National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for n2 purged characteristics

  1. Purge Lock Server

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-21

    The software provides a simple web api to allow users to request a time window where a file will not be removed from cache. HPSS provides the concept of a "purge lock". When a purge lock is set on a file, the file will not be removed from disk, entering tape only state. A lot of network file protocols assume a file is on disk so it is good to purge lock a file beforemore »transferring using one of those protocols. HPSS's purge lock system is very coarse grained though. A file is either purge locked or not. Nothing enforces quotas, timely unlocking of purge locks, or managing the races inherent with multiple users wanting to lock/unlock the same file. The Purge Lock Server lets you, through a simple REST API, specify a list of files to purge lock and an expire time, and the system will ensure things happen properly.« less

  2. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  3. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  4. Purge needs in absorption chillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.G. )

    1993-10-01

    Absorption chillers are regaining a significant share of large tonnage chiller sales, such as they had 20 years ago. Gas-fired chillers are now available that have a base energy (ultimate fuel usage) consumption rate per ton comparable to that in electric units. Effective purging in an absorption chiller is an absolute necessity to achieve the low chilled water temperature needed for dehumidification and to fully benefit from the energy savings offered by double-effect cycles. Although the purge system is usually not shown on the typical cycle schematic, its proper functioning is a key requirement for satisfactory machine operation. This article discusses the effect of noncondensible (N/C) gases on the absorption cooling process and the basics of purge systems. In addition, the article discusses the rationale for the important design step of selecting the location of the N/C probe, and discusses purge systems applicable to the direct-fired, double-effect machines now entering the marketplace.

  5. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  6. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, Robert E. (Fairview, PA); Basic, Steven L. (Hornell, NY); Smith, Russel M. (North East, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  7. Combustor and method for purging a combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight; Hughes, Michael John

    2015-06-09

    A combustor includes an end cap. The end cap includes a first surface and a second surface downstream from the first surface, a shroud that circumferentially surrounds at least a portion of the first and second surfaces, a plate that extends radially within the shroud, a plurality of tubes that extend through the plate and the first and second surfaces, and a first purge port that extends through one or more of the plurality of tubes, wherein the purge port is axially aligned with the plate.

  8. [FIXED] JGI data loss in /projectb/sandbox area [purge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JGI data loss in projectbsandbox area purge FIXED JGI data loss in projectbsandbox area purge August 19, 2013 by Kjiersten Fagnan We have discovered a serious bug in our...

  9. [FIXED] JGI data loss in /projectb/sandbox area [purge]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JGI data loss in /projectb/sandbox area [purge] [FIXED] JGI data loss in /projectb/sandbox area [purge] August 19, 2013 by Kjiersten Fagnan We have discovered a serious bug in our purge scripts on /global/projectb. The */global/projectb/sandbox* areas are supposed to be immune from the purge (like the project directories); however, there is a bug in the purge script that caused some files to be deleted if they had not been touched for 90+ days (like data in the scratch directories). *The sandbox

  10. Well purge and sample apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schalla, R.; Smith, R.M.; Hall, S.H.; Smart, J.E.; Gustafson, G.S.

    1995-10-24

    The present invention specifically permits purging and/or sampling of a well but only removing, at most, about 25% of the fluid volume compared to conventional methods and, at a minimum, removing none of the fluid volume from the well. The invention is an isolation assembly with a packer, pump and exhaust, that is inserted into the well. The isolation assembly is designed so that only a volume of fluid between the outside diameter of the isolation assembly and the inside diameter of the well over a fluid column height from the bottom of the well to the top of the active portion (lower annulus) is removed. The packer is positioned above the active portion thereby sealing the well and preventing any mixing or contamination of inlet fluid with fluid above the packer. Ports in the wall of the isolation assembly permit purging and sampling of the lower annulus along the height of the active portion. 8 figs.

  11. Well purge and sample apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schalla, Ronald; Smith, Ronald M.; Hall, Stephen H.; Smart, John E.; Gustafson, Gregg S.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention specifically permits purging and/or sampling of a well but only removing, at most, about 25% of the fluid volume compared to conventional methods and, at a minimum, removing none of the fluid volume from the well. The invention is an isolation assembly with a packer, pump and exhaust, that is inserted into the well. The isolation assembly is designed so that only a volume of fluid between the outside diameter of the isolation assembly and the inside diameter of the well over a fluid column height from the bottom of the well to the top of the active portion (lower annulus) is removed. The packer is positioned above the active portion thereby sealing the well and preventing any mixing or contamination of inlet fluid with fluid above the packer. Ports in the wall of the isolation assembly permit purging and sampling of the lower annulus along the height of the active portion.

  12. Recovery of nitrogen and light hydrocarbons from polyalkene purge gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zwilling, Daniel Patrick; Golden, Timothy Christoph; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Ludwig, Keith Alan

    2003-06-10

    A method for the separation of a gas mixture comprises (a) obtaining a feed gas mixture comprising nitrogen and at least one hydrocarbon having two to six carbon atoms; (b) introducing the feed gas mixture at a temperature of about 60.degree. F. to about 105.degree. F. into an adsorbent bed containing adsorbent material which selectively adsorbs the hydrocarbon, and withdrawing from the adsorbent bed an effluent gas enriched in nitrogen; (c) discontinuing the flow of the feed gas mixture into the adsorbent bed and depressurizing the adsorbent bed by withdrawing depressurization gas therefrom; (d) purging the adsorbent bed by introducing a purge gas into the bed and withdrawing therefrom an effluent gas comprising the hydrocarbon, wherein the purge gas contains nitrogen at a concentration higher than that of the nitrogen in the feed gas mixture; (e) pressurizing the adsorbent bed by introducing pressurization gas into the bed; and (f) repeating (b) through (e) in a cyclic manner.

  13. Purged window apparatus. [On-line spectroscopic analysis of gas flow systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballard, E.O.

    1982-04-05

    A purged window apparatus is described which utilizes tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube thereby preventing backstreaming of flowing gases under investigation in a chamber to which a plurality of similar purged apparatus is attached with the consequent result that spectroscopic analyses can be undertaken for lengthy periods without the necessity of interrupting the flow for cleaning or replacing the windows due to contamination.

  14. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA); Antenucci, Annette B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas, (O) and pressurized fuel gas, (F), into fuel cell modules, (10 and 12), containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing (18), surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel (64), where there is a purge gas volume, (62), between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas, (P), through the purge gas volume, (62), to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas, (82), and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transpatable when the pressure vessel (64) is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity.

  15. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, P.R.; Dederer, J.T.; Gillett, J.E.; Basel, R.A.; Antenucci, A.B.

    1996-11-12

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas and pressurized fuel gas into modules containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel, and where there is a purge gas volume between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas through the purge gas volume to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transportable when the pressure vessel is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity. 11 figs.

  16. Self-filling and self-purging apparatus for detecting spontaneous radiation from substances in fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, I. Lauren (Oak Ridge, TN); Chiles, Marion M. (Knoxville, TN); Miller, V. Clint (Concord, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a radiation detector providing for the in situ automatic sampling of fluids containing substances emitting radiation, especially Cerenkov radiation. The detector permits sampling within well casings and is self-purging such that no additional provisions must be established for the storage and disposal of contaminated fluids.

  17. Operating characteristics of a cartridge collector utilizing medium-pressure purge air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, J. )

    1993-11-01

    For over 20 years, dust collectors equipped with cleanable paper cartridge pulse-jet cleaning mechanisms. Applications have been limited primarily to light inlet dust loads of 2 grains/dscf (4.6g/m[sup 3] or less). One manufacturer has successfully tested and operated a dust collector utilizing a full-scale, medium-pressure (6 to 8 psig, 4.0 to 5.5 MPa), utilizing 6-in. (150-mm) diameter by 50-in. (1,270-mm) cellulose cartridge filter elements, under high inlet dust load conditions.

  18. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Towards N2O -- Similarities and Differences Between H2, CO and C3H6 Reductants Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and Differences Between H2,...

  19. Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, X. X.; Zhang, D. X.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Zhang, M. M.; Xu, D.

    2014-01-29

    In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H{sub 2} from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H{sub 2} in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

  20. Test report for calibration grooming and alignment of the LDUA purge air supply (LDUA SYSTEM 5230)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, J.D.

    1996-05-21

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) is a remotely operated manipulator used to enter into underground waste tanks through one of the tank risers. National Electric Code requirements mandate that the in-tank portions of the LDUA be maintained at a positive pressure for entrances into a flammable atmosphere. The LDUA Purge Air Supply System (PASS) uses small portable air compressors to provide a constant low flow of instrument grade air for this purpose. This document contains the results, conclusions and recommendations arrived at by the calibration grooming and alignment tests performed on the PASS in accordance with WHC-SD-WM-TC-070.

  1. Beamline 1.4.4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cm-1 Interferometer resolution up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Thermo Nicolet Nexus 870 FTIR, Continuum XL IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage,...

  2. N2O Emissions From 2010 SCR Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews potential contribution to N2O formation of typical diesel exhaust aftertreatment system based on selective catalytic reduction depending on catalyst properties, and exhaust temperature and gas composition

  3. Molecular Simulation Studies of Separation of CO2/N2, CO2/CH4, and CH4/N2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by ZIFs | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Molecular Simulation Studies of Separation of CO2/N2, CO2/CH4, and CH4/N2 by ZIFs Previous Next List Bei Liu and Berend Smit, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2010, 114 (18), pp 8515-8522 DOI: 10.1021/jp101531m Abstract Image Abstract In this work, molecular simulations were performed to evaluate the separation performance of two typical zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs), ZIF-68 and ZIF-69, for CO2/N2, CO2/CH4,

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cask and MCO Helium Purge System Design Review Completion Report Project A.5 and A.6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ARD, K.E.

    2000-04-19

    This report documents the results of the design verification performed on the Cask and Multiple Canister Over-pack (MCO) Helium Purge System. The helium purge system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cask Loadout System (CLS) at 100K area. The design verification employed the ''Independent Review Method'' in accordance with Administrative Procedure (AP) EN-6-027-01.

  5. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility vacuum and purge system design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Vacuum and Purge System (VPS) . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the VPS equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  6. Apparatus and method for tuned unsteady flow purging of high pulse rate spark gaps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thayer, III, William J. (Kent, WA)

    1990-01-01

    A spark gap switch apparatus is disclosed which is capable of operating at a high pulse rate which comprises an insulated housing; a pair of spaced apart electrodes each having one end thereof within a first bore formed in the housing and defining a spark gap therebetween; a pressure wave reflector in the first bore in the housing and spaced from the spark gap and capable of admitting purge flow; and a second enlarged bore contiguous with the first bore and spaced from the opposite side of the spark gap; whereby pressure waves generated during discharge of a spark across the spark gap will reflect off the wave reflector and back from the enlarged bore to the spark gap to clear from the spark gap hot gases residues generated during the discharge and simultaneously restore the gas density and pressure in the spark gap to its initial value.

  7. Large N phase transitions in massive N = 2 gauge theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, J. G.

    2014-07-23

    Using exact results obtained from localization on S{sup 4}, we explore the large N limit of N = 2 super Yang-Mills theories with massive matter multiplets. In this talk we discuss two cases: N = 2* theory, describing a massive hypermultiplet in the adjoint representation, and super QCD with massive quarks. When the radius of the four-sphere is sent to infinity these theories are described by solvable matrix models, which exhibit a number of interesting phenomena including quantum phase transitions at finite 't Hooft coupling.

  8. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a New Technology for Extraction of Insoluble Impurities from Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators with Purge Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bud'ko, I. O.; Zhukov, A. G.

    2013-11-15

    An experimental technology for the removal of insoluble impurities from a horizontal steam generator with purge water during planned shutdowns of the power generating unit is improved through a more representative determination of the concentration of impurities in the purge water ahead of the water cleanup facility and a more precise effective time for the duration of the purge process. Tests with the improved technique at power generating unit No. 1 of the Rostov Nuclear Power Plant show that the efficiency with which insoluble impurities are removed from the steam generator volume was more than two orders of magnitude greater than under the standard regulations.

  9. Measurement of Hydrogen Purge Rates in Parabolic Trough Receiver Tubes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods to remove hydrogen centrally from commercial parabolic trough power plants. A mathematical model was developed that tracks the generation and transport of hydrogen within an operating plant. Modeling results predicted the steady-state partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to be ~1 torr. This result agrees with measured values for the hydrogen partial pressure. The model also predicted the rate at which hydrogen must be actively removed from the expansion tank to reduce the partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to less than 0.001 torr. Based on these results, mitigation strategies implemented at operating parabolic trough power plants can reduce hydrogen partial pressure to acceptable levels. Transient modeling predicted the time required to reduce the hydrogen partial pressures within receiver annuli to acceptable levels. The times were estimated as a function of bellows temperature, getter quantity, and getter temperature. This work also includes an experimental effort that will determine the time required to purge hydrogen from a receiver annulus with no getter.

  10. Potential Flammable Gas Explosion in the TRU Vent and Purge Machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent, A

    2006-04-05

    The objective of the analysis was to determine the failure of the Vent and Purge (V&P) Machine due to potential explosion in the Transuranic (TRU) drum during its venting and/or subsequent explosion in the V&P machine from the flammable gases (e.g., hydrogen and Volatile Organic Compounds [VOCs]) vented into the V&P machine from the TRU drum. The analysis considers: (a) increase in the pressure in the V&P cabinet from the original deflagration in the TRU drum including lid ejection, (b) pressure wave impact from TRU drum failure, and (c) secondary burns or deflagrations resulting from excess, unburned gases in the cabinet area. A variety of cases were considered that maximized the pressure produced in the V&P cabinet. Also, cases were analyzed that maximized the shock wave pressure in the cabinet from TRU drum failure. The calculations were performed for various initial drum pressures (e.g., 1.5 and 6 psig) for 55 gallon TRU drum. The calculated peak cabinet pressures ranged from 16 psig to 50 psig for various flammable gas compositions. The blast on top of cabinet and in outlet duct ranged from 50 psig to 63 psig and 12 psig to 16 psig, respectively, for various flammable gas compositions. The failure pressures of the cabinet and the ducts calculated by structural analysis were higher than the pressure calculated from potential flammable gas deflagrations, thus, assuring that V&P cabinet would not fail during this event. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 68 calculations showed that for a failure pressure of 20 psig, the available vent area in the V&P cabinet is 1.7 to 2.6 times the required vent area depending on whether hydrogen or VOCs burn in the V&P cabinet. This analysis methodology could be used to design the process equipment needed for venting TRU waste containers at other sites across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex.

  11. Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust Treatment Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust Treatment Investigation of a series of transition metal...

  12. Measurement and Modeling of the n=2-3 Emission of O VIII near...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Measurement and Modeling of the n2-3 Emission of O VIII near 102 A Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement and Modeling of the n2-3 Emission of O...

  13. K-311-1/K-310-3 Purge Cascade Process Description, Oak Ridge Environmental Management Accelerated Cleanup Project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker J.E.

    2009-05-13

    K-311-1 was constructed along with the rest of the K-25 Building in the 1943-1945 timeframe. K-311-1 was equipped with Size 3 converters and Size 38 Allis Chalmers{trademark} single-stage centrifugal compressors driven by 3600 rpm electric motors, and the unit operated as the 'bottom' unit flow-wise in K-25. The depleted flow from the bottom stage in K-311-1 passed through booster compressors and flowed to the K-601 Building where the depleted or 'tails' material was removed. In 1948, after the K-27 Building was completed, the decision was made to operate K-27 and K-25 in series rather than operate the two buildings as separate entities. To facilitate this operation, concrete bases were poured and two sets of booster compressors were installed in the extreme West end of the K-311-1 cell floor. These compressors were enclosed in heated housings and consisted of Size 38 compressors. One pair was to boost the 'B' flow between K-25 and K-27, and one pair was to boost the 'A' flow between the buildings. Each station operated with one compressor on-stream and the other in standby. (Reference 9) Each station also was equipped with a Size 2 after-cooler located in the discharge stream downstream of the junction of the onstream and standby compressors. Additional gaseous diffusion capacity was added at Oak Ridge as K-29, K-31, and K-33 were constructed and placed in service in the early 1950s. As a result of the additional process equipment added by these buildings, in-leakage of light gases to the cascade including light gases introduced into the cascade as a result of purging operations threatened to exceed the capacity of the existing K-312 Purge Cascade facilities in the K-25 Building. As a result, in 1954 K-311-1 was converted to a side purge cascade to remove light gases from the process gas stream as the stream entered K-25 from K-27. Low molecular weight gas in-leakage in K-33, K-31, K-29, and K-27 was removed by the K-311-1 Side Purge Facility and a relatively pure stream of UF6 then passed from K-311-1 into the upstream cells in K-25. In-leakage of light gases in the K-25 Building continued to be removed by the K-312 Purge Facilities. K-311-1 operated as a Side Purge Cascade from 1954 until the K-25 Building was shut down in 1964; at that time K-311-1 became the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) Top (and only) Purge Cascade. The adjacent K-310-3 Unit was operated along with K-311-1 as the top purge cascade and K-310-2 was also operated at times to supplement cells in the K311-1/K-310-3 Purge Cascade. K-311-1 was shut down on February 14, 1977, after the newer, larger capacity K-402-9 Purge Cascade was placed in operation. K-310-3 continued to operate until the K-402-8 Coolant Removal Unit was placed in service, and K-310-3 was shut down on March 14, 1978. Since the K-311-1 and K-310-3 units continued to operate after K-25 shutdown, removal of equipment such as valves and piping for other projects did not occur in this area. As a result, these two units have not been exposed to atmospheric wet air over the years as much of the remainder of K-25 has been exposed. Any deposits or residual gases contained in K-311-1 or K-310-3 are not likely to be fully hydrolyzed.

  14. First-principles binary diffusion coefficients for H, H2 and four normal alkanes + N2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jasper, Ahren W.; Kamarchik, Eugene; Miller, James A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

    2014-09-30

    Collision integrals related to binary (dilute gas) diffusion are calculated classically for six species colliding with N2. The most detailed calculations make no assumptions regarding the complexity of the potential energy surface, and the resulting classical collision integrals are in excellent agreement with previous semiclassical results for H + N2 and H2 + N2 and with recent experimental results for C n H2n+2 + N2, n = 2–4. The detailed classical results are used to test the accuracy of three simplifying assumptions typically made when calculating collision integrals: (1) approximating the intermolecular potential as isotropic, (2) neglecting the internal structuremore » of the colliders (i.e., neglecting inelasticity), and (3) employing unphysical R–12 repulsive interactions. The effect of anisotropy is found to be negligible for H + N2 and H2 + N2 (in agreement with previous quantum mechanical and semiclassical results for systems involving atomic and diatomic species) but is more significant for larger species at low temperatures. For example, the neglect of anisotropy decreases the diffusion coefficient for butane + N2 by 15% at 300 K. The neglect of inelasticity, in contrast, introduces only very small errors. Approximating the repulsive wall as an unphysical R–12 interaction is a significant source of error at all temperatures for the weakly interacting systems H + N2 and H2 + N2, with errors as large as 40%. For the normal alkanes in N2, which feature stronger interactions, the 12/6 Lennard–Jones approximation is found to be accurate, particularly at temperatures above –700 K where it predicts the full-dimensional result to within 5% (although with somewhat different temperature dependence). Overall, the typical practical approach of assuming isotropic 12/6 Lennard–Jones interactions is confirmed to be suitable for combustion applications except for weakly interacting systems, such as H + N2. For these systems, anisotropy and inelasticity can safely be neglected but a more detailed description of the repulsive wall is required for quantitative predictions. Moreover, a straightforward approach for calculating effective isotropic potentials with realistic repulsive walls is described. An analytic expression for the calculated diffusion coefficient for H + N2 is presented and is estimated to have a 2-sigma error bar of only 0.7%.« less

  15. Beamline 1.4.4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    800 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Thermo Nicolet Nexus 870 FTIR, Continuum XL IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample...

  16. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage,...

  17. Beamline 1.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Nicolet Magna 760 FTIR, Nic-Plan IR Microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Motorized sample stage, 0.1-micron...

  18. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution;...

  19. Beamline 1.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Nicolet Magna 760 FTIR, Nic-Plan IR Microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Motorized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution,...

  20. Beamline 1.4.4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    resolution up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Thermo Nicolet Nexus 870 FTIR, Continuum XL IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution;...

  1. Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust Treatment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust Treatment Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust Treatment Investigation of a series of transition metal oxides and precious metal based catalysts for ammonia selective oxidation at low temperatures PDF icon deer12_thrun.pdf More Documents & Publications Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon

  2. Transpiration purged optical probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2004-01-06

    An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.

  3. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (n,3n) reaction cross sections (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) Publication Date: 2015-10-01 OSTI

  4. General N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model: Supervariable approach to its off-shell nilpotent symmetries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R.P.

    2014-12-15

    Using the supersymmetric (SUSY) invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral supervariables, we derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetries of the general one (0+1)-dimensional N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model which is considered on a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold (parametrized by a bosonic variable t and a pair of Grassmannian variables ? and ?-bar with ?{sup 2}=(?-bar){sup 2}=0,?(?-bar)+(?-bar)?=0). We provide the geometrical meanings to the two SUSY transformations of our present theory which are valid for any arbitrary type of superpotential. We express the conserved charges and Lagrangian of the theory in terms of the supervariables (that are obtained after the application of SUSY invariant restrictions) and provide the geometrical interpretation for the nilpotency property and SUSY invariance of the Lagrangian for the general N=2 SUSY quantum theory. We also comment on the mathematical interpretation of the above symmetry transformations. - Highlights: A novel method has been proposed for the derivation of N=2 SUSY transformations. General N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model with a general superpotential, is considered. The above SUSY QM model is generalized onto a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. SUSY invariant restrictions are imposed on the (anti-)chiral supervariables. Geometrical meaning of the nilpotency property is provided.

  5. New operation strategy for driving the selectivity of NOx reduction to N2, NH3 or N2O during lean/rich cycling of a lean NOx trap catalyst

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mr?ek, David; Koci, Petr; Choi, Jae -Soon; Partridge, Jr., William P.

    2015-09-08

    Periodical regeneration of NOx storage catalyst (also known as lean NOx trap) by short rich pulses of CO, H2 and hydrocarbons is necessary for the reduction of nitrogen oxides adsorbed on the catalyst surface. Ideally, the stored NOx is converted into N2, but N2O and NH3 by-products can be formed as well, particularly at low-intermediate temperatures. The N2 and N2O products are formed concurrently in two peaks. The primary peaks appear immediately after the rich-phase inception, and tail off with the breakthrough of the reductant front accompanied by NH3 product. In addition, the secondary N2 and N2O peaks then appearmoreat the rich-to-lean transition as a result of reactions between surface-deposited reductants/intermediates (CO, HC, NH3, NCO) and residual stored NOx under increasingly lean conditions.less

  6. Enhanced O2 selectivity versus N2 by partial metal substitution in Cu-BTC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sava Gallis, Dorina F.; Parkes, Marie V.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-03-05

    Here we describe the homogeneous substitution of Mn, Fe and Co at various levels into a prototypical metal-organic framework (MOF), namely Cu-BTC (HKUST-1), and the effect of that substitution on preferential gas sorption. Using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, postsynthetic metal substitutions, materials characterization, and gas sorption testing, we demonstrate that the identity of the metal ion has a quantifiable effect on their oxygen and nitrogen sorption properties at cryogenic temperatures. An excellent correlation is found between O2/N2 selectivities determined experimentally at 77 K and the difference in O2 and N2 binding energies calculated from DFT modelingmore » data: Mn > Fe > Co > Cu. Room temperature gas sorption studies were also performed and correlated with metal substitution. The Fe-exchanged sample shows a significantly higher nitrogen isosteric heat of adsorption at temperatures close to ambient conditions (273 K - 298 K) as compared to all other metals studied, indicative of favorable interactions between N2 and coordinatively unsaturated Fe metal centers. Furthermore, differences in gas adsorption results at cryogenic and room temperatures are evident; they are explained by comparing experimental results with DFT binding energies (0 K) and room temperature Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations.« less

  7. Reversible CO Binding Enables Tunable CO/H2 and CO/N2 Separations in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal-Organic Frameworks with Exposed Divalent Metal Cations | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Reversible CO Binding Enables Tunable CO/H2 and CO/N2 Separations in Metal-Organic Frameworks with Exposed Divalent Metal Cations Previous Next List Eric D. Bloch, Matthew R. Hudson, Jarad A. Mason, Sachin Chavan, Valentina Crocellà, Joshua D. Howe, Kyuho Lee, Allison L. Dzubak, Wendy L. Queen, Joseph M. Zadrozny, Stephen J. Geier, Li-Chiang Lin,

  8. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  9. updated_supplemental_lists_1n-2n-3m_07-06-2012.xlsx | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    n-2n-3m_07-06-2012.xlsx More Documents & Publications updated_supplemental_lists_1m-2m-3l-04-05-2012.xlsx updated_supplemental_lists_1p_2p_3o_04302013.xlsx updated_supplemental_lists_1i-2i-3h_12-06

  10. O2Purge.key

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time ( 4/21/2015 t o 4 /24/2015) O 2 C ontamina4on o f G aseous A rgon D uring P urge 100--- 90--- 80--- 70--- 60--- 50--- 40--- 30--- 20--- 10--- O 2 C ontamina4on [ ppm]

  11. Innovative Concepts Phase I: Inorganic Membranes for CO2/N2 Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Desisto

    2003-09-23

    Silica membranes were prepared using a novel technique of catalyzed-atomic layer deposition of silica within a mesoporous matrix. Pyridine was used to catalyze the silicon chloride attachment to the hydroxylated silica surface at room temperature. This half-reaction was followed by the hydration of the surface with water regenerating surface hydroxyls and completing one reaction cycle. The technique resulted in the self-limited pore size reduction of the mesoporous matrix to pore sizes near 1 nm. The self-limited reaction was presumed to be the exclusion of the large catalyst molecule from the pore entrance. In addition to pore size reduction, viscous flow defects were repaired without significantly reducing overall porosity of the membrane. In addition, we investigated the ability of amine-functionalization to enhance the CO{sub 2} transport in silica membranes. Specifically, we examined three synthesis techniques for functionalizing silica membranes with amino groups that resulted in different surface chemistries of the silica membranes. These differences were correlated with changes in the CO{sub 2} facilitation characteristics. It was found that high loadings of amino groups where interaction with the silica surface was minimized promoted the highest CO{sub 2} transport.

  12. High-Permeance Room-Temperature Ionic-Liquid-Based Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, JS; Mok, MM; Cowan, MG; McDanel, WM; Carlisle, TK; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2014-12-24

    We have developed and fabricated thin-film composite (TFC) membranes with an active layer consisting of a room-temperature ionic liquid/polymerized (room-temperature ionic liquid) [i.e., (RTIL)/poly(RTIL)] composite material. The resulting membrane has a CO2 permeance of 6100 +/- 400 GPU (where 1 GPU = 10(-6) cm(3)/(cm(2) s cmHg)) and an ideal CO2/N-2 selectivity of 22 +/- 2. This represents a new membrane with state-of-the-art CO2 permeance and good CO2/N-2 selectivity. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a TFC gas separation membrane composed of an RTIL-containing active layer.

  13. Impact of air-exposure on the chemical and electronic structure ofZnO:Zn3N2 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bar, M.; Ahn, K.-S.; Shet, S.; Yan, Y.; Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Blum, M.; Pookpanratana, S.; George, K.; Yang, W.; Denlinger, J.D.; Al-Jassim, M.; Heske, C.

    2008-09-08

    The chemical and electronic surface structure of ZnO:Zn3N2 ("ZnO:N") thin films with different N contents was investigated by soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. Upon exposure to ambient air (in contrast to storage in vacuum), the chemical and electronic surface structure of the ZnO:N films changes substantially. In particular, we find that the Zn3N2/(Zn3N2+ZnO) ratio decreases with exposure time and that this change depends on the initial N content. We suggest a degradation mechanism based on the reaction of the Zn3N2 content with atmospheric humidity.

  14. Erratum: Evidence of b -jet quenching in PbPb collisions at s N N = 2.76

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TeV [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 , 132301 (2014)] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Erratum: Evidence of b-jet quenching in PbPb collisions at sNN=2.76TeV [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 , 132301 (2014)] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Erratum: Evidence of b -jet quenching in PbPb collisions at s N N = 2.76 TeV [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 , 132301 (2014)] In our Letter, there was a component of the statistical uncertainty from the simulated PbPb Monte Carlo samples. This uncertainty was not propagated

  15. Selective Binding of O2 over N2 in a Redox-Active Metal-Organic Framework

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Open Iron(II) Coordination Sites | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Selective Binding of O2 over N2 in a Redox-Active Metal-Organic Framework with Open Iron(II) Coordination Sites Previous Next List E. D. Bloch, L. J. Murray, W. L. Queen, S. Chavan, S. N. Maximoff, J. P. Bigi, R. Krishna, V. K. Peterson, F. Grandjean, G. J. Long, B. Smit, S. Bordiga, C. M. Brown, and J. R. Long, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 (37), 14814 (2011) DOI:

  16. SYNTHESIS OF THE FULLY PROTECTED PHOSPHORAMIDITE OF THE BENZENE-DNA ADDUCT, N2- (4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-2'-DEOXYGUANOSINE AND INCORPORATION OF THE LATER INTO DNA OLIGOMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chenna, Ahmed; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Bonala, Radha R.; Johnson, Francis; Huang, Bo

    2008-06-09

    N2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-O-DMT-3'-phosphoramidite has been synthesized and used to incorporate the N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2'-dG (N2-4-HOPh-dG) into DNA, using solid-state synthesis technology. The key step to obtaining the xenonucleoside is a palladium (Xantphos-chelated) catalyzed N2-arylation (Buchwald-Hartwig reaction) of a fully protected 2'-deoxyguanosine derivative by 4-isobutyryloxybromobenzene. The reaction proceeded in good yield and the adduct was converted to the required 5'-O-DMT-3'-O-phosphoramidite by standard methods. The latter was used to synthesize oligodeoxynucleotides in which the N2-4-HOPh-dG adduct was incorporated site-specifically. The oligomers were purified by reverse-phase HPLC. Enzymatic hydrolysis and HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of this adduct in the oligomers.

  17. Coupling of alcohols to ethers: The dominance of the surface S{sub N}2 reaction pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.; Herman, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Coupling of alcohols to ethers, important high value oxygenates, proceeds on acid catalysts via general pathways that uniquely control product composition, oxygen retention, chirality inversion, and kinetics. The dominant pathway is the S{sub N}2 reaction with competition of the alcohols for the surface acid sites. This is exemplified by formation of methyl(ethyl) isobutylether (M(E)IBE) from methanol(ethanol)/isobutanol mixtures, retention of oxygen ({sup 18}O) of the heavier alcohol, and optimum rate as a function of concentration of either reactant alcohol. The S{sub N}2 pathway in the confinement of zeolite pores exhibits additional features of a near-100% selectivity to dimethylether (DME) in H-mordenite and a near-100% selectivity to chiral inversion in 2-pentanol/ethanol coupling to 2-ethoxypentane in HZSM-5. A minor reaction pathway entails olefin or carbenium intermediates, as exemplified by the formation of methyl tertiarybutyl ether (MTBE) from methanol/isobutanol mixtures with oxygen retention of the lighter alcohol. Calculations of transition state and molecular modeling of the oxonium-involving pathways dramatically demonstrate how the reaction path selects the products.

  18. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O-- Similarities and Differences Between H2, CO and C3H6 Reductants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At lower-intermediate exhaust temperatures, N2O is emitted in two peaks. This presentation uses a global model for the primary and secondary peaks to explain the chemical reactions.

  19. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Reports > 2003 Building Characteristics Overview 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption SurveyCommercial Buildings Characteristics Released: May 2002 Topics: Energy...

  20. Characteristics of uranium carbonitride microparticles synthesized using different reaction conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, Chinthaka M; Lindemer, Terrence; Voit, Stewart L; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Besmann, Theodore M; Terrani, Kurt A; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2014-11-01

    Three sets of different experimental conditions by changing the cover gases during the sample preparation were tested to synthesize uranium carbonitride (UC1-xNx) microparticles. In the first two sets of experiments using (N2 to N2-4%H2 to Ar) and (Ar to N2 to Ar) environments, single phase UC1-xNx was synthesized. When reducing environments (Ar-4%H2 to N2-4%H2 to Ar-4%H2) were utilized, theoretical densities up to 97% of single phase UC1-xNx kernels were obtained. Physical and chemical characteristics such as density, phase purity, and chemical compositions of the synthesized UC1-xNx materials for the diferent experimental conditions used are provided. In-depth analysis of the microstrutures of UC1-xNx has been carried out and is discussed with the objective of large batch fabrication of high density UC1-xNx kernels.

