National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for na ti ona

  1. A=18Na (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not observed) 18Na has not been observed; its atomic mass excess has been estimated to be 25.32 MeV (1993AU05); it is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.6 MeV: see (1978AJ03). See also (1986AN07) and (1983ANZQ

  2. A=19Na (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19Na) This nucleus was observed in the 24Mg(p, 6He)19Na reaction at Ep = 54.7 MeV (1969CE01). A study via the 24Mg(3He, 8Li)19Na reaction at E(3He) = 76.3 MeV leads to an atomic mass excess of 12.929 ± 0.012 MeV for 19Na; it is then unstable with respect to breakup into 18Ne + p by 321 ± 13 keV. An excited state at Ex = 120 ± 10 keV is also reported (1975BE38, 1993AU05). See also (1987AJ02) and (1987PO01, 1987SA24, 1988CO15, 1990PO04, 1992AV03

  3. A=20Na (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 20.32 preview 20.32 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 20.33 preview 20.33 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. μ = 0.3694 ± 0.0002 nm (1975SC20, 1989RA17) 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.887 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of other excited states of 20Ne: see Table Prev. Table 20.31 preview 20.31 (in PDF or PS) and reaction 59 in 20Ne. The half-life of 20Na is 447.9

  4. A=16Na (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not observed) See (1986AN07

  5. Catalytic Effect of Ti for Hydrogen Cycling in NaAlH4 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Catalytic Effect of Ti for Hydrogen Cycling in NaAlH4 Catalytic Effect of Ti for Hydrogen Cycling in NaAlH4 A presentation about how hydrogen can be reversibly absorbed and desorbed from NaAlH4 under moderate conditions by the addition of catalysts. catalytic_effect_of_ti.pdf (877.97 KB) More Documents & Publications Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Effects of Point Defects and Impurities on Kinetics in NaAlH4 Prediction of New Hydrogen Storage Compounds

  6. Hydrothermal crystallization of Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13}, Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}, and Na{sub 16}Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28} in the NaOH-TiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system at a temperature of 500 deg. C and a pressure of 0.1 GPa: The structural mechanism of self-assembly of titanates from suprapolyhedral clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyushin, G. D.

    2006-07-15

    An increase in the NaOH concentration in the NaOH-TiO{sub 2} (rutile)-H{sub 2}O system at a temperature of 500 deg. C and a pressure of 0.1 GPa leads to the crystallization R-TiO{sub 2} + Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} {sup {yields}} Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} {sup {yields}} Na{sub 16}Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28}. Crystals of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} titanate (space group C2/m) have the three-dimensional framework structure Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13}. The structure of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} titanate (space group P2{sub 1}/m) contains the two-dimensional layers Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The structure of the Na{sub 16}Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28} titanate (space group P-1) is composed of the isolated ten-polyhedron cluster precursors Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28}. In all the structures, the titanium atoms have an octahedral coordination (MTiO{sub 6}). The matrix self-assembly of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} and Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} (Na{sub 4}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14}) crystal structures from Na{sub 4}M{sub 12} invariant precursors is modeled. These precursors are clusters consisting of twelve M polyhedra linked through the edges. It is demonstrated that the structurally rigid precursors Na{sub 4}M{sub 12} control all processes of the subsequent evolution of the crystal-forming titanate clusters. The specific features of the self-assembly of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} structure that result from the additional incorporation of twice the number of sodium atoms into the composition of the high-level clusters are considered.

  7. Reactivity enhancement of oxide skins in reversible Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmelle, Renaud; Borgschulte, Andreas; Gehrig, Jeffrey C.; Züttel, Andreas

    2014-12-15

    The reversibility of hydrogen sorption in complex hydrides has only been shown unambiguously for NaAlH{sub 4} doped with transition metal compounds. Despite a multitude of investigations of the effect of the added catalyst on the hydrogen sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, the mechanism of catalysis remains elusive so far. Following the decomposition of TiCl{sub 3}-doped NaAlH{sub 4} by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we link the chemical state of the dopant with those of the hydride and decomposition products. Titanium and aluminium change their oxidation states during cycling. The change of the formal oxidation state of Al from III to zero is partly due to the chemical reaction from NaAlH{sub 4} to Al. Furthermore, aluminium oxide is formed (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which coexists with titanium oxide (Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The interplay of metallic and oxidized Ti with the oxide skin might explain the effectiveness of Ti and similar dopants (Ce, Zr…)

  8. Catalytic Effect of Ti for Hydrogen Cycling in NaAlH4

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Effect of Ti for Hydrogen Cycling in NaAlH 4 Mei-Yin Chou School of Physics Georgia Institute of Technology (DE-FG02-05ER46229) Acknowledgment: Yan Wang, Roland Stumpf Why is NaAlH 4 interesting? A viable candidate for hydrogen-storage material: High theoretical weight-percent hydrogen content of 5.55% and low cost But (before 1997) Dehydrogenation occurs at high temperature; rehydrogenation is difficult. Bogdanovic and Schwickardi, 1997 Hydrogen can be reversibly absorbed and desorbed

  9. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water. [NaMnO/sub 2/ and TiO/sub 2/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, P.R.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1980-02-08

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO/sub 2/) and titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) to form sodium titanate (Na/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO/sub 3/) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  10. NA-42 TI Shared Software Component Library FY2011 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudson, Christa K.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Dorow, Kevin E.

    2011-07-21

    The NA-42 TI program initiated an effort in FY2010 to standardize its software development efforts with the long term goal of migrating toward a software management approach that will allow for the sharing and reuse of code developed within the TI program, improve integration, ensure a level of software documentation, and reduce development costs. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked with two activities that support this mission. PNNL has been tasked with the identification, selection, and implementation of a Shared Software Component Library. The intent of the library is to provide a common repository that is accessible by all authorized NA-42 software development teams. The repository facilitates software reuse through a searchable and easy to use web based interface. As software is submitted to the repository, the component registration process captures meta-data and provides version control for compiled libraries, documentation, and source code. This meta-data is then available for retrieval and review as part of library search results. In FY2010, PNNL and staff from the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) teamed up to develop a software application with the goal of replacing the aging Aerial Measuring System (AMS). The application under development includes an Advanced Visualization and Integration of Data (AVID) framework and associated AMS modules. Throughout development, PNNL and RSL have utilized a common AMS code repository for collaborative code development. The AMS repository is hosted by PNNL, is restricted to the project development team, is accessed via two different geographic locations and continues to be used. The knowledge gained from the collaboration and hosting of this repository in conjunction with PNNL software development and systems engineering capabilities were used in the selection of a package to be used in the implementation of the software component library on behalf of NA-42 TI. The second task managed by PNNL

  11. Na9K16TI~25: A New Phase Containing Naked Icosahedral Cluster Fragments Ti99-

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Corbett, John D.

    2007-12-05

    The phase Na{sub 9}K{sub 16}Tl{sub 25.25(2)} was synthesized by fusion of the elements in sealed Ta containers followed by quenching and annealing at 250 C. The structure established by single crystal X-ray diffraction means (P6{sub 3}/m, Z = 2, a = 19.376(3) {angstrom}, c = 11.480(2) {angstrom}) features Tl{sub 9}{sup 9-} clusters. These are well separated by cations that bridge between, faces, edges, and vertices of the clusters; sodium appears to be essential in this role. This is the third compound known to contain Tl{sub 9} clusters, but here two of nine sites are partially occupied, which can be interpreted as a 70:30 mixture of Tl{sub 9} and Tl{sub 7} units in the same cavity. This Tl{sub 9} example also displays lower symmetry (C{sub s}) but requires the same 2n skeletal electrons. EHTB electronic structure calculations indicate that the Fermi level intersects a finite densities-of-states (DOS), and only some bonds are optimized at E{sub F}, giving some insight regarding the site of Tl deficiency. Direct geometric relationships are found among Tl{sub 13}, Tl{sub 9}, Tl{sub 7} and Tl{sub 5} clusters through systematic removal of vertices.

  12. Giant strain with ultra-low hysteresis and high temperature stability in grain oriented lead-free K???Bi???TiO?-BaTiO?-Na???Bi???TiO? piezoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yaojin; Yan, Yongke; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Priya, Shashank

    2015-02-26

    We synthesized grain-oriented lead-free piezoelectric materials in (K???Bi???TiO?-BaTiO?-xNa???Bi???TiO? (KBT-BT-NBT) system with high degree of texturing along the [001]c (c-cubic) crystallographic orientation. We demonstrate giant field induced strain (~0.48%) with an ultra-low hysteresis along with enhanced piezoelectric response (d?? ~ 190pC/N) and high temperature stability (~160C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) results demonstrate smaller size highly ordered domain structure in grain-oriented specimen relative to the conventional polycrystalline ceramics. The grain oriented specimens exhibited a high degree of non-180 domain switching, in comparison to the randomly axed ones. These results indicate the effective solution to the lead-free piezoelectric materials.

  13. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; et al

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accuratelymore » identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  14. Structure and ferroelectricity of nonstoichiometric (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, Jared; Aksel, Elena; Iamsasri, Thanakorn; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L.; Chen, Jun

    2014-03-17

    Stoichiometric (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} (NBT) adopts the ABO{sub 3} perovskite structure with the A-site equally occupied by Na{sup +} and Bi{sup 3+} ions. However, non-stoichiometric compositions can be synthesized intentionally or unintentionally. To determine the effect of A-site nonstoichiometry on the crystal structure and ferroelectricity of NBT, the composition of (Na{sub 0.5?x}Bi{sub 0.5+x})TiO{sub 3+x} was varied using x?=??0.01, ?0.005, 0, 0.005, and 0.01. High resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement revealed that a shift in either direction from x = 0 results in a decrease in the spontaneous ferroelastic strain. Ferroelectric hysteresis and piezoelectric coefficients were found to be optimum in the stoichiometric composition.

  15. Evolution of structure in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} single crystals with BaTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Wenwei Luo, Chengtao; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.; Zhang, Qinhui; Luo, Haosu; Ren, Yang

    2014-10-20

    The structural, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x mol. %BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-x%BT) crystals have been investigated. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of NBT-x%BT were enhanced near x = 5–7. High resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction studies revealed the presence of a phase boundary between monoclinic (Cc) and tetragonal (P4bm) phases near x = 5–7, where the dielectric and piezoelectric properties were enhanced.

  16. Aging in the relaxor and ferroelectric state of Fe-doped (1-x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO₃-xBaTiO₃ piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sapper, Eva; Dittmer, Robert; Rödel, Jürgen; Damjanovic, Dragan; Erdem, Emre; Keeble, David J.; Jo, Wook; Granzow, Torsten

    2014-09-14

    Aging of piezoelectric properties was investigated in lead-free (1–x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO₃-xBaTiO₃ doped with 1at.% Fe. The relaxor character of the un-poled material prevents macroscopic aging effects, while in the field-induced ferroelectric phase aging phenomena are similar to those found in lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate. Most prominent aging effects are the development of an internal bias field and the decrease of switchable polarization. These effects are temperature activated, and can be explained in the framework of defect complex reorientation. This picture is further supported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicating the existence of (Fe{sub Ti}´-V{sub O}{sup ••}){sup •} defect complexes in the Fe-doped material.

  17. Electric-field-induced strain contributions in morphotropic phase boundary composition of (Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3} during poling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khansur, Neamul H.; Daniels, John E.; Hinterstein, Manuel; Wang, Zhiyang; Groh, Claudia; Jo, Wook

    2015-12-14

    The microscopic contributions to the electric-field-induced macroscopic strain in a morphotropic 0.93(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3})−0.07(BaTiO{sub 3}) with a mixed rhombohedral and tetragonal structure have been quantified using full pattern Rietveld refinement of in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction data. The analysis methodology allows a quantification of all strain mechanisms for each phase in a morphotropic composition and is applicable to use in a wide variety of piezoelectric compositions. It is shown that during the poling of this material 24%, 44%, and 32% of the total macroscopic strain is generated from lattice strain, domain switching, and phase transformation strains, respectively. The results also suggest that the tetragonal phase contributes the most to extrinsic domain switching strain, whereas the lattice strain primarily stems from the rhombohedral phase. The analysis also suggests that almost 32% of the total strain is lost or is a one-time effect due to the irreversible nature of the electric-field-induced phase transformation in the current composition. This information is relevant to on-going compositional development strategies to harness the electric-field-induced phase transformation strain of (Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-based lead-free piezoelectric materials for actuator applications.

  18. Chemical and structural effects on the high-temperature mechanical behavior of (1−x)(Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deluca, Marco; Picht, Gunnar; Hoffmann, Michael J.; Rechtenbach, Annett; Töpfer, Jörg; Schader, Florian H.; Webber, Kyle G.

    2015-04-07

    Bismuth sodium titanate–barium titanate [(1−x)(Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3}, NBT-100xBT] is one of the most well studied lead-free piezoelectric materials due in large part to the high field-induced strain attainable in compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.06). The BaTiO{sub 3}-rich side of the phase diagram, however, has not yet been as comprehensively studied, although it might be important for piezoelectric and positive temperature coefficient ceramic applications. In this work, we present a thorough study of BaTiO{sub 3}-rich NBT-100xBT by ferroelastic measurements, dielectric permittivity, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. We show that the high-temperature mechanical behavior, i.e., above the Curie temperature, T{sub C}, is influenced by local disorder, which appears also in pure BT. On the other hand, in NBT-100xBT (x < 1.0), lattice distortion, i.e., tetragonality, increases, and this impacts both the mechanical and dielectric properties. This increase in lattice distortion upon chemical substitution is counterintuitive by merely reasoning on the ionic size, and is due to the change in the A-O bond character induced by the Bi{sup 3+} electron lone pair, as indicated by Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; Kang, Kisuk; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accurately identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  20. Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property relationships in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x%BaTiO{sub 3} textured ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.; Maurya, Deepam; Priya, Shashank

    2013-06-03

    The influence of alternating (ac) and direct current (dc) fields on the structural and dielectric properties of [001]{sub PC} textured Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-7%BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-7%BT) ceramics has been investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the depolarization at temperature T{sub d} in poled samples resulted from a tetragonal {yields} pseudo-cubic transition on heating. Moderate ac drive and dc bias had opposite influences on T{sub d}: ac drive decreased the T{sub d}, whereas dc bias increased it. These investigations suggested an effective method to expand the working temperature range of NBT-x%BT textured ceramics to a high temperature.

  1. Piezoelectricity and local structural distortions in (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}-Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} flexoelectric-type polar ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L. H.; Zhao, M. L.; Wang, C. L.; Wang, J.; Kuai, W. J.; Tao, X. T.

    2012-08-06

    We have previously described sintered Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} composites as flexoelectric-type polar ceramics because they have a net macroscopic flexoelectric polarization. Here, we report on the universal existence of the macroscopic flexoelectric polarization in the (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}-Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} system, in which enhanced piezoelectricity is observed. By combining Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques, we have identified the local flexoelectric polarization as distorted BiO{sub 5} polyhedra and TiO{sub 6} octahedra in the SrTiO{sub 3}-Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} ceramic. The macroscopic polarization may be due to the partial alignment of these distorted units located within the grain boundary amorphous phases. Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} could have an important role in these flexoelectric-type polar ceramics.

