Sample records for mwh actual peak

  1. Texas Nuclear Profile - Comanche Peak

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Comanche Peak" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

  2. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small office; and 5) simulated energy savings and peak demand reduction by energy conservation measures using the TMY3 weather data can be significantly underestimated or overestimated. It is crucial to run multi-decade simulations with AMY weather data to fully assess the impact of weather on the long-term performance of buildings, and to evaluate the energy savings potential of energy conservation measures for new and existing buildings from a life cycle perspective.

  3. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrPellets | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar GroupInformation SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrPellets Jump to: navigation,

  4. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrTotal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar GroupInformation SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrPellets Jump to:

  5. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrTownGas | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar GroupInformation SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrPellets Jump

  6. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrWoodChips | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar GroupInformation SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrPellets JumpInformation

  7. Total Cost Per MwH for all common large scale power generation sources |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin Baxin Hydropower Station JumpOpenEI Community Cost Per MwH for

  8. SPACE TECHNOLOGY Actual Estimate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SPACE TECHNOLOGY TECH-1 Actual Estimate Budget Authority (in $ millions) FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 FY.7 247.0 Exploration Technology Development 144.6 189.9 202.0 215.5 215.7 214.5 216.5 Notional SPACE TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW .............................. TECH- 2 SBIR AND STTR

  9. EXPLORATION Actual Estimate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017 FY 2013 President's Budget Request 3,821.2 3,712.8 3,932.8 4,076.5 4,076.5 4 Estimate Budget Authority (in $ millions) FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017 FY 2013EXPLORATION EXP-1 Actual Estimate Budget Authority (in $ millions) FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014

  10. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  11. Actuals Journal Approval Tip NUFinancials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    Actuals Journal Approval Tip NUFinancials Workflow and Approvals FMS804 02/20/2009-vlr FMS804 Actuals Journal Approval Tip © 2009 Northwestern University FMS804 ­ Job Aid Page 1 of 1 This job aid describes what an Actuals Journal should look like to an Approver. Explanation: Whenever an Actuals journal

  12. Oil Peak or Panic?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this balanced consideration of the peak-oil controversy, Gorelick comes down on the side of the optimists.

  13. QER- Comment of MWH Global

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hello, Was looking at the calendar and curious when the “Final Meeting” is in DC for the QER? http://energy.gov/epsa/initiatives/quadrennial-energy-review-qer Thanks,

  14. WECC and Peak Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WECC and Peak Update Transmission B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N Pre-decisional. For Discussion Purposes Only. WECC and Peak Background In the...

  15. Idaho_GrousePeak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT | NationalMentoringWindMiller204Grouse Peak

  16. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  17. Peak Oil, Peak Energy Mother Nature Bats Last

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sereno, Martin

    Peak Oil, Peak Energy Mother Nature Bats Last Martin Sereno 1 Feb 2011 (orig. talk: Nov 2004) #12;Oil is the Lifeblood of Industrial Civilization · 80 million barrels/day, 1000 barrels/sec, 1 cubicPods to the roads themselves) · we're not "addicted to oil" -- that's like saying a person has an "addiction

  18. PRESCRIPTIVE APPROACH 1. Actual and Allowed LPD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    METHOD #12;SECTION 5 CHANGES TO 140.6-B SLIDE 183 TYPE OF BUILDING ALLOWED LIGHTING POWER DENSITY (WATTS by ensuring that the actual lighting power installed in a space is less than the allowed lighting power for that space. SLIDE 1757/31/2014 PRESCRIPTIVE METHOD #12;SECTION 9 ACTUAL LIGHTING POWER The actual indoor

  19. Peak production in an oil depletion model with triangular field profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Dudley

    Peak production in an oil depletion model with triangular field profiles Dudley Stark School.S.A. would occur between 1965 and 1970. Oil production in the U.S.A. actually peaked in 1970 and has been declining since then. Hubbert used a logistic curve to approximate the rate of oil production. Deffeyes [2

  20. Peak finding using biorthogonal wavelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, C.Y.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors show in this paper how they can find the peaks in the input data if the underlying signal is a sum of Lorentzians. In order to project the data into a space of Lorentzian like functions, they show explicitly the construction of scaling functions which look like Lorentzians. From this construction, they can calculate the biorthogonal filter coefficients for both the analysis and synthesis functions. They then compare their biorthogonal wavelets to the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations) wavelets when used for peak finding in noisy data. They will show that in this instance, their filters perform much better than the FBI wavelets.

  1. Peak Oil Food Network | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Butte, Colorado Zip: 81224 Website: http:www.PeakOilFoodNetwork. References: Peak Oil Food Network1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. The Peak...

  2. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Reduce the high level of risk during the early stages of geothermal project development by conducting a multi-faceted and innovative exploration and drilling program at Silver Peak. Determine the combination of techniques that are most useful and cost-effective in identifying the geothermal resource through a detailed, post-project evaluation of the exploration and drilling program.

  3. Peak Oil Awareness Network | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Awareness Network Jump to: navigation, search Name: Peak Oil Awareness Network Place: Crested Butte, Colorado Zip: 81224 Website: http:www.PeakOilAwarenessNet Coordinates:...

  4. Self-Supporting Budget Budget to Actual Comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Self-Supporting Budget Budget to Actual Comparison System Administration University of Nevada Supporting Budgets ­ Budget to Actual Comparison Introduction

  5. Texas Nuclear Profile - Comanche Peak

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun1DecadeMonthComanche Peak"

  6. Idaho_LonePinePeak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot Springs Site #0104 Latitude:Peak Site

  7. Bennett and "Proxy Actualism" Michael Nelson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zalta, Edward N.

    Bennett and "Proxy Actualism" Michael Nelson Department of Philosophy University of California and Information Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305 zalta@stanford.edu Abstract Karen Bennett has recently and addressing a worry that might have been the driving force behind Bennett's claim that Linsky and Zalta's view

  8. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere.. Net Energya.

  9. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere.. Net Energya.a.

  10. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere.. Net

  11. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere.. Net9"

  12. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere.. Net9"3 and

  13. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere.. Net9"3 and4

  14. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere.. Net9"3

  15. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere.. Net9"3b.

  16. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere.. Net9"3b.b.

  17. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere.. Net9"3b.b.2b.

  18. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere..

  19. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere..3 and Projected 2004

  20. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere..3 and Projected

  1. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere..3 and

  2. Peak Travel, Peak Car and the Future of Mobility: Evidence, Unresolved...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Travel, Peak Car and the Future of Mobility: Evidence, Unresolved Issues, Policy Implications, and a Research Agenda Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Peak...

  3. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Renewable Energy, the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency, of the U Institute, Taiwan, ROC May 2013 This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

  4. FY 2013 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting Requirement FY 2013 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting Requirement FY 2013 DARM...

  5. al uso actual: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O 27 Do Concept Inventories Actually Measure Anything? Colin S. Wallace Multidisciplinary Databases and...

  6. Self-Supporting Budget Budget to Actual Comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Self-Supporting Budget Budget to Actual Comparison System Administration University of Nevada-12 Self Supporting Budgets ­ Budget to Actual Comparison Introduction

  7. Promoting Employment Across Kansas (PEAK) (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Promoting Employment Across Kansas (PEAK) allows for the retention of employee payroll withholding taxes for qualified companies or third parties performing services on behalf of such companies....

  8. Adaptive architectures for peak power management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kontorinis, Vasileios

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    load – in fact, we almost completely flatten the power profilepower profiles, we investigate a number of policies for peak power shaving which react to the observed load

  9. Preliminary Assumptions for Natural Gas Peaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    plants and capital cost estimates for peaking technologies Frame, Aeroderivative, Intercooled, Reciprocating Engines Next steps 2 #12;Definitions Baseload Energy: power generated (or conserved) across a period of time to serve system demands for electricity Peaking Capacity: capability of power generating

  10. The Boson peak in supercooled water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradeep Kumar; K. Thor Wikfeldt; Daniel Schlesinger; Lars G. M. Pettersson; H. E. Stanley

    2013-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the TIP4P/2005 model of water to investigate the origin of the Boson peak reported in experiments on supercooled water in nanoconfined pores, and in hydration water around proteins. We find that the onset of the Boson peak in supercooled bulk water coincides with the crossover to a predominantly low-density-like liquid below the Widom line $T_W$. The frequency and onset temperature of the Boson peak in our simulations of bulk water agree well with the results from experiments on nanoconfined water. Our results suggest that the Boson peak in water is not an exclusive effect of confinement. We further find that, similar to other glass-forming liquids, the vibrational modes corresponding to the Boson peak are spatially extended and are related to transverse phonons found in the parent crystal, here ice Ih.

  11. Actual energy implementations and basic investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nockemann, C.; Wuestenberg, H. [BAM, Berlin (Germany). Federal Inst. of Materials Research and Testing

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The actual implementations in guaranteeing the reliability of NDE systems applied in service inspections in nuclear power plants will be presented. The difference between the American PDI (Performance Demonstration Initiative) which is based on blind trials and the European ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) approach which is based on a mixed procedure of physical modeling, experience data and test experiments will be discussed. The ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) has been adapted from the signal detection theory to NDE problems at BAM to be used for basic investigations and for the validation of new exceptional NDE systems where modeling and reference to standards is not yet possible. Examples of application will be shown and critical discussed especially concerning the influence of the grading unit raster.

  12. FY 2012 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications FY 2013 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting Requirement Real Property Maintenance Reporting Requirement Memorandum...

  13. QER- Comment of Cloud Peak Energy Inc

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear Ms Pickett Please find attached comments from Cloud Peak Energy as input to the Department of Energy’s Quadrennial Energy Review. If possible I would appreciate a confirmation that this email has been received Thank you.

  14. LNG production for peak shaving operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, B.C.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LNG production facilities are being developed as an alternative or in addition to underground storage throughout the US to provide gas supply during peak gas demand periods. These facilities typically involved a small liquefaction unit with a large LNG storage tank and gas sendout facilities capable of responding to peak loads during the winter. Black and Veatch is active in the development of LNG peak shaving projects for clients using a patented mixed refrigerant technology for efficient production of LNG at a low installed cost. The mixed refrigerant technology has been applied in a range of project sizes both with gas turbine and electric motor driven compression systems. This paper will cover peak shaving concepts as well as specific designs and projects which have been completed to meet this market need.

  15. A perspective on the CMB acoustic peak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. A. Marriage

    2002-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    CMB angular spectrum measurements suggest a flat universe. This paper clarifies the relation between geometry and the spherical harmonic index of the first acoustic peak ($\\ell_{peak}$). Numerical and analytic calculations show that $\\ell_{peak}$ is approximately a function of $\\Omega_K/\\Omega_M$ where $\\Omega_K$ and $\\Omega_M$ are the curvature ($\\Omega_K > 0$ implies an open geometry) and mass density today in units of critical density. Assuming $\\Omega_K/\\Omega_M \\ll 1$, one obtains a simple formula for $\\ell_{peak}$, the derivation of which gives another perspective on the widely-recognized $\\Omega_M$-$\\Omega_\\Lambda$ degeneracy in flat models. This formula for near-flat cosmogonies together with current angular spectrum data yields familiar parameter constraints.

  16. We report measurement of the equilibrium plasma current profiles in the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) that exhibit a peak beta in excess of 10 percent. The beta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experiment (LDX) that exhibit a peak beta in excess of 10 percent. The beta of an LDX plasma is calculated will be discussed along with the conditions that lead to the creation of high beta plasmas. #12;Outline · Magnetic · Average and peak beta Substantial analyses must be performed on the magnetic data to actually obtain

  17. --No Title--

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forecasted Spot Energy Prices in MWH - Updated 4272015 Week Beginning Four Corners Four Corners Rockies Rockies Southwest Southwest On Peak Off Peak On Peak Off Peak On Peak...

  18. Preliminary Assumptions for Natural Gas Peaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; adjusted to 2012$, state construction cost index, vintage of cost estimate, scope of estimate to extent's Discussion Aeroderivative Gas Turbine Technology Proposed reference plant and assumptions Preliminary cost Robbins 2 #12;Peaking Power Plant Characteristics 6th Power Plan ($2006) Unit Size (MW) Capital Cost ($/k

  19. AUTOMATED CRITICAL PEAK PRICING FIELD TESTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) for development of the DR Automation Server System This project could not have been completed without extensive: Greg Watson and Mark Lott · C&C Building Automation: Mark Johnson and John Fiegel · Chabot Space AUTOMATED CRITICAL PEAK PRICING FIELD TESTS: 2006 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION AND RESULTS

  20. actuales clasificaciones del: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 117 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  1. antecedentes situacion actual: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 69 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  2. anciano consideraciones actuales: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 64 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  3. actual results satellitenexperiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    building walls as above and to the room 84 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  4. actual una perspectiva: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 122 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  5. actual del franciscanismo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 110 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  6. actual del trasplante: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 114 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  7. actual del huemul: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 110 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  8. actual del ultrasonido: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 110 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  9. algunas tendencias actuales: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 76 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  10. actuales del choque: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 112 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  11. actual del tabaquismo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 110 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  12. actuales sobre criterios: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 90 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  13. actual del marco: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    input to an actual causation problem. Vennekens, Joost 2011-01-01 104 Equity and Emissions Trading in China Da Zhang, Marco Springmann and Valerie Karplus Environmental Sciences...

  14. actuales para determinar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 98 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  15. actual del paciente: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 139 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  16. actual del control: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 147 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  17. adventicia estado actual: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 91 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  18. actual dos conhecimentos: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 114 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  19. actuales del metabolismo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 116 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  20. atpae desarrollo actual: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 114 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  1. agudo estado actual: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 91 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  2. actual del estreptococo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 110 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  3. actual gobierno venezolano: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 76 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  4. actual del rabdomiosarcoma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 110 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  5. aporte actual del: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 119 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  6. actual car fleet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ns-2). We have developed it to verify CarRing II's basic concepts, and to explore Zachmann, Gabriel 58 NUFinancials Actuals Journals Materials Science Websites Summary:...

  7. actual intec calcines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    material microstructures were studied for materials prepared from three (more) Bennett, Barbara, 1971- 2000-01-01 2 Introduction Actual Industrial Problems Mathematics...

  8. Peak power tracking for a solar buck charger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Jeremy Michael, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis discusses the design, implementation, and testing of a buck converter with peak power tracking. The peak power tracker uses a perturb and observe algorithm to actively track the solar panel's peak power point ...

  9. Central peaking of magnetized gas discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Francis F. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Curreli, Davide [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Partially ionized gas discharges used in industry are often driven by radiofrequency (rf) power applied at the periphery of a cylinder. It is found that the plasma density n is usually flat or peaked on axis even if the skin depth of the rf field is thin compared with the chamber radius a. Previous attempts at explaining this did not account for the finite length of the discharge and the boundary conditions at the endplates. A simple 1D model is used to focus on the basic mechanism: the short-circuit effect. It is found that a strong electric field (E-field) scaled to electron temperature T{sub e}, drives the ions inward. The resulting density profile is peaked on axis and has a shape independent of pressure or discharge radius. This “universal” profile is not affected by a dc magnetic field (B-field) as long as the ion Larmor radius is larger than a.

  10. Triangle Singularities and XYZ Quarkonium Peaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam P. Szczepaniak

    2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss analytical properties of partial waves derived from projection of a 4-legged amplitude with crossed-channel exchanges in the kinematic region of the direct channel that corresponds to the XYZ peaks in charmonium and bottomonium. We show that in general partial waves can develop anomalous branch points in the vicinity of the direct channel physical region. In a specific case, when these branch points lie on the opposite side of the unitary cut they pinch the integration contour in a dispersion relation and if the pinch happens close to threshold, the normal threshold cusp is enhanced. We show that this effect only occurs if masses of resonances in the crossed channel are in a specific, narrow range. We estimate the size of threshold enhancements originating from these anomalous singularities in reactions where the Zc(3900) and the Zb(10610) peaks have been observed.

  11. Triangle Singularities and XYZ Quarkonium Peaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szczepaniak, Adam P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss analytical properties of partial waves derived from projection of a 4-legged amplitude with crossed-channel exchanges in the kinematic region of the direct channel that corresponds to the XYZ peaks in charmonium and bottomonium. We show that in general partial waves can develop anomalous branch points in the vicinity of the direct channel physical region. In a specific case, when these branch points lie on the opposite side of the unitary cut they pinch the integration contour in a dispersion relation and if the pinch happens close to threshold, the normal threshold cusp is enhanced. We show that this effect only occurs if masses of resonances in the crossed channel are in a specific, narrow range. We estimate the size of threshold enhancements originating from these anomalous singularities in reactions where the Zc(3900) and the Zb(10610) peaks have been observed.

  12. Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use

  13. Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing of electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herter, Karen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L.R. Modeling alternative residential peak-load electricitydemand response to residential critical peak pricing (CPP)analysis of California residential customer response to

  14. Equivalence Principle and the Baryon Acoustic Peak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldauf, Tobias; Simonovi?, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation $\\delta(\\lambda_L)$ on short distance physics. In the non-relativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at $l_{\\rm BAO}$, this naive expectation breaks down for $\\lambda_Lpower spectrum. Finally, the success of BAO reconstruction schemes is argue...

  15. Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary900Steep SlopeStochastic WeeklyStores Catalog The AmesPeak

  16. Pilot Peak Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska: Energy ResourcesPicketGeothermal Project Jump to:Pilot Peak

  17. Mt Peak Utility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose BendMiasole IncMinutemanVistaZephyr)Mountain AirPeak Utility Jump

  18. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ON PEAK POWER CLIPPING THRESHOLDS IN MICROGRIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    the utility grid. This kind of operating strategy is called e.g. "peak load shaving", "peak power reduction. This method is broadly applicable to similar applications, e.g. for peak-shaving of PV power to limit" or just "peak shaving" and is applied to diverse applications and systems. This paper presents a method

  19. Peak Oil and REMI PI+: State Fiscal Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    the possibility of multiple maxima (peaks) · There is no particular reason why peak oil in New Mexico or some to assume that these peaks will not occur at the same time. #12;The Oil Peak in New Mexico Source: Starbuck are Proved Reserves? "Proved reserves of crude oil are the estimated quantities which geological

  20. actual situation analysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    traffic participants. The proposed ASA includes all four levels of the traditional JDL (Joint Desel, Jrg 2 HOW TO APPLY ICA ON ACTUAL DATA ? EXAMPLE OF MARS HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE...

  1. actuales relacionadas con: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 121 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  2. Experiment on Residential Ventilation System In Actual House

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiecheng, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traced-gas was used in the experiment in order to evaluate the ventilation effect in different conditions in actual house. The influence of interior doors which opened or closed and vents position were considered in the experiment....

  3. Property:Ind sales (mwh) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to: navigation,ProjectStartDate JumpAuth3LinkTechMin Jump to:4-County Electric

  4. Property:Oth sales (mwh) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to: navigation,ProjectStartDateProperty EditResultsUtility Jump to:OthC

  5. Property:Com sales (mwh) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid Jump to: navigation, search This is a propertyconsCom

  6. Property:Res sales (mwh) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod Jump to:This property is set byisPropertycustomers.

  7. Property:Tot sales (mwh) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod Jump to:This property isType" Showing 25Users

  8. Discrete ordinates transport methods for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pautz, S.D.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author examines the solutions of the discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) method for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering kernels. He derives conditions necessary to obtain reasonable solutions in a certain forward-peaked limit, the Fokker-Planck (FP) limit. He also analyzes the acceleration of the iterative solution of such problems and offer improvements to it. He extends the analytic Fokker-Planck limit analysis to the S{sub N} equations. This analysis shows that in this asymptotic limit the S{sub N} solution satisfies a pseudospectral discretization of the FP equation, provided that the scattering term is handled in a certain way (which he describes) and that the analytic transport solution satisfies an analytic FP equation. Similar analyses of various spatially discretized S{sub N} equations reveal that they too produce solutions that satisfy discrete FP equations, given the same provisions. Numerical results agree with these theoretical predictions. He defines a multidimensional angular multigrid (ANMG) method to accelerate the iterative solution of highly forward-peaked problems. The analyses show that a straightforward application of this scheme is subject to high-frequency instabilities. However, by applying a diffusive filter to the ANMG corrections he is able to stabilize this method. Fourier analyses of model problems show that the resulting method is effective at accelerating the convergence rate when the scattering is forward-peaked. The numerical results demonstrate that these analyses are good predictors of the actual performance of the ANMG method.

  9. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Desert Peak Area (Wisian & Blackwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Desert Peak Area (Wisian & Blackwell, 2004) Exploration Activity...

  10. GTA P.M. PEAK MODEL Version 2.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    WORKING DRAFT GTA P.M. PEAK MODEL Version 2.0 And HALTON REGION SUB-MODEL Documentation & Users' Guide Prepared by Peter Dalton July 2001 #12;GTA P.M. Model Page 2 30/05/2002 Contents 1.0 P.M. Peak ................................................................................................ 4 Table 1 - Features of the P.M. Peak Period Model

  11. The University of Oklahoma Peak People Temporary Services Appointment Notification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    The University of Oklahoma Peak People Temporary Services Appointment Notification Please read of Oklahoma. Peak Appointment -This section is to be completed by the hiring department. Print Peak Person will not be eligible for any of the University of Oklahoma's benefit programs except for the 403(b) and 457(b

  12. Reduced Peak Power Requirements in FDM and Related Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    Reduced Peak Power Requirements in FDM and Related Systems Rajiv Laroia, Tom Richardson, R. This is especially true of communication systems for which the cost of peak transmitted power is critical. Often by the peak power required of the amplifier. On the other hand, the capacity of the system is proportional

  13. Do Concept Inventories Actually Measure Anything? Colin S. Wallace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Do Concept Inventories Actually Measure Anything? Colin S. Wallace University of Colorado Society. All rights reserved. Abstract Although concept inventories are among the most frequently used it to the Star Properties Concept Inventory. We also use IRT to explore an important psychometrics debate

  14. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential

  15. COORDINATING ADVICE AND ACTUAL TREATMENT Thomas A. Russ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russ, Thomas A.

    . Unfortunately, this information is not always immediately available. For example, the exact fluid infused via an intravenous line can only be determined after someone checks the infusion bottle to determine how much fluid differ in timing and exact amount from what is actually done. For example, an infusion order might call

  16. Estimating the Actual Cost of Transmission System Congestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    straightforward. Assuming complete knowledge of the power system inputs, such as the loads at all system buses congestion on a large-scale power system, such as the North American Eastern Interconnect, the simplicityEstimating the Actual Cost of Transmission System Congestion Thomas J. Overbye Department

  17. SCIENCE: JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE (JWST) Budget Authority Actual Estimate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Prior FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017 BTC Total FY 2013 President's Budget TELESCOPE (JWST) Formulation Development Operations JWST-2 FY 2013 BUDGET Budget Authority Actual Estimate (in $ millions) Prior FY 2011 FY 2012 2013 FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017 BTC Total FY 2013 President

  18. Steam Trap Testing and Evaluation: An Actual Plant Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, A. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With rising steam costs and a high failure rate on the Joliet Plants standard steam trap, a testing and evaluation program was begun to find a steam trap that would work at Olin-Joliet. The basis was to conduct the test on the actual process...

  19. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    criteria, and representative cities for the 17 climates –non-refrigerated) Representative city Miami, USA Riyadh,

  20. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    more than 40% of end-use energy demand. It is important toin terms of building energy supply and demand. Additionally,to evaluate energy performance and demand response. Accurate

  1. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space temperature, occupant thermal comfort, cooling and heating loads, HVAC equipment sizes, energy consumption, utility cost, air emissions, water usage, renewable

  2. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere..3 andA.1.6"

  3. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere..3

  4. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere..3January 2010"

  5. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere..3January

  6. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold to Electric Powere..3January3a. January

  7. Next Update: December 2011 Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) inThousandWithdrawals (MillionNine Mile Pointper0 0 0 0e .f.

  8. Next Update: December 2011 Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) inThousandWithdrawals (MillionNine Mile Pointper0 0 0 0e

  9. Back-Up/ Peak Shaving Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staudt, Rhonda L.

    2008-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This Final Report covers the work executed by Plug Power from 8/11/03 – 10/31/07 statement of work for Topic 2: advancing the state of the art of fuel cell technology with the development of a new generation of commercially viable, stationary, Back-up/Peak-Shaving fuel cell systems, the GenCore II. The Program cost was $7.2 M with the Department of Energy share being $3.6M and Plug Power’s share being $3.6 M. The Program started in August of 2003 and was scheduled to end in January of 2006. The actual program end date was October of 2007. A no cost extension was grated. The Department of Energy barriers addressed as part of this program are: Technical Barriers for Distributed Generation Systems: o Durability o Power Electronics o Start up time Technical Barriers for Fuel Cell Components: o Stack Material and Manufacturing Cost o Durability o Thermal and water management Background The next generation GenCore backup fuel cell system to be designed, developed and tested by Plug Power under the program is the first, mass-manufacturable design implementation of Plug Power’s GenCore architected platform targeted for battery and small generator replacement applications in the telecommunications, broadband and UPS markets. The next generation GenCore will be a standalone, H2 in-DC-out system. In designing the next generation GenCore specifically for the telecommunications market, Plug Power is teaming with BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc., a leading industry end user. The final next generation GenCore system is expected to represent a market-entry, mass-manufacturable and economically viable design. The technology will incorporate: • A cost-reduced, polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack tailored to hydrogen fuel use • An advanced electrical energy storage system • A modular, scalable power conditioning system tailored to market requirements • A scaled-down, cost-reduced balance of plant (BOP) • Network Equipment Building Standards (NEBS), UL and CE certifications.

  10. Home energy ratings systems: Actual usage may vary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Home energy ratings (HERS) attempt to predict typical energy costs for a given residence and estimate the savings potentials of various energy retrofits. This article discusses where the ratings could be improved to more accurately predict the actual energy consumption. Topics covered include the following: is HERS on target (scores, energy predictions, recommended energy improvements); why HERS aren`t perfect; improvements in HERS; the possibility that home energy ratings systems will become market driven. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN PEAK ENERGY AND PEAK LUMINOSITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Chen, D. Y. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Huang, Y. F., E-mail: sci.zbzhang@gzu.edu.cn, E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A correlation between the peak luminosity and the peak energy has been found by Yonetoku et al. as L{sub p} {proportional_to}E{sup 2.0}{sub p,i} for 11 pre-Swift long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this study, for a greatly expanded sample of 148 long GRBs in the Swift era, we find that the correlation still exists, but most likely with a slightly different power-law index, i.e., L{sub p} {proportional_to} E{sup 1.7}{sub p,i}. In addition, we have collected 17 short GRBs with necessary data. We find that the correlation of L{sub p} {proportional_to} E{sup 1.7}{sub p,i} also exists for this sample of short events. It is argued that the radiation mechanism of both long and short GRBs should be similar, i.e., of quasi-thermal origin caused by the photosphere, with the dissipation occurring very near the central engine. Some key parameters of the process are constrained. Our results suggest that the radiation processes of both long and short bursts may be dominated by thermal emission, rather than by the single synchrotron radiation. This might put strong physical constraints on the theoretical models.

  12. Effect of asymmetry in peak profiles on solar oscillation frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarbani Basu; H. M. Antia

    1999-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Most helioseismic analyses are based on solar oscillations frequencies obtained by fitting symmetric peak profiles to the power spectra. However, it has now been demonstrated that the peaks are not symmetric. In this work we study the effects of asymmetry of the peak profiles on the solar oscillations frequencies of p-modes for low and intermediate degrees. We also investigate how the resulting shift in frequencies affects helioseismic inferences.

  13. Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on-peak rates from time-of-use (TOU) tariffs while enhancingTable 1 Time of Use Electricity Tariff at SRJ Period Summer

  14. affect peak oxidative: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    establish a monotonicity result that indicates fuel supply Todd, Michael J. 119 Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades Texas A&M University -...

  15. assisting daytime peaking: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    models are deterministic Minnesota, University of 105 Distributed Battery Control for Peak Power Shaving in Datacenters Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites...

  16. artery peak systolic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power spectrum. Michael P. Hobson 1996-11-26 69 COMMITTEE FINAL REPORT REVISED SHORTTERM PEAK Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: , weather adjustment,...

  17. Structural Analysis of the Desert Peak-Brady Geothermal Fields...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Structural Analysis of the Desert Peak-Brady Geothermal Fields, Northwestern Nevada: Implications for...

  18. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma Located in the heart of "Tornado Alley," Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company's (OG&E) electric grid faces significant...

  19. Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing of electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herter, Karen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to time-of-day electricity pricing: first empirical results.S. The trouble with electricity markets: understandingresidential peak-load electricity rate structures. Journal

  20. annihilation coincidence peak: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    V. Fedorov; Julia M. Mikhailova; Peter A. Volkov 2011-12-05 3 (2013) 128 Data Center Demand Response: Avoiding the Coincident Peak via Computer Technologies and Information...

