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Sample records for mwh potential peak

  1. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs This report focuses on ...

  2. Property:Ind sales (mwh) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    property "Ind sales (mwh)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4-County Electric Power Assn (Mississippi) EIA Revenue and Sales - April 2008 + 18,637 +...

  3. Property:Res sales (mwh) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    property "Res sales (mwh)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4-County Electric Power Assn (Mississippi) EIA Revenue and Sales - April 2008 + 35,568 +...

  4. Property:Tot sales (mwh) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    property "Tot sales (mwh)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4-County Electric Power Assn (Mississippi) EIA Revenue and Sales - April 2008 + 69,154 +...

  5. Property:Com sales (mwh) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    property "Com sales (mwh)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4-County Electric Power Assn (Mississippi) EIA Revenue and Sales - April 2008 + 14,949 +...

  6. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrOil-FiredBoiler...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    eriodMwhYrOil-FiredBoiler Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Oil-fired boiler Pages using the property "BuildingSPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrOil-FiredB...

  7. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrOil-FiredBoiler ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rmlYrMwhYrOil-FiredBoiler Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Oil-fired boiler Pages using the property "BuildingSPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrOil-FiredBoil...

  8. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrNaturalGas | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    dEngyNrmlYrMwhYrNaturalGas Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Natural gas Pages using the property "BuildingSPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrNaturalGas"...

  9. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrNaturalGas | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gyForPeriodMwhYrNaturalGas Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Natural gas Pages using the property "BuildingSPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrNaturalGas"...

  10. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Behavior-Based Programs | Department of Energy The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs This report focuses on one example of the value that analysis of this data can provide: insights into whether BB efficiency programs have the potential to provide peak-hour energy savings. This is important because there is increasing interest in using BB programs as a stand-alone peak

  11. ,,,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Charateristics",,,,,,"Photovoltaic",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wind",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Other",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"All Technologies" ,,,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity

  12. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrLogs | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Property Edit with form History Property:BuildingSPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrLogs Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  13. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrTotal | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    dEngyNrmlYrMwhYrTotal" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 4355.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 1530.1 + Sweden Building 05K0003...

  14. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrDstrtHeating ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    riodMwhYrDstrtHeating" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 2067.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 492.2 + Sweden Building 05K0003...

  15. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrDstrtColg | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rPeriodMwhYrDstrtColg" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 762.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 322.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 +...

  16. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrElctrtyTotal ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    riodMwhYrElctrtyTotal" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 1399.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 686.9 + Sweden Building 05K0003...

  17. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrTotal | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gyForPeriodMwhYrTotal" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 4228.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 1501.1 + Sweden Building 05K0003...

  18. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrPellets | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ForPeriodMwhYrPellets" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  19. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrWoodChips | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    yNrmlYrMwhYrWoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  20. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrOther | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gyForPeriodMwhYrOther" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  1. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrWoodChips | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rPeriodMwhYrWoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  2. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrTownGas | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ngyNrmlYrMwhYrTownGas" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  3. Texas Nuclear Profile - Comanche Peak

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Comanche Peak" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" 1,"1,209","9,677",91.4,"PWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel"

  4. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2014-03-25

    The rollout of smart meters in the last several years has opened up new forms of previously unavailable energy data. Many utilities are now able in real-time to capture granular, household level interval usage data at very high-frequency levels for a large proportion of their residential and small commercial customer population. This can be linked to other time and locationspecific information, providing vast, constantly growing streams of rich data (sometimes referred to by the recently popular buzz word, big data). Within the energy industry there is increasing interest in tapping into the opportunities that these data can provide. What can we do with all of these data? The richness and granularity of these data enable many types of creative and cutting-edge analytics. Technically sophisticated and rigorous statistical techniques can be used to pull interesting insights out of this highfrequency, human-focused data. We at LBNL are calling this behavior analytics. This kind of analytics has the potential to provide tremendous value to a wide range of energy programs. For example, highly disaggregated and heterogeneous information about actual energy use would allow energy efficiency (EE) and/or demand response (DR) program implementers to target specific programs to specific households; would enable evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of energy efficiency programs to be performed on a much shorter time horizon than was previously possible; and would provide better insights in to the energy and peak hour savings associated with specifics types of EE and DR programs (e.g., behavior-based (BB) programs). In this series, Insights from Smart Meters, we will present concrete, illustrative examples of the type of value that insights from behavior analytics of these data can provide (as well as pointing out its limitations). We will supply several types of key findings, including: Novel results, which answer questions the industry previously was unable to answer; Proof-of-concept analytics tools that can be adapted and used by others; and Guidelines and protocols that summarize analytical best practices. This report focuses on one example of the kind of value that analysis of this data can provide: insights into whether behavior-based (BB) efficiency programs have the potential to provide peak-hour energy savings.

  5. "Utility Characteristics",,,,,,"Number AMR- Automated Meter Reading",,,,,"Number AMI- Advanced Metering Infrastructure",,,,,"Energy Served - AMI (MWh)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Served - AMI (MWh)" "Year","Month","Utility Number","Utility Name","State","Data

  6. Bandwidth Historical Peak Days

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bandwidth Historical Peak Days Bandwidth Historical Peak Days These plots show yearly peak days from 2000 to the present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer

  7. QER- Comment of MWH Global

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hello, Was looking at the calendar and curious when the “Final Meeting” is in DC for the QER? http://energy.gov/epsa/initiatives/quadrennial-energy-review-qer Thanks,

  8. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  9. monthly_peak_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and 2005 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak

  10. PEAK READING VOLTMETER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, A.L.

    1958-07-29

    An improvement in peak reading voltmeters is described, which provides for storing an electrical charge representative of the magnitude of a transient voltage pulse and thereafter measuring the stored charge, drawing oniy negligible energy from the storage element. The incoming voltage is rectified and stored in a condenser. The voltage of the capacitor is applied across a piezoelectric crystal between two parallel plates. Amy change in the voltage of the capacitor is reflected in a change in the dielectric constant of the crystal and the capacitance between a second pair of plates affixed to the crystal is altered. The latter capacitor forms part of the frequency determlning circuit of an oscillator and means is provided for indicating the frequency deviation which is a measure of the peak voltage applied to the voltmeter.

  11. Desert Peak EGS Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Desert Peak EGS Project DOE Award: DE-FC6-02ID14406 Ethan Chabora GeothermEx, a Schlumberger Company Ezra Zemach Ormat Nevada Inc. Project Officer: Bill Vandermeer Total Project Funding: $7.6M April 22nd, 2013 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Insert photo of your choice 2 | US DOE Geothermal Program eere.energy.gov - Timeline * Project start date: September 2002 * Project end date: Q3 2013 * Percentage complete: 90% - Budget *

  12. monthly_peak_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1996 through 2004 and Projected 2005 through 2006 (Megawatts and 2004 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO NPCC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour

  13. monthly_peak_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2008 Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Megawatts and 2006 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak

  14. Aggregate Transfers Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transfers Historical Yearly Peak Aggregate Transfers Historical Yearly Peak These plots show the yearly peak days from 2000 to the present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate

  15. Concurrent Transfers Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transfers Historical Yearly Peak Concurrent Transfers Historical Yearly Peak These plots show the yearly peak days from 2000 to present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage

  16. Transfer Activity Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Historical Yearly Peak Transfer Activity Historical Yearly Peak The plots below show the yearly peak days from 2000 to the present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for the current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In

  17. Concurrent Transfers Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily...

  18. winter_peak_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Megawatts and 2006 Base ...

  19. monthly_peak_2003.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    O Form EIA-411 for 2005 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2007 Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1996 through 2003 and Projected 2004 through 2005 (Megawatts and 2003 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MR NPCC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW)

  20. winter_peak_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and 2005 Base Year)...

  1. winter_peak_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 and Projected 2005 through 2009 (Megawatts and...

  2. Potential

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Potential and Frictional Drag on a Floating Sphere in a Flowing Plasma I. H. Hutchinson Plasma Science and Fusion Center Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA...

  3. Desert Peak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Geothermal Area (Redirected from Desert Peak Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Desert Peak Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2...

  4. Peak finding using biorthogonal wavelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, C.Y.

    2000-02-01

    The authors show in this paper how they can find the peaks in the input data if the underlying signal is a sum of Lorentzians. In order to project the data into a space of Lorentzian like functions, they show explicitly the construction of scaling functions which look like Lorentzians. From this construction, they can calculate the biorthogonal filter coefficients for both the analysis and synthesis functions. They then compare their biorthogonal wavelets to the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations) wavelets when used for peak finding in noisy data. They will show that in this instance, their filters perform much better than the FBI wavelets.

  5. summer_peak_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a . Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and 2005 Base Year) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2005 758,876 46,396 39,918 58,960 190,200 190,705 41,727 60,210 130,760 Projected Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP

  6. summer_peak_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a . Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Megawatts and 2006 Base Year) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2006 789,475 45,751 42,194 63,241 191,920 199,052 42,882 62,339 142,096 Projected Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC

  7. winter_peak_2003.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ) Form EIA-411 for 2005 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2007 Table 2b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2003 and Projected 2004 through 2008 (Megawatts and 2003 Base Year) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP (U.S. NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990/1991 484,231 67,097

  8. EA-2023: Crossman Peak Communications Facility; Mohave County, Arizona |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy EA-2023: Crossman Peak Communications Facility; Mohave County, Arizona EA-2023: Crossman Peak Communications Facility; Mohave County, Arizona Summary Western Area Power Administration is preparing an EA that assesses the potential environmental impacts of a proposed new microwave communication facility to be located adjacent to a privately-owned one near Crossman Peak, east of Lake Havasu City in Mohave County, Arizona. The proposal would consist of a microwave

  9. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Reduce the high level of risk during the early stages of geothermal project development by conducting a multi-faceted and innovative exploration and drilling program at Silver Peak. Determine the combination of techniques that are most useful and cost-effective in identifying the geothermal resource through a detailed, post-project evaluation of the exploration and drilling program.

  10. Desert Peak EGS Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Desert Peak EGS Project Desert Peak EGS Project Desert Peak EGS Project presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon desert_peak_egs_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Desert Peak EGS Project Bradys EGS Project Creation of an Engineered Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation

  11. Peak Treatment Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Treatment Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Peak Treatment Systems Place: Golden, CO Website: www.peaktreatmentsystems.com References: Peak Treatment Systems1 Information...

  12. Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Previous Articles Previous Articles Estimates of Peak Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States, 2009 Update (Released, 8312009) Estimates of Peak Underground...

  13. summer_peak_1990_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c . Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 (Megawatts) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S....

  14. winter_peak_1990_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d . Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 (Megawatts) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous...

  15. peak_load_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected (Megawatts) Interconnection NERC Regional Assesment Area 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 FRCC 27,266 28,818 30,601 32,823 32,904 34,524 35,444 35,375 38,730 37,493 37,194 39,062 40,696 40,475 42,383 46,396 45,751 46,676 44,836 NPCC 44,116 46,594 43,658 46,706 47,581 47,705 45,094 49,269 49,566 52,855

  16. summer_peak_2003.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 (Megawatts and 2003 Base Year) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990 546,331 79,258 27,266 42,613 40,740 24,994 44,116 94,677 52,541 42,737 97,389 1991 551,418 81,224 28,818 45,937 41,598 25,498 46,594 95,968 51,885 41,870 92,026 1992 548,707 78,550 30,601 43,658 38,819 22,638 43,658 97,635 51,324 42,619

  17. summer_peak_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 (Megawatts and 2004 Base Year) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990 546,331 79,258 27,266 42,613 40,740 24,994 44,116 94,677 52,541 42,737 97,389 1991 551,418 81,224 28,818 45,937 41,598 25,498 46,594 95,968 51,885 41,870 92,026 1992 548,707 78,550 30,601 43,658 38,819 22,638 43,658 97,635 51,324

  18. SnowPeak Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SnowPeak Energy Place: Reno, Nevada Zip: 89502 Product: Nevada-based concentrator PV module maker. References: SnowPeak Energy1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  19. Desert Peak EGS Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EGS Project Desert Peak EGS Project Geothermal Technologies Program 2010 Peer Review Desert Peak EGS Project, for the Engineered Geothermal Systems Demonstration Projects and Innovative Exploration Technologies. Objective to stimulate permeability in tight well 27-15 and improve connection to rest of the field; improve overall productivity or injectivity. Successful stimulation yields more production and enables more power generation. PDF icon egs_drakos_desert_peak.pdf More Documents &

  20. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  1. Monthly Generation System Peak (pbl/generation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation > Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Monthly Generation System Peak (GSP) This site is no longer maintained. Page last...

  2. Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Capacity Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity Released: September 3, 2010 for data as of April 2010 Next Release: August 2011 References Methodology Definitions...

  3. monthly_peak_byarea_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B.1. FRCC Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area, 1996-2010 Actual, 2011-2012 Projected (Megawatts) FRCC Year January February ...

  4. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, R.L.; Bezdek, Roger; Wendling, Robert

    2005-02-01

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  5. Wavelet Approach for Operational Gamma Spectral Peak Detection - Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    2012-02-01

    Gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identifications typically involves locating spectral peaks and matching the spectral peaks with known nuclides in the knowledge base or database. Wavelet analysis, due to its ability for fitting localized features, offers the potential for automatic detection of spectral peaks. Past studies of wavelet technologies for gamma spectra analysis essentially focused on direct fitting of raw gamma spectra. Although most of those studies demonstrated the potentials of peak detection using wavelets, they often failed to produce new benefits to operational adaptations for radiological surveys. This work presents a different approach with the operational objective being to detect only the nuclides that do not exist in the environment (anomalous nuclides). With this operational objective, the raw-count spectrum collected by a detector is first converted to a count-rate spectrum and is then followed by background subtraction prior to wavelet analysis. The experimental results suggest that this preprocess is independent of detector type and background radiation, and is capable of improving the peak detection rates using wavelets. This process broadens the doors for a practical adaptation of wavelet technologies for gamma spectral surveying devices.

  6. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Demand-Side Management Program Annual Effects by Program Category, 2004 through 2012 (Table Discontinued) Energy Efficiency Load Management Total Year Energy Savings (Thousand MWh) Actual Peak Load Reduction (MW) Energy Savings (Thousand MWh) Potential Peak Load Reduction (MW) Actual Peak Load Reduction (MW) Energy Savings (Thousand MWh) Actual Peak Load Reduction (MW) 2004 52,663 14,272 1,966 20,997 9,263 54,629 23,535 2005 59,000 15,394 930 21,259 10,341 59,930 25,735 2006 63,076 16,006 790

  7. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. Demand-Side Management Program Incremental Effects by Program Category, 2004 through 2012 (Table Discontinued) Energy Efficiency Load Management Total Year Energy Savings (Thousand MWh) Actual Peak Load Reduction (MW) Energy Savings (Thousand MWh) Potential Peak Load Reduction (MW) Actual Peak Load Reduction (MW) Energy Savings (Thousand MWh) Actual Peak Load Reduction (MW) 2004 4,532 1,727 36 3,064 1,163 4,569 2,890 2005 5,879 1,705 137 2,223 1,162 6,016 2,867 2006 5,394 1,268 99 2,817 1,690

  8. Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Summer Peak Net Capacity (MW) Winter Peak Net Capacity (MW) Avg. Annual GenerationConsumption Gross Generation (MWh) Generation Delivered to Grid (MWh) Plant Parasitic...

  9. Baker-Barry Tunnel Lighting: Evaluation of a Potential GATEWAY Demonstrations Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the Baker-Barry Tunnel as a potential GATEWAY Demonstrations project for deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The National Park Service (NPS) views this project as a possible proving ground and template for implementation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires in other NPS tunnels, thereby expanding the estimated 40% energy savings from 132 MWh/yr for this tunnel to a much larger figure national

  10. LNG production for peak shaving operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, B.C.

    1999-07-01

    LNG production facilities are being developed as an alternative or in addition to underground storage throughout the US to provide gas supply during peak gas demand periods. These facilities typically involved a small liquefaction unit with a large LNG storage tank and gas sendout facilities capable of responding to peak loads during the winter. Black and Veatch is active in the development of LNG peak shaving projects for clients using a patented mixed refrigerant technology for efficient production of LNG at a low installed cost. The mixed refrigerant technology has been applied in a range of project sizes both with gas turbine and electric motor driven compression systems. This paper will cover peak shaving concepts as well as specific designs and projects which have been completed to meet this market need.

  11. QER- Comment of Cloud Peak Energy Inc

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear Ms Pickett Please find attached comments from Cloud Peak Energy as input to the Department of Energy’s Quadrennial Energy Review. If possible I would appreciate a confirmation that this email has been received Thank you.

  12. Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    not necessarily coincide. As such, the noncoincident peak for any region is at least as big as any monthly volume in the historical record. Data from Form EIA-191M, "Monthly...

  13. EA-2023: Crossman Peak Communications Facility; Mohave County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western Area Power Administration is preparing an EA that assesses the potential environmental impacts of a proposed new microwave communication facility to be located adjacent to a privately-owned one near Crossman Peak, east of Lake Havasu City in Mohave County, Arizona. The proposal would consist of a microwave communication facility, an access road, and an approximately 8-mile electrical service distribution line across private land and land administered by the Bureau of Land Management.

  14. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Miller, Clay

    2010-01-01

    Data generated from the Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project, in Esmeralda County, Nevada, encompasses a “deep-circulation (amagmatic)” meteoric-geothermal system circulating beneath basin-fill sediments locally blanketed with travertine in western Clayton Valley (lithium-rich brines from which have been mined for several decades). Spring- and shallow-borehole thermal-water geochemistry and geothermometry suggest that a Silver Peak geothermal reservoir is very likely to attain the temperature range 260- 300oF (~125-150oC), and may reach 300-340oF (~150-170oC) or higher (GeothermEx, Inc., 2006). Results of detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and conceptual modeling of the prospect (1) support the GeothermEx (op. cit.) assertion that the Silver Peak prospect has good potential for geothermal-power production; and (2) provide a theoretical geologic framework for further exploration and development of the resource. The Silver Peak prospect is situated in the transtensional (regional shearing coupled with extension) Walker Lane structural belt, and squarely within the late Miocene to Pliocene (11 Ma to ~5 Ma) Silver Peak-Lone Mountain metamorphic core complex (SPCC), a feature that accommodated initial displacement transfer between major right-lateral strike- slip fault zones on opposite sides of the Walker Lane. The SPCC consists essentially of a ductiley-deformed lower plate, or “core,” of Proterozoic metamorphic tectonites and tectonized Mesozoic granitoids separated by a regionally extensive, low-angle detachment fault from an upper plate of severely stretched and fractured structural slices of brittle, Proterozoic to Miocene-age lithologies. From a geothermal perspective, the detachment fault itself and some of the upper-plate structural sheets could function as important, if secondary, subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in a Silver Peak hydrothermal system.

  15. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Miller, Clay

    2010-01-01

    Data generated from the Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project, in Esmeralda County, Nevada, encompasses a deep-circulation (amagmatic) meteoric-geothermal system circulating beneath basin-fill sediments locally blanketed with travertine in western Clayton Valley (lithium-rich brines from which have been mined for several decades). Spring- and shallow-borehole thermal-water geochemistry and geothermometry suggest that a Silver Peak geothermal reservoir is very likely to attain the temperature range 260- 300oF (~125-150oC), and may reach 300-340oF (~150-170oC) or higher (GeothermEx, Inc., 2006). Results of detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and conceptual modeling of the prospect (1) support the GeothermEx (op. cit.) assertion that the Silver Peak prospect has good potential for geothermal-power production; and (2) provide a theoretical geologic framework for further exploration and development of the resource. The Silver Peak prospect is situated in the transtensional (regional shearing coupled with extension) Walker Lane structural belt, and squarely within the late Miocene to Pliocene (11 Ma to ~5 Ma) Silver Peak-Lone Mountain metamorphic core complex (SPCC), a feature that accommodated initial displacement transfer between major right-lateral strike- slip fault zones on opposite sides of the Walker Lane. The SPCC consists essentially of a ductiley-deformed lower plate, or core, of Proterozoic metamorphic tectonites and tectonized Mesozoic granitoids separated by a regionally extensive, low-angle detachment fault from an upper plate of severely stretched and fractured structural slices of brittle, Proterozoic to Miocene-age lithologies. From a geothermal perspective, the detachment fault itself and some of the upper-plate structural sheets could function as important, if secondary, subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in a Silver Peak hydrothermal system.

  16. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Miller, Clay

    Data generated from the Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project, in Esmeralda County, Nevada, encompasses a deep-circulation (amagmatic) meteoric-geothermal system circulating beneath basin-fill sediments locally blanketed with travertine in western Clayton Valley (lithium-rich brines from which have been mined for several decades). Spring- and shallow-borehole thermal-water geochemistry and geothermometry suggest that a Silver Peak geothermal reservoir is very likely to attain the temperature range 260- 300oF (~125-150oC), and may reach 300-340oF (~150-170oC) or higher (GeothermEx, Inc., 2006). Results of detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and conceptual modeling of the prospect (1) support the GeothermEx (op. cit.) assertion that the Silver Peak prospect has good potential for geothermal-power production; and (2) provide a theoretical geologic framework for further exploration and development of the resource. The Silver Peak prospect is situated in the transtensional (regional shearing coupled with extension) Walker Lane structural belt, and squarely within the late Miocene to Pliocene (11 Ma to ~5 Ma) Silver Peak-Lone Mountain metamorphic core complex (SPCC), a feature that accommodated initial displacement transfer between major right-lateral strike- slip fault zones on opposite sides of the Walker Lane. The SPCC consists essentially of a ductiley-deformed lower plate, or core, of Proterozoic metamorphic tectonites and tectonized Mesozoic granitoids separated by a regionally extensive, low-angle detachment fault from an upper plate of severely stretched and fractured structural slices of brittle, Proterozoic to Miocene-age lithologies. From a geothermal perspective, the detachment fault itself and some of the upper-plate structural sheets could function as important, if secondary, subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in a Silver Peak hydrothermal system.

  17. The PEAK experience in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-01

    The PEAK Institute was developed to provide a linkage for formal (schoolteachers) and nonformal educators (extension agents) with agricultural scientists of Clemson University`s South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station System. The goal of the Institute was to enable teams of educators and researchers to develop and provide PEAK science and math learning experiences related to relevant agricultural and environmental issues of local communities for both classroom and 4-H Club experiences. The Peak Institute was conducted through a twenty day residential Institute held in June for middle school and high school teachers who were teamed with an Extension agent from their community. These educators participated in hands-on, minds-on sessions conducted by agricultural researchers and Clemson University Cooperative Extension specialists. Participants were given the opportunity to see frontier science being conducted by scientists from a variety of agricultural laboratories.

  18. Peak to Peak Charter Wins Colorado Science Bowl - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peak to Peak Charter Wins Colorado Science Bowl Lafayette School Heads to Washington D.C. to Challenge for National Title February 13, 2010 Students from Peak to Peak Charter School won the Colorado High School Science Bowl today. They will go on to the 20th National Science Bowl in Washington D.C. on April 29 - May 4, where they will compete for the national title against more than 450 students from 68 high schools. The U.S. Department of Energy began the Science Bowl tradition in 1991 as a way

  19. Twin Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Twin Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Twin...

  20. Emcore/SunPeak Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Power Plant Facility EmcoreSunPeak Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Photovoltaic Developer SunPeak Solar Location Albuquerque, New Mexico Coordinates 35.0844909,...

  1. Development Wells At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Development Wells At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  2. Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak...

  3. Magnetotellurics At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Magnetotellurics At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  4. Geothermometry At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  5. Cuttings Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  6. Ground Magnetics At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Magnetics At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  7. Core Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Core Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  8. Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And...

  9. Cuttings Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  10. ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    f. Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak...

  11. monthly_peak_bymonth_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A.1. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area, 1996-2010 Actual, 2011-2012 Projected (Megawatts) January NERC Regional Assesment Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011E 2012E FRCC 39,860 37,127 27,122 38,581 37,521 40,258 39,675 45,033 35,545 41,247 34,464 38,352 41,705 44,945 53,093 46,839 47,613 NPCC 41,680 41,208 40,009 44,199 45,227 43,553 42,039 45,987 66,215 47,041 43,661 45,002 46,803

  12. Property:Oth sales (mwh) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2008 + 713 + Central Illinois Pub Serv Co (Illinois) EIA Revenue and Sales - September 2008 + 886 + City of Detroit (Michigan) EIA Revenue and Sales - April 2008 + 400 + City of...

  13. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Desert Peak Area (Wisian & Blackwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Desert Peak Area (Wisian & Blackwell, 2004) Exploration Activity...

  14. ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    e. Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,,,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident...

  15. CORRELATION BETWEEN PEAK ENERGY AND PEAK LUMINOSITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Chen, D. Y. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Huang, Y. F., E-mail: sci.zbzhang@gzu.edu.cn, E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-08-10

    A correlation between the peak luminosity and the peak energy has been found by Yonetoku et al. as L{sub p} {proportional_to}E{sup 2.0}{sub p,i} for 11 pre-Swift long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this study, for a greatly expanded sample of 148 long GRBs in the Swift era, we find that the correlation still exists, but most likely with a slightly different power-law index, i.e., L{sub p} {proportional_to} E{sup 1.7}{sub p,i}. In addition, we have collected 17 short GRBs with necessary data. We find that the correlation of L{sub p} {proportional_to} E{sup 1.7}{sub p,i} also exists for this sample of short events. It is argued that the radiation mechanism of both long and short GRBs should be similar, i.e., of quasi-thermal origin caused by the photosphere, with the dissipation occurring very near the central engine. Some key parameters of the process are constrained. Our results suggest that the radiation processes of both long and short bursts may be dominated by thermal emission, rather than by the single synchrotron radiation. This might put strong physical constraints on the theoretical models.