  2. Cyclic electric field response of morphotropic Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3} piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinterstein, M.; Schmitt, L. A.; Hoelzel, M.; Jo, W.; Rödel, J.; Kleebe, H.-J.; Hoffman, M.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the evolution of field induced mechanisms in lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1−x)Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3} with x = 0.06 and 0.07 was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, neutron, and X-ray diffraction. Preliminary investigations revealed a strong degradation of macroscopic electromechanical properties within the first 100 bipolar electric cycles. Therefore, this structural investigation focuses on a comparative diffraction study of freshly prepared, poled, and fatigued specimens. Transmission electron microscopy and neutron diffraction of the initial specimens reveal the coexistence of a rhombohedral and a tetragonal phase with space group R3c and P4bm, respectively. In situ electric field X-ray diffraction reveals a pronounced field induced phase transition from a pseudocubic state to a phase composition of significantly distorted phases upon poling with an external electric field of 4 kV/mm. Although the structures of the two compositions are pseudocubic and almost indistinguishable in the unpoled virgin state, the electric field response shows significant differences depending on composition. For both compositions, the application of an electric field results in a field induced phase transition in the direction of the minority phase. Electric cycling has an opposite effect on the phase composition and results in a decreased phase fraction of the minority phase in the fatigued remanent state at 0 kV/mm.

  3. Low temperature structural variations of Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-7%BaTiO{sub 3} single crystal: Evidences from optical ellipsometry and Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, T.; Guo, S.; Xu, L. P.; Hu, Z. G. Chu, J. H.; Chen, C.; Luo, H. S.

    2015-06-14

    Optical properties and structural variations of Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-7%BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-7%BT) single crystal have been studied by temperature-dependent optical ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy from 4.2 to 300 K. The second derivative of the complex dielectric functions reveals two interband transitions (E{sub cp1} and E{sub cp2}) located at about 3.49 and 4.25 eV, respectively. Depending on the temperature evolution of electronic transitions, structural variations appear near 60, 150, and 240 K, respectively. These anomalies are also well illustrated from the low-frequency phonon modes involving vibrations of Bi. The low-temperature structural variations of NBT-7%BT crystal can be associated with instability of the crystalline lattice driven by off-centered Bi ions, followed by the variations of polarizability of the unit cells.

  4. Immobilization of sodium-bearing high-level radioactive waste in synroc containing (Na{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-type perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, L.; Luo, S.; Tang, B.; Wang, D.

    1997-01-01

    This study on the immobilization of high-sodium-bearing HLW in synroc indicates that (Na{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-type perovskite can be used to incorporate a high content of sodium in synroc. Synroc samples containing 13.0 wt% waste oxide and 5.7 wt% Na{sub 2}O show very well chemical durability and physical properties. The standard Synroc-C formulation can incorporate only 2 wt% Na{sub 2}O, so this study greatly improved the immobilization ability of sodium in Synroc-related material.

  5. High Schottky barrier at grain boundaries observed in Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somphan, Weeraya; Thongbai, Prasit; Yamwong, Teerapon; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: NSCTO exhibits a high ?? of 7.08.4 10{sup 3} and low tan ? of 0.0300.041. NSCTO exhibits a high E{sub b} of ?2208 V cm{sup ?1} and large ? of 15.6. Giant ?? response is attributed to the electrically heterogeneous microstructure. High ?{sub b} values at grain boundaries are found to be 0.9250.964 eV. Formation of a potential barrier at grain boundaries is caused by Schottky effect. - Abstract: The dielectric properties and nonlinear currentvoltage characteristics of Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics prepared by a conventional solid state reaction method were investigated. Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics exhibited a high dielectric permittivity of 7.08.4 10{sup 3} and low loss tangent (tan ??0.0300.041). Non-Ohmic properties with a high breakdown voltage of ?2208 V cm{sup ?1} and large nonlinear coefficient of 15.6 were observed in Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics. Using complex impedance analysis, Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics were shown to be electrically heterogeneous consisting of semiconducting grains and insulating grain boundaries. Giant dielectric properties were described based on the electrically heterogeneous microstructure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis suggested that the semiconductive nature of grains may be related to the presence of Cu{sup +} and Ti{sup 3+}. The formation of an electrostatic potential barrier at the grain boundaries of Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics was suggested to be caused by the Schottky effect. Interestingly, high electrostatic potential barriers at grain boundaries in Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics were calculated and found to be 0.9250.964 eV.

  6. Evolution of structure in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} single...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evolution of structure in Nasub 0.5Bisub 0.5TiOsub 3 single crystals with BaTiOsub 3 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evolution of structure in Nasub 0.5Bisub ...

  7. High-performance symmetric sodium-ion batteries using a new, bipolar O3-type material, Na 0.8 Ni 0.4 Ti 0.6 O 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shaohua; Yu, Haijun; Liu, Pan; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Mingwei; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-01-01

    Based on low-cost and rich resources, sodium-ion batteries have been regarded as a promising candidate for next-generation energy storage batteries in the large-scale energy applications of renewable energy and smart grids. However, there are some critical drawbacks limiting its application, such as safety and stability problems. In this work, a stable symmetric sodium-ion battery based on the bipolar, active O3-type material, Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2, is developed. This bipolar material shows a typical O3-type layered structure, containing two electrochemically active transition metals with redox couples of Ni4+/Ni2+ and Ti4+/Ti3+, respectively. This Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2-based symmetric cell exhibits a high average voltage of 2.8 V, a reversible discharge capacity of 85 mA h g(-1), 75% capacity retention after 150 cycles and good rate capability. This full symmetric cell will greatly contribute to the development of room-temperature sodium-ion batteries with a view towards safety, low cost and long life, and it will stimulate further research on symmetric cells using the same active materials as both cathode and anode.

  8. Octahedral tilt transitions in the relaxor ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Kai-Christian Gröting, Melanie; Albe, Karsten

    2015-07-15

    The kinetics of octahedral tilt transitions in the lead-free relaxor material sodium bismuth titanate Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (NBT) is investigated by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory. Energy barriers for transitions between tetragonal, rhombohedral and orthorhombic tilts in cation configurations with [001]- and [111]-order on the A-sites are determined by nudged elastic band calculations. By tilting entire layers of octahedra simultaneously we find that the activation energy is lower for structures with 001-order compared to such with 111-order. The energetic coupling between differently tilted layers is, however, negligibly small. By introducing a single octahedral defect we create local tilt disorder and find that the deformation energy of the neighboring octahedra is less in a rhombohedral than in a tetragonal structure. By successively increasing the size of clusters of orthorhombic defects in a rhombohedral matrix with 001-order, we determine a critical cluster size of about 40 Å . Thus groups of about ten octahedra can be considered as nuclei for polar nanoregions, which are the cause of the experimentally observed relaxor behavior of NBT. - Graphical abstract: Nine orthorhombic oxygen octahedral tilt defects in a rhombohedral tilt configuration. - Highlights: • Chemical order influences energy barriers of octahedral tilt transitions. • The octahedral deformation energy is lower in rhombohedral phases. • Tilt defect clusters are more likely in rhombohedral structures. • Tilt defect clusters can act as nuclei for polar nanoregions.

  9. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterization revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.

  10. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterizationmore » revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.« less

  11. Determination of crystallographic orientation of lead-free piezoelectric (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Qi; Zhu, Fang-Yuan; Cheng, Li-Qian; Wang, Ke; Li, Jing-Feng

    2014-03-10

    Crystallographic structure of sol-gel-processed lead-free (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN) epitaxial films on [100]-cut SrTiO{sub 3} single-crystalline substrates was investigated for a deeper understanding of its piezoelectric response. Lattice parameter measurement by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the orthorhombic KNN films on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) surfaces are [010] oriented (b-axis-oriented) rather than commonly identified c-axis orientation. Based on the crystallographic orientation and corresponding ferroelectric domain structure investigated by piezoresponse force microscopy, the superior piezoelectric property along b-axis of epitaxial KNN films than other orientations can be explained.

  12. On the crystal energy and structure of A{sub 2}Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n+1} (A=Li, Na, K) titanates by DFT calculations and neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catti, Michele; Pinus, Ilya; Scherillo, Antonella

    2013-09-15

    First-principles quantum-mechanical calculations (CRYSTAL09 code, B3LYP functional) were performed on alkali titanates A{sub 2}Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n+1} with layered structure (n=3,4,6). Monoclinic structural types with unshifted (P2{sub 1}/m) and with shifted (C2/m) layers were considered. Crystal energies and full structural details were obtained for all Li, Na, and K phases. Neutron diffraction data were collected on powder samples of P2{sub 1}/m-Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} (a=9.3146(3), b=3.7522(1), c=7.5447(3) Å, β=97.611(4)°) and C2/m-K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} (a=18.2578(8), b=3.79160(9), c=12.0242(4) Å, β=106.459(4)°) and their structures were Rietveld-refined. Computed energies show the P2{sub 1}/m arrangement as favoured over the C2/m one for n=3, and the opposite holds for n=6. In the n=4 case the P2{sub 1}/m configuration is predicted to be more stable for Li and Na, and the C2/m one for K titanates. Analysis of Li–O and K–O crystal-chemical environments from experiment and theory shows that the alkali atom bonding is stabilized/destabilized in the different phases consistently with the energy trend. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The P2{sub 1}/m structure-type is found to be more stable for A{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} layer titanates. • The C2/m structure-type is found to be more stable for A{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} layer titanates. • Tetratitanates are predicted to prefer the P2{sub 1}/m (Li and Na) or C2/m (K) structure. • Li–O and K–O bond distances follow a trend consistent with computed phase energies.

  13. Enhanced ferroelectric properties and thermal stability of nonstoichiometric 0.92(Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-0.08(K{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Haiwu E-mail: hsluo@mail.sic.ac.cn; Chen, Chao; Deng, Hao; Li, Long; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Zhao, Xiangyong; Lin, Di; Li, Xiaobing; Ren, Bo; Luo, Haosu E-mail: hsluo@mail.sic.ac.cn; Yan, Jun

    2013-11-18

    Bi deficient, Mn doped 0.92(Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-0.08(K{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} single crystals were grown by carefully controlled top-seeded solution growth method. Local structures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The site occupation and valence state of manganese were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. The leakage current density in the as-grown single crystals is effectively depressed. The introduced defect complexes suppress the temperature induced phase transformation, increasing the depolarization temperature (165?C) and thermal stability of ferroelectric properties.

  14. Investigation of the hydrothermal crystallisation of the perovskite solid solution NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} and its defect chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harunsani, Mohammad H.; Woodward, David I.; Peel, Martin D.; Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-11-15

    Perovskites of nominal composition NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} (0?x?1) crystallise directly under hydrothermal conditions at 240 C. Raman spectroscopy shows distortion from the ideal cubic structure and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction reveals that the materials represent a continuous series in rhombohedral space group R3-bar c. Ce L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy shows that while the majority of cerium is present as Ce{sup 3+} there is evidence for Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetic Ce{sup 3+} affects the chemical shift and line width of {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectra, which also show with no evidence for A-site ordering. {sup 2}H MAS NMR of samples prepared in D{sub 2}O shows the inclusion of deuterium, which IR spectroscopy shows is most likely to be as D{sub 2}O. The deuterium content is highest for the cerium-rich materials, consistent with oxidation of some cerium to Ce{sup 4+} to provide charge balance of A-site water. - Graphical abstract: A multi-element A-site perovskite crystallises directly from aqueous, basic solutions at 240 C; while the paramagnetic effect of Ce{sup 3+} on the {sup 23}Na NMR shows a homogeneous solid-solution, the incorporation of A-site water is also found from {sup 2}H NMR and IR, with oxidation of some cerium to charge balance proved by XANES spectroscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: Direct hydrothermal synthesis allows crystallisation of a perovskite solid-solution. XANES spectroscopy shows some oxidation of Ce{sup 3+} to Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetism of Ce{sup 3+} shifts and broadens the {sup 23}Na solid-state NMR. The perovskite materials incorporate water as an A-site defect.

  15. Electrical properties of (1?x)(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}xKNbO{sub 3} lead-free ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Xijie; Wang, Baoyin; Luo, Laihui; Li, Weiping; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Hongbing

    2014-05-01

    In this investigation, a simple compound (1?x)(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}xKNbO{sub 3} (BNTxKN, x=00.08) lead-free ceramics were synthesized successfully by conventional solid state reaction method. The piezoelectric, dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of the ceramics were investigated and discussed. The results shows that moderate KN addition can enhance the piezoelectric response without an obvious decline of ferroelectric properties. The largest piezoelectric response is obtained in BNT0.05KN, whereas largest electric-field-induced strain is obtained in BNT0.06KN. An effective d{sub 33}{sup eff} of ?400 pC/N calculated from electric-field-induced strain is obtained in BNT0.06KN. The present investigation demonstrates that addition KN effectively reduces the depolarization temperature of the BNTxKN ceramics. The electrical properties of the ceramics are tightly related to their depolarization temperature. - Graphical abstract: Unipolar electric-field-induced strain for the BNTxKN ceramics. A maximum strain of 0.28% is achieved with a low field in BNT0.06KN. - Highlights: Moderate KNbO{sub 3} addition enhances the piezoelectric properties of the ceramics. A maximum strain of 0.28% is achieved with a low field. A large piezoelectric response is achieved in 0.95(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}0.05KNbO{sub 3}. The electrical properties are tightly related to the depolarization temperature T{sub d}.

  16. Effect of composition on electrical properties of lead-free Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.80}K{sub 0.20}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-(Ba{sub 0.98}Nd{sub 0.02})TiO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaita, Pharatree; Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda

    2013-07-14

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with the composition of (1-x)Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.80}K{sub 0.20}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x(Ba{sub 0.98}Nd{sub 0.02})TiO{sub 3} or (1-x) BNKT-xBNdT (with x = 0-0.20 mol fraction) have been synthesized by a conventional mixed-oxide method. The compositional dependence of phase structure and electrical properties of the ceramics were systemically studied. The optimum sintering temperature of all BNKT-BNdT ceramics was found to be 1125 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction pattern suggested that BNdT effectively diffused into BNKT lattice during sintering to form a solid solution with a perovskite structure. Scanning electron micrographs showed a slight reduction of grain size when BNdT was added. It was found that BNKT-0.10BNdT ceramic exhibited optimum electrical properties ({epsilon}{sub r} = 1716, tan{delta} = 0.0701, T{sub c} = 327 Degree-Sign C, and d{sub 33} = 211 pC/N), suggesting that this composition has a potential to be one of a promising lead-free piezoelectric candidate for dielectric and piezoelectric applications.

  17. Effect of mechanical alloying synthesis process on the dielectric properties of (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}Ba{sub 0.06}TiO{sub 3} piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghazanfari, Mohammad Reza; Amini, Rasool; Shams, Seyyedeh Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Morteza; Ardakani, Hamed Ahmadi

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • MA samples show higher dielectric permittivity and Curie temperature. • In MA samples, dielectric loss is almost 27% less than conventional ones. • In MA samples, sintering time and temperature are lower than conventional ones. • In MA samples, particle morphology is more homogeneous conventional ones. • In MA samples, crystallite size is smaller conventional ones. - Abstract: In present work, in order to study the effects of synthesis techniques on dielectric properties, the BNBT lead-free piezoceramics with (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}Ba{sub 0.06}TiO{sub 3} stoichiometry (called as BNBT6) were synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) and conventional mixed oxides methods. The structural, microstructural, and dielectric properties were carried out by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and impedance analyzer LCR meter, respectively. Based on results, the density of MA samples is considerably higher than conventional samples owning to smaller particles size and more uniformity of particle shape of MA samples. Moreover, the dielectric properties of MA samples are comparatively improved in which the dielectric loss of these samples is almost 27% less than conventional ones. Furthermore, MA samples exhibit obviously higher dielectric permittivity and Curie temperature compared to the conventional samples.