  1. On Transforming Spectral Peaks in Voice Conversion Elizabeth Godoy 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On Transforming Spectral Peaks in Voice Conversion Elizabeth Godoy 1 , Olivier Rosec1 , Thierry.chonavel@telecom-bretagne.eu Abstract This paper explores the benefits of transforming spectral peaks in voice conversion. First, in examining classic GMM- based transformation with cepstral coefficients, we show that the lack of transformed

  2. Distributed Battery Control for Peak Power Shaving in Datacenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Distributed Battery Control for Peak Power Shaving in Datacenters Baris Aksanli and Tajana Rosing-physical systems with continuous performance and power measurements, and real-time control decisions related to shave peak power demands. Our novel distributed battery control design has no performance impact

  3. PEAKING OF WORLD OIL PRODUCTION: IMPACTS, MITIGATION, & RISK MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    PEAKING OF WORLD OIL PRODUCTION: IMPACTS, MITIGATION, & RISK MANAGEMENT Robert L. Hirsch, SAIC OF WORLD OIL PRODUCTION III. WHY TRANSITION WILL BE TIME CONSUMING IV. LESSONS FROM PAST EXPERIENCE V REMARKS APPENDICES #12;4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The peaking of world oil production presents the U

  4. Peaks of Otter Soil and Water Conservation District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    leadership and education to sustain and utilize Bedford's natural resources in a manner that will enhancePeaks of Otter Soil and Water Conservation District Annual Report FY 2014 1071ATurnpikeRd.Bedford,VA24523 "The Peaks of Otter Soil and Water Con- servation District, with its partners, will provide

  5. Bunch Compressor for small Emittances and high Peak Currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bunch Compressor for small Emittances and high Peak Currents the VUV Free­Electron Laser Frank Stulle University Hamburg #12; #12; Bunch Compressor for small Emittances and high Peak Currents the VUV longitudinally in two magnetic chicanes. first chicane modified version bunch compressor (BC2) which TTF1

  6. TRENDS IN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION, PEAK DEMAND, AND GENERATING CAPACITY IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-085 TRENDS IN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION, PEAK DEMAND, AND GENERATING CAPACITY IN CALIFORNIA, California 94720-5180 www.ucei.org #12;TRENDS IN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION, PEAK DEMAND, AND GENERATING** Abstract This study analyzes state and regional electricity supply and demand trends for the eleven states

  7. P3DDT Peak Profile Analysis 4.1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winokur, Michael

    81 Chapter 4 P3DDT Peak Profile Analysis 4.1 Introduction The increasing molecular level complexity of paracrystal order are given in Ref. [36]. #12; 82 CHAPTER 4. P3DDT PEAK PROFILE ANALYSIS The well are the primary reasons why few have attempted apply­ ing this methodology to polymer systems. P3DDT is a polymer

  8. Smoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    for autonomous demand side management within one house. The DRS devices are able to sense and control the peak energy consumption or demand. We assume that several appliances within one building access to oneSmoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid Shaojie Tang , Qiuyuan Huang

  9. Direct quantum communication without actual transmission of the message qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chitra Shukla; Anirban Pathak

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently an orthogonal state based protocol of direct quantum communication without actual transmission of particles is proposed by Salih \\emph{et al.}{[}Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{110} (2013) 170502{]} using chained quantum Zeno effect. As the no-transmission of particle claim is criticized by Vaidman {[}arXiv:1304.6689 (2013){]}, the condition (claim) of Salih \\emph{et al.} is weaken here to the extent that transmission of particles is allowed, but transmission of the message qubits (the qubits on which the secret information is encoded) is not allowed. Remaining within this weaker condition it is shown that there exists a large class of quantum states, that can be used to implement an orthogonal state based protocol of secure direct quantum communication using entanglement swapping, where actual transmission of the message qubits is not required. The security of the protocol originates from monogamy of entanglement. As the protocol can be implemented without using conjugate coding its security is independent of non-commutativity.

  10. Comparison of CHEERS energy use predictions with actual utility bills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, B.A.; Hunt, M.B.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The usefulness of Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) is primarily derived from the accurate analysis of the present energy efficiency of a home and the cost effectiveness of the measures that are recommended for improving its efficiency. The Energy Efficient Mortgage is predicated on the concept that the mortgage money spent to improve the efficiency of a home will cost less per months to finance that the utility bill savings that are generated. Computer simulation programs are used to estimate the annual energy used for heating, cooling and domestic hot water. A large sample of rated homes in San Jose California was analyzed to compare predicted energy sue with actual bills. The HERS predictions for both heating and cooling were found to significantly overestimate the energy use of low rated homes compared to efficient homes. Cooling energy use of low rated homes with air conditioning was actually lower than for efficient homes with air conditioning. Significant correlation between family characteristics and home efficiency are thought to be part of the reason for this dilemma. A number of areas are proposed for further work to improve the HERS estimates.

  11. An analysis of peak traffic demand at signalized urban intersections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drew, Donald R

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (3 LANES) 350 705 7:15 725 7:35 7:45 7:55 805 TIME INTERVAL TYPICAL PEAK HOUR 5 MIN. TRAFFIC FLOWS 3 ? LANE FREEWAY 100 90 80 UI Z 3 70 0 PEAK RATES OF FLOW FORT WORTH UNIFORM ARRIVALS 0 ~ o170 EQUIVALENT RATE OF FLOW 60 50 O... {Figure 3), it is seen thai from 7:10 A. M. to 7:45 A. Lvf . the average hourly rate of flow is exceeded. If the mid-points of the five-minute ordinates are connected, a polygon is formed which:ntersects the PHV at the extremities of the peak period...

  12. artificial extra peaks: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Gas Units Peaking Hydro from manufacturer Regional utility IRPs Gas Turbine World (2013 Handbook) Black & Veatch analysis First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7...

  13. Optimization of Demand Response Through Peak Shaving , D. Craigie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, Michael J.

    Optimization of Demand Response Through Peak Shaving G. Zakeri , D. Craigie , A. Philpott , M. Todd for the demand response of such a consumer. We will establish a monotonicity result that indicates fuel supply

  14. Off peak cooling using an ice storage system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinlan, Edward Michael

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric utilities in the United States have entered a period of slow growth due to a combination of increased capital costs and a staggering rise in the costs for fuel. In addition to this, the rise in peak power ...

  15. Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meisegeier, D.; Howes, M.; King, D.; Hall, J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the potential peak load reductions from residential energy efficiency upgrades in hot and humid climates. First, a baseline scenario is established. Then, the demand and consumption impacts of individual upgrade measures are assessed. Several of these upgrades...

  16. Application of Thermal Storage, Peak Shaving and Cogeneration for Hospitals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.; Estes, M. C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy costs of hospitals can be managed by employing various strategies to control peak electrical demand (KW) while at the same time providing additional security of operation in the event that an equipment failure or a disruption of power from...

  17. artery peak velocity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The time series analysis of Doppler velocity maps show enhanced power in the sunspot umbra at higher frequencies and in the penumbra at lower frequencies. We find that the peak...

  18. Peak thrust operation of linear induction machines from parameter identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z.; Eastham, T.R.; Dawson, G.E. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Various control strategies are being used to achieve high performance operation of linear drives. To maintain minimum volume and weight of the power supply unit on board the transportation vehicle, peak thrust per unit current operation is a desirable objective. True peak thrust per unit current through slip control is difficult to achieve because the parameters of linear induction machines vary during normal operation. This paper first develops a peak thrust per unit current control law based on the per-phase equivalent circuit for linear induction machines. The algorithm for identification of the variable parameters in induction machines is then presented. Application to an operational linear induction machine (LIM) demonstrates the utility of this algorithm. The control strategy is then simulated, based on an operational transit LIM, to show the capability of achieving true peak thrust operation for linear induction machines.

  19. Observation of low magnetic field density peaks in helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barada, Kshitish K.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Saxena, Y. C. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single density peak has been commonly observed in low magnetic field (<100 G) helicon discharges. In this paper, we report the observations of multiple density peaks in low magnetic field (<100 G) helicon discharges produced in the linear helicon plasma device [Barada et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 063501 (2012)]. Experiments are carried out using argon gas with m = +1 right helical antenna operating at 13.56 MHz by varying the magnetic field from 0 G to 100 G. The plasma density varies with varying the magnetic field at constant input power and gas pressure and reaches to its peak value at a magnetic field value of {approx}25 G. Another peak of smaller magnitude in density has been observed near 50 G. Measurement of amplitude and phase of the axial component of the wave using magnetic probes for two magnetic field values corresponding to the observed density peaks indicated the existence of radial modes. Measured parallel wave number together with the estimated perpendicular wave number suggests oblique mode propagation of helicon waves along the resonance cone boundary for these magnetic field values. Further, the observations of larger floating potential fluctuations measured with Langmuir probes at those magnetic field values indicate that near resonance cone boundary; these electrostatic fluctuations take energy from helicon wave and dump power to the plasma causing density peaks.

  20. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, R.L. (SAIC); Bezdek, Roger (MISI); Wendling, Robert (MISI)

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  1. SEPARATION OF OVERLAPPED ELECTROCHEMICAL PEAKS USING THE KALMAN FILTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T.F.; Brown, S.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major limitation in the use of electrochemical techniques for the quantitative analysis of mixtures is the difficulty of resolving overlapped peaks. This problem is further complicated by the low signal-to-noise ratios often encountered in trace analysis and by the use of electrochemical techniques that produce broad, asymmetric waveforms. This paper demonstrates the use of the Kalman Filter for multi-component analysis of linear sweep voltammograms. Even with the broad, asymmetric LSV waveform, synthetic data runs show that a peak separation of as little as 2.5 mV is sufficient for peak deconvolution in the presence of random noise. Besides separating overlapped peaks, the methods also filters the noise from the signal and can be used to separate the capacitive current component from the faradaic current component. The method is validated further using the Cd(II)/In(III) and Cd(II)/In(III)/Pb(II) systems which show peak separations of 40 to 200 mV. The use of the techniques with two other voltammetric waveforms is also demonstrated.

  2. Wavelet Approach for Operational Gamma Spectral Peak Detection - Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identifications typically involves locating spectral peaks and matching the spectral peaks with known nuclides in the knowledge base or database. Wavelet analysis, due to its ability for fitting localized features, offers the potential for automatic detection of spectral peaks. Past studies of wavelet technologies for gamma spectra analysis essentially focused on direct fitting of raw gamma spectra. Although most of those studies demonstrated the potentials of peak detection using wavelets, they often failed to produce new benefits to operational adaptations for radiological surveys. This work presents a different approach with the operational objective being to detect only the nuclides that do not exist in the environment (anomalous nuclides). With this operational objective, the raw-count spectrum collected by a detector is first converted to a count-rate spectrum and is then followed by background subtraction prior to wavelet analysis. The experimental results suggest that this preprocess is independent of detector type and background radiation, and is capable of improving the peak detection rates using wavelets. This process broadens the doors for a practical adaptation of wavelet technologies for gamma spectral surveying devices.

  3. Estimating market potential for reducing customer peak loads through photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, J. [Citizens Advisory Panel, Central Islip, NY (United States); Perez, R. [Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Past studies have quantified photovoltaics` (PV) peak load matching capability on a utility-wide scale. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the number of utility subloads (e.g., customers, substations) whose peak loads are well matched with solar availability. A simple tool based on the utility scale load-PV match is developed to estimate the market size of customer scale PV applications with high load-PV matches. Illustrative examples of customer owned PV economics are also provided. The authors show that (1) the market size of high load matching PV applications on the subload scale is significant even within utility systems whose load requirements are not particularly well matched with PV output; and (2) the cost of PV as a peak shaving resource for utility customers is approaching competitive levels.

  4. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project (Ram Power Inc.)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Clay

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data generated from the Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project, in Esmeralda County, Nevada, encompasses a “deep-circulation (amagmatic)” meteoric-geothermal system circulating beneath basin-fill sediments locally blanketed with travertine in western Clayton Valley (lithium-rich brines from which have been mined for several decades). Spring- and shallow-borehole thermal-water geochemistry and geothermometry suggest that a Silver Peak geothermal reservoir is very likely to attain the temperature range 260- 300oF (~125-150oC), and may reach 300-340oF (~150-170oC) or higher (GeothermEx, Inc., 2006). Results of detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and conceptual modeling of the prospect (1) support the GeothermEx (op. cit.) assertion that the Silver Peak prospect has good potential for geothermal-power production; and (2) provide a theoretical geologic framework for further exploration and development of the resource. The Silver Peak prospect is situated in the transtensional (regional shearing coupled with extension) Walker Lane structural belt, and squarely within the late Miocene to Pliocene (11 Ma to ~5 Ma) Silver Peak-Lone Mountain metamorphic core complex (SPCC), a feature that accommodated initial displacement transfer between major right-lateral strike- slip fault zones on opposite sides of the Walker Lane. The SPCC consists essentially of a ductiley-deformed lower plate, or “core,” of Proterozoic metamorphic tectonites and tectonized Mesozoic granitoids separated by a regionally extensive, low-angle detachment fault from an upper plate of severely stretched and fractured structural slices of brittle, Proterozoic to Miocene-age lithologies. From a geothermal perspective, the detachment fault itself and some of the upper-plate structural sheets could function as important, if secondary, subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in a Silver Peak hydrothermal system.

  5. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Miller, Clay

    Data generated from the Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project, in Esmeralda County, Nevada, encompasses a “deep-circulation (amagmatic)” meteoric-geothermal system circulating beneath basin-fill sediments locally blanketed with travertine in western Clayton Valley (lithium-rich brines from which have been mined for several decades). Spring- and shallow-borehole thermal-water geochemistry and geothermometry suggest that a Silver Peak geothermal reservoir is very likely to attain the temperature range 260- 300oF (~125-150oC), and may reach 300-340oF (~150-170oC) or higher (GeothermEx, Inc., 2006). Results of detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and conceptual modeling of the prospect (1) support the GeothermEx (op. cit.) assertion that the Silver Peak prospect has good potential for geothermal-power production; and (2) provide a theoretical geologic framework for further exploration and development of the resource. The Silver Peak prospect is situated in the transtensional (regional shearing coupled with extension) Walker Lane structural belt, and squarely within the late Miocene to Pliocene (11 Ma to ~5 Ma) Silver Peak-Lone Mountain metamorphic core complex (SPCC), a feature that accommodated initial displacement transfer between major right-lateral strike- slip fault zones on opposite sides of the Walker Lane. The SPCC consists essentially of a ductiley-deformed lower plate, or “core,” of Proterozoic metamorphic tectonites and tectonized Mesozoic granitoids separated by a regionally extensive, low-angle detachment fault from an upper plate of severely stretched and fractured structural slices of brittle, Proterozoic to Miocene-age lithologies. From a geothermal perspective, the detachment fault itself and some of the upper-plate structural sheets could function as important, if secondary, subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in a Silver Peak hydrothermal system.

  6. L: Shape-based peak identification for ChIPSeq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valerie Hower; Steven N. Evans; Lior Pachter

    Abstract. We present a new algorithm for the identification of bound regions from ChIP-seq experiments. Our method for identifying statistically significant peaks from read coverage is inspired by the notion of persistence in topological data analysis and provides a non-parametric approach that is robust to noise in experiments. Specifically, our method reduces the peak calling problem to the study of tree-based statistics derived from the data. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method on existing datasets, and we show that it can discover previously missed regions and can more clearly discriminate between multiple binding events.

  7. Revised Manuscript Estimation of Peak Power Dissipation in VLSI Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    and a gate-level circuit structure. Last, but not least, the proposed method produces maximum power estimatesRevised Manuscript 1 Estimation of Peak Power Dissipation in VLSI Circuits Using the Limiting Qiu, Massoud Pedram Department of EE-Systems Univ. of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089 Email

  8. Firing Excess Refinery Butane in Peaking Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.; Schreiber, H.; Zwillenberg, M.

    normal butane production, which will reduce refinery normal butane value and price. Explored is an opportunity for a new use for excess refinery normal butane- as a fuel for utility peaking gas turbines which currently fire kerosene and #2 oil. Our paper...

  9. Piton Peaks, St. Lucia 515 Caribbean Discovery V1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor, Ed

    · · · · · #12;V1 Piton Peaks, St. Lucia 515 Caribbean Discovery V1 PRSRTSTD U.S.POSTAGE PERMIT cruise the turquoise waters of the Caribbean. Sail from Miami to the beautiful island of Tortola, home beaches, and explore colorful towns as you discover the Caribbean. Cruise to celebrated ports aboard

  10. Firing Excess Refinery Butane in Peaking Gas Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.; Schreiber, H.; Zwillenberg, M.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    normal butane production, which will reduce refinery normal butane value and price. Explored is an opportunity for a new use for excess refinery normal butane- as a fuel for utility peaking gas turbines which currently fire kerosene and #2 oil. Our paper...

  11. Disturbance and Landscape Dynamics The Rocky Mountains, Lander's Peak, 1863

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    environment. (Pickett and White 1985) Defining and Quantifying Disturbance #12;Frequency - number a specified time. Defining and Quantifying Disturbance #12;Frequency: none Frequency: 250-500 yrs SeverityBioe 515 Disturbance and Landscape Dynamics #12;The Rocky Mountains, Lander's Peak, 1863 Albert

  12. acoustic absorption peak: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acoustic absorption peak First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 On the variations of acoustic...

  13. Peak Dose Assessment for Proposed DOE-PPPO Authorized Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, Delis [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct a peak dose assessment in support of the Authorized Limits Request for Solid Waste Disposal at Landfill C-746-U at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE-PPPO 2011a). The peak doses were calculated based on the DOE-PPPO Proposed Single Radionuclides Soil Guidelines and the DOE-PPPO Proposed Authorized Limits (AL) Volumetric Concentrations available in DOE-PPPO 2011a. This work is provided as an appendix to the Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky (ORISE 2012). The receptors evaluated in ORISE 2012 were selected by the DOE-PPPO for the additional peak dose evaluations. These receptors included a Landfill Worker, Trespasser, Resident Farmer (onsite), Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and an Offsite Resident Farmer. The RESRAD (Version 6.5) and RESRAD-OFFSITE (Version 2.5) computer codes were used for the peak dose assessments. Deterministic peak dose assessments were performed for all the receptors and a probabilistic dose assessment was performed only for the Offsite Resident Farmer at the request of the DOE-PPPO. In a deterministic analysis, a single input value results in a single output value. In other words, a deterministic analysis uses single parameter values for every variable in the code. By contrast, a probabilistic approach assigns parameter ranges to certain variables, and the code randomly selects the values for each variable from the parameter range each time it calculates the dose (NRC 2006). The receptor scenarios, computer codes and parameter input files were previously used in ORISE 2012. A few modifications were made to the parameter input files as appropriate for this effort. Some of these changes included increasing the time horizon beyond 1,050 years (yr), and using the radionuclide concentrations provided by the DOE-PPPO as inputs into the codes. The deterministic peak doses were evaluated within time horizons of 70 yr (for the Landfill Worker and Trespasser), 1,050 yr, 10,000 yr and 100,000 yr (for the Resident Farmer [onsite], Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and Offsite Resident Farmer) at the request of the DOE-PPPO. The time horizons of 10,000 yr and 100,000 yr were used at the request of the DOE-PPPO for informational purposes only. The probabilistic peak of the mean dose assessment was performed for the Offsite Resident Farmer using Technetium-99 (Tc-99) and a time horizon of 1,050 yr. The results of the deterministic analyses indicate that among all receptors and time horizons evaluated, the highest projected dose, 2,700 mrem/yr, occurred for the Resident Farmer (onsite) at 12,773 yr. The exposure pathways contributing to the peak dose are ingestion of plants, external gamma, and ingestion of milk, meat and soil. However, this receptor is considered an implausible receptor. The only receptors considered plausible are the Landfill Worker, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and the Offsite Resident Farmer. The maximum projected dose among the plausible receptors is 220 mrem/yr for the Outdoor Worker and it occurs at 19,045 yr. The exposure pathways contributing to the dose for this receptor are external gamma and soil ingestion. The results of the probabilistic peak of the mean dose analysis for the Offsite Resident Farmer indicate that the average (arithmetic mean) of the peak of the mean doses for this receptor is 0.98 mrem/yr and it occurs at 1,050 yr. This dose corresponds to Tc-99 within the time horizon of 1,050 yr.

  14. Saving Power at Peak Hours (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    California needs new, responsive, demand-side energy technologies to ensure that periods of tight electricity supply on the grid don't turn into power outages. Led by Berkeley Lab's Mary Ann Piette, the California Energy Commission (through its Public Interest Energy Research Program) has established a Demand Response Research Center that addresses two motivations for adopting demand responsiveness: reducing average electricity prices and preventing future electricity crises. The research seeks to understand factors that influence "what works" in Demand Response. Piette's team is investigating the two types of demand response, load response and price response, that may influence and reduce the use of peak electric power through automated controls, peak pricing, advanced communications, and other strategies.

  15. Note on the set of Bragg peaks with high intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Lenz; Nicolae Strungaru

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider diffraction of Delone sets in Euclidean space. We show that the set of Bragg peaks with high intensity is always Meyer (if it is relatively dense). We use this to provide a new characterization for Meyer sets in terms of positive and positive definite measures. Our results are based on a careful study of positive definite measures, which may be of interest in its own right.

  16. Deconvolution of mixed gamma emitters using peak parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadd, Milan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Francisco [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Magadalena, Vigil M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    When evaluating samples containing mixtures of nuclides using gamma spectroscopy the situation sometimes arises where the nuclides present have photon emissions that cannot be resolved by the detector. An example of this is mixtures of {sup 241}Am and plutonium that have L x-ray emissions with slightly different energies which cannot be resolved using a high-purity germanium detector. It is possible to deconvolute the americium L x-rays from those plutonium based on the {sup 241}Am 59.54 keV photon. However, this requires accurate knowledge of the relative emission yields. Also, it often results in high uncertainties in the plutonium activity estimate due to the americium yields being approximately an order of magnitude greater than those for plutonium. In this work, an alternative method of determining the relative fraction of plutonium in mixtures of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239}Pu based on L x-ray peak location and shape parameters is investigated. The sensitivity and accuracy of the peak parameter method is compared to that for conventional peak decovolution.

  17. actual del no-acceso: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 110 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  18. actual hanford 241-aw-101: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 85 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  19. actual icpp sodium-bearing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 67 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  20. actual ineel sodium-bearing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or generate figures Goldberg, Robert B. 68 This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate...

  1. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers will respond to this form of automation for CPP. (4) Evaluate what type of DR shifting and shedding strategies can be automated. (5) Explore how automation of control strategies can increase participation rates and DR saving levels with CPP. (6) Identify optimal demand response control strategies. (7) Determine occupant and tenant response.

  2. Forecasting Prices andForecasting Prices and Congestion forCongestion for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    80 100 120 140 160 180 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Hours Price($/MWh) ANN/ARMA Actual Price ANN 0

  3. actual beta-blocker prescribing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    actual beta-blocker prescribing First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Actual and Prescribed...

  4. Rubber in Laos Detection of actual and assessment of potential plantations in Lao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Rubber in Laos Detection of actual and assessment of potential plantations in Lao PDR using GIS for Development and Environment, University of Bern #12;ii #12;Rubber in Laos Detection of actual and assessment, the motivation for this thesis is mainly based on giving a contribution to the current research on rubber in Laos

  5. Methods and apparatus for reducing peak wind turbine loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reducing peak loads of wind turbines in a changing wind environment includes measuring or estimating an instantaneous wind speed and direction at the wind turbine and determining a yaw error of the wind turbine relative to the measured instantaneous wind direction. The method further includes comparing the yaw error to a yaw error trigger that has different values at different wind speeds and shutting down the wind turbine when the yaw error exceeds the yaw error trigger corresponding to the measured or estimated instantaneous wind speed.

  6. Geothermometry At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd toWell2008) | OpenSilver Peak Area (DOE GTP)

  7. Wanxiang Silicon Peak Electronics Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwide Permit webpageWalthall County,Wanxiang America CorporationPeak

  8. Silver Peak, Nevada: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk, New York:SiG Solar GmbH JumpSilicium de(Redirected fromPeak,

  9. Jiminy Peak Ski Resort Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii | Wind FarmJeffersonJiminy Peak Ski Resort Wind

  10. Silver Peak, Nevada: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey JumpAirPowerSilcio SA JumpProject Jump to:Peak,

  11. Magnetar Driven Shock Breakout and Double Peaked Supernova Light Curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasen, Daniel; Bildsten, Lars

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The light curves of some luminous supernovae are suspected to be powered by the spindown energy of a rapidly rotating magnetar. Here we describe a possible signature of the central engine: a burst of shock breakout emission occurring several days after the supernova explosion. The energy input from the magnetar inflates a high-pressure bubble that drives a shock through the pre-exploded supernova ejecta. If the magnetar is powerful enough, that shock will near the ejecta surface and become radiative. At the time of shock breakout, the ejecta will have expanded to a large radius (~10^{14} cm) so that the radiation released is at optical/ultraviolet wavelengths (T ~ 20,000 K) and lasts for several days. The luminosity and timescale of this magnetar driven shock breakout are similar to the first peak observed recently in the double-peaked light curve of SN-LSQ14BDQ. However, for a large region of model parameter space, the breakout emission is predicted to be dimmer than the diffusive luminosity from direct magn...

  12. Measurement of differential and actual recombination parameters on crystalline silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, J.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, for the first time, measurements of differential and actual recombination parameters on crystalline silicon wafers are directly compared. In order to determine the differential bulk lifetime and the differential surface recombination velocity (SRV), small-signal light-biased microwave-detected photoconductance decay (MW-PCD) and modulated free-carrier adsorption (MFCA) measurements are performed. The results obtained by these widespread techniques are compared with quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC) measurements, which directly determine the actual recombination parameters. On high-resistivity (1,000 {Omega}cm) float-zone (FL) n-type silicon at high injection levels, it is shown that the differentially measured Auger lifetime is a factor of three smaller than the actual Auger lifetime. This finding is in excellent agreement with the theory derived in this work. Thermally oxidized low-resistivity ({approximately}1 {Omega}cm) p-Si wafers serve as an experimental vehicle to compare the differential and the actual injection-level dependent SRV of the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface under low-injection conditions. Using two different integration procedures, the actual SRV is calculated from the differentially measured quantity. The actual SRV measured by the QSSPC technique is found to match perfectly the actual SRV obtained by integration.

  13. Peak Oil Netherlands Foundation (PONL) was founded in May 2005 by a group of citizens who are concerned about the effects of a premature peak in oil and other fossil fuels production. The main aims of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    are concerned about the effects of a premature peak in oil and other fossil fuels production. The main aims ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 - 1) INTRODUCTION ­ PEAKING OF WORLD OIL PRODUCTION-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - 25 - 7) PEAK OIL NETHERLANDS OIL PRODUCTION & PEAKING OUTLOOK ---------------------------------- - 26

  14. High peak power test of S-band waveguide switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassiri, A.; Grelick, A.; Kustom, R.L.; White, M.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The injector and source of particles for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 2856-MHz S-band electron-positron linear accelerator (linac) which produces electrons with energies up to 650 MeV or positrons with energies up to 450 MeV. To improve the linac rf system availability, an additional modulator-klystron subsystem is being constructed to provide a switchable hot spare unit for each of the five existing S-band transmitters. The switching of the transmitters will require the use of SF6-pressurized waveguide switches at a peak operating power of 35 MW. A test stand was set up at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) Klystron-Microwave laboratory to conduct tests characterizing the power handling capability of these waveguide switches. Test results are presented.

  15. Implications of "peak oil" for atmospheric CO2 and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharecha, P A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peaking of global oil production may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 amount and climate change, depending upon choices made for subsequent energy sources. We suggest that, if estimates of oil and gas reserves by the Energy Information Administration are realistic, it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding approximately 450 ppm, provided that future exploitation of the huge reservoirs of coal and unconventional fossil fuels incorporates carbon capture and sequestration. Existing coal-fired power plants, without sequestration, must be phased out before mid-century to achieve this limit on atmospheric CO2. We also suggest that it is important to "stretch" oil reserves via energy efficiency, thus avoiding the need to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is probably needed to keep CO2 beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  16. Off-peak air conditioning; A major energy saver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacCracken, C.D.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, the mission given to manufacturers is changing to include saving energy (kWh). Until now, saving energy was ignored because the utilities were happy to fill their night valley to reach a higher load factor. There also was a general feeling that making ice was much less efficient than standard air conditioning, and that anyone saying otherwise was a dreamer. This article discusses the energy savings based on the more prevalent ice storage technology, the similar suction temperatures of the various types of ice storage, and how storage is applied. Included are baseload power generation, partial storage with chiller priority, using air cooled condensers when making ice at night, colder duct air, heat recovery, central rooftop systems, smart controls, electric/gas combinations, supply side transmission and distribution losses, and cooling of air entering gas turbine generators during peak conditions.