  16. Track B - Critical Guidance for Peak Performance Homes | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy B - Critical Guidance for Peak Performance Homes Track B - Critical Guidance for Peak Performance Homes Presentations from Track B, Critical Guidance for Peak Performance Homes of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's 2012 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting are provided below as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. These presentations for this track covered the following topics: Ventilation Strategies in High Performance Homes; Combustion Safety in Tight Houses;

  17. Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal...

  18. Desert Peak II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Facility Desert Peak II Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Churchill, Nevada Coordinates 39.753854931241, -118.95378112793 Loading map......

  19. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2012 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007 ...

  20. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006 ...

  1. Multispectral Imaging At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Multispectral Imaging At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Colorado: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX) Campaign Links STORMVEX Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Colorado: CFHCMH Deployment to...

  3. Jiminy Peak Ski Resort Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Developments Energy Purchaser Jiminy Peak Mountain Resort Location Hancock MA Coordinates 42.5554, -73.2898 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservi...

  4. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011" ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 "...

  5. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2012 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007...

  6. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010" ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2008 and Projected 2009 through 2013 "...

  7. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2004 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power...

  8. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Megawatts and 2003 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power...

  9. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006...

  10. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2007" ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 "...

  11. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 " ,"(Megawatts and 2009...

  12. Nuclear Hydrogen for Peak Electricity Production and Spinning Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    2005-01-20

    Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen. The key strategic question is this: ''What are the early markets for nuclear hydrogen?'' The answer determines (1) whether there are incentives to implement nuclear hydrogen technology today or whether the development of such a technology could be delayed by decades until a hydrogen economy has evolved, (2) the industrial partners required to develop such a technology, and (3) the technological requirements for the hydrogen production system (rate of production, steady-state or variable production, hydrogen purity, etc.). Understanding ''early'' markets for any new product is difficult because the customer may not even recognize that the product could exist. This study is an initial examination of how nuclear hydrogen could be used in two interconnected early markets: the production of electricity for peak and intermediate electrical loads and spinning reserve for the electrical grid. The study is intended to provide an initial description that can then be used to consult with potential customers (utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, etc.) to better determine the potential real-world viability of this early market for nuclear hydrogen and provide the starting point for a more definitive assessment of the concept. If this set of applications is economically viable, it offers several unique advantages: (1) the market is approximately equivalent in size to the existing nuclear electric enterprise in the United States, (2) the entire market is within the utility industry and does not require development of an external market for hydrogen or a significant hydrogen infrastructure beyond the utility site, (3) the technology and scale match those of nuclear hydrogen production, (4) the market exists today, and (5) the market is sufficient in size to justify development of nuclear hydrogen production techniques independent of the development of any other market for hydrogen. These characteristics make it an ideal early market for nuclear hydrogen.

  13. Reducing Residential Peak Electricity Demand with Mechanical Pre-Cooling of Building Thermal Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Will; Walker, Iain; Roux, Jordan

    2014-08-01

    This study uses an advanced airflow, energy and humidity modelling tool to evaluate the potential for residential mechanical pre-cooling of building thermal mass to shift electricity loads away from the peak electricity demand period. The focus of this study is residential buildings with low thermal mass, such as timber-frame houses typical to the US. Simulations were performed for homes in 12 US DOE climate zones. The results show that the effectiveness of mechanical pre-cooling is highly dependent on climate zone and the selected pre-cooling strategy. The expected energy trade-off between cooling peak energy savings and increased off-peak energy use is also shown.

  14. EVIDENCE FOR POLAR X-RAY JETS AS SOURCES OF MICROSTREAM PEAKS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neugebauer, Marcia

    2012-05-01

    It is proposed that the interplanetary manifestations of X-ray jets observed in solar polar coronal holes during periods of low solar activity are the peaks of the so-called microstreams observed in the fast polar solar wind. These microstreams exhibit velocity fluctuations of {+-}35 km s{sup -1}, higher kinetic temperatures, slightly higher proton fluxes, and slightly higher abundances of the low-first-ionization-potential element iron relative to oxygen ions than the average polar wind. Those properties can all be explained if the fast microstreams result from the magnetic reconnection of bright-point loops, which leads to X-ray jets which, in turn, result in solar polar plumes. Because most of the microstream peaks are bounded by discontinuities of solar origin, jets are favored over plumes for the majority of the microstream peaks.

  15. SunPeak Solar LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: SunPeak Solar LLC Place: Palm Desert, California Zip: 92260 Product: US project developer and asset manager, focussing on PV projects in the south-west....

  16. Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, K.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines the capital and operating costs for fossil fuel-fired peak heating systems in geothermally (direct use) heated greenhouses. Issues covered include equipment capital costs, fuel requirements, maintenance and operating costs, system control and integration into conventional hot water greenhouse heating systems. Annual costs per square foot of greenhouse floor area are developed for three climates: Helena, MT; Klamath Falls, OR and San Bernardino, CA, for both boiler and individual unit heater peaking systems. In most applications, peaking systems sized for 60% of the peak load are able to satisfy over 95% of the annual heating requirements and cost less than $0.15 per square foot per year to operate. The propane-fired boiler system has the least cost of operation in all but Helena, MT climate.

  17. Silver Peak, Nevada: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Silver Peak is a city in Esmeralda County, Nevada. References USGS GNIS Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  18. How Technology Keeps Beating Peak Oil Predictions | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will reach their maximum production." - Van H. Manning, U.S. Bureau of Mines 1956 - "U.S. oil production will likely peak between 1965 and 1970 and decline steadily thereafter." -...

  19. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2004 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power Grid","Western...

  20. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Megawatts and 2003 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power Grid","Western...

  1. Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova Remnants

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova Remnants Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova Remnants Authors: Eriksen, Kristoffer A. [1] ; Hughes, Jack [2] ; Fontes, Christopher J. [1] ; Colgan, James P. [1] ; Hungerford, Aimee L. [1] ; Fryer, Christopher L. [1] ; Zhang, Honglin [1] ; Badenes, Carles [3] ; Slane, Patrick [4] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National

  2. February most likely month for flu season to peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February most likely month for flu season to peak February most likely month for flu season to peak The Los Alamos team's model is an ongoing research project that forecasts the current flu season probabilistically, similar to best-practice forecasts of weather, presidential elections, and sporting events. December 20, 2015 The Los Alamos team's model is an ongoing research project that forecasts the current flu season probabilistically, similar to best-practice forecasts of weather,

  3. TruePeak Process Laser Analyzer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TruePeak Process Laser Analyzer TruePeak Process Laser Analyzer In-Situ Sensors Provide Real-Time Measurements Enabling Better Control and Process Optimization Current chemical process controls use few in-situ sensors, relying instead on analytic techniques that require sample conditioning and transport, and significant turnaround time. With few exceptions, these techniques lack speed of measurement, accuracy of measurement, sensitivity of measurement, and economical measurement. In-situ sensors

  4. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David G.; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-05-01

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic growth and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study focuses on a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. In the past years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced the China End-Use Energy Model based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not likely be the case because of saturation effects in appliances, residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that the 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy-driven energy efficiency improvements will play in carbon mitigation along with a decarbonized power supply through greater renewable and non-fossil fuel generation.

  5. Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    This paper reports on the potential impact of demand response (DR) strategies in commercial buildings in California based on the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT), which uses EnergyPlus simulation prototypes for office and retail buildings. The study describes the potential impact of building size, thermal mass, climate, and DR strategies on demand savings in commercial buildings. Sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate how these factors influence the demand shift and shed during the peak period. The whole-building peak demand of a commercial building with high thermal mass in a hot climate zone can be reduced by 30percent using an optimized demand response strategy. Results are summarized for various simulation scenarios designed to help owners and managers understand the potential savings for demand response deployment. Simulated demand savings under various scenarios were compared to field-measured data in numerous climate zones, allowing calibration of the prototype models. The simulation results are compared to the peak demand data from the Commercial End-Use Survey for commercial buildings in California. On the economic side, a set of electricity rates are used to evaluate the impact of the DR strategies on economic savings for different thermal mass and climate conditions. Our comparison of recent simulation to field test results provides an understanding of the DR potential in commercial buildings.

  6. Table 8.12b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 ... Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 ...

  7. Peak Ground Velocities for Seismic Events at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coppersmith; R. Quittmeyer

    2005-02-16

    This report describes a scientific analysis to bound credible horizontal peak ground velocities (PGV) for the repository waste emplacement level at Yucca Mountain. Results are presented as a probability distribution for horizontal PGV to represent uncertainties in the analysis. The analysis also combines the bound to horizontal PGV with results of ground motion site-response modeling (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027]) to develop a composite hazard curve for horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level. This result provides input to an abstraction of seismic consequences (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169183]). The seismic consequence abstraction, in turn, defines the input data and computational algorithms for the seismic scenario class of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). Planning for the analysis is documented in Technical Work Plan TWP-MGR-GS-000001 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171850]). The bound on horizontal PGV at the repository waste emplacement level developed in this analysis complements ground motions developed on the basis of PSHA results. In the PSHA, ground motion experts characterized the epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability in their ground motion interpretations. To characterize the aleatory variability they used unbounded lognormal distributions. As a consequence of these characterizations, as seismic hazard calculations are extended to lower and lower annual frequencies of being exceeded, the ground motion level increases without bound, eventually reaching levels that are not credible (Corradini 2003 [DIRS 171191]). To provide credible seismic inputs for TSPA, in accordance with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 63.102(j) [DIRS 156605], this complementary analysis is carried out to determine reasonable bounding values of horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level for annual frequencies of exceedance as low as 10{sup -8}. For each realization of the TSPA seismic scenario, the results of this analysis provide a constraint on the values sampled from the horizontal PGV hazard curve for the waste emplacement level. The relation of this analysis to other work feeding the seismic consequence abstraction and the TSPA is shown on Figure 1-1. The ground motion hazard results from the PSHA provide the basis for inputs to a site-response model that determines the effect of site materials on the ground motion at a location of interest (e.g., the waste emplacement level). Peak ground velocity values determined from the site-response model for the waste emplacement level are then used to develop time histories (seismograms) that form input to a model of drift degradation under seismic loads potentially producing rockfall. The time histories are also used to carry out dynamic seismic structural response calculations of the drip shield and waste package system. For the drip shield, damage from seismically induced rockfall also is considered. In the seismic consequence abstraction, residual stress results from the structural response calculations are interpreted in terms of the percentage of the component (drip shield, waste package) damaged as a function of horizontal PGV. The composite hazard curve developed in this analysis, which reflects the results of site-response modeling and the bound to credible horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level, also feeds the seismic consequence abstraction. The composite hazard curve is incorporated into the TSPA sampling process to bound horizontal PGV and related seismic consequences to values that are credible.

  8. Peak Dose Assessment for Proposed DOE-PPPO Authorized Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, Delis

    2012-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct a peak dose assessment in support of the Authorized Limits Request for Solid Waste Disposal at Landfill C-746-U at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE-PPPO 2011a). The peak doses were calculated based on the DOE-PPPO Proposed Single Radionuclides Soil Guidelines and the DOE-PPPO Proposed Authorized Limits (AL) Volumetric Concentrations available in DOE-PPPO 2011a. This work is provided as an appendix to the Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky (ORISE 2012). The receptors evaluated in ORISE 2012 were selected by the DOE-PPPO for the additional peak dose evaluations. These receptors included a Landfill Worker, Trespasser, Resident Farmer (onsite), Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and an Offsite Resident Farmer. The RESRAD (Version 6.5) and RESRAD-OFFSITE (Version 2.5) computer codes were used for the peak dose assessments. Deterministic peak dose assessments were performed for all the receptors and a probabilistic dose assessment was performed only for the Offsite Resident Farmer at the request of the DOE-PPPO. In a deterministic analysis, a single input value results in a single output value. In other words, a deterministic analysis uses single parameter values for every variable in the code. By contrast, a probabilistic approach assigns parameter ranges to certain variables, and the code randomly selects the values for each variable from the parameter range each time it calculates the dose (NRC 2006). The receptor scenarios, computer codes and parameter input files were previously used in ORISE 2012. A few modifications were made to the parameter input files as appropriate for this effort. Some of these changes included increasing the time horizon beyond 1,050 years (yr), and using the radionuclide concentrations provided by the DOE-PPPO as inputs into the codes. The deterministic peak doses were evaluated within time horizons of 70 yr (for the Landfill Worker and Trespasser), 1,050 yr, 10,000 yr and 100,000 yr (for the Resident Farmer [onsite], Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and Offsite Resident Farmer) at the request of the DOE-PPPO. The time horizons of 10,000 yr and 100,000 yr were used at the request of the DOE-PPPO for informational purposes only. The probabilistic peak of the mean dose assessment was performed for the Offsite Resident Farmer using Technetium-99 (Tc-99) and a time horizon of 1,050 yr. The results of the deterministic analyses indicate that among all receptors and time horizons evaluated, the highest projected dose, 2,700 mrem/yr, occurred for the Resident Farmer (onsite) at 12,773 yr. The exposure pathways contributing to the peak dose are ingestion of plants, external gamma, and ingestion of milk, meat and soil. However, this receptor is considered an implausible receptor. The only receptors considered plausible are the Landfill Worker, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and the Offsite Resident Farmer. The maximum projected dose among the plausible receptors is 220 mrem/yr for the Outdoor Worker and it occurs at 19,045 yr. The exposure pathways contributing to the dose for this receptor are external gamma and soil ingestion. The results of the probabilistic peak of the mean dose analysis for the Offsite Resident Farmer indicate that the average (arithmetic mean) of the peak of the mean doses for this receptor is 0.98 mrem/yr and it occurs at 1,050 yr. This dose corresponds to Tc-99 within the time horizon of 1,050 yr.

  9. Ionoacoustic characterization of the proton Bragg peak with submillimeter accuracy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assmann, W. Reinhardt, S.; Lehrack, S.; Edlich, A.; Thirolf, P. G.; Parodi, K.; Kellnberger, S.; Omar, M.; Ntziachristos, V.; Moser, M.; Dollinger, G.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams in tissue (ionoacoustics). Aim of this work was to study experimentally the achievable position resolution of ionoacoustics under idealized conditions using high frequency ultrasonic transducers and a specifically selected probing beam. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity and length. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based ultrasound detectors (3.5 and 10 MHz central frequencies). The proton dose distribution in water was calculated by Geant4 and used as input for simulation of the generated acoustic wave by the matlab toolbox k-WAVE. Results: In measurements from this study, a clear signal of the Bragg peak was observed for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Bragg peak position measurements were reproducible within 30 ?m and agreed with Geant4 simulations to better than 100 ?m. The ionoacoustic signal pattern allowed for a detailed analysis of the Bragg peak and could be well reproduced by k-WAVE simulations. Conclusions: The authors have studied the ionoacoustic signal of the Bragg peak in experiments using a 20 MeV proton beam with its correspondingly localized energy deposition, demonstrating submillimeter position resolution and providing a deep insight in the correlation between the acoustic signal and Bragg peak shape. These results, together with earlier experiments and new simulations (including the results in this study) at higher energies, suggest ionoacoustics as a technique for range verification in particle therapy at locations, where the tumor can be localized by ultrasound imaging. This acoustic range verification approach could offer the possibility of combining anatomical ultrasound and Bragg peak imaging, but further studies are required for translation of these findings to clinical application.

  10. Saving Power at Peak Hours (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2011-04-28

    California needs new, responsive, demand-side energy technologies to ensure that periods of tight electricity supply on the grid don't turn into power outages. Led by Berkeley Lab's Mary Ann Piette, the California Energy Commission (through its Public Interest Energy Research Program) has established a Demand Response Research Center that addresses two motivations for adopting demand responsiveness: reducing average electricity prices and preventing future electricity crises. The research seeks to understand factors that influence "what works" in Demand Response. Piette's team is investigating the two types of demand response, load response and price response, that may influence and reduce the use of peak electric power through automated controls, peak pricing, advanced communications, and other strategies.

  11. Material Handling Fuel Cells for Building Electric Peak Shaving Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Material Handling Fuel Cells for Building Electric Peak Shaving Applications U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office August 11, 2015 Presenter: Michael Penev of NREL DOE Host: Pete Devlin 2 Question and Answer * Please type your question into the question box hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov 3 Acknowledgments Fuel Cell Technologies Office, DOE EERE For providing funding for this project and for supporting sustainable hydrogen technology development through analysis, demonstration,

  12. Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Report | Department of Energy East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review PDF icon egs_008_zemach.pdf More Documents & Publications Feasibility of EGS Development at Bradys Hot Springs, Nevada Concept Testing and Development at the Raft River Geothermal Field, Idaho Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System through

  13. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma Located in the heart of "Tornado Alley," Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company's (OG&E) electric grid faces significant challenges from severe weather, hot summers, and about 2% annual load growth. To better control costs and manage electric reliability under these conditions, OG&E is pursuing demand response strategies made possible by implementation of smart grid technologies, tools, and techniques from

  14. Deconvolution of mixed gamma emitters using peak parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadd, Milan S; Garcia, Francisco; Magadalena, Vigil M

    2011-01-14

    When evaluating samples containing mixtures of nuclides using gamma spectroscopy the situation sometimes arises where the nuclides present have photon emissions that cannot be resolved by the detector. An example of this is mixtures of {sup 241}Am and plutonium that have L x-ray emissions with slightly different energies which cannot be resolved using a high-purity germanium detector. It is possible to deconvolute the americium L x-rays from those plutonium based on the {sup 241}Am 59.54 keV photon. However, this requires accurate knowledge of the relative emission yields. Also, it often results in high uncertainties in the plutonium activity estimate due to the americium yields being approximately an order of magnitude greater than those for plutonium. In this work, an alternative method of determining the relative fraction of plutonium in mixtures of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239}Pu based on L x-ray peak location and shape parameters is investigated. The sensitivity and accuracy of the peak parameter method is compared to that for conventional peak decovolution.

  15. Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, K.

    1997-01-01

    Greenhouses are a major application of low-temperature geothermal resources. In virtually all operating systems, the geothermal fluid is used in a hot water heating system to meet 100% of both the peak and annual heating requirements of the structure. This strategy is a result of the relatively low costs associated with the development of most US geothermal direct-use resources and past tax credit programs which penalized systems using any conventional fuel sources. Increasingly, greenhouse operations will encounter limitations in available geothermal resource flow due either to production or disposal considerations. As a result, it will be necessary to operate additions at reduced water temperatures reflective of the effluent from the existing operations. Water temperature has a strong influence on heating system design. Greenhouse operators tend to have unequivocal preferences regarding heating system equipment. Many growers, particularly cut flower and bedding plant operators, prefer the {open_quotes}bare tube{close_quotes} type heating system. This system places small diameter plastic tubes under the benches or adjacent to the plants. Hot water is circulated through the tubes providing heat to the plants and the air in the greenhouse. Advantages include the ability to provide the heat directly to the plants, low cost, simple installation and the lack of a requirement for fans to circulate air. The major disadvantage of the system is poor performance at low (<140{degrees}F) water temperatures, particularly in cold climates. Under these conditions, the quantity of tubing required to meet the peak heating load is substantial. In fact, under some conditions, it is simply impractical to install sufficient tubing in the greenhouse to meet the peak heating load.

  16. Methods and apparatus for reducing peak wind turbine loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2007-02-13

    A method for reducing peak loads of wind turbines in a changing wind environment includes measuring or estimating an instantaneous wind speed and direction at the wind turbine and determining a yaw error of the wind turbine relative to the measured instantaneous wind direction. The method further includes comparing the yaw error to a yaw error trigger that has different values at different wind speeds and shutting down the wind turbine when the yaw error exceeds the yaw error trigger corresponding to the measured or estimated instantaneous wind speed.

  17. Dose ratio proton radiography using the proximal side of the Bragg peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P. J. Royle, G.; Gibson, A.; Lu, H.-M.; Prieels, D.; Bentefour, E. H.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In recent years, there has been a movement toward single-detector proton radiography, due to its potential ease of implementation within the clinical environment. One such single-detector technique is the dose ratio method in which the dose maps from two pristine Bragg peaks are recorded beyond the patient. To date, this has only been investigated on the distal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, due to the sharp falloff. The authors investigate the limits and applicability of the dose ratio method on the proximal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, which has the potential to allow a much wider range of water-equivalent thicknesses (WET) to be imaged. Comparisons are made with the use of the distal side of the Bragg peak. Methods: Using the analytical approximation for the Bragg peak, the authors generated theoretical dose ratio curves for a range of energy pairs, and then determined how an uncertainty in the dose ratio would translate to a spread in the WET estimate. By defining this spread as the accuracy one could achieve in the WET estimate, the authors were able to generate lookup graphs of the range on the proximal side of the Bragg peak that one could reliably use. These were dependent on the energy pair, noise level in the dose ratio image and the required accuracy in the WET. Using these lookup graphs, the authors investigated the applicability of the technique for a range of patient treatment sites. The authors validated the theoretical approach with experimental measurements using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor active pixel sensor (CMOS APS), by imaging a small sapphire sphere in a high energy proton beam. Results: Provided the noise level in the dose ratio image was 1% or less, a larger spread of WETs could be imaged using the proximal side of the Bragg peak (max 5.31 cm) compared to the distal side (max 2.42 cm). In simulation, it was found that, for a pediatric brain, it is possible to use the technique to image a region with a square field equivalent size of 7.6 cm{sup 2}, for a required accuracy in the WET of 3 mm and a 1% noise level in the dose ratio image. The technique showed limited applicability for other patient sites. The CMOS APS demonstrated a good accuracy, with a root-mean-square-error of 1.6 mm WET. The noise in the measured images was found to be ? = 1.2% (standard deviation) and theoretical predictions with a 1.96? noise level showed good agreement with the measured errors. Conclusions: After validating the theoretical approach with measurements, the authors have shown that the use of the proximal side of the Bragg peak when performing dose ratio imaging is feasible, and allows for a wider dynamic range than when using the distal side. The dynamic range available increases as the demand on the accuracy of the WET decreases. The technique can only be applied to clinical sites with small maximum WETs such as for pediatric brains.

  18. Rock Density At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Density At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak Area...

  19. Density Log at Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log at Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak...

  20. Flow Test At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Flow Test At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak Area...

  1. InSAR At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States by developing basic measurements and interpretations that will assist reservoir management and expansion at Bradys, Desert Peak and the Desert Peak EGS study...

  2. 2-M Probe At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak...

  3. Gamma Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gamma Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  4. Neutron Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Neutron Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  5. Slim Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  6. Core Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Core Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  7. New runners to boost peak output at Niagara Falls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reason, J.

    1990-01-01

    Retrofitted Francis turbines will improve the value of power generated from Niagara Falls by increasing the peak output of the hydroturbine units at the Robert Moses hydroelectric plant. The computer-designed runners are expected to add 330 MW to the peak capacity of the 28-yr-old plant and significantly increase the efficiency at high flow rates. Next year, the first new runner will be retrofit to the highly instrumented Unit 4. If the retrofit unit meets it increased-performance expectations, the other 12 units will be upgraded between 1993 and 1998. The work is part of an overall expansion of the Niagara Power Project designed to made better use of the power value of Niagara river water, within the constraints of a treaty with Canada and the scenic value of the falls. These constraints, together with varying flows and heads, introduced enormous complexities into the selection and design of the new runners. The alterations being made to Unit 4, in addition to replacing the turbine runner, include modifying the draft tube-liners, increasing the wicket-gate stroke, replacing the turbine discharge ring (to accommodate longer blades), making various electrical modifications to the generator, and replacing the transformer. But the key to the retrofit is the computer-designed runner. Charles Grose, senior project manager, New York Power Authority, White Plains, NY, emphasizes that such computer design techniques were not available a few years ago; neither were the computer-controlled machining techniques necessary to manufacture the new runners. Other aspects of the upgrading that were analyzed include runner stability, resonance, shaft torsional stress, and runaway speed.

  8. Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-04-29

    The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

  9. Maibarara Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Avg. Annual Gross Operating Capacity(MW) Summer Peak Net Capacity (MW) Winter Peak Net Capacity (MW) Avg. Annual GenerationConsumption Gross Generation (MWh) 60 1...

  10. Peak fitting applied to low-resolution enrichment measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracken, D.; McKown, T.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Gunnink, R.; Kartoshov, M.; Kuropatwinski, J.; Raphina, G.; Sokolov, G.

    1998-12-01

    Materials accounting at bulk processing facilities that handle low enriched uranium consists primarily of weight and uranium enrichment measurements. Most low enriched uranium processing facilities draw separate materials balances for each enrichment handled at the facility. The enrichment measurement determines the isotopic abundance of the {sup 235}U, thereby determining the proper strata for the item, while the weight measurement generates the primary accounting value for the item. Enrichment measurements using the passive gamma radiation from uranium were developed for use in US facilities a few decades ago. In the US, the use of low-resolution detectors was favored because they cost less, are lighter and more robust, and don`t require the use of liquid nitrogen. When these techniques were exported to Europe, however, difficulties were encountered. Two of the possible root causes were discovered to be inaccurate knowledge of the container wall thickness and higher levels of minor isotopes of uranium introduced by the use of reactor returns in the enrichment plants. the minor isotopes cause an increase in the Compton continuum under the 185.7 keV assay peak and the observance of interfering 238.6 keV gamma rays. The solution selected to address these problems was to rely on the slower, more costly, high-resolution gamma ray detectors when the low-resolution method failed. Recently, these gamma ray based enrichment measurement techniques have been applied to Russian origin material. The presence of interfering gamma radiation from minor isotopes was confirmed. However, with the advent of fast portable computers, it is now possible to apply more sophisticated analysis techniques to the low-resolution data in the field. Explicit corrections for Compton background, gamma rays from {sup 236}U daughters, and the attenuation caused by thick containers can be part of the least squares fitting routine. Preliminary results from field measurements in Kazakhstan will be discussed.