  1. Beamline 1.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline 1.4.3 Print FTIR spectromicroscopy Scientific disciplines: Biology, correlated electron systems, environmental science, geology, chemistry, polymers, soft materials GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.2 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Nicolet Magna 760 FTIR, Nic-Plan IR Microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Motorized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution,

  2. Beamline 1.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline 1.4.3 Print FTIR spectromicroscopy Scientific disciplines: Biology, correlated electron systems, environmental science, geology, chemistry, polymers, soft materials GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.2 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Nicolet Magna 760 FTIR, Nic-Plan IR Microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Motorized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution,

  3. Beamline 1.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline 1.4.3 Print FTIR spectromicroscopy Scientific disciplines: Biology, correlated electron systems, environmental science, geology, chemistry, polymers, soft materials GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.2 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Nicolet Magna 760 FTIR, Nic-Plan IR Microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Motorized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution,

  4. Beamline 1.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline 1.4.3 Print FTIR spectromicroscopy Scientific disciplines: Biology, correlated electron systems, environmental science, geology, chemistry, polymers, soft materials GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.2 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Nicolet Magna 760 FTIR, Nic-Plan IR Microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Motorized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution,

  5. Beamline 1.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline 1.4.3 Print FTIR spectromicroscopy Scientific disciplines: Biology, correlated electron systems, environmental science, geology, chemistry, polymers, soft materials GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.2 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Nicolet Magna 760 FTIR, Nic-Plan IR Microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Motorized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution,

  6. Beamline 1.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Print FTIR spectromicroscopy Scientific disciplines: Biology, correlated electron systems, environmental science, geology, chemistry, polymers, soft materials GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.2 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Nicolet Magna 760 FTIR, Nic-Plan IR Microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Motorized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution, reflection,

  7. Beamline 1.4.4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy Scientific disciplines: Biology, correlated electron systems, environmental science, geology, chemistry, polymers, soft materials GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.5 eV Frequency range 800 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Thermo Nicolet Nexus 870 FTIR, Continuum XL IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution;

  8. Beamline 1.4.4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline 1.4.4 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy Scientific disciplines: Biology, correlated electron systems, environmental science, geology, chemistry, polymers, soft materials GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.5 eV Frequency range 800 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Thermo Nicolet Nexus 870 FTIR, Continuum XL IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron

  9. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline 5.4.1 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.00 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution; reflection, transmission, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes; polarizing and UV fluorescence optics Spatial resolution Diffraction limited

  10. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline 5.4.1 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.00 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution; reflection, transmission, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes; polarizing and UV fluorescence optics Spatial resolution Diffraction limited

  11. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline 5.4.1 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.00 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution; reflection, transmission, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes; polarizing and UV fluorescence optics Spatial resolution Diffraction limited

  12. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5.4.1 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.00 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution; reflection, transmission, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes; polarizing and UV fluorescence optics Spatial resolution Diffraction limited

  13. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.00 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution; reflection, transmission, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes; polarizing and UV fluorescence optics Spatial resolution Diffraction limited (~wavelength)

  14. Beamline 1.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Print FTIR spectromicroscopy Scientific disciplines: Biology, correlated electron systems, environmental science, geology, chemistry, polymers, soft materials GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.2 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Nicolet Magna 760 FTIR, Nic-Plan IR Microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Motorized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution, reflection,

  15. Beamline 1.4.4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy Scientific disciplines: Biology, correlated electron systems, environmental science, geology, chemistry, polymers, soft materials GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.5 eV Frequency range 800 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Thermo Nicolet Nexus 870 FTIR, Continuum XL IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution;

  16. Beamline 1.4.4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy Scientific disciplines: Biology, correlated electron systems, environmental science, geology, chemistry, polymers, soft materials GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.5 eV Frequency range 800 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Thermo Nicolet Nexus 870 FTIR, Continuum XL IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution;

  17. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.00 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution; reflection, transmission, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes; polarizing and UV fluorescence optics Spatial resolution Diffraction limited (~wavelength)

  18. 15N2 formation and fast oxygen isotope exchange during pulsed 15N18O exposure of MnOx/CeO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Szanyi, Janos

    2014-12-23

    Pulsing 15N18O onto an annealed 1% Mn16Ox/Ce16O2 catalyst resulted in very fast oxygen isotope exchange and 15N2 formation at 295 K. In the 1st 15N18O pulse, due to the presence of large number of surface oxygen defects, extensive 15N218O and 15N2 formations were observed. In subsequent pulses oxygen isotope exchange dominated as a result of highly labile oxygen in the oxide. We gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Vehicle Technologies Program for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOEs Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.

  19. ARM - Measurement - Soil characteristics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Soil characteristics Includes available water capacity, bulk density, permeability, porosity, rock fragment classification, rock fragment volume, percent clay,...

  20. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lowe, Douglas; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Morgan, Will; Allan, James D.; Utembe, Steve; Ouyang, Bin; Aruffo, Eleonora; Le Breton, Michael; Zaveri, Rahul A.; di Carlo, Piero; et al

    2015-02-09

    Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC) gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlationsmore » with measurements of 0.7–0.9 for NO2 and O3). However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6). Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.5–0.7 μg kg−1air, compared with measurements of 1.0–1.5 μg kg−1air). Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases – one with low relative humidity (RH) (60–70%), the other with high RH (80–90%). N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles. The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100–300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less for alkenes (× 80) and comparable for dimethylsulfide (DMS). However the suppression of NO3 mixing ratios across the domain by N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has only a very slight, negative, influence on this oxidative capacity. The influence on regional particulate nitrate mass loadings is stronger. Night-time N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry maintains the production of particulate nitrate within polluted regions: when this process is taken into consideration, the daytime peak (for the 95th percentile) of PM10 nitrate mass loadings remains around 5.6 μg kg−1air, but the night-time minimum increases from 3.5 to 4.6 μg kg−1air. The sustaining of higher particulate mass loadings through the night by this process improves model skill at matching measured aerosol nitrate diurnal cycles and will negatively impact on regional air quality, requiring this process to be included in regional models.« less

  1. Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    schedules and the number of workers across all shifts as well as the main shift. * Energy Management Characteristics - Energy management questions were expanded to ask whether or...

  2. Multispectrum analysis of the v9 band of 12C2H6: Positions, intensities, self- and N2-broadened half-width coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Benner, D. C.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2010-06-01

    Line positions, intensities, Lorentz self- and N2-broadened half-width coefficients have been measured for PQ3, PQ2, PQ1, RQ0,RQ1, RQ2, and RQ3 sub-band transitions in the 9 fundamental band of 12C2H6. A multispectrum nonlinear least-squares fitting technique was used to fit up to 17 high-resolution (~0.00156 cm-1), room temperature absorption spectra of pure (99.99% chemical purity) natural sample of ethane and lean mixtures of the high-purity ethane diluted with N2. A Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier transform spectrometer located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in Richland, Washington was used to record the data. A standard Voigt line shape was assumed to fit all the data since no line mixing or other non Voigt line shapes were required to fit any of the spectra used in the analysis. Short spectral intervals (~2 to 2.5 cm-1) of all 17 spectra covering a specific PQ or RQ sub band were fit simultaneously. For the first time in an ethane band, pressure-broadened half-width coefficients were determined for each of the torsional-split components. Constraints were used such that the half-width coefficients of both torsional-split components were identical for a specific broadening gas. No pressure-induced shift coefficients were necessary to fit the spectra to their noise level. The present study revealed for the first time the dependence of self- and N2-broadened half-width coefficients upon the J, K quantum numbers of the transitions in ethane. A number of transitions belonging to the 9+ 4- 4 and the 9+2 4-2 4 hot bands were also observed in the fitted regions and measurements were made when possible.

  3. Temporal Nodal Regression and Regional Control After Primary Radiation Therapy for N2-N3 Head-and-Neck Cancer Stratified by HPV Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Shao Hui; O'Sullivan, Brian; Ringash, Jolie; Hope, Andrew; Gilbert, Ralph; Irish, Jonathan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Weinreb, Ilan; Waldron, John

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the temporal lymph node (LN) regression and regional control (RC) after primary chemoradiation therapy/radiation therapy in human papillomavirus-related [HPV(+)] versus human papillomavirus-unrelated [HPV(?)] head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: All cases of N2-N3 HNC treated with radiation therapy/chemoradiation therapy between 2003 and 2009 were reviewed. Human papillomavirus status was ascertained by p16 staining on all available oropharyngeal cancers. Larynx/hypopharynx cancers were considered HPV(?). Initial radiologic complete nodal response (CR) (?1.0 cm 8-12 weeks after treatment), ultimate LN resolution, and RC were compared between HPV(+) and HPV(?) HNC. Multivariate analysis identified outcome predictors. Results: A total of 257 HPV(+) and 236 HPV(?) HNCs were identified. The initial LN size was larger (mean, 2.9 cm vs 2.5 cm; P<.01) with a higher proportion of cystic LNs (38% vs 6%, P<.01) in HPV(+) versus HPV(?) HNC. CR was achieved is 125 HPV(+) HNCs (49%) and 129 HPV(?) HNCs (55%) (P=.18). The mean post treatment largest LN was 36% of the original size in the HPV(+) group and 41% in the HPV(?) group (P<.01). The actuarial LN resolution was similar in the HPV(+) and HPV(?) groups at 12 weeks (42% and 43%, respectively), but it was higher in the HPV(+) group than in the HPV(?) group at 36 weeks (90% vs 77%, P<.01). The median follow-up period was 3.6 years. The 3-year RC rate was higher in the HPV(?) CR cases versus non-CR cases (92% vs 63%, P<.01) but was not different in the HPV(+) CR cases versus non-CR cases (98% vs 92%, P=.14). On multivariate analysis, HPV(+) status predicted ultimate LN resolution (odds ratio, 1.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.7]; P<.01) and RC (hazard ratio, 0.3 [95% confidence interval 0.2-0.6]; P<.01). Conclusions: HPV(+) LNs involute more quickly than HPV(?) LNs but undergo a more prolonged process to eventual CR beyond the time of initial assessment at 8 to 12 weeks after treatment. Post radiation neck dissection is advisable for all non-CR HPV(?)/non-CR N3 HPV(+) cases, but it may be avoided for selected non-CR N2 HPV(+) cases with a significant LN involution if they can undergo continued imaging surveillance. The role of positron emission tomography for response assessment should be investigated.

  4. Auxiliary Ligand-Dependent Assembly of Several Ni/Ni-Cd Compounds with N2O2 Donor Tetradentate Symmetrical Schiff Base Ligand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Ying Ying; Li, Guo-Bi; Fang, Hua-Cai; Zhan, Xu Lin; Gu, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Jin Hao; Sun, Feng; Cai, Yue-Peng; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2010-09-18

    Several low-dimensional Ni/Ni-Cd complexes containing N2O2 donor tetradentate symmetrical Schiff base ligand bis(acetylacetone)ethylene-diamine (sy-H2L2), namely, [Ni(sy-L2)]2?HLa?ClO4 (2), (HLa)2?(ClO4)?(NO3) (3), [Ni(sy-L2)X]2](4,4-bipy) (where La = 5,7-dimethyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-1,4-diazepine, X = ClO4 (4), X=NO3 (5), [Ni(sy-L2)Cd(SCN)2]n (6) and [Ni(sy-L2)?Cd(N3)2]n (7) have been synthesized from [Ni(sy-L2)]2?H2O (1). Complex 2, is three component discrete assembly generated from (HLa)+ moiety bridged with [Ni(sy-L2)] unit and ClO4- anion. A solution containing complex 2 and Cd(NO3)2 results in a mixture of 1 and 3. Further re-crystallization of 1 and 3 with various auxiliary ligands, provides coordination complexes 4 7 stabilized by weak hydrogen bonds in which 6 and 7 represent the first 1D heteronuclear complexes based on symmetric acacen-base Schiff base ligand.

  5. Solvent-mediated internal conversion in diphenoxyethane-(H{sub 2}O){sub n}clusters, n = 2-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, Patrick S.; Buchanan, Evan G.; Gord, Joseph R.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2015-04-21

    1,2-diphenoxyethane (DPOE) is a flexible bichromophore whose excited states come in close-lying pairs whose splitting and vibronic coupling can be modulated by solvent. Building on the ground state infrared spectroscopy of DPOE-(H{sub 2}O){sub n} clusters with n = 2-4 from the adjoining paper [Walsh et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 154303 (2015)], the present work focuses on the vibronic and excited state infrared spectroscopies of the clusters. The type and degree of asymmetry of the water cluster binding to DPOE is reflected in the variation in the magnitude of the S{sub 1}/S{sub 2} splitting with cluster size. Excited state resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy was performed at the electronic origins of the first two excited states in order to explore how the water clusters OH stretch spectra report on the nature of the two excited states, and the interaction of the S{sub 2} state with nearby S{sub 1} vibronic levels mediated by the water clusters. The data set, when taken as a whole, provides a state-to-state view of internal conversion and the role of solvent in mediating conversion of electronic excitation between two chromophores, providing a molecular-scale view of Kashas rule.

  6. Characteristics of discharge disruptions in the T-10 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanovskii, A. M. Dremin, M. M.; Kakurin, A. M.; Kislov, A. Ya.; Mal'tsev, S. G.; Notkin, G. E.; Pavlov, Yu. D.; Poznyak, V. I.; Sushkov, A. V.

    2013-06-15

    The results of experimental studies of discharge disruptions in the T-10 tokamak at the limiting plasma density are presented. On the basis of measurements of the generated soft X-ray emission, for a group of 'slow' disruptions, the dynamics of the magnetic configuration of the central part of the plasma column is studied and the possible role of the m/n = 1/1 mode in the excitation of predisruptions or the final stage of disruption is analyzed. It is shown that the characteristics of plasma electron cooling in predisruptions correspond to those of electron cooling upon pellet injection into T-10 and in discharge predisruptions occurring in regimes with the 'quiet mode.' It is found that, in the latter case, the reason for predisruptions and fast electron cooling in the plasma core is the instability of the m/n = 2/1 mode, its spontaneous spatial reconstruction, and the generation of a 'cooling wave' during this process. Measurements of the electron temperature (determined from the plasma radiation intensity at the second electron cyclotron harmonic) in the zone of the m/n = 2/1 mode have shown that the transformation of the m/n = 2/1 mode leads to the excitation of predisruptions and the final phase of disruption not only in regimes with the 'quiet mode,' but also in disruptions of ordinary ohmic discharges. The experimental results obtained in this work make it possible to determine the scenario of the development of 'slow' discharge disruptions in the T-10 tokamak at the limiting plasma density.

  7. Wafer characteristics via reflectometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    2010-10-19

    Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

  8. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  9. CBECS Buildings Characteristics --Revised Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Totals and Means of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and Hours of Operation, 1995 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million...

  10. Property:Other Characteristics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Characteristics Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Other Characteristics Property Type String Pages using the property "Other Characteristics" Showing 8 pages using this...

  11. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline 5.4.1 Beamline 5.4.1 Print Wednesday, 16 June 2010 16:03 Infrared spectromicroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.00 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution; reflection, transmission, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes; polarizing and UV fluorescence

  12. Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Discusses ...

  13. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  14. Evaluation of repeated measurements of radon-222 concentrations in well water sampled from bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont near Richmond, Virginia, USA: Effects of lithology and well characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Shelley A. . E-mail: saharris@vcu.edu; Billmeyer, Ernest R.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2006-07-15

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations in 26 ground water wells of two distinct lithologies in the Piedmont of Virginia were measured to assess variation in ground water radon concentrations (GWRC), to evaluate differences in concentrations related to well characteristics, lithology, and spatial distributions, and to assess the feasibility of predicting GWRC. Wells were sampled in accordance with American Public Health Association Method 7500 Rn-B, with modifications to include a well shaft profile analysis that determined the minimum purge time sufficient to remove the equivalent of one column of water from each well. Statistically significant differences in GWRC were found in the Trssu (1482{+-}1711 pCi/L) and Mpg (7750{+-}5188 pCi/L) lithologies, however, no significant differences were found among GWRC at each well over time. Using multiple regression, 86% of the variability (R {sup 2}) in the GWRC was explained by the lithology, latitudinal class, and water table elevation of the wells. The GWRC in a majority of the wells studied exceed US Environmental Protection Agency designated maximum contaminant level and AMCL. Results support modifications to sampling procedures and indicate that, in previous studies, variations in GWRC concentrations over time may have been due in part to differences in sampling procedures and not in source water.

  15. Transpiring purging access probe for particulate laden or hazardous environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanOsdol, John G

    2013-12-03

    An access probe for remote-sensing access through a viewing port, viewing volume, and access port into a vessel. The physical boundary around the viewing volume is partially formed by a porous sleeve lying between the viewing volume and a fluid conduit. In a first mode of operation, a fluid supplied to the fluid conduit encounters the porous sleeve and flows through the porous material to maintain the viewing volume free of ash or other matter. When additional fluid force is needed to clear the viewing volume, the pressure of the fluid flow is increased sufficiently to slidably translate the porous sleeve, greatly increasing the flow into the viewing volume. The porous sleeve is returned to position by an actuating spring. The access probe thereby provides for alternate modes of operation based on the pressure of an actuating fluid.

  16. Solar panel driven air purging apparatus for motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobier, J.A.; Brown, G.E.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes improvement in a motor vehicle having an enclosable cabin an internal combustion engine, a battery, an ignition switch having an on position for enabling the internal combustion engine and an off position, an electric motor coupled in driving relationship with an air circulating fan for circulating air through the cabin. The improvement comprises: a solar panel mounted upon the vehicle having a panel output exhibiting variable voltage levels including a peak voltage level and substantially constant current; a power transfer regulator for transferring power form the panel to the motor when enabled, including: energy storage means connectable across the panel output and chargeable by the current to variable charge levels; solid-state switch means connected in energy transfer relationship with the energy storage means and actuable between conducting and non-conducting states when the power transfer regulator is enabled; inductor means connected with the solid-state switch means and connectable with the electric motor for conveying current thereto from the panel and the energy storage means when the solid-state switch means is in the conducting state.

  17. Application of a High-Throughput Analyzer in Evaluating Solid Adsorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture via Multicomponent Adsorption of CO2, N-2, and H2O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, JA; McDonald, TM; Bae, TH; Bachman, JE; Sumida, K; Dutton, JJ; Kaye, SS; Long, JR

    2015-04-15

    Despite the large number of metal-organic frameworks that have been studied in the context of post-combustion carbon capture, adsorption equilibria of gas mixtures including CO2, N-2, and H2O, which are the three biggest components of the flue gas emanating from a coal- or natural gas-fired power plant, have never been reported. Here, we disclose the design and validation of a high-throughput multicomponent adsorption instrument that can measure equilibrium adsorption isotherms for mixtures of gases at conditions that are representative of an actual flue gas from a power plant. This instrument is used to study 15 different metal-organic frameworks, zeolites, mesoporous silicas, and activated carbons representative of the broad range of solid adsorbents that have received attention for CO2 capture. While the multicomponent results presented in this work provide many interesting fundamental insights, only adsorbents functionalized with alkylamines are shown to have any significant CO2 capacity in the presence of N-2 and H2O at equilibrium partial pressures similar to those expected in a carbon capture process. Most significantly, the amine-appended metal organic framework mmen-Mg-2(dobpdc) (mmen = N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine, dobpdc (4-) = 4,4'-dioxido-3,3'-biphenyldicarboxylate) exhibits a record CO2 capacity of 4.2 +/- 0.2 mmol/g (16 wt %) at 0.1 bar and 40 degrees C in the presence of a high partial pressure of H2O.

  18. Lands with Wilderness Characteristics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with Wilderness Characteristics Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLandswithWildernessCharacteristics&oldid647799...

  19. Health Care Buildings : Basic Characteristics Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Basic Characteristics Tables Buildings and Size Data by Basic Characteristics for Health Care Buildings Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million...

  20. N2Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utah Zip: 84093 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar Product: HOE Solar performance optics for PV, CSP, Desal and UV water treatment Year Founded: 2003 Phone Number: 801 608...

  1. Multispectrum measurements of spectral line parameters including temperature dependences of N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients in the region of the v9 band of 12C2H6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C.P.; Smith, M.A.H.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.; Flaud, Jean Marie; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, L.R.; Mantz, A. W.

    2010-11-01

    Ethane is a prominent contributor to the spectrum of Titan, particularly in the region of the v9 band at 12?m. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting program was applied to laboratory spectra of ethane to measure accurate positions, absolute intensities, N2- and selfbroadened half- width coefficients and their temperature dependences for a large number transitions. These measurements include several pQ and rQ sub-bands (and other sub-bands such as pP, rR) in the v9 fundamental band of 12C2H6 centered near 822 cm-1. Positions were measured for 2958 transitions and intensities for 3771 transitions. N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients were determined for over 1700 transitions while temperature dependence exponents were retrieved for over 1350 of those transitions. Of these, many measurements (mostly line positions and intensities) belong to the v9+v4-v4 hot band, v9+2v4-2v4 hot band, 13C12CH6 v9 band and unidentified transitions. Forty-three high resolution (0.0016-0.005 cm-1) infrared laboratory absorption spectra recorded at temperatures between 148 and 298 K were fitted simultaneously to retrieve these parameters. Forty-one of these spectra were obtained in the temperature range of 211-298 K using the Bruker IFS 120HR interferometer located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington. Two additional spectra at 148 K were recorded using a new temperature stabilized cryogenic cell designed to work inside the sample compartment of the high resolution Bruker IFS 125HR interferometer of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena California. The specialized cooling cell developed at Connecticut College and capable of achieving gas sample temperatures down to 70 K with a temperature stability and uniformity of better than 0.05 K was employed to record the 148 K spectra. Constraints to intensity ratios, doublet separations, half-width coefficients and their temperature dependence exponents were required to determine these parameters for each of the two torsional split components. Similar to N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents were also found to follow distinctively different patterns. The variations of the observed half-width coefficients and their temperature dependences with respect to J, K quantum numbers are discussed. Because of the high density of torsionally split spectral lines, hot-band ransitions as well as blends, it was not possible to retrieve any information on the small pressure-induced shift coefficients. Present results are compared to other available measurements.

  2. A Hydrogen-Evolving Ni(P2N2)2 Electrocatalyst Covalently Attached to a Glassy Carbon Electrode: Preparation, Characterization, and Catalysis. Comparisons With the Homogeneous Analog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Atanu K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bullock, R. Morris; Roberts, John A.

    2014-07-07

    A hydrogen-evolving homogeneous Ni(P2N2)2 electrocatalyst with peripheral ester groups has been covalently attached to a 1,2,3-triazolyllithium-terminated glassy carbon electrode. The surface-confined complex is an electroctalyst for hydrogen evolution, showing onset of catalytic current at the same potential as the soluble parent complex. X-ray photoemission spectra show excellent agreement between the coupled and homogeneous species. Coverage approaches a dense monolayer. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. The XPS measurements were performed at EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  3. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  4. Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-25

    A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

  5. 1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Housing Unit Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Million U.S. Households; 45 pages, 128 kb) Contents Pages HC1-1a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-2a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-3a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-4a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 1997 3 HC1-5a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit,

  6. 1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Housing Unit Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Percent of U.S. Households; 45 pages, 121 kb) Contents Pages HC1-1b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Climate Zone, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-2b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-3b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-4b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 3 HC1-5b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Owner-Occupied

  7. RSE Table N2.1 and N2.2. Relative Standard Errors for Tables...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1, 2, and 4 fuel oils and Nos. 1, 2, and 4" "diesel fuels." " (c) 'Natural Gas' ... gas brokers, marketers," "and any marketing subsidiaries of utilities." " (d) ...

  8. Characteristics of Strong Programs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characteristics of Strong Programs Characteristics of Strong Programs Existing financing programs offer a number of important lessons on effective program design. Some characteristics of strong financing programs drawn from past program experience are described below. Engage Contractor Networks The programs with the highest volume of loans have strong contractor networks and regular program communication with those contractors. Significant time and effort are often expended to make sure the

  9. DERIVATION OF STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION MODEL CHARACTERISTICS FOR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FOR SOLAR FLARES FROM RHESSI HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DERIVATION OF STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION MODEL CHARACTERISTICS FOR SOLAR FLARES ...

  10. Aerodynamic characteristics of seven symmetrical airfoil sections...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    180-degree angle of attack for use in aerodynamic analysis of vertical axis wind turbines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerodynamic characteristics of seven...

  11. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Census Region

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Top Return to: "1999 CBECS-Commercial Buildings Characteristics" Specific questions...

  12. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Year Constructed

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Top Return to: "1999 CBECS-Commercial Buildings Characteristics" Specific questions...

  13. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Top Return to: "1999 CBECS-Commercial Buildings Characteristics" Specific questions...

  14. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Disaggregated Principal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Top Return to: "1999 CBECS-Commercial Buildings Characteristics" Specific questions...

  15. Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1995 - Index Page

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    >Commercial Buildings Home > 1995 Characteristics Data 1995 Data Executive Summary Table of Contents Overview to Detailed Tables Detailed Tables 1995 national and Census region...

  16. Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep wells, Raft River geothermal area Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book:...

  17. Crude Oil Characteristics Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Crude Oil Characteristics Research Crude Oil Characteristics Research July 9, 2015 - 1:00pm Addthis Paula Gant Paula Gant Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary The DOE Office of Fossil Energy wanted to identify the actions needed to obtain a science-based understanding of outstanding questions associated with the production, treatment, and transportation of various types of crude oil, including Bakken crude oil. In support of that effort, DOE - in collaboration with the Department of

  18. N-(N-[2-(3,5-Difluorophenyl)acetyl]-(S)-alanyl)-(S)-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester (DAPT): an inhibitor of ?-secretase, revealing fine electronic and hydrogen-bonding features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czerwinski, Andrzej; Valenzuela, Francisco; Afonine, Pavel; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2010-12-01

    The title compound, C{sub 23}H{sub 26}F{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}, is a dipeptidic inhibitor of ?-secretase, one of the enzymes involved in Alzheimers dis@@ease. The mol@@ecule adopts a compact conformation, without intra@@molecular hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure, one of the amide N atoms forms the only inter@@molecular NH?O hydrogen bond; the second amide N atom does not form hydrogen bonds. High-resolution synchrotron diffraction data permitted the unequivocal location and refinement without restraints of all H atoms, and the identification of the characteristic shift of the amide H atom engaged in the hydrogen bond from its ideal position, resulting in a more linear hydrogen bond. Significant residual densities for bonding electrons were revealed after the usual SHELXL refinement, and modeling of these features as additional inter@@atomic scatterers (IAS) using the program PHENIX led to a significant decrease in the R factor from 0.0411 to 0.0325 and diminished the r.m.s. deviation level of noise in the final difference Fourier map from 0.063 to 0.037 e {sup ?3}.

  19. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, Thomas (Westhampton Beach, NY); Klamut, Carl J. (East Patchogue, NY); Suenaga, Masaki (Bellport, NY); Welch, David (Stony Brook, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  20. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, Thomas (Westhampton Beach, NY); Klamut, Carl J. (E. Patchogue, NY); Suenaga, Masaki (Bellport, NY); Welch, David (Stony Brook, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the strain characteristics of the wire.

  1. Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot: Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation Title Oxidation characteristics of gasoline...

  2. Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions in salt Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characteristics of seismic waves from...

  3. Origins of optical absorption characteristics of Cu2+ complexes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Origins of optical absorption characteristics of Cu2+ complexes in solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Origins of optical absorption characteristics of Cu2+ ...

  4. Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dataset: Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems, 1960-2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic...

  5. Forward and reverse characteristics of irradiated MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paccagnella, A.; Ceschia, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Soncini, G.; Bellutti, P.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1996-06-01

    pMOSFETs biased with V{sub gs} < V{sub gd} during Co{sup 60} {gamma} irradiation have shown substantial differences between the forward and reverse subthreshold characteristics, induced by a non-uniform charge distribution in the gate oxide. Correspondingly, modest differences have been observed in the over-threshold I-V characteristics. After irradiation, the forward subthreshold curves can shift at higher or lower gate voltages than the reverse ones. The former behavior has been observed in long-channel devices, in agreement with the classical MOS theory and numerical simulations. The latter result has been obtained in short-channel devices, and it has been correlated to a parasitic punch-through conduction mechanism.

  6. Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sawyer, J. Wayne (Hampton, VA); Hess, John R. (Ashton, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

  7. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM`s Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW.

  8. Nuclear reactor characteristics and operational history

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1. Capacity and Generation, Table 3. Characteristics and Operational History Table 2. U.S. Nuclear Reactor Ownership Data PDF XLS Plant/Reactor Name Generator ID Utility Name - Operator Owner Name % Owned Arkansas Nuclear One 1 Entergy Arkansas Inc Entergy Arkansas Inc 100 Arkansas Nuclear One 2 Entergy Arkansas Inc Entergy Arkansas Inc 100 Beaver Valley 1 FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company FirstEnergy Nuclear Generation Corp 100 Beaver Valley 2 FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company

  9. Nuclear reactor characteristics and operational history

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Nuclear > U.S. reactor operation status tables Nuclear Reactor Operational Status Tables Release date: November 22, 2011 Next release date: TBD See also: Table 1. Capacity and Generation, Table 2. Ownership Data Table 3. Nuclear Reactor Characteristics and Operational History PDF XLS Plant Name Generator ID Type Reactor Supplier and Model Construction Start Grid Connection Original Expiration Date License Renewal Application License Renewal Issued Extended Expiration Arkansas Nuclear One 1

  10. Coal-water slurry atomization characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    The overall objective of this work was to fully characterize the CWS fuel sprays of a medium-speed diesel engine injection system. Specifically, the spray plume penetration as a function of time was determined for a positive-displacement fuel injection system. The penetration was determined as a function of orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the engine, and fuel line pressure. Preliminary droplet information also was obtained. The results of this study will assist CWS engine development by providing much needed insight about the fuel spray. In addition, the results will aid the development and use of CWS engine cycle simulations which require information on the fuel spray characteristics.

  11. Nuclear reactor characteristics and operational history

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Ownership Data, Table 3. Characteristics and Operational History Table 1. Nuclear Reactor, State, Type, Net Capacity, Generation, and Capacity Factor PDF XLS Plant/Reactor Name Generator ID State Type 2009 Summer Capacity Net MW(e)1 2010 Annual Generation Net MWh2 Capacity Factor Percent3 Arkansas Nuclear One 1 AR PWR 842 6,607,090 90 Arkansas Nuclear One 2 AR PWR 993 8,415,588 97 Beaver Valley 1 PA PWR 892 7,119,413 91 Beaver Valley 2 PA PWR 885 7,874,151 102 Braidwood Generation Station 1

  12. NREL: Wind Research - Site Wind Resource Characteristics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site Wind Resource Characteristics A graphic showing the location of National Wind Technology Center and its wind power class 2. Click on the image to view a larger version. Enlarge image This graphic shows the wind power class at the National Wind Technology Center. You can download a printable copy. The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is on the Great Plains just miles from the Rocky Mountains. The site is flat and covered with short grasses. The terrain and lack of obstructions make the

  13. Gas sensor with attenuated drift characteristic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ing-Shin (Danbury, CT) [Danbury, CT; Chen, Philip S. H. (Bethel, CT) [Bethel, CT; Neuner, Jeffrey W. (Bethel, CT) [Bethel, CT; Welch, James (Fairfield, CT) [Fairfield, CT; Hendrix, Bryan (Danbury, CT) [Danbury, CT; Dimeo, Jr., Frank [Danbury, CT

    2008-05-13

    A sensor with an attenuated drift characteristic, including a layer structure in which a sensing layer has a layer of diffusional barrier material on at least one of its faces. The sensor may for example be constituted as a hydrogen gas sensor including a palladium/yttrium layer structure formed on a micro-hotplate base, with a chromium barrier layer between the yttrium layer and the micro-hotplate, and with a tantalum barrier layer between the yttrium layer and an overlying palladium protective layer. The gas sensor is useful for detection of a target gas in environments susceptible to generation or incursion of such gas, and achieves substantial (e.g., >90%) reduction of signal drift from the gas sensor in extended operation, relative to a corresponding gas sensor lacking the diffusional barrier structure of the invention

  14. Characteristics of transverse waves in chromospheric mottles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Jess, D. B.; Keenan, F. P. [Astrophysics Research Center, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Verth, G.; Erdlyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Center (SP2RC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Morton, R. J. [Mathematics and Information Science, Northumbria University, Camden Street, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Christian, D. J., E-mail: dkuridze01@qub.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Using data obtained by the high temporal and spatial resolution Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument on the Dunn Solar Telescope, we investigate at an unprecedented level of detail transverse oscillations in chromospheric fine structures near the solar disk center. The oscillations are interpreted in terms of propagating and standing magnetohydrodynamic kink waves. Wave characteristics including the maximum transverse velocity amplitude and the phase speed are measured as a function of distance along the structure's length. Solar magnetoseismology is applied to these measured parameters to obtain diagnostic information on key plasma parameters (e.g., magnetic field, density, temperature, flow speed) of these localized waveguides. The magnetic field strength of the mottle along the ?2 Mm length is found to decrease by a factor of 12, while the local plasma density scale height is ?280 80 km.

  15. Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions Compliant Passenger Car Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions ...

  16. SSQ V3 N2_Final_13aug13.indd

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administrator for Research, Development, Test Capabilities and Evaluation, Chris Deeney ... is produced by the NNSA Office of Research, Development, Test Capabilities and Evaluation. ...

  17. SSQ V1 N2_6june11_FINAL

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2 2011 Comments Questions or comments regarding the Stockpile Stewardship Quarterly should be directed to Terri.Batuyong@nnsa.doe.gov Technical Editor: Douglas Drake, Publication Editor: Millicent Mischo Inside This Issue Stockpile Stewardship Quarterly Defense Programs Stockpile Stewardship in Action Volume 1, Number 2 What do physicists and paparazzi have in common? They know that a picture is worth a thousand words! For this issue of the Stockpile Stewardship Quarterly, the theme is advances

  18. SSQ V3 N2_Final_13aug13.indd

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2 * August 2013 Message from the Assistant Deputy Administrator for Research, Development, Test Capabilities and Evaluation, Chris Deeney Defense Programs Stockpile Stewardship in Action Volume 3, Number 2 Inside this Issue 2 Roadrunner-On the Road to Trinity 3 The Cielo Petascale Capability Supercomputer: Providing Large-Scale Computing for Stockpile Stewardship 7 Sequoia, NNSA's Most Powerful Computer, Prepares for Classified Work 8 Toward Exascale with Co-design and Proxy Applications U p to

  19. Foaming characteristics of refigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Shah, D.O.; Jotshi, C.K.; Bhagwat, S.; Leung, M.; Gregory, A.