  17. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The rollout of smart meters in the last several years has opened up new forms of previously unavailable energy data. Many utilities are now able in real-time to capture granular, household level interval usage data at very high-frequency levels for a large proportion of their residential and small commercial customer population. This can be linked to other time and locationspecific information, providing vast, constantly growing streams of rich data (sometimes referred to by the recently popular buzz word, “big data”). Within the energy industry there is increasing interest in tapping into the opportunities that these data can provide. What can we do with all of these data? The richness and granularity of these data enable many types of creative and cutting-edge analytics. Technically sophisticated and rigorous statistical techniques can be used to pull interesting insights out of this highfrequency, human-focused data. We at LBNL are calling this “behavior analytics”. This kind of analytics has the potential to provide tremendous value to a wide range of energy programs. For example, highly disaggregated and heterogeneous information about actual energy use would allow energy efficiency (EE) and/or demand response (DR) program implementers to target specific programs to specific households; would enable evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of energy efficiency programs to be performed on a much shorter time horizon than was previously possible; and would provide better insights in to the energy and peak hour savings associated with specifics types of EE and DR programs (e.g., behavior-based (BB) programs). In this series, “Insights from Smart Meters”, we will present concrete, illustrative examples of the type of value that insights from behavior analytics of these data can provide (as well as pointing out its limitations). We will supply several types of key findings, including: • Novel results, which answer questions the industry previously was unable to answer; • Proof-of-concept analytics tools that can be adapted and used by others; and • Guidelines and protocols that summarize analytical best practices. This report focuses on one example of the kind of value that analysis of this data can provide: insights into whether behavior-based (BB) efficiency programs have the potential to provide peak-hour energy savings.

  18. Actual application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    importance that the Japanese attach to this technology. Today, it is clear that the Japanese lead the world technologies in japan. Electron Beam Ma1erials Processing In the United States, electron beam technology b egan) Electron Beam and Laser Beam Materials Processing in Japan japan has become a world leader in high-power EB

  19. Outliers to the Isotropic Energy - Peak Energy Relation in GRBs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehud Nakar; Tsvi Piran

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The peak energy - isotropic energy (EpEi) relation is among the most intriguing recent discoveries concerning GRBs. It can have numerous implications on our understanding of the emission mechanism of the bursts and on the application of GRBs for cosmological studies. However, this relation was verified only for a small sample of bursts with measured redshifts. We propose here a test whether a burst with an unknown redshift can potentially satisfy the EpEi relation. Applying this test to a large sample of BATSE bursts we find that a significant fraction of those bursts cannot satisfy this relation. Our test is sensitive only to dim and hard bursts and therefore this relation might still hold as an inequality (i.e. there are no intrinsically bright and soft bursts). We conclude that the observed relation seen in the sample of bursts with a known redshift might be influenced by observational biases and from the inability to locate and well localize hard and weak bursts that have only a small number of photons. In particular we point out that the threshold for detection, localization and redshift measurement is essentially higher than the threshold for detection alone. We predict that Swift will detect some hard and weak bursts that would be outliers to the EpEi relation. However, we cannot quantify this prediction. We stress the importance of understanding the detection-localization-redshift threshold for the coming Swift detections.

  20. Satisfying winter peak-power demand with phased gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.H.; Moss, T.E.; Ravikumar, R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study, commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration, was to investigate application of this concept to the Pacific Northwest. Coal gasification combined-cycle (GCC) plants are receiving serious attention from eastern utilities. Potomac Electric (PEPCO) has engaged Fluor Technology to perform conceptual and preliminary engineering for a nominal 375-MW coal GCC power generation facility to be located in northern Montgomery County, Maryland. Other eastern utilities are engaged in site-specific investigations of satisfying future power requirements employing this alternative, which involves an environmentally superior method of using coal. Coal is combined with oxygen to produce a medium-heating-value fuel gas as an alternative to natural gas. The fuel gas, cleaned to remove sulfur compounds, is burned in gas turbine-generator sets. The hot exhaust gas is used to generate steam for additional power generation. The gasification combined cycle plant is highly efficient and has a high level of flexibility to meet power demands. This study provided background for consideration of one alternative for satisfying winter peak-load demand. The concept is feasible, depending on the timing of the installation of the gasification system, projections of the cost and the availability of natural gas, and restrictions on the use of natural gas. It has the advantage of deferring capacity addition and capital outlay until power is needed and economics are favorable.

  1. Design and evaluation of seasonal storage hydrogen peak electricity supply system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oloyede, Isaiah Olanrewaju

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The seasonal storage hydrogen peak electricity supply system (SSHPESS) is a gigawatt-year hydrogen storage system which stores excess electricity produced as hydrogen during off-peak periods and consumes the stored hydrogen ...

  2. THE ROLE OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-49947 THE ROLE OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND? ..................................... 8 What are the seasonal aspects of electric peak demand?............................ 9 What because of the California electricity crisis (Borenstein 2001). Uncertainties surrounding the reliability

  3. Production of Hydrogen at the Forecourt Using Off-Peak Electricity: June 2005 (Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levene, J. I.

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This milestone report provides information about the production of hydrogen at the forecourt using off-peak electricity as well as the Hydrogen Off-Peak Electricity (HOPE) model.

  4. Microsoft Word - BUGS_The Next Smart Grid Peak Resource Final...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to engage half of the BUGS for peak reduction during 200 hours a year results in emission reduction compared to natural gas peaking units. Specifically, More than 935,000...

  5. Controlling Peak Power During Scan Testing Ranganathan Sankaralingam and Nur A. Touba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Touba, Nur A.

    Controlling Peak Power During Scan Testing Ranganathan Sankaralingam and Nur A. Touba Computer effective in controlling peak power. 1. Introduction The peak power drawn in a single clock cycle during. The average power dissipation during scan testing can be controlled by reducing the scan clock frequency

  6. Preparing for the Peak: Energy Security and Atlantic Canada 1 Larry Hughes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    region that will be particularly vulnerable to peak oil, since almost all of the region's oil is imported is destined for markets outside the region. This paper examines some of the potential impacts of peak oil the reliance on refined petroleum products for space heating and transportation. When peak oil production

  7. Result Demonstration Report Pigweed Control in Grain Sorghum Using Peak. 1996 to 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    74 78 Peak + Methylated Oil 0.75 oz + 1 pt 78 88 93 1) WAT = Weeks after treatment application. #12Result Demonstration Report Pigweed Control in Grain Sorghum Using Peak. 1996 to 1999 Brent Bean Summary Studies were conducted from 1996 to 1999 to evaluate pigweed control in grain sorghum using Peak

  8. Formation Of The Rare Earth Peak: Gaining Insight Into Late-Time r-Process Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Mumpower; Gail McLaughlin; Rebecca Surman

    2011-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the formation and final structure of the rare earth peak ($A\\sim160$) of the $r$-process nucleosynthesis. The rare earth peak forms at late times in the $r$-process after neutron exhaustion (neutron-to-seed ratio unity or R=1) as matter decays back to stability. Since rare earth peak formation does not occur during \

  9. Nuclear Hydrogen for Peak Electricity Production and Spinning Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    2005-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen. The key strategic question is this: ''What are the early markets for nuclear hydrogen?'' The answer determines (1) whether there are incentives to implement nuclear hydrogen technology today or whether the development of such a technology could be delayed by decades until a hydrogen economy has evolved, (2) the industrial partners required to develop such a technology, and (3) the technological requirements for the hydrogen production system (rate of production, steady-state or variable production, hydrogen purity, etc.). Understanding ''early'' markets for any new product is difficult because the customer may not even recognize that the product could exist. This study is an initial examination of how nuclear hydrogen could be used in two interconnected early markets: the production of electricity for peak and intermediate electrical loads and spinning reserve for the electrical grid. The study is intended to provide an initial description that can then be used to consult with potential customers (utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, etc.) to better determine the potential real-world viability of this early market for nuclear hydrogen and provide the starting point for a more definitive assessment of the concept. If this set of applications is economically viable, it offers several unique advantages: (1) the market is approximately equivalent in size to the existing nuclear electric enterprise in the United States, (2) the entire market is within the utility industry and does not require development of an external market for hydrogen or a significant hydrogen infrastructure beyond the utility site, (3) the technology and scale match those of nuclear hydrogen production, (4) the market exists today, and (5) the market is sufficient in size to justify development of nuclear hydrogen production techniques independent of the development of any other market for hydrogen. These characteristics make it an ideal early market for nuclear hydrogen.

  10. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David G.; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic growth and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study focuses on a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. In the past years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced the China End-Use Energy Model based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not likely be the case because of saturation effects in appliances, residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that the 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy-driven energy efficiency improvements will play in carbon mitigation along with a decarbonized power supply through greater renewable and non-fossil fuel generation.

  11. 1.14 Note: Actual time to complete varies by discipline and departmental requirements. Dissertation Timeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    1.14 Note: Actual time to complete varies by discipline and departmental requirements. Dissertation Timeline STUDENT SERVICES: ACADEMIC RECORDS & DISSERTATIONS 915 E. Washington Street · 0120 Rackham://wolverineaccess.umich.edu/ 6 months prior to Group Pre-Defense Review Rackham Format Guidelines http://www.rackham.umich.edu/downloads/oard-dissertation

  12. problem that seller prosumers actually supply insufficient energy Simulation results have shown that this strategy significantly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    problem that seller prosumers actually supply insufficient energy Simulation results have shown user cooperation [18], [19]. Among them, a seller prosumer in a trade is likely to have insufficient sufficient energy to the buyer as it has owners, the autonomous prosumers are assumed to be selfish levels

  13. Enrolment Report 2005-06: Actual and Projected Enrolments A. Preamble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrolment Report 2005-06: Actual and Projected Enrolments A. Preamble In previous years, current the planning and funding of enrolment growth during that period can be found in Appendix A. C. 2005-06-time. In terms of full-time equivalents, the 2005-06 level of 60,973 FTEs represents an 82% increase in enrolment

  14. Estimating actual evapotranspiration for a coupled human environment system: sensitivity to drought

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    2: CAP-LTER study area as seen by Landsat Figure 5: The S-ReSET model flow chart. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 cycle and energy transport between the biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Quantifying actual ET (ETa Remote sensing can estimate ET as a residual of the energy balance: Friction Velocity Roughness Length

  15. Evolution as Context-driven Actualization of Potential1 Liane Gabora

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerts, Diederik

    Evolution as Context-driven Actualization of Potential1 Liane Gabora Center Leo Apostel natural selection is often viewed as synonymous with evolution, it is widely felt to be inadequate as a theory of biological evolution; moreover, historically the concept of evolution has not been limited

  16. 1. Utilize recent historical cost data, estimating manuals, and actual vendor quotes as situation allows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    1. Utilize recent historical cost data, estimating manuals, and actual vendor quotes as situation Engineering Services to respond and complete customer facility projects. Return 90% of all Opinion of Probable Engineering Services to respond and complete customer facility projects. Develop accurate priority list

  17. Total Cost Per MwH for all common large scale power generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    power generation soruces ? I am talking about the cost of mountain top removal for coal mined that way, the trip to the power plant, the sludge pond or ash heap, the cost of...

  18. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrDigesterLandfillGas | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrinters Jump to: navigation, searchEnergy

  19. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrDstrtColg | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrinters Jump to: navigation,

  20. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrDstrtHeating | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrinters Jump to: navigation,Information

  1. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrElctrtyTotal | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrinters Jump to:

  2. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrNaturalGas | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrinters Jump to:Information

  3. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrOil-FiredBoiler | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrinters Jump to:InformationEnergy

  4. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrOther | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrinters Jump

  5. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrPellets | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrinters JumpInformation

  6. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrTotal | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrinters JumpInformationInformation

  7. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrTownGas | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrinters

  8. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrWoodChips | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrintersInformation

  9. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrDigesterLandfillGas | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrintersInformationEnergy Information

  10. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrLogs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrintersInformationEnergy

  11. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrNaturalGas | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BVSPElectrtyUsePercPrintersInformationEnergyInformation

  12. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrOil-FiredBoiler | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group

  13. ,,,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard Errors for3

  14. ,,,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Customers",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard Errors

  15. Integration of neutron time-of-flight single-crystal Bragg peaks in reciprocal space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, Arthur J [ORNL] [ORNL; Joergensen, Mads [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Xiaoping [ORNL] [ORNL; Mikkelson, Ruth L [ORNL] [ORNL; Mikkelson, Dennis J [ORNL] [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL] [ORNL; Peterson, Peter F [ORNL] [ORNL; Green, Mark L [ORNL] [ORNL; Hoffmann, Christina [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intensity of single crystal Bragg peaks obtained by mapping neutron time-of-flight event data into reciprocal space and integrating in various ways are compared. These include spherical integration with a fixed radius, ellipsoid fitting and integrating of the peak intensity and one-dimensional peak profile fitting. In comparison to intensities obtained by integrating in real detector histogram space, the data integrated in reciprocal space results in better agreement factors and more accurate atomic parameters. Furthermore, structure refinement using integrated intensities from one-dimensional profile fitting is demonstrated to be more accurate than simple peak-minus-background integration.

  16. Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric Load Reduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak Pricing Tariff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Critical Peak Pricing Tariff Karen Herter ab* , Patrickunder critical peak pricing tariffs tested in the 2003-2004The 15-month experimental tariff gave customers a discounted

  17. Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seven homes from the Pacific Northwest were selected to evaluate the differences between estimated and actual energy savings achieved from deep energy retrofits. The energy savings resulting from these retrofits were estimated, using energy modeling software, to save at least 30% on a whole-house basis. The modeled pre-retrofit energy use was trued against monthly utility bills. After the retrofits were completed, each of the homes was extensively monitored, with the exception of one home which was monitored pre-retrofit. This work is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. This work found many discrepancies between actual and estimated energy savings and identified the potential causes for the discrepancies. The differences between actual energy use and modeled energy use also suggest improvements to improve model accuracy. The difference between monthly whole-house actual and estimated energy savings ranged from 75% more energy saved than predicted by the model to 16% less energy saved for all the monitored homes. Similarly, the annual energy savings difference was between 36% and -14%, which was estimated based on existing monitored savings because an entire year of data is not available. Thus, on average, for all six monitored homes the actual energy use is consistently less than estimates, indicating home owners are saving more energy than estimated. The average estimated savings for the eight month monitoring period is 43%, compared to an estimated savings average of 31%. Though this average difference is only 12%, the range of inaccuracies found for specific end-uses is far greater and are the values used to directly estimate energy savings from specific retrofits. Specifically, the monthly post-retrofit energy use differences for specific end-uses (i.e., heating, cooling, hot water, appliances, etc.) ranged from 131% under-predicted to 77% over-predicted by the model with respect to monitored energy use. Many of the discrepancies were associated with occupant behavior which influences energy use, dramatically in some cases, actual versus modeled weather differences, modeling input limitations, and complex homes that are difficult to model. The discrepancy between actual and estimated energy use indicates a need for better modeling tools and assumptions. Despite the best efforts of researchers, the estimated energy savings are too inaccurate to determine reliable paybacks for retrofit projects. While the monitored data allows researchers to understand why these differences exist, it is not cost effective to monitor each home with the level of detail presented here. Therefore an appropriate balance between modeling and monitoring must be determined for more widespread application in retrofit programs and the home performance industry. Recommendations to address these deficiencies include: (1) improved tuning process for pre-retrofit energy use, which currently utilized broad-based monthly utility bills; (2) developing simple occupant-based energy models that better address the many different occupant types and their impact on energy use; (3) incorporating actual weather inputs to increase accuracy of the tuning process, which uses utility bills from specific time period; and (4) developing simple, cost-effective monitoring solutions for improved model tuning.

  18. Dose Rate Analysis Capability for Actual Spent Fuel Transportation Cask Contents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL] [ORNL; Lefebvre, Robert A [ORNL] [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL] [ORNL; Williams, Mark L [ORNL] [ORNL; Scaglione, John M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The approved contents for a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed spent nuclear fuel casks are typically based on bounding used nuclear fuel (UNF) characteristics. However, the contents of the UNF canisters currently in storage at independent spent fuel storage installations are considerably heterogeneous in terms of fuel assembly burnup, initial enrichment, decay time, cladding integrity, etc. Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation & Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF ST&DARDS) is an integrated data and analysis system that facilitates automated cask-specific safety analyses based on actual characteristics of the as-loaded UNF. The UNF-ST&DARDS analysis capabilities have been recently expanded to include dose rate analysis of as-loaded transportation packages. Realistic dose rate values based on actual canister contents may be used in place of bounding dose rate values to support development of repackaging operations procedures, evaluation of radiation-related transportation risks, and communication with stakeholders. This paper describes the UNF-ST&DARDS dose rate analysis methodology based on actual UNF canister contents and presents sample dose rate calculation results.

  19. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  20. Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM based on transformation of partial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM based on transformation of partial transmit sequences number, but T-PTS is less complex. Introduction: To avoid the occurrence of large peak power of signals G. Lu, P. Wu and C. Carlemalm-Logothetis A novel scheme (transformation of partial transmit

  1. Energy Policy 34 (2006) 515531 Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    price shocks and economic downturns. Over the next 30 years oil demand is expected to grow by 60Energy Policy 34 (2006) 515­531 Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from an optimist of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range

  2. An Approximate Method to Assess the Peaking Capability of the NW Hydroelectric System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DRAFT 1 An Approximate Method to Assess the Peaking Capability of the NW Hydroelectric System September 26, 2005 The best way to assess the hydroelectric system's peaking capability is to simulate its. This is an ominous task and requires the use of sophisticated simulation software. The Bonneville Power

  3. Peak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Received 6 May 2005 Availble online 7 February 2006 Abstract The failure of a lava dam 165,000 yr ago dam-failure and unsteady flow modeling to estimate a peak discharge and flow hydrograph. FailurePeak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA Cassandra R

  4. Imminence of peak in US coal production and overestimation of reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khare, Sanjay V.

    1 Imminence of peak in US coal production and overestimation of reserves Nathan G. F. Reaver, coal reserves, coal production forecast, peak coal, USA energy, non- linear fitting #12;3 1 fuels, coal, oil, and natural gas, it is coal that is the most carbon intensive (W. Moomaw, 2011). Due

  5. Journal of Chromatography A, 1086 (2005) 165170 Peak pattern variations related to comprehensive two-dimensional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    non-linear pattern variations and changes in gas pressure generate nearly linear pattern variations Abstract Identifying compounds of interest for peaks in data generated by comprehensive two-dimensional gas and inlet gas pressure and evaluates two types of affine transformations for matching peak patterns

  6. Grain size, size-distribution and dislocation structure from diffraction peak profile analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    Grain size, size-distribution and dislocation structure from diffraction peak profile analysis T, Budapest, Hungary Abstract Diffraction peak profile analysis (or Line Profile Analysis, LPA) has recently and the strain diffraction profiles. Strain anisotropy is rationalized in terms of the contrast factors

  7. Statistical Analysis and Dynamic Visualization of Travis Peak Production in the Eastern Texas Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayanbule, Babafemi O.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    , integrating data from various sources. This research will attempt to do just that for wells producing from the Travis Peak formation. Using data from HPDI L.L.C., (www.hpdi.com) a visual representation was created for the areal distribution of peak gas rates...

  8. The Houston Pollution Problem: An analysis of the primary and secondary regional pollution peak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    266 The Houston Pollution Problem: An analysis of the primary and secondary regional pollution peak was conducted in the Houston area to assess the secondary regional pollution peak that occurs at that time pollution episodes, which correlated with stagnant weather patterns and high temperatures. During spring

  9. A Queueing Study of PeakRate Enforcement for Jitter Reduction in ATM Networks \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stavrakakis, Ioannis

    A Queueing Study of Peak­Rate Enforcement for Jitter Reduction in ATM Networks \\Lambda Randall­ induced delay jitter. The adopted service policy regulates the traffic class of interest by enforcing a predetermined peak output rate. Probability distributions for delay and jitter of the regulated traffic class

  10. Jitter in ATM networks and its impact on peak rate enforcement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillemin, Fabrice

    Jitter in ATM networks and its impact on peak rate enforcement James ROBERTS FRANCE TELECOM CNET. This is the phenomenon of jitter and the aim of the present paper is to study its in uence on peak rate enforcement. We rst introduce some general characterizations of jitter and then, describe two models of jittered ows

  11. Evaluation of Travis Peak gas reservoirs, west margin of the East Texas Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yamin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    for basinward extension of Travis Peak gas production along the west margin of the East Texas Basin. Along the west margin of the East Texas Basin, southeast-trending Travis Peak sandstones belts were deposited by the Ancestral Red River fluvial-deltaic system...

  12. Submitted to Renewable Energy, 5 December 2009 The technical potential for off-peak electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    October 2009 #12;The technical potential for off-peak electricity to serve as backup in wind. This paper examines the technical potential of off-peak electricity to ensure that wind-charged thermalSubmitted to Renewable Energy, 5 December 2009 ERG/200910 The technical potential for off

  13. Dear Speaker -

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1. Comparison of OECD Industrial Electricity Prices 2008 2012 USA 68MWh 66MWh Germany 130MWh 148MWh Japan 115MWh 194MWh France 104MWh 116MWh Source: OECD...

  14. Is the apparent period-doubling in Blazhko stars actually an illusion?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryant, Paul H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that the light curves of many Blazhko stars exhibit intervals in which successive pulsation maxima alternate between two levels in a way that is characteristic of period-doubling. In addition, hydrodynamical models of these stars have clearly demonstrated period-doubling bifurcations. As a result, it is now generally accepted that these stars do indeed exhibit period-doubling. Here we present strong evidence that this assumption is incorrect. The alternating peak heights likely result from the presence of one or more near-resonant modes which appear in the stellar spectra and are significantly offset from 3/2 times the fundamental frequency. A previous explanation for the presence of these peaks is shown to be inadequate. The phase-slip of the dominant near-resonant peak in RR Lyr is shown to be fully correlated with the parity of the observed alternations, providing further strong evidence that the process is nonresonant and cannot be characterized as period-doubling. The dominant near-resonant p...

  15. Decarbonization and the time-delay between peak CO2 emissions and concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Ashwin K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon-dioxide (CO2) is the main contributor to anthropogenic global warming, and the timing of its peak concentration in the atmosphere is likely to govern the timing of maximum radiative forcing. While dynamics of atmospheric CO2 is governed by multiple time-constants, we idealize this by a single time-constant to consider some of the factors describing the time-delay between peaks in CO2 emissions and concentrations. This time-delay can be understood as the time required to bring CO2 emissions down from its peak to a small value, and is governed by the rate of decarbonizaton of economic activity. This decarbonization rate affects how rapidly emissions decline after having achieved their peak, and a rapid decline in emissions is essential for limiting peak radiative forcing. Long-term mitigation goals for CO2 should therefore consider not only the timing of peak emissions, but also the rate of decarbonization. We discuss implications for mitigation of the fact that the emissions peak corresponds to small bu...

  16. TESTING OF THE SPINTEK ROTARY MICROFILTER USING ACTUAL HANFORD WASTE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUBER HJ

    2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter was tested on actual Hanford tank waste. The samples were a composite of archived Tank 241-AN-105 material and a sample representing single-shell tanks (SST). Simulants of the two samples have been used in non-rad test runs at the 222-S laboratory and at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The results of these studies are compared in this report. Two different nominal pore sizes for the sintered steel rotating disk filter were chosen: 0.5 and 0.1 {micro}m. The results suggest that the 0.5-{micro}m disk is preferable for Hanford tank waste for the following reasons: (1) The filtrate clarity is within the same range (<<4 ntu for both disks); (2) The filtrate flux is in general higher for the 0.5-{micro}m disk; and (3) The 0.1-{micro}m disk showed a higher likelihood of fouling. The filtrate flux of the actual tank samples is generally in the range of 20-30% compared to the equivalent non-rad tests. The AN-105 slurries performed at about twice the filtrate flux of the SST slurries. The reason for this difference has not been identified. Particle size distributions in both cases are very similar; comparison of the chemical composition is not conclusive. The sole hint towards what material was stuck in the filter pore holes came from the analysis of the dried flakes from the surface of the fouled 0.1-{micro}m disk. A cleaning approach developed by SRNL personnel to deal with fouled disks has been found adaptable when using actual Hanford samples. The use of 1 M nitric acid improved the filtrate flux by approximately two times; using the same simulants as in the non-rad test runs showed that the filtrate flux was restored to 1/2 of its original amount.

  17. Actinide partitioning from actual ICPP dissolved zirconium calcine using the TRUEX solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J. [and others

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The TRansUranic EXtraction process (TRUEX), as developed by E.P. Horwitz and coworkers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is being evaluated as a TRU extraction process for Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) wastes. A criteria that must be met during this evaluation, is that the aqueous raffinate must be below the 10 nCi/g limit specified in 10 CFR 61.55. A test was performed where the TRUEX solvent (0.2 M octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO), and 1.4 M tributylphosphate (TBP) in an Isopar-L diluent) was contacted with actual ICPP dissolved zirconium calcine. Two experimental flowsheets were used to determine TRU decontamination factors, and TRU, Zr, Fe, Cr, and Tc extraction, scrub, and strip distribution coefficients. Results from these two flowsheets show that >99.99% of the TRU alpha activity was removed from the acidic feed after three contacts with the TRUEX solvent (fresh solvent being used for each contact). The resulting aqueous raffinate solution contained an approximate TRU alpha activity of 0.02 nCi/g, which is well below the non-TRU waste limit of 10 nCi/g specified in 10 CFR 61.55. Favorable scrub and strip distribution coefficients were also observed for Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239, indicating the feasibility of recovering these isotopes from the TRUTEX solvent. A solution of 0.04 M 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) in 0.04 M HNO{sub 3} was used to successfully strip the TRUs from the TRUEX solvent. The results of the test using actual ICPP dissolved zirconium calcine, and subsequent GTM evaluation, show the feasibility of removing TRUs from the dissolved zirconium calcine with the TRUEX solvent and the deleterious effects zirconium poses with the ICPP zirconium calcine waste. Test results using actual ICPP zirconium calcine reveal the necessity of preventing zirconium from following the TRUs.

  18. ACTUAL WASTE TESTING OF GYCOLATE IMPACTS ON THE SRS TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C.

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste Tank Farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the Tank Farm were addressed via a literature review and simulant testing, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the actual-waste tests to determine the impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The objectives of this study are to address the following: ? Determine the extent to which sludge constituents (Pu, U, Fe, etc.) dissolve (the solubility of sludge constituents) in the glycolate-containing 2H-evaporator feed. ? Determine the impact of glycolate on the sorption of fissile (Pu, U, etc.) components onto sodium aluminosilicate solids. The first objective was accomplished through actual-waste testing using Tank 43H and 38H supernatant and Tank 51H sludge at Tank Farm storage conditions. The second objective was accomplished by contacting actual 2H-evaporator scale with the products from the testing for the first objective. There is no anticipated impact of up to 10 g/L of glycolate in DWPF recycle to the Tank Farm on tank waste component solubilities as investigated in this test. Most components were not influenced by glycolate during solubility tests, including major components such as aluminum, sodium, and most salt anions. There was potentially a slight increase in soluble iron with added glycolate, but the soluble iron concentration remained so low (on the order of 10 mg/L) as to not impact the iron to fissile ratio in sludge. Uranium and plutonium appear to have been supersaturated in 2H-evaporator feed solution mixture used for this testing. As a result, there was a reduction of soluble uranium and plutonium as a function of time. The change in soluble uranium concentration was independent of added glycolate concentration. The change in soluble plutonium content was dependent on the added glycolate concentration, with higher levels of glycolate (5 g/L and 10 g/L) appearing to suppress the plutonium solubility. The inclusion of glycolate did not change the dissolution of or sorption onto actual-waste 2H-evaporator pot scale to an extent that will impact Tank Farm storage and concentration. The effects that were noted involved dissolution of components from evaporator scale and precipitation of components onto evaporator scale that were independent of the level of added glycolate.

  19. Method and apparatus for distinguishing actual sparse events from sparse event false alarms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spalding, Richard E. (Albuquerque, NM); Grotbeck, Carter L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Remote sensing method and apparatus wherein sparse optical events are distinguished from false events. "Ghost" images of actual optical phenomena are generated using an optical beam splitter and optics configured to direct split beams to a single sensor or segmented sensor. True optical signals are distinguished from false signals or noise based on whether the ghost image is presence or absent. The invention obviates the need for dual sensor systems to effect a false target detection capability, thus significantly reducing system complexity and cost.

  20. File:Theoretical vs Actual Data Lesson Plan .pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEuropeStrat.pdf Jump to:student-HS.pdfTheoretical vs Actual

  1. Method of multi-dimensional moment analysis for the characterization of signal peaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Yelton, William G; Kerr, Dayle R; Bouchier, Francis A

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of multi-dimensional moment analysis for the characterization of signal peaks can be used to optimize the operation of an analytical system. With a two-dimensional Peclet analysis, the quality and signal fidelity of peaks in a two-dimensional experimental space can be analyzed and scored. This method is particularly useful in determining optimum operational parameters for an analytical system which requires the automated analysis of large numbers of analyte data peaks. For example, the method can be used to optimize analytical systems including an ion mobility spectrometer that uses a temperature stepped desorption technique for the detection of explosive mixtures.

  2. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  3. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CSSX SOLVENT WITH ACTUAL SRS TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used {approx}30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

  4. Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

  5. Desert Peak to Humboldt House and Winnemucca, in: Lane, M.A....

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Winnemucca, in: Lane, M.A., (ed) Nevada geothermal areas: Desert Peak, Humboldt House, Beoware: Guidebook for field trip Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd...

  6. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, Annika

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2014.  Insights from Smart  Meters: The Potential for Peak available data captured by smart meters and other sources,series Insights from Smart Meters. DRAFT – DO NOT CIRCULATE

  7. Dynamical diffraction peak splitting in time-of-flight neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uestuendag, E.; Karnesky, R. A.; Daymond, M. R.; Noyan, I. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Materials Science Program, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-of-flight neutron diffraction data from 20 and 0.7 mm thick perfect Si single crystal samples, which exhibit dynamical diffraction effects associated with finite crystal size, are presented. This effect is caused by constructive interference occurring solely from thin layers bounded by the front (entry) and back (exit) surfaces of the sample with no scattering originating from the layers in between, resulting in two distinct peaks observed for each reflection. If the sample is thin and/or the instrument resolution is insufficient, these two peaks can convolve and cause peak shape aberrations which can lead to significant errors in the strain and peak-broadening parameters obtained from a kinematical diffraction analysis.