  11. In-situ single-grain peak profile measurements on Ti-7Al during tensile deformation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienert, U.; Brandes, M. C.; Bernier, J. V.; Weiss, J.; Shastri, S. D.; Mills, M. J.; Miller, M. P.; US Naval Research Lab.; LLNL; Mechanical Solutions, Inc.; Ohio State Univ.; Cornell Univ.

    2009-10-25

    High-energy three-dimensional X-ray diffraction with medium and high reciprocal space resolution was applied to study in situ tensile deformation of Ti-7Al specimens. Samples with planar and random dislocation microstructures were prepared and characterized by electron microscopy. Stress tensors of individual grains were obtained at several loads up to 2% deformation. The stress tensors were found to rotate, and resolved shear stresses were calculated. High-resolution reciprocal space maps of selected grains were recorded. Azimuthal and radial distributions were visualized and discussed in terms of idealized dislocation structures. Heterogeneous grain rotations were observed for the planar microstructure and found to be consistent with activation of the highest stressed basal slip system. Intra-granular strain gradients were detected in excess of the intrinsic radial dislocation peak broadening. The potential of combining the applied techniques with modeling to obtain multiple length-scale information during deformation of bulk specimens is discussed.

  12. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ice thermal storage systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss and water consumption during hot weather so that new LWRs could be considered in regions without enough cooling water. \\ This paper presents the feasibility study of using ice thermal storage systems for LWR supplemental cooling and peak power shifting. LWR cooling issues and ITS application status will be reviewed. Two ITS application case studies will be presented and compared with alternative options: one for once-through cooling without enough cooling for short time, and the other with dry cooling. Because capital cost, especially the ice storage structure/building cost, is the major cost for ITS, two different cost estimation models are developed: one based on scaling method, and the other based on a preliminary design using Building Information Modeling (BIM), an emerging technology in Architecture/Engineering/Construction, which enables design options, performance analysis and cost estimating in the early design stage.

  13. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs.

  14. Back-Up/ Peak Shaving Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staudt, Rhonda L.

    2008-05-28

    This Final Report covers the work executed by Plug Power from 8/11/03 10/31/07 statement of work for Topic 2: advancing the state of the art of fuel cell technology with the development of a new generation of commercially viable, stationary, Back-up/Peak-Shaving fuel cell systems, the GenCore II. The Program cost was $7.2 M with the Department of Energy share being $3.6M and Plug Powers share being $3.6 M. The Program started in August of 2003 and was scheduled to end in January of 2006. The actual program end date was October of 2007. A no cost extension was grated. The Department of Energy barriers addressed as part of this program are: Technical Barriers for Distributed Generation Systems: o Durability o Power Electronics o Start up time Technical Barriers for Fuel Cell Components: o Stack Material and Manufacturing Cost o Durability o Thermal and water management Background The next generation GenCore backup fuel cell system to be designed, developed and tested by Plug Power under the program is the first, mass-manufacturable design implementation of Plug Powers GenCore architected platform targeted for battery and small generator replacement applications in the telecommunications, broadband and UPS markets. The next generation GenCore will be a standalone, H2 in-DC-out system. In designing the next generation GenCore specifically for the telecommunications market, Plug Power is teaming with BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc., a leading industry end user. The final next generation GenCore system is expected to represent a market-entry, mass-manufacturable and economically viable design. The technology will incorporate: A cost-reduced, polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack tailored to hydrogen fuel use An advanced electrical energy storage system A modular, scalable power conditioning system tailored to market requirements A scaled-down, cost-reduced balance of plant (BOP) Network Equipment Building Standards (NEBS), UL and CE certifications.

  15. Production of Hydrogen at the Forecourt Using Off-Peak Electricity: June 2005 (Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levene, J. I.

    2007-02-01

    This milestone report provides information about the production of hydrogen at the forecourt using off-peak electricity as well as the Hydrogen Off-Peak Electricity (HOPE) model.

  16. Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass distribution for 258Fm Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Origin of the narrow, single peak in the...

  17. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  18. Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

    2012-08-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

  19. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrDigesterLandfillGas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    YrDigesterLandfillGas" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  20. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrDigesterLandfillGas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    YrDigesterLandfillGas" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  1. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrPellets | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden...

  2. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrTownGas | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden...

  3. Total Cost Per MwH for all common large scale power generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    out of the stack, toxificaiton of the lakes and streams, plant decommision costs. For nuclear yiou are talking about managing the waste in perpetuity. The plant decomission costs...

  4. ,,,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,1,"AK",599,"Anchorage Municipal Light and

  5. ,,,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5,1,"AK",219,"Alaska Power and Telephone

  6. Offset-free rail-to-rail derandomizing peak detect-and-hold circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi (Nesconset, NY); O'Connor, Paul (Bellport, NY); Kandasamy, Anand (Coram, NY)

    2003-01-01

    A peak detect-and-hold circuit eliminates errors introduced by conventional amplifiers, such as common-mode rejection and input voltage offset. The circuit includes an amplifier, three switches, a transistor, and a capacitor. During a detect-and-hold phase, a hold voltage at a non-inverting in put terminal of the amplifier tracks an input voltage signal and when a peak is reached, the transistor is switched off, thereby storing a peak voltage in the capacitor. During a readout phase, the circuit functions as a unity gain buffer, in which the voltage stored in the capacitor is provided as an output voltage. The circuit is able to sense signals rail-to-rail and can readily be modified to sense positive, negative, or peak-to-peak voltages. Derandomization may be achieved by using a plurality of peak detect-and-hold circuits electrically connected in parallel.

  7. Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Potential Impacts to Utilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Potential Impacts to Utilities Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop February 28, 2014 Frank Novachek Director, Corporate Planning 2 Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Potential Impacts - Electric System * Reliability * Capacity * Regulation * Generation Resources * On/Off Peak * Dispatchability Renewables Integration System Operations Electric Load Hydrogen Production * Ramp Control * Reserves * Plant Cycling 3 Unique Opportunities - Electric  Increased

  8. Water Sampling At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details...

  9. Mercury Vapor At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details...

  10. 2-M Probe At Desert Peak Area (Sladek, Et Al., 2007) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Desert Peak Area (Sladek, Et Al., 2007) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  11. RESCHEDULED: Webinar on Material Handling Fuel Cells for Building Electric Peak Shaving Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar entitled "Material Handling Fuel Cells for Building Electric Peak Shaving Applications".

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  13. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  14. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-411 for 2005" ,"Released: September 26, 2007" ,"Next Update: October 2007" ,"Table 3d. April Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric...

  15. Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050 | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentimpact-smart-grid-technologies-peak-l Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  16. Webinar August 11: Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Material Handling Fuel Cells for Building Electric Peak Shaving Applications DOE Announces Webinars on Geography of Alternative Fuels, Wind Siting Considerations, and More...

  17. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, James C.; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR. (authors)

  18. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, Jim; Forsberg, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR.

  19. Implications of 'peak oil' for atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate - article no. GB3012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kharecha, P.A.; Hansen, J.E.

    2008-08-15

    Unconstrained CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuel burning has been the dominant cause of observed anthropogenic global warming. The amounts of 'proven' and potential fossil fuel reserves are uncertain and debated. Regardless of the true values, society has flexibility in the degree to which it chooses to exploit these reserves, especially unconventional fossil fuels and those located in extreme or pristine environments. If conventional oil production peaks within the next few decades, it may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate change, depending upon subsequent energy choices. Assuming that proven oil and gas reserves do not greatly exceed estimates of the Energy Information Administration, and recent trends are toward lower estimates, we show that it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO{sub 2} from exceeding about 450 ppm by 2100, provided that emissions from coal, unconventional fossil fuels, and land use are constrained. Coal-fired power plants without sequestration must be phased out before midcentury to achieve this CO{sub 2} limit. It is also important to 'stretch' conventional oil reserves via energy conservation and efficiency, thus averting strong pressures to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels while clean technologies are being developed for the era 'beyond fossil fuels'. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is needed to discourage conversion of the vast fossil resources into usable reserves, and to keep CO{sub 2} beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  20. Peak picking and the assessment of separation performance in two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guiochon, Georges A; Shalliker, R. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm was developed for 2DHPLC that automated the process of peak recognition, measuring their retention times, and then subsequently plotting the information in a two-dimensional retention plane. Following the recognition of peaks, the software then performed a series of statistical assessments of the separation performance, measuring for example, correlation between dimensions, peak capacity and the percentage of usage of the separation space. Peak recognition was achieved by interpreting the first and second derivatives of each respective one-dimensional chromatogram to determine the 1D retention times of each solute and then compiling these retention times for each respective fraction 'cut'. Due to the nature of comprehensive 2DHPLC adjacent cut fractions may contain peaks common to more than one cut fraction. The algorithm determined which components were common in adjacent cuts and subsequently calculated the peak maximum profile by interpolating the space between adjacent peaks. This algorithm was applied to the analysis of a two-dimensional separation of an apple flesh extract separated in a first dimension comprising a cyano stationary phase and an aqueous/THF mobile phase as the first dimension and a second dimension comprising C18-Hydro with an aqueous/MeOH mobile phase. A total of 187 peaks were detected.

  1. Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass distribution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for 258Fm (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass distribution for 258Fm Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass distribution for 258Fm We discuss the origin of the narrowness of the single peak at mass-symmetric division in the fragment mass-yield curve for spontaneous fission of {sup 258}Fm. For this purpose, we employ

  2. Method of multi-dimensional moment analysis for the characterization of signal peaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Yelton, William G; Kerr, Dayle R; Bouchier, Francis A

    2012-10-23

    A method of multi-dimensional moment analysis for the characterization of signal peaks can be used to optimize the operation of an analytical system. With a two-dimensional Peclet analysis, the quality and signal fidelity of peaks in a two-dimensional experimental space can be analyzed and scored. This method is particularly useful in determining optimum operational parameters for an analytical system which requires the automated analysis of large numbers of analyte data peaks. For example, the method can be used to optimize analytical systems including an ion mobility spectrometer that uses a temperature stepped desorption technique for the detection of explosive mixtures.

  3. Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | SciTech Connect Dataset: Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM Numerical modeling of the 2011 shear stimulation at the Desert Peak well 27-15. This submission contains the FEHM executable code for a 64-bit PC Windows-7 machine, and the input and output files for the results presented in the included paper from ARMA-213 meeting. Authors:

  4. NOISY WEAK-LENSING CONVERGENCE PEAK STATISTICS NEAR CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Zuhui; Shan Huanyuan; Liu Jiayi

    2010-08-20

    Taking into account noise from intrinsic ellipticities of source galaxies, in this paper, we study the peak statistics in weak-lensing convergence maps around clusters of galaxies and beyond. We emphasize how the noise peak statistics is affected by the density distribution of nearby clusters, and also how cluster-peak signals are changed by the existence of noise. These are the important aspects to be thoroughly understood in weak-lensing analyses for individual clusters as well as in cosmological applications of weak-lensing cluster statistics. We adopt Gaussian smoothing with the smoothing scale {theta} {sub G} = 0.5arcmin in our analyses. It is found that the noise peak distribution near a cluster of galaxies sensitively depends on the density profile of the cluster. For a cored isothermal cluster with the core radius R{sub c} , the inner region with R {<=} R{sub c} appears noisy containing on average {approx}2.4 peaks with {nu} {>=} 5 for R{sub c} = 1.7arcmin and the true peak height of the cluster {nu} = 5.6, where {nu} denotes the convergence signal-to-noise ratio. For a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) cluster of the same mass and the same central {nu}, the average number of peaks with {nu} {>=} 5 within R {<=} R{sub c} is {approx}1.6. Thus a high peak corresponding to the main cluster can be identified more cleanly in the NFW case. In the outer region with R{sub c} < R {<=} 5R{sub c} , the number of high noise peaks is considerably enhanced in comparison with that of the pure noise case without the nearby cluster. For {nu} {>=} 4, depending on the treatment of the mass-sheet degeneracy in weak-lensing analyses, the enhancement factor f is in the range of {approx}5 to {approx}55 for both clusters as their outer density profiles are similar. The properties of the main-cluster-peak identified in convergence maps are also significantly affected by the presence of noise. Scatters as well as a systematic shift for the peak height are present. The height distribution is peaked at {nu} {approx} 6.6, rather than at {nu} = 5.6, corresponding to a shift of {Delta}{nu} {approx} 1, for the isothermal cluster. For the NFW cluster, {Delta}{nu} {approx} 0.8. The existence of noise also causes a location offset for the weak-lensing identified main-cluster-peak with respect to the true center of the cluster. The offset distribution is very broad and extends to R {approx} R{sub c} for the isothermal case. For the NFW cluster, it is relatively narrow and peaked at R {approx} 0.2R{sub c} . We also analyze NFW clusters of different concentrations. It is found that the more centrally concentrated the mass distribution of a cluster is, the less its weak-lensing signal is affected by noise. Incorporating these important effects and the mass function of NFW dark matter halos, we further present a model calculating the statistical abundances of total convergence peaks, true and false ones, over a large field beyond individual clusters. The results are in good agreement with those from numerical simulations. The model then allows us to probe cosmologies with the convergence peaks directly without the need of expensive follow-up observations to differentiate true and false peaks.

  5. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America solar home research that has demonstrated the ability to reduce peak demand by 75%. Numerous field studies have monitored power production and system effectiveness.

  6. Method and apparatus for clockless analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2007-03-06

    An apparatus and method for analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection includes at least one stage, which includes a first switch, second switch, current source or capacitor, and discriminator. The discriminator changes state in response to a current or charge associated with the input signal exceeding a threshold, thereby indicating whether the current or charge associated with the input signal is greater than the threshold. The input signal includes a peak or a charge, and the converter includes a peak or charge detect mode in which a state of the switch is retained in response to a decrease in the current or charge associated with the input signal. The state of the switch represents at least a portion of a value of the peak or of the charge.

  7. Desert Peak to Humboldt House and Winnemucca, in: Lane, M.A....

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to Humboldt House and Winnemucca, in: Lane, M.A., (ed) Nevada geothermal areas: Desert Peak, Humboldt House, Beoware: Guidebook for field trip Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  8. Webinar: Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar entitled "Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy" on Tuesday, August 11, from 12 to 1 p.m. EDT.

  9. How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the past 12 months designated in the database (LADWP does this) Home > Groups > Utility Rate Submitted by Marcroper on 11...

  10. Mask effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing peak statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui; Wang, Qiao

    2014-03-20

    With numerical simulations, we analyze in detail how the bad data removal, i.e., the mask effect, can influence the peak statistics of the weak-lensing convergence field reconstructed from the shear measurement of background galaxies. It is found that high peak fractions are systematically enhanced because of the presence of masks; the larger the masked area is, the higher the enhancement is. In the case where the total masked area is about 13% of the survey area, the fraction of peaks with signal-to-noise ratio ? ? 3 is ?11% of the total number of peaks, compared with ?7% of the mask-free case in our considered cosmological model. This can have significant effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing convergence peak statistics, inducing a large bias in the parameter constraints if the effects are not taken into account properly. Even for a survey area of 9 deg{sup 2}, the bias in (? {sub m}, ?{sub 8}) is already intolerably large and close to 3?. It is noted that most of the affected peaks are close to the masked regions. Therefore, excluding peaks in those regions in the peak statistics can reduce the bias effect but at the expense of losing usable survey areas. Further investigations find that the enhancement of the number of high peaks around the masked regions can be largely attributed to the smaller number of galaxies usable in the weak-lensing convergence reconstruction, leading to higher noise than that of the areas away from the masks. We thus develop a model in which we exclude only those very large masks with radius larger than 3' but keep all the other masked regions in peak counting statistics. For the remaining part, we treat the areas close to and away from the masked regions separately with different noise levels. It is shown that this two-noise-level model can account for the mask effect on peak statistics very well, and the bias in cosmological parameters is significantly reduced if this model is applied in the parameter fitting.

  11. Multispecies density peaking in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of low collisionality Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikkelsen, D. R. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Podpaly, Y.; Ma, Y.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.

    2015-06-15

    Peaked density profiles in low-collisionality AUG and JET H-mode plasmas are probably caused by a turbulently driven particle pinch, and Alcator C-Mod experiments confirmed that collisionality is a critical parameter. Density peaking in reactors could produce a number of important effects, some beneficial, such as enhanced fusion power and transport of fuel ions from the edge to the core, while others are undesirable, such as lower beta limits, reduced radiation from the plasma edge, and consequently higher divertor heat loads. Fundamental understanding of the pinch will enable planning to optimize these impacts. We show that density peaking is predicted by nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations based on measured profile data from low collisionality H-mode plasma in Alcator C-Mod. Multiple ion species are included to determine whether hydrogenic density peaking has an isotope dependence or is influenced by typical levels of low-Z impurities, and whether impurity density peaking depends on the species. We find that the deuterium density profile is slightly more peaked than that of hydrogen, and that experimentally relevant levels of boron have no appreciable effect on hydrogenic density peaking. The ratio of density at r/a?=?0.44 to that at r/a?=?0.74 is 1.2 for the majority D and minority H ions (and for electrons), and increases with impurity Z: 1.1 for helium, 1.15 for boron, 1.3 for neon, 1.4 for argon, and 1.5 for molybdenum. The ion temperature profile is varied to match better the predicted heat flux with the experimental transport analysis, but the resulting factor of two change in heat transport has only a weak effect on the predicted density peaking.

  12. The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Wishart

    2012-02-01

    This document reports the work performed under Task 1.2.1.1: 'The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities'. The work involved in this task included understanding the experimental results of the other tasks of SOW-5799 in order to take advantage of the economics of electricity pricing differences between on- and off-peak hours and the demonstrated charging and facility energy demand profiles. To undertake this task and to demonstrate the feasibility of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) bi-directional electricity exchange potential, BEA has subcontracted Electric Transportation Applications (now known as ECOtality North America and hereafter ECOtality NA) to use the data from the demand and energy study to focus on reducing the electrical power demand of the charging facility. The use of delayed charging as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) operations were to be considered.

  13. SU-E-T-354: Peak Temperature Ratio of TLD Glow Curves to Investigate the Spatial Dependence of LET in a Clinical Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reft, C [UniversityChicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Pankuch, M; Ramirez, H [ProCure Treatment Centers, Warrenville, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Use the ratio of the two high temperature peaks (HTR) in TLD 700 glow curves to investigate spatial dependence of the linear energy transfer (LET) in proton beams. Studies show that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends upon the physical dose as well as its spatial distribution. Although proton therapy uses a spatially invariant RBE of 1.1, studies suggest that the RBE increases in the distal edge of a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) due to the increased LET. Methods: Glow curve studies in TLD 700 show that the 280 C temperature peak is more sensitive to LET radiation than the 210 C temperature peak. Therefore, the areas under the individual temperature peaks for TLDs irradiated in a proton beam normalized to the peak ratio for 6 MV photons are used to determine the HTR to obtain information on its LET. TLD 700 chips with dimensions 0.310.310.038 cc are irradiated with 90 MeV protons at varying depths in a specially designed blue wax phantom to investigate LET spatial dependence. Results: Five TLDs were placed at five different depths of the percent depth dose curve (PDD) of range 16.2 cm: center of the SOPB and approximately at the 99% distal edge, 90%, 75% and 25% of the PDD, respectively. HTR was 1.3 at the center of the SOBP and varied from 2.2 to 3.9 which can be related to an LET variation from 0.5 to 18 KeV/? via calibration with radiation beams of varying LET. Conclusion: HTR data show a spatially invariant LET slightly greater than the 6 MV radiations in the SOBP, but a rapidly increasing LET at the end of the proton range. These results indicate a spatial variation in RBE with potential treatment consequences when selecting treatment margins to minimize the uncertainties in proton RBE.

  14. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. A DOUBLE-PEAKED OUTBURST OF A 0535+26 OBSERVED WITH INTEGRAL, RXTE, AND SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caballero, I.; Barragan, L.; Wilms, J.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Ferrigno, C.; Klochkov, D.; Suchy, S.; Santangelo, A.; Staubert, R.; Zurita Heras, J. A.; Kretschmar, P.; Fuerst, F.; Rothschild, R.; Finger, M. H.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Makishima, K.; Enoto, T.; Iwakiri, W.; and others

    2013-02-20

    The Be/X-ray binary A 0535+26 showed a normal (type I) outburst in 2009 August. It is the fourth in a series of normal outbursts associated with the periastron, but is unusual because it presented a double-peaked light curve. The two peaks reached a flux of {approx}450 mCrab in the 15-50 keV range. We present results of the timing and spectral analysis of INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Suzaku observations of the outburst. The energy-dependent pulse profiles and their evolution during the outburst are studied. No significant differences with respect to other normal outbursts are observed. The centroid energy of the fundamental cyclotron line shows no significant variation during the outburst. A spectral hardening with increasing luminosity is observed. We conclude that the source is accreting in the sub-critical regime. We discuss possible explanations for the double-peaked outburst.

  16. Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward Modeling Approach (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward Modeling Approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward Modeling Approach Authors: Bard, D. ; /KIPAC, Menlo Park ; Kratochvil, J.M. ; /KwaZulu Natal U. ; Dawson, W. ; /LLNL, Livermore Publication Date: 2016-02-18 OSTI Identifier: 1238567 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-16483 arXiv:1410.5446 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource

  17. DOUBLETS AND DOUBLE PEAKS: LATE-TIME [O I] lambdalambda6300, 6364 LINE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PROFILES OF STRIPPED-ENVELOPE, CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect DOUBLETS AND DOUBLE PEAKS: LATE-TIME [O I] lambdalambda6300, 6364 LINE PROFILES OF STRIPPED-ENVELOPE, CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DOUBLETS AND DOUBLE PEAKS: LATE-TIME [O I] lambdalambda6300, 6364 LINE PROFILES OF STRIPPED-ENVELOPE, CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE We present optical spectra of SN 2007gr, SN 2007rz, SN 2007uy, SN 2008ax, and SN 2008bo obtained in the

  18. Microsoft Word - BUGS_The Next Smart Grid Peak Resource Final 4_19.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 15, 2010 DOE/NETL-2010/1406 Backup Generators (BUGS): The Next Smart Grid Peak Resource Backup Generators (BUGS): The Next Smart Grid Peak Resource v1.0 ii DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness

  19. FERC sees huge potential for demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-15

    The FERC study concludes that U.S. peak demand can be reduced by as much as 188 GW -- roughly 20 percent -- under the most aggressive scenario. More moderate -- and realistic -- scenarios produce smaller but still significant reductions in peak demand. The FERC report is quick to point out that these are estimates of the potential, not projections of what could actually be achieved. The main varieties of demand response programs include interruptible tariffs, direct load control (DLC), and a number of pricing schemes.

  20. Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    kelkar, sharad

    Numerical modeling of the 2011 shear stimulation at the Desert Peak well 27-15. This submission contains the FEHM executable code for a 64-bit PC Windows-7 machine, and the input and output files for the results presented in the included paper from ARMA-213 meeting.

  1. First Tracer Test After Circulation in Desert Peak 27-15

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rose, Peter

    2013-11-16

    Following the successful stimulation of Desert Peak target EGS well 27-15, a circulation test was initiated by injecting a conservative tracer (1,5-nds) in combination with a reactive tracer (7-amino-1,3-naphthalene disulfonate). The closest production well 74-21 was monitored over the subsequent several months.

  2. Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    kelkar, sharad

    2013-04-30

    Numerical modeling of the 2011 shear stimulation at the Desert Peak well 27-15. This submission contains the FEHM executable code for a 64-bit PC Windows-7 machine, and the input and output files for the results presented in the included paper from ARMA-213 meeting.

  3. Webinar August 11: Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar entitled "Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy" on Tuesday, August 11, from 12 to 1 p.m. EDT. This webinar will explore the synergy between a facility's use of hydrogen fuel cell forklifts and its reduction of electric grid time of use energy charges.

  4. First Tracer Test After Circulation in Desert Peak 27-15

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rose, Peter

    Following the successful stimulation of Desert Peak target EGS well 27-15, a circulation test was initiated by injecting a conservative tracer (1,5-nds) in combination with a reactive tracer (7-amino-1,3-naphthalene disulfonate). The closest production well 74-21 was monitored over the subsequent several months.

  5. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.

    2015-03-04

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator that interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8m/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.

  6. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.

    2015-03-04

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator thatmore » interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8(Ωm/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.« less

  7. Momentum-resolved photoemission of the Kondo peak in an ordered Ce-containing alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garnier, M.; Purdie, D.; Breuer, K.; Hengsberger, M.; Baer, Y.