    1997-04-01

    The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry has moved to HFC refrigerants which have zero ozone depletion and low global warming potential due to regulations on CFC and HCFC refrigerants and concerns for the environment. The change in refrigerants has prompted the switch from mineral oil and alkylbenzene lubricants to polyolester-based lubricants. This change has also brought about a desire for lubricant, refrigerant and compressor manufacturers to understand the foaming properties of alternative refrigerant/ lubricant mixtures, as well as the mechanisms which affect these properties. The objectives of this investigation are to experimentally determine the foaming absorption and desorption rates of HFC and blended refrigerants in polyolester lubricant and to define the characteristics of the foam formed when the refrigerant leaves the refrigerant/ lubricant mixture after being exposed to a pressure drop. The refrigerants being examined include baseline refrigerants: CFC-12 (R-12) and HCFC-22 (R-22); alternative refrigerants: HFC-32 (R-32), R-125, R-134a, and R-143a; and blended refrigerants: R-404A, R-407C, and R-410A. The baseline refrigerants are tested with ISO 32 (Witco 3GS) and ISO 68 (4GS) mineral oils while the alternative and blended refrigerants are tested with two ISO 68 polyolesters (Witco SL68 and ICI RL68H).

  20. Sooting characteristics of surrogates for jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mensch, Amy; Santoro, Robert J.; Litzinger, Thomas A.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2010-06-15

    Currently, modeling the combustion of aviation fuels, such as JP-8 and JetA, is not feasible due to the complexity and compositional variation of these practical fuels. Surrogate fuel mixtures, composed of a few pure hydrocarbon compounds, are a key step toward modeling the combustion of practical aviation fuels. For the surrogate to simulate the practical fuel, the composition must be designed to reproduce certain pre-designated chemical parameters such as sooting tendency, H/C ratio, autoignition, as well as physical parameters such as boiling range and density. In this study, we focused only on the sooting characteristics based on the Threshold Soot Index (TSI). New measurements of TSI values derived from the smoke point along with other sooting tendency data from the literature have been combined to develop a set of recommended TSI values for pure compounds used to make surrogate mixtures. When formulating the surrogate fuel mixtures, the TSI values of the components are used to predict the TSI of the mixture. To verify the empirical mixture rule for TSI, the TSI values of several binary mixtures of candidate surrogate components were measured. Binary mixtures were also used to derive a TSI for iso-cetane, which had not previously been measured, and to verify the TSI for 1-methylnaphthalene, which had a low smoke point and large relative uncertainty as a pure compound. Lastly, surrogate mixtures containing three components were tested to see how well the measured TSI values matched the predicted values, and to demonstrate that a target value for TSI can be maintained using various components, while also holding the H/C ratio constant. (author)

  1. Effects of Ion Beam on Nanoindentation Characteristics of Glassy Polymeric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Surface (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effects of Ion Beam on Nanoindentation Characteristics of Glassy Polymeric Carbon Surface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of Ion Beam on Nanoindentation Characteristics of Glassy Polymeric Carbon Surface Glassy polymeric carbon (GPC) is a useful material for medical applications due to its chemical inertness and biocompatible characteristics. Mitral and aortic and hydrocephalic valves are examples of GPC prosthetic devices

  2. Differences in the Physical Characteristics of Diesel PM with Increasing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuel Blend Level | Department of Energy Differences in the Physical Characteristics of Diesel PM with Increasing Biofuel Blend Level Differences in the Physical Characteristics of Diesel PM with Increasing Biofuel Blend Level Measure physical characteristics, carbon state, and surface bound oxygen of soot from biodiesel blends. PDF icon deer08_strzelec.pdf More Documents & Publications Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Control Technologies Trends in Particulate

  3. Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperatur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion Engines ... Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ...

  4. Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and ...

  5. An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR System Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research ...

  6. Cluster Analysis of Cloud Regimes and Characteristic Dynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cluster Analysis of Cloud Regimes and Characteristic Dynamics of Mid-Latitude Synoptic Systems N. D. Gordon and J. R. Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of...

  7. Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  8. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool for Detection Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Receiver Operating ...

  9. About the Rhythms of Variability of the Submicron Aerosol Characterist...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the distribution of the aerosol characteristics were considered. The periodograms (Fourier spectra of the discrete data set) were calculated for all data arrays using...

  10. Structural study of growth, orientation and defects characteristics in the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    functional microelectromechanical system material aluminium nitride (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structural study of growth, orientation and defects characteristics in the functional microelectromechanical system material aluminium nitride Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural study of growth, orientation and defects characteristics in the functional microelectromechanical system material aluminium nitride The real structure and morphology of piezoelectric aluminum

  11. System Design - Lessons Learned, Generic Concepts, Characteristics &

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts | Department of Energy Design - Lessons Learned, Generic Concepts, Characteristics & Impacts System Design - Lessons Learned, Generic Concepts, Characteristics & Impacts Presented at the DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop on March 29, 2011. PDF icon apu2011_11_hoffman.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell 101 DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop Agenda Manufacturing Fuel Cell Manhattan Project

  12. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  13. Sr{sub 9}Ni{sub 6.64}O{sub 21}: A new member (n = 2) of the perovskite-related A{sub 3n+3}A{sub n}{prime}B{sub 3+n}O{sub 9+6n} family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campa, J.; Gutierrez-Puebla, E.; Monge, A.

    1996-10-01

    Crystals of a new phase Sr{sub 9}Ni{sub 6.64}O{sub 21} were grown. This compound in the n = 2 member of the A{sub 3n+3}A{sub n}{prime}B{sub n+3}O{sub 6n+9} series. The composition and the crystal structure have been established form X-ray single crystal diffraction data. The structure contains face-shared chains of NiO{sub 6} polyhedra parallel to the c axis and is related with hexagonal 2H polytype perovskite. Sr{sub 9}Ni{sub 6.64}O{sub 21} crystallizes in the space group R3c (No. 167) with a = 9.467(2) {angstrom}, c = 35.87(5) {angstrom}, V = 2784.(4) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 6. A comparison is made between the structure of the title compound and the other members of the series.

  14. Measurement Of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detector Characteristics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    characteristic X-ray emission peaks and confirmed the detectors' functionality. We also measured chamber gains to be over 6000 at a high voltage of 395 V across each GEM electrode. ...

  15. Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft river geothermal area and environs, Cassia County, Idaho, Box Elder county, Utah Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  16. Pressure and flow characteristics of restrictive flow orifice devices.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Pressure and flow characteristics of restrictive flow orifice devices. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure and flow characteristics of restrictive flow orifice devices. × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  17. Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation | Argonne National Laboratory Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot: Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation Title Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot: Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2015 Authors Choi, S, Seong, H Journal Combustion and Flame Volume 162 Start Page

  18. Plasma Characteristics of the Discharge Produced during Mechanoluminescence

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Plasma Characteristics of the Discharge Produced during Mechanoluminescence Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plasma Characteristics of the Discharge Produced during Mechanoluminescence The conditions during light emission from the fracture of solids have been difficult to determine because such mechanoluminescence (ML) is usually weak. When ML is produced by acoustic cavitation of a liquid slurry of resorcinol crystals, however, we observe bright

  19. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Detection Performance (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool for Detection Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool for Detection Performance Authors: Candy, J V ; Breitfeller, E F Publication Date: 2013-08-08 OSTI Identifier: 1093414 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-642693 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical Report

  20. Integrated MOSFET-Embedded-Cantilever-Based Biosensor Characteristic for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Detection of Anthrax Simulant (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Integrated MOSFET-Embedded-Cantilever-Based Biosensor Characteristic for Detection of Anthrax Simulant Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated MOSFET-Embedded-Cantilever-Based Biosensor Characteristic for Detection of Anthrax Simulant In this work, MOSFET-embedded cantilevers are configured as microbial sensors for detection of anthrax simulants, Bacillus thuringiensis. Anthrax simulants attached to the

  1. Measurement Of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detector Characteristics

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Measurement Of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detector Characteristics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement Of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detector Characteristics The High Energy Physics group of the University of Texas at Arlington has been developing gas electron multiplier detectors to use them as sensitive gap detectors in digital hadron calorimeters for the International Linear Collider, a future high energy particle accelerator.

  2. Particulate Matter Characteristics for Highly Dilute Stoichiometric GDI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Operations | Department of Energy Matter Characteristics for Highly Dilute Stoichiometric GDI Engine Operations Particulate Matter Characteristics for Highly Dilute Stoichiometric GDI Engine Operations The overall goal of this study is to help identify which conditions and potential mechanisms impede soot formation in GDI operations. PDF icon p-24_storey.pdf More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Effects of Advanced Combustion

  3. DERIVATION OF STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION MODEL CHARACTERISTICS FOR SOLAR

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FLARES FROM RHESSI HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect DERIVATION OF STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION MODEL CHARACTERISTICS FOR SOLAR FLARES FROM RHESSI HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DERIVATION OF STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION MODEL CHARACTERISTICS FOR SOLAR FLARES FROM RHESSI HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS The model of stochastic acceleration of particles by turbulence has been successful in explaining many observed features of solar flares. Here, we

  4. A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sustained by nanosecond- and microsecond-pulse generators in helium (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by nanosecond- and microsecond-pulse generators in helium Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by nanosecond- and microsecond-pulse generators in helium Power source is an important parameter that can affect the

  5. An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine with Urea-SCR System | Department of Energy An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR System An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR System Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies

  6. Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sector Full report (1.6 mb) Appendix A - Photovoltaic (PV) Cost and Performance Characteristics for Residential and Commercial Applications (1.0 mb) Appendix B - The Cost and Performance of Distributed Wind Turbines, 2010-35 (0.5 mb) Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector Release date: August 7, 2013 Distributed generation in the residential and commercial buildings sectors refers to the on-site generation of energy, often electricity from renewable

  7. Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector August 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and

  8. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors. [249 refs]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors. [249 refs] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors. [249 refs] × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in

  9. Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy | Department of Energy Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy qAsh accumulation is a dynamic process … Ash first primarily accumulates along channel walls

  10. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Diesel Aerosol | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Physical Characteristics of Diesel Aerosol Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Diesel Aerosol 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: University of Minnesota PDF icon 2002_deer_kittelson1.pdf More Documents & Publications Mass Correlation of Engine Emissions with Spectral Instruments The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines

  11. Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Engines | Department of Energy Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion Engines Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace083_lee_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol

  12. NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics May 5, 2015 Presenter: Randy P. Lanham, PE, CSP, Fire Protection Chief Engineer Consolidated Nuclear Solutions - Pantex, LLC Topics Covered: CGD Definition Safety Function / DSA Requirements Example of CGD for items Example form Questions Commercial-Grade Dedication (CGD) for acceptance of commercial grade items procured under an ASME NQA-1 Quality Program. PDF icon

  13. Mechanical properties and energy absorption characteristics of a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polyurethane foam (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Mechanical properties and energy absorption characteristics of a polyurethane foam Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical properties and energy absorption characteristics of a polyurethane foam × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize

  14. Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature Diesel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion | Department of Energy Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Discusses reasons and physical significance of cool-flame behavior of biodiesel on improving low temperature diesel combustion PDF icon deer11_jacobs.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel-Induced System Responses The Role Unconventional Fuels May Play in Altering Exhaust Conditions from

  15. Flame and flow characteristics of double concentric jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, R.F.; Yang, J.T.; Lee, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristic flame and flow modes of a double concentric type of combustor possessing a central air jet and an annular propane gas are experimentally studied. Subject to the effects of the gravitational, inertial, and pressure forces, the cold flow is classified into three primary patterns: annular fountain, unstable fountain, and recirculation bubble flows. Using direct and schlieren photography techniques, the flames in the velocity domain of annulus and central jets are systematically classified into several characteristic modes. At low central jet velocity, a central flame enclosed in a annular diffusion flame might exist. At high central jet velocity, only the annular flames exist. The existence of the central flame dominates the flame and flow behaviors at low central jet velocity. The interaction between the central jet and the recirculation bubble in the near wake region dominates the flame characteristics at high central jet velocity. The interaction between the flame behavior and the flow patterns in each characteristic mode is comprehensively discussed. The temperature profiles are probed by a fine-wire thermocouple. The radial temperature profiles for each characteristic flame mode at various levels are presented to show the thermal structures.

  16. Optimization of distribution transformer efficiency characteristics. Final report, March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A method for distribution transformer loss evaluation was derived. The total levalized annual cost method was used and was extended to account properly for conditions of energy cost inflation, peak load growth, and transformer changeout during the evaluation period. The loss costs included were the no-load and load power losses, no-load and load reactive losses, and the energy cost of regulation. The demand and energy components of loss costs were treated separately to account correctly for the diversity of load losses and energy cost inflation. The complete distribution transformer loss evaluation equation is shown, with the nomenclature and definitions for the parameters provided. Tasks described are entitled: Establish Loss Evaluation Techniques; Compile System Cost Parameters; Compile Load Parameters and Loading Policies; Develop Transformer Cost/Performance Relationship; Define Characteristics of Multiple Efficiency Transformer Package; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Single Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Multiple Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; and Interpretation.

  17. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, W.Y.; Min, S.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc. 14 figs.

  18. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wei-yang (Pleasanton, CA); Min, Shermann (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc.

  19. Origins of optical absorption characteristics of Cu2+ complexes in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solutions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Origins of optical absorption characteristics of Cu2+ complexes in solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Origins of optical absorption characteristics of Cu2+ complexes in solutions Authors: Qiu, S R ; Wood, B C ; Ehrmann, P R ; Demos, S G ; Miller, P E ; Schaffers, K I ; Suratwala, T I Publication Date: 2015-02-27 OSTI Identifier: 1234585 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-668007 DOE Contract Number: AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal

  20. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Chamber Characteristics Test (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Chamber Characteristics Test Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Chamber Characteristics Test Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) have been used in many HEP experiments as tracking detectors. They are sensitive to X-rays which allows use beyond that of HEP. The UTA High Energy group has been working on using GEMs as the sensitive gap detector in a DHCAL for the ILC. The physics goals at the ILC put a

  1. Table HC1.2.1. Living Space Characteristics by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Living Space Characteristics by" " Total, Heated, and Cooled Floorspace, 2005" ,,,"Total Square Footage" ,"Housing Units",,"Total1",,"Heated",,"Cooled" "Living Space Characteristics","Millions","Percent","Billions","Percent","Billions","Percent","Billions","Percent" "Total",111.1,100,225.8,100,179.8,100,114.5,100 "Total

  2. Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected

  3. A molecular dynamics investigation of the diffusion characteristics of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cavity-type zeolites with 8-ring windows | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome diffusion characteristics of cavity-type zeolites with 8-ring windows Previous Next List Rajamani Krishna, Jasper M. van Baten, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 137, 83-91 (2011) DOI: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2010.08.026 Full-size image (36 K) Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the diffusion characteristics in DDR, CHA, LTA, ITQ-29, and TSC

  4. Oak Ridge Reservation. Physical Characteristics and National Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parr, Patricia Dreyer; Joan, F. Hughes

    2006-10-09

    The topology, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions. The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR.

  5. The Residential Building Characteristics On-Site Inspection: summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weakley, S.A.; Darwin, R.F.; Howe, T.L.

    1990-06-01

    The Residential Building Characteristics On-Site Inspection (RI) was sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and implemented by Energy Counselors, Inc., of Beaverton, Oregon. The purpose of the inspection was to collect detailed information on the structural characteristics and capital equipment of residences participating in BPA's End-Use Load and Conservation Assessment Program (ELCAP). ELCAP is a long-term program to collect information on the structural characteristics of residences in the Pacific Northwest as well as the attitudinal, behavioral, and demographic characteristics of the residences' occupants. Combined with other data collection efforts, the information obtained by the RI will be used to assess and evaluate energy use and conservation within the region's residential sector. This report documents the design of the inspection instruments (forms), the implementation of the inspection, and some of the results from the data base. The number of residences inspected was 416 or 93% of the potential sample of 447 residences. 1 ref., 2 figs., 38 tabs.

  6. Investigation of lasing characteristics of 1% Nd : YAG laser ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatnik, S M; Osipov, V V; Vedin, I A; Kurbatov, P F

    2013-03-31

    The lasing characteristics of 1 % Nd : YAG laser ceramics synthesised at the Institute of Electrophysics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences are studied. CW lasing is obtained in all the samples with the slope and total optical efficiencies of 25 % and 18 %, respectively. Intrinsic absorption and scattering losses in the ceramics are estimated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  7. "Table HC11.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing ... ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Middle ...

  8. "Table HC13.8 Water Heating Characteristics by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing ... ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"South ...

  9. "Table HC3.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. ... Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Att...

  10. "Table HC14.8 Water Heating Characteristics by West Census Region...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ... ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pac...

  11. "Table HC12.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing ... ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"East North ...

  12. "Table HC4.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. ... Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Att...

  13. Apparatus for indication of at least one subsurface barrier characteristic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, John G.; Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

    2006-06-06

    A containment system for use adjacent to a selected region of a subterranean formation and comprising a plurality of laterally interlocked casing strings. At least one electrically conductive element is disposed along at least a portion of a casing string and is used for performing electrical time domain reflectometry. At least one protective element may be positioned between portions of adjacent casing strings of the barrier, and at least one electrically conductive element may be disposed at least partially within the at least one protective element for use in indicating at least one characteristic of at least a portion of the containment system. Electrical time domain reflectometry (TDR) may be used to indicate the at least one characteristic; for instance, TDR may be used to indicate leakage through the barrier or a discontinuity or void in a barrier filler material.

  14. Temperature dependent transport characteristics of graphene/n-Si diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parui, S.; Ruiter, R.; Zomer, P. J.; Wojtaszek, M.; Wees, B. J. van; Banerjee, T.

    2014-12-28

    Realizing an optimal Schottky interface of graphene on Si is challenging, as the electrical transport strongly depends on the graphene quality and the fabrication processes. Such interfaces are of increasing research interest for integration in diverse electronic devices as they are thermally and chemically stable in all environments, unlike standard metal/semiconductor interfaces. We fabricate such interfaces with n-type Si at ambient conditions and find their electrical characteristics to be highly rectifying, with minimal reverse leakage current (<10{sup ?10}?A) and rectification of more than 10{sup 6}. We extract Schottky barrier height of 0.69?eV for the exfoliated graphene and 0.83?eV for the CVD graphene devices at room temperature. The temperature dependent electrical characteristics suggest the influence of inhomogeneities at the graphene/n-Si interface. A quantitative analysis of the inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier heights is presented using the potential fluctuation model proposed by Werner and Gttler.

  15. Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

    1998-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

  16. Energy Characteristics and Energy Consumed in Large Hospital Buildings in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the United States in 2007 Energy Characteristics and Energy Consumed in Large Hospital Buildings in the United States in 2007 Main Report | Methodology | FAQ | List of Tables CBECS 2007 - Release date: August 17, 2012 Hospitals consume large amounts of energy because of how they are run and the many people that use them. They are open 24 hours a day; thousands of employees, patients, and visitors occupy the buildings daily; and sophisticated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.2 Commercial Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Number of Floors and Type of Ownership, as of 2003 (Percent of Total Floorspace) Floors Ownership One 40% Nongovernment Owned 76% Two 25% Owner-Occupied 36% Three 12% Nonowner-Occupied 37% Four to Nine 16% Unoccupied 3% Ten or More 8% Government Owned 24% Total 100% Federal 3% State 5% Local 15% Total 100% Source(s): EIA, Commercial Building Characteristics 2003, June 2006, Table C1

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.2 Commercial Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Share of Commercial Floorspace, by Census Region and Vintage, as of 2003 (Percent) Region Prior to 1960 1960 to 1989 1990 to 2003 Total Northeast 9% 8% 3% 20% Midwest 8% 11% 6% 25% South 5% 18% 14% 37% West 3% 9% 5% 18% 100% Source(s): EIA, 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Building Characteristics Tables, Oct. 2006, Table A2, p. 3-4

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.2 Commercial Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Commercial Building Vintage, as of 2003 1919 or Before 5% 1920 to 1945 10% 1946 to 1959 10% 1960 to 1969 12% 1970 to 1979 17% 1980 to 1989 17% 1990 to 1999 20% 2000 to 2003 9% Total 100% Source(s): Percent of Total Floorspace EIA, 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Building Characteristics Tables, Oct. 2006, Table A1, p. 1-

  20. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  1. Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of different fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Bei-Jing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Qing-Tao

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of methane (CH{sub 4}), n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and dimethyl ether (DME) were studied experimentally in a Pt-coated monolith catalytic reactor. It is concluded that DME has the lowest catalytic ignition temperature and the least required H{sub 2} flow, while CH{sub 4} has the highest catalytic ignition temperature and the highest required H{sub 2} flow among the three fuels. (author)

  2. Characteristics and Performance of Existing Load Disaggregation Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Butner, Ryan S.; Hao, He; Baechler, Michael C.

    2015-04-10

    Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) or non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is an analytic approach to disaggregate building loads based on a single metering point. This advanced load monitoring and disaggregation technique has the potential to provide an alternative solution to high-priced traditional sub-metering and enable innovative approaches for energy conservation, energy efficiency, and demand response. However, since the inception of the concept in the 1980s, evaluations of these technologies have focused on reporting performance accuracy without investigating sources of inaccuracies or fully understanding and articulating the meaning of the metrics used to quantify performance. As a result, the market for, as well as, advances in these technologies have been slowly maturing.To improve the market for these NILM technologies, there has to be confidence that the deployment will lead to benefits. In reality, every end-user and application that this technology may enable does not require the highest levels of performance accuracy to produce benefits. Also, there are other important characteristics that need to be considered, which may affect the appeal of NILM products to certain market targets (i.e. residential and commercial building consumers) and the suitability for particular applications. These characteristics include the following: 1) ease of use, the level of expertise/bandwidth required to properly use the product; 2) ease of installation, the level of expertise required to install along with hardware needs that impact product cost; and 3) ability to inform decisions and actions, whether the energy outputs received by end-users (e.g. third party applications, residential users, building operators, etc.) empower decisions and actions to be taken at time frames required for certain applications. Therefore, stakeholders, researchers, and other interested parties should be kept abreast of the evolving capabilities, uses, and characteristics of NILM that make them attractive for certain building environments and different classes of end-users. The intent of this report is to raise awareness of trending NILM approaches. Additionally, three existing technologies were acquired and evaluated using the Residential Building Stock Assessment (RBSA) owner-occupied test bed operated by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) to understand performance accuracy of current NILM products under realistic conditions. Based on this field study experience, the characteristics exhibited by the NILM products included in the assessment are also discussed in this report in terms of ease of use, ease of installation, ability to inform decisions and actions. Results of the analysis performed to investigate the accuracy of the participating NILM products in estimating energy use of individual appliances are also presented.

  3. Motion characteristics of long ac arcs in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu Shanqiang; He Jinliang; Zeng Rong; Zhang Bo; Xu Guozheng; Chen Weijiang

    2007-01-29

    Experiments on the motion of long alternating current arcs in atmospheric air show that the anode and cathode arc roots have different motion characteristics because of different formation mechanisms. During a half cycle of the arc current, the anode arc root moves towards the direction of magnetic force and occasionally has a jumping motion, while the cathode arc root moves sufficiently slow to consider it stationary and hardly has any jump. The arc column has a complex shape and moves under the drive of the magnetic force and is also quickened by the lower arc root.

  4. Optical system for determining physical characteristics of a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    2001-01-01

    The invention provides an improved optical system for determining the physical characteristics of a solar cell. The system comprises a lamp means for projecting light in a wide solid-angle onto the surface of the cell; a chamber for receiving the light through an entrance port, the chamber having an interior light absorbing spherical surface, an exit port for receiving a beam of light reflected substantially normal to the cell, a cell support, and an lower aperture for releasing light into a light absorbing baffle; a means for dispersing the reflection into monochromatic components; a means for detecting an intensity of the components; and a means for reporting the determination.

  5. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.2 Residential Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 Characteristics of a Typical Single-Family Home (1) Year Built | Building Equipment Fuel Age (5) Occupants 3 | Space Heating Natural Gas 12 Floorspace | Water Heating Natural Gas 8 Heated Floorspace (SF) 1,934 | Space Cooling 8 Cooled Floorspace (SF) 1,495 | Garage 2-Car | Stories 1 | Appliances Size Age (5) Foundation Concrete Slab | Refrigerator 19 Cubic Feet 8 Total Rooms (2) 6 | Clothes Dryer Bedrooms 3 | Clothes Washer Other Rooms 3 | Range/Oven Full Bathroom 2 | Microwave Oven Half

  6. Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

    2009-04-08

    Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

  7. Parameter extraction from I-V characteristics of PV devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macabebe, Erees Queen B.; Sheppard, Charles J.; Dyk, E. Ernest van

    2011-01-15

    Device parameters such as series and shunt resistances, saturation current and diode ideality factor influence the behaviour of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of solar cells and photovoltaic modules. It is necessary to determine these parameters since performance parameters are derived from the I-V curve and information provided by the device parameters are useful in analyzing performance losses. This contribution presents device parameters of CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells, as well as, CuInSe{sub 2}, mono- and multicrystalline silicon modules determined using a parameter extraction routine that employs Particle Swarm Optimization. The device parameters of the CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells show that the contribution of recombination mechanisms exhibited by high saturation current when coupled with the effects of parasitic resistances result in lower maximum power and conversion efficiency. Device parameters of photovoltaic modules extracted from I-V characteristics obtained at higher temperature show increased saturation current. The extracted values also reflect the adverse effect of temperature on parasitic resistances. The parameters extracted from I-V curves offer an understanding of the different mechanisms involved in the operation of the devices. The parameter extraction routine utilized in this study is a useful tool in determining the device parameters which reveal the mechanisms affecting device performance. (author)

  8. Mechanical properties and energy absorption characteristics of a polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goods, S.H.; Neuschwanger, C.L.; Henderson, C.; Skala, D.M.

    1997-03-01

    Tension, compression and impact properties of a polyurethane encapsulant foam have been measured as a function of foam density. Significant differences in the behavior of the foam were observed depending on the mode of testing. Over the range of densities examined, both the modulus and the elastic collapse stress of the foam exhibited power-law dependencies with respect to density. The power-law relationship for the modulus was the same for both tension and compression testing and is explained in terms of the elastic compliance of the cellular structure of the foam using a simple geometric model. Euler buckling is used to rationalize the density dependence of the collapse stress. Neither tension nor compression testing yielded realistic measurements of energy absorption (toughness). In the former case, the energy absorption characteristics of the foam were severely limited due to the inherent lack of tensile ductility. In the latter case, the absence of a failure mechanism led to arbitrary measures of energy absorption that were not indicative of true material properties. Only impact testing revealed an intrinsic limitation in the toughness characteristics of the material with respect to foam density. The results suggest that dynamic testing should be used when assessing the shock mitigating qualities of a foam.

  9. Detailed characteristics of intermittent current pulses due to positive corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Xuebao; Xiang, Yu; Wang, Xiaobo

    2014-08-15

    In order to get detailed characteristics of intermittent current pulses due to positive corona such as the repetition rate of burst-pulse trains, the peak value ratio of the primary pulse to the secondary pulse, the number of pulses per burst, and the interval of the secondary pulses, a systematic study was carried out in a coaxial conductor-cylinder electrode system with the conductor electrode being set with a discharge point. Empirical formulae for the number of pulses per burst and the interval of the secondary pulses are first presented. A theoretical model based on the motion of the space-charge clouds is proposed. Analysis with the model gives explanations to the experimental results and reveals some new insights into the physical mechanism of positive intermittent corona.

  10. Macrophage characteristics of stem cells revealed by transcriptome profiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charriere, Guillaume M.; Cousin, Beatrice; Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Saillan-Barreau, Corinne; Andre, Mireille; Massoudi, Ali; Dani, Christian; Penicaud, Luc; Casteilla, Louis . E-mail: casteil@toulouse.inserm.fr

    2006-10-15

    We previously showed that the phenotypes of adipocyte progenitors and macrophages were close. Using functional analyses and microarray technology, we first tested whether this intriguing relationship was specific to adipocyte progenitors or could be shared with other progenitors. Measurements of phagocytic activity and gene profiling analysis of different progenitor cells revealed that the latter hypothesis should be retained. These results encouraged us to pursue and to confirm our analysis with a gold-standard stem cell population, embryonic stem cells or ESC. The transcriptomic profiles of ESC and macrophages were clustered together, unlike differentiated ESC. In addition, undifferentiated ESC displayed higher phagocytic activity than other progenitors, and they could phagocytoze apoptotic bodies. These data suggest that progenitors and stem cells share some characteristics of macrophages. This opens new perspectives on understanding stem cell phenotype and functionalities such as a putative role of stem cells in tissue remodeling by discarding dead cells but also their immunomodulation or fusion properties.

  11. Kerosene space heaters--combustion technology and kerosene characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubayashi, k.; I Wasaki, N.

    1984-07-01

    This paper describes kerosene combustion technology. Unvented wick-type kerosene space heaters are very popular in Japan because of their economy and convenience. In recent years new vaporized kerosene burners having premixed combustion systems have been developed to solve some of the problems encountered in the older portable type. Some of the features of the new burners are instantaneous ignition, no vaporizing deposit on the burner and a wide range heating capacity. These new kerosene heaters have four major components: an air supply fan, a fuel supply assembly, a burner assembly and a control assembly. These heaters are designed to be highly reliable, have stable combustion characteristics, yield minimum carbon deposit. Finally, they are simple and inexpensive to operate.

  12. Characteristics and development report for the MC3714 thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharrer, G.L.; Lasky, F.P.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the design intent, design considerations, system use, development, product characteristics, and early production history of the MC3714 Thermal Battery. This battery has a required operating life of 146 s above 24.0 V with a constant current load of 0.5 A. It is activated when the MC3830 Actuator initiates the WW42C1 Percussion Primer in the battery. The MC3714 employs the Li(Si)/LiCl-CCl/lithiated FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system. The battery is a hermetically sealed right-circular cylinder with an antirotation ring brazed to the base of the cylinder. The battery is 50 mm long and 38.1 mm in diameter. The mass of the battery is 165 g. The battery was designed and developed to provide the power for the W82 JTA Telemetry System. 8 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Design and operational characteristics of a cast steel mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blantocas, Gene Q.; Ramos, Henry J.; Wada, Motoi

    2004-09-01

    A cast steel magnetic sector mass analyzer is developed for studies of hydrogen and helium ion beams generated by a gas discharge compact ion source. The optimum induced magnetic flux density of 3500 G made it possible to scan the whole spectrum of hydrogen and helium ion species. Analysis of beam characteristics shows that the mass spectrometer sensitivity, and resolving power are approximately inversely proportional. The resolution is enhanced at higher pressures and lower current discharges. In contrast, the instrument sensitivity increased at higher current discharges and decreased at higher pressures. Calculations of the ultimate resolving power with reference to analyzer dimensions yield a numerical value of 30. System anomaly in the form of spherical aberrations was also analyzed using the paraxial beam envelope equation. Beam divergence is most significant at high discharge conditions where angular spread reaches an upper limit of 8.6 deg.

  14. Characteristic of a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, W.; Li, M.; Chen, L.

    2012-02-15

    In order to generate a better ion beam, a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source has been developed. Three plasma generators in the vacuum arc plasma source are equally located on a circle. Each generator initiated by means of a high-voltage breakdown between the cathode and the anode could be operated separately or simultaneously. The arc plasma expands from the cathode spot region in vacuum. In order to study the behaviors of expanding plasma plume generated in the vacuum arc plasma source, a Langmuir probe array is employed to measure the saturated ion current of the vacuum arc plasma source. The time-dependence profiles of the saturated current density of the triple vacuum arc plasma source operated separately and simultaneously are given. Furthermore, the plasma characteristic of this vacuum arc plasma source is also presented in the paper.

  15. Parallel Scaling Characteristics of Selected NERSC User ProjectCodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, David; Verdier, Francesca; Anand, Harsh; Carter,Jonathan; Durst, Mark; Gerber, Richard

    2005-03-05

    This report documents parallel scaling characteristics of NERSC user project codes between Fiscal Year 2003 and the first half of Fiscal Year 2004 (Oct 2002-March 2004). The codes analyzed cover 60% of all the CPU hours delivered during that time frame on seaborg, a 6080 CPU IBM SP and the largest parallel computer at NERSC. The scale in terms of concurrency and problem size of the workload is analyzed. Drawing on batch queue logs, performance data and feedback from researchers we detail the motivations, benefits, and challenges of implementing highly parallel scientific codes on current NERSC High Performance Computing systems. An evaluation and outlook of the NERSC workload for Allocation Year 2005 is presented.

  16. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Y.; Adelman, S.

    1995-06-01

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  17. 1995 solid waste 30-year characteristics volume summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Rice, G.I.; Valero, O.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site has been designated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to store, treat, and dispose of solid waste received from both onsite and offsite generators. This waste is currently or planned to be generated from ongoing operations, maintenance and deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the waste to be shipped to Hanford`s SWOC. The physical waste forms and hazardous constituents are described for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic - transuranic mixed waste (TW{underscore}TRUM).