  8. Large scale flows in the solar interior: Effect of asymmetry in peak profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarbani Basu; H. M. Antia

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ring diagram analysis can be used to study large scale velocity fields in the outer part of the solar convection zone. All previous works assume that the peak profiles in the solar oscillation power spectrum are symmetric. However, it has now been demonstrated that the peaks are not symmetric. In this work we study how the explicit use of asymmetric peak profiles in ring-diagram analysis influences the estimated velocity fields. We find that the use of asymmetric profiles leads to significant improvement in the fits, but the estimated velocity fields are not substantially different from those obtained using a symmetric profile to fit the peaks. The resulting velocity fields are compared with those obtained by other investigators.

  9. The effect of external magnetic field on the Raman peaks in manganites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, A. K., E-mail: ajitsahu@seemantaengg.ac.in [Seemanta Engineering College, Jharpokharia, Mayurbhanj-757086, Odisha (India); Rout, G. C. [School of Applied Sciences (Physics), KIIT University, Bhubaneswar-7561024 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We report here a microscopic theoretical model study exhibiting the effect of external magnetic field on the Raman excitation peaks in the CMR manganite system. The Hamiltonian consists of Jahn-Teller (J-T) distortion in e{sub g} band, the double exchange interaction and the Heisenberg spin-spin interaction. Further the phonons are coupled to e{sub g} band electrons, J-T distorted e{sub g} band and the double exchange interaction. The Raman spectral intensity is calculated from the imaginary part of the phonon Green function. The spectra exhibits three peaks besides a very weak high energy peak. The magnetic field effect on these peaks are reported.

  10. Sequence Stratigraphy and Detrital Zircon Geochronology of the Swan Peak Quartzite, Southeastern Idaho 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wulf, Tracy David

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The supermature Middle-Late Ordovician Swan Peak quartz arenite was deposited on the western Laurentia passive margin and is very fine to fine grained, well-rounded, well-sorted, and silica-cemented. Laurentia was positioned ...

  11. On The Portents of Peak Oil (And Other Indicators of Resource Scarcity)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.

    Although economists have studied various indicators of resource scarcity (e.g., unit cost, resource rent, and market price), the phenomenon of “peaking” has largely been ignored due to its connection to non-economic theories ...

  12. Batse observations of gamma-ray burst spectra; 2, peak energy evolution in bright, long bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, L A; Matteson, J L; Briggs, M S; Pendleton, G N; Preece, R D; Paciesas, W S; Teegarden, B J; Palmer, D M; Schaefer, B E; Cline, T L; Fishman, G J; Kouveliotou, C; Meegan, C A; Wilson, R B; Lestrade, J P

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract We investigate spectral evolution in 37 bright, long gamma-ray bursts observed with the BATSE Spectroscopy Detectors. High resolution spectra are characterized by the energy of the peak of \

  13. Changes in measured lightning return stroke peak current after the 1994 National Lightning Detection Network upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wacker, Robert Scott

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since a comprehensive upgrade of the US National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) in 1994, the mean peak current of detected cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes has decreased, the number of detected flashes has increased, and the percentage...

  14. Discovery and geology of the Desert Peak geothermal field: a case history. Bulletin 97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benoit, W.R.; Hiner, J.E.; Forest, R.T.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A case history of the exploration, development (through 1980), and geology of the Desert Peak geothermal field is presented. Sections on geochemistry, geophysics, and temperature-gradient drilling are included.

  15. Using Compressed Air Efficiency Projects to Reduce Peak Industrial Electric Demands: Lessons Learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skelton, J.

    "To help customers respond to the wildly fluctuating energy markets in California, Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) initiated an emergency electric demand reduction program in October 2000 to cut electric use during peak periods. One component...

  16. Diversity and productivity peak at intermediate dispersal rate in evolving metacommunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    LETTERS Diversity and productivity peak at intermediate dispersal rate in evolving metacommunities * Positive relationships between species diversity and productivity have been reported for a number of understanding how diversity and productivity are linked over evolutionary timescales. Here, we investigate

  17. How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the past 12 months designated in the database (LADWP does this) Home > Groups > Utility Rate Submitted by Marcroper on 11...

  18. Appropriate Loads for Peak-Power During Resisted Sprinting on a Non-Motorized Treadmill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andre, Matthew J.; Fry, Andrew C.; Lane, Michael T.

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to determine the load which allows the highest peak power for resisted sprinting on a non-motorized treadmill and to determine if other variables are related to individual differences. Thirty ...

  19. An insoluble residue study of the Comanche Peak and Edwards limestones of Kimble County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jurik, Paul Peter

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Previous investigations Comanche Peak and Edwards limestones. . Insoluble res idues 1 1 3 5 6 S tratigraphy Wa)nut clay. Conanche Peak limestone Edwards limestone. Georgetown limestone. 8 9 9 12 Paleontology Macropaleontology... on the basis of tha silt?clay insoluble residua y. Tectonic map of Early Cretaceous. Plate I. Vertical variation in insoluble residua content. . . . pocket vertical variation in sand-siss insoluble residue content Vertical vari. stion in sand...

  20. Peak Doubling in SPDC Coincidence Spectra with a Short-Pulse Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikhail V. Fedorov; Julia M. Mikhailova; Peter A. Volkov

    2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a double-peak structure of the coincidence spectrum of biphoton states in the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion with a pump having the form of short pulses. The effect is shown to arise owing to the obligatory symmetry of bihoton wave functions, as wave functions describing states of two bozons obeying the Bose-Einstein statistics. Parameters of the peaks are found and conditions necessary for experimental observation of the effect are determined.

  1. The role of building technologies in reducing and controlling peak electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard E.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peak power demand issues have come to the fore recently because of the California electricity crisis. Uncertainties surrounding the reliability of electric power systems in restructured markets as well as security worries are the latest reasons for such concerns, but the issues surrounding peak demand are as old as the electric utility system itself. The long lead times associated with building new capacity, the lack of price response in the face of time-varying costs, the large difference between peak demand and average demand, and the necessity for real-time delivery of electricity all make the connection between system peak demand and system reliability an important driver of public policy in the electric utility sector. This exploratory option paper was written at the request of Jerry Dion at the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE). It is one of several white papers commissioned in 2002 exploring key issues of relevance to DOE. This paper explores policy-relevant issues surrounding peak demand, to help guide DOE's research efforts in this area. The findings of this paper are as follows. In the short run, DOE funding of deployment activities on peak demand can help society achieve a more economically efficient balance between investments in supply and demand-side technologies. DOE policies can promote implementation of key technologies to ameliorate peak demand, through government purchasing, technology demonstrations, and improvements in test procedures, efficiency standards, and labeling programs. In the long run, R&D is probably the most important single leverage point for DOE to influence the peak demand issue. Technologies for time-varying price response hold great potential for radically altering the way people use electricity in buildings, but are decades away from widespread use, so DOE R&D and expertise can make a real difference here.

  2. A wavelet transform algorithm for peak detection and application to powder x-ray diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregoire, John M.; Dale, Darren; van Dover, R. Bruce

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peak detection is ubiquitous in the analysis of spectral data. While many noise-filtering algorithms and peak identification algorithms have been developed, recent work [P. Du, W. Kibbe, and S. Lin, Bioinformatics 22, 2059 (2006); A. Wee, D. Grayden, Y. Zhu, K. Petkovic-Duran, and D. Smith, Electrophoresis 29, 4215 (2008)] has demonstrated that both of these tasks are efficiently performed through analysis of the wavelet transform of the data. In this paper, we present a wavelet-based peak detection algorithm with user-defined parameters that can be readily applied to the application of any spectral data. Particular attention is given to the algorithm's resolution of overlapping peaks. The algorithm is implemented for the analysis of powder diffraction data, and successful detection of Bragg peaks is demonstrated for both low signal-to-noise data from theta–theta diffraction of nanoparticles and combinatorial x-ray diffraction data from a composition spread thin film. These datasets have different types of background signals which are effectively removed in the wavelet-based method, and the results demonstrate that the algorithm provides a robust method for automated peak detection.

  3. Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

  4. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  5. Exposure of Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites in Simulated and Actual Combustor Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brentnall, W.D.; Ferber, M.K.; Keiser, j.R.; Miriyala, N.; More, K.L.; Price, J.R.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Walker, L.R.

    1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature, high-pressure, tube furnace has been used to evaluate the long term stability of different monolithic ceramic and ceramic matrix composite materials in a simulated combustor environment. All of the tests have been run at 150 psia, 1204 degrees C, and 15% steam in incremental 500 h runs. The major advantage of this system is the high sample throughput; >20 samples can be exposed in each tube at the same time under similar exposure conditions. Microstructural evaluations of the samples were conducted after each 500 h exposure to characterize the extent of surface damage, to calculate surface recession rates, and to determine degradation mechanisms for the different materials. The validity of this exposure rig for simulating real combustor environments was established by comparing materials exposed in the test rig and combustor liner materials exposed for similar times in an actual gas turbine combustor under commercial operating conditions.

  6. Actual Scale MOX Powder Mixing Test for MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osaka, Shuichi; Kurita, Ichiro; Deguchi, Morimoto [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., 4-108, Aza okitsuke, oaza obuchi rokkasyo-mura, kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ito, Masanori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Goto, Masakazu [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., 14-10, Mita 3-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0073 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (hereafter, JNFL) promotes a program of constructing a MOX fuel fabrication plant (hereafter, J-MOX) to fabricate MOX fuels to be loaded in domestic light water reactors. Since Japanese fiscal year (hereafter, JFY) 1999, JNFL, to establish the technology for a smooth start-up and the stable operation of J-MOX, has executed an evaluation test for technology to be adopted at J-MOX. JNFL, based on a consideration that J-MOX fuel fabrication comes commercial scale production, decided an introduction of MIMAS technology into J-MOX main process, from powder mixing through pellet sintering, well recognized as mostly important to achieve good quality product of MOX fuel, since it achieves good results in both fuel production and actual reactor irradiation in Europe, but there is one difference that JNFL is going to use Japanese typical plutonium and uranium mixed oxide powder converted with the micro-wave heating direct de-nitration technology (hereafter, MH-MOX) but normal PuO{sub 2} of European MOX fuel fabricators. Therefore, in order to evaluate the suitability of the MH-MOX powder for the MIMAS process, JNFL manufactured small scale test equipment, and implemented a powder mixing evaluation test up until JFY 2003. As a result, the suitability of the MH-MOX powder for the MIMAS process was positively evaluated and confirmed It was followed by a five-years test named an 'actual test' from JFY 2003 to JFY 2007, which aims at demonstrating good operation and maintenance of process equipment as well as obtaining good quality of MOX fuel pellets. (authors)

  7. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Jia [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, (United States); May, Morgan [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, (United States); Petri, Andrea [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY, (United States); Haiman, Zoltan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, (United States); Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP), Columbia University, New York, (United States); Hui, Lam [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY, (United States); Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP), Columbia University, New York, (United States); Kratochvil, Jan M. [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, Durban, (South Africa)

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters ?m, ?8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator that interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ? 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (?m, ?8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (?m, ?8) plane reduces by a factor of ? two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat ? cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint ?8(?m/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.

  8. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters ?m, ?8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator thatmore »interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ? 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (?m, ?8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (?m, ?8) plane reduces by a factor of ? two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat ? cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint ?8(?m/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.« less

  9. ICRF Power-Deposition Profiles, Heating and Confinement of Monster-Sawtooth and Peaked-Density Profile Discharges in JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ICRF Power-Deposition Profiles, Heating and Confinement of Monster-Sawtooth and Peaked-Density Profile Discharges in JET

  10. Fact #864: March 16, 2015 Imports of Primary Energy have Declined Sharply Since the Peak Reached in 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Imports of Primary Energy have Declined Sharply Since the Peak Reached in 2007

  11. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu [Xiamen University, Xiamen (China). China Center for Energy Economics Research (CCEER)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. The synchrotron peak shift during high-energy flares of blazars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Boettcher

    1999-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A prediction for the energy shift of the synchrotron spectrum of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) during high-energy flares is presented. If the $\\gamma$-ray emission of FSRQs is produced by Comptonization of external radiation, then the peak of the synchrotron spectrum is predicted to move to lower energies in the flare state. This is opposite to the well-known broadband spectral behavior of high-frequency peaked BL-Lac objects where the external radiation field is believed to be weak and synchrotron-self Compton scattering might be the dominant $\\gamma$-ray radiation mechanism. The synchrotron peak shift, if observed in FSRQs, can thus be used as a diagnostic to determine the dominant radiation mechanism in these objects. I suggest a few FSRQs as promising candidates to test the prediction of the external-Comptonization model.

  13. The Second Peak: The Dark-Energy Density and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Kamionkowski; Ari Buchalter

    2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Supernova evidence for a negative-pressure dark energy (e.g., cosmological constant or quintessence) that contributes a fraction $\\Omega_\\Lambda\\simeq0.7$ of closure density has been bolstered by the discrepancy between the total density, $\\Omega_{\\rm tot}\\simeq1$, suggested by the location of the first peak in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum and the nonrelativistic-matter density $\\Omega_m\\simeq0.3$ obtained from dynamical measurements. Here we show that the impending identification of the location of the {\\it second} peak in the CMB power spectrum will provide an immediate and independent probe of the dark-energy density. As an aside, we show how the measured height of the first peak probably already points toward a low matter density and places upper limits to the reionization optical depth and gravitational-wave amplitude.

  14. The Space Density of Galaxy Peaks and the Linear Matter Power Spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rupert A. C. Croft; Enrique Gaztanaga

    1997-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    One way of recovering information about the initial conditions of the Universe is by measuring features of the cosmological density field which are preserved during gravitational evolution and galaxy formation. In this paper we study the total number density of peaks in a (galaxy) point distribution smoothed with a filter, evaluating its usefulness as a means of inferring the shape of the initial (matter) power spectrum. We find that in numerical simulations which start from Gaussian initial conditions, the peak density follows well that predicted by the theory of Gaussian density fields, even on scales where the clustering is mildly non-linear. For smaller filter scales, $r \\simlt 4-6 \\hmpc$, we see evidence of merging as the peak density decreases with time. On larger scales, the peak density is independent of time. One might also expect it to be fairly robust with respect to variations in biasing, i.e. the way galaxies trace mass fluctuations. We find that this is the case when we apply various biasing prescriptions to the matter distribution in simulations. If the initial conditions are Gaussian, it is possible to use the peak density measured from the evolved field to reconstruct the shape of the initial power spectrum. We describe a stable method for doing this and apply it to several biased and unbiased non-linear simulations. We are able to recover the slope of the linear matter power spectrum on scales $k \\simlt 0.4 \\hmpc^{-1}$. The reconstruction has the advantage of being independent of the cosmological parameters ($\\Omega$, $\\Lambda$, $H_0$) and of the clustering normalisation ($\\sigma_8$). The peak density and reconstructed power spectrum slope therefore promise to be powerful discriminators between popular cosmological scenarios.

  15. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The radioactive Tank 48H DMR product was primarily made up of soluble carbonates. The three most abundant species were thermonatrite, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O], sodium carbonate, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}], and trona, [Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O] the same as the ESTD FBSR. (6) Insoluble solids analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) did not detect insoluble carbonate species. However, they still may be present at levels below 2 wt%, the sensitivity of the XRD methodology. Insoluble solids XRD characterization indicated that various Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn phases are present. These crystalline phases are associated with the insoluble sludge components of Tank 48H slurry and impurities in the Erwin coal ash. The percent insoluble solids, which mainly consist of un-burnt coal and coal ash, in the products were 4 to 11 wt% for the radioactive runs. (7) The Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sub total} REDOX measurements ranged from 0.58 to 1 for the three radioactive Bench-scale tests. REDOX measurements > 0.5 showed a reducing atmosphere was maintained in the DMR indicating that pyrolysis was occurring. (8) Greater than 90% of the radioactivity was captured in the product for all three runs. (9) The collective results from the FBSR simulant tests and the BSR simulant tests indicate that the same chemistry occurs in the two reactors. (10) The collective results from the BSR simulant runs and the BSR radioactive waste runs indicates that the same chemistry occurs in the simulant as in the real waste. The FBSR technology has been proven to destroy the organics and nitrates in the Tank 48H waste and form the anticipated solid carbonate phases as expected.

  16. A wedged-peak-pulse design with medium fuel adiabat for indirect-drive fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Ren, Guoli; Liu, Bin; Wu, Junfeng [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); He, X. T.; Liu, Jie; Wang, L. F.; Ye, Wenhua [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present letter, we propose the design of a wedged-peak pulse at the late stage of indirect drive. Our simulations of one- and two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics show that the wedged-peak-pulse design can raise the drive pressure and capsule implosion velocity without significantly raising the fuel adiabat. It can thus balance the energy requirement and hydrodynamic instability control at both ablator/fuel interface and hot-spot/fuel interface. This investigation has implication in the fusion ignition at current mega-joule laser facilities.

  17. Actual Versus Estimated Utility Factor of a Large Set of Privately Owned Chevrolet Volts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Thomas Bradley; Stephen Schey

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine the overall fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the amount of operation in charge depleting (CD) versus charge sustaining modes must be determined. Mode of operation is predominantly dependent on customer usage of the vehicle and is therefore highly variable. The utility factor (UF) concept was developed to quantify the distance a group of vehicles has traveled or may travel in CD mode. SAE J2841 presents a UF calculation method based on data collected from travel surveys of conventional vehicles. UF estimates have been used in a variety of areas, including the calculation of window sticker fuel economy, policy decisions, and vehicle design determination. The EV Project, a plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration being conducted across the United States, provides the opportunity to determine the real-world UF of a large group of privately owned Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicles. Using data collected from Volts enrolled in The EV Project, this paper compares the real-world UF of two groups of Chevrolet Volts to estimated UF's based on J2841. The actual observed fleet utility factors (FUF) for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups studied were observed to be 72% and 74%, respectively. Using the EPA CD ranges, the method prescribed by J2841 estimates a FUF of 65% and 68% for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups, respectively. Volt drivers achieved higher percentages of distance traveled in EV mode for two reasons. First, they had fewer long-distance travel days than drivers in the national travel survey referenced by J2841. Second, they charged more frequently than the J2841 assumption of once per day - drivers of Volts in this study averaged over 1.4 charging events per day. Although actual CD range varied widely as driving conditions varied, the average CD ranges for the two Volt groups studied matched the EPA CD range estimates, so CD range variation did not affect FUF results.

  18. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In NREL's report titled 'Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Residential Buildings,' researchers propose a method for improving the accuracy of residential energy analysis methods. A key step in this process involves the comparisons of predicted versus metered energy use and savings. In support of this research need, CARB evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. In this study, CARB seeks to improve the accuracy of modeling software while assessing retrofit measures to specifically determine which are most effective for large multifamily complexes in the cold climate region. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  19. Demonstration of Smart Building Controls to Manage Building Peak Loads: Innovative Non-Wires Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2004-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    As a part of the non-wires solutions effort, BPA in partnership with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is exploring the use of two distributed energy resources (DER) technologies in the City of Richland. In addition to demonstrating the usefulness of the two DER technologies in providing peak demand relief, evaluation of remote direct load control (DLC) is also one of the primary objectives of this demonstration. The concept of DLC, which is used to change the energy use profile during peak hours of the day, is not new. Many utilities have had success in reducing demand at peak times to avoid building new generation. It is not the need for increased generation that is driving the use of direct load control in the Northwest, but the desire to avoid building additional transmission capacity. The peak times at issue total between 50 and 100 hours a year. A transmission solution to the problem would cost tens of millions of dollars . And since a ?non wires? solution is just as effective and yet costs much less, the capital dollars for construction can be used elsewhere on the grid where building new transmission is the only alternative. If by using DLC, the electricity use can be curtailed, shifted to lower use time periods or supplemented through local generation, the existing system can be made more reliable and cost effective.

  20. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    During the summer 2007 smart operation strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems were developed and tested in a number of governmental buildings in Kuwait as one of the solutions to reduce the national peak demand for electrical...

  1. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Availability of cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. One potential solution is to use ice thermal storage (ITS) systems that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses the ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS also provides a way to shift a large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ITS systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss during hot weather so that new plants could be considered in regions lack of cooling water. This paper will review light water reactor cooling issues and present the feasibility study results.

  2. Power Control for Block-Fading Channels with Peak-to-Average Power Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillén i Fàbregas, Albert

    .nguyen@postgrads.unisa.edu.au Albert Guill´en i F`abregas Engineering Department University of Cambridge Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK guillen@ieee.org Lars K. Rasmussen Institute for Telecommunications Research University of South Australia Mawson Lakes SA 5095 lars.rasmussen@unisa.edu.au Abstract-- Power allocation with peak-to-average power con

  3. (2013) 128 Data Center Demand Response: Avoiding the Coincident Peak via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wierman, Adam

    (2013) 1­28 Data Center Demand Response: Avoiding the Coincident Peak via Workload Shifting.chen@hp.com Abstract Demand response is a crucial aspect of the future smart grid. It has the potential to provide centers' participation in demand response is becoming increasingly important given their high

  4. Sequence Stratigraphy and Detrital Zircon Geochronology of the Swan Peak Quartzite, Southeastern Idaho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wulf, Tracy David

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    2.5 - 3.0 Ga (Archean), with a smaller, but persistent, population at 2.0 - 2.1 Ga, and a very minor 0.8 - 1.2 Ga (Mesoproterozoic) population occurring mainly in the tops of the measured sections. The base of each section has a larger Archean peak...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A theoretical analysis of the relative influences of peak BMD,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    loss and menopause on the development of osteoporosis C.J. Hernandez Æ G.S. Beaupre´ Æ D.R. Carter Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2003 Abstract Factors that determine a post-menopausal the relative influences of peak BMD, menopause and age- related bone loss on the development of osteoporosis

  6. Architecting Efficient Peak Power Shaving Using Batteries in Data Centers Baris Aksanli and Tajana Rosing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Architecting Efficient Peak Power Shaving Using Batteries in Data Centers Baris Aksanli and Tajana savings by as much as 3.35x because they use simple battery reliability models, boolean battery discharge and neglect the design and the cost of battery system communication in the state-of-the-art distributed UPS

  7. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Future world oil production: growth, plateau, or peak?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Future world oil production: growth, plateau, or peak? Larry Hughes and Jacinda Rudolph With the exception of two oil shocks in the 1970s, world oil production that production will increase to about 96 million barrels a day. If this target is met, world oil production

  8. Driving Smart Growth: Electric Vehicle Adoption and OffPeak Electricity Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holsinger, Kent

    Driving Smart Growth: Electric Vehicle Adoption and OffPeak Electricity Rates Peter Driving Smart Growth: Electric Vehicle Adoption Page 2 Executive Summary Reducing our dependence to electric vehicles (EVs)1 is core to reducing reliance on fossil fuels and driving smart growth

  9. First Tracer Test After Circulation in Desert Peak 27-15

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rose, Peter

    Following the successful stimulation of Desert Peak target EGS well 27-15, a circulation test was initiated by injecting a conservative tracer (1,5-nds) in combination with a reactive tracer (7-amino-1,3-naphthalene disulfonate). The closest production well 74-21 was monitored over the subsequent several months.

  10. Incompatibility of modulated checkerboard patterns with the neutron scattering resonance peak in cuprate superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Erica

    in cuprate superconductors D. X. Yao and E. W. Carlson Department of Physics, Purdue University, West materials such as cuprate superconductors, nickelates, manganites, and related perovskites. Charge order as temperature is lowered into the superconducting state. The relation between the resonance peak

  11. Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    kelkar, sharad

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical modeling of the 2011 shear stimulation at the Desert Peak well 27-15. This submission contains the FEHM executable code for a 64-bit PC Windows-7 machine, and the input and output files for the results presented in the included paper from ARMA-213 meeting.

  12. First Tracer Test After Circulation in Desert Peak 27-15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Peter

    2013-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the successful stimulation of Desert Peak target EGS well 27-15, a circulation test was initiated by injecting a conservative tracer (1,5-nds) in combination with a reactive tracer (7-amino-1,3-naphthalene disulfonate). The closest production well 74-21 was monitored over the subsequent several months.

  13. The Influence of Air-Conditioning Efficiency in the Peak Load Demand for Kuwait

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, A. A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in reduction in peak load demand and savings of KD 2,301 million in capital expenditures are possible for the years between 2001 and 2025 if the PR of AC systems are improved to 1.2 kW/RT from its present level of 2.0 kW/RT. Also, it is estimated that extent...

  14. Paleoecological evidence for abrupt cold reversals during peak Holocene warmth on Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briner, Jason P.

    climate forcings, including volcanic eruptions and solar variability, and perturbations such as freshwaterPaleoecological evidence for abrupt cold reversals during peak Holocene warmth on Baffin Island Paleolimnology Abrupt climate change A continuous record of insect (Chironomidae) remains preserved in lake

  15. A Model for Predicting Daily Peak Visitation and Implications for Recreation Management and Water Quality: Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carrying capacity. Keywords Visitation model Á Recreation management Á Water quality Á River visitation ÁA Model for Predicting Daily Peak Visitation and Implications for Recreation Management and Water Quality: Evidence from Two Rivers in Puerto Rico Luis E. Santiago � Armando Gonzalez-Caban � John Loomis

  16. Potential For Energy, Peak Demand, and Water Savings in California Tomato Processing Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trueblood, A. J.; Wu, Y. Y.; Ganji, A. R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - wattage metal halide lamps. Other support areas may be lit by inefficient T12 lighting. Replacing these lamps with T5, T8, light-emitting diode (LED), or induction lighting can result in significant electrical energy savings and reduce the peak...

  17. Peak Power Reduction Strategies for the Lighting Systems in Government Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A. A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fluorescent lamps with ECGs, CFLs, incandescent lamps and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The building has a peak load of around 2900 kW and it is mainly shared by A/C and lighting. Lighting system is controlled by DELMATIC software which controls...

  18. Jitter in ATM networks and its impact on peak rate enforcement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillemin, Fabrice

    Jitter in ATM networks and its impact on peak rate enforcement James ROBERTS FRANCE TELECOM CNET to queueing in upstream multiplexing stages, notably in customer premises. This is the phenomenon of jitter general characterizations of jitter and then, describe two models of jittered flows based on simple

  19. Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    kelkar, sharad

    Numerical modeling of the 2011 shear stimulation at the Desert Peak well 27-15. This submission contains the FEHM executable code for a 64-bit PC Windows-7 machine, and the input and output files for the results presented in the included paper from ARMA-213 meeting.

  20. Using Double-peaked Supernova Light Curves to Study Extended Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piro, Anthony L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extended material at large radii surrounding a supernova can result in a double-peaked light curve when the material is sufficiently massive that the supernova shock continues to propagate into it and sufficiently extended that it produces a bright first peak. Such material can be the leftover, low-mass envelope of a star that has been highly stripped, the mass associated with a wind, or perhaps mass surrounding the progenitor due to some type of pre-explosion activity. I summarize the conditions necessary for such a light curve to occur, describe what can be learned about the extended material from the light curve shape, and provide a semi-analytic model for fitting the first peak in these double-peaked supernovae. This is applied to the specific case of a Type Ic super-luminous supernova, LSQ14bdq. The mass in the extended material around this explosion's progenitor is measured to be small, ~0.2-0.5 Msun. The radius of this material must be >500 Rsun, but it is difficult to constrain due to a degeneracy bet...

  1. Neutron scattering evidence of a boson peak in protein hydration water Alessandro Paciaroni,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tuscia, Università Degli Studi Della

    Neutron scattering evidence of a boson peak in protein hydration water Alessandro Paciaroni,1 Anna Viterbo, Italy Received 24 February 1999 Measurement of the low temperature neutron excess of scattering, has been detected by neutron scattering and Raman spectros- copy in a large variety of glassy systems

  2. Jitter and peak rate enforcement in ATM networks Fabrice GUILLEMIN, James ROBERTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillemin, Fabrice

    Jitter and peak rate enforcement in ATM networks Fabrice GUILLEMIN, James ROBERTS 1 Introduction the source and the policing device. This is the phenomenon of jitter and requires that, instead of simply of the jitter phenomenon taking account, notably, of the correlations between successive cell arrival epochs

  3. The Influence of Air-Conditioning Efficiency in the Peak Load Demand for Kuwait 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, A. A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) The annual savings realized in peak load demand and cost of electric power generation and distribution network ( ) due to this revision are: nPRSAV PL ,, n,PR SAV nPRACACnPRAC PLPLPL ,,,, ?=? (4) 400*000,1* ,,, nPRACnPR PLSAV...