    1997-11-01

    A comparison of uv-photoemission spectra recorded from the surface alloys Pt(111)({radical}(3){times}{radical}(3))R30{degree}Ce and Pt(111)(2{times}2)La allows the contribution from the 4f electrons to be seen easily. The valence-band structure of these two surfaces is very similar, and the most obvious 4f contribution in high-resolution photoemission spectra of the Ce-containing alloy is the tail of the Kondo peak cut at E{sub F}. Within the limits of our measurement, no dispersion of this feature in the occupied regime is detected. The Kondo peak displays a marked intensity dependence on the emission angle, suggesting that hybridization is present in only a limited part of reciprocal space. The temperature dependence of this near-E{sub F} feature supports this interpretation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. AlphaSpectrum ASPECT analysis code for background correction & peak integration

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-04-13

    The ASPECT code provides a means for rapid analysis of energy-resolved spectra obtained by multi-channel pulse-height analysis (MCA) during (or after) counting of alpha-emissions from a filter air sample (or other suitably prepared sample) utilizing a solid-state detector, or other detector having sufficient energy resolution indiviual radioisotope peaks indentified in a spectrum are fitted using a peak shape algorithm by non-linear least-square fitting procedures that minimize Chi-square differences between the data and a fitted peakmore » function. The code accomplishes the identification of all significant peaks present in the spectrum with automatic recalibration to the 7.68 Po-214 alpha peak from the Radon-222 decay chain, the subtraction of all radon progeny interference overlaps with lower energy peaks in the energy range of Pu-238, Am-241, Pu-239, and U-234/Th-232, and the integration of the counts in any peak identified for these transuranic radionuclides. The output is therefore in the form of isotope specific net transuranic CPM, DPM or concentration, available in near real-time during air sampling. In this "copyright" version, the assumption is made that the alpha spectra to be analyzed have been stored by unique name in sequential form: "FileName(i)", where "FileName" can be any name and i is the index number of the file saved (e.g., i = 1,2, ..., n). this format is one automatically generated by the alpha Environmental Continuous Air Monitor (ECAM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and manufactured by Canberra Industries, a Laboratory Industrial Partner for this technology. It is assumed in this version of the code that the alpha spectrum data are stored in a 256 channel spectrum, although a larger num ber of channels could be easily accommodated by small code changes. The ECAM data output format is RADNET compliant (an inidustry standard developed at Los Alamos), and include, in addition to a 256-channel alpha spectrum, data on the count time of the spectrum, sample volume represented, the total volume of air sampled by the filter, and other relevant data on the sample. Dummy variable assignments could be made in the code for all variables except for the alpha spectrum if the count rate, concentration, date stamp, and other outputs were not desired, but this option in not automatically available. The code could be implemented in an embedded form and thereby operate independently of user inputs. However, in the present version, the code is designed to operate off-line, accessing stored spectrum data (and other relevant sampling data) from stored files. In this form the user can select the characteristics of peak identification, the sigma-multiplier for the Critical Level determination, and whether or not the data are smoothed before analysis. This version is a development version, from which the user could prepare an embedded version not requiring operator intervention. In any case, the core program of peak identification, fitting, and interference correction is the same.« less

  9. STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mace, J; Matrosov, S; Shupe, M; Lawson, P; Hallar, G; McCubbin, I; Marchand, R; Orr, B; Coulter, R; Sedlacek, A; Avallone, L; Long, C

    2010-09-29

    During the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), a substantial correlative data set of remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements from fixed and airborne platforms will be created in a winter season, mountainous environment. This will be accomplished by combining mountaintop observations at Storm Peak Laboratory and the airborne National Science Foundation-supported Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study campaign with collocated measurements from the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2). We describe in this document the operational plans and motivating science for this experiment, which includes deployment of AMF2 to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The intensive STORMVEX field phase will begin nominally on 1 November 2010 and extend to approximately early April 2011.

  10. AlphaSpectrum ASPECT analysis code for background correction & peak integration

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-04-13

    The ASPECT code provides a means for rapid analysis of energy-resolved spectra obtained by multi-channel pulse-height analysis (MCA) during (or after) counting of alpha-emissions from a filter air sample (or other suitably prepared sample) utilizing a solid-state detector, or other detector having sufficient energy resolution indiviual radioisotope peaks indentified in a spectrum are fitted using a peak shape algorithm by non-linear least-square fitting procedures that minimize Chi-square differences between the data and a fitted peakmorefunction. The code accomplishes the identification of all significant peaks present in the spectrum with automatic recalibration to the 7.68 Po-214 alpha peak from the Radon-222 decay chain, the subtraction of all radon progeny interference overlaps with lower energy peaks in the energy range of Pu-238, Am-241, Pu-239, and U-234/Th-232, and the integration of the counts in any peak identified for these transuranic radionuclides. The output is therefore in the form of isotope specific net transuranic CPM, DPM or concentration, available in near real-time during air sampling. In this "copyright" version, the assumption is made that the alpha spectra to be analyzed have been stored by unique name in sequential form: "FileName(i)", where "FileName" can be any name and i is the index number of the file saved (e.g., i = 1,2, ..., n). this format is one automatically generated by the alpha Environmental Continuous Air Monitor (ECAM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and manufactured by Canberra Industries, a Laboratory Industrial Partner for this technology. It is assumed in this version of the code that the alpha spectrum data are stored in a 256 channel spectrum, although a larger num ber of channels could be easily accommodated by small code changes. The ECAM data output format is RADNET compliant (an inidustry standard developed at Los Alamos), and include, in addition to a 256-channel alpha spectrum, data on the count time of the spectrum, sample volume represented, the total volume of air sampled by the filter, and other relevant data on the sample. Dummy variable assignments could be made in the code for all variables except for the alpha spectrum if the count rate, concentration, date stamp, and other outputs were not desired, but this option in not automatically available. The code could be implemented in an embedded form and thereby operate independently of user inputs. However, in the present version, the code is designed to operate off-line, accessing stored spectrum data (and other relevant sampling data) from stored files. In this form the user can select the characteristics of peak identification, the sigma-multiplier for the Critical Level determination, and whether or not the data are smoothed before analysis. This version is a development version, from which the user could prepare an embedded version not requiring operator intervention. In any case, the core program of peak identification, fitting, and interference correction is the same.less

  11. Flexible Coal: Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Brochure), 21st Century Power Partnership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerating the transformation of power systems Flexible Coal Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant The experience cited in this paper is from a generating station with multiple units located in North America referred to here as the CGS plant. For commercial reasons, the station has not been identified. Jaquelin Cochran, a Debra Lew, a Nikhil Kumar b a National Renewable Energy Laboratory, b Intertek Summary for Policymakers: Key Findings from a North American Coal Generating Station (CGS)

  12. Method and apparatus for reducing rotor blade deflections, loads, and/or peak rotational speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-17

    A method for reducing at least one of loads, deflections of rotor blades, or peak rotational speed of a wind turbine includes storing recent historical pitch related data, wind related data, or both. The stored recent historical data is analyzed to determine at least one of whether rapid pitching is occurring or whether wind speed decreases are occurring. A minimum pitch, a pitch rate limit, or both are imposed on pitch angle controls of the rotor blades conditioned upon results of the analysis.

  13. Method for the Production of Ultrashort Peak Power Laser Pulses and System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Putting Into Practice This Method Inventors Gerard Mourou, Nathaniel J. Fisch, Vladimir M. Malkin, and Zeev Toroker | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Method for the Production of Ultrashort Peak Power Laser Pulses and System For Putting Into Practice This Method Inventors Gerard Mourou, Nathaniel J. Fisch, Vladimir M. Malkin, and Zeev Toroker Laser-pulse intensities have grown remarkably in recent years, primarily through the method of chirped pulse amplification. Much higher powers are

  14. CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE THROUGH RISE TIMES AND PEAK LUMINOSITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Maeda, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the diversity in the wind density, supernova ejecta energy, and ejecta mass in Type IIn supernovae based on their rise times and peak luminosities. We show that the wind density and supernova ejecta properties can be estimated independently if both the rise time and peak luminosity are observed. The peak luminosity is mostly determined by the supernova properties and the rise time can be used to estimate the wind density. We find that the ejecta energies of Type IIn supernovae need to vary by factors of 0.2-5 from the average if their ejecta masses are similar. The diversity in the observed rise times indicates that their wind densities vary by factors of 0.2-2 from the average. We show that Type IIn superluminous supernovae should have not only large wind density but also large ejecta energy and/or small ejecta mass to explain their large luminosities and the rise times at the same time. We also note that shock breakout does not necessarily occur in the wind even if it is optically thick, except for the case of superluminous supernovae, and we analyze the observational data both with and without assuming that the shock breakout occurs in the dense wind of Type IIn supernovae.

  15. How Energy Efficiency Programs Can Support State Climate and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Variation Potential Program Components * Strategic Energy Management (SEM) * ISO50001 * Superior Energy Performance (SEP) Potential Electricity Savings 85 - 130 million MWh in 2030 ...

  16. Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Li, Jia

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of "running out" of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources.

  17. Microsoft Word - Rockwood _CFC_ Silver Peak Area Final EA V4 _dec date_.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Interior Bureau of Land Management Environmental Assessment # DOI-BLM-NV-B020-2012-0214-EA DOE/EA-1921 DATE: December 2012 Silver Peak Area Geothermal Exploration Project ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Geothermal Lease: N-87008 Tonopah Field Office P.O. Box 911 1553 S. Main Street Tonopah, NV 89049 Phone: 775-482-7800 Fax: 775-482-7810 BLM Mission Statement It is the mission of the Bureau of Land Management to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the public lands for the use and

  18. OG&E Uses Time-Based Rate Program to Reduce Peak Demand

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 OG&E Uses Time-Based Rate Program to Reduce Peak Demand As part of its Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) project for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company (OG&E) has successfully tested over a two-year period a new time-based rate, which provided about 4,670 participating customers with pric es that varied daily in order to induce a change in their patterns of electricity consumption and a

  19. AVTA: EVSE Charging Protocol for On and Off-Peak Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report is a description of development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off and on-peak demand economics at facilities, as informed by the AVTA's testing on plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  20. Petrology and geochemistry of Alto Peak, a vapor-cored hydrothermal system, Leyte Province, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, A.G.; Giggenbach, W.F.; Saleras, J.R.M.; Salonga, N.D.; Vergara, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    Based on detailed petrological information on secondary mineral assemblages and the composition of fluids trapped in inclusions and discharged from five wells, the Alto Peak geothermal field was found to represent a combined vapor and liquid-dominated system. A central core or chimney, with a diameter of about 1 km, a height of some 3 km and occupied by a high gas vapor (1.1 to 5.6 molal CO{sub 2}), is surrounded by an envelope of intermediate salinity water (7,000 mg/kg Cl) with temperatures between 250 and 350 C. The transition from purely vapor-dominated to liquid-dominated zones takes place via two-phase zones occupied by fluid mixtures of highly variable compositions. Much of the lower temperature, mature neutral pH Cl water is likely to have formed during an earlier stage in the evolution of the system. High temperatures of > 300 C, and associated alteration, are limited to wells AP-1D and the lower parts of AP-2D and are ascribed to re-heating by recent magmatic intrusions. The isotopic composition of the well discharges suggests that they contain some 40 to 50% of magmatic water. Alto Peak is considered a typical example of hydrothermal systems associated with many dormant volcanoes.

  1. Control system analysis for off-peak auxiliary heating of passive solar systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, H.S.; Melsa, J.L.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A computer simulation method is presented for the design of an electrical auxiliary energy system for passive solar heated structures. The system consists of electrical mats buried in the ground underneath the structure. Energy is stored in the ground during utility off-peak hours and released passively to the heated enclosure. An optimal control strategy is used to determine the system design parameters of depth of mat placement and minimum instaled electrical heating capacity. The optimal control applies combinations of fixed duration energy pulses to the heater, which minimize the room temperature error-squared for each day, assuming advance knowledge of the day's weather. Various realizable control schemes are investigated in an attempt to find a system that approaches the performance of the optimal control system.

  2. Method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.; Jain, Jinesh C.

    2014-07-22

    A method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump comprising one or more pumping sources, one or more lasers; and an optical response analyzer. Each pumping source creates a pumping energy. The lasers each comprise a high reflectivity mirror, a laser media, an output coupler, and an output lens. Each laser media is made of a material that emits a lasing power when exposed to pumping energy. Each laser media is optically connected to and positioned between a corresponding high reflectivity mirror and output coupler along a pumping axis. Each output coupler is optically connected to a corresponding output lens along the pumping axis. The high reflectivity mirror of each laser is optically connected to an optical pumping source from the one or more optical pumping sources via an optical connection comprising one or more first optical fibers.

  3. High peak-power kilohertz laser system employing single-stage multi-pass amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shan, Bing; Wang, Chun; Chang, Zenghu

    2006-05-23

    The present invention describes a technique for achieving high peak power output in a laser employing single-stage, multi-pass amplification. High gain is achieved by employing a very small "seed" beam diameter in gain medium, and maintaining the small beam diameter for multiple high-gain pre-amplification passes through a pumped gain medium, then leading the beam out of the amplifier cavity, changing the beam diameter and sending it back to the amplifier cavity for additional, high-power amplification passes through the gain medium. In these power amplification passes, the beam diameter in gain medium is increased and carefully matched to the pump laser's beam diameter for high efficiency extraction of energy from the pumped gain medium. A method of "grooming" the beam by means of a far-field spatial filter in the process of changing the beam size within the single-stage amplifier is also described.

  4. Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed Regional Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hathaway, John E.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Scott, Michael J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the impact of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the Eastern Interconnection (EIC) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered (IPCC A2 scenario as downscaled from the CASCaDE data set) has changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. This investigation examines building energy demand for three annual periods representative of climate trends in the CASCaDE data set at the beginning, middle, and end of the century--2004, 2052, and 2089. Simulations were performed using the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model which is a detailed simulation platform built around EnergyPlus. BEND was developed in collaboration with the Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA), a modeling framework designed to simulate the complex interactions among climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant spatial scales. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and, characteristics which represent the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the 3 EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 locations within the target region, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for each of the 3 years. In this study, the building stock characteristics are held constant based on the 2005 building stock in order to isolate and present results that highlight the impact of the climate signal on commercial and residential energy demand. Results of this analysis compare well with other analyses at their finest level of specificity. This approach, however, provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to perform detailed hourly impact studies of building adaptation and mitigation strategies on energy use and electricity peak demand within the context of the entire grid and economy.

  5. Supernovae with two peaks in the optical light curve and the signature of progenitors with low-mass extended envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Early observations of supernova light curves are powerful tools for shedding light on the pre-explosion structures of their progenitors and their mass-loss histories just prior to explosion. Some core-collapse supernovae that are detected during the first days after the explosion prominently show two peaks in the optical bands, including the R and I bands, where the first peak appears to be powered by the cooling of shocked surface material and the second peak is clearly powered by radioactive decay. Such light curves have been explored in detail theoretically for SN 1993J and 2011dh, where it was found that they may be explained by progenitors with extended, low-mass envelopes. Here, we generalize these results. We first explore whether any double-peaked light curve of this type can be generated by a progenitor with a 'standard' density profile, such as a red supergiant or a Wolf-Rayet star. We show that a standard progenitor (1) cannot produce a double-peaked light curve in the R and I bands and (2) cannot exhibit a fast drop in the bolometric luminosity as is seen after the first peak. We then explore the signature of a progenitor with a compact core surrounded by extended, low-mass material. This may be a hydrostatic low-mass envelope or material ejected just prior to the explosion. We show that it naturally produces both of these features. We use this result to provide simple formulae to estimate (1) the mass of the extended material from the time of the first peak, (2) the extended material radius from the luminosity of the first peak, and (3) an upper limit on the core radius from the luminosity minimum between the two peaks.

  6. EA-1921: Silver Peak Area Geothermal Exploration Project Environmental Assessment, Esmeralda County, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM)(lead agency) and DOE are jointly preparing this EA, which evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a project proposed by Rockwood Lithium Inc (Rockwood), formerly doing business as Chemetall Foote Corporation.

  7. Baker-Barry Tunnel Lighting: Evaluation of a Potential GATEWAY Demonstrations Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-06-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating the Baker-Barry Tunnel as a potential GATEWAY Demonstrations project for deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The National Park Service views this project as a possible proving ground and template for implementation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires in other tunnels, thereby expanding the estimated 40% energy savings from 132 MWh/yr to a much larger figure nationally. Most of the energy savings in this application is attributable to the instant-restrike capability of LED products and to their high tolerance for frequent on/off switching, used here to separately control either end of the tunnel during daytime hours. Some LED luminaires rival or outperform their high-intensity discharge (HID) counterparts in terms of efficacy, but options are limited, and smaller lumen packages preclude true one-for-one equivalence. However, LED products continue to improve in efficacy and affordability at a rate unmatched by other light source technologies; the estimated simple payback period of eight years (excluding installation costs and maintenance savings) can be expected to improve with time. The proposed revisions to the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting system would require slightly increased controls complexity and significantly increased luminaire types and quantities. In exchange, substantial annual savings (from reduced maintenance and energy use) would be complemented by improved quantity and quality of illumination. Although advanced lighting controls could offer additional savings, it is unclear whether such a system would prove cost-effective; this topic may be explored in future work.

  8. Assessment of U.S. Electric End-Use Energy Efficiency Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gellings, Clark W.; Wikler, Greg; Ghosh, Debyani

    2006-11-15

    Demand-side management holds significant potential to reduce growth in U.S. energy consumption and peak demand, and in a cost-effective manner. But significant policy interventions will be required to achieve these benefits. (author)

  9. Methods, systems and apparatus for approximation of peak summed fundamental and third harmonic voltages in a multi-phase machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ransom, Ray M. (Big Bear City, CA); Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel (Torrance, CA); Kinoshita, Michael H. (Redondo Beach, CA)

    2012-07-31

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for quickly approximating a peak summed magnitude (A) of a phase voltage (Vph) waveform in a multi-phase system that implements third harmonic injection.

  10. High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes Rancho Cordoba, CA- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America Innovations profile describes Building America solar home research that has demonstrated the ability to reduce peak demand by 75%. Numerous field studies have monitored power production and system effectiveness.

  11. Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs: modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs: modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  12. Light, alpha, and Fe-peak element abundances in the galactic bulge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kunder, Andrea; Koch, Andreas E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: akunder@aip.de

    2014-10-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu for a sample of 156 red giant branch stars in two Galactic bulge fields centered near (l, b) = (+5.25,3.02) and (0,12). The (+5.25,3.02) field also includes observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553. The results are based on high-resolution (R ? 20,000), high signal-to-noise ration (S/N ? 70) FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra obtained through the European Southern Observatory archive. However, we only selected a subset of the original observations that included spectra with both high S/N and that did not show strong TiO absorption bands. This work extends previous analyses of this data set beyond Fe and the ?-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti. While we find reasonable agreement with past work, the data presented here indicate that the bulge may exhibit a different chemical composition than the local thick disk, especially at [Fe/H] ? 0.5. In particular, the bulge [?/Fe] ratios may remain enhanced to a slightly higher [Fe/H] than the thick disk, and the Fe-peak elements Co, Ni, and Cu appear enhanced compared to the disk. There is also some evidence that the [Na/Fe] (but not [Al/Fe]) trends between the bulge and local disk may be different at low and high metallicity. We also find that the velocity dispersion decreases as a function of increasing [Fe/H] for both fields, and do not detect any significant cold, high-velocity populations. A comparison with chemical enrichment models indicates that a significant fraction of hypernovae may be required to explain the bulge abundance trends, and that initial mass functions that are steep, top-heavy (and do not include strong outflow), or truncated to avoid including contributions from stars >40 M {sub ?} are ruled out, in particular because of disagreement with the Fe-peak abundance data. For most elements, the NGC 6553 stars exhibit abundance trends nearly identical to comparable metallicity bulge field stars. However, the star-to-star scatter and mean [Na/Fe] ratios appear higher in the cluster, perhaps indicating additional self-enrichment.

  13. Utility Potential Calculator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Potential Studies in the Northwest V1.0 Utility Potential Calculator V1.0 for Excel 2007 Utility Potential Calculator V1.0 for Excel 2003 Note: BPA developed the Utility...

  14. Flux harmonics in large SFR cores in relation with core characteristics such as power peaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimpault, G.; Buiron, L.; Fontaine, B.; Sciora, P.; Tommasi, J.

    2013-07-01

    Designing future Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) requires enhancing their operational performance and reducing the probability to go into core disruption. As a consequence of these constraints, these novel reactors exhibit rather unusual features compared to past designs. The cores are much larger with rather flat shape. The consequences of that shape on the core characteristics deserve to be studied. The approach taken in this paper is to calculate the eigenvalue associated to the first harmonic and its associated flux. It is demonstrated that these values are linked to some core features, in particular, those sensitive to spatial effects such as power peaks induced by the movement of control rods. The uncertainty associated to these characteristics is being tentatively studied and guidelines for further studied are being identified. In the development strategy of these new SFR designs, a first demonstration plant of limited installed power (around 1500 MWth) will have to be built first. Identifying the possibility of going later to higher power plants (around 3600 MWth) without facing new challenges is an important criterion for designing such a plant. That strategy is being studied, in this paper, focusing on some rather frequent initiator such as the inadvertent control rod withdrawal for different core sizes with the help of the perturbation theory and the flux harmonics. (authors)

  15. Daily air pollution effects on children's respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedal, S.; Schenker, M.B.; Munoz, A.; Samet, J.M.; Batterman, S.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-06-01

    To identify acute respiratory health effects associated with air pollution due to coal combustion, a subgroup of elementary school-aged children was selected from a large cross-sectional study and followed daily for eight months. Children were selected to obtain three equal-sized groups: one without respiratory symptoms, one with symptoms of persistent wheeze, and one with cough or phlegm production but without persistent wheeze. Parents completed a daily diary of symptoms from which illness constellations of upper respiratory illness (URI) and lower respiratory illness (LRI) and the symptom of wheeze were derived. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured daily for nine consecutive weeks during the eight-month study period. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and coefficient of haze for each 24-hour period, as well as minimum hourly temperature, were correlated with daily URI, LRI, wheeze, and PEFR using multiple regression models adjusting for illness occurrence or level of PEFR on the immediately preceding day. Respiratory illness on the preceding day was the most important predictor of current illness. A drop in temperature was associated with increased URI and LRI but not with increased wheeze or with a decrease in level of PEFR. No air pollutant was strongly associated with respiratory illness or with level of PEFR, either in the group of children as a whole, or in either of the symptomatic subgroups; the pollutant concentrations observed, however, were uniformly lower than current ambient air quality standards.

  16. Development of a Dispatchable PV Peak Shainv System. PV: Bonus Program - Phase 1 Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Delmarva Power and Light and its subcontractors in Phase 1 of the US Department of Energy's PV:BONUS Program. The purpose of the program is to develop products and systems for buildings which utilize photovoltaic (N) technology. Beginning with a cooperative research effort with the University of Delaware's Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Delmarva Power developed and demonstrated the concept of Dispatchable PV Peak Shaving. This concept and the system which resulted horn the development work are unique from other grid-connected PV systems because it combines a PV, battery energy storage, power conversion and control technologies into an integrated package. Phase 1 began in July 1993 with the installation of a test and demonstration system at Delmarva's Northern Division General Office building near Newark, Delaware. Following initial testing throughout the summer and fall of 1993, significant modifications were made under an amendment to the DOE contract. Work on Phase 1 concluded in the early spring of 1995. Significant progress towards the goal of commercializing the system was made during Phase 1, and is summarized. Based on progress in Phase 1, a proposal to continue the work in Phase 2 was submitted to the US DOE in May 1995. A contract amendment and providing funds for the Phase 2 work is expected in July 1995.

  17. EIS No. 20100312 EIS Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, David J

    2010-08-01

    In accordance with Section 309(a) of the Clean Air Act, EPA is required to make its comments on EISs issued by other Federal agencies public. Historically, EPA has met this mandate by publishing weekly notices of availability of EPA comments, which includes a brief summary of EPA's comment letters, in the Federal Register. Since February 2008, EPA has been including its comment letters on EISs on its Web site at: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/eisdata.html. Including the entire EIS comment letters on the Web site satisfies the Section 309(a) requirement to make EPA's comments on EISs available to the public. Accordingly, on March 31, 2010, EPA discontinued the publication of the notice of availability of EPA comments in the Federal Register. EIS No. 20100312, Draft EIS, NRC, TX, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4, Application for Combined Licenses (COLs) for Construction Permits and Operating Licenses, (NUREG-1943), Hood and Somervell Counties, TX, Comment Period Ends: 10/26/2010.

  18. Potential Release Sites

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PRS Potential Release Sites Legacy sites where hazardous materials are found to be above acceptable levels are collectively called potential release sites. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Less than 10 percent of the total number of potential release sites need to go through the full corrective action process. What are potential release sites? Potential release sites are areas around the Laboratory and

  19. Alaska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 566,822 MWh Gas Power 3,571,101 MWh Petroleum Power 1,191,884 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 0 MWh Total Energy Production 6,541,675 MWh Percent of Total...

  20. Oklahoma: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 34,200,892 MWh Gas Power 34,915,888 MWh Petroleum Power 19,609 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 0 MWh Total Energy Production 75,245,559 MWh Percent of Total...

  1. Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    158,911 MWh Coal Power 0 MWh Gas Power 7,553,278 MWh Petroleum Power 16,262 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 0 MWh Total Energy Production 7,728,451 MWh Percent of Total...

  2. North Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    4,239,993 MWh Coal Power 29,812,959 MWh Gas Power 757 MWh Petroleum Power 48,076 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 838 MWh Total Energy Production 34,102,623 MWh Percent of Total...

  3. Nevada: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 7,507,244 MWh Gas Power 26,080,001 MWh Petroleum Power 17,727 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 0 MWh Total Energy Production 37,819,763 MWh Percent of Total...

  4. Idaho: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    10,318,565 MWh Coal Power 72,994 MWh Gas Power 1,549,875 MWh Petroleum Power 124 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 0 MWh Total Energy Production 11,941,557 MWh Percent of Total...

  5. Kentucky: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 84,379,768 MWh Gas Power 843,725 MWh Petroleum Power 2,028,175 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 12,629 MWh Total Energy Production 90,997,966 MWh Percent of...

  6. Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 3,196,902 MWh Gas Power 15,776,934 MWh Petroleum Power 5,657 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 41,248 MWh Total Energy Production 55,861,820 MWh Percent of...

  7. Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 39,783,826 MWh Gas Power 34,852,150 MWh Petroleum Power 67,337 MWh Nuclear Power 30,661,851 MWh Other 534 MWh Total Energy Production 112,066,601 MWh Percent...

  8. Tennessee: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 41,634,519 MWh Gas Power 410,411 MWh Petroleum Power 178,151 MWh Nuclear Power 26,962,001 MWh Other 788 MWh Total Energy Production 78,966,504 MWh Percent...

  9. Indiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 108,590,677 MWh Gas Power 5,390,611 MWh Petroleum Power 154,666 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 344,927 MWh Total Energy Production 116,667,762 MWh Percent of...