  18. O Ti-tE LOVE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    II . . * @ona of m ilitary anA m ilitary rcscrvc intnllationa; r1 .., were largely corsca.litrated.durilig,orld War II an? . . . . - KJ . : a to zk lesser exLenL, Lhe.Korean ...

  19. The corrosivity and passivity of sputtered Mg-Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Guang -Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Cakmak, Ercan; Brady, Michael P.; Gannon, Paul E.; Himmer, Phil; Andrews, Quinn

    2015-11-30

    Our study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. Moreover, the surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide film was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.

  20. The corrosivity and passivity of sputtered Mg-Ti alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Song, Guang -Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Cakmak, Ercan; Brady, Michael P.; Gannon, Paul E.; Himmer, Phil; Andrews, Quinn

    2015-11-30

    Our study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. Moreover, the surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide filmmore » was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.« less

  1. A=17Na (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    excess is predicted to be 35.61 MeV by (1966KE16). It is then unbound with respect to breakup into 16Ne + p by 4.3 MeV and with respect to breakup into 14O + 3p by 5.7 MeV. See...

  2. Structural, ferroelectric and magnetic study of lead free (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 0.988}Fe{sub 0.012}O{sub 3} (x=0,0.01,0.03,0.05) ceramic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parmar, Kusum Sharma, Anshu; Sharma, Hakikat; Negi, N. S.

    2015-05-15

    Lead free (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 0.988}Fe{sub 0.012}O{sub 3} ceramic having compositions (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) has been prepared by sol gel method using citric acid. Structural analysis has been done by X-ray diffraction and FTIR measurements. XRD patterns have been confirmed perovskite structure for all samples. FTIR absorption band at around ?630?cm{sup ?1} is observed for all samples which confirm perovskite phase formation in samples. With increasing La concentration, shifting in XRD peaks and FTIR absorption bands is observed which suggests incorporation of La on A-site in prepared (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 0.988}Fe{sub 0.012}O{sub 3} samples. Effect of La substitution on Ferroelectric (Polarization vs. Electric field) and Magnetic (Magnetization vs. Magnetic field) properties have been studied at room temperature. All samples exhibit weak ferromagnetic order and also possess ferroelectric behavior which provides new insight to lead free single phase multiferroic materials.

  3. 20Na

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na β+-Decay Evaluated Data Measurements 1951SH38: 20Na; measured T1/2. 1953HO01: 20Na; measured T1/2. 1964MA44, 1969MAZT: 20Na; measured T1/2, α-spectrum; deduced β-branching. 20Ne deduced levels α-width. 1967SU05: 20Na; measured T1/2; deduced nuclear properties. 1970OA01: 20Na; measured T1/2, βα-coin, βα(θ). 1971GO18: 20Na; measured T1/2; deduced mass excess. 1971MA09: 20Na; measured β-delayed α-spectra; deduced βν anisotropy coefficients. 1971WI07: 20Na; measured T1/2; deduced ft

  4. 18Na

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na Ground-State Decay Evaluated Data Measured Ground-State Γcm(T1/2) for 18Na Adopted value: < 200 keV (2012MU05) Measured Mass Excess for 18Na Adopted value: 25040 ± 110 keV (2012WA38) Measurements 2004ZE05: 9Be(20Mg, 18NaX), E = 43 MeV/nucleon; measured particle spectra, angular correlations, invariant mass following fragment proton decay. 18Na; deduced excited states proton decay features. 2011AS07: 1H(17Ne, 17Ne), 1H(17Ne, X)18Na, E = 4 MeV/nucleon; measured reaction products, proton

  5. 19Na

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na Ground-State Decay Evaluated Data Measured Ground-State Γcm(T1/2) for 19Na Adopted value: < 40 ns (2003AU02) Measured Mass Excess for 19Na Adopted value: 12927 ± 12 keV (2003AU02) Measurements 1969CE01: 24Mg(p, 6He), E = 54.7 MeV; measured σ(E(6He)); deduced Q. 19Na deduced nuclear mass. 1975BE38: 24Mg(3He, 8Li), E = 76.8 MeV; measured σ(E(8Li)); deduced Q. 19Na deduced mass excess. 19Na deduced level. 1975BEZD: 24Mg(3He, 8Li), E = 76.3 MeV; measured σ(E(8Li)). 19Na deduced mass

  6. Self-biased large magnetoelectric coupling in co-sintered Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} based piezoelectric and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} based magnetostrictive bilayered composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumari, Mukesh; Singh, Amrita; Chatterjee, Ratnamala E-mail: ratnamalac@gmail.com; Gupta, Arti; Prakash, Chandra

    2014-12-28

    In this work, magnetoelectric properties of a co-sintered bilayered composite of non-lead based piezoelectric 0.97(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3})–0.03(K{sub 0.47}Na{sub 0.47}Li{sub 0.06}Nb{sub 0.74}Sb{sub 0.06}Ta{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}) and magnetostrictive Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.7}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 4} are presented. Similar optimal sintering conditions of the individual components lead to a very clean interface as evidenced in the scanning electron microscopy, angle dispersive X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) results. Clean interface results in strong intimate mechanical coupling between both components and causes a maximum transfer of induced strain, leading to a large magnetoelectric coupling ∼142 mV/cm·Oe measured in longitudinally magnetized-transversely polarized configuration (L-T mode). Remnant polarization ∼32 μC/cm{sup 2}, remnant magnetization ∼0.50 emu/g, and sufficiently high self biased magnetoelectricity ∼135 mV/cm Oe (L-T mode) were observed for this composite.

  7. An analysis of lead-free (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.915}-(Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 0.05}Ba{sub 0.02}Sr{sub 0.015}TiO{sub 3} ceramic for efficient refrigeration and thermal energy harvesting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vats, Gaurav; Vaish, Rahul; Bowen, Chris R.

    2014-01-07

    This article demonstrates the colossal energy harvesting capability of a lead-free (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.915}-(Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 0.05}Ba{sub 0.02}Sr{sub 0.015}TiO{sub 3} ceramic using the Olsen cycle. The maximum harvestable energy density estimated for this system is found to be 1523 J/L (1523 kJ/m{sup 3}) where the results are presented for extreme ambient conditions of 20–160 °C and electric fields of 0.1–4 MV/m. This estimated energy density is 1.7 times higher than the maximum reported to date for the lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (thin film) system. Moreover, this study introduces a generalized and effective solid state refrigeration cycle in contrast to the ferroelectric Ericson refrigeration cycle. The cycle is based on a temperature induced polarization change on application of an unipolar electric field to ferroelectric ceramics.

  8. Effects of Point Defects and Impurities on Kinetics in NaAlH4 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Point Defects and Impurities on Kinetics in NaAlH4 Effects of Point Defects and Impurities on Kinetics in NaAlH4 A presentation showing that point defects play an important role in the kinetics of NaAlH4 including vacancies and interstitials consistent with observed effects of Ti. effects_of_point_defects.pdf (503.7 KB) More Documents & Publications Catalytic Effect of Ti for Hydrogen Cycling in NaAlH4 FTA - SunLine Transit Agency - Final Report Proceedings of the 1998 U.S. DOE

  9. A new Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} based lead-free piezoelectric system with calculated end-member Bi(Zn{sub 0.5}Hf{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Feng; Wahyudi, Olivia; Li, Yongxiang

    2014-03-21

    The phase structure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of a new lead-free piezoelectric system (1???x)Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}xBi(Zn{sub 0.5}Hf{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} [(1???x)BNTxBZH, x?=?0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.04] were investigated. The structure of Bi(Zn{sub 0.5}Hf{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} was calculated using first-principles method and (1???x)BNTxBZH ceramics were fabricated by conventional solid-state process. At room temperature, a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) from rhombohedral to pseudocubic is identified near x?=?0.02 by the analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns. The ceramics with MPB near room temperature exhibit excellent electrical properties: the Curie temperature, maximum polarization, remnant polarization, and coercive field are 340?C, 56.3??C/cm{sup 2}, 43.5??C/cm{sup 2}, and 5.4?kV/mm, respectively, while the maximum positive bipolar strain and piezoelectric coefficient are 0.09% and 92 pC/N, respectively. In addition, a linear relationship between the MPB phase boundary composition and the calculated tetragonality of non-BNT end-member was demonstrated. Thus, this study not only shows a new BNT-based lead-free piezoelectric system but also suggest a new way to predict the composition at MPB a priori when designing new lead-free piezoelectric system.

  10. A=16Al (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not observed) See (1986AN07

  11. A=16Mg (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not observed) See (1986AN07

  12. A=16Si (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not observed) See (1986AN07

  13. A=19Be (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ

  14. A=19He (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ

  15. A=19Li (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ

  16. A=20Mg (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (See the Isobar Diagram for 20Mg) 20Mg has been populated in the 24Mg(α, 8He) reaction at Eα = 127 and 156 MeV, in the 20Ne(3He, 3n) reaction at E(3He) = 70 MeV, and more recently in projectile fragmentation reactions. Reviews of proton rich nuclei and methods of production are presented in (1989AYZU, 1993SO13). See also (1990PO04). The super-allowed decay of 20Mg to the first T = 2 (Jπ = 0+) state of 20Na [Ex = 6.534 ± 0.013 MeV (1995PI03)] has been reported in early work (1979MO02,

  17. A=10F (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1979AJ01). See also (1988AJ01

  18. A=10Ne (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1979AJ01). See also (1988AJ01

  19. A=10O (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1979AJ01). See also (1988AJ01

  20. A=17Al (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Al (1993TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ, 1988WA18, 1992AV03).

  1. A=17He (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1986AJ04, 1988POZS

  2. A=17Li (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1986AJ04, 1988POZS

  3. A=17Mg (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mg (1993TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ, 1988WA18, 1992AV03).

  4. A=17P (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ, 1988WA18, 1992AV03

  5. A=17Si (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Si (1993TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ, 1988WA18, 1992AV03).

  6. A=18He (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not illustrated) Not observed: See (1982AV1A, 1983ANZQ

  7. A=20Al, etc. (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (Not observed) See (1972AJ02, 1983ANZQ, 1986AN07

  8. A=20Be (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (Not observed) See (1977CE05, 1983ANZQ, 1986AN07, 1987SIZX

  9. A=20n (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (Not observed) See (1977CE05, 1983ANZQ, 1986AN07, 1987SIZX

  10. A=20He (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He (1998TI06) (Not observed) See (1977CE05, 1983ANZQ, 1986AN07, 1987SIZX).

  11. A=20Li (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li (1998TI06) (Not observed) See (1977CE05, 1983ANZQ, 1986AN07, 1987SIZX).

  12. A=5n (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (Not illustrated) See also the A = 5 introductory discussion titled A = 5 resonance parameters.

  13. Infrared spectroscopy of CaTiO3, SrTiO3, BaTiO3, Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Infrared spectroscopy of CaTiO3, SrTiO3, BaTiO3, Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films, and (BaTiO3)5(SrTiO3)5 superlattice grown on SrRuO3SrTiO3(001) substrates Citation Details In-Document ...

  14. Alternate Strategies for Pre-Application Reporting and Fast Track Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative (DGIC) "!lternate Strategies for Pre-Application Reporting and Fast Track !nalysis" Steve Steffel and Alex Dinkel, PEPCO Holdings Inc. February 20, 2013; 11:30-1:00 MST/1:30-3:00 EST NREL i s a na ti ona l l aboratory of the U.S. Depa rtment of Energy, Offi c e of Energy Effi ci ency a nd Renewa bl e Energy, opera ted by the Al l i a nce for Sus ta i nable Energy, LLC. Speakers Steve Steffel Manager - DER and Analytics in Asset

  15. Magnetic Hardening of CeFe11Ti and the Effect of TiC Addition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic Hardening of CeFe11Ti and the Effect of TiC Addition Citation ... Publication Date: 2015-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1221660 Report Number(s): IS-J 8423 Journal ID: ISSN ...

  16. Na onal Security Site?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mul ple Choice (circle the correct answer) 1. How many diff erent animal species can be found at the Nevada Na onal Security Site? a. Less than 500 b. Exactly 1,325 c. More than 1,500 d. Exactly 2,303 2. Nuclear research, development and tes ng caused radioac ve contamina on of: a. Buildings b. Clothes and tools c. Soil and water d. All of the above 3. One method used to check soil for the presence of radioac ve contamina on is: a. Use a black light to see if the soil glows b. Send soil samples

  17. A=16He (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not illustrated) This nucleus has not been observed. See (1982AV1A, 1983ANZQ, 1986AJ04

  18. A=16Li (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li (1993TI07) (Not illustrated) This nucleus has not been observed. Shell model studies (1988POZS) are used to predict J and the magnetic dipole moment....

  19. A=19Mg (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mg (1995TI07) (Not observed) See (1987AJ02) and (1987GU1K, 1987PO01, 1993HI08

  20. Electrolyte Concentration Effect of a Photoelectrochemical Cell Consisting of TiO 2 Nanotube Anode

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ren, Kai; Gan, Yong X.; Nikolaidis, Efstratios; Sofyani, Sharaf Al; Zhang, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    The photoelectrochemical responses of a TiO 2 nanotube anode in ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol, ammonia, ethanol, urea, and Na 2 S electrolytes with different concentrations were investigated. The TiO 2 nanotube anode was highly efficient in photoelectrocatalysis in these solutions under UV light illumination. The photocurrent density is obviously affected by the concentration change. Na 2 S generated the highest photocurrent density at 0, 1, and 2 V bias voltages, but its concentration does not significantly affect the photocurrent density. Urea shows high open circuit voltage at proper concentration and low photocurrent at different concentrations. Externally applied bias voltage ismore » also an important factor that changes the photoelectrochemical reaction process. In view of the open circuit voltage, EG, ammonia, and ethanol fuel cells show the trend that the open circuit voltage (OCV) increases with the increase of the concentration of the solutions. Glycerol has the highest OCV compared with others, and it deceases with the increase in the concentration because of the high viscosity. The OCV of the urea and Na 2 S solutions did not show obvious concentration effect.« less

  1. The permeation behavior of deuterium through 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with TiN+TiC-TiN multiple films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Y.; Song, J.; Luo, D.; Lei, Q.; Chen, C.

    2015-03-15

    The prevention of tritium losses via permeation through structure components is an important issue in fusion technology. The production of thin layers on materials with low diffusivity and/or low surface recombination constants (so-called permeation barriers) seems to be the most practical method to reduce or hinder the permeation of tritium through materials. TiN+TiC+TiN multiple films are deposited on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel by ion-beam assisted deposition technology. The characteristics of films are tested by XPS ASEM and XRD, which shows that the film are compact and uniform with a thickness of about 15 μm, and have a good adherence with the substrate below 773 K. The diffraction peaks in the XRD patterns for TiC and TiN are broadened, implying that the multiple films are deposited on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel. Meanwhile, the C-H bonded CH{sub 4}-appears in the infrared spectra of multiple films, suggesting that the CH{sub 4}- is in a static state, so hydrogen atom cannot migrate from the site bonded with carbon to a neighboring site. The measured deuterium permeability in 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel coated with multiple films is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of pure 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate from 473 K to 773 K. However, this barrier is partly destroyed above 773 K.