  4. TSNo s02-peak103534-O Effect of Sulfate on Lead Desorption from Goethite.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    TSNo s02-peak103534-O Title Effect of Sulfate on Lead Desorption from Goethite. abstract metals such as lead. It has been shown that lead adsorption is enhanced on goethite in the presence for this increased adsorption is the formation of a ternary complex on the goethite surface. While mechanistic

  5. Vortex-peak interaction and lattice shape in rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Jun-cheng

    Vortex-peak interaction and lattice shape in rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates: November 28, 2011) When a two component Bose-Einstein condensate is placed into rotation, a lattice component condensate is set into rotation, topological defects of both order parameters are created, which

  6. STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS ON ACTUAL DOE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE 9138

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burket, P

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR); a processing unit for demonstrating steam reforming technology on actual radioactive waste [1]. It describes the operating conditions of the unit used for processing a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 48H waste. Finally, it compares the results from processing the actual waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in a large pilot scale unit, the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR), operated at Hazen Research Inc. in Golden, CO. The purpose of this work was to prove that the actual waste reacted in the same manner as the simulant waste in order to validate the work performed in the pilot scale unit which could only use simulant waste.

  7. Automated method for the systematic interpretation of resonance peaks in spectrum data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damiano, Brian (Knoxville, TN); Wood, Richard T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for spectral signature interpretation. The method includes the creation of a mathematical model of a system or process. A neural network training set is then developed based upon the mathematical model. The neural network training set is developed by using the mathematical model to generate measurable phenomena of the system or process based upon model input parameter that correspond to the physical condition of the system or process. The neural network training set is then used to adjust internal parameters of a neural network. The physical condition of an actual system or process represented by the mathematical model is then monitored by extracting spectral features from measured spectra of the actual process or system. The spectral features are then input into said neural network to determine the physical condition of the system or process represented by the mathematical. More specifically, the neural network correlates the spectral features (i.e. measurable phenomena) of the actual process or system with the corresponding model input parameters. The model input parameters relate to specific components of the system or process, and, consequently, correspond to the physical condition of the process or system.

  8. Automated method for the systematic interpretation of resonance peaks in spectrum data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damiano, B.; Wood, R.T.

    1997-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for spectral signature interpretation. The method includes the creation of a mathematical model of a system or process. A neural network training set is then developed based upon the mathematical model. The neural network training set is developed by using the mathematical model to generate measurable phenomena of the system or process based upon model input parameter that correspond to the physical condition of the system or process. The neural network training set is then used to adjust internal parameters of a neural network. The physical condition of an actual system or process represented by the mathematical model is then monitored by extracting spectral features from measured spectra of the actual process or system. The spectral features are then input into said neural network to determine the physical condition of the system or process represented by the mathematical model. More specifically, the neural network correlates the spectral features (i.e. measurable phenomena) of the actual process or system with the corresponding model input parameters. The model input parameters relate to specific components of the system or process, and, consequently, correspond to the physical condition of the process or system. 1 fig.

  9. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form of gibbsite, and its impact on filtration. The initial sample was diluted with a liquid simulant to simulate the receiving concentration of retrieved tank waste into the UFP2 vessel (< 10 wt% undissolved solids). Filtration testing was performed on the dilute waste sample and dewatered to a higher solids concentration. Filtration testing was then performed on the concentrated slurry. Afterwards, the slurry was caustic leached to remove aluminum present in the undissolved solid present in the waste. The leach was planned to simulate leaching conditions in the UFP2 vessel. During the leach, slurry supernate samples were collected to measure the dissolution rate of aluminum in the waste. After the slurry cooled down from the elevated leach temperature, the leach liquor was dewatered from the solids. The remaining slurry was rinsed and dewatered with caustic solutions to remove a majority of the dissolved aluminum from the leached slurry. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the rinse solutions was high enough to maintain the solubility of the aluminum in the dewatered rinse solutions after dilution of the slurry supernate. Filtration tests were performed on the final slurry to compare to filtration performance before and after caustic leaching.

  10. STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mace, J; Matrosov, S; Shupe, M; Lawson, P; Hallar, G; McCubbin, I; Marchand, R; Orr, B; Coulter, R; Sedlacek, A; Avallone, L; Long, C

    2010-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    During the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), a substantial correlative data set of remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements from fixed and airborne platforms will be created in a winter season, mountainous environment. This will be accomplished by combining mountaintop observations at Storm Peak Laboratory and the airborne National Science Foundation-supported Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study campaign with collocated measurements from the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2). We describe in this document the operational plans and motivating science for this experiment, which includes deployment of AMF2 to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The intensive STORMVEX field phase will begin nominally on 1 November 2010 and extend to approximately early April 2011.

  11. The Building Energy Report Card is used to compare the actual annual energy consumption of buildings to a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    's area (Gross Square Feet or GSF). The report card accounts for all forms of energy used in a building.e. kBtu) and is divided by the building's area to proved a unit of energy intensity which is expressedThe Building Energy Report Card is used to compare the actual annual energy consumption

  12. This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate strategies.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground@bookpoint.co.uk May 2013 322 pages Hardback 978-1-4094-6078-7 £60.00 Corporate Responses to EU Emissions Trading at The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway `With greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes emerging worldwide

  13. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Evaluation of Energy Performance of UBC's Residential Buildings Using Actual Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and put a great effort into trying to get energy consumption data by contacting strata councils Records for providing energy consumption data and architectural drawings of Faculty and Staff Housing actual energy consumption data. The primary objective of this study is to analyze electricity and gas

  14. DEFINITION OF USABLE SPACE "Usable Space" is the actual space to be occupied by the Company. It is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEFINITION OF USABLE SPACE "Usable Space" is the actual space to be occupied by the Company. It is determined as follows: If the space is on a single-tenancy floor, compute the inside gross area by measuring. If the space is on a multiple-tenancy floor, measure from the exterior building walls as above and to the room

  15. Differences in Physician Use of Electronic Health Records: Development of a Scale Assessing Individual Factors Influencing Physician Actualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wesner, Kylene J

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    throughout the day. Using a Theory of Organization-EHR Affordance Actualization as a guiding framework, the focus of this dissertation is to examine the factors that influence how physicians use the EHR at the individual-level during clinical interactions...

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF THE GLYCOLIC-FORMIC FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING ACTUAL WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Glycolic acid was effective at dissolving many metals, including iron, during processing with simulants. Criticality constraints take credit for the insolubility of iron during processing to prevent criticality of fissile materials. Testing with actual waste was needed to determine the extent of iron and fissile isotope dissolution during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The Alternate Reductant Project was initiated by the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Company to explore options for the replacement of the nitric-formic flowsheet used for the CPC at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The goals of the Alternate Reductant Project are to reduce CPC cycle time, increase mass throughput of the facility, and reduce operational hazards. In order to achieve these goals, several different reductants were considered during initial evaluations conducted by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). After review of the reductants by SRR, SRNL, and Energy Solutions (ES) Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL), two flowsheets were further developed in parallel. The two flowsheet options included a nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet, and a nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet. As of July 2011, SRNL and ES/VSL have completed the initial flowsheet development work for the nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet and nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet, respectively. On July 12th and July 13th, SRR conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to down select the alternate reductant flowsheet. The SEE team selected the Formic-Glycolic Flowsheet for further development. Two risks were identified in SEE for expedited research. The first risk is related to iron and plutonium solubility during the CPC process with respect to criticality. Currently, DWPF credits iron as a poison for the fissile components of the sludge. Due to the high iron solubility observed during the flowsheet demonstrations with simulants, it was necessary to determine if the plutonium in the radioactive sludge slurry demonstrated the same behavior. The second risk is related to potential downstream impacts of glycolate on Tank Farm processes. The downstream impacts will be evaluated by a separate research team. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested a radioactive demonstration of the Glycolic-Formic Flowsheet with radioactive sludge slurry be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the SRNL. The Shielded Cells demonstration only included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, and not a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle or the co-processing of salt products. Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) slurry was used for the demonstration since it was readily available, had been previously characterized, and was generally representative of sludges being processing in DWPF. This sample was never used in the planned Shielded Cells Run 7 (SC-7).

  17. Method and apparatus for reducing rotor blade deflections, loads, and/or peak rotational speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reducing at least one of loads, deflections of rotor blades, or peak rotational speed of a wind turbine includes storing recent historical pitch related data, wind related data, or both. The stored recent historical data is analyzed to determine at least one of whether rapid pitching is occurring or whether wind speed decreases are occurring. A minimum pitch, a pitch rate limit, or both are imposed on pitch angle controls of the rotor blades conditioned upon results of the analysis.

  18. Statistics of Merging Peaks of Random Gaussian Fluctuations: Skeleton Tree Formalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitoshi Hanami

    1999-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to study the statistics of the objects with hierarchical merging, we propose the skeleton tree formalism, which can analytically distinguish the episodic merging and the continuous accretion in the mass growth processes. The distinction was not clear in extended Press-Schechter (PS) formalism. The skeleton tree formalism is a natural extension of the peak theory which is an alternative formalism for the statistics of the bound objects. The fluctuation field smoothing with Gaussian filter produces the landscape with adding the extra-dimension of the filter resolution scale to the spatial coordinate of the original fluctuation. In the landscape, some smoothing peaks are nesting into the neighboring peaks at a type of critical points called sloping saddles appears, which can be interpreted as merging events of the objects in the context of the hierarchical structure formation. The topological properties of the landscape can be abstracted in skeleton trees, which consist of line process of the smoothing peaks and the point process of the sloping saddles. According to this abstract topological picture, in this paper, we present the concept and the basic results of the skeleton tree formalism to describe (1) the distinction between the accretion and the merger in the hierarchical structure formation from various initial random Gaussian fields; (2) the instantaneous number density of the sloping saddles which gives the instantaneous scale function of the objects with the destruction and reformation in the mergers; (3) the rates of the destruction, the reformation, and the relative accretion growth; (4) the self-consistency of the formalism for the statistics of the mass growth processes of the objects; (5) the mean growth history of the objects at the fixed mass.

  19. Blueshift Without Blueshift: Red Hole Gamma-Ray Burst Models Explain the Peak energy Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James S. Graber

    1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma-ray bursts are still a puzzle. In particular, the central engine, the total energy and the very narrow distribution of peak energies challenge model builders. We consider here an extreme model of gamma-ray bursts based on highly red- and blue-shifted positron annihilation radiation. The burst emerges from inside the red hole created by the complete gravitational collapse of the GRB progenitor.

  20. Structure of the solar core: Effect of asymmetry of peak profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Basu; S. Turck-Chieze; G. Berthomieu; A. S. Brun; T. Corbard; J. Christensen-Dalsgaard; J. Provost; S. Thiery; A. H. Gabriel; P. Boumier

    2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies have established that peaks in solar oscillation power spectra are not Lorentzian in shape, but have a distinct asymmetry. Fitting a symmetric Lorentzian profile to the peaks therefore produces a shift in frequency of the modes. Accurate determination of low-frequency modes is essential to infer the structure of the solar core by inversion of the mode frequencies. In this paper we investigate how the changes in frequencies of low-degree modes obtained by fitting symmetric and asymmetric peak profiles change the inferred properties of the solar core. We use data obtained by the Global Oscillations at Low Frequencies (GOLF) project on board the SoHO spacecraft. Two different solar models and inversion procedures are used to invert the data to determine the sound speed in the solar core. We find that for a given set of modes no significant difference in the inferred sound-speed results from taking asymmetry into account when fitting the low-degree modes.

  1. Combining water budgets and IFIM results for analyzing operation alternatives at peaking projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conners, M.E.; Homa, J. Jr. [Ichthyological Associates, Inc., Lansing, NY (United States); Carrington, G. [Northrup, Devine, and Tarbell, Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Licensing of hydropower projects often involves evaluating and comparing several different alternatives for project operation. Projects with peaking capabilities, in particular, are frequently required to compare peaking operation with substantially different alternatives, such as continuous run-of-the-river flows. Instream flow studies are used to assess the environmental impacts of hydropower operation by modeling the amount of aquatic habitat available at various flows. It can be difficult, however, to apply instream flow models downstream of peaking operations, or to present habitat model results in a way that clearly compares operation alternatives. This paper presents a two-stage analysis that was used in the successful negotiation of a licensing settlement for Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation`s Salmon River Project in upstate New York. A water budget model based on project configuration was used to compile flow-duration curves for the project under several alternative operating rules. A spreadsheet model was developed that combines the results of instream flow habitat models with flow-duration statistics. This approach provides a clear, quantitative comparison of the effect of alternative project operations on downstream aquatic habitat.

  2. A control system for improved battery utilization in a PV-powered peak-shaving system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palomino, E [Salt River Project, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Stevens, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiles, J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Southwest Technology Development Inst.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) power systems offer the prospect of allowing a utility company to meet part of the daily peak system load using a renewable resource. Unfortunately, some utilities have peak system- load periods that do not match the peak production hours of a PV system. Adding a battery energy storage system to a grid-connected PV power system will allow dispatching the stored solar energy to the grid at the desired times. Batteries, however, pose system limitations in terms of energy efficiency, maintenance, and cycle life. A new control system has been developed, based on available PV equipment and a data acquisition system, that seeks to minimize the limitations imposed by the battery system while maximizing the use of PV energy. Maintenance requirements for the flooded batteries are reduced, cycle life is maximized, and the battery is operated over an efficient range of states of charge. This paper presents design details and initial performance results on one of the first installed control systems of this type.

  3. Twin peak HF QPOs as a spectral imprint of dual oscillation modes of accretion tori

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakala, Pavel; Török, Gabriel; Šrámková, Eva; Abramowicz, Marek A; Vincent, Frederic H; Mazur, Grzegorz P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High frequency (millisecond) quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are observed in the X-ray power-density spectra of several microquasars and low mass X-ray binaries. Two distinct QPO peaks, so-called twin peak QPOs, are often detected simultaneously exhibiting their frequency ratio close or equal to 3/2. Following the analytic theory and previous studies of observable spectral signatures, we aim to model the twin peak QPOs as a spectral imprint of specific dual oscillation regime defined by a combination of the lowest radial and vertical oscillation mode of optically thick slender tori with constant specific angular momentum. We examined power spectra and fluorescent K$\\alpha$ iron line profiles for two different simulation setups with the mode frequency relations corresponding to the epicyclic resonance HF QPOs model and modified relativistic precession QPOs model. We use relativistic ray-tracing implemented in parallel simulation code LSDplus. In the background of the Kerr spacetime geometry, we analyze t...

  4. Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the potential impact of demand response (DR) strategies in commercial buildings in California based on the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT), which uses EnergyPlus simulation prototypes for office and retail buildings. The study describes the potential impact of building size, thermal mass, climate, and DR strategies on demand savings in commercial buildings. Sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate how these factors influence the demand shift and shed during the peak period. The whole-building peak demand of a commercial building with high thermal mass in a hot climate zone can be reduced by 30percent using an optimized demand response strategy. Results are summarized for various simulation scenarios designed to help owners and managers understand the potential savings for demand response deployment. Simulated demand savings under various scenarios were compared to field-measured data in numerous climate zones, allowing calibration of the prototype models. The simulation results are compared to the peak demand data from the Commercial End-Use Survey for commercial buildings in California. On the economic side, a set of electricity rates are used to evaluate the impact of the DR strategies on economic savings for different thermal mass and climate conditions. Our comparison of recent simulation to field test results provides an understanding of the DR potential in commercial buildings.

  5. SWIFT GRB GRB071010B: OUTLIER OF THE E {sup src} {sub peak} - E {sub gamma} AND E {sub iso} - E {sup src} {sub peak} - t {sup src} {sub jet} CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urata, Yuji; Lee, Induk; Ip, Wing Huen [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuiyun [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Im, Myungshin [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, San 56-1, Kwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Deng Jinsong; Liping Xin; Qiu Yulei; Wei Jianyan; Zheng Weikang [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Krimm, Hans [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ohno, Masanori [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Sugita, Satoshi [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tashiro, Makoto [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Saitama, 338-8570 (Japan); Yamaoka, Kazutaka, E-mail: urata@astro.ncu.edu.t [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1, Fuchinobe, Sayamihara 229-8558 (Japan)

    2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present multi-band results for GRB071010B based on Swift, Suzaku, and ground-based optical observations. This burst is an ideal target to evaluate the robustness of the E{sup src}{sub peak} - E{sub iso} and E{sup src}{sub peak} - E {sub gamma} relations, whose studies have been in stagnation due to the lack of the combined estimation of E{sup src} {sub peak} and long-term optical monitoring. The joint prompt spectral fitting using Swift/Burst Alert Telescope and Suzaku/Wide-band All-sky Monitor data yielded the spectral peak energy as E {sup src} {sub peak} of 86.5{sup +6.4} {sub -6.3} keV and E {sub iso} of 2.25{sup +0.19} {sub -0.16} x 10{sup 52} erg with z = 0.947. The optical afterglow light curve is well fitted by a simple power law with temporal index alpha = -0.60 +- 0.02. The lower limit of temporal break in the optical light curve is 9.8 days. Our multi-wavelength analysis reveals that GRB071010B follows E{sup src}{sub peak} - E{sub iso} but violates the E{sup src}{sub peak} - E{sub gamma} and E{sub iso} - E {sup src}{sub peak} - t {sup src}{sub jet} at more than the 3sigma level.

  6. Imminence of peak in US coal production and overestimation of reserves Nathan G.F. Reaver a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khare, Sanjay V.

    Imminence of peak in US coal production and overestimation of reserves Nathan G.F. Reaver online 6 June 2014 Keywords: Logistic model Coal reserve Coal production forecast Peak coal USA energy Non-linear fitting Coal is the bulwark of US energy production making up about a third of all energy

  7. Peaked Encoding of Relative Luminance in Macaque Areas V1 and V2 Xinmiao Peng and David C. Van Essen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Essen, David

    Peaked Encoding of Relative Luminance in Macaque Areas V1 and V2 Xinmiao Peng and David C. Van. Peaked encoding of relative luminance in macaque areas V1 and V2. J Neurophysiol 93: 1620­1632, 2005 the primate visual pathway neurons encode the relative luminance of objects (at a given light adaptation level

  8. Dislocation structure and crystallite size-distribution in hexagonal nanomaterials from X-ray peak profile analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    profile analysis Tamás Ungár1 and Jen Gubicza1,2 1 Department of General Physics, Eötvös University crystal structure are studied by X-ray diffraction peak profile analysis. The crystallite size, X-ray peak profile analysis, hexagonal crystals, nanostructure. Short title: T. Ungár & J. Gubicza

  9. Abstract--This paper formulates and develops a peak demand control tool for electric systems within the framework of direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    techniques. Index Terms--Demand Side Management, direct load control, peak demand control, genetic algorithms in order to evaluate the suitability of the decision chosen. The Demand Side Management (DSM) plans attempt for central air conditioning systems in commercial buildings, hence allowing a measured control of peak demand

  10. Abstract--This paper formulates and develops a peak demand control tool for electric systems within the framework of direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    techniques. Index Terms--Demand Side Management, direct load control, peak demand control, genetic algorithms in order to evaluate the suitability of the decision chosen. Demand Side Management (DSM) plans attempt for central air conditioning systems in commercial buildings, hence allowing a measured control of peak demand

  11. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ice thermal storage systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss and water consumption during hot weather so that new LWRs could be considered in regions without enough cooling water. \\ This paper presents the feasibility study of using ice thermal storage systems for LWR supplemental cooling and peak power shifting. LWR cooling issues and ITS application status will be reviewed. Two ITS application case studies will be presented and compared with alternative options: one for once-through cooling without enough cooling for short time, and the other with dry cooling. Because capital cost, especially the ice storage structure/building cost, is the major cost for ITS, two different cost estimation models are developed: one based on scaling method, and the other based on a preliminary design using Building Information Modeling (BIM), an emerging technology in Architecture/Engineering/Construction, which enables design options, performance analysis and cost estimating in the early design stage.

  12. We all know that the Earth has tall mountains, but compared to its size these are actually very

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - gering 78,000 feet (24,000 meters) it is the tallest mountain in the solar system! Olympus Mons Stands of its location near the equator, the peak of Mt. Chimborazo, in Ecuador, rises farther from the center, in the Andes of Ecuador, is 20,703 feet (6310 meters) above sea level. But, because Ecuador is near the equator

  13. Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Hopson, Dr Janet L [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Li, Jia [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of "running out" of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources.

  14. Electrical Energy Conservation and Peak Demand Reduction Potential for Buildings in Texas: Preliminary Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunn, B. D.; Baughman, M. L.; Silver, S. C.; Rosenfeld, A. H.; Akbari, H.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zone 2 (Fort Worth) only SWPLY CURE LEGEND BASE COYSWIPIIOYI 15885 KYH IAll-rlecl I9414 KHI 16rc hat) BASE PEAK: 5.3 KY Srvlnqr are crlculrted lrol ClRA runs EN0 USE UITEBORY: Hert~nq md hol~nq COST 10 LIFE SRVIN6S CCE lR1TROFITl... -- for All Single and Multifamily Residences, All Climate Zones SUPPLY CURVE LEGEND EASE COYSUIPIIDH: See notes belor LhD USE CATEGORY: Relrlqerrtors COST Ill LIFE WlVlN6S --------- ----- ------------ LABEL DESCRIPIIOY HEY RE1 IVRSl KlH KY Relr...

  15. Synchrotron Self-Absorption Process in GRBs and the Isotropic Energy - Peak Energy Fundamental Relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Yu. Piotrovich; Yu. N. Gnedin; T. M. Natsvlishvili

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The existence of strong correlation between the peak luminosity (and/or bolometric energetics) of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) is one of the most intrigue problem of GRB physics. This correlation is not yet understood. Here we demonstrate that this correlation can be explained in framework of synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) mechanism of GRB prompt emission. We estimate the magnetic field strength of the central engine at the level $B\\sim 10^{14} (10^3/\\Gamma)^3 (1+z)^2$, where $\\Gamma$ is the Lorentz factor of fireball.

  16. X-ray Emission of Low-Energy-Peaked BL Lacertae Objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, Jill M.; Perlman, Eric S. [Florida Institute of Technology, Department of Physics and Space Sciences, 150 W. University Blvd., Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented here is an analysis of X-ray observations of the following seven low-energy-peaked BL Lacertae objects: BL Lacertae, S5 0716+71, W Comae, 3C 66A, S4 0954+65, OJ 287, and AO 0235+16. The spectral data for these objects were taken from observations by the XMM-Newton and/or Chandra X-ray observatories. These objects are being analyzed in an effort to reanalyze all XMM-Newton and Chandra data of low-energy BL Lacs, similar to the efforts of Perlman et al.[4] for high energy BL Lacs. The objects were studied in an effort to understand the nature of the X-ray and multi-waveband emissions in these objects, study the shape of the spectra, and compare the observations of low-energy-peaked BL Lacs to previous observations of these objects and also to observations of high-energy-peaked BL Lacs. Light curves and spectra were analyzed to look for evidence of spectral variability in the objects and as a comparison to previous research on these objects. Most data shows both synchrotron and Inverse-Compton emission, though only little correlation was seen between the emission strength and the spectral slope. Our data is generally well-fitted to a broken power law model with distinct bimodality seen in the first spectral index (six observations with {Gamma}{sub 1{approx}}0.4 and four observations with {Gamma}{sub 1{approx}}3.0), a break in energy between 0.6 and 1.4 keV, and a second spectral index {Gamma}{sub 2{approx}}2.0. None of the observations showed spectral lines, which is consistent with past results. For S5 0716+71 the XMM-Newton X-ray and optical data, along with radio data obtained from the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO), a spectral energy distribution was created and peak frequencies were estimated.

  17. An Energy and Peak Loads Analysis of the TYC/TRC Building – Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the alternatives reduced energy consumption of the building. The ASHRAE and California standards had a reductions of more than 38% and 44%, respectively. iii iv TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page SUMMARY ii ABSTRACT iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv I INTRODUCTION 1 II... using the DOE 2.IB building energy simulation program [4]. The program simulates hourly loads profiles and hourly system performance of HVAC equipment in the building. It also has a provision to output various data, such as, peak loads for each zone...

  18. Statistical distributions of level widths and conductance peaks in irregularly shaped quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alhassid, Y.; Lewenkopf, C.H. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)] [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1995-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytical expressions for width and conductance peak distributions for quantum dots with multichannel leads in the Coulomb blockade regime are presented for both limits of conserved and broken time-reversal symmetry. The results are valid for any number of nonequivalent and correlated channels, and the distributions are expressed in terms of the channel correlation matrix {ital M} in each lead. The matrix {ital M} is also given in closed form. A chaotic billiard is used as a model to test numerically the theoretical predictions. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital The} {ital American} {ital Physical} {ital Society}.

  19. 2-M Probe At Desert Peak Area (Sladek, Et Al., 2007) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 Wind ProjectsourceInformation 2-M Probe At Desert Peak

  20. Contexto Actual y Futuro de la Nucleoelectricidad Instrumentos de Poltica Ambiental en los Mercados Elctricos Liberalizados de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    revisión de los efectos de la liberalización sobre el impacto ambiental de los sistemas eléctricos; (2) el análisis y la comparación de metodologías para la evaluación del impacto ambiental de los sistemasContexto Actual y Futuro de la Nucleoelectricidad Instrumentos de Política Ambiental en los

  1. ,,,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Number of Meters",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Number of Meters",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Number of Meters",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh",,,,,"Capacity MW",,,,,"Number of Meters",,,,,"Energy Sold Back MWh"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard ErrorsNumber of

  2. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak Load Shifting & Spinning Reserves: Cost Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract In this paper, we present the results of an analytical cost-benefit study of residential smart appliances in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the EPA and DOE to provide a 5% credit to meet ENERGY STAR eligibility criteria for products that meet the definition of a smart appliance. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the challenges associated with increased electricity demand, and increased penetration of renewable sources of power. Our analytical model utilizes current annual appliance electricity consumption data, and estimates what the wholesale grid operating cost savings would be if some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads serve power system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. Historical wholesale market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States are used to estimate savings. The savings are then compared with the five percent credit, to determine if the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as the credit (cost) if not higher.

  3. Radio-Optical Study of Double-Peaked AGNs. I. 3C 390.3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Leon-Tavares; A. P. Lobanov; V. H. Chavushyan; T. G. Arshakian

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We aim to test the model proposed to explain the correlation between the flux density at 15 GHz of a stationary component in the parsec-scale jet and the optical continuum emission in the radio galaxy 3C~390.3. In the model, the double-peaked emission from 3C~390.3 is likely to be generated both near the disk and in a rotating subrelativistic outflow surrounding the jet, due to ionization of the outflow by the beamed continuum emission from the jet. This scenario is chosen since broad-emission lines are observed to vary following changes in the inner radio jet. For recent epochs we have imaged and modelled the radio emission of the inner jet of 3C~390.3, which was observed with very long baseline interferometry at 15 GHz, 22 GHz and 43 GHz, to image the inner part of the parsec-scale jet, locate the exact region where the bulk of the continuum luminosity is generated and search for the mechanism that drives the double-peaked profile emission. We present the preliminary results of testing the model using data from 11 years of active monitoring of 3C~390.3.

  4. Effects of coordination and pressure on sound attenuation, boson peak and elasticity in amorphous solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric DeGiuli; Adrien Laversanne-Finot; Gustavo Düring; Edan Lerner; Matthieu Wyart

    2014-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Connectedness and applied stress strongly affect elasticity in solids. In various amorphous solids, mechanical stability can be lost either by reducing connectedness or by increasing pressure. We present an effective medium theory of elasticity that extends previous approaches by incorporating the effect of compression, of amplitude $e$, allowing one to describe quantitative features of sound propagation, transport, the boson peak, and elastic moduli near the elastic instability occurring at a compression $e_c$. The theory disentangles several frequencies characterizing the vibrational spectrum: the onset frequency $\\omega_0\\sim \\sqrt{e_c-e}$ where strongly-scattered modes appear in the vibrational spectrum, the pressure-independent frequency $\\omega_*$ where the density of states displays a plateau, the boson peak frequency $\\omega_{BP}$, and the Ioffe-Regel frequency $\\omega_{IR}$ where scattering length and wavelength become equal. We predict that sound attenuation crosses over from $\\omega^4$ to $\\omega^2$ behaviour at $\\omega_0$. We predict that a frequency-dependent length scale $l_s(\\omega)$ and speed of sound $\

  5. Top Jets in the Peak Region: Factorization Analysis with NLL Resummation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean Fleming; Andre H. Hoang; Sonny Mantry; Iain W. Stewart

    2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider top-quarks produced at large energy in e+e- collisions, and address the question of what top-mass can be measured from reconstruction. The production process is characterized by well separated scales: the center-of-mass energy, Q, the top mass, m, the top decay width, Gamma_t, and also LambdaQCD; scales which can be disentangled with effective theory methods. In particular we show how the mass measurement depends on the way in which soft radiation is treated, and that this can shift the mass peak by an amount of order Q LambdaQCD/m. We sum large logs for Q >> m >> Gamma_t > LambdaQCD and demonstrate that the renormalization group ties together the jet and soft interactions below the scale m. Necessary conditions for the invariant mass spectrum to be protected from large logs are formulated. Results for the cross-section are presented at next-to-leading order with next-to-leading-log resummation, for invariant masses in the peak region and the tail region. Using our results we also predict the thrust distribution for massive quark jets at NLL order for large thrust. We demonstrate that soft radiation can be precisely controlled using data on massless jet production, and that in principle, a short distance mass parameter can be measured using jets with precision better than LambdaQCD.