  10. New Mexico: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 29,084,699 MWh Gas Power 8,759,510 MWh Petroleum Power 43,480 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 4,371 MWh Total Energy Production 39,754,081 MWh Percent of...

  11. Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 35,715,484 MWh Gas Power 6,424,511 MWh Petroleum Power 50,180 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 186,748 MWh Total Energy Production 43,446,797 MWh Percent of...

  12. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small office; and 5) simulated energy savings and peak demand reduction by energy conservation measures using the TMY3 weather data can be significantly underestimated or overestimated. It is crucial to run multi-decade simulations with AMY weather data to fully assess the impact of weather on the long-term performance of buildings, and to evaluate the energy savings potential of energy conservation measures for new and existing buildings from a life cycle perspective.

  13. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen

    2013-05-13

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  14. Method for reducing peak phase current and decreasing staring time for an internal combustion engine having an induction machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amey, David L. (Birmingham, MI); Degner, Michael W. (Farmington Hills, MI)

    2002-01-01

    A method for reducing the starting time and reducing the peak phase currents for an internal combustion engine that is started using an induction machine starter/alternator. The starting time is reduced by pre-fluxing the induction machine and the peak phase currents are reduced by reducing the flux current command after a predetermined period of time has elapsed and concurrent to the application of the torque current command. The method of the present invention also provides a strategy for anticipating the start command for an internal combustion engine and determines a start strategy based on the start command and the operating state of the internal combustion engine.

  15. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2008 and Projected 2009 through 2013 " ,"(Megawatts and 2008 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In October 2010, the initial deployment of the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) took place at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX). The objective of this field campaign was to obtain data about liquid and mixed-phase clouds using AMF2 instruments in conjunction with Storm Peak Laboratory (located at an elevation of 3220 meters on Mt. Werner), a cloud and aerosol research facility operated by the Desert Research Institute. STORMVEX datasets are freely available for viewing and download. Users are asked to register with the ARM Archive; the user's email address is used from that time forward as the login name.

  17. Renewable Energy Economic Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, is defined in this report as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity.

  18. ,"Table 2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area," ,"1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected" ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Interconnection","NERC Regional Assesment Area","Summer" ,,,"Actual",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Projected"

  19. WE-D-BRF-02: Acoustic Signal From the Bragg Peak for Range Verification in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhardt, S; Assmann, W; Fink, A; Thirolf, P; Parodi, K; Kellnberger, S; Omar, M; Ntziachristos, V; Gaebisch, C; Moser, M; Dollinger, G; Sergiadis, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams. Aim of this work is to study the feasibility of determining the ion range with sub-mm accuracy by use of high frequency ultrasonic (US) transducers and to image the Bragg peak by tomography. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity, length and repetition rate. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based US detectors (3.5 MHz and 10 MHz central frequencies). For tomography a 64 channel US detector array was used and moved along the ion track by a remotely controlled motor stage. Results: A clear signal of the Bragg peak was visible for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Range measurements were reproducible within +/? 20 micrometer and agreed well with Geant4 simulations. The tomographic reconstruction does not only allow to measure the ion range but also the beam spot size at the Bragg peak position. Conclusion: Range verification by acoustic means is a promising new technique for treatment modalities where the tumor can be localized by US imaging. Further improvement of sensitivity is required to account for higher attenuation of the US signal in tissue, as well as lower energy density in the Bragg peak in realistic treatment cases due to higher particle energy and larger spot sizes. Nevertheless, the acoustic range verification approach could offer the possibility of combining anatomical US imaging with Bragg Peak imaging in the near future. The work was funded by the DFG cluster of excellence Munich Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP)

  20. Energy Resource Potential

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resource Potential of Methane Hydrate Energy Resource Potential An introduction to the science and energy potential of a unique resource Disclaimer Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their

  1. Field matric potential sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01

    A method of determining matric potential of a sample, the method comprising placing the sample in a container, the container having an opening; and contacting the sample with a tensiometer via the opening. An apparatus for determining matric potential of a sample, the apparatus comprising a housing configured to receive a sample; a portable matric potential sensing device extending into the housing and having a porous member; and a wall closing the housing to insulate the sample and at least a portion of the matric potential sensing device including the porous member.

  2. Interaction-powered supernovae: rise-time versus peak-luminosity correlation and the shock-breakout velocity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Arcavi, Iair; Tal, David; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ben-Ami, Sagi; De Cia, Annalisa; Yaron, Ofer; Sullivan, Mark; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Cao, Yi; Nugent, Peter E.; Bersier, David; Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fransson, Claes; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason; Quimby, Robert

    2014-06-20

    Interaction of supernova (SN) ejecta with the optically thick circumstellar medium (CSM) of a progenitor star can result in a bright, long-lived shock-breakout event. Candidates for such SNe include Type IIn and superluminous SNe. If some of these SNe are powered by interaction, then there should be a specific relation between their peak luminosity, bolometric light-curve rise time, and shock-breakout velocity. Given that the shock velocity during shock breakout is not measured, we expect a correlation, with a significant spread, between the rise time and the peak luminosity of these SNe. Here, we present a sample of 15 SNe IIn for which we have good constraints on their rise time and peak luminosity from observations obtained using the Palomar Transient Factory. We report on a possible correlation between the R-band rise time and peak luminosity of these SNe, with a false-alarm probability of 3%. Assuming that these SNe are powered by interaction, combining these observables and theory allows us to deduce lower limits on the shock-breakout velocity. The lower limits on the shock velocity we find are consistent with what is expected for SNe (i.e., ?10{sup 4} km s{sup 1}). This supports the suggestion that the early-time light curves of SNe IIn are caused by shock breakout in a dense CSM. We note that such a correlation can arise from other physical mechanisms. Performing such a test on other classes of SNe (e.g., superluminous SNe) can be used to rule out the interaction model for a class of events.

  3. Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2005-11-14

    The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

  4. WINDExchange: Potential Wind Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Potential Wind Capacity Potential wind capacity maps are provided for a 2014 industry standard wind turbine installed on a 110-m tower, which represents plausible current technology options, and a wind turbine on a 140-m tower, which represents near-future technology options. Enlarge image This map shows the wind potential at a 110-m height for the United States. Download a printable map. Click on a state to view the wind map for that state. * Grid Granularity = 400 sq km* 35% Gross Capacity

  5. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Zachery Warren; Zevenbergen, Gary Allen

    2012-07-17

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and a voltage attenuator. The first electrode and the second electrode are both electrically connected to the voltage attenuator. A means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential is connected to the voltage attenuator. The device and method further comprises a means for enabling one or more alarms upon the detection of the dangerous ground potential. Preferably, a first transmitter/receiver is connected to the means for enabling one or more alarms. Preferably, a second transmitter/receiver, comprising a button, is electromagnetically connected to the first transmitter/receiver. Preferably, the means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential comprises a means for determining the true RMS voltage at the output of the voltage attenuator, a transient detector connected to the output of the voltage attenuator, or a combination thereof.

  6. NRELs Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DEVAP Slashes Peak Power Loads Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-condi- tioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the elec- tricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equip- ment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on

  7. Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W; Conklin, Jim

    2007-09-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the unique characteristics of high-temperature reactors (T>700 C) to produce electricity for premium electric markets whose demands can not be met by other types of nuclear reactors. It may also make the use of nuclear reactors economically feasible in smaller electrical grids, such as those found in many developing countries. The ability to rapidly vary power output can be used to stabilize electric grid performance-a particularly important need in small electrical grids.

  8. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2005 Base Year)" ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","RFC","SERC","SPP","ERCOT","WECC (U.S.) "

  9. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  10. Step 1: Identify Project Potential

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1: Identify Project Potential Presentation Agenda * Brief Review of Day 1 * Step 1: Identifying Project Potential - Community Market Potential - Resource Potential - Initial Site Considerations * Tools and Resources * Small Group Exercise/Discussion 2 1/28/2016 2 1 Potential 5 Operations & Maintenance 4 Implementation 3 Refinement 2 Options 1 Potential 3 Potential Options Refinement Implementation Operations and Maintenance Step 1: Site, Scale, Resource, and Community Market Potential

  11. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, Paul; Diakov, Victor; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  12. FEMAXI-V benchmarking study on peak temperature and fission gas release prediction of PWR rod fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suwardi; Dewayatna, W.; Briyatmoko, B.

    2012-06-06

    The present paper reports a study of FEMAXI-V code and related report on code benchmarking. Capabilities of the FEMAXI-V code to predict the thermal and fission gas release have been tested on MOX fuels in LWRs which has been done in SCK{center_dot}CEN and Belgonucleaire by using PRIMO MOX rod BD8 irradiation experiment after V Sobolev as reported O. J. Ott. Base irradiation in the BR3 reactor, the BD8 rod was transported to CEA-Saclay for irradiation in the OSIRIS reactor (ramp power excursion). The irradiation device used for the PRIMO ramps was the ISABELLE 1 loop, installed on a movable structure of the core periphery. The power variations were obtained by inwards/backwards movements of the loop in the core water. The preconditioning phase for rod BD8 occurred at a peak power level of 189 W/cm with a hold time of 27 hours. The subsequent power excursion rate amounted to 77 W/ (cm.min), reaching a terminal peak power level of 395 W/cm that lasted for 20 hours.

  13. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  14. Chapter 10, Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocols: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocols Frank Stern, Navigant Consulting Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 10 - 1 Chapter 10 - Table of Contents 1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................2 2 Purpose of Peak Demand and Time-differentiated Energy

  15. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak-Load Shifting and Spinning Reserves Cost/Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Li, Shun

    2010-12-01

    In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production of smart appliances. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the societal challenges, such as anthropogenic global warming, associated with increased electricity demand, and facilitate increased penetration of renewable sources of power. The appliances we consider include refrigerator/freezers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, room air-conditioners, and dishwashers. The petition requests the recognition that providing an appliance with smart grid capability, i.e., products that meet the definition of a smart appliance, is at least equivalent to a corresponding five percent in operational machine efficiencies. It is then expected that given sufficient incentives and value propositions, and suitable automation capabilities built into smart appliances, residential consumers will be adopting these smart appliances and will be willing participants in addressing the aforementioned societal challenges by more effectively managing their home electricity consumption. The analytical model we utilize in our cost/benefit analysis consists of a set of user-definable assumptions such as the definition of on-peak (hours of day, days of week, months of year), the expected percentage of normal consumer electricity consumption (also referred to as appliance loads) that can shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours, the average power rating of each appliance, etc. Based on these assumptions, we then formulate what the wholesale grid operating-cost savings, or benefits, would be if the smart capabilities of appliances were invoked, and some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads served power-system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. The rationale is that appliance loads can be curtailed for about ten minutes or less in response to a grid contingency without any diminution in the quality of service to the consumer. We then estimate the wholesale grid operating-cost savings based on historical wholesale-market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States. The savings derived from the smart grid capabilities of an appliance are then compared to the savings derived from a five percent increase in traditional operational machine efficiencies, referred to as cost in this report, to determine whether the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as or higher than the operational machine efficiency credit (cost).

  16. DO RADIO MAGNETARS PSR J1550-5418 AND J1622-4950 HAVE GIGAHERTZ-PEAKED SPECTRA?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kijak, J.; Tarczewski, L.; Lewandowski, W.; Melikidze, G.

    2013-07-20

    We study the radio spectra of two magnetars, PSR J1550-5418 and J1622-4950. We argue that they are good candidates for pulsars with gigahertz-peaked spectra (GPS), as their observed flux density decreases at frequencies below 7 GHz. We suggest that this behavior is due to the influence of the pulsars' environments on radio waves. Both of the magnetars are associated with supernova remnants and thus are surrounded by hot, ionized gas, which can be responsible for the free-free absorption of radio waves. We conclude that the GPS feature of both magnetars and typical pulsars are formed by similar processes in the surrounding media rather than by different radio-emission mechanisms. Thus, the radio magnetars PSR J1550-5418 and J1622-4950 can be included in the class of GPS pulsars.

  17. An investigation of the accuracy and the characteristics of the Peak-Shaving Method applied to production cost calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, R.N.; Lee, T.H.; Hill, E.F.

    1989-08-01

    The Peak-Shaving Method (PSM) has been applied in many well-known commercial software packages for hydrothermal scheduling to minimize the system production cost. These packages are frequently applied by government agencies and utilities for rate hearings, energy import/export licensing, generation capacity expansion planning, and hourly production scheduling for a weekly system operation planning, etc. The accuracy and the characteristics of the PSM however have not yet been carefully investigated. This work presents an extensive study of the PSM. A wide range of load factors and hydro ratio systems have been tested and compared with the results of the rigorous Coordination-Equation Method (CEM). It has been found that the PSM always scheduled more water in the high load period than the CEM. The PSM, therefore, is more likely to swing the hydro plants and may thus avoid frequent on/off operation of thermal units.

  18. Coincidence of collective relaxation anomaly and specific heat peak in a bulk metallic glass-forming liquid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Podlesynak, Andrey; Ehlers, Georg; Mills, Rebecca; O'Keeffe, Stephanie; Stevick, Joseph; Kempton, James; Jelbert, Glenton; Dmowski, Wojciech; Lokshin, Konstantin; et al

    2015-07-21

    The study of multicomponent metallic liquids' relaxational behavior is still the key to understanding and improving the glass-forming abilities of bulk metallic glasses. Here, we report measurements of the collective relaxation times in a melted bulk metallic glass (LM601Zr51Cu36Ni4Al9) in the kinetic regime (Q: 1.5–4.0Å–1) using quasielastic neutron scattering. The results reveal an unusual slope change in the Angell plots of this metallic liquid's collective relaxation time around 950°C, beyond the material's melting point. Measurement of specific heat capacity also reveals a peak around the same temperature. Adams-Gibbs theory is used to rationalize the coincidence, which motivates more careful experimentalmore » and computational studies of the metallic liquids in the future.« less

  19. Table 10.9 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Sector and End Use, 1989-2010 (Peak Kilowatts )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Sector and End Use, 1989-2010 (Peak Kilowatts 1 ) Year By Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 3 Industrial 4 Electric Power 5 Other 6 Grid-Connected 2 Off-Grid 2 Centralized 7 Distributed 8 Domestic 9 Non-Domestic 10 Total Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules 11<//td> 1989 1,439 6,057 [R] 3,993 785 551 [12] 1,251 [12] 2,620 8,954 12,825 1990 1,701 8,062 [R] 2,817 826 432 [12] 469 [12] 3,097 10,271 13,837 1991 3,624 5,715 [R] 3,947

  20. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  1. Resonant tunneling with high peak to valley current ratio in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D. Y.; Sun, Y.; He, Y. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, J.

    2014-01-28

    We have investigated carrier transport in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers by room temperature current-voltage measurements. Resonant tunneling signatures accompanied by current peaks are observed. Carrier transport in the multi-layers were analyzed by plots of ln(I/V{sup 2}) as a function of 1/V and ln(I) as a function of V{sup 1/2}. Results suggest that besides films quality, nc-Si and barrier sub-layer thicknesses are important parameters that restrict carrier transport. When thicknesses are both small, direct tunneling dominates carrier transport, resonant tunneling occurs only at certain voltages and multi-resonant tunneling related current peaks can be observed but with peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) values smaller than 1.5. When barrier thickness is increased, trap-related and even high field related tunneling is excited, causing that multi-current peaks cannot be observed clearly, only one current peak with higher PVCR value of 7.7 can be observed. While if the thickness of nc-Si is large enough, quantum confinement is not so strong, a broad current peak with PVCR value as high as 60 can be measured, which may be due to small energy difference between the splitting energy levels in the quantum dots of nc-Si. Size distribution in a wide range may cause un-controllability of the peak voltages.

  2. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Zachery W. (Mandan, ND); Zevenbergen, Gary A. (Arvada, CO)

    2012-04-03

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising positioning a first electrode and a second electrode at a distance from each other into the earth. The voltage of the first electrode and second electrode is attenuated by an attenuation factor creating an attenuated voltage. The true RMS voltage of the attenuated voltage is determined creating an attenuated true RMS voltage. The attenuated true RMS voltage is then multiplied by the attenuation factor creating a calculated true RMS voltage. If the calculated true RMS voltage is greater than a first predetermined voltage threshold, a first alarm is enabled at a local location. If user input is received at a remote location acknowledging the first alarm, a first alarm acknowledgment signal is transmitted. The first alarm acknowledgment signal is then received at which time the first alarm is disabled.

  3. Using Plasmon Peaks in Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy to Determine the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Nanoscale Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, James M.

    2013-05-09

    In this program, we developed new theoretical and experimental insights into understanding the relationships among fundamental universality and scaling phenomena, the solid-state physical and mechanical properties of materials, and the volume plasmon energy as measured by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Particular achievements in these areas are summarized as follows: (i) Using a previously proposed physical model based on the universal binding-energy relation (UBER), we established close phenomenological connections regarding the influence of the valence electrons in materials on the longitudinal plasma oscillations (plasmons) and various solid-state properties such as the optical constants (including absorption and dispersion), elastic constants, cohesive energy, etc. (ii) We found that carbon materials, e.g., diamond, graphite, diamond-like carbons, hydrogenated and amorphous carbon films, exhibit strong correlations in density vs. Ep (or maximum of the volume plasmon peak) and density vs. hardness, both from available experimental data and ab initio DFT calculations. This allowed us to derive a three-dimensional relationship between hardness and the plasmon energy, that can be used to determine experimentally both hardness and density of carbon materials based on measurements of the plasmon peak position. (iii) As major experimental accomplishments, we demonstrated the possibility of in-situ monitoring of changes in the physical properties of materials with conditions, e.g., temperature, and we also applied a new plasmon ratio-imaging technique to map multiple physical properties of materials, such as the elastic moduli, cohesive energy and bonding electron density, with a sub-nanometer lateral resolution. This presents new capability for understanding material behavior. (iv) Lastly, we demonstrated a new physical phenomenon - electron-beam trapping, or ?¢????electron tweezers?¢??? - of a solid metal nanoparticle inside a liquid metal. This phenomenon is analogous to that of optical trapping of solid microparticles in solution known as "optical tweezers", which is currently being used to manipulate molecules and inorganic materials in a variety of nanotechnology applications.

  4. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-427-1613, Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, P.

    1985-08-01

    Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for formaldehyde at the Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado in August, 1984 and February, 1985. The evaluation was requested by a representative of the Center to determine if there was a health hazard due to formaldehyde. Eight employees were interviewed. The ventilation systems were investigated. Personal protective clothing was inspected. Breathing-zone samples contained 0 28 to 1.0 (mg/m/sup 3/) formaldehyde. The OSHA standard for formaldehyde is 3.7 mg/m/sup 3/. Area formaldehyde concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 0.75 mg/m/sup 3/. Health complaints reported included sore throat, congestion, cough, and eye, nose and throat irritation. Most of the complaints originated from employees in the formalin mixing, reuse sterilization, and dialysis unit packing sections. The exhaust system in the reuse sterilization area was not working efficiently. A variety of personal protective clothing was available including lab coats, protective goggles, aprons, respirators, and gloves. The author concludes that a health hazard from formaldehyde exposure exists at the facility. Recommendations include improving local exhaust ventilation in areas where formaldehyde is used extensively, avoiding skin and eye contact with formaldehyde, and training and educating employees in safe work practices.

  5. Improvements to the RELAP5/MOD3 reflood model and uncertainty quantification of reflood peak clad temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Young Lee; Park, Chan Eok; Lee, Sang Yong

    1996-10-01

    Assessment of the original REAP/N4OD3.1 code against the FLECHT SEASET series of experiments has identified some weaknesses of the reflood model, such as the lack of a quenching temperature model, the shortcoming of the Chen transition boiling model, and the incorrect prediction of droplet size and interfacial heat transfer. Also, high temperature spikes during the reflood calculation resulted in high steam flow oscillation and liquid carryover. An effort had been made to improve the code with respect to the above weakness, and the necessary model for the wall heat transfer package and the numerical scheme had been modified. Some important FLECHT-SEASET experiments were assessed using the improved version and standard version. The result from the improved REAP/MOD3.1 shows the weaknesses of REAP/N4OD3.1 were much improved when compared to the standard MOD3.1 code. The prediction of void profile and cladding temperature agreed better with test data, especially for the gravity feed test. The scatter diagram of peak cladding temperatures (PCTs) is made from the comparison of all the calculated PCTs and the corresponding experimental values. The deviation between experimental and calculated PCTs were calculated for 2793 data points. The deviations are shown to be normally distributed, and used to quantify statistically the PCT uncertainty of the code. The upper limit of PCT uncertainty at 95% confidence level is evaluated to be about 99K.

  6. Static tetraquark and pentaquark potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandrou, C.; Koutsou, G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the static qqqq and qqqqq potentials in the quenched theory at {beta}=5.8 and {beta}=6.0 on a lattice of size 16{sup 3}x32. We compare the static potentials to the sum of two meson potentials for the tetraquark system and to the sum of the baryonic and mesonic potentials for the pentaquark state, as well as, with the confining potential obtained in the strong coupling expansion.

  7. Colorado Potential Geothermal Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado PRS Cool Fairways Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the weakened basement rocks. Isostatic gravity was utilized to identify structural basin areas, characterized by gravity low values reflecting weakened basement rocks. Together interpreted regional fault zones and basin outlines define geothermal "exploration fairways", where the potential exists for deep, superheated fluid flow in the absence of Pliocene or younger volcanic units Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4544698.569273 m Left: 144918.141004 m Right: 763728.391299 m Bottom: 4094070.397932 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  8. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High Penetration PV Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helm, C.; Burman, K.

    2010-04-01

    Overview of the solar resource assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in cooperation with Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) in Hawaii to determine the technical feasibility of increasing the contribution of solar renewable energy generation on the island of Kauaii through the use of photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The analysis, which was performed using a custom version of NREL's In My Back Yard (IMBY) software tool, showed that there is potential to generate enough energy to cover the peak load as reported for Kauai in 2007.

  9. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of precipitation where sequestration begins to decrease.

  10. B_c Meson Production Around the Z^0 Peak at a High Luminosity e^+ e^- Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Xing-Gang; Chen, Gu; Liao, Qi-Li; Zhang, Jia-Wei; /Chongqing U.

    2012-05-22

    Considering the possibility to build an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the energies around the Z{sup 0}-boson resonance with a planned luminosity so high as L {proportional_to} 10{sup 34} {approx} 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} (super Z-factory), we make a detailed discussion on the (c{bar b})-quarkonium production through e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (c{bar b})[n] + b + {bar c} within the framework of non-relativistic QCD. Here [n] stands for the Fock-states |(c{sub b}){sub 1}[{sup 1}S{sub 0}]>, |(c{bar b})8[{sup 1}S{sub 0}]g>, |(c{bar b} ){sub 1}[{sup 3}S{sub 1}]>, |(c{bar b}){sub 8}[{sup 3}S{sub 1}]g>, |(c{bar b}){sub 1}[{sup 1}P{sub 1}]> and |(c{bar b}){sub 1}[{sup 3}P{sub J}]> (with J = (1, 2, 3)) respectively. To simplify the hard-scattering amplitude as much as possible and to derive analytic expressions for the purpose of future events simulation, we adopt the 'improved trace technology' to do our calculation, which deals with the hard scattering amplitude directly at the amplitude level other than the conventional way at the squared-amplitude level. Total cross-section uncertainties caused by the quark masses are predicted by taking m{sub c} = 1.50 {+-} 0.30 GeV and m{sub b} = 4.90 {+-} 0.40 GeV. If all higher (c{bar b})-quarkonium states decay to the ground state B{sub c} (|(c{bar b}){sub 1}[{sup 1}S{sub 0}]>) with 100% efficiency, we obtain {sigma}{sub e{sup +}+e{sup -}{yields}B{sub c}+b+{bar c}} = 5.190{sub -2.419}{sup +6.222} pb, which shows that about 10{sup 5} {approx} 10{sup 7} B{sub c} events per operation year can be accumulated in the super Z-factory. If taking the collider energy runs slightly off the Z{sup 0}-peak, i.e. {radical}S = (1.00 {+-} 0.05)m{sub Z}, the total cross-section shall be lowered by about one-order from its peak value. Such a super Z-factory shall provide another useful platform to study the properties of B{sub c} meson, or even the properties of its excited P-wave states, in addition to its production at the hadronic colliders Tevatron and LHC.

  11. X-Ray Emitting GHz-Peaked Spectrum Galaxies: Testing a Dynamical-Radiative Model with Broad-Band Spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostorero, L.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Diaferio, A.; Kowalska, I.; Cheung, C.C.; Kataoka, J.; Begelman, M.C.; Wagner, S.J.; ,

    2010-06-07

    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the GPS spectral energy distribution (SED) with the source expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the {gamma}-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broad-band SEDs of a sample of eleven X-ray emitting GPS galaxies with Compact-Symmetric-Object (CSO) morphology, and show that: (i) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism; (ii) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N{sub H}) and radio (N{sub HI}) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  12. Plasma potential mapping of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, Albert; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Sanders, Jason M.; Anders, Andre

    2011-12-20

    Pulsed emissive probe techniques have been used to determine the plasma potential distribution of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. An unbalanced magnetron with a niobium target in argon was investigated for pulse length of 100 ?s at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz, giving a peak current of 170 A. The probe data were taken with a time resolution of 20 ns and a spatial resolution of 1 mm. It is shown that the local plasma potential varies greatly in space and time. The lowest potential was found over the targets racetrack, gradually reaching anode potential (ground) several centimeters away from the target. The magnetic pre-sheath exhibits a funnel-shaped plasma potential resulting in an electric field which accelerates ions toward the racetrack. In certain regions and times, the potential exhibits weak local maxima which allow for ion acceleration to the substrate. Knowledge of the local E and static B fields lets us derive the electrons EB drift velocity, which is about 105 m/s and shows structures in space and time.