  2. Continuous production of granular or powder Ti, Zr and Hf or their alloy products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Jack C.; Oden, Laurance L.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous process for producing a granular metal selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr or Hf under conditions that provide orderly growth of the metal free of halide inclusions comprising: a) dissolving a reducing metal selected from the group consisting of Na, Mg, Li or K in their respective halide salts to produce a reducing molten salt stream; b) preparing a second molten salt stream containing the halide salt of Ti, Zr or Hf; c) mixing and reacting the two molten streams of steps a) and b) in a continuous stirred tank reactor; d) wherein steps a) through c) are conducted at a temperature range of from about 800.degree. C. to about 1100.degree. C. so that a weight percent of equilibrium solubility of the reducing metal in its respective halide salt varies from about 1.6 weight percent at about 900.degree. C. to about 14.4 weight percent at about 1062.degree. C.; and wherein a range of concentration of the halide salt of Ti, Zn or Hf in molten halides of Na, Mg, Li or K is from about 1 to about 5 times the concentration of Na, Mg, Li or K; e) placing the reacted molten stream from step c) in a solid-liquid separator to recover an impure granular metal product by decantation, centrifugation, or filtration; and f) removing residual halide salt impurity by vacuum evaporator or inert gas sweep at temperatures from about 850.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C. or cooling the impure granular metal product to ambient temperature and water leaching off the residual metal halide salt.

  3. TiO2 Nanotubes/MWCNTs Nanocomposite Photocatalysts: Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Under UV-Vis Light Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hao-Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Cui, Xiao-Li; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-03-01

    Nanocomposite of TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2NTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method and firstly used in photocatalytic hydrogen production. The obtained TiO2 NTs/MWCNTs composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectrum and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The experimental results revealed that the MWCNTs were decorated with well dispersed anatase TiO2 nanotubes with a diameter of 8-15 nm. A slight blue shift and weak symmetry was observed for the strongest Raman peak which resulted from strain gradients originating from interface integration between TiO2 nanotubes and MWCNTs. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples was evaluated by hydrogen evolution from water splitting using Na2S and Na2SO3 as sacrificial reagents under UV-vis light irradiation. Enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with P25 has been observed for the resulted samples. The nanocomposite with optimized MWCNTs content of 1% displayed a hydrogen production rate of 161 u mol/h/g. Good photocatalytic stability of the as-synthesized samples was observed as well.

  4. Ti Leggett | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ti Leggett Deputy Project Directcor & Deputy Director of Operations Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Avenue Building 240 - Room 3132 Argonne, IL 60439 630-252-1937 tleggett

  5. A=10C (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10C) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 10C published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into...

  6. A=10N (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (Not illustrated) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 10N published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed,...

  7. A=10Li (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10Li) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 10Li published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into...

  8. A=10He (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10He) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 10He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into...

  9. A=18Li (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li (1995TI07) (Not illustrated) 18Li has not been observed. Shell model calculations described in (1988POZS) predict the ground-state magentic dipole moment and charge and matter radii.

  10. A=18Mg, etc. (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not observed) See (1986AN07) and (1983ANZQ). See also the results of calculations of β+/electron capture half lives for neutron deficient nuclei in (1993HI08

  11. A=6B (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see ( 1984AJ01, 1989GR06 [6Li(π+, π-) at Eπ+ = 180, 240 MeV], 1993PO11 [properties of exotic light nuclei]) (1998SU18

  12. A=6C (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01, 1989GR06 [6Li(π+, π-) at Eπ+ = 180, 240 MeV], 1993PO11 [properties of exotic light nuclei]) (1998SU18

  13. A=20B (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (Not observed) The mass excess of 20B is predicted to be 69.08 MeV (1974TH01). 20B is then unstable with respect to breakup into 19B + n by 0.9 MeV: see 19B in (1995TI07) and (1978AJ03, 1983ANZQ) and see the work on effective interactions for the (0p1s0d) nuclear shell-model space (1992WA22

  14. Instability of Hydrogenated TiO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Oxenford, Lucas S.; Kennedy, John V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Henderson, Michael A.

    2015-11-06

    Hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) is toted as a viable visible light photocatalyst. We report a systematic study on the thermal stability of H-implanted TiO2 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Protons (40 keV) implanted at a ~2 atom % level within a ~120 nm wide profile of rutile TiO2(110) were situated ~300 nm below the surface. NRA revealed that this H-profile broadened preferentially toward the surface after annealing at 373 K, dissipated out of the crystal into vacuum at 473 K, and was absent within the beam sampling depth (~800 nm) at 523 K. Photoemission showed that the surface was reduced in concert with these changes. Similar anneals had no effect on pristine TiO2(110). The facile bulk diffusivity of H in rutile, as well as its activity toward interfacial reduction, significantly limits the utilization of H-TiO2 as a photocatalyst. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  15. Materials Data on NaPrTiNbO6F (SG:91) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Materials Data on NaNdTiNbO6F (SG:91) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on EuNaTiNbO6F (SG:95) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on NaCeTiNbO6F (SG:91) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on NaGdTiNbO6F (SG:95) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on NaCaTaTiO6 (SG:7) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  2. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Ya; Yu, Xiqian; You, Ya; Yin, Yaxia; Nam, Kyung -Wan

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. The Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  3. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore » during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  4. Morphology, deformation, and defect structures of TiCr{sub 2} in Ti-Cr alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.C.; Allen, S.M.; Livingston, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    The morphologies and defect structures of TiCr{sub 2} in several Ti-Cr alloys have been examined by optical metallography, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in order to explore the room-temperature deformability of the Laves phase TiCr{sub 2}. The morphology of the Laves phase was found to be dependent upon alloy composition and annealing temperature. Samples deformed by compression have also been studied using TEM. Comparisons of microstructures before and after deformation suggest an increase in twin, stacking fault, and dislocation density within the Laves phase, indicating some but not extensive room-temperature deformability.

  5. Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like Permittivity. Abstract not provided. Authors: Meyer, Kelsey Elizabeth ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel ; Brennecka, ...

  6. Carrier-Controlled Ferromagnetism in SrTiO3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moetakef, Pouya; Williams, James R.; Ouellette, Daniel G.; Kajdos, Adam P.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Allen, S. James; Stemmer, Susanne

    2012-06-27

    Magnetotransport and superconducting properties are investigated for uniformly La-doped SrTiO3 films and GdTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures, respectively. GdTiO3/SrTiO3 interfaces exhibit a high-density 2D electron gas on the SrTiO3 side of the interface, while, for the SrTiO3 films, carriers are provided by the dopant atoms. Both types of samples exhibit ferromagnetism at low temperatures, as evidenced by a hysteresis in the magnetoresistance. For the uniformly doped SrTiO3 films, the Curie temperature is found to increase with doping and to coexist with superconductivity for carrier concentrations on the high-density side of the superconducting dome. The Curie temperature of the GdTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures scales with themore » thickness of the SrTiO3 quantum well. The results are used to construct a stability diagram for the ferromagnetic and superconducting phases of SrTiO3.« less

  7. NaWoTec | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NaWoTec Jump to: navigation, search Name: NaWoTec Place: Rossdorf, Germany Zip: 64380 Product: Germany-based company developing 3-dimensional additive lithography using...

  8. Giant persistent photoconductivity in BaTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plodinec, Milivoj; anti?, Ana; Gajovi?, Andreja; Zavanik, Janez; ?eh, Miran

    2014-10-13

    The persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect in nanotube arrays of barium titanate and TiO{sub 2} (BTO/TiO{sub 2}NT) was studied at room temperature under daylight illumination. The BTO/TiO{sub 2}NT heterostructures exhibited a giant PPC effect that was six orders of magnitude higher than the dark conductivity, followed by a slow relaxation for 3 h. The PPC in this material was explained by the existence of defects at the surfaces and the interfaces of the investigated heterostructures. The sample was prepared using a two-step synthesis: the anodization of a Ti-foil and a subsequent hydrothermal synthesis. The structural and electrical characteristics were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy.

  9. A=14Na (1986AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    86AJ01) (Not illustrated) 14Ne, 14Na and 14Mg have not been observed. See (1983ANZQ

  10. A=14Na (1991AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    91AJ01) (Not illustrated) 14Ne, 14Na and 14Mg have not been observed. See (1986AN07

  11. A=18C (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the 48Ca(18O, 18C)48Ti reaction. 18C is then bound by 4.188 MeV with respect to breakup into 17C + n. See also (1982FI10, 1987AJ02, 1992WA22). 1. 18C(-)18N Qm 11.807 The...

  12. A=5Be (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See the Isobar Diagram for 5Be) See also the A = 5 introductory discussion titled A = 5 resonance parameters. The absence of any group structure in the neutron spectrum in the reaction 3He(3He, n)5Be at E(3He) = 18.0 to 26.0 MeV indicates that 5Beg.s

  13. Threshold electron excitation of Na

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinkovic, B.; Wang, P.; Gallagher, A. )

    1992-09-01

    Electron collisional excitation of the 4{ital D}, 5{ital D}, 4{ital P}, and 6{ital S} states of Na has been measured with about 30-meV energy resolution. Very rapid, unresolved threshold onsets are seen for all but the 4{ital P} state, and a near-threshold resonance is suggested by the 5{ital D} data. However, only weak undulations in the cross sections are observed above threshold.

  14. Influence of the Al distribution on the structure, elastic properties, and phase stability of supersaturated Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayrhofer, P. H.; Music, D.; Schneider, J. M.

    2006-11-01

    Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N films and/or their alloys are employed in many industrial applications due to their excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Synthesized by plasma-assisted vapor deposition, Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N is reported to crystallize in the cubic NaCl (c) structure for AlN mole fractions below 0.4-0.91, whereas at larger Al contents the hexagonal ZnS-wurtzite (w) structure is observed. Here we use ab initio calculations to analyze the effect of composition and Al distribution on the metal sublattice on phase stability, structure, and elastic properties of c-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N and w-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N. We show that the phase stability of supersaturated c-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N not only depends on the chemical composition but also on the Al distribution of the metal sublattice. An increase of the metastable solubility limit of AlN in c-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N from 0.64 to 0.74 is obtained by decreasing the number of Ti-Al bonds. This can be understood by considering the Al distribution induced changes of the electronic structure, bond energy, and configurational entropy. This may in part explain the large variation of the metastable solubility limit reported in the literature.

  15. Effect of neutron irradiation on defect evolution in Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tallman, Darin J.; He, Lingfeng; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Hoffman, Elizabeth N.; Kohse, Gordon; Sindelar, Robert L.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2015-10-23

    Here, we report on the characterization of defects formed in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples exposed to neutron irradiation – up to 0.1 displacements per atom (dpa) at 350 ± 40 °C or 695 ± 25 °C, and up to 0.4 dpa at 350 ± 40 °C. Black spots are observed in both Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC after irradiation to both 0.1 and 0.4 dpa at 350 °C. After irradiation to 0.1 dpa at 695 °C, small basal dislocation loops, with a Burgers vector of b = 1/2 [0001] are observed in both materials. At 9 ± 3 and 10 ±more » 5 nm, the loop diameters in the Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples, respectively, were comparable. At 1 × 1023 loops/m3, the dislocation loop density in Ti2AlC was ≈1.5 orders of magnitude greater than in Ti3SiC2, at 3 x 1021 loops/m3. After irradiation at 350 °C, extensive microcracking was observed in Ti2AlC, but not in Ti3SiC2. The room temperature electrical resistivities increased as a function of neutron dose for all samples tested, and appear to saturate in the case of Ti3SiC2. The MAX phases are unequivocally more neutron radiation tolerant than the impurity phases TiC and Al2O3. Based on these results, Ti3SiC2 appears to be a more promising MAX phase candidate for high temperature nuclear applications than Ti2AlC.« less

  16. Structural and Morphological Difference Between Ti/TiN/TiCN Coatings Grown in Multilayer and Graded Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Restrepo, E.; Baena, A.; Agudelo, C.; Castillo, H.; Devia, A.; Marino, A.

    2006-12-04

    Thin films can be grown in super-lattice, multilayers and graded form, having each one advantages and disadvantages. The difference between multilayer and graded coatings is the interface. In multilayers the interface is abrupt and in graded coatings it is diffuse. The interface influences many chemical and physical properties of the materials, and its choice depends on the application. Graded coatings have the advantage of having gradual properties such as thermal expansion coefficient and lattice parameter, avoiding adherence problems due to good match between their component materials. In this work the comparison between some properties of coatings grown as multilayer and graded is performed. The materials are produced using the sputtering DC technique because of its facility to control the deposition parameters and generate a slow growth. The target is a disc of titanium and the samples are made of stainless steel 304. The working gases are argon, nitrogen and methane, which are mixed according to the material to be produced, i.e. Ti layer is grown with argon, the TiN film is produced with a mixture of argon and nitrogen, and the TiCN material is obtained mixing argon, nitrogen and methane. These materials are characterized with AFM in order to determine grain size and with XPS studying the chemical composition and performing depth profiles.

  17. A=3n (1987TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1987TI07) (Not illustrated) GENERAL: The weight of experimental evidence reviewed in the previous compilation of Fiarman and Hanna (1975FI08) is strongly against the existence of a bound state of the three-neutron system, and only controversial evidence of 3n resonances was cited. Several experiments carried out more recently have strengthened the evidence against the bound trineutron and have failed to discover resonance structure that cannot be otherwise explained. The most suggestive work is

  18. A=19Na (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19Na) A study of the reaction 24Mg(p, 6He)19Na at Ep = 54.7 MeV reveals a group of 6He particles corresponding to a state in 19Na with M - A = 12.974 ± 0.070 MeV. It is presumed to be the ground state of 19Na, although the close proximity of the second T = 3/2 state in 19O from the first (96 keV), does not permit a definite assignment. If it is assumed that 19Na(0) has M - A = 12.974 ± 0.070 MeV, then 19Na is unbound with respect to decay into 18Ne + p by

  19. A=20Na (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See Table 20.35 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Mass of 20Na: From the threshold energy of the 20Ne(p, n)20Na reaction, Ethresh. = 15.419 ± 0.006 MeV, the atomic mass excess of 20Na is 6.850 ± 0.006 MeV (1971GO18, 1971WI07). See also (1964GA1C, 1966GA25, 1966KE16, 1969HA38). 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.892 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of excited states which decay by α-emission to the ground state of

  20. A Review Corrosion of TI Grade 7 and Other TI Alloys in Nuclear Waste Repository Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Hua; K. Mon; P. Pasupathi; G. Gordon

    2004-05-11

    Titanium alloy degradation modes are reviewed in relation to their performance in repository environments. General corrosion, localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking, microbially influenced corrosion, and radiation-assisted corrosion of Ti alloys are considered. With respect to the Ti Grade 7 drip shields selected for emplacement in the repository at Yucca Mountain, general corrosion, hydrogen induced cracking, and radiation-assisted corrosion will not lead to failure within the 10,000 year regulatory period; stress corrosion cracking (in the absence of disruptive events) is of no consequence to barrier performance; and localized corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion are not expected to occur. To facilitate the discussion, Ti Grades 2, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, and 24 are included in this review.