  18. Modeling of RHIC insulating vacuum for system pumpdown characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, R.J.; Pate, D.J.; Welch, K.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a model for predicting the pumpdown characteristics of a 480 m RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) vacuum cryostat. The longitudinal and transverse conductances of a typical cryostat were calculated. A voltage analogue of these conductances was constructed for room temperature conditions. The total longitudinal conductance of a room temperature cryostat was thereby achieved. This conductance was then used to calculate the diameter of an equivalent long outgassing tube, having more convenient analytical expressions for pressure profiles when pumped. The equivalent of a unit outgassing rate for this tube was obtained using previously published MLI (multi-layer insulation) outgassing data. With this model one is then able to predict a cryostat pumpdown rate as a function of the location and size of roughing pumps.

  19. Predicting aerodynamic characteristic of typical wind turbine airfoils using CFD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, W.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ochs, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

    1997-09-01

    An investigation was conducted into the capabilities and accuracy of a representative computational fluid dynamics code to predict the flow field and aerodynamic characteristics of typical wind-turbine airfoils. Comparisons of the computed pressure and aerodynamic coefficients were made with wind tunnel data. This work highlights two areas in CFD that require further investigation and development in order to enable accurate numerical simulations of flow about current generation wind-turbine airfoils: transition prediction and turbulence modeling. The results show that the laminar-to turbulent transition point must be modeled correctly to get accurate simulations for attached flow. Calculations also show that the standard turbulence model used in most commercial CFD codes, the k-e model, is not appropriate at angles of attack with flow separation. 14 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Correlations in Characteristic Data of Concentrator Photovoltaics (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweet, C.; Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    This study is motivated by a reported 1-2% infant mortality rate in concentrator photovoltaic cell assemblies. Approximately 650 bare III-V multi-junction PV cells were initially characterized via electroluminescence imaging and both light and dark current-voltage responses were recorded. The cells were then packaged into receivers and their IV response again evaluated both before and after an outdoor high concentration exposure of at least four hours above 750 DNI. Correlations exist between the initial dark IV characteristic and artifacts found in the EL image. Initial results also suggest that artifacts observed in the bare cell may serve as an indicator for early on-sun degradation, though may not be able to predict the infant mortality population.

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.2 Residential Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Characteristics of U.S. Housing by Census Division and Region, as of 2005 Census Division Northeast 19% 2,423 1,664 New England 5% 2,552 1,680 Middle Atlantic 14% 2,376 1,658 Midwest 23% 2,566 1,927 East North Central 16% 2,628 1,926 West North Central 7% 2,424 1,930 South 37% 2,295 1,551 South Atlantic 20% 2,370 1,607 East South Central 6% 2,254 1,544 West South Central 11% 2,184 1,455 West 22% 1,963 1,366 Mountain 7% 2,149 1,649 Pacific 15% 1,878 1,238 Total 100% 2,309 1,618 Note(s):

  2. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.2 Residential Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Characteristics of U.S. Housing by Vintage, as of 2005 Vintage Prior to 1950 20% | 2,677 1,021 775 1950 to 1969 23% | 2,433 927 775 1970 to 1979 17% | 2,666 869 948 1980 to 1989 17% | 2,853 909 1,008 1990 to 1999 16% | 3,366 940 1,245 2000 to 2005 8% | 3,680 1,047 1,425 111.1 2,838 941 1,062 Note(s): Source(s): Total U.S. Homes (millions) U.S. Average 1) Average home sizes include both heated and unheated floor space, including garages. EIA, 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey, Oct.

  3. "Table HC10.8 Water Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Water Heating Characteristics",,"Northeas...

  4. SUMMARY OF REVISED TORNADO, HURRICANE AND EXTREME STRAIGHT WIND CHARACTERISTICS AT NUCLEAR FACILITY SITES

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of Revised Tornado, Hurricane and Extreme Straight Wind Characteristics at Nuclear Facility Sites BY: John D. Stevenson Consulting Engineer

  5. Simulation of the frequency dispersion of effective dielectric characteristics of composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlev, V. B.; Bardushkin, V. V.; Lavrov, I. V. Yakovleva, E. N.

    2014-12-15

    The problems of calculating the effective dielectric characteristics of polycrystalline materials are considered taking into account the frequency dependence of the characteristics of individual components. The effective characteristics of ceramics such as lead zirconate-titanate with titanium and zirconium oxide, metal lead, and water inclusions are calculated in the Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman approximations. The dependences of the effective dielectric characteristics on the inclusion concentration and applied electromagnetic-field frequency are obtained.

  6. DeNOx characteristics using two staged radical injection techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kambara, S.; Kumano, Y.; Yukimura, K.

    2009-06-15

    Ammonia radical injection using pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been investigated as a means to control NOx emissions from combustors. When DBD plasma-generated radicals (NH{sub 2}, NH, N, and H) are injected into a flue gas containing nitrogen oxide (NOx), NOx is removed efficiently by chain reactions in the gas phase. However, because the percentage of NOx removal gradually decreases with increasing oxygen concentrations beyond 1% O{sub 2}, improvement of the DeNOx (removal of nitrogen oxide) characteristics at high O{sub 2} concentrations was necessary for commercial combustors. A two-staged injection of the DeNOx agent was developed based on the detailed mechanisms of electron impact reactions and gas phase reactions. A concentration of H radical was observed to play an important role in NOx formation and removal. The effects of applied voltages, oxygen concentrations, and reaction temperatures on NOx removal were investigated under normal and staged injection. NOx removal was improved by approximately 20% using staged injection at O{sub 2} concentrations of 1 to 4%.

  7. Parallel 3-D method of characteristics in MPACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kochunas, B.; Dovvnar, T. J.; Liu, Z.

    2013-07-01

    A new parallel 3-D MOC kernel has been developed and implemented in MPACT which makes use of the modular ray tracing technique to reduce computational requirements and to facilitate parallel decomposition. The parallel model makes use of both distributed and shared memory parallelism which are implemented with the MPI and OpenMP standards, respectively. The kernel is capable of parallel decomposition of problems in space, angle, and by characteristic rays up to 0(104) processors. Initial verification of the parallel 3-D MOC kernel was performed using the Takeda 3-D transport benchmark problems. The eigenvalues computed by MPACT are within the statistical uncertainty of the benchmark reference and agree well with the averages of other participants. The MPACT k{sub eff} differs from the benchmark results for rodded and un-rodded cases by 11 and -40 pcm, respectively. The calculations were performed for various numbers of processors and parallel decompositions up to 15625 processors; all producing the same result at convergence. The parallel efficiency of the worst case was 60%, while very good efficiency (>95%) was observed for cases using 500 processors. The overall run time for the 500 processor case was 231 seconds and 19 seconds for the case with 15625 processors. Ongoing work is focused on developing theoretical performance models and the implementation of acceleration techniques to minimize the number of iterations to converge. (authors)

  8. The leaching characteristics of selenium from coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, T.; Wang, J.; Burken, J.G.; Ban, H.; Ladwig, K.

    2007-11-15

    The leaching characteristics of selenium from several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes under different pH conditions were investigated using batch methods. Results indicated that pH had a significant effect on selenium leaching from bituminous coal ash. The minimum selenium leaching occurred in the pH range between 3 and 4, while the maximum selenium leaching occurred at pH 12. The release of selenium from subbituminous coal ashes was very low for the entire experimental pH range, possibly due to the high content of calcium which can form hydration or precipitation products as a sink for selenium. The adsorption results for different selenium species indicated that Se(VI) was hardly adsorbable on either bituminous coal ashes or subbitumminous coal ashes at any pH. However, Se(I) was highly adsorbed by bituminous coal ashes under acidic pH conditions and was mostly removed by subbitumminous coal ashes across the entire pH range. This result suggests that the majority of selenium released from the tested fly ashes was Se(IV). A speciation-based model was developed to simulate the adsorption of Se(IV) on bituminous coal fly ash, and the pH-independent adsorption constants of HSeO{sup 3-} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} were determined. The modeling approach is useful for understanding and predicting the release process of selenium from fly ash.

  9. Magnetostrictive materials and method for improving AC characteristics in same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pulvirenti, Patricia P. (Chicago, IL); Jiles, David C. (Ames, IA)

    2001-08-14

    The present invention provides Terfenol-D alloys ("doped" Terfenol) having optimized performances under the condition of time-dependent magnetic fields. In one embodiment, performance is optimized by lowering the conductivity of Terfenol, thereby improving the frequency response. This can be achieved through addition of Group III or IV elements, such as Si and Al. Addition of these types of elements provides scattering sites for conduction electrons, thereby increasing resistivity by 125% which leads to an average increase in penetration depth of 80% at 1 kHz and an increase in energy conversion efficiency of 55%. The permeability of doped Terfenol remains constant over a wider frequency range as compared with undoped Terfenol. These results demonstrate that adding impurities, such as Si and Al, are effective in improving the ac characteristics of Terfenol. A magnetoelastic Gruneisen parameter, .gamma..sub.me, has also been derived from the thermodynamic equations of state, and provides another means by which to characterize the coupling efficiency in magnetostrictive materials on a more fundamental basis.

  10. Intrinsic excitations in deformed nuclei: characteristic predictions of the IBA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casten, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Deformed nuclei represent perhaps the largest and best studied class of nuclear level schemes. The Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model is devised so as to provide a general framework for the description of low lying collective states in nuclei spanning vibrational, rotational (i.e., deformed) and axially asymmetric types as well as the transitional species intermediate between these limiting cases. The juxtaposition of these two statements makes it all the more surprising that until recently there had been no thorough test of the model in such nuclei. Partly, the explanation for this lies in the type of data required for an adequate test. Since the IBA predicts a broad range of collective states it requires a correspondingly thorough empirical test. Moreover, in deformed nuclei, though the characteristic predictions that distinguish the IBA from the traditional, familiar collective model of harmonic ..beta.. and ..gamma.. vibrations are important, their clearest manifestation occurs in very weak, hard-to-detect low energy transitions between excited vibrational bands (in particular between ..beta.. and ..gamma.. bands), that had not heretofore been systematically observed. The present brief summary will begin with a review of the properties of the (n,..gamma..) reaction that render it a useful empirical tool for such studies, and follow this with a description of the results of the /sup 168/Er study and the application of the IBA model to the resultant level scheme. The discussion will then be generalized to other deformed nuclei and to the inherent systematic predictions that must characterize the IBA for such nuclei. Many of these ideas will be related to the role of finite boson number in the IBA.

  11. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management options for produced fluids that require additional treatment for these constituents are also discussed, including surface disposal, reuse and recycle, agricultural industrial and domestic uses, mineral extraction and recovery, and solid waste handling.

  12. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br???????¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

  13. Turbulent Flame Propagation Characteristics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitzman, Jerry; Lieuwen, Timothy

    2014-09-30

    This final report describes the results of an effort to better understand turbulent flame propagation, especially at conditions relevant to gas turbines employing fuels with syngas or hydrogen mixtures. Turbulent flame speeds were measured for a variety of hydrogen/carbon monoxide (H2/CO) and hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) fuel mixtures with air as the oxidizer. The measurements include global consumption speeds (ST,GC) acquired in a turbulent jet flame at pressures of 1-10 atm and local displacement speeds (ST,LD) acquired in a low-swirl burner at atmospheric pressure. The results verify the importance of fuel composition in determining turbulent flame speeds. For example, different fuel-air mixtures having the same unstretched laminar flame speed (SL,0) but different fuel compositions resulted in significantly different ST,GC for the same turbulence levels (u'). This demonstrates the weakness of turbulent flame speed correlations based simply on u'/SL,0. The results were analyzed using a steady-steady leading points concept to explain the sensitivity of turbulent burning rates to fuel (and oxidizer) composition. Leading point theories suggest that the premixed turbulent flame speed is controlled by the flame front characteristics at the flame brush leading edge, or, in other words, by the flamelets that advance farthest into the unburned mixture (the so-called leading points). For negative Markstein length mixtures, this is assumed to be close to the maximum stretched laminar flame speed (SL,max) for the given fuel-oxidizer mixture. For the ST,GC measurements, the data at a given pressure were well-correlated with an SL,max scaling. However the variation with pressure was not captured, which may be due to non-quasi-steady effects that are not included in the current model. For the ST,LD data, the leading points model again faithfully captured the variation of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of fuel-compositions and turbulence intensities. These results provide evidence that the leading points model can provide useful predictions of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of operating conditions and flow geometries.

  14. Eddy current nondestructive testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample utilizing Walsh functions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Libby, Hugo L. (Richland, WA); Hildebrand, Bernard P. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    An eddy current testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample generates a signal which varies with variations in such characteristics. A signal expander samples at least a portion of this generated signal and expands the sampled signal on a selected basis of square waves or Walsh functions to produce a plurality of signal components representative of the sampled signal. A network combines these components to provide a display of at least one of the characteristics of the sample.

  15. Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    helium atmospheric plasma jet (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics in a helium atmospheric plasma jet Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics in a helium atmospheric plasma jet We present here an analysis of the discharge characteristics of a He plasma jet operating under three different types of

  16. "Table HC15.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Water Heating ...

  17. Materials Data on Th2BiN2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on MnSiN2 (SG:33) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on Zr4N2O5 (SG:1) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on CsTaN2 (SG:122) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on Ca7Tl3N2 (SG:65) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Materials Data on Pr4Se3N2 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Materials Data on BaZrN2 (SG:129) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Materials Data on MgSiN2 (SG:33) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Materials Data on Li2ZrN2 (SG:164) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Materials Data on U2AsN2 (SG:164) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Materials Data on U2SeN2 (SG:164) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Materials Data on TiNbN2 (SG:141) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-04-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Measurement and Modeling of the n=2-3 Emission of O VIII near...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: Highly Charged Physics, Heidelberg, Germany, Sep 02 - Sep 07, 2012 Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL),...

  10. Materials Data on Ba3(GeN)2 (SG:11) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Materials Data on Sr3(GeN)2 (SG:11) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H-2/N-2 Jet Flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, xinyu; Haworth, D. C.; Huckaby, E. David

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (syngas) flames are simulated using a transported composition probability density function (PDF) method. A consistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh algorithm is used to solve the modeled PDF transport equation. The model includes standard k? turbulence, gradient transport for scalars, and Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) mixing. Sensitivities of model results to variations in the turbulence model, the treatment of radiation heat transfer, the choice of chemical mechanism, and the PDF mixing model are explored. A baseline model reproduces the measured mean and rms temperature, major species, and minor species profiles reasonably well, and captures the scaling that is observed in the experiments. Both our results and the literature suggest that further improvements can be realized with adjustments in the turbulence model, the radiation heat transfer model, and the chemical mechanism. Although radiation effects are relatively small in these flames, consideration of radiation is important for accurate NO prediction. Chemical mechanisms that have been developed specifically for fuels with high concentrations of CO and H{sub 2} perform better than a methane mechanism that was not designed for this purpose. It is important to account explicitly for turbulencechemistry interactions, although the details of the mixing model do not make a large difference in the results, within reasonable limits.

  13. Materials Data on PH10N2O4F (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Materials Data on PH8N2O3F (SG:33) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on U2BiN2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Materials Data on H3I3N2 (SG:11) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on Pd(S3N)2 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on Li2ThN2 (SG:0) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on Sm4S3N2 (SG:12) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on Ni(H2N)2 (SG:200) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on H4N2O3 (SG:56) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Materials Data on C2S9N2 (SG:4) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Materials Data on Sr(BeN)2 (SG:140) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Materials Data on IrN2 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Determination of the fuel characteristics of refuse-derived fuels by macroanalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecklinger, R.S.; Large, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    There is need for a means of determining the fuel characteristics of refuse-derived fuels to adjust the producer/user contractual relationship for fuel value. The authors discuss efforts to establish a macroanalysis procedure.

  6. Apparatus and methods for determining at least one characteristic of a proximate environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novascone, Stephen R. (Idaho Falls, ID); West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Michael J. (Troy, ID)

    2008-04-15

    Methods and an apparatus for determining at least one characteristic of an environment are disclosed. A vibrational energy may be imparted into an environment and a magnitude of damping of the vibrational energy may be measured and at least one characteristic of the environment may be determined. Particularly, a vibratory source may be operated and coupled to an environment. At least one characteristic of the environment may be determined based on a shift in at least one steady-state frequency of oscillation of the vibratory source. An apparatus may include at least one vibratory source and a structure for positioning the at least one vibratory source proximate to an environment. Further, the apparatus may include an analysis device for determining at least one characteristic of the environment based at least partially upon shift in a steady-state oscillation frequency of the vibratory source for the given impetus.

  7. Comparison of direct current and 50?Hz alternating current microscopic corona characteristics on conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang

    2014-06-15

    Corona discharge is one of the major design factors for extra-high voltage and ultra-high voltage DC/AC transmission lines. Under different voltages, corona discharge reveals different characteristics. This paper aims at investigating DC and AC coronas on the microscopic scale. To obtain the specific characteristics of DC and AC coronas, a new measurement approach that utilizes a coaxial wire-cylinder corona cage is designed in this paper, and wires of different diameters are used in the experiment. Based on the measurements, the respective microscopic characteristics of DC and AC coronas are analyzed and compared. With differences in characteristics between DC and AC coronas proposed, this study provides useful insights into DC/AC corona discharges on transmission line applications.

  8. Table HC1-10a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Midwest Census Region,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.8 Total .............................................................. 107.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 20.3 -- -- -- NF New England

  9. Table HC1-12a. Housing Unit Characteristics by West Census Region,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2a. Housing Unit Characteristics by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.5 1.0 1.7 1.1 Total .............................................................. 107.0 23.3 6.7 16.6 NE Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 20.3 -- -- -- NF New England ............................................. 5.4 --

  10. Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Compliant Passenger Car | Department of Energy Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions Compliant Passenger Car Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions Compliant Passenger Car Comparisons between CTL, GTL, no. 2, and European diesel include fuel economy, regulated and unregulated emissions in a 50 State compliant passenger car with DOC, NOx adsorber and particulate trap PDF icon deer10_shaburg.pdf More

  11. Characteristics of seal formations (confining units) for CO2 injection in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Lower Tuscaloosa Sandstones in Southeastern Mississippi. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Characteristics of seal formations (confining units) for CO2 injection in the Lower Tuscaloosa Sandstones in Southeastern Mississippi. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characteristics of seal formations (confining units) for CO2 injection in the Lower Tuscaloosa Sandstones in Southeastern Mississippi. No abstract prepared. Authors: Esposito, Richard [1] ; Goad, Patricia [2] ;

  12. Multi-Year Comparisons of Summertime Cloud Characteristics at Barrow and Atqasuk

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multi-Year Comparisons of Summertime Cloud Characteristics at Barrow and Atqasuk J. C. Doran, J. C. Barnard, and W. J. Shaw Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Barrow and Atqasuk were chosen as sites for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement's (ARM's) North Slope of Alaska studies because of expected contrasts in the cloud characteristics at coastal (Barrow) and inland (Atqasuk) sites. With the successful completion of several years of data acquisition with a

  13. End-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linge, I. I.; Mitenkova, E. F. Novikov, N. V.

    2012-12-15

    The results of end-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent nuclear fuel are presented. Details of formation of neutron and gamma-radiation sources are analyzed. Distributed sources of different types of radiation are considered. A comparative analysis of calculated radiation characteristics is performed with the use of nuclear data from different ENDF/B and EAF files and ANSI/ANS and ICRP standards.

  14. A parameter study to optimizing scintillator characteristics for increased sensitivity in nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards, and security based applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shy, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    A parameter study to optimizing scintillator characteristics for increased sensitivity in nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards, and security based applications

  15. Conceptualisation of the characteristics of advanced practitioners in the medical radiation professions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Tony; Harris, Jillian; Woznitza, Nick; Maresse, Sharon; Sale, Charlotte

    2015-09-15

    Professions grapple with defining advanced practice and the characteristics of advanced practitioners. In nursing and allied health, advanced practice has been defined as a state of professional maturity in which the individual demonstrates a level of integrated knowledge, skill and competence that challenges the accepted boundaries of practice and pioneers new developments in health care. Evolution of advanced practice in Australia has been slower than in the United Kingdom, mainly due to differences in demography, the health system and industrial relations. This article describes a conceptual model of advanced practitioner characteristics in the medical radiation professions, taking into account experiences in other countries and professions. Using the CanMEDS framework, the model includes foundation characteristics of communication, collaboration and professionalism, which are fundamental to advanced clinical practice. Gateway characteristics are: clinical expertise, with high level competency in a particular area of clinical practice; scholarship and teaching, including a masters qualification and knowledge dissemination through educating others; and evidence-based practice, with judgements made on the basis of research findings, including research by the advanced practitioner. The pinnacle of advanced practice is clinical leadership, where the practitioner has a central role in the health care team, with the capacity to influence decision making and advocate for others, including patients. The proposed conceptual model is robust yet adaptable in defining generic characteristics of advanced practitioners, no matter their clinical specialty. The advanced practice roles that evolve to meet future health service demand must focus on the needs of patients, local populations and communities.

  16. Subsurface water flow simulated for hill slopes with spatially dependent soil hydraulic characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, M.L.; Luxmoore, R.J.; DeAngelis, R.; Ward, R.C.; Yeh, G.T.

    1987-08-01

    Water flow through hill slopes consisting of five soil layers, with varying spatial dependence in hydraulic characteristics in the lateral plane was simulated by solving Richards' equation in three dimensions under varying rainfall intensities and for two complexities of terrain. By concepts of similar media the variability in soil hydraulic characteristics was expressed by a single dimensionless parameter, the scaling factor ..cap alpha... The moments of log normally distributed ..cap alpha.. were set as: Mean = 1.0 and standard deviation = 1.0. Four cases of spatial dependence of ..cap alpha.. in the lateral plane were selected for simulation, using exponential variogram functions ranging in spatial structure from random (no spatial dependence) to large dependence (large correlation lengths). The simulations showed that the rates of subsurface flow from the 30/sup 0/ hillslope, during and following rainfall, were significantly enhanced with an increase in spatial dependence. Subsurface drainage was also increased with increases in rainfall intensity and slop complexity. For hill slopes the relative effects of spatial dependence in soil hydraulic characteristics was smaller with 30/sup 0/ horizontal pitching than without pitching. Hill slopes with a random distribution of hydraulic characteristics provided greater opportunity for soil units with differing water capacities to interact than in cases with spatially correlated distributions. This greater interaction is associated with a greater lag in subsurface flow generation. These studies illustrate some of the expected effects of spatial dependence of soil hydraulic characteristics of the integrated hydrologic response of land areas.

  17. Experimental study of characteristic curves of centrifugal pumps working as turbines in different specific speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derakhshan, Shahram; Nourbakhsh, Ahmad

    2008-01-15

    Pump manufacturers do not normally provide the characteristic curves of their pumps working as turbines. Therefore, establishing a correlation between the performances of direct (pump) and reverse (turbine) modes is essential in selecting the proper machine. In this paper, several centrifugal pumps (N{sub s} < 60 (m, m{sup 3}/s)) were tested as turbines. Using experimental data, some relations were derived to predict the best efficiency point of a pump working as a turbine, based on pump hydraulic characteristics. Validity of the presented method was shown using some referenced experimental data. Two equations were presented to estimate the complete characteristic curves of centrifugal pumps as turbines based on their best efficiency point. Deviations of suggested method from experimental data were considered and discussed. Finally, a procedure was presented for selecting a suitable pump to work as a turbine in a small hydro-site. (author)

  18. Table HC1-11a. Housing Unit Characteristics by South Census Region,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1a. Housing Unit Characteristics by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.4 Total .............................................................. 107.0 38.9 20.3 6.8 11.8 NE Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 20.3 -- -- -- -- NF New England

  19. Table HC1-7a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.7 Total .............................................................. 107.0 7.1 12.3 7.7 6.3 NE Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 20.3 7.1 -- -- -- NF New England

  20. Table HC1-8a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Urban/Rural Location,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.8 1.3 1.3 1.4 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.2 Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 20.3 7.7 4.5 4.7 3.4 7.4 New England .............................................

  1. Table HC1-9a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Northeast Census Region,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 20.3 14.8 5.4 NE Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 20.3 20.3 14.8 5.4 NF New England

  2. Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphenehexagonal boron nitridegraphene junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Joiner, C. A.; Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Liu, L.; Gu, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, 1520 Middle Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Barrera, S. de la; Feenstra, R. M. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chakrabarti, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Rd., Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate graphenehexagonal boron nitridegraphene symmetric field effect transistors. Gate control of the tunneling characteristics is observed similar to previously reported results for exfoliated graphenehexagonal boron nitridegraphene devices. Density-of-states features are observed in the tunneling characteristics of the devices, although without large resonant peaks that would arise from lateral momentum conservation. The lack of distinct resonant behavior is attributed to disorder in the devices, and a possible source of the disorder is discussed.

  3. Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005 " ,,"Average Square Feet per--" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Housing Unit",,,"Household Member" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2171,1618,1031,845,630,401 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,2334,1664,562,911,649,220

  4. Table HC1.2.2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace, " " Per Housing Unit and Per Household Member, 2005" ,,"Average Square Feet" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Per Housing Unit",,,"Per Household Member" "Living Space Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2033,1618,1031,791,630,401 "Total Floorspace (Square

  5. Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  6. Characteristics of Signals Originating Near the Lithium-Diffused N+ Contact

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of High Purity Germanium P-Type Point Contact Detectors (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Characteristics of Signals Originating Near the Lithium-Diffused N+ Contact of High Purity Germanium P-Type Point Contact Detectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characteristics of Signals Originating Near the Lithium-Diffused N+ Contact of High Purity Germanium P-Type Point Contact Detectors A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC)

  7. "Table HC11.1 Housing Unit Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Unit Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Urban/Rural Location (as Self-Reported)" "City",47.1,6.9,4.7,2.2 "Town",19,6,4.2,1.9

  8. "Table HC11.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Home Electronics Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Personal Computers" "Do Not Use a Personal Computer ",35.5,6.9,5.3,1.6 "Use a

  9. "Table HC11.2 Living Space Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Total Floorspace1" "Fewer than 500",3.2,0.9,0.5,0.4

  10. "Table HC11.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q" "Have Main

  11. "Table HC11.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,4,2.4,1.7 "Have Coolling

  12. "Table HC11.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total U.S.",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an

  13. "Table HC12.1 Housing Unit Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Unit Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"East North Central","West North Central" "Total",111.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Urban/Rural Location (as Self-Reported)" "City",47.1,9.7,7.3,2.4

  14. "Table HC12.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Home Electronics Characteristics",,,"East North Central","West North Central" "Total",111.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Personal Computers" "Do Not Use a Personal Computer ",35.5,8.1,5.6,2.5 "Use a

  15. "Table HC12.2 Living Space Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"East North Central","West North Central" "Total",111.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Total Floorspace1" "Fewer than

  16. "Table HC12.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"East North Central","West North Central" "Total",111.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","N" "Have Main

  17. "Table HC12.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"East North Central","West North Central" "Total U.S.",111.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an

  18. "Table HC13.1 Housing Unit Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Unit Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Urban/Rural Location (as Self-Reported)"

  19. "Table HC13.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Home Electronics Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Personal Computers" "Do Not Use a Personal Computer

  20. "Table HC13.2 Living Space Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Total Floorspace1" "Fewer than

  1. "Table HC13.4 Space Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Do Not Have Space Heating

  2. "Table HC13.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.4,0.8,0.2,0.3 "Have

  3. "Table HC13.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total U.S.",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use

  4. "Table HC14.1 Housing Unit Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Unit Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"West Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pacific" "Total",111.1,24.2,7.6,16.6 "Urban/Rural Location (as Self-Reported)" "City",47.1,12.8,3.2,9.6 "Town",19,3,1.1,1.9

  5. "Table HC14.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"West Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Home Electronics Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pacific" "Total",111.1,24.2,7.6,16.6 "Personal Computers" "Do Not Use a Personal Computer ",35.5,6.4,2.2,4.2 "Use a Personal

  6. "Table HC14.2 Living Space Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"West Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pacific" "Total",111.1,24.2,7.6,16.6 "Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Total Floorspace1" "Fewer than 500",3.2,1,0.2,0.8 "500 to

  7. "Table HC14.4 Space Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"West Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pacific" "Total",111.1,24.2,7.6,16.6 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,0.7,"Q",0.7 "Have Main Space Heating Equipment",109.8,23.4,7.5,16

  8. "Table HC14.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"West Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pacific" "Total U.S.",111.1,24.2,7.6,16.6 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an Oven",109.6,23.7,7.5,16.2

  9. Dynamic voltage-current characteristics for a water jet plasma arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jiaxiang; Lan Sheng; Xu Zuoming

    2008-05-05

    A virtual instrument technology is used to measure arc current, arc voltage, dynamic V-I characteristics, and nonlinear conductance for a cone-shaped water jet plasma arc under ac voltage. Experimental results show that ac arc discharge mainly happens in water vapor evaporated from water when heated. However, due to water's cooling effect and its conductance, arc conductance, reignition voltage, extinguish voltage, and current zero time are very different from those for ac arc discharge in gas work fluid. These can be valuable to further studies on mechanism and characteristics of plasma ac discharge in water, and even in gas work fluid.

  10. Fact #690: August 29, 2011 Characteristics of New Light Vehicles over Time

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 90: August 29, 2011 Characteristics of New Light Vehicles over Time Fact #690: August 29, 2011 Characteristics of New Light Vehicles over Time From model year (MY) 1980 to 2010, there have been significant gains made in automotive technology. For new light vehicles, horsepower has more than doubled and "0-to-60" times have dropped from 14.3 to 9.5 seconds. The average weight grew to a high of 4,111 pounds in 2004 and has dropped slightly since then (4,009

  11. Fact #800: October 21, 2013 Characteristics of New Light Vehicles over Time

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 0: October 21, 2013 Characteristics of New Light Vehicles over Time Fact #800: October 21, 2013 Characteristics of New Light Vehicles over Time From model years 1980 to 2012, there have been significant gains in automotive technology. For new light vehicles, horsepower has more than doubled and "0-to-60" acceleration times have dropped from 14.3 to 9.3 seconds. The average weight grew to a high of 4,111 pounds in 2004 and has dropped slightly since then

  12. Characteristics of irradiation creep in the first wall of a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coghlan, W.A.; Mansur, L.K.

    1981-01-01

    A number of significant differences in the irradiation environment of a fusion reactor are expected with respect to the fission reactor irradiation environment. These differences are expected to affect the characteristics of irradiation creep in the fusion reactor. Special conditions of importance are identified as the (1) large number of defects produced per pka, (2) high helium production rate, (3) cyclic operation, (4) unique stress histories, and (5) low temperature operations. Existing experimental data from the fission reactor environment is analyzed to shed light on irradiation creep under fusion conditions. Theoretical considerations are used to deduce additional characteristics of irradiation creep in the fusion reactor environment for which no experimental data are available.

  13. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-10-26

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for containers procured for Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP's) Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function.

  14. Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

    2010-07-18

    In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C1-C4 oxidation and NOx formation kinetics.

  15. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chowdhury, Taniya; Graham, David

    2013-12-08

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  16. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chowdhury, Taniya

    2014-03-24

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  17. Study of the fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN explosive powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Dong; Sun Zhumei

    1996-05-01

    The fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN (pentaerythrite tetranitrate) explosive powders have been studied successfully by means of a spectrum-detecting and recovery technique. The results show that the appropriate particle size and content of aluminium powder in the aluminized PETN explosive powders are 44 {micro}m and 33%, respectively.

  18. Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of boiling water in sub-hundred micron channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhide, R.R.; Singh, S.G.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Duttagupta, S.P.; Agrawal, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2009-09-15

    The current work focuses on the pressure drop, heat transfer and stability in two phase flow in microchannels with hydraulic diameter of less than one hundred microns. Experiments were conducted in smooth microchannels of hydraulic diameter of 45, 65 {mu}m, and a rough microchannel of hydraulic diameter of 70 {mu}m, with deionised water as the working fluid. The local saturation pressure and temperature vary substantially over the length of the channel. In order to correctly predict the local saturation temperature and subsequently the heat transfer characteristics, numerical techniques have been used in conjunction with the conventional two phase pressure drop models. The Lockhart-Martinelli (liquid-laminar, vapour-laminar) model is found to predict the two phase pressure drop data within 20%. The instability in two phase flow is quantified; it is found that microchannels of smaller hydraulic diameter have lesser instabilities as compared to their larger counterparts. The experiments also suggest that surface characteristics strongly affect flow stability in the two phase flow regime. The effect of hydraulic diameter and surface characteristics on the flow characteristics and stability in two phase flow is seldom reported, and is of considerable practical relevance. (author)

  19. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chowdhury, Taniya

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  20. Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Yong H.; Sohn, Myoung S.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)

  1. YAP/TAZ enhance mammalian embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a Tead-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Dasol; Byun, Sung-Hyun; Park, Soojeong; Kim, Juwan; Kim, Inhee; Ha, Soobong; Kwon, Mookwang; Yoon, Keejung

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian brain development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Here we show that YAP/TAZ enhance embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a cell autonomous fashion using diverse experimental approaches. Introduction of retroviral vectors expressing YAP or TAZ into the mouse embryonic brain induced cell localization in the ventricular zone (VZ), which is the embryonic neural stem cell niche. This change in cell distribution in the cortical layer is due to the increased stemness of infected cells; YAP-expressing cells were colabeled with Sox2, a neural stem cell marker, and YAP/TAZ increased the frequency and size of neurospheres, indicating enhanced self-renewal- and proliferative ability of neural stem cells. These effects appear to be TEA domain family transcription factor (Tead)–dependent; a Tead binding-defective YAP mutant lost the ability to promote neural stem cell characteristics. Consistently, in utero gene transfer of a constitutively active form of Tead2 (Tead2-VP16) recapitulated all the features of YAP/TAZ overexpression, and dominant negative Tead2-EnR resulted in marked cell exit from the VZ toward outer cortical layers. Taken together, these results indicate that the Tead-dependent YAP/TAZ signaling pathway plays important roles in neural stem cell maintenance by enhancing stemness of neural stem cells during mammalian brain development. - Highlights: • Roles of YAP and Tead in vivo during mammalian brain development are clarified. • Expression of YAP promotes embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in vivo in a cell autonomous fashion. • Enhancement of neural stem cell characteristics by YAP depends on Tead. • Transcriptionally active form of Tead alone can recapitulate the effects of YAP. • Transcriptionally repressive form of Tead severely reduces stem cell characteristics.