  13. THE QUASAR SDSS J153636.22+044127.0: A DOUBLE-PEAKED EMITTER IN A CANDIDATE BINARY BLACK HOLE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang Sumin; Grindlay, Jonathan

    2009-10-20

    Double-peaked emission lines are believed to be originated from accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and about 3% of z < 0.33 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are found to be double-peaked emitters. The quasar SDSS J153636.22+044127.0 has recently been identified with peculiar broad-line emission systems exhibiting multiple redshifts. We decompose the Halpha and Hbeta profiles into a circular Keplerian disk-line component and other Gaussian components. We propose that the system is both a double-peaked emitter and a binary SMBH system, where the extra flux in the blue peaks of the broad lines comes from the region around the secondary black hole. We suggest that such black hole binary systems might also exist in many known double-peaked emitters, where the tidal torques from the secondary black hole clear the outer region of the disk around the primary black hole, similar to the gap in a protostellar disk due to the process of planetary migration, and might also stimulate the formation of a vertical extended source in the inner region around the primary which illuminates the disk. However, most secondary SMBHs in such systems might be too small to maintain a detectable broad-line region (BLR), so that the disk line from the primary dominates.

  14. Verification of maximum radial power peaking factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setyawan, Daddy; Rohman, Budi

    2014-09-30

    Verification of Maximum Radial Power Peaking Factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS Reactor. Radial Power Peaking Factor in RSG-GAS Reactor is a very important parameter for the safety of RSG-GAS reactor during operation. Data of radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of Fission Product Molybdenum with Low Enriched Uranium (FPM-LEU) was reported by PRSG to BAPETEN through the Safety Analysis Report RSG-GAS for FPM-LEU target irradiation. In order to support the evaluation of the Safety Analysis Report incorporated in the submission, the assessment unit of BAPETEN is carrying out independent assessment in order to verify safety related parameters in the SAR including neutronic aspect. The work includes verification to the maximum radial power peaking factor change due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target in RSG-GAS Reactor by computational method using MCNP5and ORIGEN2. From the results of calculations, the new maximum value of the radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target is 1.27. The results of calculations in this study showed a smaller value than 1.4 the limit allowed in the SAR.

  15. Program Design Analysis using BEopt Building Energy Optimization Software: Defining a Technology Pathway Leading to New Homes with Zero Peak Cooling Demand; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.; Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2006-08-01

    An optimization method based on the evaluation of a broad range of different combinations of specific energy efficiency and renewable-energy options is used to determine the least-cost pathway to the development of new homes with zero peak cooling demand. The optimization approach conducts a sequential search of a large number of possible option combinations and uses the most cost-effective alternatives to generate a least-cost curve to achieve home-performance levels ranging from a Title 24-compliant home to a home that uses zero net source energy on an annual basis. By evaluating peak cooling load reductions on the least-cost curve, it is then possible to determine the most cost-effective combination of energy efficiency and renewable-energy options that both maximize annual energy savings and minimize peak-cooling demand.

  16. The spectral variability of the GHZ-Peaked spectrum radio source PKS 1718-649 and a comparison of absorption models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tingay, S. J.; Macquart, J.-P.; Wayth, R. B.; Trott, C. M.; Emrich, D.; Collier, J. D.; Wong, G. F.; Rees, G.; Stevens, J.; Carretti, E.; Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; McKinley, B.; Briggs, F.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Goeke, R.; and others

    2015-02-01

    Using the new wideband capabilities of the ATCA, we obtain spectra for PKS 1718-649, a well-known gigahertz-peaked spectrum radio source. The observations, between approximately 1 and 10 GHz over 3 epochs spanning approximately 21 months, reveal variability both above the spectral peak at ∼3 GHz and below the peak. The combination of the low- and high-frequency variability cannot be easily explained using a single absorption mechanism, such as free–free absorption or synchrotron self-absorption. We find that the PKS 1718-649 spectrum and its variability are best explained by variations in the free–free optical depth on our line of sight to the radio source at low frequencies (below the spectral peak) and the adiabatic expansion of the radio source itself at high frequencies (above the spectral peak). The optical depth variations are found to be plausible when X-ray continuum absorption variability seen in samples of active galactic nuclei is considered. We find that the cause of the peaked spectrum in PKS 1718-649 is most likely due to free–free absorption. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the spectrum at each epoch of observation is best fit by a free–free absorption model characterized by a power-law distribution of free–free absorbing clouds. This agreement is extended to frequencies below the 1 GHz lower limit of the ATCA by considering new observations with Parkes at 725 MHz and 199 MHz observations with the newly operational Murchison Widefield Array. These lower frequency observations argue against families of absorption models (both free–free and synchrotron self-absorption) that are based on simple homogenous structures.

  17. Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2005-06-16

    One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

  18. Commercial Building Toplighting: Energy Saving Potential and Potential Paths Forward

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, Tyson; Roth, Kurt W.

    2008-06-01

    This report documents the energy-saving potential of toplighting, a form of daylighting that combines skylights and electric lighting controls.

  19. EA-1863: Vegetation Management on the Glen Canyon-Pinnacle Peak Transmission Lines Spanning the Coconino National Forest, Coconino County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of updating the vegetation management and right-of-way maintenance program for Western’s Glen Canyon to Pinnacle Peak 345-kV transmission lines, which cross the Coconino National Forest, Coconino County, Arizona.

  20. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  1. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two 1,800 kW Diesel Generators (existing) 3.6 1.5 MWh lithium ion energy storage system .5 Interface with Price Driven Load Management (Potential Demand Response) Total Capacity ...

  2. Synchrotron IR microspectroscopy for protein structure analysis: Potential and questions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive, bioanalytical technique. This technique takes advantage of synchrotron light brightness and small effective source size and is capable of exploring the molecular chemical make-up within microstructures of a biological tissue without destruction of inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions within cellular dimension. To date there has been very little application of this advanced technique to the study of pure protein inherent structure at a cellular level in biological tissues. In this review, a novel approach was introduced to show the potential of the newly developed, advancedmore » synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to localize relatively “pure“ protein in the plant tissues and relatively reveal protein inherent structure and protein molecular chemical make-up within intact tissue at cellular and subcellular levels. Several complex protein IR spectra data analytical techniques (Gaussian and Lorentzian multi-component peak modeling, univariate and multivariate analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) are employed to relatively reveal features of protein inherent structure and distinguish protein inherent structure differences between varieties/species and treatments in plant tissues. By using a multi-peak modeling procedure, RELATIVE estimates (but not EXACT determinations) for protein secondary structure analysis can be made for comparison purpose. The issues of pro- and anti-multi-peaking modeling/fitting procedure for relative estimation of protein structure were discussed. By using the PCA and CLA analyses, the plant molecular structure can be qualitatively separate one group from another, statistically, even though the spectral assignments are not known. The synchrotron-based technology provides a new approach for protein structure research in biological tissues at ultraspatial resolutions.« less

  3. Completeness for sparse potential scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Zhongwei

    2014-01-15

    The present paper is devoted to the scattering theory of a class of continuum Schrdinger operators with deterministic sparse potentials. We first establish the limiting absorption principle for both modified free resolvents and modified perturbed resolvents. This actually is a weak form of the classical limiting absorption principle. We then prove the existence and completeness of local wave operators, which, in particular, imply the existence of wave operators. Under additional assumptions on the sparse potential, we prove the completeness of wave operators. In the context of continuum Schrdinger operators with sparse potentials, this paper gives the first proof of the completeness of wave operators.

  4. ,"Table 3A.1. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A.1. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area," ,"1996-2010 Actual, 2011-2012 Projected" ,"(Megawatts)" ,"January","NERC Regional Assesment Area" ,,,"Actual",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Projected" ,,,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"2011E","2012E" ,"Eastern

  5. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    January 2010" ,"Next Update: October 2010" ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2008 and Projected 2009 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2008 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  6. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2005 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  7. Estimates of Green potentials. Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danchenko, V I

    2003-02-28

    Optimal Cartan-type covers by hyperbolic discs of carriers of Green {alpha}-potentials are obtained in a simply connected domain in the complex plane and estimates of the potentials outside the carriers are presented. These results are applied to problems on the separation of singularities of analytic and harmonic functions. For instance, uniform and integral estimates in terms of Green capacities of components of meromorphic functions are obtained.

  8. Inhomogeneous broadening and peak shift of the 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies in SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajihara, Koichi, E-mail: kkaji@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Urban Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Skuja, Linards [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga iela 8, LV1063 Riga (Latvia); Hosono, Hideo [Materials and Structures Laboratory and Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2014-10-21

    The peak parameters of radiation-induced 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies (Si-Si bonds) were examined for high-purity synthetic ?-quartz and amorphous SiO{sub 2} (a?SiO{sub 2}) exposed to {sup 60}Co ?-rays. The peak shape is asymmetric with the steeper edge at the lower energy side both in ?-quartz and a?SiO{sub 2}, and the peak energy is larger for ?-quartz than that for a?SiO{sub 2}. The full width at half maximum for a?SiO{sub 2} is larger by ?40-60% than that for ?-quartz, and it increases with an increase in the disorder of the a?SiO{sub 2} network, which is enhanced by raising the temperature of preannealing before irradiation, i.e., fictive temperature. These data are interpreted from the viewpoint of the site-to-site distribution of the Si-Si bond length in a?SiO{sub 2}.

  9. Renewable Energy Technical Potential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Technical Potential Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Renewable Energy Technical Potential: Renewable energy technical potential represents the achievable...

  10. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  11. Drifting potential humps in ionization zones: The propeller blades of high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andr; Ni, Pavel; Panjan, Matja; Joef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana ; Franz, Robert; Montanuniversitt Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben ; Andersson, Joakim; Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore

    2013-09-30

    Ion energy distribution functions measured for high power impulse magnetron sputtering show features, such as a broad peak at several 10 eV with an extended tail, as well as asymmetry with respect to EB, where E and B are the local electric and magnetic field vectors, respectively. Here it is proposed that those features are due to the formation of a potential hump of several 10 V in each of the traveling ionization zones. Potential hump formation is associated with a negative-positive-negative space charge that naturally forms in ionization zones driven by energetic drifting electrons.

  12. Khler potentials for Planck inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roest, Diederik; Scalisi, Marco; Zavala, Ivonne E-mail: m.scalisi@rug.nl

    2013-11-01

    We assess which Khler potentials in supergravity lead to viable single-field inflationary models that are consistent with Planck. We highlight the role of symmetries, such as shift, Heisenberg and supersymmetry, in these constructions. Also the connections to string theory are pointed out. Finally, we discuss a supergravity model for arbitrary inflationary potentials that is suitable for open string inflation and generalise it to the case of closed string inflation. Our model includes the recently discussed supergravity reformulation of the Starobinsky model of inflation as well as an interesting alternative with comparable predictions.

  13. Powertrain Trends and Future Potential

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DS/NE-NA | August 4, 2009 | © Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties. Automotive Technology Powertrain Trends and Future Potential Dr. Johannes-Joerg Rueger Sr. Vice President, Robert Bosch Panel "New Directions in Engine and Fuels" DEER Conference, Dearborn, August 4, 2009 2 Powertrain Trends and Future Potential * Global Trends - Fighting Global Warming *

  14. LHC Physics Potential versus Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2009-08-01

    Parton luminosities are convenient for estimating how the physics potential of Large Hadron Collider experiments depends on the energy of the proton beams. I present parton luminosities, ratios of parton luminosities, and contours of fixed parton luminosity for gg, u{bar d}, and qq interactions over the energy range relevant to the Large Hadron Collider, along with example analyses for specific processes.

  15. Determination of the bias in LOFT fuel peak cladding temperature data from the blowdown phase of large-break LOCA experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berta, V.T.; Hanson, R.G.; Johnsen, G.W.; Schultz, R.R.

    1993-05-01

    Data from the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program help quantify the margin of safety inherent in pressurized water reactors during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). As early as 1979, questions arose concerning the accuracy of LOFT fuel rod cladding temperature data during several large-break LOCA experiments. This report analyzes how well externally-mounted fuel rod cladding thermocouples in LOFT accurately reflected actual cladding surface temperature during large-break LOCA experiments. In particular, the validity of the apparent core-wide fuel rod cladding quench exhibited during blowdown in LOFT Experiments L2-2 and L2-3 is studied. Also addressed is the question of whether the externally-mounted thermocouples might have influenced cladding temperature. The analysis makes use of data and information from several sources, including later, similar LOFT Experiments in which fuel centerline temperature measurements were made, experiments in other facilities, and results from a detailed FRAP-T6 model of the LOFT fuel rod. The analysis shows that there can be a significant difference (referred to as bias) between the surface-mounted thermocouple reading and the actual cladding temperature, and that the magnitude of this bias depends on the rate of heat transfer between the fuel rod cladding and coolant. The results of the analysis demonstrate clearly that a core-wide cladding quench did occur in Experiments L2-2 and L2-3. Further, it is shown that, in terms of peak cladding temperature recording during LOFT large-break LOCA experiments, the mean bias is 11.4 {plus_minus} 16.2K (20.5 {plus_minus} 29.2{degrees} F). The best-estimate value of peak cladding temperature for LOFT LP-02-6 is 1,104.8 K. The best-estimate peak cladding temperature for LOFT LP-LB-1 is 1284.0 K.

  16. Offsets between the X-ray and the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich-effect peaks in merging galaxy clusters and their cosmological implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Congyao; Yu, Qingjuan; Lu, Youjun

    2014-12-01

    Observations reveal that the peaks of the X-ray map and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect map of some galaxy clusters are offset from each other. In this paper, we perform a set of hydrodynamical simulations of mergers of two galaxy clusters to investigate the spatial offset between the maxima of the X-ray and the SZ surface brightness of the merging clusters. We find that significantly large SZ-X-ray offsets (>100 kpc) can be produced during the major mergers of galaxy clusters (with mass > 1 10{sup 14} M {sub ?}). The significantly large offsets are mainly caused by a 'jump effect' that occurs between the primary and secondary pericentric passages of the two merging clusters, during which the X-ray peak may jump to the densest gas region located near the center of the small cluster, but the SZ peak remains near the center of the large one. Our simulations show that merging systems with higher masses and larger initial relative velocities may result in larger offset sizes and longer offset time durations; and only nearly head-on mergers are likely to produce significantly large offsets. We further investigate the statistical distribution of the SZ-X-ray offset sizes and find that (1) the number distribution of the offset sizes is bimodal with one peak located at low offsets ?0 and the other at large offsets ?350-450 h {sup 1} kpc, but the objects with intermediate offsets are scarce; and (2) the probabilities of the clusters in the mass range higher than 2 10{sup 14} h {sup 1} M {sub ?} that have offsets larger than 20, 50, 200, 300, and 500 h {sup 1} kpc are 34.0%, 11.1%, 8.0%, 6.5%, and 2.0%, respectively, at z = 0.7. The probability is sensitive to the underlying pairwise velocity distribution and the merger rate of clusters. We suggest that the SZ-X-ray offsets provide a probe to the cosmic velocity fields on the cluster scale and the cluster merger rate, and future observations on the SZ-X-ray offsets for a large number of clusters may put strong constraints on them. Our simulation results suggest that the SZ-X-ray offset in the Bullet Cluster, together with the mass ratio of the two merging clusters, requires a relative velocity larger than 3000 km s{sup 1} at an initial separation 5 Mpc. The cosmic velocity distribution at the high-velocity end is expected to be crucial in determining whether there exists an incompatibility between the existence of the Bullet Cluster and the prediction of a ?CDM model.

  17. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6" ,"Released: February 7, 2008" ,"Next Update: October 2008" ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  18. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7" ,"Released: February 2009" ,"Next Update: October 2009" ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  19. Nanobiocatalysis and Its Potential Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jungbae; Grate, Jay W.; Wang, Ping

    2008-11-01

    Nanobiocatalysis with enzymes incorporated into nanostructured materials have emerged as a rapidly growing area. Structures including nanoporous media, nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, and nanoparticles have been found to be efficient in manipulating the nanoscale environment of the enzyme and thus promising exciting advances in many areas of enzyme technology. This review will describe these recent developments in nanobiocatalysis and their potential applications in various fields such as trypsin digestion in proteomic analysis, antifouling, biofuel cells, and biosensors.

  20. Dirac solutions for quaternionic potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Leo, Stefano Giardino, Sergio

    2014-02-15

    The Dirac equation is solved for quaternionic potentials, i?V{sub 0} + j?W{sub 0} (V{sub 0}?R , W{sub 0}?C). The study shows two different solutions. The first one contains particle and anti-particle solutions and leads to the diffusion, tunneling, and Klein energy zones. The standard solution is recovered taking the complex limit of this solution. The second solution, which does not have a complex counterpart, can be seen as a V{sub 0}-antiparticle or |W{sub 0}|-particle solution.

  1. Thin film mixed potential sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM); Mukundan, Rangachary (Santa Fe, NM)

    2007-09-04

    A mixed potential sensor for oxidizable or reducible gases and a method of making. A substrate is provided and two electrodes are formed on a first surface of the substrate, each electrode being formed of a different catalytic material selected to produce a differential voltage between the electrodes from electrochemical reactions of the gases catalyzed by the electrode materials. An electrolytic layer of an electrolyte is formed over the electrodes to cover a first portion of the electrodes from direct exposure to the gases with a second portion of the electrodes uncovered for direct exposure to the gases.

  2. Conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps in India and Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Martino Jannuzzi, G. de (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia)

    1989-07-01

    We evaluate the conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for managing the rapidly increasing electrical energy and peak demand in India and Brazil. Using very conservative assumptions, we find that the cost of conserved energy using 16 W CFLs is 4 and 6 times less than the long range marginal cost of electricity for the two countries. The cost of avoided peak installed capacity is 6 and 9.5 times less than the cost of new installed capacity for India and Brazil. The analysis is undertaken from the three separate perspectives of the national economies, the consumers, and the utilities. We find that because residential electricity is subsidized, the consumers have little or no incentive to purchase and install the CFLs, unless they too are subsidized. However, the benefits of CFL installation to the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility in almost all cases. As an illustration of a gradual introduction strategy for CFLs, we calculate a scenario where national savings of the order of US $1.2 million per day for India and US $2.5 million per day for Brazil are reached in 10 years by a small and gradual transfer of subsidy from residential electricity to CFLs. We then explore the barriers to immediate large scale introduction of these lamps in the two countries. Specific technical and marketing problems are identified and discussed, which would require solution before such an introduction can be attempted. Lastly, we discuss the range of policy instruments, in addition to a subsidy scheme, that can be used for promoting the diffusion of these lamps in the domestic and commercial sector. 47 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. West Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2,318,714 MWh Coal Power 68,135,764 MWh Gas Power 149,347 MWh Petroleum Power 170,674 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 422 MWh Total Energy Production 70,774,921 MWh Percent of Total...

  4. Delaware: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    138,302 MWh Coal Power 2,910,909 MWh Gas Power 1,686,773 MWh Petroleum Power 268,773 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 5,877 MWh Total Energy Production 5,010,634 MWh Percent of Total...

  5. Missouri: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 71,848,215 MWh Gas Power 3,400,527 MWh Petroleum Power 86,777 MWh Nuclear Power 10,247,116 MWh Other 27,422 MWh Total Energy Production 88,646,870 MWh...

  6. New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 13,152,552 MWh Gas Power 42,954,141 MWh Petroleum Power 2,717,386 MWh Nuclear Power 43,484,614 MWh Other 989,616 MWh Total Energy Production 135,475,849 MWh...

  7. Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 38,330,917 MWh Gas Power 5,601,116 MWh Petroleum Power 730,117 MWh Nuclear Power 12,683,151 MWh Other 72,992 MWh Total Energy Production 61,334,663 MWh...

  8. South Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 35,157,227 MWh Gas Power 9,402,119 MWh Petroleum Power 523,380 MWh Nuclear Power 52,149,734 MWh Other 105,354 MWh Total Energy Production 100,197,178 MWh...

  9. Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 69,524,670 MWh Gas Power 20,301,025 MWh Petroleum Power 644,996 MWh Nuclear Power 31,682,579 MWh Other 26,648 MWh Total Energy Production 128,438,721 MWh...

  10. Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 32,242,988 MWh Gas Power 2,611,084 MWh Petroleum Power 124,354 MWh Nuclear Power 8,768,548 MWh Other 0 MWh Total Energy Production 46,144,448 MWh Percent of...

  11. Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 113,824,221 MWh Gas Power 4,747,936 MWh Petroleum Power 1,311,952 MWh Nuclear Power 14,937,336 MWh Other 14,388 MWh Total Energy Production 135,949,118 MWh...

  12. North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 65,853,978 MWh Gas Power 4,926,167 MWh Petroleum Power 287,979 MWh Nuclear Power 40,847,711 MWh Other 90,997 MWh Total Energy Production 118,993,695 MWh...

  13. Arkansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 25,075,250 MWh Gas Power 11,368,417 MWh Petroleum Power 87,674 MWh Nuclear Power 15,169,966 MWh Other 24,019 MWh Total Energy Production 57,499,169 MWh...

  14. New Hampshire: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 2,885,668 MWh Gas Power 5,352,728 MWh Petroleum Power 171,818 MWh Nuclear Power 8,816,673 MWh Other 59,854 MWh Total Energy Production 19,985,757 MWh...

  15. Montana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    10,053,139 MWh Coal Power 15,164,571 MWh Gas Power 81,800 MWh Petroleum Power 489,689 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 110,308 MWh Total Energy Production 25,899,507 MWh Percent of...

  16. Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 54,052,312 MWh Gas Power 117,733,704 MWh Petroleum Power 8,962,843 MWh Nuclear Power 29,336,059 MWh Other 2,576,795 MWh Total Energy Production 217,154,227 MWh...

  17. Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 30,091,455 MWh Gas Power 2,559,675 MWh Petroleum Power 60,295 MWh Nuclear Power 12,393,425 MWh Other 340,463 MWh Total Energy Production 52,641,549 MWh...

  18. Mississippi: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 12,970,797 MWh Gas Power 23,380,703 MWh Petroleum Power 17,028 MWh Nuclear Power 10,998,515 MWh Other 5,206 MWh Total Energy Production 48,769,367 MWh...

  19. Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 90,949,011 MWh Gas Power 4,364,445 MWh Petroleum Power 110,882 MWh Nuclear Power 94,050,482 MWh Other 64,293 MWh Total Energy Production 193,214,345 MWh...

  20. Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 67,822,266 MWh Gas Power 8,244,775 MWh Petroleum Power 379,469 MWh Nuclear Power 21,851,009 MWh Other 341,304 MWh Total Energy Production 101,641,950 MWh...

  1. Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8,486,637 MWh Coal Power 72,386 MWh Gas Power 7,481,945 MWh Petroleum Power 480,670 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 352,154 MWh Total Energy Production 16,873,792 MWh Percent of...

  2. Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 104,927,415 MWh Gas Power 29,623,748 MWh Petroleum Power 930,953 MWh Nuclear Power 76,727,686 MWh Other 842,542 MWh Total Energy Production 218,376,989 MWh...

  3. New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    973,234 MWh Coal Power 5,345,449 MWh Gas Power 21,037,564 MWh Petroleum Power 304,336 MWh Nuclear Power 34,327,954 MWh Other 513,761 MWh Total Energy Production 62,502,299 MWh...

  4. Hawaii: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    768,368 MWh Coal Power 1,521,169 MWh Gas Power 40,378 MWh Petroleum Power 8,288,819 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 166,284 MWh Total Energy Production 10,785,018 MWh Percent of...

  5. Nebraska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    750,278 MWh Coal Power 23,427,525 MWh Gas Power 332,467 MWh Petroleum Power 24,899 MWh Nuclear Power 9,435,142 MWh Other 0 MWh Total Energy Production 33,970,311 MWh Percent of...

  6. California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 1,948,279 MWh Gas Power 115,749,546 MWh Petroleum Power 1,638,019 MWh Nuclear Power 31,734,676 MWh Other 440,323 MWh Total Energy Production 204,824,249 MWh...

  7. Connecticut: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 2,453,497 MWh Gas Power 9,678,195 MWh Petroleum Power 288,349 MWh Nuclear Power 16,657,387 MWh Other 712,522 MWh Total Energy Production 31,172,260 MWh...

  8. Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 9,896,296 MWh Gas Power 21,242,542 MWh Petroleum Power 864,489 MWh Nuclear Power 5,396,021 MWh Other 770,712 MWh Total Energy Production 40,175,901 MWh...

  9. Louisiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 23,075,071 MWh Gas Power 45,313,617 MWh Petroleum Power 1,815,819 MWh Nuclear Power 16,782,077 MWh Other 390,454 MWh Total Energy Production 91,106,779 MWh...

  10. Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 7,477,773 MWh Gas Power 11,409,482 MWh Petroleum Power 47,275 MWh Nuclear Power 6,634,014 MWh Other 63,675 MWh Total Energy Production 104,593,404 MWh...

  11. Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 139,106,597 MWh Gas Power 191,652,532 MWh Petroleum Power 1,347,315 MWh Nuclear Power 41,497,617 MWh Other 621,766 MWh Total Energy Production 396,477,155 MWh...

  12. South Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    4,717,288 MWh Coal Power 3,190,913 MWh Gas Power 122,133 MWh Petroleum Power 10,089 MWh Nuclear Power 0 MWh Other 31,318 MWh Total Energy Production 8,071,741 MWh Percent of...

  13. Vermont: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewables 2,048,325 MWh Coal Power 0 MWh Gas Power 4,431 MWh Petroleum Power 3,577 MWh Nuclear Power 5,360,608 MWh Other 0 MWh Total Energy Production 7,416,941 MWh Percent of...