  1. Nature of Transactions (TI) Code | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | (NNSA) Nature of Transactions (TI) Code U.S. Department of Energy / U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System Nature of Transactions (TI) Code* Nature of Transactions (TI) Code* Code: Description: A Initiates lease and financial responsibility of DOE-owned material B Transfer of lease and financial responsiblity of DOE-owned material C Transfer of DOE-owned material with no change in lease or financial responsibility D Return to DOE for credit

  2. Thermoelastic Analysis of a Vibrating TiB/Ti Cantilever Beam Using Differential Thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, Larry; Wyen, Travis; Byrd, Alex

    2008-02-15

    Differential thermography has been used to detect the fluctuating temperatures due the thermoelastic effect for a number of years. This paper examines functionally graded TiB/Ti cantilever beams excited on an electromechanical shaker in fully reversed bending. Finite difference analysis of specimens was used to look at the effect of heat conduction, convection and the fundamental frequency on the surface temperature distribution and compared to experimental data. The thermoelastic effect was also used to detect cracking and the stress field at the tip of the fixture during fatigue.

  3. Ab initio Study of He Stability in hcp-Ti

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Yunya; Yang, Li; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao T.

    2010-12-20

    The stability of He in hcp-Ti was studied using ab initio method based on density functional theory. The results indicate that a single He atom prefers to occupy the tetrahedral site rather than the octahedral site. The interaction of He defects with Ti atoms has been used to explain the relative stabilities of He point defects in hcp-Ti. The relative stability of He defects in hcp-Ti is useful for He clustering and bubble nucleation in metal tritides, which provides the basis for development of improved atomistic models.

  4. Cathodic cage plasma deposition of TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films on silicon substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sousa, Romulo R. M. de; Sato, Patricia S.; Nascente, Pedro A. P.; Viana, Bartolomeu C.; Alves, Clodomiro; Nishimoto, Akio

    2015-07-15

    Cathodic cage plasma deposition (CCPD) was used for growing titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films on silicon substrates. The main advantages of the CCPD technique are the uniformity, tridimensionality, and high rate of the film deposition that occurs at higher pressures, lower temperatures, and lower treatment times than those used in conventional nitriding treatments. In this work, the influence of the temperature and gas atmosphere upon the characteristics of the deposited films was investigated. The TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy to analyze their chemical, structural, and morphological characteristics, and the combination of these results indicates that the low-cost CCPD technique can be used to produce even and highly crystalline TiN and TiO{sub 2} films.

  5. Ferroelectric Self-assembled PbTiO3 Perovskite Nanostructures...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perovskite Nanostructures onto (100)SrTiO3 Substrates from a Novel Microemulsion-aided Sol-Gel Preparation Figure 1. PbTiO3 nanostructures onto (100) SrTiO3 substrates....

  6. Optimizing optical absorption of TiO{sub 2} by alloying with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Optimizing optical absorption of TiOsub 2 by alloying with TiSsub 2 TiOsub 2 is an attractive material for photocatalytic water splitting, but its band gap is too ...

  7. Nevada Na onal Security Site U.S. Department of Energy, Na ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wells Sampled On and Near the Nevada Na onal Security Site U.S. Department of Energy, Na onal Nuclear Security Administra on Nevada Field Office Stages of an Underground Nuclear ...

  8. New Improved Equations For Na-K, Na-Li And Sio2 Geothermometers...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Improved Equations For Na-K, Na-Li And Sio2 Geothermometers By Outlier Detection And Rejection Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  9. Structure-Curie temperature relationships in BaTiO 3 -based ferroelect...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ferroelectric perovskites: Anomalous behavior of ( Ba , Cd ) TiO 3 from DFT, ... ferroelectric perovskites: Anomalous behavior of ( Ba , Cd ) TiO 3 from DFT, ...

  10. Effects of hydrochloric acid treatment of TiO{sub 2}nanoparticles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of hydrochloric acid treatment of TiOsub 2 nanoparticlesnanofibers bilayer film ... Title: Effects of hydrochloric acid treatment of TiOsub 2 nanoparticlesnanofibers ...

  11. Equation of State Model Quality Study for Ti and Ti64.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wills, Ann Elisabet; Sanchez, Jason James

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and the titanium alloy Ti64 (6% aluminum, 4% vanadium and the balance ti- tanium) are materials used in many technologically important applications. To be able to computationally investigate and design these applications, accurate Equations of State (EOS) are needed and in many cases also additional constitutive relations. This report describes what data is available for constructing EOS for these two materials, and also describes some references giving data for stress-strain constitutive models. We also give some suggestions for projects to achieve improved EOS and constitutive models. In an appendix, we present a study of the 'cloud formation' issue observed in the ALEGRA code. This issue was one of the motivating factors for this literature search of available data for constructing improved EOS for Ti and Ti64. However, the study shows that the cloud formation issue is only marginally connected to the quality of the EOS, and, in fact, is a physical behavior of the system in question. We give some suggestions for settings in, and improvements of, the ALEGRA code to address this computational di culty.

  12. A=18Na (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (Not illustrated) A calculation using an isobaric mass formula predicts that the mass excess of 18Na is 25.4 ± 0.4 MeV (1966KE16): 18Na is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.6 MeV. See also (1965JA1C

  13. A=19Na (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19Na) This nucleus has been observed in the 24Mg(p, 6He)19Na reaction (1969CE01; Ep = 54.7 MeV) and in the 24Mg(3He, 8Li)19Na reaction (1975BE38; E(3He) = 76.3 MeV). The latter experiment leads to an atomic mass excess of 12.928 ± 0.012 MeV for 19Na in its ground state. In addition, an excited state is observed at Ex = 120 ± 10 keV (1975BE38). Assuming the atomic mass excess listed above, 19Na(0) is unstable with respect to breakup into 18Ne + p by 320 ± 13

  14. A=10B (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10B) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 10B published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 10B located on our website at: (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/10b.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 10.18 preview 10.18 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). μ = +1.80064475 ± 0.00000057 μN: see (1989RA17); Q = +84.72

  15. A=19B (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not illustrated) 19B has been observed in the bombardment of Be by 12 MeV/A 56Fe ions (1984MU27) and in the fragmentation of 44 MeV/A 40Ar (1988GU1A) and 55 MeV/A 48Ca (1991MU19). See also (1989DE52). The mass excess adopted by (1993AU05) is 59.360 ± 0.400 MeV. Shell model predictions for low-lying levels are discussed in (1992WA22). See also (1989PO1K, 1990LO11

  16. A=20C (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (Not illustrated) 20C has been observed in heavy ion projectile fragmentation reactions (1987GI05, 1990MU06, 1991MU19) and in proton-induced target-fragmentation reactions (1987VI13, 1988MU08, 1993WOZZ). The atomic mass excess is 37.560 ± 0.200 MeV (1995AU04). It is then stable with respect to 19C + n and 18C + 2n by 3.3 and 3.5 MeV, respectively. β-delayed neutron emission has been observed (1987GI05, 1990MU06, 1991MU19). The half life and neutron emission probability have been

  17. A=20N (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (Not illustrated) 20N is particle stable. Its atomic mass excess is 21.770 ± 0.050 MeV (1995AU04). It has been observed in heavy-ion transfer (1989OR03) and projectile fragmentation reactions (1987GI05, 1988DUZT, 1988MU08, 1990MU06, 1991OR01) and in target fragmentation reactions (1988WO09, 1991RE02, 1993WOZZ). See also the review (1988VI1D). Mass measurements were reported in (1987GI05, 1988WO09, 1989OR03, 1991OR01, 1993WOZZ). Nuclear matter rms radii have been derived from

  18. A=3He (1987TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1987TI07) GENERAL: Ground State: Jπ = 1/2+, μ = -2.127624 ± 0.0000011 nm, M - A = 14.93132 ± 0.00003 MeV. General properties of the ground state of the A = 3 system are under 3H above. The wave function is predominantly S-state (~ 90%) with S'-state (1 - 2%) and D-state (~ 9%) admixtures (1975FI08, 1980PA12, 1984CI05, 1984CI09). For 3He the measured magnetic moment is μ = -2.127624 ± 0.0000011 nm (1978LEZA, 1978NE12). Calculations which include both impulse and pion exchange contributions

  19. A=3Li (1987TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1987TI07) GENERAL: The previous compilation (1975FI08) listed a small number of references reporting on the four reactions discussed below. Only one of the experiments cited contained any evidence for a 3p resonance, and the discussion suggested that the observed enhancement in 3He(p, n) was more likely a final state interaction. In the work reported since (1975FI08) and listed below, only (1974POZN) contains any mention of the tri-proton, and no evidence for its existence was observed. 1. 2H(p,

  20. A=4HE (1992TI02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He (1992TI02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 4He) GENERAL: Ground state:Due to non-central forces, the wave function for the Jπ = 0+ ground state of 4He can be a positive-parity mixture of three 1S0, six 3P0, and five 5D0 orthogonal states (1967BE74). Of course, the symmetric S-wave component is the dominant part of the wavefunction, with significant D-wave and almost negligible P-wave contributions. Since the D-state admixture can be inferred from measurements such as the tensor analyzing

  1. A=4Li (1992TI02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li (1992TI02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 4Li) GENERAL: The stability of 8B against particle decay (1988AJ01), in particular against decay into 4He + 4Li, sets an upper limit of 1.7 MeV on the separation energy of 4Li into p + 3He (1952SH44). The instability of 4H against particle decay (see 4H, GENERAL section) makes the particle stability of 4Li very unlikely, since the Coulomb energy of 4Li is approximately 1.7 MeV larger than that of 4H (1963WE10), and the nuclear energies should be

  2. A=5H (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (Not illustrated) See also the A = 5 introductory discussion titled A = 5 resonance parameters. The previous review (1988AJ01) noted that the 9Be(11B, 15O) reaction at E(11B) = 52 - 76 MeV showed no evidence for the formation of 5H (1986BE35, 1987BO40). For the earlier work see (1984AJ01). See also (1987KO47, 1988SEZJ). In several experiments on π- absorption at rest there is some evidence for the formation of a very broad (8 ± 3 MeV) resonance in the 5H system with Er = 7.4 ± 0.7

  3. A=5He (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 5He) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 5He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 5He located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/5he.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 5.1 preview 5.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). See also the A = 5 introductory discussion titled A = 5 resonance

  4. A=5Li (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 5Li) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 5Li published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 5Li located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/5li.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 5.3 preview 5.3 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). See also the A = 5 introductory discussion titled A = 5 resonance

  5. A=6Be (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 6Be) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 6Be published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 6Be located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/6be.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 6.14 preview 6.14 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). 1. (a) 3He(3He, γ)6Be Qm = 11.4884 (b) 3He(3He, p)5Li Qm = 11.17

  6. A=6He (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 6He) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 6He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 6He located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/6he.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 6.1 preview 6.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Ground State Properties: The interaction radius of 6He, obtained

  7. A=6Li (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 6Li) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 6He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and isted, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 6Li located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/6li.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 6.4 preview 6.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Ground State Properties: μ = +0.8220473(6) nm, +0.8220567(3) nm:

  8. A=6n (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (Not illustrated) 6n has not been observed. See (1979AJ01, 1988AJ01) and references cited there. More recently (1990AL40) reports a search for 6n in a 14C(7Li, 6n) activation experiment at E(7Li) = 82 MeV. No evidence for 6n was obtained. The method of angular potential functions was used by (1989GO18) in a calculation of the properties of multi-neutron systems which indicated that these systems have no bound states. The ground state energy of a six-neutron drop has been computed with

  9. A=7Be (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 7Be) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 7Be published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 7Be located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/7be.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 7.7 preview 7.7 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). The interaction nuclear radius of 7Be is 2.22 ± 0.02 fm

  10. A=7He (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 7He) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 7He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 7He located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/7he.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 7.1 preview 7.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Mass of 7He: The atomic mass excess of 7He is 26.11 ± 0.03 MeV:

  11. A=8B (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8B) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 8B published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 8B located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/8b.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 8.15 preview 8.15 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). μ = 1.0355 ± 0.0003 μN: see (1996FIZY). Q = 68.3 ± 2.1 mb

  12. A=8He (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8He) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 8He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 8He located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/8he.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 8.1 preview 8.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Mass of 8He: The atomic mass excess of 8He adopted by us and by

  13. A=9B (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9B) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 9B published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 9B located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/9b.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 9.13 preview 9.13 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). The low-lying levels of 9B have mainly [441] spatial symmetry and

  14. A=9Be (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9Be) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 9Be published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 9Be located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/9be.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 9.2 preview 9.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). μ = -1.1778 ± 0.0009 μN: see (1978LEZA); Q = 52.88 ± 0.38 mb:

  15. A=9C (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9C) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 9C published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 9C located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/9c.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 9.16 preview 9.16 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Ground state properties: μ = -1.3914 ± 0.0005 μN (1996MA38). See

  16. A=9He (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See the Isobar Diagram for 9He) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 9He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 9He located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/9he.shtml). Mass of 9He: Although the value adopted in the 2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation (2003AU02) for the 9He ground state is 40.939 ± 0.029 MeV based on the results

  17. A=9Li (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9Li) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 9Li published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 9Li located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/9li.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 9.1 preview 9.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Ground state properties: μ = 3.4391 ± 0.0006 μN (1983CO11). See

  18. A=9N (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1988AJ01). Mass excesses of 46.56 and 46.40 MeV have been estimated from two different mass formulae (2000PO32). 9N would then be proton unbound by ~ 4 MeV. However, mass formulae neither take into account the fact that the last occupied orbit(s) may change near the drip lines nor the fact that an extended low-l orbit leads to a lowered Coulomb energy. The suggested s-wave ground-state of 9He and a Coulomb energy estimated from the 11N ground state

  19. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} Thick Film for Photocatalyst from Commercial TiO{sub 2} Powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asteti, S. Fuji; Syarif, D. Gustaman

    2008-03-17

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} thick film ceramics made of commercial TiO{sub 2} powder has been studied. The TiO{sub 2} powder was nano sized one that was derived from dried TiO{sub 2} suspension. The TiO{sub 2} suspension was made by pouring some blended commercial TiO{sub 2} powder into some amount of water. The paste of TiO{sub 2} was made by mixing the nano sized TiO{sub 2} powder with organic vehicle and glass frit. The paste was spread on a glass substrate. The paste was dried at 100 deg. C and heated at different temperatures (400 deg. C and 500 deg. C) for 60 minutes to produce thick film ceramics. The photocatalytic activity of these films was evaluated by measuring the concentration of a solution of methylene blue where the thick films were inside after being illuminated by UV light at various periods of times. The initial concentration of the methylene blue solution was 5 ppm. Structural analyses were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analyses showed that the produced thick film ceramic had mainly crystal structure of anatase. According to the photocatalytical data, it was known that the produced thick film ceramics were photocatalyst which were capable of decomposing an organic compound such as the methylene blue.