  2. [Article 6 of 7]: Research on the Characteristics of a Smart Grid by the NETL Modern Grid Strategy Team

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Article 7 of 7]: Research on the Characteristics of a Smart Grid by the NETL Modern Grid Strategy Team Anticipates and Responds to Disturbances (Self Heals) Last month we presented the 6th Principal Characteristic of a Smart Grid, Operates Resiliently Against Attack and Natural Disaster. This month we present the 7th characteristic, Anticipates and Responds to Disturbances (Self Heals). In the context of a modern grid, "self-healing" broadly refers to a design philosophy that supports

  3. Single Langmuir probe characteristic in a magnetized plasma at the text tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jachmich, S.

    1995-05-01

    A single Langmuir probe tip was used at TEXT-Upgrade to obtain I-V characteristics in a magnetized plasma. Noisy data were reduced by a boxcar-averaging routine. Unexpected effects, namely nonsaturation of ion current, hysterises in the characteristics and I(V)-data were observed, which are in disagreement to the common single probe model. A double probe model allows parameterization of the I(V) curves and to determine the plasma properties in the scrape-off layer. It is shown in this model that a Langmuir probe does perturb the local space potential in the plasma. Comparisons were made with the triple probe technique of measuring temperatures. The nonsaturation of ion current leads to an error in the triple probe technique of order 20%.

  4. Methods for indication of at least one subsurface barrier characteristic and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-06-26

    A containment system for use adjacent to a selected region of a subterranean formation and comprising a plurality of laterally interlocked casing strings. At least one electrically conductive element is disposed along at least a portion of a casing string and is used for performing electrical time domain reflectometry. At least one protective element may be positioned between portions of adjacent casing strings of the barrier, and at least one electrically conductive element may be disposed at least partially within the at least one protective element for use in indicating at least one characteristic of at least a portion of the containment system. Electrical time domain reflectometry (TDR) may be used to indicate the at least one characteristic; for instance, TDR may be used to indicate leakage through the barrier or a discontinuity or void in a barrier filler material.

  5. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-08-22

    This screening addresses the critical characteristics for food industry type cans and containers used for handling and storage of special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). HNF-5460, Revision 0 specified a minimum tin plate of 0.50 Ib./base box. Since the food pack cans currently used and that have been tested have a listed tin plate of 0.20 lbs. per base box, Revision 1 reduced the tin plate to {ge} 0.20 Ib./base box (i.e., No. 20 tinned commercial steel or heavier). This revision lists Critical Characteristics for two (2) large filtered containers, and associated shielding over-packs. These new containers are called ''Nuclear Material Containers'' (NMCs). They are supplied in various sizes, which can be nested, one inside another. The PFP will use NMCs with volumes up to 8-quarts as needed to over-pack largely bulged containers.

  6. Annual report of the Wind Characteristics Program Element, July 1978-September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendell, L.L.; Barchet, W.R.; Connell, J.R.; Miller, A.H.; Pennell, W.T.; Renne, D.S.

    1980-05-01

    As a service element within the Federal Wind Energy Program, the Wind Characteristics Program Element (WCPE) is established to provide the appropriate wind characteristics information to those involved in: the design and evaluation of wind energy conversion systems (WECS); energy program planning; selecting sites for WECS installation; and the operation of WECS. To effectively produce the information needed in these four categories, the WCPE, for which the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has the responsibility for management and technical assistance, has been divided into four technical program areas. During this reporting period PNL was also assigned the management responsibility for the data collection at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) candidate sites, as well as the task of providing technical assistance to DOE evaluation and site selection panels for new candidate sites.

  7. Point matching: A new electronic method for homogenizing the phase characteristics of giant magnetoimpedance sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, E. Costa Gusmo, L. A. P.; Barbosa, C. R. Hall; Leipner, Y.; Fortaleza, L. G. S.; Monteiro, E. Costa

    2014-08-15

    Recently, our research group at PUC-Rio discovered that magnetic transducers based on the impedance phase characteristics of GMI sensors have the potential to multiply by one hundred the sensitivity values when compared to magnitude-based GMI transducers. Those GMI sensors can be employed in the measurement of ultra-weak magnetic fields, which intensities are even lower than the environmental magnetic noise. A traditional solution for cancelling the electromagnetic noise and interference makes use of gradiometric configurations, but the performance is strongly tied to the homogeneity of the sensing elements. This paper presents a new method that uses electronic circuits to modify the equivalent impedance of the GMI samples, aiming at homogenizing their phase characteristics and, consequently, improving the performance of gradiometric configurations based on GMI samples. It is also shown a performance comparison between this new method and another homogenization method previously developed.

  8. Experimental determination of electrical characteristics and circuit models of superconducting dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smedley, K.M. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Shafer, R.E. )

    1994-09-01

    Superconducting magnets are used very extensively in modern science and technology to produce high intensity magnetic fields. In many application, magnets are used in non-dc conditions and are subject to current ramping. The magnets studied in this paper were intended to be used in the Superconducting Supercollider with a ramping rate of 4A/sec and a maximum current of 7000A. Due to the effects of eddy currents and parasitic capacitance, the electrical characteristics of superconducting magnets are not completely inductive; instead, they are frequency dependent functions. This paper develops a method of accurately measuring the ac characteristics and determining the circuit models of superconducting magnets that characterize the eddy currents and the parasitic capacitance. This measurement method can be used to analyze eddy current and the resulting circuit model can be used to study the transmission line effect of long magnet strings.

  9. Table HC1-1a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Climate Zone,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Climate Zone 1 RSE Row Factors Fewer than 2,000 CDD and -- 2,000 CDD or More and Fewer than 4,000 HDD More than 7,000 HDD 5,500 to 7,000 HDD 4,000 to 5,499 HDD Fewer than 4,000 HDD 0.4 1.8 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 Total ............................................... 107.0 9.2 28.6 24.0 21.0 24.1 8.0 Census Region and Division Northeast

  10. Table HC1-2a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.5 1.6 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1 0.8 Total ............................................... 107.0 15.5 18.2 18.8 13.8 14.2 26.6 4.3 Census Region and Division Northeast ...................................... 20.3 1.5 2.4 2.1 2.8 3.0 8.5 8.8 New

  11. On the third cohomology of algebraic groups of rank two in positive characteristic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzhumadil'daev, A S; Ibraev, Sh Sh

    2014-03-31

    We evaluate the third cohomology of simple simply connected algebraic groups of rank 2 over an algebraically closed field of positive characteristic with coefficients in simple modules. It is assumed that the characteristic p of the field is greater than3 for SL{sub 3}, greater than5 for Sp{sub 4}, and greater than11 forG{sub 2}. It follows from the main result that the dimensions of the cohomology spaces do not exceed the rank of the algebraic group in question. To prove the main results we study the properties of the first-quadrant Lyndon-Hochschild-Serre spectral sequence with respect to an infinitesimal subgroup, namely, the Frobenius kernel of the given algebraic group. Bibliography: 49 titles.

  12. "Table HC15.3 Household Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Household Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Household Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Household Size" "1 Person",30,1.8,1.9,2,3.2 "2 Persons",34.8,2.2,2.3,2.4,3.2 "3 Persons",18.4,1.1,1.3,1.2,1.8

  13. Fuel injection characteristics and combustion behavior of a direct-injection stratified-charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balles, E.N.; Ekchian, J.A.; Heywood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    High levels of hydrocarbon emissions during light load operation keep the direct injection stratified charge engine from commercial application. Previous analytical work has identified several possible hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms which can result from poor in-cylinder fuel distribution. Poor fuel distribution can be caused by erratic fuel injection. Experiments conducted on a single cylinder disc engine show a dramatic increase in the cycle to cycle variation in injection characteristics as engine load decreases. This is accompanied by an increase in cycle to cycle variation in combustion behavior suggesting that degradation in combustion results from the degradation in the quality of the injection event. Examination of combustion and injection characteristics on a cycle by cycle basis shows that, at light load, IMEP and heat release do not correlate with the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder. There are strong indications that individual cycles undergo partial or complete misfire.

  14. Influence of hot spot features on the initiation characteristics of heterogeneous nitromethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M; Sheffield, Stephen A; Stahl, David B; Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Engelke, Ray

    2010-01-01

    To gain insights into the critical hot spot features influencing energetic materials initiation characteristics, well-defined micron-scale particles have been intentionally introduced into the homogeneous explosive nitromethane (NM). Two types of potential hot spot origins have been examined - shock impedance mismatches using solid silica beads, and porosity using hollow microballoons - as well as their sizes and inter-particle separations. Here, we present the results of several series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on NM/particle mixtures with well-controlled shock inputs. Detailed insights into the nature of the reactive flow during the build-up to detonation have been obtained from the response of in-situ electromagnetic gauges, and the data have been used to establish Pop-plots (run-distance-to-detonation vs. shock input pressure) for the mixtures. Comparisons of sensitization effects and energy release characteristics relative to the initial shock front between the solid and hollow beads are presented.

  15. System and method for non-destructive evaluation of surface characteristics of a magnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiles, David C. (Ames, IA); Sipahi, Levent B. (Ames, IA)

    1994-05-17

    A system and a related method for non-destructive evaluation of the surface characteristics of a magnetic material. The sample is excited by an alternating magnetic field. The field frequency, amplitude and offset are controlled according to a predetermined protocol. The Barkhausen response of the sample is detected for the various fields and offsets and is analyzed. The system produces information relating to the frequency content, the amplitude content, the average or RMS energy content, as well as count rate information, for each of the Barkhausen responses at each of the excitation levels applied during the protocol. That information provides a contiguous body of data, heretofore unavailable, which can be analyzed to deduce information about the surface characteristics of the material at various depths below the surface.

  16. Beam characteristics in two different proton uniform scanning systems: A side-by-side comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichiporov, Dmitri; Hsi Wen; Farr, Jonathan

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: To compare clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of proton therapy fields produced by two uniform scanning systems that have a number of similar hardware components but employ different techniques of beam spreading. Methods: This work compares two technologically distinct systems implementing a method of uniform scanning and layer stacking that has been developed independently at Indiana University (IU) and by Ion Beam Applications, S. A. (IBA). Clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of fields produced by these systems are studied, such as beam range control, peak-to-entrance ratio (PER), lateral penumbra, field flatness, effective source position, precision of dose delivery at different gantry angles, etc. Results: Under comparable conditions, both systems controlled beam range with an accuracy of 0.5 mm and a precision of 0.1 mm. Compared to IBA, the IU system produced pristine peaks with a slightly higher PER (3.23 and 3.45, respectively) and smaller, symmetrical, lateral in-air penumbra of 1 mm compared to about 1.9/2.4 mm in the inplane/crossplane (IP/CP) directions for IBA. Large field flatness results in the IP/CP directions were similar: 3.0/2.4% for IU and 2.9/2.4% for IBA. The IU system featured a longer virtual source-to-isocenter position, which was the same for the IP and CP directions (237 cm), as opposed to 212/192 cm (IP/CP) for IBA. Dose delivery precision at different gantry angles was higher in the IBA system (0.5%) than in the IU system (1%). Conclusions: Each of the two uniform scanning systems considered in this work shows some attractive performance characteristics while having other features that can be further improved. Overall, radiation field characteristics of both systems meet their clinical specifications and show comparable results. Most of the differences observed between the two systems are clinically insignificant.

  17. Table HC11.1 Housing Unit Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1.1 Housing Unit Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005 Total......................................................................... 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Urban/Rural Location (as Self-Reported) City....................................................................... 47.1 6.9 4.7 2.2 Town..................................................................... 19.0 6.0 4.2 1.9 Suburbs................................................................ 22.7 4.4 4.0 0.5

  18. " of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and Economic Characteristics"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Quantity of Purchased Electricity and Steam by Type" " of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and Economic Characteristics" " of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ," (million kWh)",," (billion Btu)" ,,,,,"RSE" " ","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic

  19. "Table HC1.1.3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit-- Single-Family and Mobile Homes" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit

  20. "Table HC1.2.3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit

  1. CHARACTERISTIC LENGTH OF ENERGY-CONTAINING STRUCTURES AT THE BASE OF A CORONAL HOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Ahn, K.; Cao, W.; Zank, G. P.; Dosch, A.

    2013-08-20

    An essential parameter for models of coronal heating and fast solar wind acceleration that rely on the dissipation of MHD turbulence is the characteristic energy-containing length {lambda} of the squared velocity and magnetic field fluctuations (u{sup 2} and b{sup 2}) transverse to the mean magnetic field inside a coronal hole (CH) at the base of the corona. The characteristic length scale directly defines the heating rate. We use a time series analysis of solar granulation and magnetic field measurements inside two CHs obtained with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. A data set for transverse magnetic fields obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope/Spectro-Polarimeter on board the Hinode spacecraft was utilized to analyze the squared transverse magnetic field fluctuations b{sub t}{sup 2}. Local correlation tracking was applied to derive the squared transverse velocity fluctuations u {sup 2}. We find that for u {sup 2} structures, the Batchelor integral scale {lambda} varies in a range of 1800-2100 km, whereas the correlation length sigmav and the e-folding length L vary between 660 and 1460 km. Structures for b{sub t}{sup 2} yield {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 1600 km, sigmav Almost-Equal-To 640 km, and L Almost-Equal-To 620 km. An averaged (over {lambda}, sigmav, and L) value of the characteristic length of u {sup 2} fluctuations is 1260 {+-} 500 km, and that of b{sub t}{sup 2} is 950 {+-} 560 km. The characteristic length scale in the photosphere is approximately 1.5-50 times smaller than that adopted in previous models (3-30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} km). Our results provide a critical input parameter for current models of coronal heating and should yield an improved understanding of fast solar wind acceleration.

  2. Estimate of radionuclide release characteristics into containment under severe accident conditions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1993-11-01

    A detailed review of the available light water reactor source term information is presented as a technical basis for development of updated source terms into the containment under severe accident conditions. Simplified estimates of radionuclide release and transport characteristics are specified for each unique combination of the reactor coolant and containment system combinations. A quantitative uncertainty analysis in the release to the containment using NUREG-1150 methodology is also presented.

  3. UTILITY CHARACTERISTICS",,,,,,,"RESIDENTIAL",,,"COMMERCIAL",,,"INDUSTRIAL",,,"TR

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    CHARACTERISTICS",,,,,,,"RESIDENTIAL",,,"COMMERCIAL",,,"INDUSTRIAL",,,"TRANSPORTATION",,,"TOTAL" ,,,,,,,"Revenue","Sales","Customers","Revenue","Sales","Customers","Revenue","Sales","Customers","Revenue","Sales","Customers","Revenue","Sales","Customers"

  4. Microsoft Word - ORNL TM INFLOW CHARACTERISTICS FOR RIVER REFERENCE MODEL 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    360 Environmental Science Division Reference Inflow Characteristics for River Resource Reference Model: Reference Model 2 (RM2) Vincent S. Neary, Ph.D., P.E. Date Published: October 2011 Prepared by OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6283 managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725

  5. Effects of the electrolyte composition on the electrode characteristics of rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morita, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Masashi; Matsuda, Yoshiharu

    1995-12-31

    A variety of organic solvent-based electrolytes have been studied for ambient temperature, rechargeable lithium (ion) batteries. The ionic behavior of the electrolyte system was investigated through conductivity measurements. The electrochemical characteristics of carbon-based materials (carbon fiber and graphite) as the negative electrode were examined in different compositions of the organic electrolytes. The electrolyte composition as well as the structure of the electrode material greatly influenced the charge/discharge profiles of the electrode.

  6. The Effects of Fuel Characteristics on Stoichiometric Spark-Assisted HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J; Szybist, James P

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of fuel lean HCCI operation using a variety of fuels are well known and have been demonstrated using different engine concepts in the past. In contrast, stoichiometric operation of HCCI is less well documented. Recent studies have highlighted the benefits of operating at a stoichiometric condition in terms of load expansion combined with the applicability of three way catalyst technology to reduce NOx emissions. In this study the characterization of stoichiometric HCCI using gasoline-like fuels was undertaken. The fuels investigated are gasoline, a 50 vol% blend of iso-butanol and gasoline (IB50), and an 85% vol blend of ethanol and gasoline (E85). A single cylinder engine operating with direct injection and spark assist combined with a fully variable hydraulic valve actuation system allowed a wide range of operating parameters to be studied. The resultant fuel properties which differed in terms of octane rating, fuel oxygenation and heat of vaporization show that stoichiometric HCCI is possible using a range of fuels but that these fuel characteristics do have some effect on the combustion characteristics. How these fuel properties can enable an increased engine operating envelope to be achieved, in comparison with both fuel lean HCCI and conventional spark ignited combustion, is then discussed.

  7. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines the characteristics of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3 in more detail. Specifically, it focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers.

  8. Determination of the toxicity characteristic for metals in soil: A comparison of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and total metal determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, D.A.; Taylor, J.D.

    1994-12-01

    A comparison is made of the concentrations of metals extracted from soils using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a total determination method. This information is of interest in two ways. First, it is hoped that a relationship might be established between the amount of each metal determined after extraction by the TCLP and the amount determined using a total determination method. And second, data are also presented which indicate the general extractability of various metals in soil samples using the TCLP. This study looks specifically at inorganic elements (Sb, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mg, Hg, Se, Ag, Sn, and Zn) in soils from a firing range. Results show that total determination methods for metals can not generally be used for heterogeneous samples, such as soil samples from a firing range. Some correlation between a total determination method and TCLP was observed when Ba and Cd were present in the samples at lower concentrations (less than 80 mg/kg for Ba and less than 25 mg/kg for Cd); however, additional data are necessary to verify this correlation.

  9. The Effects of Fuel Characteristics on Stoichiometric Spark-Assisted HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J; Szybist, James P

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of fuel lean HCCI operation using a variety of fuels are well known and have been demonstrated using different engine concepts in the past. In contrast, stoichiometric operation of HCCI is less well documented. Recent studies have highlighted the benefits of operating at a stoichiometric condition in terms of load expansion combined with the applicability of three way catalyst technology to reduce NOx emissions. In this study the characterization of stoichiometric HCCI using gasoline-like fuels was undertaken. The fuels investigated are gasoline, a 50 vol% blend of iso-butanol and gasoline (IB50), and an 85% vol blend of ethanol and gasoline (E85). A single cylinder engine operating with direct injection and spark assist combined with a fully variable hydraulic valve actuation system allowed a wide range of operating parameters to be studied. This included the effects of negative valve overlap duration, intake valve closing and valve lift. Furthermore, the interaction between fuel injection timing and spark and how they can affect the required valve timing to achieve stoichiometric HCCI combustion are also studied. A comprehensive combustion and emissions analysis is conducted using gasoline, IB50 and E85 at an engine speed of 2000rpm over a range of operating loads. The resultant fuel properties which differed in terms of octane rating, fuel oxygenation and heat of vaporization show that stoichiometric HCCI is possible using a range of fuels but that these fuel characteristics do have some effect on the combustion characteristics. How these fuel properties can enable an increased engine operating envelope to be achieved, in comparison with both fuel lean HCCI and conventional spark ignited combustion, is then discussed.

  10. A comparison of injector flow and spray characteristics of biodiesel with petrodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Som, S.; Longman, D. E; Ramirez, A. I.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    2010-12-01

    Performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engines depend strongly on inner nozzle flow and spray behavior. These processes control the fuel air mixing, which in turn is critical for the combustion process. The differences in the physical properties of petrodiesel and biodiesel are expected to significantly alter the inner nozzle flow and spray structure and, thus, the performance and emission characteristics of the engine. In this study, the inner nozzle flow dynamics of these fuels are characterized by using the mixture-based cavitation model in FLUENT v6.3. Because of its lower vapor pressure, biodiesel was observed to cavitate less than petrodiesel. Higher viscosity of biodiesel resulted in loss of flow efficiency and reduction in injection velocity. Turbulence levels at the nozzle orifice exit were also lower for biodiesel. Using the recently developed KH-ACT model, which incorporates the effects of cavitation and turbulence in addition to aerodynamic breakup, the inner nozzle flow simulations are coupled with the spray simulations in a 'quasi-dynamic' fashion. Thus, the influence of inner nozzle flow differences on spray development of these fuels could be captured, in addition to the effects of their physical properties. Spray penetration was marginally higher for biodiesel, while cone angle was lower, which was attributed to its poor atomization characteristics. The computed liquid lengths of petrodiesel and biodiesel were compared with data from Sandia National Laboratories. Liquid lengths were higher for biodiesel due to its higher boiling temperature and heat of vaporization. Though the simulations captured this trend well, the liquid lengths were underpredicted, which was attributed to uncertainty about the properties of biodiesel used in the experiments. Parametric studies were performed to determine a single parameter that could be used to account for the observed differences in the fuel injection and spray behavior of petrodiesel and biodiesel; fuel temperature seems to be the best parameter to tune.

  11. Electrical and photovoltaic characteristics of MoS{sub 2}/Si p-n junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Lanzhong Liu, Yunjie Gao, Wei; Han, Zhide; Xue, Qingzhong; Zeng, Huizhong; Wu, Zhipeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Wanli

    2015-03-21

    Bulk-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) thin films were deposited on the surface of p-type Si substrates using dc magnetron sputtering technique and MoS{sub 2}/Si p-n junctions were formed. The vibrating modes of E{sup 1}{sub 2g} and A{sub 1g} were observed from the Raman spectrum of the MoS{sub 2} films. The current density versus voltage (J-V) characteristics of the junction were investigated. A typical J-V rectifying effect with a turn-on voltage of 0.2?V was shown. In different voltage range, the electrical transporting of the junction was dominated by diffusion current and recombination current, respectively. Under the light illumination of 15?mW?cm{sup ?2}, the p-n junction exhibited obvious photovoltaic characteristics with a short-circuit current density of 3.2?mA?cm{sup ?2} and open-circuit voltage of 0.14?V. The fill factor and energy conversion efficiency were 42.4% and 1.3%, respectively. According to the determination of the Fermi-energy level (?4.65?eV) and energy-band gap (?1.45?eV) of the MoS{sub 2} films by capacitance-voltage curve and ultraviolet-visible transmission spectra, the mechanisms of the electrical and photovoltaic characteristics were discussed in terms of the energy-band structure of the MoS{sub 2}/Si p-n junctions. The results hold the promise for the integration of MoS{sub 2} thin films with commercially available Si-based electronics in high-efficient photovoltaic devices.

  12. Characteristic evaluation of cooling technique using liquid nitrogen and metal porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanno, Yusuke; Ito, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-29

    A remountable high-temperature superconducting magnet, whose segments can be mounted and demounted repeatedly, has been proposed for construction and maintenance of superconducting magnet and inner reactor components of a fusion reactor. One of the issues in this design is that the performance of the magnet deteriorates by a local temperature rise due to Joule heating in jointing regions. In order to prevent local temperature rise, a cooling system using a cryogenic coolant and metal porous media was proposed and experimental studies have been carried out using liquid nitrogen. In this study, flow and heat transfer characteristics of cooling system using subcooled liquid nitrogen and bronze particle sintered porous media are evaluated through experiments in which the inlet degree of subcooling and flow rate of the liquid nitrogen. The flow characteristics without heat input were coincided with Erguns equation expressing single-phase flow in porous materials. The obtained boiling curve was categorized into three conditions; convection region, nucleate boiling region and mixed region with nucleate and film boiling. Wall superheat did not increase drastically with porous media after departure from nucleate boiling point, which is different from a situation of usual boiling curve in a smooth tube. The fact is important characteristic to cooling superconducting magnet to avoid its quench. Heat transfer coefficient with bronze particle sintered porous media was at least twice larger than that without the porous media. It was also indicated qualitatively that departure from nucleate boiling point and heat transfer coefficient depends on degree of subcooling and mass flow rate. The quantitative evaluation of them and further discussion for the cooling system will be performed as future tasks.

  13. Effects of aging on the characteristics of TiNiPd shape memory alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Congchun

    2008-07-15

    TiNiPd thin films have been deposited on glass substrate using R.F. magnetron sputtering. Effects of annealing and aging on the microstructure, phase transformation behaviors and shape memory effects of these thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimeter, tensile tests and internal friction characteristics. The TiNiPd thin films annealed at 750 deg. C exhibit uniform martensite/austenite transformations and shape memory effect. Aging at 450 deg. C for 1 h improved the uniformity of transformations and shape memory effect. Long time aging decreased transformation temperatures and increased the brittleness of TiNiPd thin films.

  14. Criticality characteristics of mixtures of plutonium, silicon dioxide, Nevada tuff, and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, R.; Myers, W.; Hayes, D.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear criticality characteristics of mixtures of plutonium, silicon dioxide, and water (Part A) or plutonium, silicon dioxide, Nevada Yucca Mountain tuff, and water (Part B) have become of interest because of the appearance of recent papers on the subject. These papers postulate that if excess weapons plutonium is vitrified into a silicate log and buried underground, a self-sustaining neutron chain reaction may develop given sufficient time and interaction with the burial medium. Moreover, given specific geologic actions resulting in postulated configurations, the referenced papers state that nuclear explosions could occur with multi-kiloton yields or yields equivalent to hundreds of tons of TNT.

  15. Table HC6.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total...................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 16.3 9.4 4.0 2.7 3.2 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 13.8 25.4 14.4 13.2 8.8 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.9 17.4 8.5 7.3 5.2

  16. Table HC6.2 Living Space Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total...................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 1.7 0.8 0.4 0.3 Q 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 10.2 6.4 3.4 2.3 1.5 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 5.5 6.3 3.0 3.3 2.6 1,500 to

  17. Table HC6.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    HC6.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total U.S.............................................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven.................................................. 109.6 29.5 34.4 18.2 15.7 11.8 1................................................................. 103.3 28.4 32.0 17.3 14.7 11.0 2 or More.................................................... 6.2 1.1 2.5 1.0 0.9 0.8 Do Not

  18. Table HC9.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total................................................................... 111.1 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ............... 35.5 3.2 8.3 8.9 7.7 7.5 Use a Personal Computer............................. 75.6 7.8 17.8 18.4 16.3 15.3 Number of Desktop PCs 1.............................................................. 50.3 5.1 12.4 11.9 10.5 10.4

  19. Table HC9.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total......................................................................... 111.1 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment................ 1.2 Q Q N 0.3 0.8 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.8 10.9 26.0 27.3 23.7 22.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment..................... 109.1 10.9 26.0 27.3 23.2 21.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It........................ 0.8 N N Q

  20. Table HC9.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total......................................................................... 111.1 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment........................... 17.8 3.2 4.7 3.6 5.5 0.9 Have Cooling Equipment........................................ 93.3 7.7 21.4 23.7 18.5 21.9 Use Cooling Equipment......................................... 91.4 7.6 21.0 23.4 17.9 21.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use

  1. Table HC9.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total U.S............................................................ 111.1 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................... 109.6 10.9 25.7 27.1 23.4 22.4 1.............................................................. 103.3 10.2 24.3 25.3 22.2 21.3 2 or More................................................. 6.2 0.6 1.5 1.8 1.2 1.1 Do Not Use

  2. 17.6 - Origin, Characteristics, and Significance of the DOE's Management and Operating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chapter 17.6 (October 2007) 1 DISCUSSION OF THE ORIGIN, CHARACTERISTICS, AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY's MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING (M&O) FORM OF CONTRACT INTRODUCTION. "Management and operating" (M&O) contract is a term used to describe the contracts that are central to the Department of Energy's (DOE's) business model. The term was adopted formally in a memorandum from the Secretary of Energy, dated October 5, 1983. 1 However, these contracts predate the

  3. Communication systems, transceivers, and methods for generating data based on channel characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, Michael A; Young, Derek

    2012-09-18

    Examples of methods for generating data based on a communications channel are described. In one such example, a processing unit may generate a first vector representation based in part on at least two characteristics of a communications channel. A constellation having at least two dimensions may be addressed with the first vector representation to identify a first symbol associated with the first vector representation. The constellation represents a plurality of regions, each region associated with a respective symbol. The symbol may be used to generate data, which may stored in an electronic storage medium and used as a cryptographic key or a spreading code or hopping sequence in a modulation technique.

  4. SU-E-T-119: Dosimetric and Mechanical Characteristics of Elekta Infinity LINAC with Agility MLC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J; Xu, Q; Xue, J; Zhai, Y; An, L; Chen, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Elekta Infinity is the one of the latest generation LINAC with unique features. Two Infinity LINACs are recently commissioned at our institution. The dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of the machines are presented. Methods: Both Infinity LINACs with Agility MLC (160 leaves with 0.5 cm leaf width) are configured with five electron energies (6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV) and two photon energies (6 and 15 MV). One machine has additional photon energy (10 MV). The commissioning was performed by following the manufacturer's specifications and AAPM TG recommendations. Beam data of both electron and photon beams are measured with scanning ion chambers and linear diode array. Machines are adjusted to have the dosimetrically equivalent characteristics. Results: The commissioning of mechanical and imaging system meets the tolerances by TG recommendations. The PDD{sub 10} of various field sizes for 6 and 15 MV shows < 0.5% difference between two machines. For each electron beams, R{sub 80} matches with < 0.4 mm difference. The symmetry and flatness agree within 0.8% and 0.9% differences for photon beams, respectively. For electron beams, the differences of the symmetry and flatness are within 1.2% and 0.8%, respectively. The mean inline penumbras for 6, 10, and 15 MV are respectively 5.10.24, 5.60.07, and 5.90.10 mm for 10x10 cm at 10 cm depth. The crossline penumbras are larger than inline penumbras by 2.2, 1.4, and 1.0 mm, respectively. The MLC transmission factor with interleaf leakage is 0.5 % for all photon energies. Conclusion: The dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of two Infinity LINACs show good agreements between them. Although the Elekta Infinity has been used in many institutions, the detailed characteristics of the machine have not been reported. This study provides invaluable information to understand the Infinity LINAC and to compare the quality of commissioning data for other LINACs.

  5. Table 8.2. Cost and performance characteristics of new central station electricity generating technologies

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table 8.2. Cost and performance characteristics of new central station electricity generating technologies Contingency Factors Technology Online Year 1 Size (MW) Lead time (years) Base Overnight Cost in 2014 (2013 $/kW) Project Contin- gency Factor 2 Techno- logical Optimism Factor 3 Total Overnight Cost in 2014 4 (2013 $/kW) Variable O&M 5 (2013 $/mWh) Fixed O&M (2013 $/ kW/yr.) Heatrate 6 in 2014 (Btu/ kWh) nth-of-a- kind Heatrate (Btu/kWh Scrubbed Coal New 2018 1300 4 2,726 1.07 1.00

  6. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-14

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one characteristic, but not others. Consumers (and specifiers) may have a hard time distinguishing better-performing lamps from one another; at this time, physical experimentation is likely the best evaluation tool.

  7. Portable microwave instrument for non-destructive evaluation of structural characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Crutcher, R.I.; Sohns, C.W.; Maddox, S.R.

    1995-01-24

    A portable microwave instrument for evaluating characteristics of a structural member includes a source of microwave energy, a transmitter coupled to the source of microwave energy for transmitting a microwave signal at the structural member, and a receiver positioned on the same side of the structural member as the transmitter and being disposed to receive a microwave signal reflected by the structural member. A phase angle difference is determined between the transmitted microwave signal and the received microwave signal using a signal splitter and a balanced mixer. The difference in phase angle varies in accordance with differences in size, shape and locations of constituent materials within the structural member. 6 figures.

  8. Sol-spray preparation, particulate characteristics, and sintering of alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Warrier, K.G.K.; Balachandran, U.

    1993-07-01

    Fine alumina powders of spherical morphology and narrow particle-size distribution have been synthesized by a technique that uses precipitation/peptization/spray drying of boehmite sol prepared from aluminum nitrate. The spray-dried powder was further washed with solvents of varying polarities, such as acetone, isopropanol, and tert-butanol. This post-spray-drying treatment changed the powder`s particle-size distribution, morphology, density, and compaction characteristics. Microstructure, dielectric properties, and effect of post-treatment on the boehmite-sol-derived alumina powders in reducing agglomeration are discussed.

  9. Characteristics of alumina powders prepared by spray-drying of boehmite sol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Warrier, K.G. ); Balachandran, U. . Energy Technology Div.)