  14. Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 55,659,872 MWh Gas Power 32,369,863 MWh Petroleum Power 163,054 MWh Nuclear Power 39,716,204 MWh Other 7,137 MWh Total Energy Production 142,960,819 MWh...

  15. Maryland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 24,414,551 MWh Gas Power 2,070,846 MWh Petroleum Power 346,732 MWh Nuclear Power 14,550,119 MWh Other 255,891 MWh Total Energy Production 44,126,270 MWh...

  16. Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWh Coal Power 26,539,392 MWh Gas Power 12,204,843 MWh Petroleum Power 1,110,821 MWh Nuclear Power 28,212,252 MWh Other 427,691 MWh Total Energy Production 71,159,684 MWh...

  17. Potential Hydroelectric Development at Existing Federal Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Potential Hydroelectric Development at Existing Federal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Potential Hydroelectric Development at...

  18. Category:Self Potential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    page. S Self Potential Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:SelfPotential&oldid794082" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  19. Clot Busting Simulations Test Potential Stroke Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clot Busting Simulations Test Potential Stroke Treatment Clot Busting Simulations Test Potential Stroke Treatment September 24, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov ...

  20. Research highlights potential for improved solar cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Potential for improved solar cells Research highlights potential for improved solar cells Research has shown that carrier multiplication is a real phenomenon in tiny semiconductor...

  1. Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient The purpose of this procedure is...

  2. Ancillary Service Revenue Potential for Geothermal Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ancillary Service Revenue Potential for Geothermal Generators in California Ancillary Service Revenue Potential for Geothermal Generators in California PDF icon Ancillary Service...

  3. Sample-morphology effects on x-ray photoelectron peak intensities. II. Estimation of detection limits for thin-film materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Cedric J.; Werner, Wolfgang S. M.; Smekal, Werner

    2014-09-01

    The authors show that the National Institute of Standards and Technology database for the simulation of electron spectra for surface analysis (SESSA) can be used to determine detection limits for thin-film materials such as a thin film on a substrate or buried at varying depths in another material for common x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement conditions. Illustrative simulations were made for a W film on or in a Ru matrix and for a Ru film on or in a W matrix. In the former case, the thickness of a W film at a given depth in the Ru matrix was varied so that the intensity of the W 4d{sub 5/2} peak was essentially the same as that for a homogeneous RuW{sub 0.001} alloy. Similarly, the thickness of a Ru film at a selected depth in the W matrix was varied so that the intensity of the Ru 3p{sub 3/2} peak matched that from a homogeneous WRu{sub 0.01} alloy. These film thicknesses correspond to the detection limits of each minor component for measurement conditions where the detection limits for a homogeneous sample varied between 0.1 at.?% (for the RuW{sub 0.001} alloy) and 1 at.?% (for the WRu{sub 0.01} alloy). SESSA can be similarly used to convert estimates of XPS detection limits for a minor species in a homogeneous solid to the corresponding XPS detection limits for that species as a thin film on or buried in the chosen solid.

  4. Calculate and Plot Complex Potential

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-05-05

    SOLUPLOT is a program designed to calculate and plot complex potential, pH diagrams and log oxygen activity, pH diagrams for aqueous chemical syatems, considering speciation of ligands, from free energy and thermodynamic activity data. These diagrams, commonly referred to as Eh-pH and ao2-pH diagrams, respectively, define areas of predominance in Eh-pH diagrams or ao2-pH space for chemical species of a chemical system at equilibrium. Over an area of predominance, one predominant species is at greatermore » activity than the other species of the system considered. The diagram axes, pH (a measure of hydrogen ion activity) and either Eh or log ao2 (measures of a tendency toward either oxidation or reduction) , are paremeters commonly applied in describing the chemistry of aqueous systems.« less

  5. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phukan, Ananya, E-mail: ananya.phukan26@gmail.com; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research Sonapur, Kamrup (M), Assam 782402 (India)

    2014-08-15

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (?{sub D})

  6. Bellavista Geothermal Power Station | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Generation Delivered to Grid (MWh) Plant Parasitic Consumption (MWh) Well-Field Parasitic Consumption (MWh) Well Field Number of Production Wells (total) Number of Injection Wells...

  7. The potential of renewable energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

  8. Kondo time scales for quantum dots: Response to pulsed bias potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plihal, Martin; Langreth, David C.; Nordlander, Peter

    2000-05-15

    The response of a quantum dot in the Kondo regime to rectangular pulsed bias potentials of various strengths and durations is studied theoretically. It is found that the rise time is faster than the fall time, and also faster than time scales normally associated with the Kondo problem. For larger values of the pulsed bias, one can induce dramatic oscillations in the induced current with a frequency approximating the splitting between the Kondo peaks that would be present in steady state. The effect persists in the total charge transported per pulse, which should facilitate the experimental observation of the phenomenon. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  9. ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2008" ,"Next Update: Not applicable for this table format" ,"Table 2c. Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,,,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  10. Kazakhstan's potential provides Western opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darnell, R. )

    1993-01-01

    While crude oil production continues to drop in the Russian Federation at a rate of 15% to 20% per year, Kazakhstan's output rose from 440,000 bopd in 1991 to 446,000 bopd, as of November 1992. Much of this increase was exported to the Russian Federation to supplement the latter's declining production. while Kazakhstan received needed Russian goods in exchange for this oil, it isn't getting the hard currency that will be required to upgrade its petroleum industry. This is a serious problem for Kazakh officials, since they are counting on revenues from petroleum exports to invigorate their overall plan for economic growth in this newly independent country. In order to convert Kazakhstan's hydrocarbon potential into economic reality, two critical issues must be addressed immediately. First, Kazakhstan must develop a tax and minerals law that gives multinational petroleum companies an incentive to invest in opening a dedicated crude oil export route through Russia, and at least one alternate export route to the Caspian Sea or Persian Gulf. At present, even the most successful petroleum venture inside Kazakhstan would have to weave its way through the Russian bureaucracy to utilize that existing and inadequate export pipeline system. This quandary, of course, has recently become the undoing of several Western petroleum operations that have managed to actually produce exportable oil inside the Russian Federation itself, but they can't get it out. In addition, three other variables should be considered by any party that is evaluating Kazakhstan as a future area (see map for current fields) of interest for petroleum operations. These are political stability, field operating conditions, and the country's natural gas crisis. Each of these factors, though not as critical as the legal regime and export access, can radically affect how an operator might approach negotiating the terms of its particular project.

  11. Ecloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL MI for a Mixed Fill Pattern: Dependence on Peak SEY and Pulse Intensity During the Ramp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, M. A.

    2010-12-11

    We present simulation results of the build-up of the electron-cloud density n{sub e} in three regions of the FNAL Main Injector (MI) for a beam fill pattern made up of 5 double booster batches followed by a 6th single batch. We vary the pulse intensity in the range N{sub t} = (2-5) x 10{sup 13}, and the beam kinetic energy in the range E{sub k} = 8-120 GeV. We assume a secondary electron emission model qualitatively corresponding to TiN, except that we let the peak value of the secondary electron yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max} vary as a free parameter in a fairly broad range. Our main conclusions are: (1) At fixed N{sub t} there is a clear threshold behavior of n{sub e} as a function of {delta}{sub max} in the range {approx} 1.1-1.3. (2) At fixed {delta}{sub max}, there is a threshold behavior of n{sub e} as a function of N{sub t} provided {delta}{sub max} is sufficiently high; the threshold value of N{sub t} is a function of the characteristics of the region being simulated. (3) The dependence on E{sub k} is weak except possibly at transition energy. Most of these results were informally presented to the relevant MI personnel in April 2010.

  12. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using limit load based analytical model and micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials examined. The critical fusion zone size for nugget pullout shall be derived for individual materials based on different base metal properties as well as different heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld properties resulted from different welding parameters.

  13. DOE Releases Updated Directory of Potential Stakeholders

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Offices are encouraged to be inclusive in providing potentially interested parties with opportunities to review NEPA documents.  The Directory of Potential Stakeholders for DOE Actions under...

  14. Potential for Biofuels from Algae (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pienkos, P. T.

    2007-11-15

    Presentation on the potential for biofuels from algae presented at the 2007 Algae Biomass Summit in San Francisco, CA.

  15. Potential of Diazorphic, Endophytic Bacteria Associated with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Diazorphic, Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Sugarcane for Energycane Production Potential of Diazorphic, Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Sugarcane for Energycane...

  16. Partners and Stakeholders: Roles and Potential Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Partners and Stakeholders: Roles and Potential Impact, Chapter 6 from the Clean Energy Finance Guide, Third Edition

  17. Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Nihar K.; Wei, Max; Letschert, Virginie; Phadke, Amol A.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global warming potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere,1 mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs. Simultaneously, energy efficiency market transformation programs such as standards, labeling and incentive programs are endeavoring to improve the energy efficiency for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment to provide life cycle cost, energy, GHG, and peak load savings. In this paper we provide an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room air conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel.

  18. The effect of head size/shape, miscentering, and bowtie filter on peak patient tissue doses from modern brain perfusion 256-slice CT: How can we minimize the risk for deterministic effects?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perisinakis, Kostas; Seimenis, Ioannis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Papadakis, Antonios E.; Damilakis, John

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine patient-specific absorbed peak doses to skin, eye lens, brain parenchyma, and cranial red bone marrow (RBM) of adult individuals subjected to low-dose brain perfusion CT studies on a 256-slice CT scanner, and investigate the effect of patient head size/shape, head position during the examination and bowtie filter used on peak tissue doses. Methods: The peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were measured in 106 individual-specific adult head phantoms subjected to the standard low-dose brain perfusion CT on a 256-slice CT scanner using a novel Monte Carlo simulation software dedicated for patient CT dosimetry. Peak tissue doses were compared to corresponding thresholds for induction of cataract, erythema, cerebrovascular disease, and depression of hematopoiesis, respectively. The effects of patient head size/shape, head position during acquisition and bowtie filter used on resulting peak patient tissue doses were investigated. The effect of eye-lens position in the scanned head region was also investigated. The effect of miscentering and use of narrow bowtie filter on image quality was assessed. Results: The mean peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were found to be 124, 120, 95, and 163 mGy, respectively. The effect of patient head size and shape on peak tissue doses was found to be minimal since maximum differences were less than 7%. Patient head miscentering and bowtie filter selection were found to have a considerable effect on peak tissue doses. The peak eye-lens dose saving achieved by elevating head by 4 cm with respect to isocenter and using a narrow wedge filter was found to approach 50%. When the eye lies outside of the primarily irradiated head region, the dose to eye lens was found to drop to less than 20% of the corresponding dose measured when the eye lens was located in the middle of the x-ray beam. Positioning head phantom off-isocenter by 4 cm and employing a narrow wedge filter results in a moderate reduction of signal-to-noise ratio mainly to the peripheral region of the phantom. Conclusions: Despite typical peak doses to skin, eye lens, brain, and RBM from the standard low-dose brain perfusion 256-slice CT protocol are well below the corresponding thresholds for the induction of erythema, cataract, cerebrovascular disease, and depression of hematopoiesis, respectively, every effort should be made toward optimization of the procedure and minimization of dose received by these tissues. The current study provides evidence that the use of the narrower bowtie filter available may considerably reduce peak absorbed dose to all above radiosensitive tissues with minimal deterioration in image quality. Considerable reduction in peak eye-lens dose may also be achieved by positioning patient head center a few centimeters above isocenter during the exposure.

  19. High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Tzu -Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, S. -H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J. -Y.; Liu, C. W.

    2016-02-11

    In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned overmore » a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm–2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm–2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. Lastly, this result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.« less

  20. Controlled peak wavelength shift of Ca{sub 1-} {sub x} Sr {sub x} (S {sub y} Se{sub 1-} {sub y} ):Eu{sup 2+} phosphor for LED application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarov, Mihail . E-mail: nazarov.mihail@samsung.com; Yoon, Chulsoo

    2006-08-15

    The highly efficient red-orange-yellow-emitting phosphor (Ca{sub 1-} {sub x} Sr {sub x} )(S{sub 1-} {sub y} Se {sub y} ):Eu{sup 2+} in combination with commercial green phosphor SrGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} and blue LED are proposed for a three-band white LED. The luminescence mechanism and optimization parameters are discussed on the basis of proposed peak wavelength diagram. - Graphical abstract: 'Peak wavelength diagram for (Ca{sub 1-} {sub x} Sr {sub x} )(S{sub 1-} {sub y} Se {sub y} ):Eu{sup 2+}'.

  1. ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d. Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,"Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP/MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  2. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  3. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Message from the Secretary Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation . This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits,

  4. Identify Potential HITs | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High Impact Technology Catalyst » Identify Potential HITs Identify Potential HITs Identify Potential HITs HIT prioritization is conducted each year based on quantitative, foundational criteria developed through a transparent, collaborative and consistent methodology designed to drive technologies through a step-by-step evaluation. The HIT prioritization methodology helps prioritize technologies for deployment focus and also ensures the open, consistent, two-way transfer of information and

  5. The Snell law for quaternionic potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Leo, Stefano; Ducati, Gisele C.

    2013-12-15

    By using the analogy between optics and quantum mechanics, we obtain the Snell law for the planar motion of quantum particles in the presence of quaternionic potentials.

  6. Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production and Concentrating Solar Power: A Systems Analysis Webinar Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production and ...

  7. Webinar: Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eastern Standard Time (EST). An analysis conducted by Sandia National Laboratories explored potential synergies that may be realized by integrating solar hydrogen production and ...

  8. Spontaneous Potential Well Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Log Chemical Logging Density Log Gamma Log Image Logs Mud Logging Neutron Log Pressure Temperature Log Single-Well and Cross-Well Resistivity Spontaneous Potential Well Log...

  9. Alternative Ways of Financing Infrastructure Investment: Potential...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ways of Financing Infrastructure Investment: Potential for 'Novel' Financing Models Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Alternative Ways of Financing...

  10. Global Renewable Resource Potential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Quality of Renewable Energy Potential 3 Representation of Challenges 4 Generation of New Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios 5 References Introduction A wind farm located in...

  11. Guide for Conducting Energy Efficiency Potential Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2007-11-01

    Provides guidance on determining the efficiency potential in a utility footprint, state, or region; evaluating efficiency as a supply-side resource; and developing detailed efficiency program plans.

  12. NREL Research Identifies Increased Potential for Perovskites...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Identifies Increased Potential for Perovskites as a Material for Solar Cells October 30, 2015 Scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

  13. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    2005-09-28

    This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.

  14. Prediction of Peak Hydrogen Concentrations for Deep Sludge Retrieval in Tanks AN-101 and AN-106 from Historical Data of Spontaneous Gas Release Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Beric E.; Cooley, Scott K.; Meacham, Joseph E.

    2013-10-21

    Radioactive and chemical wastes from nuclear fuel processing are stored in large underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The Tank Operations Contractor is continuing a program of moving solid wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) to double-shell tanks (DSTs) and preparing for waste feed delivery (WFD). A new mechanism for a large spontaneous gas release event (GRE) in deep sludge sediments has been postulated. The creation of this potential new GRE hazard, deep sludge gas release events (DSGREs), is the retrieval of sludge waste into a single DST that results in a sediment depth greater than operating experience has demonstrated is safe. The Tank Operations Contractor program of moving solid wastes from SSTs to DSTs and preparing for WFD is being negatively impacted by this sediment depth limit.

  15. The Demand Reduction Potential of Smart Appliances in U.S. Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-08-14

    The widespread deployment of demand respond (DR) enabled home appliances is expected to have significant reduction in the demand of electricity during peak hours. The work documented in this paper focuses on estimating the energy shift resulting from the installation of DR enabled smart appliances in the U.S. This estimation is based on analyzing the market for smart appliances and calculating the total energy demand that can potentially be shifted by DR control in appliances. Appliance operation is examined by considering their sub components individually to identify their energy consumptions and savings resulting from interrupting and shifting their load, e.g., by delaying the refrigerator defrost cycle. In addition to major residential appliances, residential pool pumps are also included in this study given their energy consumption profiles that make them favorable for DR applications. In the market analysis study documented in this paper, the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) databases are used to examine the expected life of an appliance, the number of appliances installed in homes constructed in 10 year intervals after 1940 and home owner income. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the smart appliances in reducing electrical demand have been drawn and a ranking of appliances in terms of their contribution to load shift is presented. E.g., it was concluded that DR enabled water heaters result in the maximum load shift; whereas, dishwashers have the highest user elasticity and hence the highest potential for load shifting through DR. This work is part of a larger effort to bring novel home energy management concepts and technologies to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak electricity demand, integrate renewables and storage technology, and change homeowner behavior to manage and consume less energy and potentially save consumer energy costs.

  16. Theoretical approach for optical response in electrochemical systems: Application to electrode potential dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iida, Kenji; Noda, Masashi; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

    2014-09-28

    We propose a theoretical approach for optical response in electrochemical systems. The fundamental equation to be solved is based on a time-dependent density functional theory in real-time and real-space in combination with its finite temperature formula treating an electrode potential. Solvation effects are evaluated by a dielectric continuum theory. The approach allows us to treat optical response in electrochemical systems at the atomistic level of theory. We have applied the method to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4-mercaptopyridine on an Ag electrode surface. It is shown that the SERS intensity has a peak as a function of the electrode potential. Furthermore, the real-space computational approach facilitates visualization of variation of the SERS intensity depending on an electrode potential.

  17. Spontaneous Potential (book section) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reference LibraryAdd to library Book Section: Spontaneous Potential (book section) Author NA Published NA, The date "NA" was not understood.The date "NA" was not understood....

  18. Maximizing the Potential of Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cell efficiencies by 10%, to over 30%. * Low Cost III-V 1J & 2J Cells - Potential to lower III-V growth cost by 1 - 2 orders of magnitude. * "Kerfless Si" Wafers & Cells -...

  19. SFA 2.0- Metabolic Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfield, Jill; Beller, Harry

    2015-02-17

    Berkeley Lab Earth Scientists Jill Banfield and Harry Beller explain the Sustainable Systems SFA 2.0 project's research on metabolic potentialor how metabolic lifestyles of microbial communities modulate in response to as well as influence environmental change.

  20. POTENTIAL DIMETHYLMERCURY CONCENTRATION IN WATER & ORGANIC CONDENSATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2004-12-28

    This document bounds potential dimethylmercury concentration in water or organic condensate that might form in ventilation systems or cooler tank regions. Dimethylmercury concentrations were extremely low and would be below drinking water standards in the water condensate.

  1. Applying supersymmetry to energy dependent potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yekken, R.; Lassaut, M.; Lombard, R.J.

    2013-11-15

    We investigate the supersymmetry properties of energy dependent potentials in the D=1 dimensional space. We show the main aspects of supersymmetry to be preserved, namely the factorization of the Hamiltonian, the connections between eigenvalues and wave functions of the partner Hamiltonians. Two methods are proposed. The first one requires the extension of the usual rules via the concept of local equivalent potential. In this case, the superpotential becomes depending on the state. The second method, applicable when the potential depends linearly on the energy, is similar to what has been already achieved by means of the Darboux transform. -- Highlights: Supersymmetry extended to energy dependent potentials. Generalization of the concept of superpotential. An alternative method used for linear E-dependence leads to the same results as Darboux transform.

  2. JASON Study Highlights Huge Potential for EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new study commissioned by the Energy Department's Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) highlights the vast potential for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) to provide clean, reliable, and sustainable energy to American homes and businesses.

  3. Solar Power Potential in SE New Mexico

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar energy with 6-7 kWhsq meter power production potential As the accompanying map of New Mexico shows, the WIPP site enjoys abundant year-round sunshine. With an...

  4. Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If these glass microspheres' walls could talk…They would explain how their tiny pores allow the potential for handling, storing and transporting a variety of materials, including drugs that have...

  5. Missing solution in a Cornell potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, L.B.; Castro, A.S. de

    2013-11-15

    Missing bound-state solutions for fermions in the background of a Cornell potential consisting of a mixed scalarvectorpseudoscalar coupling is examined. Charge-conjugation operation, degeneracy and localization are discussed. -- Highlights: The Dirac equation with scalarvectorpseudoscalar Cornell potential is investigated. The isolated solution from the SturmLiouville problem is found. Charge-conjugation operation, degeneracy and localization are discussed.

  6. Unearthing Geothermal's Potential | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unearthing Geothermal's Potential Unearthing Geothermal's Potential September 16, 2010 - 12:33pm Addthis Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Our latest geothermal technologies awards are for those who think outside of the box (and below the surface). Secretary of Energy Steven Chu announced $20 million towards the research and development of non-conventional geothermal energy technologies in three areas: low temperatures fluids, geothermal fluids

  7. Clot Busting Simulations Test Potential Stroke Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clot Busting Simulations Test Potential Stroke Treatment Clot Busting Simulations Test Potential Stroke Treatment September 24, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov Calvariasetup.jpg The array transducer in position above the calvaria (skull). Shown are the ends of the array elements above the computational model of the skull. Researchers are using computer simulations to investigate how ultrasound and tiny bubbles injected into the bloodstream might break up blood clots,

  8. Environmental Assessment Fact Sheet - Potential Impacts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE has prepared a draft Environmental Assessment for Conducting Astrophysics and Other Basic Science Experiments at the WIPP Site. It examines the potential environmental consequences from conducting particular types of scientific experiments in an area of the WIPP underground called the experiment gallery. The environmental assessment also looks at the potential cumulative impacts of conducting experiments and operating the WIPP as a transuranic waste repository. This fact sheet presents

  9. Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) Fuel Displacement Potential using

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine-in-the-Loop and Simulation | Department of Energy (TEG) Fuel Displacement Potential using Engine-in-the-Loop and Simulation Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) Fuel Displacement Potential using Engine-in-the-Loop and Simulation Assessment of fuel savings with thermoelectric generators (TEGs) using detailed model of GM-developed TEG as part of the engine connected to a dynamometer that emulates the rest of the vehicle PDF icon vijayagopal.pdf More Documents & Publications Establishing

  10. Mitigating Potential Environmental Impacts of Energy Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Mitigating Potential Environmental Impacts of Energy Development Mitigating Potential Environmental Impacts of Energy Development April 15, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Partnering with EERE, Normandeau Associates of Bedford, New Hampshire, developed a tool that characterizes the risk for bird and bat species that may be susceptible to collisions with wind turbines. This tool will be used in environmental decision-making for the planning, siting, and assessments of wind

  11. Title Preliminary Assessment of Geothermal Potential Author

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Preliminary Assessment of Geothermal Potential Author Harry Reid Center / PAI 101443 Document Date ERC Index number 12/30/94 05.09.487 Document Type Box Number Report 1667-1 Recipients DOE DE-FC08-93NV11399 NTSEIS ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL NEVADA TEST SITE j NYE COUNTY, NEVADA Prepared for: UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Prepared by: DIVISION OF EARTH SCIENCES HARRY REID CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA, LAS VEGAS LAS VEGAS,

  12. Property:PotentialHydropowerSites | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name PotentialHydropowerSites Property Type Number Description The number of potential hydropower sites in a place. Pages using the property "PotentialHydropowerSites"...

  13. Microsoft Word - BPA Utility Potential Calculator Guidebook V1...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    installed, and the result is the overall potential for that device (Figure 1). Figure 1 Energy Efficiency Savings Potential Assessment A potential study expands on this concept...

  14. Bond order potential module for LAMMPS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    pair_bop is a module for performing energy calculations using the Bond Order Potential (BOP) for use in the parallel molecular dynamics code LAMMPS. The bop pair style computes BOP based upon quantum mechanical incorporating both sigma and pi bondings. By analytically deriving the BOP pair bop from quantum mechanical theory its transferability to different phases can approach that of quantum mechanical methods. This potential is extremely effective at modeling 111-V and II-VI compounds such asmore » GaAs and CdTe. This potential is similar to the original BOP developed by Pettifor and later updated by Murdock et al. and Ward et al.« less

  15. Analytic models of plausible gravitational lens potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune, E-mail: eabaltz@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: pjm@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: oguri@slac.stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, PO Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)] [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, PO Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modelled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sersic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasising that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential. We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sersic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modelled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses.

  16. Fly Ash Characteristics and Carbon Sequestration Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Amonette, James E.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Daniels, William L.

    2007-07-20

    Concerns for the effects of global warming have lead to an interest in the potential for inexpensive methods to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). One of the proposed methods is the sequestration of carbon in soil though the growth of crops or forests.4,6 If there is an economic value placed on sequestration of carbon dioxide in soil there may be an an opportunity and funding to utilize fly ash in the reclamation of mine soils and other degraded lands. However, concerns associated with the use of fly ash must be addressed before this practice can be widely adopted. There is a vast extent of degraded lands across the world that has some degree of potential for use in carbon sequestration. Degraded lands comprise nearly 2 X 109 ha of land throughout the world.7 Although the potential is obviously smaller in the United States, there are still approximately 4 X 106 ha of degraded lands that previously resulted from mining operations14 and an additional 1.4 X 108 ha of poorly managed lands. Thus, according to Lal and others the potential is to sequester approximately 11 Pg of carbon over the next 50 years.1,10 The realization of this potential will likely be dependent on economic incentives and the use of soil amendments such as fly ash. There are many potential benefits documented for the use of fly ash as a soil amendment. For example, fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl- and basic cations, although some effects are notably decreased in high-clay soils.8,13,9 The potential is that these effects will promote increased growth of plants (either trees or grasses) and result in greater carbon accumulation in the soil than in untreated degraded soils. This paper addresses the potential for carbon sequestration in soils amended with fly ash and examines some of the issues that should be considered in planning this option. We describe retrospective studies of soil carbon accumulation on reclaimed mine lands, leaching studies of fly ash and carbon sorption studies of fly ash.

  17. Towards an understanding of the nuclear potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, D.G.; Sinclair, D.K.; Sivers, D.

