffusion has a great influence on adsorptivity.

Yamamoto, Eri; Watanabe, Fujio; Hasatani, Masanobu

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Thermal conductivity studies of novel nanofluids based on metallic silver decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic silver was decorated in mSiO{sub 2} with grafted hemiaminal functional groups. • Synthesized nanoparticles were used for preparation of glycerol based nanofluids. • The effect of temperature, weight fraction of mSiO{sub 2} and concentration of silver nanoparticles on thermal conductivity of nanofluids was investigated. - Abstract: In the present study, the mesoporous structure of silica (mSiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles as well as hemiaminal grafted mSiO{sub 2} decorated by metallic silver (Ag/mSiO{sub 2}) has been used for the preparation of glycerol based nanofluids. Structural and morphological characterization of the synthesized products have been carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms. The thermal conductivity and viscosity of the nanofluids have been measured as a function of temperature for various weight fractions and silver concentrations of mSiO{sub 2} and Ag/mSiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, respectively. The results show that the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids increase up to 9.24% as the weight fraction of mSiO{sub 2} increases up to 4 wt%. Also, increasing the percent of the silver decorated mSiO{sub 2} (Ag/mSiO{sub 2}) up to 2.98% caused an enhancement in the thermal conductivity of the base fluid up to 10.95%. Furthermore, the results show that the nanofluids have Newtonian behavior in the tested temperature range for various concentrations of nanoparticles.

Tadjarodi, Azadeh, E-mail: tajarodi@iust.ac.ir [Research Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabihi, Fatemeh [Research Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemistry and Nanotechnology Laboratory, National Center for Laser Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

491

Electron paramagnetic resonance study of paramagnetic centers in carbon-fumed silica adsorbent  

SciTech Connect

Fumed silica A-300 was carbonized by means of pyrolysis of CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. The obtained initial SiO{sub 2}:C nanopowders of black color, with an average diameter of 14–16?nm and carbon (C) concentration 7?wt. %, subjected to the oxidation and passivation treatment were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the temperature range 4–400?K. Two EPR signals of Lorentzian lineshape with nearly equal g-factors and different linewidth were observed in the initial, oxidized, and passivated SiO{sub 2}:C nanopowders. The two-component EPR spectrum was explained by the presence of C in two electronic states. The intensive narrow EPR signal, which has a temperature-dependent intensity, linewidth, and resonance field position, was attributed to the carbon-related defect with non-localized electron hopping between neighboring C-dangling bonds. The striking effect is that the temperature dependence of the EPR linewidth demonstrates the motional narrowing of the EPR signal at very low temperatures from 4?K to 20?K, which is not typically for nonmetallic materials and was explained by the quantum character of C layer conductivity in the SiO{sub 2}:C. The observed peaks in the temperature dependence of the conduction electron EPR signal integral intensity in the high-temperature range 200–440?K was explained by the presence of the C nanodots at the surface of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and the ejection of electrons from the confinement energy levels of C quantum dot when the temperature becomes comparable to the confinement energy.

Savchenko, D. V., E-mail: dariyasavchenko@gmail.com [Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague 182 21 (Czech Republic); V.E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NASU, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine); Shanina, B. D.; Kalabukhova, E. N.; Sitnikov, A. A.; Lysenko, V. S. [V.E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NASU, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine); Tertykh, V. A. [A.A. Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, NASU, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

492

Imaging the early material response associated with exit surface damage in fused silica  

SciTech Connect

The processes involved at the onset of damage initiation on the surface of fused silica have been a topic of extensive discussion and thought for more than four decades. Limited experimental results have helped develop models covering specific aspects of the process. In this work we present the results of an experimental study aiming at imaging the material response from the onset of the observation of material modification during exposure to the laser pulse through the time point at which material ejection begins. The system involves damage initiation using a 355 nm pulse, 7.8 ns FWHM in duration and imaging of the affected material volume with spatial resolution on the order of 1 {micro}m using as strobe light a 150 ps laser pulse that is appropriately timed with respect to the pump pulse. The observations reveal that the onset of material modification is associated with regions of increased absorption, i.e., formation of an electronic excitation, leading to a reduction in the probe transmission to only a few percent within a time interval of about 1 ns. This area is subsequently rapidly expanding with a speed of about 1.2 {micro}m/ns and is accompanied by the formation and propagation of radial cracks. These cracks appear to initiate about 2 ns after the start of the expansion of the modified region. The damage sites continue to grow for about 25 ns but the mechanism of expansion after the termination of the laser pulse is via formation and propagation of lateral cracks. During this time, the affected area of the surface appears to expand forming a bulge of about 40 {micro}m in height. The first clear observation of material cluster ejection is noted at about 50 ns delay.

Demos, S G; Raman, R N; Negres, R A

2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

493

Residual stress and damage-induced critical fracture on CO2 laser treated fused silica  

SciTech Connect

Localized damage repair and polishing of silica-based optics using mid- and far-IR CO{sub 2} lasers has been shown to be an effective method for increasing optical damage threshold in the UV. However, it is known that CO{sub 2} laser heating of silicate surfaces can lead to a level of residual stress capable of causing critical fracture either during or after laser treatment. Sufficient control of the surface temperature as a function of time and position is therefore required to limit this residual stress to an acceptable level to avoid critical fracture. In this work they present the results of 351 nm, 3 ns Gaussian damage growth experiments within regions of varying residual stress caused by prior CO{sub 2} laser exposures. Thermally stressed regions were non-destructively characterized using polarimetry and confocal Raman microscopy to measure the stress induced birefringence and fictive temperature respectively. For 1 {approx} 40s square pulse CO{sub 2} laser exposures created over 0.5-1.25 kW/cm{sup 2} with a 1-3 mm 1/e{sup 2} diameter beam (T{sub max} {approx} 1500-3000 K), the critical damage site size leading to fracture increases weakly with peak temperature, but shows a stronger dependence on cooling rate, as predicted by finite element hydrodynamics simulations. Confocal micro-Raman was used to probe structural changes to the glass over different thermal histories and indicated a maximum fictive temperature of 1900K for T{sub max} {ge} 2000 K. The effect of cooling rate on fictive temperature caused by CO{sub 2} laser heating are consistent with finite element calculations based on a Tool-Narayanaswamy relaxation model.

Matthews, M; Stolken, J; Vignes, R; Norton, M

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

494