    1994-06-01

    Boehmite sol prepared from aluminum nitrate has been spray-dried to obtain micrometer-size spherical particles consisting of submicrometer crystallites. The spray-dried powder was further washed with solvents of varying polarities such as acetone, 2-propanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol. Particle-size distribution, morphology, density, compaction, and sintering characteristics of powders washed with different solvents are reported. The effect of post treatments on the boehmite-sol-derived powders toward reducing agglomeration and obtaining high-density bodies is discussed.

  10. Characteristic emission enhancement in the atmosphere with Rn trace using metal assisted LIBS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashemi, M. M.; Parvin, P. Moosakhani, A.; Mortazavi, S. Z.; Reyhani, A.; Majdabadi, A.; Abachi, S.

    2014-06-15

    Several characteristic emission lines from the metal targets (Cu, Zn and Pb) were investigated in trace presence of radon gas in the atmospheric air, using Q-SW Nd:YAG laser induced plasma inside a control chamber. The emission lines of metal species are noticeably enhanced in (Rn+air), relative to those in the synthetic air alone. Similar spectra were also taken in various sub-atmospheric environments in order to determine the optimum pressure for enhancement. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were also employed to count the tracks due to alpha particles for the activity assessment.

  11. Integrated data base report--1995: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    The information in this report summarizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data base for inventories, projections, and characteristics of domestic spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. This report is updated annually to keep abreast of continual waste inventory and projection changes in both the government and commercial sectors. Baseline information is provided for DOE program planning purposes and to support DOE program decisions. Although the primary purpose of this document is to provide background information for program planning within the DOE community, it has also been found useful by state and local governments, the academic community, and some private citizens.

  12. A comparison of the CO2 capture characteristics of zeolites and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    metal-organic frameworks | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome comparison of the CO2 capture characteristics of zeolites and metal-organic frameworks Previous Next List Rajamani Krishna, Jasper M. van Baten, Sep. Purif. Technol., 87, 120-126 (2012) DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2011.11.031 Full-size image (58 K) Abstract: Considerable progress has been made in recent years on the development of novel adsorbents for CO2 capture. Pressure swing adsorption

  13. Electrical transport characteristics of DNA wrapped carbon nanotubes contacted to palladium and palladium oxide electrodes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Leonard, Francois; Jones, Frank Eugene; Talin, Albert Alec

    2005-03-01

    DNA-wrapped carbon nanotubes (DNA-CNT) have generated attention due the ability to disperse cleanly into solution, and by the possibility of sorting nanotubes according to size and conductivity. In order to learn more about the effects of DNA on the electrical transport characteristics of single wall carbon nanotubes, we fabricate and test a series of devices consisting of DNA-wrapped CNTs placed across gold, palladium, and palladium oxide electrodes. In addition, we look at how DNA functionalized CNTs react to presence of hydrogen, which has previously been shown to affect the conductivity of CNTs when in contact with palladium.

  14. Spectral and temporal characteristics of a supercontinuum in tapered optical fibres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaev, Sergei N; Denisov, Vladimir I; Zakharyash, Valerii F; Klementyev, Vasilii M; Korel', I I; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Pivtsov, V S; Kobtsev, Sergey M; Kukarin, S V; Smirnov, Sergei V; Fateev, N V

    2004-12-31

    The emission spectrum of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser broadened in a tapered optical fibre and the shape of its envelope are studied as functions of the waist diameter and the laser power coupled to the fibre. By varying the fibre parameters and characteristics of coupled pulses, the envelope of the broadened emission spectrum can be shaped, which is important in using a femtosecond comb for precision measurements. The results of experimental studies of the temporal structure of a supercontinuum in a tapered fibre obtained by using the sum frequency generation are presented for the first time and theoretically interpreted. (optical metrology and quantum frequency standards)

  15. Portable microwave instrument for non-destructive evaluation of structural characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Crutcher, Richard I. (Knoxville, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Maddox, Stephen R. (Loudon, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A portable microwave instrument for evaluating characteristics of a structural member includes a source of microwave energy, a transmitter coupled to the source of microwave energy for transmitting a microwave signal at the structural member, and a receiver positioned on the same side of the structural member as the transmitter and being disposed to receive a microwave signal reflected by the structural member. A phase angle difference is determined between the transmitted microwave signal and the received microwave signal using a signal splitter and a balanced mixer. The difference in phase angle varies in accordance with differences in size, shape and locations of constituent materials within the structural member.

  16. Flux harmonics in large SFR cores in relation with core characteristics such as power peaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimpault, G.; Buiron, L.; Fontaine, B.; Sciora, P.; Tommasi, J.

    2013-07-01

    Designing future Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) requires enhancing their operational performance and reducing the probability to go into core disruption. As a consequence of these constraints, these novel reactors exhibit rather unusual features compared to past designs. The cores are much larger with rather flat shape. The consequences of that shape on the core characteristics deserve to be studied. The approach taken in this paper is to calculate the eigenvalue associated to the first harmonic and its associated flux. It is demonstrated that these values are linked to some core features, in particular, those sensitive to spatial effects such as power peaks induced by the movement of control rods. The uncertainty associated to these characteristics is being tentatively studied and guidelines for further studied are being identified. In the development strategy of these new SFR designs, a first demonstration plant of limited installed power (around 1500 MWth) will have to be built first. Identifying the possibility of going later to higher power plants (around 3600 MWth) without facing new challenges is an important criterion for designing such a plant. That strategy is being studied, in this paper, focusing on some rather frequent initiator such as the inadvertent control rod withdrawal for different core sizes with the help of the perturbation theory and the flux harmonics. (authors)

  17. Observations of wake characteristics at the Goodnoe Hills MOD-2 array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.

    1985-08-01

    The array of three MOD-2 wind turbines and two meteorological towers at Goodnoe Hills, Washington, provides an opportunity to evaluate turbine and wake interactions in a real environment. The triangular arrangement of the three turbines provides opportunities to study the effect of wakes on the performance of a downwind turbine at three different distances: 5, 7, and 10 rotor diameters (D), where 1 D is 300 ft. The information obtained from this test configuration is critical to future wind farm activities and is a key objective of the MOD-2 test program. This report describes the analysis of data measured at the turbines and towers from August 29 to November 12, 1982. The data are 2-min averages of 1-s values. Background flow characteristics were also examined to determine if flow variations across the site could mask wake measurements. For this analysis, one year's data gathered at the meteorological towers were analyzed. The results show some differences between characteristics measured at the towers, but these differences were not great enough to consider in evaluating wakes at the towers.

  18. Effect of Ligands on Characteristics of (CdSe)13 Quantum Dot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Seung-gu; Xin, Minsi; Yang, Ping; Dai, Xing; Wang, Zhigang; Zhou, Ruhong

    2014-01-01

    The widespread applications of quantum dots (QDs) have spurred an increasing interest in the study of their coating ligands, which can not only protect the electronic structures of the central QDs, but also control their permeability through biological membranes with both size and shape. In this work, we have used density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the electronic structures of (CdSe)13 passivated by OPMe2(CH2)nMe ligands with different lengths and various numbers of branches (Me=methyl group, n = 0, 1-3). Our results show that the absorption peak in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra displays a clear blue-shift, on the scale of ~100 nm, upon the binding of ligands. Once the total number of ligands bound with (CdSe)13 reached a saturated number (9 or 10), no more blue-shift occurred in the absorption peak in the UV-vis spectra. On the other hand, the aliphatic chain length of ligands has a negligible effect on the optical properties of the QD core. Analyses of the bonding characteristics confirm that optical transitions are dominantly governed by the central QD core rather than the organic passivation. Interestingly, the density of states (DOS) share similar characteristics as vibrational spectra, even though there is no coordination vibration mode between the ligands and the central QD. These findings might provide insights on the material design for the passivation of quantum dots for biomedical applications.

  19. Photo-enhanced field emission characteristics of SnS{sub 2} nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; More, Mahendra A.; Warule, Sambhaji S.; Chaudhari, Nilima S.; Ogale, Satishchandra B.

    2014-04-24

    In the present studies, we demonstrate a facile hydrothermal route to synthesize elegant SnS{sub 2} nanosheets. The x-ray diffraction pattern clearly revealed formation of SnS{sub 2} phase under the hydrothermal conditions. SEM and TEM analysis indicated formation of very thin SnS{sub 2} nanosheets. Field electron emission studies of the SnS{sub 2} nanosheets emitter were preformed at base pressure of 110{sup ?8} mbar. The value of turn-on field, corresponding to an emission current density of ?1 ?A/ cm2, was found to be ? 4.6 V/?m. Interestingly, when the cathode was illuminated with visible light, it exhibited lower turn-on field of ? 4.2 V/?m, along with nearly 2.5 times enhancement in the emission current. Furthermore, the photo-enhanced emission characteristic shows a reproducible switching behavior. The photo-enhanced filed emission characteristics along with reproducible switching behaviour propose the SnS{sub 2} nanosheets emitter as a promising candidate for nano-optoelectronic devices.

  20. Identification of stem cells from human umbilical cord blood with embryonic and hematopoietic characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Yong . E-mail: yongzhao@uic.edu; Wang Honglan; Mazzone, Theodore

    2006-08-01

    We identified stem cells from the umbilical cord blood, designated cord blood-stem cells (CB-SC). CB-SC displayed important embryonic stem (ES) cell characteristics including expression of ES-cell-specific molecular markers including transcription factors OCT-4 and Nanog, along with stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-3 and SSEA-4. CB-SC also expressed hematopoietic cell antigens including CD9, CD45 and CD117, but were negative for CD34. CB-SC displayed very low immunogenicity as indicated by expression of a very low level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and failure to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic lymphocytes. CB-SC could give rise to cells with endothelial-like and neuronal-like characteristics in vitro, as demonstrated by expression of lineage-associated markers. Notably, CB-SC could be stimulated to differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells in vivo and eliminated hyperglycemia after transplantation into a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. These findings may have significant potential to advance stem-cell-based therapeutics.

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Debus, Jrgen; Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression.

  2. Study of the I-V characteristics of nanostructured Pd films on a Si substrate after vacuum annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomilin, S. V., E-mail: tomilin_znu@mail.ru; Yanovsky, A. S.; Tomilina, O. A.; Mikaelyan, G. R. [Zaporozhye National University, Department of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine)

    2013-06-15

    The I-V characteristics of nanostructured Pd films on a Si substrate are investigated. The nanostructures (nanoislands) are formed by the vacuum annealing of continuous ultrathin Pd films sputtered onto a substrate. The shape of the I-V characteristics of the investigated Si substrate-Pd film system is shown to be heavily dependent on the degree of film nanostructuring. The surface morphology of the films is studied using scanning electron microscopy.

  3. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-05-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters. The range is primarily due to uncertainties associated with the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program, including uncertainties regarding retrieval of long-length equipment, scheduling, and tank retrieval technologies.

  4. Materials Data on TbAg3H6C6(N2O)3 (SG:193) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-17

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  6. Effects of self-assembled monolayer and PFPE lubricant on wear characteristics of flat silicon tips.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, H. J.; Jang, C. E.; Kim, D. E.; Kim, Y. K.; Choa, S. H.; Hong, S.; Materials Science Division; Yonsei Univ.; Samsung Adv. Inst. Science and Technology; Seoul National Univ. of Technology

    2009-01-01

    The effects of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant on the wear characteristics of flat silicon tips were investigated. The wear test consisted of sliding the silicon tips fabricated on a flat silicon specimen against SAM and PFPE (Z-tetraol) coated silicon (100) wafer. The tips were slid at a low speed for about 15 km under an applied load of 39.2 {micro}N. The wear volume of the tip was obtained by measuring the tip profile using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). It was found that the coatings were effective in reducing the wear of the tips by an order of magnitude from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7}.

  7. NEW MODEL AND MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLE OF FLOWING AND HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF REGENERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Luo, E. C.; Dai, W.

    2008-03-16

    Regenerators play key role in oscillating-flow cryocoolers or thermoacoustic heat engine systems. However, their flowing and heat transfer mechanism is still not well understood. The complexities of the oscillating flow regenerator make traditional method of heat transfer research become difficult or helpless. In this paper, a model for porous media regenerator was given based on the linear thermoacoustic theory. Then the correlations for characteristic parameters were obtained by deducing universal expressions for thermoacoustic viscous function F{sub v} and thermal function F{sub T}. A simple acoustical method and experimental system to get F{sub v} and F{sub T} via measurements of isothermal regenerators were presented. Some measurements of packed stainless screen regenerators were performed, and preliminary experimental results for flow and convective coefficients were derived, which showing flowing friction factor is approximately within 132/Re to 173/Re.

  8. Thread selection according to predefined power characteristics during context switching on compute nodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    None

    2013-06-04

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for thread selection during context switching on a plurality of compute nodes that includes: executing, by a compute node, an application using a plurality of threads of execution, including executing one or more of the threads of execution; selecting, by the compute node from a plurality of available threads of execution for the application, a next thread of execution in dependence upon power characteristics for each of the available threads; determining, by the compute node, whether criteria for a thread context switch are satisfied; and performing, by the compute node, the thread context switch if the criteria for a thread context switch are satisfied, including executing the next thread of execution.

  9. Analysis of soft x-ray/VUV transmission characteristics of Si and Al filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Aby; Modi, Mohammed H.; Singh, Amol; Gupta, R. K.; Lodha, G. S.

    2013-02-05

    Ultrathin filters of Al (1500A) and Si (1200A) should exhibit more than 65% transmission above their Labsorption edges in the soft x-ray/vacuum ultra violet region(Si L-edge: 124 A and Al L-edge: 170 A). However, the measured transmission characteristics of these filters showed {approx}40% transmission. The transmission measurements of these filters were carried at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source out over a large wavelength range of 120-360A. In order to understand the measured transmission performance a detailed model fitting is performed using the Paratt formalism. It is found that the oxidation of the surface region of the filters is responsible for the reduced transmission performance. Effects of higher harmonics of the toroidal grating monochromator are also considered in the data analysis.

  10. The nonlinear characteristic scheme for X-Y geometry transport problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.F.; Wareing, T.A.; Marr, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Nonlinear Characteristic (NC) numerical scheme for solving the discrete ordinates form of the transport equation is derived for X-Y geometry. The NC scheme is based on the analytic solution of the discrete-ordinate transport equation in each mesh cell. The driving source for the transport equation is represented by a three-moment preserving, strictly positive, exponential distribution obtained using information theory methods. The analysis of two test problems demonstrates the superior behavior of the NC scheme as compared to other numerical schemes currently used to solve the transport equation. The NC scheme is found to be strictly positive and accurate on meshes where other methods yield either negative and/or remarkably inaccurate results.

  11. Cesium trapping characteristics on fly ash filter according to different carrier gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Jin-Myeong; Park, Jang-Jin; Song, Kee-Chan

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash, which is a kind of waste from a coal fired power plant, has been used as a trapping material because it contains silica and alumina suitable for forming pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}). Fly ash is sintered in order to fabricate it into a self-standing filter. The effect of a carrier gas on a cesium trapping quantity is investigated to analyze the cesium trapping characteristics by the fly ash filter in a lab-scale experimental apparatus. The chemical form of the cesium trapped on the filter after trapping cesium is identified to be a pollucite phase regardless of the type of carrier gas. The trapping efficiency of cesium by the fly ash filter under the air and NO{sub x}/air conditions is up to 99.0 %. However, the trapping efficiency of the cesium under the SO{sub x} condition was decreased to 80.0 %. (authors)

  12. Disposal concepts and characteristics of existing and potential low-waste repositories - 9076

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Peter J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zarling, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The closure of the Barnwell low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility to non-Atlantic Compact users poses significant problems for organizations seeking to remove waste material from public circulation. Beta-gamma sources such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in particular create problems because in 36 states no path forward exists for disposal. Furthermore, several other countries are considering disposition of sealed sources in a variety of facilities. Like much of the United States, many of these countries currently have no means of disposal. Consequently, there is a greater tendency for sources to be misplaced or stored in insufficient facilities, resulting in an increased likelihood of unwitting exposure of nearby people to radioactive materials. This paper provides an overview of the various disposal concepts that have been employed or attempted in the United States. From these concepts, a general overview of characteristics necessary for long-term disposal is synthesized.

  13. Methods and apparatus for measurement of a dimensional characteristic and methods of predictive modeling related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Eric P (Idaho Falls, ID); Christiansen, Richard L. (Littleton, CO)

    2007-05-29

    A method of optically determining a change in magnitude of at least one dimensional characteristic of a sample in response to a selected chamber environment. A magnitude of at least one dimension of the at least one sample may be optically determined subsequent to altering the at least one environmental condition within the chamber. A maximum change in dimension of the at least one sample may be predicted. A dimensional measurement apparatus for indicating a change in at least one dimension of at least one sample. The dimensional measurement apparatus may include a housing with a chamber configured for accommodating pressure changes and an optical perception device for measuring a dimension of at least one sample disposed in the chamber. Methods of simulating injection of a gas into a subterranean formation, injecting gas into a subterranean formation, and producing methane from a coal bed are also disclosed.

  14. Methods for measurement of a dimensional characteristic and methods of predictive modeling related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Eric P (Idaho Falls, ID); Christiansen, Richard L. (Littleton, CO)

    2007-10-23

    A method of optically determining a change in magnitude of at least one dimensional characteristic of a sample in response to a selected chamber environment. A magnitude of at least one dimension of the at least one sample may be optically determined subsequent to altering the at least one environmental condition within the chamber. A maximum change in dimension of the at least one sample may be predicted. A dimensional measurement apparatus for indicating a change in at least one dimension of at least one sample. The dimensional measurement apparatus may include a housing with a chamber configured for accommodating pressure changes and an optical perception device for measuring a dimension of at least one sample disposed in the chamber. Methods of simulating injection of a gas into a subterranean formation, injecting gas into a subterranean formation, and producing methane from a coal bed are also disclosed.

  15. Sheath oscillation characteristics and effect on near-wall conduction in a krypton Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fengkui Kong, Lingyi; Li, Chenliang; Yang, Haiwei; Li, Wei

    2014-11-15

    Despite its affordability, the krypton Hall-effect thruster in applications always had problems in regard to performance. The reason for this degradation is studied from the perspective of the near-wall conductivity of electrons. Using the particle-in-cell method, the sheath oscillation characteristics and its effect on near-wall conduction are compared in the krypton and xenon Hall-effect thrusters both with wall material composed of BNSiO{sub 2}. Comparing these two thrusters, the sheath in the krypton-plasma thruster will oscillate at low electron temperatures. The near-wall conduction current is only produced by collisions between electrons and wall, thereby causing a deficiency in the channel current. The sheath displays spatial oscillations only at high electron temperature; electrons are then reflected to produce the non-oscillation conduction current needed for the krypton-plasma thruster. However, it is accompanied with intensified oscillations.

  16. Method and apparatus for analyzing the fill characteristics of a packaging container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, J.G.

    1998-10-13

    A system is described for analyzing the fill characteristics of a container. A container having a filling material therein is positioned adjacent a sound generator. Sound waves from the generator are applied to the container, causing it to vibrate. A vibration detector is used to determine the amount of container vibration. A preferred vibration detector involves a laser vibrometer which applies a reference laser beam to the vibrating container. The reference beam is reflected off of the container to generate a reflected laser beam. The reflected beam experiences a Doppler frequency shift compared with the reference beam which is caused by container vibration. The Doppler shift of the reflected beam is then compared with standardized Doppler shift data from a control container. Repeated Doppler shift measurements may also be undertaken which are converted into a vibration profile that is compared with a standardized vibration profile from a control container. 4 figs.

  17. Numerical solution of the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    This study presents three numerical algorithms to solve the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics. The algorithms have been developed taking into account delayed neutrons and they have been implemented into the novel MCART code, which solves the neutron transport equation for two-dimensional geometry and an arbitrary number of energy groups. The MCART code uses regular mesh for the representation of the spatial domain, it models up-scattering, and takes advantage of OPENMP and OPENGL algorithms for parallel computing and plotting, respectively. The code has been benchmarked with the multiplication factor results of a Boiling Water Reactor, with the analytical results for a prompt jump transient in an infinite medium, and with PARTISN and TDTORT results for cross section and source transients. The numerical simulations have shown that only two numerical algorithms are stable for small time steps.

  18. Synthesis and characteristic of self-assembled diamond/copper nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Xiaoqn; Jiang Xiaohong Lu Lude; Yang Xujie; Wang Xin

    2008-11-03

    Nanodiamond (ND) supported metal oxide or metal catalysts exhibit excellent catalytic activity. ND/Cu nanocomposites and Cu nanoparticles were prepared by reducing Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} in reverses micelle solution. Products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, UV-vis optical characteristic and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the point of nucleation and grow of crystal, ND contributed to heterogeneous nucleation of Cu nanocrystal. The reactive mechanism was explored based on theory of free energy. The formation of resultant self-assembled structures was explained through diffusion-limited aggregation model and Marangoni effect. Both Cu and ND/Cu nanoparticles were strong catalysts on decomposition of NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} (AP), and ND/Cu is more effective.

  19. Table HC3.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    .4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total................................................................ 111.1 78.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.6 0.3 N Q Q Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 77.5 63.7 4.2 1.8 2.2 5.6 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 77.2 63.6 4.2 1.8 2.1 5.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.3 Q N Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel

  20. Table HC4.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    .4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total................................................................ 111.1 33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.6 Q Q Q 0.3 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 32.3 8.0 3.3 5.8 14.1 1.1 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 31.8 8.0 3.2 5.6 13.9 1.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.5 N Q Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel

  1. Table HC6.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total..................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............ 1.2 0.3 0.3 Q 0.2 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment............... 109.8 29.7 34.5 18.2 15.6 11.8 Use Main Space Heating Equipment................. 109.1 29.5 34.4 18.1 15.5 11.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It................... 0.8 Q Q Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel and

  2. SUMMARY OF REVISED TORNADO, HURRICANE AND EXTREME STRAIGHT WIND CHARACTERISTICS AT NUCLEAR FACILITY SITES

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Y : J O H N D . S T E V E N S O N C O N S U L T I N G E N G I N E E R 6 6 1 1 R O C K S I D E R D . I N D E P E N D E N C E , O H I O 4 4 1 3 1 T E L . 2 1 6 - 4 4 7 - 9 4 4 0 E M A I L : J S T E V E N S O N 4 @ E A R T H L I N K . N E T SUMMARY OF REVISED TORNADO, HURRICANE AND EXTREME STRAIGHT WIND CHARACTERISTICS AT NUCLEAR FACILITY SITES Categorization of Natural Hazard Phenomenon and Operational Load Combinations Prior to the 1988 Uniform Building Code, UBC (1) natural hazard phenomenon

  3. Evaluation of the two-photon absorption characteristics of GaSb/GaAs quantum rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagener, M. C.; Botha, J. R.; Carrington, P. J.; Krier, A.

    2014-07-28

    The optical parameters describing the sub-bandgap response of GaSb/GaAs quantum rings solar cells have been obtained from photocurrent measurements using a modulated pseudo-monochromatic light source in combination with a second, continuous photo-filling source. By controlling the charge state of the quantum rings, the photoemission cross-sections describing the two-photon sub-bandgap transitions could be determined independently. Temperature dependent photo-response measurements also revealed that the barrier for thermal hole emission from the quantum rings is significantly below the quantum ring localisation energy. The temperature dependence of the sub-bandgap photo-response of the solar cell is also described in terms of the photo- and thermal-emission characteristics of the quantum rings.

  4. Characteristics of tropical cyclones in high-resolution models in the present climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Daehyun; Kumar, Arun; Lim, Young -Kwon; Reed, Kevin A.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Ming; Henderson, Naomi

    2014-12-05

    The global characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) simulated by several climate models are analyzed and compared with observations. The global climate models were forced by the same sea surface temperature (SST) fields in two types of experiments, using climatological SST and interannually varying SST. TC tracks and intensities are derived from each model's output fields by the group who ran that model, using their own preferred tracking scheme; the study considers the combination of model and tracking scheme as a single modeling system, and compares the properties derived from the different systems. Overall, the observed geographic distribution of global TC frequency was reasonably well reproduced. As expected, with the exception of one model, intensities of the simulated TC were lower than in observations, to a degree that varies considerably across models.

  5. Characteristics of Hydrogen Negative Ion Source with FET based RF System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, A.; Matsuno, T.; Funaoi, T.; Tanaka, N.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.

    2011-09-26

    Characteristics of radio frequency (RF) plasma production were investigated using a FET inverter power supply as a RF generator. High density hydrogen plasma was obtained using an external coil wound a cylindrical ceramic tube (driver region) with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. When an axial magnetic field around 10 mT was applied to the driver region, an electron density increased drastically and attained to over 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} in the driver region. Effect of the axial magnetic field in driver and expansion region was examined. Lower gas pressure operation below 0.5 Pa was possible with higher RF frequency. H{sup -} density in the expansion region was measured by using laser photo-detachment system. It decreased as the axial magnetic field applied, which was caused by the increase of energetic electron from the driver.

  6. Analysis of oscillation characteristics and optimal conditions for high power operation of Gyrotron FU CW GIII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatematsu, Y. Yamaguchi, Y.; Kawase, T.; Ichioka, R.; Ogawa, I.; Saito, T.; Idehara, T.

    2014-08-15

    The oscillation characteristics of Gyrotron FU CW GIII and its wave frequency and output power dependences on the magnetic field strength, the gun coil current, and the anode voltage were investigated experimentally. The experimental results were analyzed theoretically using a self-consistent code that included the electron properties in the cavity, corresponding to the actual operating conditions in the experiments. As a result, it was found that the variation in frequency with the magnetic field strength was related to an axial profile change in the electromagnetic wave in the cavity. In addition, the optimal condition that gives the maximum output power was found to be determined by the pitch factor rather than by the electron beam radius under the given operating conditions.

  7. Dynamic and spectroscopic characteristics of atmospheric gliding arc in gas-liquid two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, X.; Yu, L.; Yan, J. H.; Cen, K. F.; Cheron, B. G.

    2009-11-15

    In this study, an atmospheric alternating-current gliding arc device in gas-liquid two-phase flow has been developed for the purpose of waste water degradation. The dynamic behavior of the gas-liquid gliding arc is investigated through the oscillations of electrical signals, while the spatial evolution of the arc column is analyzed by high speed photography. Different arc breakdown regimes are reported, and the restrike mode is identified as the typical fluctuation characteristic of the hybrid gliding arc in air-water mixture. Optical emission spectroscopy is employed to investigate the active species generated in the gas-liquid plasma. The axial evolution of the OH (309 nm) intensity is determined, while the rotational and vibrational temperatures of the OH are obtained by a comparison between the experimental and simulated spectra. The significant discrepancy between the rotational and translational temperatures has also been discussed.

  8. Characteristics of tropical cyclones in high-resolution models in the present climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Daehyun; Kumar, Arun; LaRow, Timothy E.; Lim, Young -Kwon; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Reed, Kevin A.; et al

    2014-12-05

    The global characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) simulated by several climate models are analyzed and compared with observations. The global climate models were forced by the same sea surface temperature (SST) fields in two types of experiments, using climatological SST and interannually varying SST. TC tracks and intensities are derived from each model's output fields by the group who ran that model, using their own preferred tracking scheme; the study considers the combination of model and tracking scheme as a single modeling system, and compares the properties derived from the different systems. Overall, the observed geographic distribution of global TCmore » frequency was reasonably well reproduced. As expected, with the exception of one model, intensities of the simulated TC were lower than in observations, to a degree that varies considerably across models.« less

  9. Comparison of Caprock Mineral Characteristics at Field Demonstration Sites for Saline Aquifer Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, C.A.; Lowry, G. (Carnegie Mellon University); Dzombak, D. (Carnegie Mellon University); Soong, Yee; Hedges, S.W.

    2008-10-01

    In 2003 the U.S Department of Energy initiated regional partnership programs to address the concern for rising atmospheric CO2. These partnerships were formed to explore regional and economical means for geologically sequestering CO2 across the United States and to set the stage for future commercial applications. Several options exist for geological sequestration and among these sequestering CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising. This is due, in part, to the possibility of stabilized permanent storage through mineral precipitation from chemical interactions of the injected carbon dioxide with the brine and reservoir rock. There are nine field demonstration sites for saline sequestration among the regional partnerships in Phase II development to validate the overall commercial feasibility for CO2 geological sequestration. Of the nine sites considered for Phase II saline sequestration demonstration, seven are profiled in this study for their caprock lithologic and mineral characteristics.

  10. Performance and emissions characteristics of alternative fuels in spark ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, M.R.; Maxwell, R.L.; Swain, M.N.; Bedsworth, K.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A formal ongoing program to characterize the performance and exhaust characteristics of automotive-type powerplants fueled by conventional and alternative fuels is reported. This report contains the information obtained during the past three years when four alternative fuels and two baseline fuels were evaluated in three engines. The four alternative fuels were a simulated gasoline made to represent coal derived gasoline, methyl aryl ethers blended at the 10% level in an unleaded gasoline, gasoline made from methanol, and a blend of Indolene plus methanol and higher alcohols. The two baseline fuels were, Indolene and Gulf unleaded regular gasoline. The engines tested were a pre-mixed carbureted SI (spark ignition) engine, a carbureted three-valve stratified-charge SI engine and a pre-mixed carbureted SI engine with a closed-loop three-way catalyst emission control system.

  11. Measurement of beam characteristics from C{sup 6+} laser ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, A. Sako, K.; Sato, K.; Hayashizaki, N.; Hattori, T.

    2014-02-15

    We developed a C{sup 6+} laser ion source for a heavy-ion accelerator. A carbon target was irradiated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm wavelength, 1.4 J maximum laser energy, 10 ns pulse duration) to generate a high-density plasma. The laser ion source employed a rotating carbon target for continuous operation. Ion beams were extracted from the plasma through a drift space using a direct plasma injection scheme [B. Yu. Sharkov, A. V. Shumshurov, V. P. Dubenkow, O. B. Shamaev, and A. A. Golubev, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2841 (1992)] up to a maximum voltage of 40 kV. We measured the characteristics of the ion beams from the laser ion source and present the results of experiments here.

  12. Method and apparatus for analyzing the fill characteristics of a packaging container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Julio G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A system for analyzing the fill characteristics of a container. A container having a filling material therein is positioned adjacent a sound generator. Sound waves from the generator are applied to the container, causing it to vibrate. A vibration detector is used to determine the amount of container vibration. A preferred vibration detector involves a laser vibrometer which applies a reference laser beam to the vibrating container. The reference beam is reflected off of the container to generate a reflected laser beam. The reflected beam experiences a Doppler frequency shift compared with the reference beam which is caused by container vibration. The Doppler shift of the reflected beam is then compared with standardized Doppler shift data from a control container. Repeated Doppler shift measurements may also be undertaken which are converted into a vibration profile that is compared with a standardized vibration profile from a control container.

  13. High order spatial expansion for the method of characteristics applied to 3-D geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naymeh, L.; Masiello, E.; Sanchez, R.

    2013-07-01

    The method of characteristics is an efficient and flexible technique to solve the neutron transport equation and has been extensively used in two-dimensional calculations because it permits to deal with complex geometries. However, because of a very fast increase in storage requirements and number of floating operations, its direct application to three-dimensional routine transport calculations it is not still possible. In this work we introduce and analyze several modifications aimed to reduce memory requirements and to diminish the computing burden. We explore high-order spatial approximation, the use of intermediary trajectory-dependent flux expansions and the possibility of dynamic trajectory reconstruction from local tracking for typed subdomains. (authors)

  14. Wave transmission and mooring-force characteristics of pipe-tire floating breakwaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harms, Volker W.; Westerink, Joannes J.

    1980-10-01

    The results are presented of a series of prototype scale tests of a floating breakwater that incorporates massive cylindrical members (steel or concrete pipes, telephone poles, etc.) in a matrix of scrap truck or automobile tires, referred to as the Pipe-Tire Breakwater (PT-Breakwater). Tests were conducted in the large wave tank at the US Army Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC). Breakwater modules were preassembled at SUNY in Buffalo, New York, and then transported to CERC by truck, where final assembly on location was again performed by SUNY personnel. Wave-tank tests were conducted jointly by CERC and SUNY personnel. A series of wave-tank experiments and mooring system load-deflection tests were performed, and are described. Wave-transmission and mooring-load characteristics, based on 402 separate tests, were established and are reported. (LCL)

  15. Commute trip reduction in Washington: Base year worksite characteristics and programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, D.

    1995-02-01

    Employers in Washington`s eight most populous counties are engaged in an effort to reduce their employees` use of single occupant automobiles for commuting. This report documents the status of those employers at the beginning of the Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) program as a basis for evaluating the impacts of the program. The first section provides a brief exploration of the Washington CTR Law and a history of the first steps in its implementation. The second section presents a summary of the characteristics of the worksites affected by the law. The CTR Law calls for reductions in single occupant vehicle (SOV) commuting and in vehicle miles traveled (VMT). The third section of this report presents baseline measurements of SOV and VMT and goals for reducing them. The fourth section provides summary information on the first year of programs employers planned to implement. The final section very briefly outlines actions the Commute Trip Reduction law calls for between 1995 and 1999.