    1988-01-01

    The formalism for investigating the /bar Q/q/bar Q/q system on the lattice is constructed. We describe how the model may be used to study the nuclear potential, and present some preliminary results on the range of the nuclear force. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Potential Energy Savings Due to Phase Change Material in a Building Wall Assembly: An Examination of Two Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, Kenneth W [ORNL; Stovall, Therese K [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    Phase change material (PCM), placed in an exterior wall, alters the temperature profile within the wall and thus influences the heat transport through the wall. This may reduce the net energy transport through the wall via interactions with diurnal temperature swings in the external environment or reduce the electricity needed to meet the net load through the wall by shifting the time of the peak load to a time when the cooling system operates more efficiently. This study covers a broad range of parameters that can influence the effectiveness of such a merged thermal storage-thermal insulation system. These parameters included climate, PCM location within the wall, amount of PCM, midpoint of the PCM melting and freezing range relative to the indoor setpoint temperature, temperature range over which phase change occurs, and the wall orientation. Two climates are investigated using finite difference and optimization analyses: Phoenix and Baltimore, with two utility rate schedules. Although potential savings for a PCM with optimized properties were greater when the PCM was concentrated near the inside wall surface, other considerations described here lead to a recommendation for a full-thickness application. An examination of the temperature distribution within the walls also revealed the potential for this system to reduce the amount of energy transported through the wall framing. Finally, economic benefits can exceed energy savings when time-of-day utility rates are in effect, reflecting the value of peak load reductions for the utility grid.

  19. Potential for cogeneration in Maryland. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Cogeneration is a name given to energy systems that produce both electric power and useful thermal energy such as steam. While cogeneration markets have flourished in California, Texas, and some states, those in Maryland have not. A primary reason is that the industries that have been targeted in other states--e.g., oil refining, pulp and paper, chemicals, food processing--are not major elements of Maryland's industrial base. The study estimates the potential for future cogeneration in Maryland, both large units and small packaged systems, and assesses the potential impact of cogeneration systems on Maryland's energy needs between now and 2005. The study is presented in three volumes. Because of significant differences between large- and small-scale cogeneration, the analysis of these two systems was performed separately. This volume is a summary document presenting the findings from both studies.

  20. Kaonic hydrogen atoms with realistic potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Y.; Poonsawat, W.; Khosonthongkee, K.; Kobdaj, C.; Suebka, P.

    2010-06-15

    Kaonic hydrogen is studied with various realistic potentials in an accurate numerical approach based on Sturmian functions. It is found that the mass difference between the K{sup -}p and K-bar{sup 0}n channels has a considerable effect on theoretical results of the energy shift and decay width of kaonic hydrogen. On average, the theoretical result in the isospin symmetry limit is smaller by a factor of about 20% than the full result where the mass difference between the K{sup -}p and K-bar{sup 0}n channels is properly treated. The theoretical results based on realistic local potentials, which reproduce well scattering data, are inconsistent with the recent measurement of the energy shift and decay width of the 1s kaonic hydrogen state by the DEAR Collaboration.

  1. Leveraging Untapped U.S. Hydropower Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Leveraging Untapped U.S. Hydropower Potential Through its HydroNEXT initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in- vests in the development of innovative technologies that dramatically change the way we think about hydropower by lowering cost, improving performance, and promoting environmental stew- ardship of hydropower development. HydroNEXT is pursuing a comprehen- sive technology research, develop- ment, demonstration, and deployment strategy across three resource classes to increase

  2. Wind Energy Potential in SE New Mexico

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    click to return to the Renewable Energy page Return to Renewable Energy Page Wind Energy in Southeast New Mexico Several Ongoing and New Wind Power Projects are Contributing to Making Renewable Energy Sources an Important Economic and Environmental Mainstay of the Region As the accompanying map of New Mexico shows, the best wind power generation potential near WIPP is along the Delaware Mountain ridge line of the southern Guadalupe Mountains, about 50-60 miles southwest. The numeric grid values

  3. Assessing the Economic Potential of Advanced Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Economic Potential of Advanced Biofuels - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  4. Yukawa particles in a confining potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girotto, Matheus Levin, Yan; Santos, Alexandre P. dos; Colla, Thiago

    2014-07-07

    We study the density distribution of repulsive Yukawa particles confined by an external potential. In the weak coupling limit, we show that the mean-field theory is able to accurately account for the particle distribution. In the strong coupling limit, the correlations between the particles become important and the mean-field theory fails. For strongly correlated systems, we construct a density functional theory which provides an excellent description of the particle distribution, without any adjustable parameters.

  5. Working Fluids: Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Fluids: Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Omar Abdelaziz, abdelazizoa@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Honeywell University of Maryland Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 01-Oct-2010 Planned end date: 30-Sep-2016 Key Milestones 1. Data analysis and reporting of supermarket system: baseline and alternative refrigerants; 12/31/2014 2. Perform initial field testing of alternative refrigerant in 3 rd party installation; 9/30/2014

  6. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Alvine, Kyle J.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  7. Polymer escape from a confining potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mkknen, Harri; Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavk ; Ikonen, Timo; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT ; Jnsson, Hannes; Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavk; Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912-1843 ; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912-1843

    2014-02-07

    The rate of escape of polymers from a two-dimensionally confining potential well has been evaluated using self-avoiding as well as ideal chain representations of varying length, up to 80 beads. Long timescale Langevin trajectories were calculated using the path integral hyperdynamics method to evaluate the escape rate. A minimum is found in the rate for self-avoiding polymers of intermediate length while the escape rate decreases monotonically with polymer length for ideal polymers. The increase in the rate for long, self-avoiding polymers is ascribed to crowding in the potential well which reduces the free energy escape barrier. An effective potential curve obtained using the centroid as an independent variable was evaluated by thermodynamic averaging and Kramers rate theory then applied to estimate the escape rate. While the qualitative features are well reproduced by this approach, it significantly overestimates the rate, especially for the longer polymers. The reason for this is illustrated by constructing a two-dimensional effective energy surface using the radius of gyration as well as the centroid as controlled variables. This shows that the description of a transition state dividing surface using only the centroid fails to confine the system to the region corresponding to the free energy barrier and this problem becomes more pronounced the longer the polymer is. A proper definition of a transition state for polymer escape needs to take into account the shape as well as the location of the polymer.

  8. Potential Benefits of Commissioning California Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matson, Nance; Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-01-01

    Commissioning California's houses can result in better performing systems and houses. In turn, this will result in more efficient use of energy, carbon emission reductions, and improved occupant comfort. In particular, commissioning houses can save a significant amount of HVAC-related energy (15 to 30% in existing houses, 10 to 20% in new conventional houses, and up to 8% in advanced energy efficiency houses). The process that we considered includes corrective measures that could be implemented together during construction or during a single site visit (e.g., air tightening, duct sealing, and refrigerant and air handler airflow corrections in a new or existing house). Taking advantage of additional, more complex opportunities (e.g., installing new windows in an existing house, replacing the heating and air conditioning system in a new or existing house) can result in additional HVAC-related energy savings (60 to 75% in existing houses, and 50 to 60% in new conventional houses). The commissioning-related system and house performance improvements and energy savings translate to additional benefits throughout California and beyond. By applying commissioning principles to their work, the building community (builders and contractors) benefit from reduced callbacks and lower warranty costs. HERS raters and inspectors will have access to an expanded market sector. As the commissioning process rectifies construction defects and code problems, building code officials benefit from better compliance with codes. The utilities benefit from reduced peak demand, which can translate into lower energy acquisition costs. As houses perform closer to expectations, governmental bodies (e.g., the California Energy Commission and the Air Resources Board) benefit from greater assurance that actual energy consumption and carbon emissions are closer to the levels mandated in codes and standards, resulting in better achievement of state energy conservation and environmental goals. California residents' quality of life is improved through better indoor environmental comfort and lower energy bills. Lower energy bills free up money for residents to spend on other needs or goals, such as additional education and health and welfare. With an expansion of existing industries and the development of new commissioning-related industries, related jobs and tax revenues will increase, further increasing the quality of life for California.

  9. GeoPeak Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    285 Davidson Avenue Place: Somerset, New Jersey Zip: 08873 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Sector: Solar Product: Residential and Commercial PV Solar Installations Phone...

  10. Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of capacity that may understate the amount that can actually be stored. Working Gas Design Capacity: This measure estimates a natural gas facility's working gas capacity, as...

  11. Desert Peak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    No.: P500-04-051. Contract No.: 500-04-051. Benjamin Matek. Geo-energy Internet. Geothermal Energy Association. updated 20150428;cited 20150428. Available from:...

  12. Pilot Peak Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  13. Silver Peak Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  14. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project Geothermal Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute; William Cumming, Cumming Geoscience; Jerry Hamblin Subsurface Excellence; Stephen Hallinan, Western Geco; John Deymonaz Targets Milestones - Reduce the high level of...

  15. Silver Peak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Reservoir): Depth to Top of Reservoir: Depth to Bottom of Reservoir: Average Depth to Reservoir: Use the "Edit with Form" button at the top of the page to add a Well Field...

  16. Silver Peak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sanyal Classification (Reservoir): Depth to Top of Reservoir: Depth to Bottom of Reservoir: Average Depth to Reservoir: Use the "Edit with Form" button at the top of the...

  17. monthly_peak_1996_2004.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Regional Council names may be found on the web site page and in the form and instructions. ... Regional Council names may be found on the Web Site page and in the form and instructions. ...

  18. Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    s EROSOL BSERVING 3YSTEM s 3URFACE -ETEOROLOGY 3TATION DOESC-ARM-10-024 Data and Communication System Continuous measurements obtained by the sensors and instruments are...

  19. Peak Sun Silicon Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    e,"searchmarkers":"","locations":"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.60396,"lon":-100.641609,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""...

  20. FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.; Carter, J.

    2010-10-13

    The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S; (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated; (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass; and (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

  1. FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J.

    2011-01-03

    The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S. (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated. (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass. (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

  2. Potential underground risks associated with CAES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Broome, Scott Thomas; Pfeifle, Thomas W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2010-10-01

    CAES in geologic media has been proposed to help 'firm' renewable energy sources (wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy was available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive renewable energy time periods. Such a storage media may experience hourly (perhaps small) pressure swings. Salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES, but not in a mode where renewable energy sources are supported. Reservoirs, both depleted natural gas and aquifers represent other potential underground storage vessels for CAES, however, neither has yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for CAES.

  3. Feynman integral treatment of the Bargmann potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaf, A.; Chouchaoui, A. . E-mail: akchouchaoui@yahoo.fr; Lombard, R.J.

    2005-06-01

    A method based on path integral formulation is given for obtaining exact solution of the s states for the Bargmann potentialV(r)=1ka{sup 2}{beta}({beta}-1)e{sup -2r/a}1-e{sup -r/a2}-Ae{sup -r/a}1-e{sup -r=} /{sup a},where {beta} and k are parameters. The exact energy spectrum and the normalised s-state eigenfunctions are obtained from the poles of the Green function and their residues, respectively. The results are compared with their of Schrodinger formalism, special cases are also discussed.

  4. Ohio Hydropower Potential Inventory Phase I report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The dams researched in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) files were those contained in a list of Ohio dams provided by the ODNR. The result of this file research is a list of 997 dams contained herein that tabulates information on hydraulic head, stream flow, drainage area, and usage. This listing indicated that all but 137 of the 997 dams can be eliminated from consideration for Phase II research. The second phase would be required to further identify which of the 137 dams might have viable hydroelectric potential and define their basic hydroelectric parameters.

  5. Fluid properties determine flow line blockage potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.

    1996-07-15

    A thorough understanding of fluid properties helps in determining the potential of hydrates, paraffins, or asphaltenes to block subsea flow lines. Thermal, chemical, and mechanical methods are the main ways for preventing deposition. Already in both the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, blockages have led to significant losses in production and reserves recovery. This first article in a two-part series discusses thermal and chemical methods in overcoming fluid behavior problems caused by hydrate and other fluid constituents in subsea multiphase flow. The paper discusses subsea production, possible problems, nucleation, growth, deposition, preventing deposition, hydrate predictions, multiphase flow, and hydrate inhibition.

  6. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 2. Free-air peak-pressure measurements. Section 2. Telemetering from moored balloons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frolich, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the free-air peak-pressure as a function of distance from an atomic explosion. In this report, free-air peak-pressure is defined as the pressure at the head of the blast wave in regions where it has not been reinforced by a reflected wave. Operation in the test area was more difficult than anticipated. Heavy winds made balloon handling very difficult. On the whole, the radio link performed satisfactorily on all occasions and appears to be a reliable method. For some unknown reason, blast switches closer than 1,500 feet failed to give satisfactory signals. Pressures were computed using the Rankine-Hugoniot relation, which is based on the shock wave being a definite discontinuity in pressure. Since the pressures measured on the ground showed relatively long times, there has been some speculation that a true shock wave may not exist in free air. If a true shock wave does not exist in the free-air region, pressures as computed are not correct, and the method of this experiment cannot be used.

  7. Benthic foraminifera of Puerto Rican mangrove-lagoon systems: Potential for paleoenvironmental interpretations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culver, S.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Recent foraminiferal assemblages from four traverses across mangrove-lagoonal environments off Puerto Rico exhibit patterns of distribution that should be useful in paleoenvironmental interpretations. Variations in sediment substrate type, abundance and distribution of marine vegetation, and degree of exposure to wave and current activity appear to be important factors related to foraminiferal distributions and abundances. Cluster analysis of foraminiferal abundance data distinguishes four major assemblages. Other generally recognizable trends in foraminiferal assemblages include: offshore increase in species diversity; offshore increase in percent miliolids while percent rotaliids remain more or less constant; small peaks in percent textulariids immediately adjacent to mangrove growth; almost 100% agglutinated assemblages in fully mangrove environments; offshore increase in foraminiferal number except in areas of abundant Halimeda plate production where numbers of foraminifera are diluted; restriction of high abundances of Fissurina, Nonionella, Fursenkoina and Helenina to lagoons behind mangrove islands; restrictions of high abundances of Rosalina, Cibicides, Discorbis, Spiroloculina, Cyclogyra, Quinqueloculina, Amphistegina, Peneroplis and Archaias to lagoons seaward of mangrove islands. These trends provide a micropaleontological link between a potential petroleum source, mangrove swamps, and the potential petroleum reservoir, reef rocks.

  8. Evolution of a wave packet scattered by a one-dimensional potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatrian, A Zh; Alexanyan, Al G; Khoetsyan, V A; Alexanyan, N A

    2013-06-30

    We consider the evolution of a wave packet that is made up of a group of the wave functions describing the stationary scattering process and tunnels through a one-dimensional potential of arbitrary form. As the main characteristics of the time difference of the tunnelling process, use is made of the propagation speed of the wave-packet maximum. We show that the known Hartman formula for the tunnelling time corresponds to the wave packet with a wavenumber-uniform spectral composition in the case, when the phase and transmission coefficient modulus dispersions are taken into account only in the linear approximation. The amplitude of the main peak of the transmitted wave intensity is proven to be independent of the tunnelling time and is determined by the transmission coefficient of the spectral component at the carrier frequency and the spectral width of the wave packet. In the limit of an infinitely wide potential barrier the amplitude of the wave-packet maximum is shown to tend to zero slower than the tunnelling time tends to its asymptotic value, i.e., indeed we deal with the paradox of an infinitely large propagation speed of a wave disturbance through the barrier. (propagation of wave fronts)

  9. Huge Potential for Hydropower: Assessment Highlights New Possible...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Report Finds Major Potential to Grow Clean, Sustainable U.S. Hydropower Huge Potential for Hydropower: Assessment Highlights New Possible Clean Energy Sources Hydropower Still in ...

  10. Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic Environments The article reviews the results of that workshop, focusing on potential effects on ...

  11. Property:IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ntifiedHydrothermalPotential Property Type Quantity Description Conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from identified hydrothermal sites, as determined by the...

  12. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United...

  13. NREL: Energy Efficiency Potential Mapping (Analysis & Tools for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Potential Mapping (Analysis & Tools for Building America and Industry - 2015 Peer Review NREL: Energy Efficiency Potential Mapping (Analysis & Tools for Building...

  14. Meeting Concerning Potential Test Procedures and Energy Conservation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concerning Potential Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Set-Top Boxes and Network Equipment Meeting Concerning Potential Test Procedures and Energy Conservation ...

  15. Economic Potential of CHP in Detroit Edison Service Area: The...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economic Potential of CHP in Detroit Edison Service Area: The Customer Perspective, June 2003 Economic Potential of CHP in Detroit Edison Service Area: The Customer Perspective, ...

  16. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States: Methodology and ... 2. Capacity additions and growth II. Economic Potential 1. Summary of initial results ...

  17. Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five Methane Reduction Scenarios Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five Methane Reduction ...

  18. DOE Requests Information on Potential New or Revised Categorical...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Requests Information on Potential New or Revised Categorical Exclusions DOE Requests Information on Potential New or Revised Categorical Exclusions December 22, 2009 - 10:33am...

  19. Energy Department Report Finds Major Potential to Increase Clean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report Finds Major Potential to Increase Clean Hydroelectric Power Energy Department Report Finds Major Potential to Increase Clean Hydroelectric Power April 17, 2012 - 12:39pm ...

  20. Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Technical Potential in the United...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Technical Potential in the United States: A Detailed ... 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Technical Potential in the ...

  1. Property:PotentialEGSGeothermalCapacity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from EGS Geothermal for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric...

  2. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies ...

  3. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Lead Performer: National Institute of Standards and Technology - ...

  4. High-efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor High-efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor Lead Performer: United Technologies Research Center - ...

  5. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for ...

  6. Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First Comparisong Using External Costs on Urban Buses Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First ...

  7. Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel Cells Industry Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel Cells Industry Download presentation...

  8. NREL: Energy Efficiency Potential Mapping (Analysis & Tools for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Potential Mapping (Analysis & Tools for Building America and Industry - 2015 Peer Review NREL: Energy Efficiency Potential Mapping (Analysis & Tools for Building ...

  9. National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison Across Models Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A...

  10. Africa - Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Technical Potential of Solar...

  11. Thailand-Status and Potential for the Development of Biofuels...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Status and Potential for the Development of Biofuels and Rural Renewable Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name Thailand-Status and Potential for the Development of Biofuels and...

  12. Wind Concurrent Cooling Could Increase Power Transmission Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concurrent Cooling Could Increase Power Transmission Potential by as Much as 40% Wind Concurrent Cooling Could Increase Power Transmission Potential by as Much as 40% May 18, 2015 ...

  13. Potential of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane Solid Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Potential of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane...

  14. Property:PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from utility-scale PV in urban areas of a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy...

  15. Property:PotentialOffshoreWindCapacity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from Offshore Wind for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric...

  16. Pennsylvania: New Series of Windows Has Potential to Save Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    New Series of Windows Has Potential to Save Energy for Commercial Buildings Pennsylvania: New Series of Windows Has Potential to Save Energy for Commercial Buildings March 6, 2014...

  17. Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential Authors: Luu, T ;...

  18. Webinar November 19: Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Webinar November 19: Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production and Concentrating Solar Power: A Systems Analysis Webinar November 19: Potential Strategies for...

  19. Design Potential of Metal Foil Substrates for Optimized DOC Performanc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential of Metal Foil Substrates for Optimized DOC Performance Design Potential of Metal Foil Substrates for Optimized DOC Performance Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel...

  20. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline ...

  1. Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five National Account Sectors, May 2003 Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five National Account ...

  2. The potential impact of ZT=4 thermoelectric materials on solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The potential impact of ZT4 thermoelectric materials on solar thermal energy conversion technologies. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The potential ...

  3. Ribosome research in atomic detail offers potential insights...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ribosome research offers potential insights into cancer Ribosome research in atomic detail offers potential insights into cancer, anemia, Alzheimer's A groundbreaking study of the...

  4. Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel Cells Industry Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel Cells Industry Download presentation ...

  5. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Preface Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic ...

  6. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Executive Summary This Service Report, Potential Oil Production from the ...

  7. Home Energy Score Program: Update and Overview for Potential...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Program: Update and Overview for Potential Partners Home Energy Score Program: Update and Overview for Potential Partners Provides an overview of DOE's objectives for the Home...

  8. EA-1927: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    27: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities Transfers; McCracken County, Kentucky EA-1927: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities...

  9. 3-D Combustion Simulation Strategy Status, Future Potential,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Simulation Strategy Status, Future Potential, and Application Issues 3-D Combustion Simulation Strategy Status, Future Potential, and Application Issues 2004 Diesel...

  10. Encapsulant-based Solution to Potential Induced Degradation of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Encapsulant-based Solution to Potential Induced Degradation of Photovoltaic Modules Encapsulant-based Solution to Potential Induced Degradation of Photovoltaic Modules Presented at ...

  11. EPA Clean Energy Incentive Program Stakeholder Calls - Potential...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Incentive Program Stakeholder Calls - Potential CEIP Project Partners EPA Clean Energy Incentive Program Stakeholder Calls - Potential CEIP Project Partners November 23,...

  12. Cogeneration development and market potential in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J.; Xin, D.

    1996-05-01

    China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

  13. Evaluation of liquefaction potential for building code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nunziata, C.; De Nisco, G.; Panza, G. F.

    2008-07-08

    The standard approach for the evaluation of the liquefaction susceptibility is based on the estimation of a safety factor between the cyclic shear resistance to liquefaction and the earthquake induced shear stress. Recently, an updated procedure based on shear-wave velocities (V{sub s}) has been proposed which could be more easily applied.These methods have been applied at La Plaja beach of Catania, that experienced liquefaction because of the 1693 earthquake. The detailed geotechnical and V{sub s} information and the realistic ground motion computed for the 1693 event let us compare the two approaches. The successful application of the V{sub s} procedure, slightly modified to fit historical and safety factor information, even if additional field performances are needed, encourages the development of a guide for liquefaction potential analysis, based on well defined V{sub s} profiles to be included in the italian seismic code.

  14. OTEC: status and potential of private funding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, E.J.; Richards, D.

    1982-01-01

    A financial analysis approach is described for calculating net present values and financial management rates of return for a wide variety of specific OTEC cases. Comparisons are made of the profit potentials, expected market penetration, perceived financial risks, and eventual benefits from the specific cases and logical follow-on construction scenarios. The principal factors of uncertainty as perceived by researchers, builders, and financiers are catalogued. Roles and responsibilities of participants in a financing approach including builder team, government, product user, financial houses, and investors are cited. Cases which have been investigated include 10 to 40 MW/sub e/ scale and 250 to 360 MW/sub e/ scale OTEC plants and plantships; electric power cabled ashore to US islands and the US mainland, methanol, ammonia, hybrid geothermal-OTEC plants for meeting local power demands or making products; and relevant data on other OTEC product possibilities.

  15. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  16. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Potential Health Hazards of Radiation PDF icon Potential Health Hazards of Radiation More Documents & Publications Radioactive Materials Emergencies Course Presentation DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2008

  17. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits This U.S. Department of Energy Report to Congress, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new

  18. The Potential Economic Impact of Electricity Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase II Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2001-10-30

    Because of the recent experiences of several states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. These factors along with the mix of generation capacity supplying the state will influence the relative prices paid by consumers. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the potential price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma electric industry. The Phase I report concentrated on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation resources and customer demands. This Phase II study analyzed the Oklahoma power market in 2010, incorporating the potential of new generation resources and customer responses. Five key findings of this Phase II were made: (1) Projected expansion in generating capacity exceeds by over 3,000 MW the demands within the state plus the amount that could be exported with the current transmission system. (2) Even with reduced new plant construction, most new plants could lose money (although residential consumers would see lower rates) unless they have sufficient market power to raise their prices without losing significant market share (Figure S-1). (3) If new plants can raise prices to stay profitable, existing low-cost coal and hydro plants will have very high profits. Average prices to customers could be 5% to 25% higher than regulated rates (Figure S-1). If the coal and hydro plants are priced at cost-based rates (through long-term contracts or continued regulation) while all other plants use market-based rates then prices are lower. (4) Customer response to real-time prices can lower the peak capacity requirements by around 9%, lowering the need for new capacity and reduce prices during the peak demand. (5) Changes to electric prices on the order of 5% to 20% will have only a modest effect on overall economic activity within the state.

  19. Potential of Securitization in Solar PV Finance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.

    2013-12-01

    This report aims to demonstrate, hypothetically and at a high level, what volumes of solar deployment could be supported given solar industry access to the capital markets in the form of security issuance. Securitization is not anticipated to replace tax equity in the near- to mid-term, but it could provide an additional source of funds that would be comparatively inexpensive and could reduce the weighted average cost of capital for a given solar project or portfolio. Thus, the potential to securitize solar assets and seek financing in the capital markets could help to sustain the solar industry when the investment tax credit (ITC) -- one of the federal incentives that has leveraged billions of dollars of private capital in the solar industry -- drops from 30% to 10% at the close of 2016. The report offers analysis on the size of the U.S. third-party financed solar market, as well as on the volumes (in MW) of solar asset origination possible through a $100 million securitization fund (assuming no overcollateralization). It also provides data on the size of the relevant securities markets and how the solar asset class may fit into these markets.

  20. The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-11-16

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e., ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site's annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities plus a natural gas company, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB's assumed utilization is far higherthan is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at stimulating CHP deployment, while the SGIP buy down is more powerful. The attractiveness of CHP varies widely by climate zone and service territory, but in general, hotter inland areas and San Diego are the more attractive regions because high cooling loads achieve higher equipment utilization. Additionally, large office buildings are surprisingly good hosts for CHP, so large office buildings in San Diego and hotter urban centers emerge as promising target hosts. Overall the effect on CO2 emissions is limited, never exceeding 27percent of the CARB target. Nonetheless, results suggest that the CO2 emissions abatement potential of CHP in mid-sized CA buildings is significant, and much more promising than is typically assumed.