  20. Electrostatic carrier doping of GdTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moetakef, Pouya; Cain, Tyler A.; Zhang, Jack Y.; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Stemmer, Susanne; Ouellette, Daniel G.; Allen, S. James; Klenov, Dmitri O.; Rajan, Siddharth

    2011-12-05

    Heterostructures and superlattices consisting of a prototype Mott insulator, GdTiO{sub 3}, and the band insulator SrTiO{sub 3} are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and show intrinsic electronic reconstruction, approximately 1/2 electron per surface unit cell at each GdTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface. The sheet carrier densities in all structures containing more than one unit cell of SrTiO{sub 3} are independent of layer thicknesses and growth sequences, indicating that the mobile carriers are in a high concentration, two-dimensional electron gas bound to the interface. These carrier densities closely meet the electrostatic requirements for compensating the fixed charge at these polar interfaces. Based on the experimental results, insights into interfacial band alignments, charge distribution, and the influence of different electrostatic boundary conditions are obtained.

  1. A=19Na (1983AJ01)

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    3AJ01) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19Na) A study of this nucleus via the 24Mg(3He, 8Li)19Na reaction at E(3He) = 76.3 MeV leads to an atomic mass excess of 12.928 ± 0.012 MeV for 19Na; it is then unstable with respect to breakup into 18Ne + p by 320 ± 13 keV. An excited state at Ex = 120 ± 10 keV is also reported (1975BE38). See also (1978AJ03, 1978GU10, 1979BE1H

  2. A=19Na (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19Na) A study of this nucleus via the 24Mg(3He, 8Li)19Na reaction at E(3He) = 76.3 MeV leads to an atomic mass excess of 12.929 ± 0.012 MeV for 19Na; it is then unstable with respect to breakup into 18Ne + p by 321 ± 13 keV. An excited state at Ex = 120 ± 10 keV is also reported (1975BE38, 1985WA02). See also (1985AN28, 1986AN07) and (1983ANZQ, 1983AU1B; theor.

  3. NNSA reorganizes Office of Emergency Operations (NA-40), Office...

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  14. Phase equilibria, formation, crystal and electronic structure of ternary compounds in Ti-Ni-Sn and Ti-Ni-Sb ternary systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romaka, V.V.; Rogl, P.; Romaka, L.; Stadnyk, Yu.; Melnychenko, N.; Grytsiv, A.; Falmbigl, M.; Skryabina, N.

    2013-01-15

    The phase equilibria of the Ti-Ni-Sn and Ti-Ni-Sb ternary systems have been studied in the whole concentration range by means of X-ray and EPM analyses at 1073 K and 873 K, respectively. Four ternary intermetallic compounds TiNiSn (MgAgAs-type), TiNi{sub 2-x}Sn (MnCu{sub 2}Al-type), Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn (U{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}Sn-type), and Ti{sub 5}NiSn{sub 3} (Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3}-type) are formed in Ti-Ni-Sn system at 1073 K. The TiNi{sub 2}Sn stannide is characterized by homogeneity in the range of 50-47 at% of Ni. The Ti-Ni-Sb ternary system at 873 K is characterized by formation of three ternary intermetallic compounds, Ti{sub 0.8}NiSb (MgAgAs-type), Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 0.45}Sb{sub 2.55} (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type), and Ti{sub 5}NiSb{sub 3} (Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3}-type). The solubility of Ni in Ti{sub 0.8}NiSb decreases number of vacancies in Ti site up to Ti{sub 0.91}Ni{sub 1.1}Sb composition. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal section of the Ti-Ni-Sn phase diagram and DOS distribution in hypothetical TiNi{sub 1+x}Sn solid solution. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-Ni-Sn phase diagram was constructed at 1073 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four ternary compounds are formed: TiNiSn, TiNi{sub 2-x}Sn, Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn, and Ti{sub 5}NiSn{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ternary compounds exist in Ti-Ni-Sb system at 873 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TiNi{sub 2}Sb compound is absent.

  15. Development of Ti/Ti{sub 3}Sn functionally gradient material produced by eutectic bonding method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirihara, S.; Takeda, M.; Tsujimoto, T. [Ibaraki Univ., Hitachi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [Ibaraki Univ., Hitachi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-07-15

    Although many materials which have a single function have been developed, future needs are anticipated to include materials which have various functions. A functionally gradient material (FGM) which has characteristics of two different materials is a promising candidate for multi-functional material. The present methods for production of FGM, however, are very complicated and costly. In this study the authors answer the serious problem of high production cost by fabricating the FGM by a eutectic bonding method. This fabrication method includes structural control of FGM by changing the cooling process. They describe Ti/Ti{sub 3}Sn FGM obtained by the eutectic bonding method, and tell how the structure of its composition gradient part is changed by controlling the cooling process.

  16. Application of Ti-alloys as compressor discs and blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helm, D.

    1999-07-01

    Ti-alloys are widely used as materials for compressor discs, blades, vanes and housings in modern aero-engines due to their excellent strength-to-weight ratio. Their high corrosion resistance and good weldability are additional factors for their application as main compressor components. A variety of different Ti-alloys have been developed in recent years and introduced into jet engines in order to fulfill the large spectrum of required mechanical properties. The main topic of the present paper is to describe the correlation between essential microstructural features of a number of Ti-alloys for compressor disc and blade applications and such mechanical properties as strength, creep and fatigue resistance, fracture toughness, and crack propagation behavior. It will be shown that for different engine requirements the choice of the suitable alloy, as well as tailoring of microstructural features with the aim to achieve an optimized balance of relevant mechanical properties, is necessary. The influence of thermomechanical treatment on morphology and dimensions of phases, and the resulting correlation to mechanical properties, will be discussed in detail for selected Ti-alloys, i.e., Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo and IMI 834 (Ti-5.8Al-4Sn-3.5Zr-0.5Mo-0.7Nb-0.35Si-0.06C). Additionally, effects of surface conditions caused by surface treatment (shot peening) or by service exposure (surface oxidation) will be presented.

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  19. A=20Na (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See also (1972AJ02) and Table 20.39 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). (1973HA77, 1973SU1B, 1974HA17, 1976CH1T, 1977SH13). J = 2 (1975SC20); μ = 0.3694 ± 0.0002 nm (1975SC20). 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.887 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of other excited states of 20Ne: see Table 20.37 (in PDF or PS). The half-life of 20Na is 442 ± 5 msec (1971GO18, 1971WI07), 446 ± 8 msec (1972MO08), 448 ± 4 msec

  20. A=20Na (1983AJ01)

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    3AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See also (1978AJ03) and Table 20.36 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). (1977SI1D, 1978WO1E, 1979BE1H, 1980OK01, 1981AY01). J = 2 (1975SC20); μ = 0.3694 ± 0.0002 nm (1975SC20). 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.887 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of other excited states of 20Ne: see Table 20.33 (in PDF or PS) and reaction 63 in 20Ne. The half-life of 20Na is 446 ± 3 msec; Jπ = 2+: see (1978AJ03). 2. 16O(12C,

  1. A=20Na (1987AJ02)

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    87AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 20.27 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). (1981WA1Q, 1983ANZQ, 1983BR29, 1985AN28, 1985HA1N, 1985RO1N, 1986AN07, 1986GA1I). 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.887 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of other excited states of 20Ne: see Table 20.26 (in PDF or PS) and reaction 53 in 20Ne. The half-life of 20Na is 447.9 ± 2.3 msec [weighted mean of values quoted in (1978AJ03) and in (1983CL01)];

  2. Nondestructive evaluation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L.; Wiezman, A.

    2011-06-23

    The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

  3. A=16B (1993TI07)

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    93TI07) (Not illustrated) This nucleus has not been observed in the 4.8 GeV proton bombardment of a uranium target. It is particle unstable. Its mass excess is predicted to be 37.97 MeV; it would then be unstable with respect to decay into 15B + n by 0.93 MeV. See (1985WA02, 1986AJ04). The ground state is predicted to have Jπ = 0- and the first three excited states are predicted to lie at 0.95, 1.10, and 1.55 MeV [Jπ = 2-, 3-, 4-] in a (0 + 1)ℏω space shell model calculation. See (1983ANZQ,

  4. A=16C (1993TI07)

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    93TI07) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 16C) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 16.1 preview 16.1 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 16.2 preview 16.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. 1. 16C(β-)16N Qm = 8.012 The half life of 16C is 0.747 ± 0.008 sec. It decays to 16N*(0.12, 3.35, 4.32) [Jπ = 0-, 1+, 1+]: see Table Prev. Table 16.3 preview 16.3 (in PDF or PS) and (1993CH06). See also (1986AJ04) and see (1986KI05, 1988WA1E, 1992WA1L) for theoretical discussions of

  5. A=16Ne (1993TI07)

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    93TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 16Ne) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 16.29 preview 16.29 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 16.32 preview 16.32 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Mass of 16Ne: The Q-values of the 20Ne(α, 8He) and 16O(π+, π-) reactions lead to atomic mass excesses of 23.93 ± 0.08 MeV (1978KE06), 23.978 ± 0.024 MeV (1983WO01) and 24.048 ± 0.045 MeV (1980BU15) [recalculated using the (1985WA02) masses for 8He, 16O and 20Ne]. The weighted mean is

  6. A=17C (1993TI07)

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    93TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 17C) The atomic mass excess given by (1988WA18) for 17C is 21035 ± 17 keV. See also (1986AN07). 17C is then stable with respect to 16C + n by 0.73 MeV. Eβ- (max) to 17Ng.s. = 13.16 MeV. See also (1986BI1A). The half-life of 17C has been measured to be 202 ± 17 msec (1986CU01), 220 ± 80 msec (1986DU07), 180 ± 31 msec (1988SA04), and 174 ± 31 msec (1991RE02). Relative intensities of β-delayed gammas were measured by (1986DU07, 1986HU1A, 1986JEZY) [see

  7. A=17Ne (1993TI07)

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    93TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 17Ne) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 17.26 preview 17.26 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). 1. (a) 17Ne(β+)17F* → 16O + p Qm = 13.928 (b) 17Ne(β+)17F → 13N + α Qm = 8.711 (c) 17Ne(β+)17F Qm = 14.529 The half-life of 17Ne has been reported as 109.0 ± 1.0 msec (1971HA05) and 109.3 ± 0.6 msec (1988BO39): the weighted mean is 109.2 ± 0.6 and we adopt it. The decay is primarily to the proton unstable states of 17F at 4.65, 5.49, 6.04 and 8.08 MeV

  8. A=18B (1995TI07)

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    95TI07) (Not illustrated) 18B has not been observed in the bombardment of Ta by 44 MeV/A Ar ions (1985DE60, 1985LA03, 1986PO13) or in the bombardment of Be by 12 MeV/A 56Fe ions (1984MU27). 18B has been predicted to have a mass excess of 52.3 MeV (1993AU05). It would then be unstable with respect to 17B + n by 0.5 MeV: see (1978AJ03, 1985WA02). 18B is calculated to have Jπ = 4- and to have excited states at 0.62, 0.86 and 1.59 MeV with Jπ = 1-, 2- and 2- (1985PO10).The shell model calculations

  9. A=18F (1995TI07)

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    95TI07) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18F) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 18.23 preview 18.23 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 18.24 preview 18.24 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). μ1.12 = +2.86 ± 0.03 nm [see (1983AJ01)] Q1.12 = 0.13 ± 0.03 b [see (1983AJ01)]. 1. 18F(β+)18O Qm = 1.655 The positron decay is entirely to the ground state of 18O [Jπ = 0+, T = 1]; the half-life is 109.77 ± 0.05 min [see Table Prev. Table 18.11 preview 18.11 (in PDF or PS) in

  10. A=18N (1995TI07)

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    95TI07) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18N) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 18.3 preview 18.3 [General Table ] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 18.4 preview 18.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Mass of 18N: The atomic mass excess derived from the Q-value of the 18O(7Li, 7Be)18N reaction and adopted by (1993AU05) is 13.117 ± 0.020 MeV (1983PU01). 18N is then stable with respect to breakup into 17N + n by 2.825 MeV. See (1983AJ01) for the earlier work. 1. 18N(β-)18O Qm = -13.899 The

  11. A=18Ne (1995TI07)

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    95TI07) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18Ne) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 18.35 preview 18.35 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 18.36 preview 18.36 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). For B(E2) of 18Ne*(1.89) and other parameters see (1987RA01) and Table Prev. Table 2 preview 2 in the Introduction. 1. 18Ne(β+)18F Qm = 4.446 The half-life of 18Ne is 1672 ± 8 ms: see (1978AJ03) and (1983AD03). The decay is primarily to 18F*(0, 1.04, 1.70 MeV). In addition there is an

  12. A=19C (1995TI07)

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    95TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19C) 19C has been observed in the 0.8 GeV proton bombardment of thorium (1986VI09, 1988WO09) and in the fragmentation of 66 MeV/A argon ions (1987GI05) and in 44 MeV/A 22Ne on 181Ta, and in 112 MeV/A 20Ne on 12C (1994RAZW, 1995OZ02). The mass excess adopted by (1993AU05) is 32.23 ± 0.11 MeV. See also (1986VI09, 1987GI05, 1988WO09, 1991OR01). 19C is then stable with respect to decay into 18C + n by 0.16 MeV and into 17C + 2n by 4.35 MeV. The half-life was

  13. A=19N (1995TI07)

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    95TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19N) 19N has been produced in a number of different multinucleon transfer reactions (1983AJ01, 1987AJ02), and these results lead to an adopted value (1993AU05) of 15.860 ± 0.016 MeV for the mass excess. 19N is then stable with respect to decay into 18N + n by 5.33 MeV. The half-life has been measured to be 0.32 ± 0.10 s (1986DU07), 0.21+0.2-0.1 s (1988MU08), 0.235 ± 0.032 s (1988SA04), 0.300 ± 0.080 s (1988DUZT), 0.329 ± 0.019 s (1991RE02). The neutron

  14. A=19Ne (1995TI07)

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    95TI07) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 19Ne) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 19.26 preview 19.26 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 19.27 preview 19.27 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. μg.s. = -1.88542 (8) nm (1982MA39) μ0.239 = -0.740 (8) nm (1978LEZA) 1. 19Ne(β+)19F Qm = 3.238 We adopt the half-life of 19Ne suggested by (1983AD03): 17.34 ± 0.09 s. See also (1978AJ03). The decay is principally to 19Fg.s.: see Table Prev. Table 19.29 preview 19.29 (in PDF or

  15. A=19O (1995TI07)

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    95TI07) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 19O) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 19.1 preview 19.1 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 19.2 preview 19.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. 1. 19O(β-)19F Qm = 4.819 The weighted mean of several half-lives is 26.96 ± 0.07 s: see (1972AJ02, 1987AJ02). The decay is complex: see reaction 34 of 19F and Table Prev. Table 19.23 preview 19.23 (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 19.24 preview 19.24 (in PDF or PS). 2. 9Be(18O,