  16. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book: 4.2 Federal Buildings and Facilities Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Federal Buildings and Facilities Characteristics March 2012 4.2.1 Federal Building Gross Floorspace, by Year and Agency Fiscal Year Agency FY 1985 3.37 DOD 63% FY 1986 3.38 USPS 10% FY 1987 3.40 GSA 6% FY 1988 3.23 VA 5% FY 1989 3.30 DOE 3% FY 1990 3.40 Other 13% FY 1991 3.21 Total 100% FY 1992 3.20 FY 1993 3.20 FY 1994 3.11 FY 1995 3.04 FY 1996 3.03 FY 1997 3.02 FY 1998 3.07 FY 1999 3.07 FY 2000 3.06 FY 2001 3.07 FY 2002 3.03 FY 2003 3.04 FY 2004 2.97 FY 2005 2.96 FY 2006 3.10 FY 2007 3.01

  18. Eigenmode characteristics of the double tearing mode in the presence of shear flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao Aohua [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 6110011 (Japan); Li Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 6110011 (Japan); Liu Jinyuan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-02-15

    The double tearing mode (DTM) is characterized by two eigen states with antisymmetric or symmetric magnetic island structure, referred to as the even or odd DTM. In this work, we systematically revisit the DTM instabilities in the presence of an antisymmetric shear flow with a focus on eigenmode characteristics as well as the stabilization or destabilization mechanism in a wide parameter region. Both initial value simulation and eigenvalue analysis are performed based on reduced resistive MHD model in slab geometry. A degenerated eigen state is found at a critical flow amplitude v{sub c}. The even (or odd) DTM is stabilized (or destabilized) by weak shear flow below v{sub c} through the distortion of magnetic islands mainly due to the global effect of shear flow rather than the local flow shear. The distortion can be quantified by the phase angles of the perturbed flux, showing a perfect correspondence to the growth rates. As the shear flow increases above v{sub c}, the degenerated eigen state bifurcates into two eigen modes with the same growth rate but opposite propagating direction, resulting in an oscillatory growth of fluctuation energy. It is identified that two eigen modes show the single tearing mode structure due to the Alfven resonance (AR) occurring on one current sheet. Most importantly, the AR can destabilize the DTMs through enhancing the plasma flow exerting on the remaining island. Meanwhile, the local flow shear plays a remarkable stabilizing role in this region. In addition, the eigenmode characteristic of the electromagnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is also discussed.

  19. A numerical study comparing the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel with petrodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Som, S.; Longman, D.

    2011-04-01

    Combustion and emission characteristics of compression ignition engines strongly depend upon inner-nozzle flow and spray behavior. These processes control the fuel-air mixing, which in turn is critical for the combustion process. Previous studies by us highlighted the differences in the physical and chemical properties of petrodiesel and biodiesel, which significantly altered the inner-nozzle flow and spray structure. The current study is another step in this direction to gain a fundamental understanding on the influence of fuel properties on the combustion and emission characteristics of the compression ignition engine. n-Heptane and methyl butanoate were selected as surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels, respectively, because the chemical kinetic pathways were well-understood. Liquid length and flame lift-off length for diesel and biodiesel fuels were validated against data available in the literature. Liquid lengths were always higher for biodiesel because of its higher heat of vaporization, which resulted in increased interplay between spray and combustion processes under all conditions investigated. Ambient air entrainment was also lower for biodiesel mainly because of slower atomization and breakup. The mechanism for flame stabilization is further analyzed by estimating the turbulent burning velocity for both of the fuels. This analysis revealed that neither flame propagation nor isolated ignition kernels upstream and detached from high-temperature regions can be the mechanism for flame stabilization. Flame propagation speeds were observed to be similar for both fuels. Biodiesel predicted lower soot concentrations, which were also reflected in reduced C{sub 2}H{sub 2} mole fractions. Although prompt NO{sub x} was higher for biodiesel, total NO{sub x} was lower because of reduced thermal NO{sub x}. The ignition delay and NO{sub x} emissions predicted by these simulations do not agree with trends reported in the literature; hence, this study highlights the need for better fuel surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels.

  20. Travel Patterns and Characteristics of Elderly Subpopulation in New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Wilson, Daniel W.; Reuscher, Tim; Yang, Jianjiang; Taylor, Rob D.; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2015-03-01

    With the increasing demographic shift towards a larger population of elderly (individuals 65 years and older), it is essential for policy makers and planners to have an understanding of transportation issues that affect the elderly. These issues include livability of the community, factors impacting travel behavior and mobility, transportation safety, etc. In this study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the New York State (NYS) Department of Transportation to conduct a detailed examination of travel behaviors, and identify patterns and trends of the elderly within NYS. The National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) was used as the primary data source to analyze subjects and address questions such as: Are there differences in traveler demographics between the elderly population and those of younger age groups who live in various NYS regions; e.g., New York City, other urban areas of NYS, or other parts of the country? How do they compare with the population at large? Are there any regional differences (e.g., urban versus rural)? Gender differences? Do any unique travel characteristics or patterns exist within the elderly group? In addition to analysis of NHTS data, roadway travel safety concerns associated with elderly travelers were also investigated in this study. Specifically, data on accidents involving the elderly (including drivers, passengers, and others) as captured in the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database was analyzed to examine elderly driver and elderly pedestrian travel safety issues in NYS. The analyses of these data sets provide a greater understanding of the elderly within NYS and their associated transportation issues. Through this study, various key findings on elderly population size, household characteristics, and travel patterns were produced and are report herein this report.

  1. Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues of Oxy-Fuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-05-30

    Oxy-fuel combustion has been used previously in a wide range of industrial applications. Oxy- combustion is carried out by burning a hydrocarbon fuel with oxygen instead of air. Flames burning in this configuration achieve higher flame temperatures which present opportunities for significant efficiency improvements and direct capture of CO{sub 2} from the exhaust stream. In an effort to better understand and characterize the fundamental flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion this research presents the experimental measurements of flame stability of various oxyfuel flames. Effects of H{sub 2} concentration, fuel composition, exhaust gas recirculation ratio, firing inputs, and burner diameters on the flame stability of these fuels are discussed. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation i.e. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O (steam) acting as diluents on burner operability are also presented. The roles of firing input on flame stability are then analyzed. For this study it was observed that many oxy-flames did not stabilize without exhaust gas recirculation due to their higher burning velocities. In addition, the stability regime of all compositions was observed to decrease as the burner diameter increased. A flashback model is also presented, using the critical velocity gradient g{sub F}) values for CH{sub 4}-O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} flames. The scaling relation (𝐠{sub F} = 𝐜 𝐒{sub 𝐋}{sup 2}/𝛂) for different burner diameters was obtained for various diameter burners. The report shows that results correlated linearly with a scaling value of c =0.0174. The second part of the study focuses on the experimental measurements of the flow field characteristics of premixed CH{sub 4}/21%O{sub 2}/79%N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}/38%O{sub 2}/72%CO{sub 2} mixtures at constant firing input of 7.5 kW, constant, equivalence ratio of 0.8, constant swirl number of 0.92 and constant Reynolds Numbers. These measurements were taken in a swirl stabilized combustor at atmospheric pressure. The flow field visualization using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) technique is implemented to make a better understanding of the turbulence characteristics of CH{sub 4}/air and CH{sub 4}/38%O{sub 2}/72%CO{sub 2} combustion. The velocity fluctuations, turbulence intensities and local propagation velocities along the combustion chamber have been determined. The turbulent intensities increase as we move away from the combustor axis. CH{sub 4}-38%O{sub 2}-72%CO{sub 2} flames have low radial velocity and turbulent intensity distributions at different axial distances when compared with CH{sub 4}-Air flames.

  2. Detection of microcalcifications by characteristic magnetic susceptibility effects using MR phase image cross-correlation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baheza, Richard A.; Welch, E. Brian; Gochberg, Daniel F.; Sanders, Melinda; Harvey, Sara; Gore, John C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a new method for detecting calcium deposits using their characteristic magnetic susceptibility effects on magnetic resonance (MR) images at high fields and demonstrate its potential in practice for detecting breast microcalcifications. Methods: Characteristic dipole signatures of calcium deposits were detected in magnetic resonance phase images by computing the cross-correlation between the acquired data and a library of templates containing simulated phase patterns of spherical deposits. The influence of signal-to-noise ratio and various other MR parameters on the results were assessed using simulations and validated experimentally. The method was tested experimentally for detection of calcium fragments within gel phantoms and calcium-like inhomogeneities within chicken tissue at 7 T with optimized MR acquisition parameters. The method was also evaluated for detection of simulated microcalcifications, modeled from biopsy samples of malignant breast cancer, inserted in silico into breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) of healthy subjects at 7 T. For both assessments of calcium fragments in phantoms and biopsy-based simulated microcalcifications in breast MRIs, receiver operator characteristic curve analyses were performed to determine the cross-correlation index cutoff, for achieving optimal sensitivity and specificity, and the area under the curve (AUC), for measuring the method’s performance. Results: The method detected calcium fragments with sizes of 0.14–0.79 mm, 1 mm calcium-like deposits, and simulated microcalcifications with sizes of 0.4–1.0 mm in images with voxel sizes between (0.2 mm){sup 3} and (0.6 mm){sup 3}. In images acquired at 7 T with voxel sizes of (0.2 mm){sup 3}–(0.4 mm){sup 3}, calcium fragments (size 0.3–0.4 mm) were detected with a sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 78%–90%, 51%–68%, and 0.77%–0.88%, respectively. In images acquired with a human 7 T scanner, acquisition times below 12 min, and voxel sizes of (0.4 mm){sup 3}–(0.6 mm){sup 3}, simulated microcalcifications with sizes of 0.6–1.0 mm were detected with a sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 75%–87%, 54%–87%, and 0.76%–0.90%, respectively. However, different microcalcification shapes were indistinguishable. Conclusions: The new method is promising for detecting relatively large microcalcifications (i.e., 0.6–0.9 mm) within the breast at 7 T in reasonable times. Detection of smaller deposits at high field may be possible with higher spatial resolution, but such images require relatively long scan times. Although mammography can detect and distinguish the shape of smaller microcalcifications with superior sensitivity and specificity, this alternative method does not expose tissue to ionizing radiation, is not affected by breast density, and can be combined with other MRI methods (e.g., dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and diffusion weighted MRI), to potentially improve diagnostic performance.

  3. Effects of primary breakup modeling on spray and combustion characteristics of compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Som, S.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2010-06-15

    Injector flow dynamics and primary breakup processes are known to play a pivotal role in determining combustion and emissions in diesel engines. In the present study, we examine the effects of primary breakup modeling on the spray and combustion characteristics under diesel engine conditions. The commonly used KH model, which considers the aerodynamically induced breakup based on the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, is modified to include the effects of cavitation and turbulence generated inside the injector. The KH model and the new (KH-ACT) model are extensively evaluated by performing 3-D time-dependent simulations with detailed chemistry under diesel engine conditions. Results indicate that the inclusion of cavitation and turbulence enhances primary breakup, leading to smaller droplet sizes, decrease in liquid penetration, and increase in the radial dispersion of spray. Predictions are compared with measurements for non-evaporating and evaporating sprays, as well as with flame measurements. While both the models are able to reproduce the experimentally observed global spray and combustion characteristics, predictions using the KH-ACT model exhibit closer agreement with measurements in terms of liquid penetration, cone angle, spray axial velocity, and liquid mass distribution for non-evaporating sprays. Similarly, the KH-ACT model leads to better agreement with respect to the liquid length and vapor penetration distance for evaporating sprays, and with respect to the flame lift-off location for combusting sprays. The improved agreement is attributed to the ability of the new model to account for the effects of turbulence and cavitation generated inside the injector, which enhance the primary breakup. Results further indicate that the combustion under diesel engine conditions is characterized by a double-flame structure with a rich premixed reaction zone near the flame stabilization region and a non-premixed reaction zone further downstream. This flame structure is consistent with the Dec's model for diesel engine combustion (Dec, 1997), and well captured by a newly developed flame index based on the scalar product of CO and O{sub 2} mass fraction gradients. (author)

  4. Effect of temperature on the current (capacitance and conductance)voltage characteristics of Ti/n-GaAs diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ejderha, K.; Duman, S. Urhan, F.; Nuhoglu, C.; Turut, A.

    2014-12-21

    In this study, Ti/n-GaAs Schottky barrier diode has been fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering. The currentvoltage, capacitancevoltage, and conductancevoltage characteristics of Ti/nGaAs diode have been investigated in the temperature range of 80320?K. The ideality factor and barrier height values have been calculated from the forward currentvoltage characteristics. The variation of the diode parameters with the sample temperature has been attributed to the presence of the lateral inhomogeneities of the barrier height. The temperature dependent capacitancevoltage characteristics have been measured to calculate the carrier concentration, diffusion potential, barrier height, and temperature coefficient of the barrier height (??=??0.65?meV K{sup ?1}). The fact that the temperature coefficient of the barrier height changes from metal to metal has been ascribed to the chemical nature of the contact metal or metal electronegativity.

  5. Steel characteristics measurement system using Barkhausen jump sum rate and magnetic field intensity and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohn, G.; Hicho, G.; Swartzendruber, L.

    1997-04-08

    A steel hardness measurement system and method of using same are provided for measuring at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic of a ferromagnetic sample as a function of at least one magnetic characteristic of the sample. A magnetic field generator subjects the sample to a variable external magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic field generating means is measured and a signal sensor is provided for measuring Barkhausen signals from the sample when the sample is subjected to the external magnetic field. A signal processing unit calculates a jump sum rate first moment as a function of the Barkhausen signals measured by the signal sensor and the magnetic field intensity, and for determining the at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic as a function of the jump sum rate first moment. 7 figs.

  6. Steel characteristics measurement system using Barkhausen jump sum rate and magnetic field intensity and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohn, Gabriel (Omer, IL); Hicho, George (Derwood, MD); Swartzendruber, Lydon (New Carrollton, MD)

    1997-01-01

    A steel hardness measurement system and method of using same are provided for measuring at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic of a ferromagnetic sample as a function of at least one magnetic characteristic of the sample. A magnetic field generator subjects the sample to a variable external magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic field generating means is measured and a signal sensor is provided for measuring Barkhausen signals from the sample when the sample is subjected to the external magnetic field. A signal processing unit calculates a jump sum rate first moment as a function of the Barkhausen signals measured by the signal sensor and the magnetic field intensity, and for determining the at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic as a function of the jump sum rate first moment.

  7. Hydrogen sorption characteristics of nanostructured Pd10Rh processed by cryomilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, Joshua K.; Zhang, Zhihui; Kurmanaeva, Lilia; Cappillino, Patrick; Stavila, Vitalie; Lavernia, Enrique J.; San Marchi, Chris

    2014-10-03

    Palladium and its alloys are model systems for studying solid-state storage of hydrogen. Mechanical milling is commonly used to process complex powder systems for solid-state hydrogen storage; however, milling can also be used to evolve nanostructured powder to modify hydrogen sorption characteristics. In the present study, cryomilling (mechanical attrition milling in a cryogenic liquid) is used to produce nanostructured palladium-rhodium alloy powder. Characterization of the cryomilled Pd-10Rh using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and surface area analysis reveals that (i) particle morphology evolves from spherical to flattened disk-like particles; while the (ii) crystallite size decreases from several microns to less than 100 nm and (iii) dislocation density increases with increased cryomilling time. Hydrogen absorption and desorption isotherms as well as the time scales for absorption were measured for cryomilled Pd-10Rh, and correlated with observed microstructural changes induced by the cryomilling process. In short, as the microstructure of the Pd-10Rh alloy is refined by cryomilling: (i) the maximum hydrogen concentration in the ?-phase increases, (ii) the pressure plateau becomes flatter, and (iii) the equilibrium hydrogen capacity at 760 Torr increases. In addition, the rate of hydrogen absorption was reduced by an order of magnitude compared to non-cryomilled (atomized) powder.

  8. Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Wet Thermal Insulator with Multi-layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jong-Won Kim; Goon-Cherl Park; Tae-Wan Kim; Doo-Jeong Lee

    2006-07-01

    SMART developed in KAERI is an integral type nuclear cogeneration reactor. SMART uses a nitrogen-filled gas pressurizer so that the steam partial pressure should be minimized and the pressurizer should be under low temperature condition. To sustain the low temperature condition, the wet thermal insulator and pressurizer cooler are installed in the pressurizer. Since the performance of wet thermal insulator is an important parameter to determine the size of the pressurizer cooler, it is important to evaluate the insulation performance of the wet thermal insulator. The wet thermal insulators with 20 layers are installed in SMART. In the design of SMART, the empirical correlation by Adamovich was used to estimate the thermal resistance of the wet thermal insulator. However, the experimental condition and results are not clear so that this correlation should be verified. To analyze the heat transfer characteristics of the multi-layer wet thermal insulator, natural convective heat transport through horizontal and vertical water-filled layers is investigated. Experiments and numerical analyses have been performed to evaluate the heat transfer rates through multi-layer and verify Adamovich correlation. In addition, a new multi-layer correlation was obtained. (authors)

  9. Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (south section)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (South Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 22 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

  10. N-Reactor (U-metal) Fuel Characteristics for Disposal Criticality Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Larry Lorin

    2000-05-01

    DOE-owned spent nuclear fuels encompass many fuel types. In an effort to facilitate criticality analysis for these various fuel types, they were categorized into nine characteristic fuel groups with emphasis on fuel matrix composition. Out of each fuel group, a representative fuel type was chosen for analysis as a bounding case within that fuel group. Generally, burnup data, fissile enrichments, and total fuel and fissile mass govern the selection of the representative or candidate fuel within that group. Additionally, the criticality analysis will also require data to support design of the canister internals, thermal, and radiation shielding. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and provide in a concise format, material and information/data needed to perform supporting analyses to qualify N-Reactor fuels for acceptance into the designated repository. The N Reactor fuels incorporate zirconium cladding and uranium metal with unique fabrication details in terms of physical size, and method of construction. The fuel construction and post-irradiation handling have created attendant issues relative to cladding failure in the underwater storage environment. These fuels were comprised of low-enriched metal (0.947 to 1.25 wt% 235U) that were originally intended to generate weapons-grade plutonium for national defense. Modifications in subsequent fuel design and changes in the mode of reactor operation in later years were focused more toward power production.

  11. Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2005-02-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

  12. Extended step characteristic model for quarter-core gamma heating calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHart, M.D.; Webb, R.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Discrete ordinates codes are seldom used in lattice or core calculation, because of their limitation to simple geometries, which can be represented using an orthogonal mesh in a given coordinate system. Rough geometric approximations are often applied to obtain an estimate for a flux distribution. However, other methods, such as integral transport or Monte Carlo approaches, are generally more suited to irregular geometries. Each of these methods has its own weaknesses: integral transport methods are limited to problems in which the angular variation of the flux is isotropic or linearly anisotropic; Monte Carlo methods can be time consuming. The extended step characteristic (ESC) method has been developed to apply the discrete ordinates approximation to complicated geometries for which other methods provide less satisfactory solutions. The CENTAUR code has been developed to solve the two-dimensional transport equation using the ESC approach. This paper presents results of CENTAUR calculations for a quarter-core gamma redistribution problem for the Savannah River site (SRS) K reactor, under drained tank conditions following a postulated double-ended guillotine break loss-of-coolant accident. The calculations were used to confirm TWOTRAN calculations, which were based on a coarse approximation of the core geometry. A comparison of the results serves to demonstrate the capabilities and efficiency of the ESC approach.

  13. Luminescence characteristics of cerium-containing glass phases and ceramics based on them

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alimov, R.; Gulamova, R.R.; Muminov, M.I.; Khotamov, M.D.

    1987-12-01

    The authors considered the results obtained in investigations of the optical characteristics, namely the gamma luminescence and the thermoluminescence, in gamma-irradiated glasses selected as the glass phases and in ceramics synthetized on the basis of those glasses. An investigation of the gamma luminescence of the cerium glasses has shown that the gamma luminescence spectra of magnesium-containing glasses in which the cerium concentration varies between 1.5 and 9% are composed of a single band with the maximum at 410-420, 440, and 460 nm. An increase in the CeO/sub 2/ concentration shifts the maximum of the bands toward longer wavelengths and reduces the luminescence intensity, probably by concentration quenching. The thermoluminescence of the cerium-containing glasses was studied in the temperature range 0-450/sup 0/C and at absorbed doses of 10/sup 2/-2 x 10/sup 8/ Gr. On the thermoluminescence curves of the irradiated samples there appears a peak whose T/sub max/ and intensity depend upon the cerium concentration i the glass and upon the absorbed energy of the gamma radiation

  14. Can Fish Morphological Characteristics be Used to Re-design Hydroelectric Turbines?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cada, G. F.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2011-07-19

    Safe fish passage affects not only migratory species, but also populations of resident fish by altering biomass, biodiversity, and gene flow. Consequently, it is important to estimate turbine passage survival of a wide range of susceptible fish. Although fish-friendly turbines show promise for reducing turbine passage mortality, experimental data on their beneficial effects are limited to only a few species, mainly salmon and trout. For thousands of untested species and sizes of fish, the particular causes of turbine passage mortality and the benefits of fish-friendly turbine designs remain unknown. It is not feasible to measure the turbine-passage survival of every species of fish in every hydroelectric turbine design. We are attempting to predict fish mortality based on an improved understanding of turbine-passage stresses (pressure, shear stress, turbulence, strike) and information about the morphological, behavioral, and physiological characteristics of different fish taxa that make them susceptible to the stresses. Computational fluid dynamics and blade strike models of the turbine environment are re-examined in light of laboratory and field studies of fish passage effects. Comparisons of model-predicted stresses to measured injuries and mortalities will help identify fish survival thresholds and the aspects of turbines that are most in need of re-design. The coupled model and fish morphology evaluations will enable us to make predictions of turbine-passage survival among untested fish species, for both conventional and advanced turbines, and to guide the design of hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival.

  15. Adsorption behavior of copper and zinc in soils: Influence of pH on adsorption characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Msaky, J.J. ); Calvet, R. )

    1990-08-01

    The authors studied adsorption of copper and zinc on three different soils: a brown silty soil, an Oxisol, and a Podzol. They determined the amounts adsorbed and the shapes of adsorption isotherms as a function of the pH of the adsorbing medium at a constant ionic strength. The adsorbed amount-pH relationship depended strongly on the natures of the metallic cation and of the soil. The pH greatly influenced the characteristics of adsorption isotherms. They based interpretation on the variations with the pH of both adsorbent affinity for the metal in relation to the surface electric charge and chemical speciation in solution. The adsorption mechanism in the Oxisol probably involves monohydroxylated cations but is more determined by bivalent cations in the brown silty soil and the Podzol. From a general point of view, adsorption of copper and zinc cannot be represented with a single adsorption constant, but should be described by adsorption isotherms obtained at various pH values.

  16. The improvement in functional characteristics of eco-friendly composites made of natural rubber and cellulose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araki, Kunihiro; Kaneko, Shonosuke; Matsumoto, Koki; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Arao, Yoshihiko; Nagatani, Asahiro

    2015-05-22

    We investigated the efficient use of cellulose to resolve the problem of the depletion of fossil resources. In this study, as the biomass material, the green composite based on natural rubber (NR) and the flake-shaped cellulose particles (FSCP) was produced. In order to further improvement of functional characteristics, epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) was also used instead of NR. The FSCP were produced by mechanical milling in a planetary ball mill with a grinding aid as a cellulose aggregation inhibitor. Moreover, talc and mica particles were used to compare with FSCP. NR and ENR was mixed with vulcanizing agents and then each filler was added to NR compound in an internal mixer. The vulcanizing agents are as follows: stearic acid, zinc oxide, sulfur, and vulcanization accelerator. The functionalities of the composites were evaluated by a vibration-damping experiment and a gas permeability experiment. As a result, we found that FSCP filler has effects similar to (or more than) inorganic filler in vibration-damping and O{sub 2} barrier properties. And then, vibration- damping and O{sub 2} barrier properties of the composite including FSCP was increased with use of ENR. In particular, we found that ENR-50 composite containing 50 phr FSCP has three times as high vibration-damping property as ENR-50 without FSCP.

  17. Gain and tuning characteristics of mid-infrared InSb quantum dot diode lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Q.; Zhuang, Q.; Hayton, J.; Yin, M.; Krier, A.

    2014-07-21

    There have been relatively few reports of lasing from InSb quantum dots (QDs). In this work, type II InSb/InAs QD laser diodes emitting in the mid-infrared at 3.1??m have been demonstrated and characterized. The gain was determined to be 2.9?cm{sup ?1} per QD layer, and the waveguide loss was ?15?cm{sup ?1} at 4?K. Spontaneous emission measurements below threshold revealed a blue shift of the peak wavelength with increasing current, indicating filling of ground state heavy hole levels in the QDs. The characteristic temperature, T{sub 0}?=?101?K below 50?K, but decreased to 48?K at higher temperatures. The emission wavelength of these lasers showed first a blue shift followed by a red shift with increasing temperature. A hybrid structure was used to fabricate the laser by combining a liquid phase epitaxy grown p-InAs{sub 0.61}Sb{sub 0.13}P{sub 0.26} lower cladding layer and an upper n{sup +} InAs plasmon cladding layer which resulted in a maximum operating temperature (T{sub max}) of 120?K in pulsed mode, which is the highest reported to date.

  18. Pyrolysis of tire rubber: Porosity and adsorption characteristics of the pyrolytic chars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel, G.S.; Fowler, G.D.; Sollars, C.J.

    1998-06-01

    Tire rubber has been pyrolyzed at various temperatures under a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting chars have been analyzed for their porosity using nitrogen gas adsorption and for their aqueous adsorption characteristics using phenol, methylene blue, and the reactive dyes Procion Turquoise H-A and Procion Red H-E3B. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were modeled to the BET and Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) equations to determine effective surface areas, mesopore volumes, and micropore volumes. Results showed that pyrolysis of tire rubber was essentially complete at 500 C and resulted in a char yield of approximately 42 wt%. Pyrolytic chars exhibited BET surface areas up to 85 m{sup 2}/g and micropore volumes up to 0.04 mL/g. Owing to their poorly developed micropore structure, the pyrolytic chars exhibited limited aqueous adsorption capacity for compounds of small molecular weight, such as phenol. However, the chars possessed significantly greater adsorption capacity for species of large molecular weight which was attributed to the presence of large mesopore volumes (up to 0.19 mL/g).

  19. Fluctuation characteristics and transport properties of collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao Yong; Holod, Ihor; Zhang Wenlu; Lin Zhihong [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Klasky, Scott [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence is investigated by global gyrokinetic particle simulation. The zonal flow dominated by low frequency and short wavelength acts as a very important saturation mechanism. The turbulent eddies are mostly microscopic, but with a significant portion in the mesoscale. The ion heat transport is found to be diffusive and follows the local radial profile of the turbulence intensity. However, the electron heat transport demonstrates some nondiffusive features and only follows the global profile of the turbulence intensity. The nondiffusive features of the electron heat transport is further confirmed by nonlognormal statistics of the flux-surface-averaged electron heat flux. The radial and time correlation functions are calculated to obtain the radial correlation length and autocorrelation time. Characteristic time scale analysis shows that the zonal flow shearing time and eddy turnover time are very close to the effective decorrelation time, which suggests that the trapped electrons move with the fluid eddies. The fluidlike behaviors of the trapped electrons and the persistence of the mesoscale eddies contribute to the transition of the electron turbulent transport from gyro-Bohm scaling to Bohm scaling when the device size decreases.

  20. HYDROPHOBIC CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPOSITE INSULATORS IN SIMULATED INLAND ARID DESERT ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Yasin; Al-Arainy, Abdulrehman Ali; Malik, Nazar Hussain; Qureshi, Muhammad Iqbal

    2010-06-15

    Presently along with traditional insulators i.e. glass and porcelain, etc., the polymeric insulators are also used world widely. These polymeric insulators are very sensitive to various environmental parameters e.g. UV radiations, heat, etc. The UV radiation level in the central region of Saudi Arabia is high as compared to the recommended IEC-61109 standard for the accelerated aging of the composite insulators. In this study, thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) insulators were subjected to accelerated aging stress as per IEC standard as well as modified IEC standard simulating the inland arid desert's atmospheric conditions. The hydrophobic characteristics were studied by measuring the contact angle along the insulator surface before and after the accelerated aging of the samples. It was found that TPE loses its hydrophobic properties more as compared to EPDM insulator. This loss was proportional to the intensity of UV irradiation. The rate of recovery is also low for both the tested materials as compared to Silicone Rubber insulators.

  1. Experimental study on thermal characteristics of positive leader discharges using Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, X. Zeng, R.; Zhuang, C.; Chen, S.

    2015-06-15

    Leader discharge is one of the main phases in long air gap breakdown, which is characterized by high temperature and high conductivity. It is of great importance to determine thermal characteristics of leader discharges. In this paper, a long-optical-path Mach-Zehnder interferometer was set up to measure the thermal parameters (thermal diameter, gas density, and gas temperature) of positive leader discharges in atmospheric air. IEC standard positive switching impulse voltages were applied to a near-one-meter point-plane air gap. Filamentary channels with high gas temperature and low density corresponding to leader discharges were observed as significant distortions in the interference fringe images. Typical diameters of the entire heated channel range from 1.5?mm to 3.5?mm with an average expansion velocity of 6.7?m/s. In contrast, typical diameters of the intensely heated region with a sharp gas density reduction range from 0.4?mm to 1.1?mm, about one third of the entire heated channel. The radial distribution of the gas density is calculated from the fringe displacements by performing an Abel inverse transform. The typical calculated gas density reduction in the center of a propagating leader channel is 80% to 90%, corresponding to a gas temperature of 1500?K to 3000?K based on the ideal gas law. Leaders tend to terminate if the central temperature is below 1500?K.

  2. A look at commercial buildings in 1995: Characteristics, energy consumption, and energy expenditures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    The commercial sector consists of business establishments and other organizations that provide services. The sector includes service businesses, such as retail and wholesale stores, hotels and motels, restaurants, and hospitals, as well as a wide range of facilities that would not be considered commercial in a traditional economic sense, such as public schools, correctional institutions, and religious and fraternal organizations. Nearly all energy use in the commercial sector takes place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of buildings is the clearest way to evaluate commercial sector energy use. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national-level sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted quadrennially (previously triennially) by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The target population for the 1995 CBECS consisted of all commercial buildings in the US with more than 1,000 square feet of floorspace. Decision makers, businesses, and other organizations that are concerned with the use of energy--building owners and managers, regulators, legislative bodies and executive agencies at all levels of government, utilities and other energy suppliers--are confronted with a buildings sector that is complex. Data on major characteristics (e.g., type of building, size, year constructed, location) collected from the buildings, along with the amount and types of energy the buildings consume, help answer fundamental questions about the use of energy in commercial buildings.

  3. Understanding I/O workload characteristics of a Peta-scale storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Youngjae; Gunasekaran, Raghul

    2015-01-01

    Understanding workload characteristics is critical for optimizing and improving the performance of current systems and software, and architecting new storage systems based on observed workload patterns. In this paper, we characterize the I/O workloads of scientific applications of one of the world s fastest high performance computing (HPC) storage cluster, Spider, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). OLCF flagship petascale simulation platform, Titan, and other large HPC clusters, in total over 250 thousands compute cores, depend on Spider for their I/O needs. We characterize the system utilization, the demands of reads and writes, idle time, storage space utilization, and the distribution of read requests to write requests for the Peta-scale Storage Systems. From this study, we develop synthesized workloads, and we show that the read and write I/O bandwidth usage as well as the inter-arrival time of requests can be modeled as a Pareto distribution. We also study the I/O load imbalance problems using I/O performance data collected from the Spider storage system.

  4. Characteristics of Various Photodiode Structures in CMOS Technology with Monolithic Signal Processing Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Chandratre, V. B.; Sukhwani, Menka; Pithawa, C. K.

    2011-10-20

    Monolithic optical sensor with readout electronics are needed in optical communication, medical imaging and scintillator based gamma spectroscopy system. This paper presents the design of three different CMOS photodiode test structures and two readout channels in a commercial CMOS technology catering to the need of nuclear instrumentation. The three photodiode structures each of 1 mm{sup 2} with readout electronics are fabricated in 0.35 um, 4 metal, double poly, N-well CMOS process. These photodiode structures are based on available P-N junction of standard CMOS process i.e. N-well/P-substrate, P+/N-well/P-substrate and inter-digitized P+/N-well/P-substrate. The comparisons of typical characteristics among three fabricated photo sensors are reported in terms of spectral sensitivity, dark current and junction capacitance. Among the three photodiode structures N-well/P-substrate photodiode shows higher spectral sensitivity compared to the other two photodiode structures. The inter-digitized P+/N-well/P-substrate structure has enhanced blue response compared to N-well/P-substrate and P+/N-well/P-substrate photodiode. Design and test results of monolithic readout electronics, for three different CMOS photodiode structures for application related to nuclear instrumentation, are also reported.

  5. Temporal evolution characteristics of an annular-mode gliding arc discharge in a vortex flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Tian-Liang; Liu, Jing-Lin; Li, Xiao-Song; Liu, Jin-Bao; Song, Yuan-Hong; Xu, Yong; Zhu, Ai-Min

    2014-05-15

    An annular-mode gliding arc discharge powered by a 50?Hz alternating current (ac) supply was studied in a vortex flow of dry and humid air. Its temporal evolution characteristics were investigated by electrical measurement, temporally resolved imaging, and temporally resolved optical emission spectroscopic measurements. Three discharge stages of arc-ignition, arc-gliding, and arc-extinction were clearly observed in each half-cycle of the discharge. During the arc-gliding stage, the intensity of light emission from the arc root at the cathode was remarkably higher than that at other areas. The spectral intensity of N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}?{sub u}?B{sup 3}?{sub g}) during the arc-ignition stage was much higher than that during the arc-gliding stage, which was contrary to the temporal evolutions of spectral intensities for N{sub 2}{sup +}(B{sup 2}?{sub u}{sup +}?X{sup 2}?{sub g}{sup +}) and OH(A{sup 2}?{sup +}?X{sup 2}?{sub i}). Temporally resolved vibrational and rotational temperatures of N{sub 2} were also presented and decreased with increasing the water vapor content.