  6. Analysis of the need for intermediate and peaking technologies in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrager, S.M.; Campbell, G.L.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis was conducted to assess the impact of load management on the future need for intermediate- and peak-generating technologies (IPTs) such as combustion turbines, pumped storage, and cycling coal plants. There will be a reduced need for IPTs if load-management activities such as time-of-use pricing, together with customer-owned energy-storage devices, hot-water-heater controls, and interruptible service, can economically remove most of the variation from electric-power demands. Therefore, the analysis assesses the need for IPTs in an uncertain future, which will probably include load management and time-differentiated electricity prices. Section 2 provides a condensed description of the models used in the analysis. (Details and data sets are contained in the appendixes.) Results of sensitivities on growth rates, model parameters, and appliance saturations are discussed in Section 3, which also contains the analysis of the potential impacts of customer energy storage, appliance control, and time-of-use pricing. The future need for intermediate and peaking technologies is analyzed in Section 4.

  7. Photoisomerization for a model protonated Schiff base in solution: Sloped/peaked conical intersection perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhado, Joao Pedro [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hynes, James T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Chemistry Department, Ecole Normale Superieure, UMR ENS-CNRS-UPMC 8640, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)

    2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The topographical character of conical intersections (CIs)-either sloped or peaked-has played a fundamental and important role in the discussion of the efficiency of CIs as photochemical 'funnels.' Here this perspective is employed in connection with a recent study of a model protonated Schiff base (PSB) cis to trans photoisomerization in solution [Malhado et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 3720 (2011)]. In that study, the calculated reduced photochemical quantum yield for the successful production of trans product versus cis reactant in acetonitrile solvent compared to water was interpreted in terms of a dynamical solvent effect related to the dominance, for the acetonitrile case, of S{sub 1} to S{sub 0} nonadiabatic transitions prior to the reaching the seam of CIs. The solvent influence on the quantum yield is here re-examined in the sloped/peaked CI topographical perspective via conversion of the model's two PSB internal coordinates and a nonequilibrium solvent coordinate into an effective branching space description, which is then used to re-analyze the generalized Langevin equation/surface hopping results. The present study supports the original interpretation and enriches it in terms of topographical detail.

  8. Energy-Dependent Gamma-Ray Burst Peak Durations and Blast-Wave Deceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Chiang

    1998-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Temporal analyses of the prompt gamma-ray and X-ray light curves of gamma-ray bursts reveal a tendency for the burst pulse time scales to increase with decreasing energy. For an ensemble of BATSE bursts, Fenimore et al. (1995) show that the energy dependence of burst peak durations can be represented by $\\Delta t \\propto E^{-\\gamma}$ with $\\gamma \\simeq 0.4$--0.45. This power-law dependence has led to the suggestion that this effect is due to radiative processes, most notably synchrotron cooling of the non-thermal particles which produce the radiation. Here we show that a similar power-law dependence occurs, under certain assumptions, in the context of the blast-wave model and is a consequence of the deceleration of the blast-wave. This effect will obtain whether or not synchrotron cooling is important, but different degrees of cooling will cause variations in the energy dependence of the peak durations.

  9. Supernovae with two peaks in the optical light curve and the signature of progenitors with low-mass extended envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Early observations of supernova light curves are powerful tools for shedding light on the pre-explosion structures of their progenitors and their mass-loss histories just prior to explosion. Some core-collapse supernovae that are detected during the first days after the explosion prominently show two peaks in the optical bands, including the R and I bands, where the first peak appears to be powered by the cooling of shocked surface material and the second peak is clearly powered by radioactive decay. Such light curves have been explored in detail theoretically for SN 1993J and 2011dh, where it was found that they may be explained by progenitors with extended, low-mass envelopes. Here, we generalize these results. We first explore whether any double-peaked light curve of this type can be generated by a progenitor with a 'standard' density profile, such as a red supergiant or a Wolf-Rayet star. We show that a standard progenitor (1) cannot produce a double-peaked light curve in the R and I bands and (2) cannot exhibit a fast drop in the bolometric luminosity as is seen after the first peak. We then explore the signature of a progenitor with a compact core surrounded by extended, low-mass material. This may be a hydrostatic low-mass envelope or material ejected just prior to the explosion. We show that it naturally produces both of these features. We use this result to provide simple formulae to estimate (1) the mass of the extended material from the time of the first peak, (2) the extended material radius from the luminosity of the first peak, and (3) an upper limit on the core radius from the luminosity minimum between the two peaks.

  10. Building load analysis of dispatchable peak-shaving photovoltaic systems: A regional analysis of technical and economic potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, J.; Letendre, S.; Wang, Y.D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Policy; Nigro, R. [Applied Energy Group, Hockessin, DE (United States); Ferguson, B. [Delmarva Power and Light, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof-mounted photovoltaic (PV) systems, including a modest amount of battery storage, can provide firm peak-demand reductions for commercial buildings. The cost-effectiveness of a dispatchable peak-shaving PV system is determined by the demand reduction, which is a function of the solar resource and the building`s load profile, and electric utility rates. The analysis presented in this paper identifies building types and regions, from a database of eleven electric utility service territories distributed throughout the country, for which the economics of dispatchable peak-shaving PV are most favorable.

  11. Combustion Process in a Spark Ignition Engine: Analysis of Cyclic Maximum Pressure and Peak Pressure Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Litak; T. Kaminski; J. Czarnigowski; A. K. Sen; M. Wendeker

    2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we analyze the cycle-to-cycle variations of maximum pressure $p_{max}$ and peak pressure angle $\\alpha_{pmax}$ in a four-cylinder spark ignition engine. We examine the experimental time series of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ for three different spark advance angles. Using standard statistical techniques such as return maps and histograms we show that depending on the spark advance angle, there are significant differences in the fluctuations of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$. We also calculate the multiscale entropy of the various time series to estimate the effect of randomness in these fluctuations. Finally, we explain how the information on both $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ can be used to develop optimal strategies for controlling the combustion process and improving engine performance.

  12. A low-power, CMOS peak detect and hold circuit for nuclear pulse spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ericson, M.N.; Simpson, M.L.; Britton, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Allen, M.D. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Kroeger, R.A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Inderhees, S.E. [Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-power CMOS peak detecting track and hold circuit optimized for nuclear pulse spectroscopy is presented. The circuit topology eliminates the need for a rectifying diode, reducing the effect of charge injection into the hold capacitor, incorporates a linear gate at the input to prevent pulse pileup, and uses dynamic bias control that minimizes both pedestal and droop. Both positive-going and negative-going pulses are accommodated using a complementary set of track and hold circuits. Full characterization of the design fabricated in 1.2{mu}m CMOS including dynamic range, integral nonlinearity, droop rate, pedestal, and power measurements is presented. Additionally, analysis and design approaches for optimization of operational characteristics are discussed.

  13. Peaks and Troughs in Helioseismology: The Power Spectrum of Solar Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colin S. Rosenthal

    1998-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    I present a matched-wave asymptotic analysis of the driving of solar oscillations by a general localised source. The analysis provides a simple mathematical description of the asymmetric peaks in the power spectrum in terms of the relative locations of eigenmodes and troughs in the spectral response. It is suggested that the difference in measured phase function between the modes and the troughs in the spectrum will provide a key diagnostic of the source of the oscillations. I also suggest a form for the asymmetric line profiles to be used in the fitting of solar power spectra. Finally I present a comparison between the numerical and asymptotic descriptions of the oscillations. The numerical results bear out the qualitative features suggested by the asymptotic analysis but suggest that numerical calculations of the locations of the troughs will be necessary for a quantitative comparison with the observations.

  14. Influence of peak pressure and temperature on the shock-loading response of tantalum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, G.T. III

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While the deformation response of tantalum subjected to high-rate loading has attracted considerable study, few studies have systematically investigated the influence of peak shock pressure and starting temperature on the shock response of tantalum. In this study the deformation behavior of annealed tantalum has been compared to tantalum shock pre-strained to 7 and 15 GPa at 250C as well as to 7 GPa after first preheating to 200 and 4OOC. The reload yield behavior of shock prestrained Ta was found to exhibit no enhanced shock hardening compared to Ta deformed quasi-statically or dynamically to an equivalent strain level. In addition the reload yield behavior of Ta shock prestrained to 7 GPa at 200 or 400C was found to exhibit increased hardening compared to the shock prestraining at 25C. The shock-hardening response of Ta is discussed in terms of defect storage and compared to that seen in fcc metals.

  15. Hipparcos calibration of the peak brightness of four SNe Ia and the value of Ho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Lanoix

    1997-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Hipparcos geometrical parallaxes allowed us to calibrate the Cepheid Period-Luminosity relation and to compute the true distance moduli of 17 galaxies. Among these 17 galaxies, we selected those which generated type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia). We found NGC 5253, parent galaxy of 1895B and 1972E, IC 4182 and NGC 4536 parents of 1937C and 1981B, respectively. We used the available B-band photometry to determine the peak brightness of these four SNe Ia. We obtained = -19.65 \\pm 0.09. Then, we built a sample of 57 SNe Ia in order to plot the Hubble diagram and determine its zero-point. Our result (ZP_{B} = -3.16 \\pm 0.10) is in agreement with other determinations and allows us to derive the following Hubble constant : Ho = 50 \\pm 3 (internal) km.s^-1.Mpc^-1.

  16. Correlation of atomic packing with the boson peak in amorphous alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W. M. [State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, School of Sciences, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Liu, H. S., E-mail: liuhaishun@126.com, E-mail: blshen@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: runweili@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn; Zhao, Y. C. [State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, School of Sciences, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Liu, X. J. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen, G. X.; Man, Q. K.; Chang, C. T.; Li, R. W., E-mail: liuhaishun@126.com, E-mail: blshen@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: runweili@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Dun, C. C. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 (United States); Shen, B. L., E-mail: liuhaishun@126.com, E-mail: blshen@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: runweili@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Inoue, A. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); and others

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Boson peaks (BP) have been observed from phonon specific heats in 10 studied amorphous alloys. Two Einstein-type vibration modes were proposed in this work and all data can be fitted well. By measuring and analyzing local atomic structures of studied amorphous alloys and 56 reported amorphous alloys, it is found that (a) the BP originates from local harmonic vibration modes associated with the lengths of short-range order (SRO) and medium-range order (MRO) in amorphous alloys, and (b) the atomic packing in amorphous alloys follows a universal scaling law, i.e., the ratios of SRO and MRO lengths to solvent atomic diameter are 3 and 7, respectively, which exact match with length ratios of BP vibration frequencies to Debye frequency for the studied amorphous alloys. This finding provides a new perspective for atomic packing in amorphous materials, and has significant implications for quantitative description of the local atomic orders and understanding the structure-property relationship.

  17. Zero Energy Peak and Triplet Correlations in Nanoscale SFF Spin-Valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Alidoust; Klaus Halterman; Oriol T. Valls

    2015-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, we theoretically study the proximity-induced density of states (DOS) in clean SFF spin-valves with noncollinear exchange fields. Our results clearly demonstrate a direct correlation between the presence of a zero energy peak (ZEP) in the DOS spectrum and the persistence of spin-1 triplet pair correlations. By systematically varying the geometrical and material parameters governing the spin-valve, we point out to experimentally optimal system configurations where the ZEPs are most pronounced, and which can be effectively probed via scanning tunneling microscopy. We complement these findings in the ballistic regime by employing the Usadel formalism in the full proximity limit to investigate their diffusive SFF counterparts. We determine the optimal normalized ferromagnetic layer thicknesses which result in the largest ZEPs. Our results can serve as guidelines in designing samples for future experiments.

  18. {beta}-delayed neutron emission measurements around the third r-process abundance peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caballero-Folch, R.; Cortes, G.; Calvino, F.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Riego, A. [INTE-DFEN, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Domingo-Pardo, C.; Tain, J. L.; Agramunt, J.; Rubio, B. [IFIC, CSIC-University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Algora, A. [IFIC, CSIC-University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain) and Inst. Nucl. Research, Debrecen (Hungary); Ameil, F.; Farinon, F.; Heil, M.; Knoebel, R.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurz, N.; Litvinov, Y.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution summarizes an experiment performed at GSI (Germany) in the neutron-rich region beyond N=126. The aim of this measurement is to provide the nuclear physics input of relevance for r-process model calculations, aiming at a better understanding of the third r-process abundance peak. Many exotic nuclei were measured around {sup 211}Hg and {sup 215}Tl. Final ion identification diagrams are given in this contribution. For most of them, we expect to derive halflives and and {beta}-delayed neutron emission probabilities. The detectors used in this experiment were the Silicon IMplantation and Beta Absorber (SIMBA) detector, based on an array of highly segmented silicon detectors, and the BEta deLayEd Neutron (BELEN) detector, which consisted of 30 3He counters embedded in a polyethylene matrix.

  19. Method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.; Jain, Jinesh C.

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump comprising one or more pumping sources, one or more lasers; and an optical response analyzer. Each pumping source creates a pumping energy. The lasers each comprise a high reflectivity mirror, a laser media, an output coupler, and an output lens. Each laser media is made of a material that emits a lasing power when exposed to pumping energy. Each laser media is optically connected to and positioned between a corresponding high reflectivity mirror and output coupler along a pumping axis. Each output coupler is optically connected to a corresponding output lens along the pumping axis. The high reflectivity mirror of each laser is optically connected to an optical pumping source from the one or more optical pumping sources via an optical connection comprising one or more first optical fibers.

  20. Control system analysis for off-peak auxiliary heating of passive solar systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, H.S.; Melsa, J.L.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer simulation method is presented for the design of an electrical auxiliary energy system for passive solar heated structures. The system consists of electrical mats buried in the ground underneath the structure. Energy is stored in the ground during utility off-peak hours and released passively to the heated enclosure. An optimal control strategy is used to determine the system design parameters of depth of mat placement and minimum instaled electrical heating capacity. The optimal control applies combinations of fixed duration energy pulses to the heater, which minimize the room temperature error-squared for each day, assuming advance knowledge of the day's weather. Various realizable control schemes are investigated in an attempt to find a system that approaches the performance of the optimal control system.

  1. ON THERMALIZATION IN GAMMA-RAY BURST JETS AND THE PEAK ENERGIES OF PHOTOSPHERIC SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vurm, Indrek; Piran, Tsvi [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)] [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Lyubarsky, Yuri, E-mail: indrek.vurm@gmail.com [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)] [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The low-energy spectral slopes of the prompt emission of most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are difficult to reconcile with radiatively efficient optically thin emission models irrespective of the radiation mechanism. An alternative is to ascribe the radiation around the spectral peak to a thermalization process occurring well inside the Thomson photosphere. This quasi-thermal spectrum can evolve into the observed non-thermal shape by additional energy release at moderate to small Thomson optical depths, which can readily give rise to the hard spectral tail. The position of the spectral peak is determined by the temperature and Lorentz factor of the flow in the thermalization zone, where the total number of photons carried by the jet is established. To reach thermalization, dissipation alone is not sufficient and photon generation requires an efficient emission/absorption process in addition to scattering. We perform a systematic study of all relevant photon production mechanisms searching for possible conditions in which thermalization can take place. We find that a significant fraction of the available energy should be dissipated at intermediate radii, {approx}10{sup 10} to a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm, and the flow there should be relatively slow: the bulk Lorentz factor could not exceed a few tens for all but the most luminous bursts with the highest E {sub pk} values. The least restrictive constraint for successful thermalization, {Gamma} {approx}< 20, is obtained if synchrotron emission acts as the photon source. This requires, however, a non-thermal acceleration deep below the Thomson photosphere transferring a significant fraction of the flow energy to relativistic electrons with Lorentz factors between 10 and 100. Other processes require bulk flow Lorentz factors of order of a few for typical bursts. We examine the implications of these results to different GRB photospheric emission models.

  2. Participation through Automation: Fully Automated Critical PeakPricing in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote,Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    California electric utilities have been exploring the use of dynamic critical peak prices (CPP) and other demand response programs to help reduce peaks in customer electric loads. CPP is a tariff design to promote demand response. Levels of automation in DR can be defined as follows: Manual Demand Response involves a potentially labor-intensive approach such as manually turning off or changing comfort set points at each equipment switch or controller. Semi-Automated Demand Response involves a pre-programmed demand response strategy initiated by a person via centralized control system. Fully Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. The receipt of the external signal initiates pre-programmed demand response strategies. They refer to this as Auto-DR. This paper describes the development, testing, and results from automated CPP (Auto-CPP) as part of a utility project in California. The paper presents the project description and test methodology. This is followed by a discussion of Auto-DR strategies used in the field test buildings. They present a sample Auto-CPP load shape case study, and a selection of the Auto-CPP response data from September 29, 2005. If all twelve sites reached their maximum saving simultaneously, a total of approximately 2 MW of DR is available from these twelve sites that represent about two million ft{sup 2}. The average DR was about half that value, at about 1 MW. These savings translate to about 0.5 to 1.0 W/ft{sup 2} of demand reduction. They are continuing field demonstrations and economic evaluations to pursue increasing penetrations of automated DR that has demonstrated ability to provide a valuable DR resource for California.

  3. Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

  4. Peak demand reduction from pre-cooling with zone temperature reset in an office building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Braun, James

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential for reducing peak-period electrical demand in moderate-weight commercial buildings by modifying the control of the HVAC system. An 80,000 ft{sup 2} office building with a medium-weight building structure and high window-to-wall ratio was used for a case study in which zone temperature set-points were adjusted prior to and during occupancy. HVAC performance data and zone temperatures were recorded using the building control system. Additional operative temperature sensors for selected zones and power meters for the chillers and the AHU fans were installed for the study. An energy performance baseline was constructed from data collected during normal operation. Two strategies for demand shifting using the building thermal mass were then programmed in the control system and implemented progressively over a period of one month. It was found that a simple demand limiting strategy performed well in this building. This strategy involved maintaining zone temperatures at the lower end of the comfort region during the occupied period up until 2 pm. Starting at 2 pm, the zone temperatures were allowed to float to the high end of the comfort region. With this strategy, the chiller power was reduced by 80-100% (1-2.3 W/ft{sup 2}) during normal peak hours from 2-5 pm, without causing any thermal comfort complaints. The effects on the demand from 2-5 pm of the inclusion of pre-cooling prior to occupancy are unclear.

  5. Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-Cooling with Zone Temperature Reset in an Office Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Braun, James

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential for reducing peak-period electrical demand in moderate-weight commercial buildings by modifying the control of the HVAC system. An 80,000 ft{sup 2} office building with a medium-weight building structure and high window-to-wall ratio was used for a case study in which zone temperature set-points were adjusted prior to and during occupancy. HVAC performance data and zone temperatures were recorded using the building control system. Additional operative temperature sensors for selected zones and power meters for the chillers and the AHU fans were installed for the study. An energy performance baseline was constructed from data collected during normal operation. Two strategies for demand shifting using the building thermal mass were then programmed in the control system and implemented progressively over a period of one month. It was found that a simple demand limiting strategy performed well in this building. This strategy involved maintaining zone temperatures at the lower end of the comfort region during the occupied period up until 2 pm. Starting at 2 pm, the zone temperatures were allowed to float to the high end of the comfort region. With this strategy, the chiller power was reduced by 80-100% (1-2.3 W/ft{sup 2}) during normal peak hours from 2-5 pm, without causing any thermal comfort complaints. The effects on the demand from 2-5 pm of the inclusion of pre-cooling prior to occupancy are unclear.

  6. Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed Regional Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hathaway, John E.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Scott, Michael J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the impact of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the Eastern Interconnection (EIC) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered (IPCC A2 scenario as downscaled from the CASCaDE data set) has changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. This investigation examines building energy demand for three annual periods representative of climate trends in the CASCaDE data set at the beginning, middle, and end of the century--2004, 2052, and 2089. Simulations were performed using the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model which is a detailed simulation platform built around EnergyPlus. BEND was developed in collaboration with the Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA), a modeling framework designed to simulate the complex interactions among climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant spatial scales. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and, characteristics which represent the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the 3 EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 locations within the target region, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for each of the 3 years. In this study, the building stock characteristics are held constant based on the 2005 building stock in order to isolate and present results that highlight the impact of the climate signal on commercial and residential energy demand. Results of this analysis compare well with other analyses at their finest level of specificity. This approach, however, provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to perform detailed hourly impact studies of building adaptation and mitigation strategies on energy use and electricity peak demand within the context of the entire grid and economy.

  7. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in a Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the achievements of implementing smart operations strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems in Justice Palace Complex (JPC), Kuwait during the summer 2007. The peak load of this building was 3700 k...

  8. Energy, power, and office buildings : design and analysis of an off-peak cooling system using structural mass storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, Rory Christopher

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the electric utilities face ever increasing peak power production requirements, (mostly from the commercial sector) scheduled "time-of-day" pricing schemes have become imperative. At present, most conservation strategies ...

  9. Shape-based peak identification for ChIP-Seq Valerie Hower, Steven N. Evans, and Lior Pachter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Steven N.

    Shape-based peak identification for ChIP-Seq Valerie Hower, Steven N. Evans, and Lior PachterSeq [27] and MACS [29] using two published data sets. #12;2 Valerie Hower, Steven N. Evans, and Lior

  10. The transition to renewables: Can PV provide an answer to the peak oil and climate change challenges?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    The transition to renewables: Can PV provide an answer to the peak oil and climate change it becomes apparent that marginal productivity is beginning to drop'' (Tainter, 1988). As of 2010 oil

  11. Methods, systems and apparatus for approximation of peak summed fundamental and third harmonic voltages in a multi-phase machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ransom, Ray M. (Big Bear City, CA); Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel (Torrance, CA); Kinoshita, Michael H. (Redondo Beach, CA)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for quickly approximating a peak summed magnitude (A) of a phase voltage (Vph) waveform in a multi-phase system that implements third harmonic injection.

  12. LSQ14bdq: A Type Ic super-luminous supernova with a double-peaked light curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholl, M; Jerkstrand, A; Sim, S A; Inserra, C; Anderson, J P; Baltay, C; Benetti, S; Chambers, K; Chen, T -W; Elias-Rosa, N; Feindt, U; Flewelling, H A; Fraser, M; Gal-Yam, A; Galbany, L; Huber, M E; Kangas, T; Kankare, E; Kotak, R; Krühler, T; Maguire, K; McKinnon, R; Rabinowitz, D; Rostami, S; Schulze, S; Smith, K W; Sullivan, M; Tonry, J L; Valenti, S; Young, D R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present data for LSQ14bdq, a hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the La Silla QUEST survey and classified by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects. The spectrum and light curve are very similar to slow-declining SLSNe such as PTF12dam. However, detections within $\\sim1$ day after explosion show a bright and relatively fast initial peak, lasting for $\\sim15$ days, prior to the usual slow rise to maximum light. The broader, main peak can be fit with either central engine or circumstellar interaction models. We discuss the implications of the precursor peak in the context of these models. It is too bright and narrow to be explained as a normal \\Ni-powered SN, and we suggest that interaction models may struggle to fit the precursor and main peak simultaneously. We propose that the initial peak is from the post-shock cooling of an extended stellar envelope, and reheating by a central engine drives the second peak. In this picture, we show that an explosion energy of $\\...

  13. Development of a dispatchable PV peak shaving system. Final report on PV:BONUS Phase 2 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, W.D. [Conectiv, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States); Nigro, R.M. [Applied Energy Group, Inc., Hauppauge, NY (United States)

    1999-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In July 1993, the Delmarva Power and Light Company (now Conectiv, Inc.) was awarded a contract for the development of a Dispatchable Photovoltaic Peak Shaving System under the US Department of Energy PV:BONUS Program. The rationale for the dispatchable PV peak shaving system is based on the coincidence between the solar resource and the electrical load in question. Where poor coincidence exists, a PV array by itself does little to offset peak demands. However, with the addition of a relatively small amount of energy storage, the energy from the PV array can be managed and the value of the PV system increases substantially. In Phase 2, Delmarva Power continued the refinement of the system deployed in Phase 1. Four additional dispatchable PV peak shaving systems were installed for extended testing and evaluation at sites in Delaware, Maryland, Wisconsin and North Carolina. A second type of system that can be used to provide back-up power as well as peak shaving was also developed in Phase 2. This PV-UPS system used a packaging approach nearly identical to the PV peak shaving system, although there were significant differences in the design of the power electronics and control systems. Conceptually, the PV-UPS system builds upon the idea of adding value to PV systems by increasing functionality. A prototype of the PV-UPS system was installed in Delaware for evaluation near the end of the contract period.

  14. Approaching the precursor nuclei of the third r-process peak with RIBs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domingo-Pardo, C; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Arcones, A; Ameil, F; Ayyad, Y; Benlliure, J; Bowry, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Cortés, G; Davinson, T; Dillmann, I; Estrade, A; Evdokimov, A; Faestermann, T; Farinon, F; Galaviz, D; García-Rios, A; Geissel, H; Gelletly, W; Gernhäuser, R; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Guerrero, C; Heil, M; Hinke, C; Knöbel, R; Kojouharov, I; Kurcewicz, J; Kurz, N; Litvinov, Y; Maier, L; Marganiec, J; Marta, M; Martínez, T; Martínez-Pinedo, G; Meyer, B S; Montes, F; Mukha, I; Napoli, D R; Nociforo, Ch; Paradela, C; Pietri, S; Podolyák, Z; Prochazka, A; Rice, S; Riego, A; Rubio, B; Schaffner, H; Scheidenberger, Ch; Smith, K; Sokol, E; Steiger, K; Sun, B; Taín, J L; Takechi, M; Testov, D; Weick, H; Wilson, E; Winfield, J S; Wood, R; Woods, P; Yeremin, A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid neutron nucleosynthesis process involves an enormous amount of very exotic neutron-rich nuclei, which represent a theoretical and experimental challenge. Two of the main decay properties that affect the final abundance distribution the most are half-lives and neutron branching ratios. Using fragmentation of a primary $^{238}$U beam at GSI we were able to measure such properties for several neutron-rich nuclei from $^{208}$Hg to $^{218}$Pb. This contribution provides a short update on the status of the data analysis of this experiment, together with a compilation of the latest results published in this mass region, both experimental and theoretical. The impact of the uncertainties connected with the beta-decay rates and with beta-delayed neutron emission is illustrated on the basis of $r$-process network calculations. In order to obtain a reasonable reproduction of the third $r$-process peak, it is expected that both half-lives and neutron branching ratios are substantially smaller, than those based ...

  15. Daily air pollution effects on children's respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedal, S.; Schenker, M.B.; Munoz, A.; Samet, J.M.; Batterman, S.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify acute respiratory health effects associated with air pollution due to coal combustion, a subgroup of elementary school-aged children was selected from a large cross-sectional study and followed daily for eight months. Children were selected to obtain three equal-sized groups: one without respiratory symptoms, one with symptoms of persistent wheeze, and one with cough or phlegm production but without persistent wheeze. Parents completed a daily diary of symptoms from which illness constellations of upper respiratory illness (URI) and lower respiratory illness (LRI) and the symptom of wheeze were derived. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured daily for nine consecutive weeks during the eight-month study period. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and coefficient of haze for each 24-hour period, as well as minimum hourly temperature, were correlated with daily URI, LRI, wheeze, and PEFR using multiple regression models adjusting for illness occurrence or level of PEFR on the immediately preceding day. Respiratory illness on the preceding day was the most important predictor of current illness. A drop in temperature was associated with increased URI and LRI but not with increased wheeze or with a decrease in level of PEFR. No air pollutant was strongly associated with respiratory illness or with level of PEFR, either in the group of children as a whole, or in either of the symptomatic subgroups; the pollutant concentrations observed, however, were uniformly lower than current ambient air quality standards.

  16. Development of a Dispatchable PV Peak Shainv System. PV: Bonus Program - Phase 1 Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Delmarva Power and Light and its subcontractors in Phase 1 of the US Department of Energy's PV:BONUS Program. The purpose of the program is to develop products and systems for buildings which utilize photovoltaic (N) technology. Beginning with a cooperative research effort with the University of Delaware's Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Delmarva Power developed and demonstrated the concept of Dispatchable PV Peak Shaving. This concept and the system which resulted horn the development work are unique from other grid-connected PV systems because it combines a PV, battery energy storage, power conversion and control technologies into an integrated package. Phase 1 began in July 1993 with the installation of a test and demonstration system at Delmarva's Northern Division General Office building near Newark, Delaware. Following initial testing throughout the summer and fall of 1993, significant modifications were made under an amendment to the DOE contract. Work on Phase 1 concluded in the early spring of 1995. Significant progress towards the goal of commercializing the system was made during Phase 1, and is summarized. Based on progress in Phase 1, a proposal to continue the work in Phase 2 was submitted to the US DOE in May 1995. A contract amendment and providing funds for the Phase 2 work is expected in July 1995.