  16. A=20F (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20F) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 20.4 preview 20.4 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 20.5 preview 20.5 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. μ = +2.0935 (9) nm (1989RA17) Q = -0.042 (3) b (1989RA17) 1. 20F(β-)20Ne Qm = 7.025 The half-life of 20F is (11.163 ± 0.008) s (1992WA04), (11.11 ± 0.04) s (1995IT1C). For earlier measurements see (1987AJ02). 20F decays principally to 20Ne*(1.63): see 20Ne, reaction 37. 2. (a) 6Li(15N,

  17. A=20O (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20O) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 20.1 preview 20.1 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 20.2 preview 20.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. 1. 20O(β-)20F Qm = 3.814 20O decays with a half-life of 13.51 ± 0.05 s to the 1+ states 20F*(1.06, 3.49) with branching ratios (99.973 ± 0.003) and (0.027 ± 0.003)%, log f0t = 3.740 ± 0.006 and 3.65 ± 0.06, respectively (1987AL06). Upper limits for the branching to other states of

  18. A=3H (1987TI07)

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    1987TI07) (Not illustrated) GENERAL: Ground State: Jπ = 1/2+, μ = 2.978960 ± 0.000001 nm, M - A = 14.94991 ± 0.00003 MeV. The wave function for the triton bound state is calculated to be mostly S-state (~ 90%) with S'-state (~ 1%) and D-state (~ 9%) admixtures depending on the potentials used (1979SA15, 1986IS06). See also (1980HA10, 1980LO091983FR19, 1984CI05, 1984CI09, 1984MU23). The measured magnetic moment for 3H is μ = 2.978960 ± 0.000001 nm (1978LEZA). Calculations which include both

  19. A=4n (1992TI02)

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    4n (1992TI02) GENERAL: The stability of 8He (1968BA48, 1968ME03, 1973FI04, 1988AJ01) sets an upper limit to the total binding energy of 4n, because the decay 8He → 4He + 4n does not occur (1964GO1B, 1964GO25). The most precisely determined mass excess of 8He (1988WA18) yields B(4n) ≤ 3.1 MeV. Noting that in all known nuclei the proton binding energy increases when two neutrons are added, (1964VL1A) show that B(4n) < -Q, where Q is the decay energy for 5H → 3H + 2n. Since Q > 0

  20. A=7B (2002TI10)

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    2002TI10) (See the Isobar Diagram for 7B) The mass excess of 7B adopted by (1997AU04) is 27.870 ± 0.070 MeV. It was obtained by averaging the values of 27.94 ± 0.10 MeV from the 10B(3He, 6He)7B reaction (1967MC14, 1988AJ01) and the value 27.800 ± 0.10 MeV obtained in the 7Li(π+, π-)7B reaction (1981SE1B). The width of the ground state is Γ = 1.4 ± 0.2 MeV: see (1967MC14, 1988AJ01). 7B is unbound with respect to 6Be + p, 5Li + 2p and 4He + 3p by 2.21, 1.61 and 3.38 MeV, respectively. The

  1. A=7H (2002TI10)

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    2002TI10) (Not illustrated) 7H has not been observed. Attempts have been made to detect it in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf (1982AL33) and in the 7Li(π-, π+) reaction [see (1984AJ01)]. A study of 9Be(π-, 2p) (1987GO25) found no evidence for 7H. See also the review of (1989OG1B) and the 7Li(π-, π+) investigation reported in (1989GR06). The ground state is calculated to have Jπ = 1/2+ and to be unstable with respect to 1n, 2n, 3n and 4n emission. Excited states are predicted at 4.84, 5.00

  2. A=8Be (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8Be) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 8Be published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 8Be located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/8be.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 8.9 preview 8.9 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). 1. 8Be → 4He4He Qm = 0.0918 Γcm for 8Beg.s. = 5.57 ± 0.25 eV:

  3. A=8C (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See the Isobar Diagram for 8C) Mass of 8C: The atomic mass excess of 8C is 35094 ± 23 keV (2003AU03); Γcm = 230 ± 50 keV [Jπ = 0+; T = 2]: see (1979AJ01). 8C is stable with respect to 7B + p (Q = -0.07 MeV) and unstable with respect to 6Be + 2p (Q = 2.14), 5Li + 3p (Q = 1.55) and 4He + 4p (Q = 3.51). At E(3He) = 76 MeV the differential cross section for formation of 8Cg.s. in the 14N(3He, 9Li) reaction is ~ 5 nb/sr at θlab = 10°. The 12C(α, 8He)8C reaction has been studied at

  4. Modeling and experimental studies of oxide covered metal surfaces: TiO{sub 2}/Ti a model system. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyrl, W.H.

    1991-12-31

    Prior work in our laboratories at the Corrosion Research Center has shown that thin, anodic TiO{sub 2} films formed by the Slow Growth Mode (SGM) on polycrystalline titanium and microcrystalline with a texture that varies from one metal grain to another. Furthermore, the underlying metal grains are mapped by the photoelectrochemical response of the oxide. The same characteristics have also been demonstrated in our laboratory for ZnO grown on Zn. The TiO{sub 2}/Ti system has been chosen for study both because of its importance in energy systems, and because it can serve as a model system for other metal-metal oxide couples. The investigations of anodic TiO{sub 2} films on Ti have shown that the properties of thin films are consistent with the rutile form of the oxide. Both experimental data and theoretical calculations show the close resemblance to results on single crystal TiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the modeling studies reveal that the optical transitions near the bandedge arise from the bulk band structure. The photoelectrochemical properties of anodic TiO{sub 2} films have now been shown to obey the simple Gaertner-Butler model for the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, with a few modifications. The most important deviation has now been shown to be a result of multiple internal reflections in the oxide film.

  5. Modeling and experimental studies of oxide covered metal surfaces: TiO sub 2 /Ti a model system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyrl, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Prior work in our laboratories at the Corrosion Research Center has shown that thin, anodic TiO{sub 2} films formed by the Slow Growth Mode (SGM) on polycrystalline titanium and microcrystalline with a texture that varies from one metal grain to another. Furthermore, the underlying metal grains are mapped by the photoelectrochemical response of the oxide. The same characteristics have also been demonstrated in our laboratory for ZnO grown on Zn. The TiO{sub 2}/Ti system has been chosen for study both because of its importance in energy systems, and because it can serve as a model system for other metal-metal oxide couples. The investigations of anodic TiO{sub 2} films on Ti have shown that the properties of thin films are consistent with the rutile form of the oxide. Both experimental data and theoretical calculations show the close resemblance to results on single crystal TiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the modeling studies reveal that the optical transitions near the bandedge arise from the bulk band structure. The photoelectrochemical properties of anodic TiO{sub 2} films have now been shown to obey the simple Gaertner-Butler model for the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, with a few modifications. The most important deviation has now been shown to be a result of multiple internal reflections in the oxide film.

  6. TI--CR--AL--O thin film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  7. Photoinduced electron transfer in perylene-TiO2 nanoassemblies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ABSTRACT: The photosensitization effect of three perylene dye derivatives on titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) has been investigated. The dyes used, 1,7-dibromoperylene-3,4...

  8. NA 15 - Assistant Deputy Administrator for Secure Transportation | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) NA 15 - Assistant Deputy Administrator for Secure Transportation

  9. Martensite transformation of epitaxial Ni-Ti films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buschbeck, J.; Kozhanov, A.; Kawasaki, J. K.; James, R. D.; Palmstroem, C. J.

    2011-05-09

    The structure and phase transformations of thin Ni-Ti shape memory alloy films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated for compositions from 43 to 56 at. % Ti. Despite the substrate constraint, temperature dependent x-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements reveal reversible, martensitic phase transformations. The results suggest that these occur by an in-plane shear which does not disturb the lattice coherence at interfaces.

  10. A comparative study of precipitation effects in Ti only and Ti-V Ultra Low Carbon (ULC) strip steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ooi, S.W.; Fourlaris, G. . E-mail: g.fourlaris@swansea.ac.uk

    2006-04-15

    Two ULC steel grades were investigated, one based on combined vanadium and titanium additions and the other based on titanium only additions. It has been established that TiC formation during interphase precipitation retards grain growth of the {l_brace}111{r_brace} texture grains during continuous annealing and hence positively affects the r value of the Ti only steel. The formation of newly formed TiC precipitates on dislocations during continuous annealing has been found to result in an increase of the yield strength in both steel grades, as the annealing temperature is increased. It is also confirmed that VC particles formed during the coiling process dissolve during the continuous annealing cycles. Suitable continuous annealing cycles can be adopted to produce high formable steels with a bake hardening potential using the beneficial effects of combined Ti-V additions.

  11. Native SrTiO3 (001) surface layer from resonant Ti L2,3 reflectance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valvidares, Manuel; Huijben, Mark; Yu, Pu; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Kortright, Jeffrey

    2010-11-03

    We quantitatively model resonant Ti L2,3 reflectivity Rs,p(q, hn) from several SrTiO3 (001) single crystals having different initial surface preparations and stored in ambient conditions before and between measurements. All samples exhibit unexpected 300 K Rs(hn) - Rp(hn) anisotropy corresponding to weak linear dichroism and tetragonal distortion of the TiO6 octahedra indicating a surface layer with properties different from cubic SrTiO3. Oscillations in Rs(q) confirm a ubiquitous surface layer 2-3 nm thick that evolves over a range of time scales. Resonant optical constant spectra derived from Rs,p(hn) assuming a uniform sample are refined using a single surface layer to fit measured Rs(q). Differences in surface layer and bulk optical properties indicate that the surface is significantly depleted in Sr and enriched in Ti and O. While consistent with the tendency of SrTiO3 surfaces toward non-stoichiometry, this layer does not conform simply to existing models for the near surface region and apparently forms via room temperature surface reactions with the ambient. This new quantitative spectral modeling approach is generally applicable and has potential to study near-surface properties of a variety of systems with unique chemical and electronic sensitivities.

  12. Materials Data on Na2TiCr(PO4)3 (SG:198) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Materials Data on Ba3Na2Ti3Nb2O15 (SG:65) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Materials Data on NaLiLa2Ti4O12 (SG:123) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on Na3Sr7Ta3Ti7O30 (SG:6) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. A=6H (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See the Isobar Diagram for 6H) 6H was reported in the 7Li(7Li, 8B)6H reaction at E(7Li) = 82 MeV (1984AL08, 1985AL1G) [σ(θ) ~ 60 nb/sr at θ = 10°] and in the 9Be(11B, 14O)6H reaction at E(11B) = 88 MeV (1986BE35) [σ(θ) ~ 16 nb/sr at θ ~ 8°]. 6H is unstable with respect to breakup into 3H + 3n by 2.7 ± 0.4 MeV, Γ = 1.8 ± 0.5 MeV (1984AL08), 2.6 ± 0.5 MeV, Γ = 1.3 ± 0.5 MeV (1986BE35). The value adopted in the previous review (1988AJ01) is 2.7 ± 0.3 MeV, Γ = 1.6 ± 0.4

  17. Magneto-transport in LaTi{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Pramod Dogra, Anjana Budhani, R. C.

    2014-04-24

    We report the growth of ultrathin film of Mn doped LaTiO{sub 3} on TiO{sub 2} terminated SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and their electrical transport characteristics including magnetoresistance (MR). Though the replacement of Mn in LaTiO{sub 3} at the Ti site in dilute limit does not affect the metallic behaviour of films but variation in resistance is observed. Normalised resistance behaviour is explained on the basis of variation in charge carriers and increased interaction between Mn atoms in the system under investigation.

  18. Charging Properties of Cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) surfaces in NaCl and RbCl Ionic Media.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenqvist, Jorgen K; Machesky, Michael L.; Vlcek, Lukas; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-09-01

    The acid-base properties of cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) surfaces at 10-50 degrees C were studied using potentiometric titrations of powder suspensions in aqueous NaCl and RbCl media. The proton sorption isotherms exhibited common intersection points in the pH range of 4.0-4.5 under all conditions, and the magnitude of charging was similar but not identical in NaCl and RbCl. The hydrogen bonding configuration at the oxide-water interface, obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was analyzed in detail, and the results were explicitly incorporated in calculations of protonation constants for the reactive surface sites using the revised MUSIC model. The calculations indicated that the terminal SnOH2 group is more acidic than the bridging Sn2OH group, with protonation constants (log KH) of 3.60 and 5.13 at 25 degrees C, respectively. This is contrary to the situation on the isostructural alpha-TiO2 (rutile), apparently because of the difference in electronegativity between Ti and Sn. MD simulations and speciation calculations indicated considerable differences in the speciation of Na+ and Rb+, despite the similarities in overall charging. Adsorbed sodium ions are almost exclusively found in bidentate surface complexes, whereas adsorbed rubidium ions form comparable numbers of bidentate and tetradentate complexes. Also, the distribution of adsorbed Na+ between the different complexes shows a considerable dependence on the surface charge density (pH), whereas the distribution of adsorbed Rb+ is almost independent of pH. A surface complexation model (SCM) capable of accurately describing both the measured surface charge and the MD-predicted speciation of adsorbed Na+/Rb+ was formulated. According to the SCM, the deprotonated terminal group (SnOH(-0.40)) and the protonated bridging group (Sn2OH+0.36) dominate the surface speciation over the entire pH range of this study (2.7-10). The complexation of medium cations increases significantly with increasing

  19. Charging Properties of Cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) Surfaces in NaCl and RbCl Ionic Media.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenqvist, Jorgen K; Machesky, Michael L.; Vlcek, Lukas; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-09-01

    The acid-base properties of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) surfaces at 10-50 C were studied using potentiometric titrations of powder suspensions in aqueous NaCl and RbCl media. The proton sorption isotherms exhibited common intersection points in the pH range of 4.0-4.5 under all conditions, and the magnitude of charging was similar but not identical in NaCl and RbCl. The hydrogen bonding configuration at the oxide-water interface, obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was analyzed in detail, and the results were explicitly incorporated in calculations of protonation constants for the reactive surface sites using the revised MUSIC model. The calculations indicated that the terminal SnOH{sub 2} group is more acidic than the bridging Sn{sub 2}OH group, with protonation constants (log K{sub H}) of 3.60 and 5.13 at 25 C, respectively. This is contrary to the situation on the isostructural {alpha}-TiO{sub 2} (rutile), apparently because of the difference in electronegativity between Ti and Sn. MD simulations and speciation calculations indicated considerable differences in the speciation of Na{sup +} and Rb{sup +}, despite the similarities in overall charging. Adsorbed sodium ions are almost exclusively found in bidentate surface complexes, whereas adsorbed rubidium ions form comparable numbers of bidentate and tetradentate complexes. Also, the distribution of adsorbed Na{sup +} between the different complexes shows a considerable dependence on the surface charge density (pH), whereas the distribution of adsorbed Rb{sup +} is almost independent of pH. A surface complexation model (SCM) capable of accurately describing both the measured surface charge and the MD-predicted speciation of adsorbed Na{sup +}/Rb{sup +} was formulated. According to the SCM, the deprotonated terminal group (SnOH{sup -0.40}) and the protonated bridging group (Sn{sub 2}OH{sup +0.36}) dominate the surface speciation over the entire pH range of this study (2.7-10). The

  20. A=18Na (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (Not illustrated) 18Na has not been observed: its atomic mass excess has been estimated to be 25.32 MeV: it is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.55 MeV (1977WA08). See also (1976JA23, 1976WA1E