  6. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tae-Seong Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-15

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable.

  7. Conceptual design characteristics of a denatured molten-salt reactor with once-through fueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, J.R.; Bauman, H.F.; Dearing, J.F.; Grimes, W.R.; McCoy, H.E.; Rhoades, W.A.

    1980-07-01

    A study was made to examine the conceptual feasibility of a molten-salt power reactor fueled with denatured /sup 235/U and operated with a minimum of chemical processing. Because such a reactor would not have a positive breeding gain, reductions in the fuel conversion ratio were allowed in the design to achieve other potentially favorable characteristics for the reactor. A conceptual core design was developed in which the power density was low enough to allow a 30-year life expectancy of the moderator graphite with a fluence limit of 3 x 10/sup 26/ neutrons/m/sup 2/ (E > 50 keV). This reactor could be made critical with about 3450 kg of 20% enriched /sup 235/U and operated for 30 years with routine additions of denatured /sup 235/U and no chemical processing for removal of fission products. A review of the chemical considerations assoicated with the conceptual fuel cycle indicates that no substantial difficulties would be expected if the soluble fission products and higher actinides were allowed to remain in the fuel salt for the life of the plant.

  8. Operational characteristics of the J-PARC cryogenic hydrogen system for a spallation neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatsumoto, Hideki; Ohtsu, Kiichi; Aso, Tomokazu; Kawakami, Yoshihiko; Teshigawara, Makoto

    2014-01-29

    The J-PARC cryogenic hydrogen system provides supercritical hydrogen with the para-hydrogen concentration of more than 99 % and the temperature of less than 20 K to three moderators so as to provide cold pulsed neutron beams of a higher neutronic performance. Furthermore, the temperature fluctuation of the feed hydrogen stream is required to be within 0.25 K. A stable 300-kW proton beam operation has been carried out since November 2012. The para-hydrogen concentrations were measured during the cool-down process. It is confirmed that para-hydrogen always exists in the equilibrium concentration because of the installation of an ortho-para hydrogen convertor. Propagation characteristics of temperature fluctuation were measured by temporarily changing the heater power under off-beam condition to clarify the effects of a heater control for thermal compensation on the feed temperature fluctuation. The experimental data gave an allowable temperature fluctuation of 1.05 K. It is clarified through a 286-kW and a 524-kW proton beam operations that the heater control would be applicable for the 1-MW proton beam operation by extrapolating from the experimental data.

  9. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2013-11-15

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 ?m operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission.

  10. Comparison of leaching characteristics of heavy metals from bottom and fly ashes in Korea and Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Young-Sook; Rhee, Seung-Whee; Lee, Woo-Keun . E-mail: woklee@kangwon.ac.kr

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the leaching characteristics of heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, etc., in Korean and Japanese municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash. The rate of leaching of heavy metal was measured by KSLT and JTL-13, and the amount of heavy metals leached was compared with the metal content in each waste component. Finally, bio-availability testing was performed to assess the risks associated with heavy metals leached from bottom ash and fly ash. From the results, the value of neutralization ability in Japanese fly ash was four times higher than that in Korean fly ash. The reason was the difference in the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} in fly ash. The amount of lead leached exceeded the regulatory level in both Japanese and Korean fly ash. The rate of leaching was relatively low in ash with a pH in the range of 6-10. The bio-availability test in fly ash demonstrated that the amount of heavy metals leached was Pb > Cd > Cr, but the order was changed to Pb > Cr > Cd in the bottom ash. The leaching concentration of lead exceeded the Japanese risk level in all fly ashes from the two countries, but the leaching concentration of cadmium exceeded the regulatory level in Korean fly ash only.

  11. Neutron Emission Characteristics of Two Mixed-Oxide Fuels: Simulations and Initial Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; E. H. Seabury; E. M. Gantz

    2009-07-01

    Simulations and experiments have been carried out to investigate the neutron emission characteristics of two mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These activities are part of a project studying advanced instrumentation techniques in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and it's Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. This analysis used the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation tool to determine the relative strength and energy spectra of the different neutron source terms within these fuels, and then used this data to simulate the detection and measurement of these emissions using an array of liquid scintillator neutron spectrometers. These calculations accounted for neutrons generated from the spontaneous fission of the actinides in the MOX fuel as well as neutrons created via (alpha,n) reactions with oxygen in the MOX fuel. The analysis was carried out to allow for characterization of both neutron energy as well as neutron coincidences between multiple detectors. Coincidences between prompt gamma rays and neutrons were also analyzed. Experiments were performed at INL with the same materials used in the simulations to benchmark and begin validation tests of the simulations. Data was collected in these experiments using an array of four liquid scintillators and a high-speed waveform digitizer. Advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms were developed and used to collect this data. Results of the simulation and modeling studies are presented together with preliminary results from the experimental campaign.

  12. Snag characteristics and dynamics following natural and artificially induced mortality in a managed loblolly pine forest.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarnoch, Stanley J.; Vukovich, Mark A.; Kilgo, John C.; Blake, John I.

    2013-06-10

    A 14-year study of snag characteristics was established in 41- to 44-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands in southeastern USA. During the initial 5.5 years, no stand manipulation or unusually high-mortality events occurred. Afterwards, three treatments were applied consisting of trees thinned and removed, trees felled and not removed, and artificial creation of snags produced by girdling and herbicide injection. The thinned treatments were designed to maintain the same live canopy density as the snag-created treatment, disregarding snags that remained standing.We monitored snag height, diameter, density, volume, and bark percentage; the number of cavities was monitored in natural snags only. During the first 5.5 years, recruitment and loss rates were stable, resulting in a stable snag population. Large snags (?25 cm diameter) were common, but subcanopy small snags (10 to <25 cm diameter) dominated numerically. Large natural snags survived (90% quantile) significantly longer (6.09.4 years) than smaller snags (4.46.9 years). Large artificial snags persisted the longest (11.8 years). Cavities in natural snags developed within 3 years following tree death. The mean number of cavities per snag was five times greater in large versus small snags and large snags were more likely to have multiple cavities, emphasizing the importance of mature pine stands for cavity-dependent wildlife species.

  13. Hydrogen sorption characteristics of nanostructured Pd–10Rh processed by cryomilling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, Joshua K.; Zhang, Zhihui; Kurmanaeva, Lilia; Cappillino, Patrick; Stavila, Vitalie; Lavernia, Enrique J.; San Marchi, Chris

    2014-10-03

    Palladium and its alloys are model systems for studying solid-state storage of hydrogen. Mechanical milling is commonly used to process complex powder systems for solid-state hydrogen storage; however, milling can also be used to evolve nanostructured powder to modify hydrogen sorption characteristics. In the present study, cryomilling (mechanical attrition milling in a cryogenic liquid) is used to produce nanostructured palladium-rhodium alloy powder. Characterization of the cryomilled Pd-10Rh using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and surface area analysis reveals that (i) particle morphology evolves from spherical to flattened disk-like particles; while the (ii) crystallite size decreases from several microns to less thanmore » 100 nm and (iii) dislocation density increases with increased cryomilling time. Hydrogen absorption and desorption isotherms as well as the time scales for absorption were measured for cryomilled Pd-10Rh, and correlated with observed microstructural changes induced by the cryomilling process. In short, as the microstructure of the Pd-10Rh alloy is refined by cryomilling: (i) the maximum hydrogen concentration in the α-phase increases, (ii) the pressure plateau becomes flatter, and (iii) the equilibrium hydrogen capacity at 760 Torr increases. In addition, the rate of hydrogen absorption was reduced by an order of magnitude compared to non-cryomilled (atomized) powder.« less

  14. Integrated data base report--1996: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Inventories of most of these materials are reported as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1996, which is September 30, 1996. Commercial SNF and commercial uranium mill tailings inventories are reported on an end-of-calendar year (CY) basis. All SNF and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are SNF, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through FY 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  15. Integrated data base report - 1994: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Except for transuranic wastes, inventories of these materials are reported as of December 31, 1994. Transuranic waste inventories are reported as of December 31, 1993. All spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  16. Fracture Characteristics in a Disposal Pit on Mesita del Buey, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David T. Vaniman; Steven L. Reneau

    1998-12-01

    The characteristics of fractures in unit 2 of the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff were documented in Pit 39, a newly excavated 13.7 m deep disposal pit at Material Disposal Area G on Mesita del Buey. The average spacing between fractures is about 1.0 to 1.3 m, the average fracture aperture is about 3 to 5 mm, and the average fracture dip is about 76o to 77o. Fracture spacing and dip in Pit 39 are generally consistent with that reported from other fracture studies on the Pajarito Plateau, although the fracture apertures in Pit 39 are less than reported elsewhere. Measured fracture orientations are strongly affected by biases imparted by the orientations of the pit walls, which, combined with a small data set, make identification of potential preferred orientations dlfflcult. The most prominent fracture orientations observed in Pit 39, about E-W and N20E, are often not well represented elsewhere on the Pajarito Plateau. Fracture fills contain smectite to about 3 m depth, and calcite and opal may occur at all depths, principally associated with roots or root fossils (rhizoliths). Roots of pifion pine extend in fractures to the bottom of the pit along the north side, perhaps indicating a zone of preferred infiltration of water. Finely powdered tuff with clay-sized particles occurs within a number of fractures and may record abrasive disaggregation associated with small amounts of displacement on minor local faults.

  17. IMPULSIVE ACCELERATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. STATISTICS AND CORONAL MASS EJECTION SOURCE REGION CHARACTERISTICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bein, B. M.; Berkebile-Stoiser, S.; Veronig, A. M.; Temmer, M.; Muhr, N.; Kienreich, I.; Utz, D.

    2011-09-10

    We use high time cadence images acquired by the STEREO EUVI and COR instruments to study the evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from their initiation through impulsive acceleration to the propagation phase. For a set of 95 CMEs we derived detailed height, velocity, and acceleration profiles and statistically analyzed characteristic CME parameters: peak acceleration, peak velocity, acceleration duration, initiation height, height at peak velocity, height at peak acceleration, and size of the CME source region. The CME peak accelerations we derived range from 20 to 6800 m s{sup -2} and are inversely correlated with the acceleration duration and the height at peak acceleration. Seventy-four percent of the events reach their peak acceleration at heights below 0.5 R{sub sun}. CMEs that originate from compact sources low in the corona are more impulsive and reach higher peak accelerations at smaller heights. These findings can be explained by the Lorentz force, which drives the CME accelerations and decreases with height and CME size.

  18. Fort Saint Vrain HTGR (Th/U carbide) Fuel Characteristics for Disposal Criticality Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Larry Lorin

    2001-01-01

    DOE-owned spent nuclear fuels encompass many fuel types. In an effort to facilitate criticality analysis for these various fuel types, they were categorized into eight characteristic fuel groups with emphasis on fuel matrix composition. Out of each fuel group, a representative fuel type was chosen for analysis as a bounding case within that fuel group. Generally, burnup data, fissile enrichments and total fuel mass govern the selection of the representative or candidate fuel within that group. For the HTGR group, the Fort Saint Vrain (FSV) reactor fuel has been chosen for the evaluation of viability for waste co-disposal. The FSV reactor was operated by Public Service of Colorado as a licensed power reactor. The FSV fuel employs a U/Th carbide matrix in individually pyrolytic carbon-coated particles. These individual particles are in turn coated with silicon carbide (SiC) and contained within fuel compacts, that are in turn embedded in graphite blocks that comprised the structural core of the reactor.

  19. Table HC1-5a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Owner- Occupied Units Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Homes Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.4 0.4 1.8 2.1 1.4 Total ............................................... 72.7 63.2 2.1 1.8 5.7 6.7 Census Region and Division Northeast ......................................

  20. "Table HC10.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by U.S. Census Regions, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by U.S. Census Regions, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Home Electronics Characteristics",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Personal Computers" "Do Not Use a Personal Computer ",35.5,6.9,8.1,14.2,6.4 "Use a Personal

  1. "Table HC10.2 Living Space Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Living Space Characteristics",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Total Floorspace1" "Fewer than 500",3.2,0.9,0.5,0.9,1 "500 to 999",23.8,4.6,3.9,9,6.3

  2. "Table HC10.4 Space Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Space Heating Characteristics",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q",0.7 "Have Main Space Heating

  3. "Table HC10.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,4,2.1,1.4,10.3 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,16.5,23.5,39.3,13.9 "Use Cooling

  4. "Table HC10.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by U.S. Census Regions, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by U.S. Census Regions, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total U.S.",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an Oven",109.6,20.3,25.3,40.2,23.7

  5. "Table HC15.1 Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,7.1,"N","N","N" "New

  6. "Table HC15.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Home Electronics Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Personal Computers" "Do Not Use a Personal Computer ",35.5,3,2,2.7,3.1 "Use a Personal

  7. "Table HC15.2 Living Space Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Living Space Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Total Floorspace1" "Fewer than 500",3.2,0.4,"Q","Q",0.5 "500

  8. "Table HC15.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Space Heating Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q",0.2 "Have Main Space Heating

  9. "Table HC15.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.8,"Q","Q",4.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,5.3,7,7.8,7.2

  10. "Table HC15.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total U.S.",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an Oven",109.6,7.1,6.9,7.8,11.7

  11. "Table HC3.1 Housing Unit Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Unit Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes"

  12. "Table HC3.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Home Electronics Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile

  13. "Table HC3.2 Living Space Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions) " ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes"

  14. "Table HC3.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes"

  15. "Table HC3.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile

  16. "Table HC3.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC3.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile

  17. "Table HC4.1 Housing Unit Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Unit Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million Housing Units" ,," Renter-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes"

  18. "Table HC4.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Renter-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Home Electronics Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile

  19. "Table HC4.2 Living Space Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Units, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Units, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Renter-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile

  20. "Table HC4.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Renter-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile

  1. "Table HC4.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Units, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Units, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Renter-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile

  2. "Table HC4.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC4.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Renter-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More

  3. verification & Validation of High-Order Short-Characteristics-Based Deterministic Transport Methodology on Unstructured Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azmy, Yousry; Wang, Yaqi

    2013-12-20

    The research team has developed a practical, high-order, discrete-ordinates, short characteristics neutron transport code for three-dimensional configurations represented on unstructured tetrahedral grids that can be used for realistic reactor physics applications at both the assembly and core levels. This project will perform a comprehensive verification and validation of this new computational tool against both a continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulation (e.g. MCNP) and experimentally measured data, an essential prerequisite for its deployment in reactor core modeling. Verification is divided into three phases. The team will first conduct spatial mesh and expansion order refinement studies to monitor convergence of the numerical solution to reference solutions. This is quantified by convergence rates that are based on integral error norms computed from the cell-by-cell difference between the codes numerical solution and its reference counterpart. The latter is either analytic or very fine- mesh numerical solutions from independent computational tools. For the second phase, the team will create a suite of code-independent benchmark configurations to enable testing the theoretical order of accuracy of any particular discretization of the discrete ordinates approximation of the transport equation. For each tested case (i.e. mesh and spatial approximation order), researchers will execute the code and compare the resulting numerical solution to the exact solution on a per cell basis to determine the distribution of the numerical error. The final activity comprises a comparison to continuous-energy Monte Carlo solutions for zero-power critical configuration measurements at Idaho National Laboratorys Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Results of this comparison will allow the investigators to distinguish between modeling errors and the above- listed discretization errors introduced by the deterministic method, and to separate the sources of uncertainty.

  4. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  5. Characteristics of Cu stabilized Nb3Al strands with low Cu ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kikuchi, A.; Yamada, R.; Barzi, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Lamm, M.; Nakagawa, K.; Sasaki, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /NIMC, Tsukuba /Fermilab /Hitachi, Tsuchiura Works /KEK, Tsukuba

    2008-12-01

    Characteristics of recently developed F4-Nb{sub 3}Al strand with low Cu ratio are described. The overall J{sub c} of the Nb{sub 3}Al strand could be easily increased by decreasing of the Cu ratio. Although the quench of a pulse-like voltage generation is usually observed in superconducting unstable conductor, the F4 strand with a low Cu ratio of 0.61 exhibited an ordinary critical transition of gradual voltage generation. The F4 strand does not have magnetic instabilities at 4.2 K because of the tantalum interfilament matrix. The overall J{sub c} of the F4 strand achieved was 80-85% of the RRP strand. In the large mechanical stress above 100 MPa, the overall J{sub c} of the F4 strand might be comparable to that of high J{sub c} RRP-Nb{sub 3}Sn strands. The Rutherford cable with a high packing factor of 86.5% has been fabricated using F4 strands. The small racetrack magnet, SR07, was also fabricated by a 14 m F4 cable. The quench current, I{sub q}, of SR07 were obtained 22.4 kA at 4.5 K and 25.2 kA at 2.2 K. The tantalum matrix Nb{sub 3}Al strands are promising for the application of super-cooled high-field magnets as well as 4.2 K operation magnets.

  6. Large eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2014-11-27

    Surface roughness parameters are at the core of every model representation of the coupling and interactions between land-surface and atmosphere, and are used in every model of surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and do not vary them in response to spatial or temporal changes to canopy structure. In part, this is due to the difficulty of reducing the complexity of canopy structure and its spatiotemporal dynamic and heterogeneity to less than a handful of parameters describing its effects of atmosphere–surface interactions. In this study we use large-eddy simulationsmore » to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction. We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but were able to find positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, and between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. Using a decade of wind and canopy structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-resolved parameters in predicting the frictional velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared it with three other semi-empirical models and with a decade of meteorological observations. We found that parameterizations with fixed representations of roughness performed relatively well. Nonetheless, some empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and inter-annual changes to the canopy structure performed even better than models with temporally fixed parameters.« less

  7. Potentiometric Response Characteristics of Membrane-BasedCs+-Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peper, Shane; Gonczy, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Cs+-selective solvent polymeric membrane-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were developed by doping ethylene glycol-functionalized cross-linked polystyrene microspheres (P-EG) into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix containing sodium tetrakis-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) borate (TFPB) as the ion exchanger. A systematic study examining the effects of the membrane plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 2-fluorophenyl nitrophenyl ether (FPNPE) on the potentiometric response and selectivity of the corresponding electrodes was performed. Under certain conditions, P-EG-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) containing TFPB and plasticized with NPOE exhibited a super-Nernstian response between110?3and110?4?M Cs+, a response characteristic not observed in analogous membranes plasticized with either DOS or FPNPE.moreAdditionally, the performance of P-EG-based ISEs was compared to electrodes based on two mobile ionophores, a neutral lipophilic ethylene glycol derivative (ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (U-EG)) and a charged metallacarborane ionophore, sodium bis(dicarbollyl)cobaltate(III) (CC). In general, P-EG-based electrodes plasticized with FPNPE yielded the best performance, with a linear range from 10-110-5?M Cs+, a conventional lower detection limit of8.110?6?M Cs+, and a response slope of 57.7?mV/decade. The pH response of P-EG ISEs containing TFPB was evaluated for membranes plasticized with either NPOE or FPNPE. In both cases, the electrodes remained stable throughout the pH range 312, with only slight proton interference observed below pH 3.less

  8. Engineering characteristics of bedrock for the proposed superconducting super collider in Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, R.A.; Curry, B.; Vaiden, R.C.; Graese, A.M.; Dixon, W.; Su, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen test holes were drilled in a 36-township area in northeastern Illinois as part of a geological feasibility study for the proposed Superconducting Super Collider. Bedrock tunneling suitability is being characterized by comprehensive testing of continuous core of lower Silurian, Ordovician and upper Cambrian units. Tests include unconfined compressive (UCS) and indirect tensile strength (ITS), fracture spacing, rock quality designation, drilling rate and water injection tests. Preliminary results indicate that the 38-m thick Wise Lake Formation of the Ordovician Galena Group is best suited for tunnel construction. The Wise Lake is a vuggy, fossiliferous dolomite with subordinate limestone. Two joint sets oriented N50E and N50W are found in this unit with spacings between joints of about 0.8 m. The overlying Maquoketa Shale Group consists of basal shales from 1 to 22 m thick which are overlain by interbeds of dolomitic shale and dolomite. The Silurian Formations are composed chiefly of fine-grained cherty dolomite; engineering characteristics are similar to the Wise Lake Formation. The upper 3 to 4 m of bedrock can be severely jointed and weathered; permeability ranges from 1.0 x 10/sup -3/ to 1.0 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sec. Although the ring design and national location have not been decided, the geotechnical data indicate that the most favorable tunneling conditions at the Illinois site are 130 to 150 m below the ground surface in the Wise Lake Formation of the Galena Group. By comparison, conditions are more favorable than similar test data developed for the successful TARP project in Chicago.

  9. Relationship between the structure and electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takabayashi, Susumu Otsuji, Taiichi; Yang, Meng; Ogawa, Shuichi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Jeko, Radek; Takakuwa, Yuji

    2014-09-07

    To elucidate the relationship between the structure and the electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, DLC films were synthesized in a well-controlled glow discharge with the aid of photoelectrons in an argon/methane atmosphere. The dielectric constant and breakdown strength of the films exhibited opposite behaviors, depending on the total pressure during the synthesis. The product of these two values decreased monotonically as the pressure increased. The Raman spectra were analyzed with a Voigt-type formula. Based on the results, the authors propose the sp{sup 2} cluster model for the DLC structure. This model consists of conductive clusters of sp{sup 2} carbons surrounded by a dielectric matrix sea of sp{sup 2} carbon, sp{sup 3} carbon, and hydrogen, and indicates that the dielectric constant of the whole DLC film is determined by the balance between the dielectric constant of the matrix and the total size of the clusters, while the breakdown strength is determined by the reciprocal of the cluster size. The model suggests that a high-? DLC film can be synthesized at a middle pressure and consists of well-grown sp{sup 2} clusters and a dense matrix. A low-? DLC film can be synthesized both at low and high pressures. The sp{sup 2} cluster model explains that a low-? DLC film synthesized at low pressure consists of a dense matrix and a low density of sp{sup 2} clusters, and exhibits a high breakdown strength. On the other hand, a low-? film synthesized at high pressure consists of a coarse matrix and a high density of clusters and exhibits a low breakdown strength.

  10. Potentiometric Response Characteristics of Membrane-Based Cs + -Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peper, Shane; Gonczy, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Csmore » + -selective solvent polymeric membrane-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were developed by doping ethylene glycol-functionalized cross-linked polystyrene microspheres (P-EG) into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix containing sodium tetrakis-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) borate (TFPB) as the ion exchanger. A systematic study examining the effects of the membrane plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 2-fluorophenyl nitrophenyl ether (FPNPE) on the potentiometric response and selectivity of the corresponding electrodes was performed. Under certain conditions, P-EG-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) containing TFPB and plasticized with NPOE exhibited a super-Nernstian response between 1 × 10 − 3 and 1 × 10 − 4  M Cs + , a response characteristic not observed in analogous membranes plasticized with either DOS or FPNPE. Additionally, the performance of P-EG-based ISEs was compared to electrodes based on two mobile ionophores, a neutral lipophilic ethylene glycol derivative (ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (U-EG)) and a charged metallacarborane ionophore, sodium bis(dicarbollyl)cobaltate(III) (CC). In general, P-EG-based electrodes plasticized with FPNPE yielded the best performance, with a linear range from 10 -1 –10 -5  M Cs + , a conventional lower detection limit of 8.1 × 10 − 6  M Cs + , and a response slope of 57.7 mV/decade. The pH response of P-EG ISEs containing TFPB was evaluated for membranes plasticized with either NPOE or FPNPE. In both cases, the electrodes remained stable throughout the pH range 3–12, with only slight proton interference observed below pH 3.« less

  11. Characteristics of a new creep regime in polycrystalline NiAl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj, S.V.; Farmer, S.C. )

    1995-02-01

    Constant-load creep tests were conducted on fine-grained ([approximately]23 [mu]m) Ni-50.6 (at. pct) Al in the temperature range of 1,000 to 1,400 K. Power-law creep with a stress exponent, n [approx] 6.5, and an activation energy, Q[sub c] [approx] 290 kJ mol[sup [minus]1], was observed above 25 MPa, while a new mechanism with n [approx] 2 and Q[sub c] [approx] 100 kJ mol[sup [minus]1] dominates when [sigma] < 25 MPa, where [sigma] is the applied stress. A comparison of the creep behavior of fine- and course-grained NiAl established that the mechanism in the n [approx] 2 region was dependent on grain size, and the magnitude of the grain-size exponent was estimated to be about 2. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the deformed specimens revealed a mixture of dislocation tangles, dipoles, loops, and subboundary networks in the power-law creep regime. The deformation microstructures were inhomogeneous in the n [approx] 2 creep regime, and many grains did not reveal any dislocation activity. However, bands of dislocation loops were observed in a few grains, where these loops appeared to have been emitted from the grain boundaries. The observed creep characteristics of the low-stress region suggest the dominance of an accommodated grain-boundary sliding (GBS) mechanism, although the experimental creep rates were lower than those predicted by theoretical models by over seven orders of magnitude. The low value of Q[sub c] in this region, which is approximately one-third that for lattice self-diffusion, is attributed to the possible existence of interconnected vacancy flow channels, or nanotubes'', at the grain boundaries.

  12. A comparison of the radiation tolerance characteristics of multijunction solar cells with series and voltage-matched configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M; Curtis, H.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of series and voltage-matched configurations on the performance of multijunction solar cells in a radiation environment was investigated. It was found that the configuration of the multijunction solar cell can have a significant impact on its radiation tolerence characteristics.

  13. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  14. Direct measurement of the characteristic three-body electron attachment time in the atmospheric air in direct current electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shutov, A. V.; Smetanin, I. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Zvorykin, V. D.

    2013-07-15

    We report the results of theoretical and experimental study of the characteristic time for three-body attachment of electrons produced by 100 fs UV laser pulse in the atmosphere air in the external DC electric field ranged from 0.2 to 10 kV/cm.

  15. Effect of the top electrode materials on the resistive switching characteristics of TiO{sub 2} thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Sang Chul; Jung, Ho Yong; Lee, Heon

    2011-06-15

    Various metals, such as Pt, stainless steel (SUS), Al, Ni, and Ti, were used as a top electrode (TE) to evaluate the dependency of the resistive switching characteristics on the TE of the metal/TiO{sub 2}/Pt structure. The variation of the chemical composition of TiO{sub 2} in the metal/TiO{sub 2}/Pt structure before and after switching was examined to identify the factors affecting the resistive switching characteristics of the samples with various TE materials. In the case of TE/TiO{sub 2}/Pt structures showing unstable resistive switching behavior, e.g., those with the Al, Ni, and Ti TEs, secondary ion mass spectrometry revealed an increase in the oxygen concentration at the interface area between the TE metal and TiO{sub 2}. This suggests that the oxidation reaction at the interface between the TE metal and TiO{sub 2} might cause the TE/TiO{sub 2}/Pt structure to exhibit unstable resistive switching characteristics. According to these results, the oxidation reaction at the interface between the metal TE and TiO{sub 2} thin film is a primary factor affecting the resistive switching characteristics of TiO{sub 2}-based Resistive Random Access Memory devices.

  16. Large-eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W. T.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2015-04-30

    Surface roughness parameters, namely the roughness length and displacement height, are an integral input used to model surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and disregard the governing structural heterogeneity and dynamics. In this study, we use large-eddy simulations to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy-structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction.more » We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but uncovered positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, as well as between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. We generalized our model results into a virtual "biometric" parameterization that relates roughness length and displacement height to canopy height, leaf area index, and gap fraction. Using a decade of wind and canopy-structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-driven biometric parameterization approach in predicting the friction velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared the accuracy of these predictions with the friction-velocity predictions obtained from the common simple approximation related to canopy height, the values calculated with large-eddy simulations of the explicit canopy structure as measured by airborne and ground-based lidar, two other parameterization approaches that utilize varying canopy-structure inputs, and the annual and decadal means of the surface roughness parameters at the site from meteorological observations. We found that the classical representation of constant roughness parameters (in space and time) as a fraction of canopy height performed relatively well. Nonetheless, of the approaches we tested, most of the empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and interannual variation of roughness length and displacement height as a function of the dynamics of canopy structure produced more precise and less biased estimates for friction velocity than models with temporally invariable parameters.« less

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF RANGE HOODS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A REAL ESTATE WEB SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klug, Victoria; Singer, Brett; Bedrosian, Tod; DCruz, Chris

    2011-09-02

    Venting range hoods are important residential ventilation components that remove pollutants generated by cooking activities and natural gas cooking burners. To address the lack of data on range hood installations in California, we conducted a survey by examining photographs of homes for sale or rent listed on a popular real estate web site. The survey was conducted in November 2010 and AprilMay 2011. Posted photos of the homes were reviewed to determine if a hood was installed, the type of hood, and two installation details that can impact performance, namely the height above the cooktop and the degree to which the hood covers the cooktop burners. We additionally collected information about the homes, including asking price for purchase or rent, type of building (e.g. detached house, townhouse or apartment), building age, floor area, and cooktop fuel type. Listings were first sampled to focus on homes built since 2005, then randomly sampled to include varied prices and locations around the state. Data were obtained for 1002 homes built between 1865 and 2011 (median year built 1989). Homes for sale varied in asking price from $16,000 to $16,500,000 (median $353,000) and homes for rent varied from $500 to $25,000 (median $2125) per month. Approximately 74% of the sample had natural gas cooktops. In this sample, natural gas cooktops were more prevalent in more expensive homes than in less expensive homes. Across the entire sample, 7.4 % appeared to have no hood installed, 33% had a short hood, 13% had a deep hood and 47% had a microwave over the range. The percentage of these hoods that vent to the outdoors could not be determined. Hood type was related to coverage of the cooktop. For deep hoods, 76% appeared to cover most or all of the cooktop burners. For short hoods, 70% covered about three quarters of the cooktop. And for microwaves the vast majority (96%) covered the back burners but not the front burners. Hood type was also correlated with asking price or monthly rent, with deep hoods most common in the most expensive homes. Hood type was also correlated with home age, with microwave hoods more common in newer homes. Installation height was related to device type with microwaves installed lower (closer) to the cooktop (median 18 inches), and short hoods (median 28 inches) and deep hoods (median 30 inches) installed higher. Deep range hoods are more common with natural gas cooktops than with electric cooktops, and slightly fewer homes with natural gas cooktops lack a range hood (7%) than homes with electric cooktops (9%). This study provides limited but useful information about the characteristics of range hoods in California homes and demonstrates the potential value of non-traditional forms of data collection.

  18. Moisture exposure to different layers in organic light-emitting diodes and the effect on electroluminescence characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, L. S.; Tang, C. W.

    2008-08-15

    Moisture effect on electroluminescence characteristics, including current density versus voltage, luminance versus voltage, luminous efficiency versus current density, dark spot formation, and operational stability of organic light-emitting diodes, has been systematically investigated by exposing each layer of the devices to moisture at room temperature. Moisture has a different effect on each of the interfaces or surfaces, and the influence increases as exposure time increases. There is a slight effect on the electroluminescence characteristics after the anode surface has been exposed to moisture. However, severe luminance decrease, dark spot formation, and operational stability degradation take place after the light-emitting layer or the electron-transporting layer is exposed to moisture. It is also demonstrated that the effect of moisture can be substantially reduced if the exposure to moisture is in a dark environment.

  19. Characteristics of InGaP/InGaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors with triple delta-doped sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Kuei-Yi; Chiang, Meng-Hsueh Cheng, Shiou-Ying; Liu, Wen-Chau

    2012-02-15

    Fundamental and insightful characteristics of InGaP/InGaAs double channel pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (DCPHEMTs) with graded and uniform triple {delta}-doped sheets are coomprehensively studied and demonstrated. To gain physical insight, band diagrams, carrier densities, and direct current characteristics of devices are compared and investigated based on the 2D semiconductor simulator, Atlas. Due to uniform carrier distribution and high electron density in the double InGaAs channel, the DCPHEMT with graded triple {delta}-doped sheets exhibits better transport properties, higher and linear transconductance, and better drain current capability as compared with the uniformly triple {delta}-doped counterpart. The DCPHEMT with graded triple {delta}-doped structure is fabricated and tested, and the experimental data are found to be in good agreement with simulated results.

  20. Experimental investigation on heat transfer and frictional characteristics of vertical upward rifled tube in supercritical CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xiaojing; Bi, Qincheng; Chen, Tingkuan; Zhou, Chenn Q.

    2011-02-15

    Water wall design is a key issue for supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. On account of the good heat transfer performance, rifled tube is applied in the water wall design of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler in China. In order to investigate the heat transfer and frictional characteristics of the rifled tube with vertical upward flow, an in-depth experiment was conducted in the range of pressure from 12 to 30 MPa, mass flux from 230 to 1200 kg/(m{sup 2} s), and inner wall heat flux from 130 to 720 kW/m{sup 2}. The wall temperature distribution and pressure drop in the rifled tube were obtained in the experiment. The normal, enhanced and deteriorated heat transfer characteristics were also captured. In this paper, the effects of pressure, inner wall heat flux and mass flux on heat transfer characteristics are analyzed, the heat transfer mechanism and the frictional resistance performance are discussed, and the corresponding empirical correlations are presented. The experimental results show that the rifled tube can effectively prevent the occurrence of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and keep the tube wall temperature in a permissible range under the operating condition of supercritical CFB boiler. (author)