  17. Implications of 'peak oil' for atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate - article no. GB3012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kharecha, P.A.; Hansen, J.E. [NASA, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Institute for Space Studies

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Unconstrained CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuel burning has been the dominant cause of observed anthropogenic global warming. The amounts of 'proven' and potential fossil fuel reserves are uncertain and debated. Regardless of the true values, society has flexibility in the degree to which it chooses to exploit these reserves, especially unconventional fossil fuels and those located in extreme or pristine environments. If conventional oil production peaks within the next few decades, it may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate change, depending upon subsequent energy choices. Assuming that proven oil and gas reserves do not greatly exceed estimates of the Energy Information Administration, and recent trends are toward lower estimates, we show that it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO{sub 2} from exceeding about 450 ppm by 2100, provided that emissions from coal, unconventional fossil fuels, and land use are constrained. Coal-fired power plants without sequestration must be phased out before midcentury to achieve this CO{sub 2} limit. It is also important to 'stretch' conventional oil reserves via energy conservation and efficiency, thus averting strong pressures to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels while clean technologies are being developed for the era 'beyond fossil fuels'. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is needed to discourage conversion of the vast fossil resources into usable reserves, and to keep CO{sub 2} beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  18. The Host Galaxies and Narrow Line Regions of Four Double-Peaked [OIII] AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villforth, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Major gas-rich mergers of galaxies are expected to play an important role in triggering and fuelling luminous AGN. We present deep multi-band (u/r/z) imaging and long slit spectroscopy of four double-peaked [OIII] emitting AGN, a class of objects associated with either kcp-separated binary AGN or final stage major mergers, though AGN with complex narrow-line regions are known contaminants. Such objects are of interest since they represent the onset of AGN activity during the merger process. Three of the objects studied have been confirmed as major mergers using near-infrared imaging, one is a confirmed X-ray binary AGN. All AGN are luminous and have redshifts of 0.1 < z < 0.4. Deep r-band images show that a majority (3/4) of the sources have disturbed host morphologies and tidal features, while the remaining source is morphologically undisturbed down to low surface brightness limits. The lack of morphological disturbances in this galaxy despite the fact that is is a close binary AGN suggests that the me...

  19. Numerical modeling of the elution peak profiles of retained solutes in supercritical fluid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof [University of Tennessee and Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland; Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), the significant expansion of the mobile phase along the column causes the formation of axial and radial gradients of temperature. Due to these gradients, the mobile phase density, its viscosity, its velocity, its diffusion coefficients, etc. are not constant throughout the column. This results in a nonuniform flow velocity distribution, itself causing a loss of column efficiency in certain cases, even at low flow rates, as they do in HPLC. At high flow rates, an important deformation of the elution profiles of the sample components may occur. The model previously used to account satisfactorily for the retention of an unsorbed solute in SFC is applied to the modeling of the elution peak profiles of retained compounds. The numerical solution of the combined heat and mass balance equations provides the temperature and the pressure profiles inside the column and values of the retention time and the band profiles of retained compounds that are in excellent agreement with independent experimental data for large value of mobile phase reduced density. At low reduced densities, the band profiles can strongly depend on the column axial distribution of porosity.

  20. Analysis of the need for intermediate and peaking technologies in the year 2000. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrager, S.M.; Campbell, G.L.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis was conducted to assess the impact of load management on the future need for intermediate- and peak-generating technologies (IPTs) such as combustion turbines, pumped storage, and cycling coal plants. There would be a reduced need for IPTs if load-management activities such as time-of-use pricing, together with customer-owned energy-storage devices, hot-water-heater controls, and interruptible service can economically remove most of the variation from electric power demands. The objective of this analysis is to assess the need for IPTs in an uncertain future, which will probably include load management and time-differentiated electricity prices. The analysis is exploratory in nature and broad in scope. It does not attempt to predict the future or to model precisely the technical characteristics or economic desirability of load management. Rather, its purpose is to provide research and development planners with some basic insights into the order of magnitude of possible hourly demand shifts on a regional basis and to determine the impact of load management on daily and seasonal variations in electricity demand.

  1. EIS No. 20100312 EIS Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, David J [ORNL

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with Section 309(a) of the Clean Air Act, EPA is required to make its comments on EISs issued by other Federal agencies public. Historically, EPA has met this mandate by publishing weekly notices of availability of EPA comments, which includes a brief summary of EPA's comment letters, in the Federal Register. Since February 2008, EPA has been including its comment letters on EISs on its Web site at: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/eisdata.html. Including the entire EIS comment letters on the Web site satisfies the Section 309(a) requirement to make EPA's comments on EISs available to the public. Accordingly, on March 31, 2010, EPA discontinued the publication of the notice of availability of EPA comments in the Federal Register. EIS No. 20100312, Draft EIS, NRC, TX, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4, Application for Combined Licenses (COLs) for Construction Permits and Operating Licenses, (NUREG-1943), Hood and Somervell Counties, TX, Comment Period Ends: 10/26/2010.

  2. Stability of the fragments and thermalization at peak center-of-mass energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aman D. Sood; Sukhjit Kaur

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We simulate the central reactions of nearly symmetric, and asymmetric systems, for the energies at which the maximum production of IMFs occurs (E$_{c.m.}^{peak}$).This study is carried out by using hard EOS along with cugnon cross section and employing MSTB method for clusterization. We study the various properties of fragments. The stability of fragments is checked through persistence coefficient and gain term. The information about the thermalization and stopping in heavy-ion collisions is obtained via relative momentum, anisotropy ratio, and rapidity distribution. We find that for a complete stopping of incoming nuclei very heavy systems are required. The mass dependence of various quantities (such as average and maximum central density, collision dynamics as well as the time zone for hot and dense nuclear matter) is also presented. In all cases (i.e., average and maximum central density, collision dynamics as well as the time zone for hot and dense nuclear matter) a power law dependence is obtained.

  3. Boson Peak in Deeply Cooled Confined Water: A Possible Way to Explore the Existence of the Liquid-to-Liquid Transition in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhe

    The boson peak in deeply cooled water confined in nanopores is studied with inelastic neutron scattering. We show that in the (P, T) plane, the locus of the emergence of the boson peak is nearly parallel to the Widom line ...

  4. JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE 952 14-220 ( 199 I) A CommonSenseApproach to Peak Picking in Two-, Three-,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powers, Robert

    that significantly more time and energy are required for the tedious manual peak- picking step. Interactive graphics of peak picking, manual inspection of spectra with an interactive graphics program will always

  5. Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E. [DFI/Aeronomics Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

  6. An MBendi Profile: World: Oil And Gas Industry -Peak Oil: an Outlook on Crude Oil Depletion -C.J.Campbell -Revised February 2002 Search for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An MBendi Profile: World: Oil And Gas Industry - Peak Oil: an Outlook on Crude Oil Depletion - C - Contact Us - Newsletter Register subscribe to our FREE newsletter World: Oil And Gas Industry - Peak Oil the subsequent decline. q Gas, which is less depleted than oil, will likely peak around 2020. q Capacity limits

  7. Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Fall 2013 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Power Loss; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    ; Power Loss; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3 Due October 10, in class, or before 5pm outside: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Power Loss; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3 Due October 10, in class peripheral buildings; at peak output, the plant generates 185,000 pounds of steam each hour. It has been

  8. Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Fall 2014 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Power Loss; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    ; Power Loss; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3 Due October 9, in class, or before 5pm outside) Fall 2014 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Power Loss; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set campus and several peripheral buildings; at peak output, the plant generates 84.0 tons of steam each hour

  9. Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Fall 2014 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Power Loss; Peak Oil; Energy economics Problem Set #3 Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    ; Power Loss; Peak Oil; Energy economics Problem Set #3 Solutions Due October 9. Grade by October 16284) Fall 2014 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Power Loss; Peak Oil; Energy economics: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Power Loss; Peak Oil; Energy economics Problem Set #3 Solutions Due October 9

  10. Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Fall 2011 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3 Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    ; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3 Solutions Due October 6. Grade by October 18. Total Points: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3 Solutions Due October 6. Grade/PP284) Fall 2011 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3

  11. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 501, Vol. 46, No. 1, March 2009, pp. 1928 ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK-BASED ESTIMATION OF PEAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ­28 ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK-BASED ESTIMATION OF PEAK GROUND ACCELERATION C.R. Arjun and Ashok Kumar Department the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the estimation of peak ground acceleration (PGA inputs. KEYWORDS: Artificial Neural Networks, Peak Ground Acceleration, Hypocentral Distance, Shear Wave

  12. EFFECT OF MEASUREMENT ERRORS ON PREDICTED COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM SHEAR PEAK STATISTICS WITH LARGE SYNOPTIC SURVEY TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bard, D.; Chang, C.; Kahn, S. M.; Gilmore, K.; Marshall, S. [KIPAC, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Kratochvil, J. M.; Huffenberger, K. M. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); May, M. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); AlSayyad, Y.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R. R.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Lorenz, S. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Haiman, Z.; Jernigan, J. G., E-mail: djbard@slac.stanford.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); and others

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of galaxy shape measurement errors on predicted cosmological constraints from the statistics of shear peak counts with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We use the LSST Image Simulator in combination with cosmological N-body simulations to model realistic shear maps for different cosmological models. We include both galaxy shape noise and, for the first time, measurement errors on galaxy shapes. We find that the measurement errors considered have relatively little impact on the constraining power of shear peak counts for LSST.

  13. Method for reducing peak phase current and decreasing staring time for an internal combustion engine having an induction machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amey, David L. (Birmingham, MI); Degner, Michael W. (Farmington Hills, MI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reducing the starting time and reducing the peak phase currents for an internal combustion engine that is started using an induction machine starter/alternator. The starting time is reduced by pre-fluxing the induction machine and the peak phase currents are reduced by reducing the flux current command after a predetermined period of time has elapsed and concurrent to the application of the torque current command. The method of the present invention also provides a strategy for anticipating the start command for an internal combustion engine and determines a start strategy based on the start command and the operating state of the internal combustion engine.

  14. S (LLV, 150 eV) and C (KLL, 265 eV) Auger peaks scale with varied TTPO coverage C peak loses significance in prolonged study as it is present following thermal annealing beyond TTPO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    contaminant; high concentration Sulfur: low natural presence; high relative Auger sensitivity TTPO deposited indicator peak of TTPO coverage as sulfur is unlikely to originate from other sources Slow decrease pentacene derivative (TTPO), synthesized at UNH, on Au(788) substrate Instrumentation contained in ultra

  15. OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY Richard Perez-shore wind and PV generation using the city of New York as a test case. While wind generation is not known one year's worth of hourly site & time-specific data including electrical demand PV and off-shore wind

  16. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  17. Application Hosting and Management for Top Technology and Expertise Keep Your WebSphere Commerce Solution in Peak Shape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    integrations, and service availability · Proactive response to resolve and triage failure or error alerts · Ongoing data management and retention · Patch management and maintenance of WebSphere® Commerce including, availability and scalability of your site · Easily adjust to traffic fluctuations and peak demands · Resolve

  18. TSNo s02-peak104427-P Direct Determination of Phosphate Species in Alum-Amended Poultry Litter.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    TSNo s02-peak104427-P Title Direct Determination of Phosphate Species in Alum-Amended Poultry that addition of alum lowers water-soluble P levels dramatically in poultry litter, but the mechanism has never been fully addressed. We used XANES spectroscopy at the P k edge to directly determine the speciation

  19. Structural-Based Power-Aware Assignment of Don't Cares for Peak Power Reduction during Scan Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Structural-Based Power-Aware Assignment of Don't Cares for Peak Power Reduction during Scan Testing on ISCAS'89 and ITC'99 benchmark circuits with the proposed structural-based power- aware X, and the resulting excessive power consumption can cause structural damage or severe decrease in reliability

  20. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 24, 1647-1668 (2008) Power-Management Scheduling for Peak Power Minimization*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hsin-Min

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 24, 1647-1668 (2008) 1647 Power-Management, huge peak power has become an important concern. A widely used power management technique is to shut. Therefore, operation scheduling has a significant impact on the po- tential of power management. Based

  1. What determines the emission peak energy of the blue luminescence in highly Mg-doped p-GaN?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    indicating the existence of an Urbach tail in the absorption edge of p-GaN. The emission peak energy (Eem reduction in width when compared to the ``nor- mal'' BL. The selectively excited BL showed a shift in Eem with Eex . A plot of Eem­Eex vs Eex is shown in Fig. 2. We find this dependence to be separable into two

  2. A peaks-over-threshold analysis of extreme traffic load effects on bridges Franziska Schmidt, Xiao Yi Zhou, Franois Toutlemonde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    extreme traffic load or traffic load effect. These are: i. a half-normal curve fitted to the end1 A peaks-over-threshold analysis of extreme traffic load effects on bridges Franziska Schmidt focuses on modeling and estimating tail parameters of bridge traffic load effects by generalized Pareto

  3. South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com Save while you can: Your earnings may peak in your 40s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com Save while you can: Your earnings may peak in your 40s By Donna Gehrke-White Sun Sentinel 10:06 AM EDT, July 18, 2011 Don't delay saving: Most workers make the most while they can. Adam is asking her clients to start saving for retirement earlier and contribute

  4. COLL-C 103: Critical Approaches to the Arts & Sciences, Fall 2012 TOPIC: Pleasure, Pain, and Peak Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    Oil Instructor: Dr. Lisa Sideris Department of Religious Studies lsideris@indiana.edu Class meetings: Tuesday/Thursday 11:15-12:30 Course Description: American society is addicted to oil. Halting any. Pressing environmental issues such as peak oil and climate change may well bring a radical reevaluation

  5. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  6. CaF/sub 2/:Mn thermoluminescence: a single glow peak not described by 1st or 2nd order kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornyak, W.F.; Levy, P.W.; Kierstead, J.A.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoluminescence (TL) of CaF/sub 2/:Mn has been studied using photon counting and digital recording. For doses of 10 rad or less the TL glow curves appear to consist of a single glow peak. However, there are indications - which are pronounced at larger doses - that one additional low intensity peak (area less than or equal to one percent) is superimposed on each side of the central peak. The intense peak is not described by 1st or 2nd order kinetics but is well described by the more general kinetics from which these kinetics are derived. These observations, and the results of additional kinetic analysis, demonstrate that retrapping is not negligible and may include all three peaks. In such systems, which are likely to include other dosimeter materials and minerals, peak height will not increase linearly with dose; an important factor for dosimetry and dating applications.

  7. Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

  8. Interaction-powered supernovae: rise-time versus peak-luminosity correlation and the shock-breakout velocity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Arcavi, Iair; Tal, David; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ben-Ami, Sagi; De Cia, Annalisa; Yaron, Ofer [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Cao, Yi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bersier, David [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Fransson, Claes [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, MS 314-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Quimby, Robert [Kavli IPMU (WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Interaction of supernova (SN) ejecta with the optically thick circumstellar medium (CSM) of a progenitor star can result in a bright, long-lived shock-breakout event. Candidates for such SNe include Type IIn and superluminous SNe. If some of these SNe are powered by interaction, then there should be a specific relation between their peak luminosity, bolometric light-curve rise time, and shock-breakout velocity. Given that the shock velocity during shock breakout is not measured, we expect a correlation, with a significant spread, between the rise time and the peak luminosity of these SNe. Here, we present a sample of 15 SNe IIn for which we have good constraints on their rise time and peak luminosity from observations obtained using the Palomar Transient Factory. We report on a possible correlation between the R-band rise time and peak luminosity of these SNe, with a false-alarm probability of 3%. Assuming that these SNe are powered by interaction, combining these observables and theory allows us to deduce lower limits on the shock-breakout velocity. The lower limits on the shock velocity we find are consistent with what is expected for SNe (i.e., ?10{sup 4} km s{sup –1}). This supports the suggestion that the early-time light curves of SNe IIn are caused by shock breakout in a dense CSM. We note that such a correlation can arise from other physical mechanisms. Performing such a test on other classes of SNe (e.g., superluminous SNe) can be used to rule out the interaction model for a class of events.

  9. Literature review of the History of Building Peak Load and Annual Energy Use Calculation Methods in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mao, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    about how much energy will be consumed after the buildings are put into operation. A review of the calculation methods is important to understand the methods that were used for designing existing buildings and what aspects of those methods could... be improved to better design energy efficient commercial buildings in the future. 1.1 History of Related Science The development of peak load and annual energy use calculation methods could not be performed without a solid foundation based on the related...

  10. Industrial-Load-Shaping: The Practice of and Prospects for Utility/Industry Cooperation to Manage Peak Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bules, D. J.; Rubin, D. E.; Maniates, M. F.

    in programs that influence electric demand in ways that produce desired changes in the pattern and magnitude of a utility's electric load profile. These programs, commonly termed "de mand side management" (DSH) , have a customer orien tation... such a rescheduling. The residential customer class appears least suited to load-shaping efforts. Al though characterized by a relatively low load-profile (high peak-to-average ratio) and consistent electricity consumption pat terns, the timing...

  11. Pollution and the price of power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewees, D.N. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Economics

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyses the un-priced environmental harm caused by generating electricity from fossil fuels in the ECAR control region south of the Great Lakes in 2004 and again in 2015 when the recent Clean Air Interstate Rule will have its full effect. Using existing damage values, we estimate wholesale electricity under-pricing for coal-fired plants at about $40 per MWh in 2004, almost as much again as the $45/MWh actual price. Averaging across all fuels, the price of electricity was more than $30/MWh too low. The under-pricing will still be $18/MWh for coal plants and $15 for all generation sources in 2015, a decade after CAIR was adopted. Recognizing this environmental price now could reduce pollution levels, increase energy conservation and lead to wiser choices of new generation technology.

  12. SmartCap: Flattening Peak Electricity Demand in Smart Homes Sean Barker, Aditya Mishra, David Irwin, Prashant Shenoy, and Jeannie Albrecht

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    SmartCap: Flattening Peak Electricity Demand in Smart Homes Sean Barker, Aditya Mishra, David Irwin--Flattening household electricity demand reduces generation costs, since costs are disproportionately affected by peak demands. While the vast majority of household electrical loads are interactive and have little scheduling

  13. An Audio Compressor/Peak Limiter Circuit The object of this experiment is to use the voltage-controlled amplifier designed in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach Jr.,W. Marshall

    An Audio Compressor/Peak Limiter Circuit The object of this experiment is to use the voltage-controlled amplifier designed in the last lab to realize an audio compressor/peak limiter circuit. Such a circuit and a compressor is primarily in the attack and release times of the circuits. A limiter reduces gain quickly when

  14. THE TEPHRA STRATIGRAPHY OF TWO LAKES IN SOUTH-CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MID-LATE HOLOCENE VOLCANIC ACTIVITY AT GLACIER PEAK AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavin, Daniel G.

    FOR THE MID-LATE HOLOCENE VOLCANIC ACTIVITY AT GLACIER PEAK AND MOUNT ST. HELENS, WASHINGTON, USA Objective · New evidence of the ages and plume trajectories for four tephras. First evidence of Glacier Peak A, D, and Dusty Creek, and Mt. St. Helens P, as airfall tephra in south-central British Columbia. · The Glacier

  15. The transition from complex crater to peak-ring basin on the Moon: New observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuber, Maria

    , Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article, Grimaldi, Freundlich­Sharonov, Coulomb­Sarton, and Korolev) are now classified as peak-ring basins due morphology that may be uniquely transitional to the process of forming peak rings. A power-law fit to ring

  16. 654 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. COM-33, NO. 7 , JULY 1985 Analysis of Jitter Peaking Effects in Digital Long-Haul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chamzas, Christodoulos

    654 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. COM-33, NO. 7 , JULY 1985 Analysis of Jitter Peaking-locked-loop retiming, where the "jitter peaking"thatusuallyappearsintheloopresponsemustbecarefully limited, in the caseof ripply filters, exponential jitter accumulationis found to be much more pronounced for random

  17. An air-Brayton nuclear-hydrogen combined-cycle peak-and base-load electric plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor and hydrogen produced by the high-temperature reactor to meet base-load and peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, air is compressed; flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C; and exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The heat, via an intermediate heat-transport loop, is provided by a high-temperature reactor. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, after nuclear heating of the compressed air, hydrogen is injected into the combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. This process increases the plant efficiency and power output. Hydrogen is produced at night by electrolysis or other methods using energy from the nuclear reactor and is stored until needed. Therefore, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the hydrogen and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the grid.

  18. Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the unique characteristics of high-temperature reactors (T>700 C) to produce electricity for premium electric markets whose demands can not be met by other types of nuclear reactors. It may also make the use of nuclear reactors economically feasible in smaller electrical grids, such as those found in many developing countries. The ability to rapidly vary power output can be used to stabilize electric grid performance-a particularly important need in small electrical grids.

  19. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  20. Cross-shift peak expiratory flow changes are unassociated with respirable coal dust exposure among South African coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Becklake, M.; Seixas, N.; Thompson, M.L. [University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban (South Africa)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    he objectives of this study were to determine whether cross-shift changes in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were related to respirable dust exposure in South African coalminers. Fifty workers were randomly selected from a cohort of 684 miners from 3 bituminous coal mines in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Peak expiratory efforts were measured prior to the commencement of the shift, and at the end of the shift on at least two occasions separated by at least 2 weeks, with full shift personal dust sampling being conducted on each occasion for each participant. Interviews were conducted, work histories were obtained and cumulative exposure estimates were constructed. Regression models examined the associations of cross-shift changes in PEFR with current and cumulative exposure, controlling for shift, smoking and past history of tuberculosis. There were marginal differences in cross-shift PEFR (ranging from 0.1 to 2 L/min). Linear regression analyses showed no association between cross-shift change in PEFR and current or cumulative exposure. The specific shift worked by participants in the study showed no effect. Our study showed no association between current respirable dust exposure and cross-shift changes in PEFR. There was a non-significant protective effect of cumulative dust exposure on the outcome, suggesting the presence of a 'healthy worker survivor effect' in this data.

  1. Resting early peak diastolic filling rate: a sensitive index of myocardial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polak, J.F.; Kemper, A.J.; Bianco, J.A.; Parisi, A.F.; Tow, D.E.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resting first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography (RNA) was used to derive left-ventricular (LV) peak diastolic filling rates (PFR) in normals (Group 1:N . 12) and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), both without (Group 2:N . 27) and with previous myocardial infarction (Group 3:N . 23). Resting peak filling rates were significantly depressed in both Group 2 (1.61 +/- 0.36; p less than 0.01) and Group 3 (1:35 +/- 0.26; p less than 0.001) patients when compared with Group 1, normals (2.14 +/- 0.63). Even though LV systolic function of Group 2 patients was normal and comparable to that in Group 1 (EF . 0.55 +/- 0.06 against EF 0.55 +/- 0.06 NS), diastolic dysfunction (PFR less than 1.61 end diastolic volume/sec (EDV/sec)) was present at rest in 14 of 27 (52%). Depressed PFR values was also seen in 20 of 23 Group 3 patients (87%). It appears that (a) resting PFR is a sensitive and easily obtainable parameter of the diastolic dysfunction associated with CAD; (b) abnormal PFR values are seen in almost all patients with previous myocardial damage, and (c) a significant proportion of CAD patients without any evidence of abnormal systolic function have depressed resting PFR of the LV.

  2. Optical Monitoring of BL Lacertae Object S5 0716+714 with a Novel Multi-Peak Interference Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianghua Wu; Xu Zhou; Jun Ma; Zhenyu Wu; Zhaoji Jiang; Jiansheng Chen

    2006-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We at first introduce a novel photometric system, which consists of a Schmidt telescope, an objective prism, a CCD camera, and, especially, a multi-peak interference filter. The multi-peak interference filter enables light in multi passbands to pass through it simultaneously. The light in different passbands is differentially refracted by the objective prism and is focused on the CCD separately, so we have multi "images" for each object on the CCD frames. This system enables us to monitor blazars exactly simultaneously in multi wavebands on a single telescope, and to accurately trace the color change during the variation. We used this novel system to monitor the BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714 during 2006 January and February and achieved a very high temporal resolution. The object was very bright and very active during this period. Two strong flares were observed, with variation amplitudes of about 0.8 and 0.6 mags in the $V'$ band, respectively. Strong bluer-when-brighter correlations were found for both internight and intranight variations. No apparent time lag was observed between the $V'$- and $R'$-band variations, and the observed bluer-when-brighter chromatism may be mainly attributed to the larger variation amplitude at shorter wavelength. In addition to the bluer-when-brighter trend, the object also showed a bluer color when it was more active. The observed variability and its color behaviors are consistent with the shock-in-jet model.

  3. The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Wishart

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the work performed under Task 1.2.1.1: 'The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities'. The work involved in this task included understanding the experimental results of the other tasks of SOW-5799 in order to take advantage of the economics of electricity pricing differences between on- and off-peak hours and the demonstrated charging and facility energy demand profiles. To undertake this task and to demonstrate the feasibility of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) bi-directional electricity exchange potential, BEA has subcontracted Electric Transportation Applications (now known as ECOtality North America and hereafter ECOtality NA) to use the data from the demand and energy study to focus on reducing the electrical power demand of the charging facility. The use of delayed charging as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) operations were to be considered.

  4. FEMAXI-V benchmarking study on peak temperature and fission gas release prediction of PWR rod fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suwardi; Dewayatna, W.; Briyatmoko, B. [Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology - National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Tangerang - 15310 (Indonesia)

    2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present paper reports a study of FEMAXI-V code and related report on code benchmarking. Capabilities of the FEMAXI-V code to predict the thermal and fission gas release have been tested on MOX fuels in LWRs which has been done in SCK{center_dot}CEN and Belgonucleaire by using PRIMO MOX rod BD8 irradiation experiment after V Sobolev as reported O. J. Ott. Base irradiation in the BR3 reactor, the BD8 rod was transported to CEA-Saclay for irradiation in the OSIRIS reactor (ramp power excursion). The irradiation device used for the PRIMO ramps was the ISABELLE 1 loop, installed on a movable structure of the core periphery. The power variations were obtained by inwards/backwards movements of the loop in the core water. The preconditioning phase for rod BD8 occurred at a peak power level of 189 W/cm with a hold time of 27 hours. The subsequent power excursion rate amounted to 77 W/ (cm.min), reaching a terminal peak power level of 395 W/cm that lasted for 20 hours.

  5. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  6. O$_2$ Emission Toward Orion H$_2$ Peak 1 and the Role of FUV-Illuminated C-Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melnick, Gary J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular oxygen, O_2, has been the target of ground-based and space-borne searches for decades. Of the thousands of lines of sight surveyed, only those toward Rho Oph and Orion H_2 Peak 1 have yielded detections of any statistical significance. The detection of the O_2 N_J =3_3 -1_2 and 5_4 - 3_4 lines at 487.249 GHz and 773.840 GHz, respectively, toward Rho Ophiuchus has been attributed to a short-lived peak in the time-dependent, cold-cloud O_2 abundance, while the detection of the O_2 N_J =3_3 - 1_2, 5_4 - 3_4 lines, plus the 7_6 - 5_6 line at 1120.715 GHz, toward Orion has been ascribed to time-dependent preshock physical and chemical evolution and low-velocity (12 km/s) non-dissociative C-type shocks, both of which are fully shielded from far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation, plus a postshock region that is exposed to a FUV field. We report a re-interpretation of the Orion O_2 detection based on new C-type shock models that fully incorporate the significant effects the presence of even a weak FUV field can h...

  7. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak-Load Shifting and Spinning Reserves Cost/Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Li, Shun

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production of smart appliances. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the societal challenges, such as anthropogenic global warming, associated with increased electricity demand, and facilitate increased penetration of renewable sources of power. The appliances we consider include refrigerator/freezers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, room air-conditioners, and dishwashers. The petition requests the recognition that providing an appliance with smart grid capability, i.e., products that meet the definition of a smart appliance, is at least equivalent to a corresponding five percent in operational machine efficiencies. It is then expected that given sufficient incentives and value propositions, and suitable automation capabilities built into smart appliances, residential consumers will be adopting these smart appliances and will be willing participants in addressing the aforementioned societal challenges by more effectively managing their home electricity consumption. The analytical model we utilize in our cost/benefit analysis consists of a set of user-definable assumptions such as the definition of on-peak (hours of day, days of week, months of year), the expected percentage of normal consumer electricity consumption (also referred to as appliance loads) that can shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours, the average power rating of each appliance, etc. Based on these assumptions, we then formulate what the wholesale grid operating-cost savings, or benefits, would be if the smart capabilities of appliances were invoked, and some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads served power-system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. The rationale is that appliance loads can be curtailed for about ten minutes or less in response to a grid contingency without any diminution in the quality of service to the consumer. We then estimate the wholesale grid operating-cost savings based on historical wholesale-market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States. The savings derived from the smart grid capabilities of an appliance are then compared to the savings derived from a five percent increase in traditional operational machine efficiencies, referred to as cost in this report, to determine whether the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as or higher than the operational machine efficiency credit (cost).

  8. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  9. Resonant tunneling with high peak to valley current ratio in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D. Y., E-mail: cdy7659@126.com [Department of Physics, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic, materials, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Nanjing University of posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Sun, Y.; He, Y. J. [Nanjing University of posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Xu, L.; Xu, J. [Department of Physics, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic, materials, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated carrier transport in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers by room temperature current-voltage measurements. Resonant tunneling signatures accompanied by current peaks are observed. Carrier transport in the multi-layers were analyzed by plots of ln(I/V{sup 2}) as a function of 1/V and ln(I) as a function of V{sup 1/2}. Results suggest that besides films quality, nc-Si and barrier sub-layer thicknesses are important parameters that restrict carrier transport. When thicknesses are both small, direct tunneling dominates carrier transport, resonant tunneling occurs only at certain voltages and multi-resonant tunneling related current peaks can be observed but with peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) values smaller than 1.5. When barrier thickness is increased, trap-related and even high field related tunneling is excited, causing that multi-current peaks cannot be observed clearly, only one current peak with higher PVCR value of 7.7 can be observed. While if the thickness of nc-Si is large enough, quantum confinement is not so strong, a broad current peak with PVCR value as high as 60 can be measured, which may be due to small energy difference between the splitting energy levels in the quantum dots of nc-Si. Size distribution in a wide range may cause un-controllability of the peak voltages.