  1. A=18Na (1983AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3AJ01) (Not illustrated) 18Na has not been observed: its atomic mass excess has been estimated to be 25.32 MeV: it is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.55 MeV (1977WA08). See also (1978GU10

  2. A=18Na (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (Not observed) 18Na has not been observed; its atomic mass excess has been estimated to be 25.32 MeV; it is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.6 MeV: see (1978AJ03). See also (1986AN07) and (1983ANZQ

  3. OR I GI NA L S I GNE D B Y OR I GI NA L S I GNE D B Y

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NA L S I GNE D B Y OR I GI NA L S I GNE D B Y

  4. Mechanically induced self-propagating reaction and consequent consolidation for the production of fully dense nanocrystalline Ti{sub 55}C{sub 45} bulk material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherif El-Eskandarany, M. Al-Hazza, Abdulsalam

    2014-11-15

    We employed a high-energy ball mill for the synthesis of nanograined Ti{sub 55}C{sub 45} powders starting from elemental Ti and C powders. The mechanically induced self-propagating reaction that occurred between the reactant materials was monitored via a gas atmosphere gas-temperature-monitoring system. A single phase of NaCl-type TiC was obtained after 5 h of ball milling. To decrease the powder and grain sizes, the material was subjected to further ball milling time. The powders obtained after 200 h of milling possessed spherical-like morphology with average particle and grain sizes of 45 μm and 4.2 nm, respectively. The end-products obtained after 200 h of ball milling time, were then consolidated into full dense compacts, using hot pressing and spark plasma sintering at 1500 and 34.5 MPa, with heating rates of 20 °C/min and 500 °C/min, respectively. Whereas hot pressing of the powders led to severe grain growth (∼ 436 nm in diameter), the as-spark plasma sintered powders maintained their nanograined characteristics (∼ 28 nm in diameter). The as-synthesized and as-consolidated powders were characterized, using X-ray diffraction, high-resolution electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the consolidated samples obtained via the hot pressing and spark plasma sintering techniques were characterized, using Vickers microhardness and non-destructive testing techniques. The Vickers hardness, Young's modulus, shear modulus and fracture toughness of as-spark plasma sintered samples were 32 GPa, 358 GPa, 151 GPa and 6.4 MPa·m{sup 1/2}, respectively. The effects of the consolidation approach on the grain size and mechanical properties were investigated and are discussed. - Highlights: • Room-temperature synthesizing of NaCl-type TiC • Dependence on the grain size on the ball milling time • Fabrication of equiaxed nanocrystalline grains with a diameter of 4.2 nm • Fabrication of nanocrystalline bulk TiC material by

  5. Incorporation of chromium into TiO{sub 2} nanopowders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollbek, Kamila; Sikora, Marcin; Kapusta, Czesław; Szlachetko, Jakub; Radecka, Marta; Lyson-Sypien, Barbara; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Nanopowders of TiO{sub 2}:Cr with different amount of Cr dopant were obtained by flame spray synthesis, FSS. • Increase in the optical absorption and a shift of the absorption edge were observed upon Cr doping. • HERFD-XANES measurements indicated that the average valence state of titanium ions was preserved. • Increasing magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic character was observed upon Cr doping. - Abstract: The paper reports on the results of a study of optical, electronic and magnetic properties of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders doped with Cr ions. Diffused reflectance spectra reveal an increase in the optical absorption and a shift of the absorption edge towards lower energies upon Cr doping. Direct information on the Ti electronic state and the symmetry of its nearest environment is obtained from XANES Ti K-edge spectra. Magnetic behaviour is probed by means of the temperature dependence of DC magnetic susceptibility. Increasing magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic character is observed upon increasing chromium doping. The Curie constant of TiO{sub 2}:10 at.% Cr sample (0.12 emu K/mol Oe) is lower than that expected for Cr{sup 3+} (0.1875 emu K/mol Oe) possibly due to the appearance of Cr{sup 4+} or the presence of the orbital contribution to the magnetic moment.

  6. Morphology and structural development of reduced anatase-TiO{sub 2} by pure Ti powder upon annealing and nitridation: Synthesis of TiO{sub x} and TiO{sub x}N{sub y} powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolokang, A.S.; Motaung, D.E.

    2015-02-15

    It is well known that nitriding of titanium is suitable for surface coating of biomaterials and in other applications such as anti-reflective coating, while oxygen-rich titanium oxynitride has been applied in thin film resistors and photocatalysis. Thus in this work anatase was reduced with pure titanium powder during annealing in argon. This was done to avoid any metallic contamination and unwanted residual metal doping. As a result, interesting and different types of particle morphology were synthesized when the pre-milled elemental anatase and titanium powders were mixed. The formation of metastable face centred cubic and monoclinic titanium monoxide was detected by the X-ray diffraction technique. The phases were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Raman analysis revealed weak intensity peaks for samples annealed in argon as compared to those annealed under nitrogen. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Reaction of TiO{sub 2} and Ti induced metastable FCC and monoclinic TiO{sub x}. • Compositions of mixed powder were prepared from the unmilled and pre-milled powders. • Nitridation of TiO{sub x} yielded TiO{sub x}N{sub y} phase. • Mixed morphology was observed on all three powder samples.

  7. Water adsorption induced in-plane domain switching on BaTiO{sub 3} surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.; Bai, Y.; Su, Y. J.; Wang, B. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study, the influences of the adsorption of water molecules on the changes in the atomic and electric structures of BaTiO{sub 3} surface were investigated using ab initio calculation. Water molecules are molecularly and dissociatively adsorbed on the BaTiO{sub 3} surface, which makes electrons transfer from water molecules to the BaTiO{sub 3} surface. The redistribution of electrons in the BaTiO{sub 3} surface layers weakens the Ba-O interactions and strengthens the Ti-O interactions, so that the Ti atom shifts in TiO{sub 2} plane, i.e., an in-plane domain switching. The adsorption of water molecules on BaTiO{sub 3} surfaces also results in a reduction in the surface rumpling.

  8. High-Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources Authors: Perez, F ; Patterson,...

  9. High-Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources You are accessing a...

  10. Low temperature fabrication of perovskite solar cells with TiO...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the perovskite were fabricated from TiOsub 2 nanoparticles with different grain sizes. ... performance of solar cells was improved by combination of two TiOsub 2 nanoparticles. ...

  11. Ti3CrCu4: A possible 2-D ferromagnetic spin fluctuating system...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ti3CrCu4: A possible 2-D ferromagnetic spin fluctuating system Title: Ti3CrCu4: A possible ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free ...

  12. Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) The adsorption of...

  13. Interface-Induced Polarization in SrTiO3-LaCrO3 Superlattices...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Through x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy we show that the Ti cations are displaced off-center in the TiO6 ...

  14. FIRST-PRINCIPLES PHASE STABILITY IN THE TI-V ALLOY SYSTEM (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: FIRST-PRINCIPLES PHASE STABILITY IN THE TI-V ALLOY SYSTEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FIRST-PRINCIPLES PHASE STABILITY IN THE TI-V ALLOY SYSTEM ...

  15. Local Metal and Deuterium Ordering in the Deuterated ZrTiNi C14...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Local Metal and Deuterium Ordering in the Deuterated ZrTiNi C14 Laves Phase Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Local Metal and Deuterium Ordering in the Deuterated ZrTiNi ...

  16. Deformation behavior of Nb nanowires in TiNiCu shape memory alloy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in TiNiCu shape memory alloy matrix This content will become publicly available on August 18, 2016 Title: Deformation behavior of Nb nanowires in TiNiCu shape memory alloy matrix ...

  17. Electric control of magnetism at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface Interfacial ...

  18. Electric control of magnetism at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface You are accessing a ...

  19. Visible Light Absorption of N-Doped TiO2 Rutile Using (LR/RT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    N-Doped TiO2 Rutile Using (LRRT)-TDDFT and Active Space EOMCCSD Calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Visible Light Absorption of N-Doped TiO2 Rutile Using ...

  20. Electrolyte Gate-Controlled Kondo Effect in SrTiO3 (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolyte Gate-Controlled Kondo Effect in SrTiO3 Prev Next Title: Electrolyte Gate-Controlled Kondo Effect in SrTiO3 Authors: Lee, Menyoung ; Williams, J. R. ; Zhang, Sipei ...

  1. 2011 Annual Planning Summary for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2011 and 2012 within Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20).

  2. Coating power RF components with TiN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchnir, M.; Hahn, E.

    1995-03-01

    A facility for coating RF power components with thin films of Ti and/or TiN has been in operation for some time at Fermilab supporting the Accelerator Division RF development work and the TESLA program. It has been experimentally verified that such coatings improve the performance of these components as far as withstanding higher electric fields. This is attributed to a reduction in the secondary electron emission coefficient of the surfaces when coated with a thin film containing titanium. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to describe the facility and the procedure used.

  3. High strength, light weight Ti-Y composites and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Russell, Alan M.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    1993-04-06

    A high strength, light weight "in-situ" Ti-Y composite is produced by deformation processing a cast body having Ti and Y phase components distributed therein. The composite comprises elongated, ribbon-shaped Ti and Y phase components aligned along an axis of the deformed body.

  4. High strength, light weight Ti-Y composites and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Ellis, T.W.; Russell, A.M.; Jones, L.L.

    1993-04-06

    A high strength, light weight in-situ'' Ti-Y composite is produced by deformation processing a cast body having Ti and Y phase components distributed therein. The composite comprises elongated, ribbon-shaped Ti and Y phase components aligned along an axis of the deformed body.

  5. Resonance photoelectron spectroscopy of TiX{sub 2} (X = S, Se, Te) titanium dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkvarin, A. S. Yarmoshenko, Yu. M.; Skorikov, N. A.; Yablonskikh, M. V.; Merentsov, A. I.; Shkvarina, E. G.; Titov, A. N.

    2012-11-15

    The photoelectron valence band spectra of TiS{sub 2}, TiSe{sub 2}, and TiTe{sub 2} dichalcogenides are investigated in the Ti 2p-3d resonance regime. Resonance bands in the vicinity of the Fermi energy are found for TiS{sub 2} and TiTe{sub 2}. The nature of these bands is analyzed based on model calculations of the density of electronic states in TiS{sub 2}, TiSe{sub 2}, and TiTe{sub 2} compounds intercalated by titanium atoms. Analysis of experimental data and their comparison with model calculations showed that these bands have different origins. It is found that the resonance enhancement of an additional band observed in TiS{sub 2} is explained by self-intercalation by titanium during the synthesis of this compound. The resonance enhancement in TiTe{sub 2} is caused by occupation of the 3d band in Ti.

  6. Hysteretic electrical transport in BaTiO{sub 3}/Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}/Ge heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngai, J. H.; Kumah, D. P.; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.

    2014-02-10

    We present electrical transport measurements of heterostructures comprised of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} epitaxially grown on Ge. Sr alloying imparts compressive strain to the BaTiO{sub 3}, which enables the thermal expansion mismatch between BaTiO{sub 3} and Ge to be overcome to achieve c-axis oriented growth. The conduction bands of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} are nearly aligned with the conduction band of Ge, which facilitates electron transport. Electrical transport measurements through the dielectric stack exhibit rectifying behavior and hysteresis, where the latter is consistent with ferroelectric switching.

  7. Induced Ti magnetization at La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and BaTiO3 interfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yaohua; Tornos, J.; te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Freeland, J. W.; Zhou, H.; Steadman, P.; Bencok, P.; Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.

    2016-04-01

    In artificial multiferroics hybrids consisting of ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and ferroelectric BaTiO3 epitaxial layers, net Ti moments are found from polarized resonant soft x-ray reflectivity and absorption. Moreover, the Ti dichroic reflectivity follows the Mn signal during the magnetization reversal, indicating exchange coupling between the Ti and Mn ions. But, the Ti dichroic reflectivity shows stronger temperature dependence than the Mn dichroic signal. Besides a reduced ferromagnetic exchange coupling in the interfacial LSMO layer, this may also be attributed to a weak Ti-Mn exchange coupling that is insufficient to overcome the thermal energy at elevated temperatures.

  8. Zn2+ and Sr2+ Adsorption at the TiO2 (110)-Electrolyte Interface: Influence of Ionic Strength, Coverage, and Anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang,Z.; Fenter, P.; Cheng, L.; Sturchio, N.; Bedzyk, M.; Machesky, M.; Anovitz, L.; Wesolowski, D.

    2006-01-01

    The X-ray standing wave technique was used to probe the sensitivity of Zn{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} ion adsorption to changes in both the adsorbed ion coverage and the background electrolyte species and concentrations at the rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) (110)-aqueous interface. Measurements were made with various background electrolytes (NaCl, NaTr, RbCl, NaBr) at concentrations as high as 1 m. The results demonstrate that Zn{sub 2+} and Sr{sub 2+} reside primarily in the condensed layer and that the ion heights above the Ti-O surface plane are insensitive to ionic strength and the choice of background electrolyte (with <0.1 Angstroms changes over the full compositional range). The lack of any specific anion coadsorption upon probing with Br{sup -}, coupled with the insensitivity of Zn{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} cation heights to changes in the background electrolyte, implies that anions do not play a significant role in the adsorption of these divalent metal ions to the rutile (110) surface. Absolute ion coverage measurements for Zn{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} show a maximum Stern-layer coverage of {approx}0.5 monolayer, with no significant variation in height as a function of Stern-layer coverage. These observations are discussed in the context of Gouy-Chapman-Stern models of the electrical double layer developed from macroscopic sorption and pH-titration studies of rutile powder suspensions. Direct comparison between these experimental observations and the MUltiSIte Complexation (MUSIC) model predictions of cation surface coverage as a function of ionic strength revealed good agreement between measured and predicted surface coverages with no adjustable parameters.

  9. Dye sensitized solar cell applications of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin films deposited from single molecular complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Khaledi, Hamid; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Huang, Nay Ming; Arifin, Zainudin; Mazhar, Muhammad

    2015-10-15

    A heterobimetallic complex [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF (1) (TFA=trifluoroacetato, THF=tetrahydrofuran) comprising of Cd:Ti (1:2) ratio was synthesized by a chemical reaction of cadmium (II) acetate with titanium (IV) isopropoxide and triflouroacetic acid in THF. The stoichiometry of (1) was recognized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and elemental analyses. Thermal studies revealed that (1) neatly decomposes at 450 °C to furnish 1:1 ratio of cadmium titanate:titania composite oxides material. The thin films of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides were deposited at 550 °C on fluorine doped tin oxide coated conducting glass substrate in air ambient. The micro-structure, crystallinity, phase identification and chemical composition of microspherical architectured CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin film have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The scope of composite thin film having band gap of 3.1 eV was explored as photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application. - Graphical abstarct: Microspherical designed CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides photoanode film has been fabricated from single source precursor [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique for dye sensitized solar cell application. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of a heterobimetallic Cd–Ti complex. • Fabrication of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} thin film photoelectrode. • Application as dye sensitized photoanode for solar application.

  10. Epitaxial single-crystal thin films of MnxTi1-xO2-δ grown on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Epitaxial single-crystal thin films of MnxTi1-xO2- grown on (rutile)TiO2 substrates with ... Title: Epitaxial single-crystal thin films of MnxTi1-xO2- grown on (rutile)TiO2 ...