  10. Spanish Peaks folio, Colorado 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hills, R. C. (Richard Charles), 1848-1923.

    1901-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis introduces a rock classification technique for organic-rich shale that takes into account well-log-based estimates of compositional, petrophysical, and elastic properties. Well logs and laboratory core measurements were used...

  11. Desert Peak EGS Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E L D *Department ofDescriptive Model of

  12. Bandwidth Historical Peak Days

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BES UserDOEprogramJ

  13. Idaho_WilsonPeak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot Springs SiteWassmuth Site #1113

  14. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  15. Two-Level Systems and Boson Peak Remain Stable in 110-Million-Year-Old Amber Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomás Pérez-Castañeda; Rafael J. Jiménez-Riobóo; Miguel A. Ramos

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The two most prominent and ubiquitous features of glasses at low temperatures, namely the presence of tunneling two-level systems and the so-called boson peak in the reduced vibrational density of states, are shown to persist essentially unchanged in highly stabilized glasses, contrary to what was usually envisaged. Specifically, we have measured the specific heat of 110 million-year-old amber samples from El Soplao (Spain), both at very low temperatures and around the glass transition Tg. In particular, the amount of two-level systems, assessed at the lowest temperatures, was surprisingly found to be exactly the same for the pristine hyperaged amber as for the, subsequently, partially and fully rejuvenated samples.

  16. Microprocessor control of power sharing and solar array peak power tracking for high power (2. 5 kW) switching power converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speer, J.H. Jr.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype system of twin power converters for solar array supplement of spacecraft power buses is described. Analog circuits are used for inner control loops and a microprocessor directs power sharing and peak power tracking. 3 refs.

  17. Phase-Change Frame Walls (PCFWs) for On-Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Residential Buildings: Development, Construction and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, M.; Medina, M. A.; King, J. B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this work was to develop a thermally enhanced frame wall that would reduce peak load air conditioning demand, shift a portion of the thermal load, and conserve energy in residential buildings. A frame wall containing...

  18. The "Supercritical Pile" Model for GRB: Getting the nu F_{nu} peak at 1 MeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demosthenes Kazanas; Markos Georganopoulos; Apostolos Mastichiadis

    2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose that the internal energy of the GRB blast waves, thought to be stored in the form of relativistic protons co-moving with the blast wave, is converted explosively (i.e. on light crossing time scales) into relativistic electrons of the same Lorentz factor, which are responsible for the production of observed prompt gamma-ray emission of the burst. This conversion is the result of the combined effects of the reflection of photons produced within the flow by upstream located matter, their re-interception by the blast wave and their eventual conversion into e^+e^--pairs in interactions with the relativistic protons of the blast wave (via the p gamma --> p e^+e^- reaction). This entire procedure is contingent on two conditions on the relativistic protons: a kinematic one imposed by the threshold of the p gamma --> e^+e^- reaction and a dynamic one related to the column density of the post shock matter to the same process. This latter condition is in essence identical to that of the criticality of a nuclear pile, hence the terminology. It is argued that the properties of relativistic blast waves operating under these conditions are consistent with GRB phenomenology, including the recently found correlation between quiescence periods and subsequent flare fluence. Furthermore, it is shown that, when operating near threshold, the resulting GRB spectrum produces its peak luminosity at an energy (in the lab frame) E ~= m_ec^2, thereby providing an answer to this outstanding question of GRBs.

  19. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-427-1613, Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, P.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for formaldehyde at the Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado in August, 1984 and February, 1985. The evaluation was requested by a representative of the Center to determine if there was a health hazard due to formaldehyde. Eight employees were interviewed. The ventilation systems were investigated. Personal protective clothing was inspected. Breathing-zone samples contained 0 28 to 1.0 (mg/m/sup 3/) formaldehyde. The OSHA standard for formaldehyde is 3.7 mg/m/sup 3/. Area formaldehyde concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 0.75 mg/m/sup 3/. Health complaints reported included sore throat, congestion, cough, and eye, nose and throat irritation. Most of the complaints originated from employees in the formalin mixing, reuse sterilization, and dialysis unit packing sections. The exhaust system in the reuse sterilization area was not working efficiently. A variety of personal protective clothing was available including lab coats, protective goggles, aprons, respirators, and gloves. The author concludes that a health hazard from formaldehyde exposure exists at the facility. Recommendations include improving local exhaust ventilation in areas where formaldehyde is used extensively, avoiding skin and eye contact with formaldehyde, and training and educating employees in safe work practices.

  20. Vibrational dynamics of permanently densified GeO{sub 2} glasses: Densification-induced changes in the boson peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orsingher, L.; Fontana, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, I-38050 Povo Trento (Italy); Research center SOFT-INFM-CNR, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', I-00185 Roma (Italy); Gilioli, E. [IMEM-CNR, Area delle Scienze, 43010 Parma (Italy); Carini, G. Jr.; Carini, G.; Tripodo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 S. Agata (Montenegro) (Italy); Unruh, T. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz-Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Buchenau, U. [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2010-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitreous GeO{sub 2}, one of the main prototypes of strong glasses, was densified at several pressures up to 6 GPa, achieving more than 20% of densification. The density dependence of the vibrational density of states and of the low temperature properties of these glasses was investigated by means of inelastic neutron scattering and calorimetric measurements. With increasing density, both the boson peak and the bump in c{sub p}/T{sup 3} versus T plot exhibit variations which are stronger than the elastic medium expectation. If one reduces the measured spectra to a common master curve, one finds that this is only possible for the densified samples; the first densification step has an additional effect, similar to other cases in the literature. Nevertheless, the existence of a master curve for the three densified samples proves that the total number of excess modes remains constant on further densification. The experimental data are discussed in the framework of different theoretical models.

  1. Improvements to the RELAP5/MOD3 reflood model and uncertainty quantification of reflood peak clad temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Young Lee; Park, Chan Eok; Lee, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessment of the original REAP/N4OD3.1 code against the FLECHT SEASET series of experiments has identified some weaknesses of the reflood model, such as the lack of a quenching temperature model, the shortcoming of the Chen transition boiling model, and the incorrect prediction of droplet size and interfacial heat transfer. Also, high temperature spikes during the reflood calculation resulted in high steam flow oscillation and liquid carryover. An effort had been made to improve the code with respect to the above weakness, and the necessary model for the wall heat transfer package and the numerical scheme had been modified. Some important FLECHT-SEASET experiments were assessed using the improved version and standard version. The result from the improved REAP/MOD3.1 shows the weaknesses of REAP/N4OD3.1 were much improved when compared to the standard MOD3.1 code. The prediction of void profile and cladding temperature agreed better with test data, especially for the gravity feed test. The scatter diagram of peak cladding temperatures (PCTs) is made from the comparison of all the calculated PCTs and the corresponding experimental values. The deviation between experimental and calculated PCTs were calculated for 2793 data points. The deviations are shown to be normally distributed, and used to quantify statistically the PCT uncertainty of the code. The upper limit of PCT uncertainty at 95% confidence level is evaluated to be about 99K.

  2. Verification of maximum radial power peaking factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setyawan, Daddy, E-mail: d.setyawan@bapeten.go.id [Center for Assessment of Regulatory System and Technology for Nuclear Installations and Materials, Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), Jl. Gajah Mada No. 8 Jakarta 10120 (Indonesia); Rohman, Budi [Licensing Directorate for Nuclear Installations and Materials, Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), Jl. Gajah Mada No. 8 Jakarta 10120 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Verification of Maximum Radial Power Peaking Factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS Reactor. Radial Power Peaking Factor in RSG-GAS Reactor is a very important parameter for the safety of RSG-GAS reactor during operation. Data of radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of Fission Product Molybdenum with Low Enriched Uranium (FPM-LEU) was reported by PRSG to BAPETEN through the Safety Analysis Report RSG-GAS for FPM-LEU target irradiation. In order to support the evaluation of the Safety Analysis Report incorporated in the submission, the assessment unit of BAPETEN is carrying out independent assessment in order to verify safety related parameters in the SAR including neutronic aspect. The work includes verification to the maximum radial power peaking factor change due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target in RSG-GAS Reactor by computational method using MCNP5and ORIGEN2. From the results of calculations, the new maximum value of the radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target is 1.27. The results of calculations in this study showed a smaller value than 1.4 the limit allowed in the SAR.

  3. Energy Efficiency / Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP), Vol. I – Summary ReportAnnual Report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Sept. 2003 to Aug. 2004 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Gilman, D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Muns, S.; Verdict, M.; Ahmad, M.; Liu, Z.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Bryant, J.; Degelman, L. O.; Turner, W. D.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -family construction in both non-attainment and affected counties built in 2004: ? The annual savings in 2004 amounted to 233,806 megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity and 667,945 million Btus of natural gas. The resultant annual NOx reductions were 346 tons.... ? On the peak day (August 19, 1999, baseline in the historical air quality model), the savings would have been 1,317 MWh/day and 1,148 million Btus of natural gas, resulting in peak-day NOx emissions reductions of 1.89 tons. ? Cumulative NOx reductions...

  4. Program Design Analysis using BEopt Building Energy Optimization Software: Defining a Technology Pathway Leading to New Homes with Zero Peak Cooling Demand; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.; Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optimization method based on the evaluation of a broad range of different combinations of specific energy efficiency and renewable-energy options is used to determine the least-cost pathway to the development of new homes with zero peak cooling demand. The optimization approach conducts a sequential search of a large number of possible option combinations and uses the most cost-effective alternatives to generate a least-cost curve to achieve home-performance levels ranging from a Title 24-compliant home to a home that uses zero net source energy on an annual basis. By evaluating peak cooling load reductions on the least-cost curve, it is then possible to determine the most cost-effective combination of energy efficiency and renewable-energy options that both maximize annual energy savings and minimize peak-cooling demand.

  5. ON DARK PEAKS AND MISSING MASS: A WEAK-LENSING MASS RECONSTRUCTION OF THE MERGING CLUSTER SYSTEM A520 ,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clowe, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, 251B Clippinger Labs, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Markevitch, Maxim [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20706 (United States); Bradac, Marusa [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Chung, Sun Mi [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Massey, Richard [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Zaritsky, Dennis, E-mail: clowe@ohio.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Merging clusters of galaxies are unique in their power to directly probe and place limits on the self-interaction cross-section of dark matter. Detailed observations of several merging clusters have shown the intracluster gas to be displaced from the centroids of dark matter and galaxy density by ram pressure, while the latter components are spatially coincident, consistent with collisionless dark matter. This has been used to place upper limits on the dark matter particle self-interaction cross-section of order 1 cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The cluster A520 has been seen as a possible exception. We revisit A520 presenting new Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys mosaic images and a Magellan image set. We perform a detailed weak-lensing analysis and show that the weak-lensing mass measurements and morphologies of the core galaxy-filled structures are mostly in good agreement with previous works. There is, however, one significant difference: We do not detect the previously claimed 'dark core' that contains excess mass with no significant galaxy overdensity at the location of the X-ray plasma. This peak has been suggested to be indicative of a large self-interaction cross-section for dark matter (at least {approx}5{sigma} larger than the upper limit of 0.7 cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} determined by observations of the Bullet Cluster). We find no such indication and instead find that the mass distribution of A520, after subtraction of the X-ray plasma mass, is in good agreement with the luminosity distribution of the cluster galaxies. We conclude that A520 shows no evidence to contradict the collisionless dark matter scenario.

  6. Numerical modeling of elution peak profiles in supercritical fluid chromatography. Part I-Elution of an unretained tracer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof [University of Tennessee and Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland; Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When chromatography is carried out with high-density carbon dioxide as the main component of the mobile phase (a method generally known as 'supercritical fluid chromatography' or SFC), the required pressure gradient along the column is moderate. However, this mobile phase is highly compressible and, under certain experimental conditions, its density may decrease significantly along the column. Such an expansion absorbs heat, cooling the column, which absorbs heat from the outside. The resulting heat transfer causes the formation of axial and radial gradients of temperature that may become large under certain conditions. Due to these gradients, the mobile phase velocity and most physico-chemical parameters of the system (viscosity, diffusion coefficients, etc.) are no longer constant throughout the column, resulting in a loss of column efficiency, even at low flow rates. At high flow rates and in serious cases, systematic variations of the retention factors and the separation factors with increasing flow rates and important deformations of the elution profiles of all sample components may occur. The model previously used to account satisfactorily for the effects of the viscous friction heating of the mobile phase in HPLC is adapted here to account for the expansion cooling of the mobile phase in SFC and is applied to the modeling of the elution peak profiles of an unretained compound in SFC. The numerical solution of the combined heat and mass balance equations provides temperature and pressure profiles inside the column, and values of the retention time and efficiency for elution of this unretained compound that are in excellent agreement with independent experimental data.

  7. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

  8. An Energy and Peak Loads Analysis of the Texas Department of Health Building, Final Report, Prepared for the Energy Efficiency Division, Texas Public Utility Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    points are from the specifications provided by the SPGSC. Each zone, described earlier, was assigned a separate two speed fan. 8 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS & ANALYSIS The energy consumption of the Health Building at Austin was ana- lyzed using the DOE 2.1B... conduction and glass solar loads. Finally, the energy consumption of the Health Building modified to conform the proposed California standards was also studied [3]. BASE BUILDING RESULTS Peak Cooling Loads Figure 4.1 shows the distribution of the peak cooling...

  9. How people actually use thermostats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating Systems. Applied Ergonomics, 40(2), 165- Shipworth,and Sensations. Applied Ergonomics, 12(1), 29-33. Boait, P.Timer/Programmer. Applied Ergonomics, 13(1), 15-23. Nelson,

  10. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems. Applied Ergonomics, 40(2), 165-174. Shipworth, M. ,and sensations. Applied Ergonomics, 12(1), 29-33. Boait, P.timer/programmer. Applied Ergonomics, 13(1), 15-23. Nelson,

  11. How people actually use thermostats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating Systems. Applied Ergonomics, 40(2), 165- Shipworth,and Sensations. Applied Ergonomics, 12(1), 29-33. Boait, P.Timer/Programmer. Applied Ergonomics, 13(1), 15-23. Nelson,

  12. How people actually use thermostats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey (RECS) (Energy Information Administration (EIA),EIA) (2005). Residential Energy Consumption Survey:

  13. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey (RECS) (Energy Information Administration (EIA),EIA) (2005). Residential Energy Consumption Survey:

  14. How people actually use thermostats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey (RECS) (Energy Information Administration (EIA),EIA) (2005). Residential Energy Consumption Survey:

  15. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thermostats, such as the Honeywell Round introduced in 1953,and PTs, such as the Honeywell RTH7600 shown in Figure 1.

  16. How people actually use thermostats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thermostats, such as the Honeywell Round introduced in 1953,and PTs, such as the Honeywell RTH7600 shown in Figure 1.

  17. How people actually use thermostats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thermostats, such as the Honeywell Round introduced in 1953,and PTs, such as the Honeywell RTH7600 shown in Figure 1.

  18. EA-1863: Vegetation Management on the Glen Canyon-Pinnacle Peak Transmission Lines Spanning the Coconino National Forest, Coconino County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of updating the vegetation management and right-of-way maintenance program for Western’s Glen Canyon to Pinnacle Peak 345-kV transmission lines, which cross the Coconino National Forest, Coconino County, Arizona.

  19. An Audio Compressor/Peak Limiter Circuit -Part III The object of this lab is to test your compressor/limiter with a "real-world" audio signal.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach Jr.,W. Marshall

    An Audio Compressor/Peak Limiter Circuit - Part III The object of this lab is to test your compressor/limiter with a "real-world" audio signal. Allen Robinson has set up a microphone the oscilloscope. · Verify that your compressor is working before doing the following steps. · Connect the output

  20. Statewide Electrical Energy Cost Savings and Peak Demand Reduction from the IECC Code-Compliant, Single-Family Residences in Texas (2002-2009) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................................................................................ 5? 3? ENERGY SAVINGS AND DEMAND REDUCTIONS PER HOUSE ............................................... 8? 3.1? Annual Per-House Energy Consumption ......................................................................................... 8? 3....2? Annual Per-House Energy Savings from Adoption of the 2001 and 2006 IECC ............................ 9? 3.3? Per-House Peak Demand Reductions from 2001 and 2006 IECC ................................................... 9? 4? STATEWIDE ELECTRICITY...

  1. Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyoung Ok

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    , of all four walls, respectively. Simulated results using California climate data indicated that PCFWs would reduce peak heat transfer rates by 8% and 19% at 10% PCM concentration and 12.2% and 27% at 20% PCM concentration for the coastal and transitional...

  2. 554 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1993, 115, 554-562 161.12, 163.64;MS 248 (Mt +2), 246 (M+), 155, 126,84 (base peak).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    peak). HRMS Calcd for C8Hl,N202Br:246.00039. Found: 246.0001. 3-[3-[[2-(Trimethylsilyl procedure as used for the synthesis of compound 32 and obtained as a colorless oil (32%) alone with 221 (8

  3. X-ray Peak Profile Analysis on the Microstructure of Al-5.9%Mg-0.3%Sc-0.18%Zr Alloy Deformed by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). 1 Introduction It is well known that alloying of aluminium of the aluminium alloys has been extensively studied [e.g. 1,6], only little information exist on the effectX-ray Peak Profile Analysis on the Microstructure of Al-5.9%Mg-0.3%Sc-0.18%Zr Alloy Deformed

  4. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  5. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  6. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  7. Quasi-elastic peak lineshapes in adsorbate diffusion on nearly flat surfaces at low coverages: the motional narrowing effect in Xe on Pt(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Martinez-Casado; J. L. Vega; A. S. Sanz; S. Miret-Artes

    2007-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Quasi-elastic helium atom scattering measurements have provided clear evidence for a two-dimensional free gas of Xe atoms on Pt(111) at low coverages. Increasing the friction due to the surface, a gradual change of the shape of the quasi-elastic peak is predicted and analyzed for this system in terms of the so-called motional narrowing effect. The type of analysis presented here for the quasi-elastic peak should be prior to any deconvolution procedure carried out in order to better extract information from the process, e.g. diffusion coefficients and jump distributions. Moreover, this analysis also provides conditions for the free gas regime different than those reported earlier.

  8. Benefits of Commisioning New & Existing Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meline, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? Case Study #1 Government Building | McAllen, TX | Constructed in 2008 Case Study #1 Case Study #1 | MWH and KW used Case Study #1 | Energy Use Case Study #1 | Energy Star Rank Case Study #1 | RTU Outside air temperature = 88 degrees. Mixed... heating and cooling. Case Study #1 Case Study #1 Case Study #1 Case Study #2 Government Building | Florida | Constructed in 2008 Case Study #2 | Actual vs. Calculated Utility Bill Case Study #2 | MWH and kW used Case Study #2 | Energy Use...

  9. Peak T in Edge-Cooled Beryllium Window at z = 3 m in Magnet IDS120h Bob Weggel, M.O.R.E., LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Peak T in Edge-Cooled Beryllium Window at z = 3 m in Magnet IDS120h Bob Weggel, M.O.R.E., LLC:16 PM) to incorporate Nick's latest predictions of the power density in a beryllium window at z = 3 m, +0.7) of 103 W/g--190 W/cm3 for beryllium (1.85 g/cm3 ). [Note: File "IDS120hm_BeWind_TDP_NO_SH1_NP

  10. On-line spectrophotometric method for monitoring weak residual absorption of CaMoO{sub 4} single crystals near the intrinsic luminescence peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buzanov, O. A., E-mail: fedorov-metrology@yandex.ru [OAO Fomos-Materials (Russian Federation); Kanevskii, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Kornoukhov, V. N. [OAO Fomos-Materials (Russian Federation)] [OAO Fomos-Materials (Russian Federation); Nabatov, B. V.; Nabatov, V. V.; Fedorov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical and spectral characteristics of isotopically enriched Czochralski-grown {sup 40}Ca{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} single crystals have been investigated. This material is promising for detecting double neutrinoless {beta} decay. The possibility and the technique of spectrophotometric monitoring of weak residual absorption near the intrinsic luminescence peak of this scintillation material, which is designed for developing new-generation detectors of elementary particles, are considered.

  11. Red Hole Gamma-Ray Bursts: A New Gravitational Collapse Paradigm Explains the Peak Energy Distribution and Solves the GRB Energy Crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James S. Graber

    1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are still an enigma. In particular the central engine, the total energy, and the very narrow distribution of peak energies challenge model builders. Motivated by recent theoretical developments (string theory, quantum gravity, critical collapse), which suggest that complete gravitational collapse can occur without singularities or event horizons, we explore how red-hole models (which lack singularities or event horizons) can solve these problems better than black-hole models.

  12. Future climate trends from a first-difference atmospheric carbon dioxide regression model involving emissions scenarios for business as usual and for peak fossil fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leggett, L M W

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the implications of the future continuation of the demonstrated past (1960-2012) strong correlation between first-difference atmospheric CO2 and global surface temperature. It does this, for the period from the present to 2050, for a comprehensive range of future global fossil fuel energy use scenarios. The results show that even for a business-as-usual (the mid-level IPCC) fossil fuel use estimate, global surface temperature will rise at a slower rate than for the recent period 1960-2000. Concerning peak fossil fuel, for the most common scenario the currently observed (1998-2013)temperature plateau will turn into a decrease. The observed trend to date for temperature is compared with that for global climate disasters: these peaked in 2005 and are notably decreasing. The temperature and disaster results taken together are consistent with either a reduced business-as-usual fossil fuel use scenario into the future, or a peak fossil fuel scenario, but not with the standard business-as-usu...

  13. Evaluation of containment peak pressure and structural response for a large-break loss-of-coolant accident in a VVER-440/213 NPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Kulak, R.F.; Pfeiffer, P.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Voeroess, L.; Techy, Z. [VEIKI Inst. for Electric Power Research, Budapest (Hungary); Katona, T. [Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Hungary)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A collaborative effort between US and Hungarian specialists was undertaken to investigate the response of a VVER-440/213-type NPP to a maximum design-basis accident, defined as a guillotine rupture with double-ended flow from the largest pipe (500 mm) in the reactor coolant system. Analyses were performed to evaluate the magnitude of the peak containment pressure and temperature for this event; additional analyses were performed to evaluate the ultimate strength capability of the containment. Separate cases were evaluated assuming 100% effectiveness of the bubbler-condenser pressure suppression system as well as zero effectiveness. The pipe break energy release conditions were evaluated from three sources: (1) FSAR release rate based on Soviet safety calculations, (2) RETRAN-03 analysis and (3) ATHLET analysis. The findings indicated that for 100% bubbler-condenser effectiveness the peak containment pressures were less than the containment design pressure of 0.25 MPa. For the BDBA case of zero effectiveness of the bubbler-condenser system, the peak pressures were less than the calculated containment failure pressure of 0.40 MPa absolute.

  14. Inhomogeneous broadening and peak shift of the 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies in SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajihara, Koichi, E-mail: kkaji@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Urban Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Skuja, Linards [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga iela 8, LV1063 Riga (Latvia); Hosono, Hideo [Materials and Structures Laboratory and Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The peak parameters of radiation-induced 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies (Si-Si bonds) were examined for high-purity synthetic ?-quartz and amorphous SiO{sub 2} (a?SiO{sub 2}) exposed to {sup 60}Co ?-rays. The peak shape is asymmetric with the steeper edge at the lower energy side both in ?-quartz and a?SiO{sub 2}, and the peak energy is larger for ?-quartz than that for a?SiO{sub 2}. The full width at half maximum for a?SiO{sub 2} is larger by ?40-60% than that for ?-quartz, and it increases with an increase in the disorder of the a?SiO{sub 2} network, which is enhanced by raising the temperature of preannealing before irradiation, i.e., fictive temperature. These data are interpreted from the viewpoint of the site-to-site distribution of the Si-Si bond length in a?SiO{sub 2}.

  15. Parotid Glands Dose–Effect Relationships Based on Their Actually Delivered Doses: Implications for Adaptive Replanning in Radiation Therapy of Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, Klaudia U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Fernandes, Laura L. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Vineberg, Karen A.; McShan, Daniel; Antonuk, Alan E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cornwall, Craig [Department of Hospital Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Mathew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Balter, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham, E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Doses actually delivered to the parotid glands during radiation therapy often exceed planned doses. We hypothesized that the delivered doses correlate better with parotid salivary output than the planned doses, used in all previous studies, and that determining these correlations will help make decisions regarding adaptive radiation therapy (ART) aimed at reducing the delivered doses. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study, oropharyngeal cancer patients treated definitively with chemoirradiation underwent daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with clinical setup alignment based on the C2 posterior edge. Parotid glands in the CBCTs were aligned by deformable registration to calculate cumulative delivered doses. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured separately from each parotid gland pretherapy and periodically posttherapy. Results: Thirty-six parotid glands of 18 patients were analyzed. Average mean planned doses was 32 Gy, and differences from planned to delivered mean gland doses were ?4.9 to +8.4 Gy, median difference +2.2 Gy in glands in which delivered doses increased relative to planned. Both planned and delivered mean doses were significantly correlated with posttreatment salivary outputs at almost all posttherapy time points, without statistically significant differences in the correlations. Large dispersions (on average, SD 3.6 Gy) characterized the dose–effect relationships for both. The differences between the cumulative delivered doses and planned doses were evident at first fraction (r=.92, P<.0001) because of complex setup deviations (eg, rotations and neck articulations), uncorrected by the translational clinical alignments. Conclusions: After daily translational setup corrections, differences between planned and delivered doses in most glands were small relative to the SDs of the dose–saliva data, suggesting that ART is not likely to gain measurable salivary output improvement in most cases. These differences were observed at first treatment, indicating potential benefit for more complex setup corrections or adaptive interventions in the minority of patients with large deviations detected early by CBCT.

  16. "YEAR","MONTH","STATE","UTILITY CODE","UTILITY NAME","NUMBER OF RESIDENTIAL AMR METERS","NUMBER OF COMMERCIAL AMR METERS","NUMBER OF INDUSTRIAL AMR METERS","NUMBER OF TRANSPORTATION AMR METERS","TOTAL NUMBER OF AMR METERS","NUMBER OF RESIDENTIAL AMI METERS","NUMBER OF COMMERCIAL AMI METERS","NUMBER OF INDUSTRIAL AMI METERS","NUMBER OF TRANSPORTATION AMI METERS","TOTAL NUMBER OF AMI METERS","RESIDENTIAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","COMMERCIAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","INDUSTRIAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","TRANSPORTATION ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","TOTAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa.

  17. "YEAR","MONTH","STATE","UTILITY CODE","UTILITY NAME","NUMBER OF RESIDENTIAL AMR METERS","NUMBER OF COMMERCIAL AMR METERS","NUMBER OF INDUSTRIAL AMR METERS","NUMBER OF TRANSPORTATION AMR METERS","TOTAL NUMBER OF AMR METERS","NUMBER OF RESIDENTIAL AMI METERS","NUMBER OF COMMERCIAL AMI METERS","NUMBER OF INDUSTRIAL AMI METERS","NUMBER OF TRANSPORTATION AMI METERS","TOTAL NUMBER OF AMI METERS","RESIDENTIAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","COMMERCIAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","INDUSTRIAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","TRANSPORTATION ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)","TOTAL ENERGY SERVED THRU AMI METERS (MWh)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa.2,1,"AK",213,"Alaska Electric Light&Power

  18. D A R G A N M . W . F R I E R S O N D E P A R T M E N T O F A T M O S P H E R I C S C I E N C E S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frierson, Dargan

    ensure that the wind is blowing somewhere Solar power tends to be complementary to wind in midlatitudes ! Turbines ­ 127 ! Power output ­ 229 MW at peak capacity; 642,000 MWh annual output (est.), enough to meet? (probably not if placed away from "migration zones)" Requires large area" Cons" #12;Solar Power #12;Solar

  19. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP), Vol. II - Technical Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Gilman, D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Muns, S.; Verdict, M.; Ahmed, M.; Liu, Z.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Degelman, L. O.; Turner, W. D.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the following results were determined for energy-code compliant new residential single- and multi-family construction in non-attainment and affected counties built in 2004: ? The annual savings in 2005 amounted to 348,794 megawatt hours (MWh... would have been 1,799 MWh/day and 1,210 million Btu (MBtu) of natural gas, resulting in peak-OSD NOx emissions reductions of 1.26 tons (2007 eGRID). ? Beginning in 2005, the Laboratory worked with the TCEQ to integrate NOx emissions reductions (i...

  20. Energy Efficiency / Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP), Vol. III – AppendixAnnual Report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Sept. 2003 to Aug. 2004 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Gilman, D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Muns, S.; Verdict, M.; Ahmad, M.; Liu, Z.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Bryant, J.; Degelman, L. O.; Turner, W. D.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the following results were determined for energy-code compliant new residential single and multi-family construction in both non-attainment and affected counties built in 2004. ? The annual savings in 2004 amounted to 233,806 megawatt hours (MWh...) of electricity and 667,945 million Btus of natural gas. The resultant annual NOx reductions were 346 tons. ? On the peak day (August 19, 1999, baseline in the historical air quality model), the savings would have been 1,317 MWh/day and 1,148 million Btus...