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1

M&V Guidelines: Measurement and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects Version 3.0 #12;M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects Version 3.0 Prepared For: U 2007. M&V Guidelines 3.0 FEMPii #12;Contents Section Page Section 1 Measurement and Verification (M

2

Reliability assessment of a 1 MV LTD.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 1 MV linear transformer driver (LTD) is being tested with a large area e-beam diode load at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The experiments will be utilized to determine the repeatability of the output pulse and the reliability of the components. The 1 MV accelerator is being used to determine the feasibility of designing a 6 MV LTD for radiography experiments. The peak voltage, risetime, and pulse width as well as the cavity timing jitter are analyzed to determine the repeatability of the output pulse.

Portillo, Salvador; Chavez, Raymond (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Molina, Isidro; Kim, Alexandre A. (High Current Electronics Institute, Tomsk, Russia); Johnson, David L. (Titan Pulsed Sciences Division, San Leandro, CA); Maenchen, John Eric; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Ziska, Derek Raymond (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Hydrologic Data and Evaluation for Model Validation Wells, MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3 near the Project Shoal Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2006, a drilling campaign was conducted at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) to provide information for model validation, emplace long-term monitoring wells, and develop baseline geochemistry for long term hydrologic monitoring. Water levels were monitored in the vicinity of the drilling, in the existing wells HC-1 and HC-6, as well as in the newly drilled wells, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 and their associated piezometers. Periodic water level measurements were also made in existing wells HC-2, HC-3, HC-4, HC-5 and HC-7. A lithium bromide chemical tracer was added to drilling fluids during the installation of the monitoring and validation (MV) wells and piezometers. The zones of interest were the fractured, jointed and faulted horizons within a granitic body. These horizons generally have moderate hydraulic conductivities. As a result, the wells and their shallower piezometers required strenuous purging and development to remove introduced drilling fluids as evidenced by bromide concentrations. After airlift and surging well development procedures, the wells were pumped continuously until the bromide concentration was less then 1 milligram per liter (mg/L). Water quality samples were collected after the well development was completed. Tritium scans were preformed before other analyses to ensure the absence of high levels of radioactivity. Tritium levels were less than 2,000 pico-curies per liter. Samples were also analyzed for carbon-14 and iodine-129, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, as well as major cations and anions. Aquifer tests were performed in each MV well after the bromide concentration fell below acceptable levels. Water level data from the aquifer tests were used to compute aquifer hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity

B. Lyles; P. Oberlander; D. Gillespie; D. Donithan; J. Chapman; J. Healey

2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

4

Revised 01/15/2014 MV-3/MV-4/Safety Checklist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(6 mo. or 1 year) for preventive maintenance ( ) MV4 Preventive Maintenance Record (Incorrect ( ) Fuel Cost ( ) Maintenance ( ) Other Cost ( ) Down Days ( ) Total Expenses ( ) Authorized Supervisor Other Costs and Non-Maintenance Section ( ) Other Costs (Incorrect or Missing Information): ( ) Date

Harms, Kyle E.

5

M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verifi cation for Federal Energy Projects Version 3.0 M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects Version 3.0 Prepared...

6

Measurement and Verification (M&V)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5. Continuous Commissioning Measures 6. Measurement and Verification 2 ESL-KT-14-11-39 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Measurement and Verification (M&V) Joseph T. Martinez, PCC Carlos Yagua, PE Hiroko...Workshop on the Continuous Commissioning® Process Joseph T. Martinez, PCC Carlos Yagua, PE Hiroko Masuda, Juan-Carlos Baltazar, PhD, PE Ahmet Ugursal, PhD Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency (CATEE) Conference, Dallas, Texas. November 18, 2014...

Masuda, H

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

responsibility for achieving savings related to equipment performance. Operations, preventive maintenance, and repair and FEMP M&V Guidelines 3.0 3-1 replacement practices...

8

State and Local Energy Savings Performance Contracting: Savings Measurement and Verification (M&V)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

State and Local Energy Savings Performance Contracting: Savings Measurement and Verification (M&V) Webinar.

9

COMMISSIONING AND OPERATION OF THE CEBAF 100 MV CRYOMODULES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV includes the installation of ten new 100 MV cryomodules and RF systems. The superconducting RF cavities are designed to operate CW at a maximum accelerating gradient of 19.3 MV/m. To support the higher gradients and higher Q{sub L} ({approx} 3 x 10{sup 7}), a new RF system has been developed and is being installed to power and control the cavities. The RF system employs digital control and 13 kW klystrons. Recently, two of these cryomodules and associated RF hardware and software have been installed and commissioned in the CEBAF accelerator. Electrons at linac currents up to 540 {micro}A have been successfully accelerated and used for nuclear physics experiments. This paper reports on the commissioning and operation of the RF system and cryomodules.

Allison, Trent; Davis, G; Drury, Michael; Harwood, Leigh; Hogan, John; Kimber, Andrew; Lahti, George; Merz, William; Nelson, Richard; Plawski, Tomasz; Seidman, David; Spata, Michael; Wilson, Michael

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

FEMP's standard procedures and guidelines for M&V for federal energy managers, procurement officials, and energy service providers.

11

U. S. Army Measurement and Verification (M&V) Costing Toolkit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is the 2003 final report for the U.S. Army Monitoring and Verification (M&V) costs project. The purpose of this project is to develop a M&V Costing Toolkit to be used by the government or third party planners to design a M&V plan...

Haberl, J. S.; Powell, T.; Carlson, K. A.; Im, P.; Turner, W. D.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Measurement and verifiction (M&V) guidelines for federal energy projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides procedures and guidelines for quantifying the savings resulting from the installation of Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) implemented with federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) or task orders implemented under a federal IDIQ contract. The first section of this document provides an overview of measurement and verification (M&V) options and procedures. The second, third, and fourth sections provide standardized measurement and verification (M&V) methods for common types of ECMs.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Spark-protected ion-source control and monitoring system at 1. 5 MV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Heavy Ion Fusion Program at Argonne National Laboratory utilizes a 1.5-MV Xe ion preaccelerator. Reliable beam transport requires accurate measurements and precise control of various ion-source parameters. This paper discusses the use of a multiplexed fiberoptic data-transmission system and low-cost digital stepper motors for control functions. Techniques are discussed which allow TTL and CMOS semiconductor curcuits to survive the destructive sparks which can occur in the 1.5-MV preaccelerator.

Bogaty, J.M.; Zolecki, R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Powerline Communication System for Monitoring and Supervision of Feeder Equipments for MV Substation Automation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to integrated volt/var control in order to optimize the management of capital assets and enhance operation With the deregulation of power market and for providing better services to electric consumers, the current substation primary equipments which are outsider substations such as MV/LV transformer and switchgears. For those

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

15

Achievement of 35 MV/m in the Superconducting Nine-Cell Cavities for TESLA 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Achievement of 35 MV/m in the Superconducting Nine-Cell Cavities for TESLA 1 L. Lilje2 , D. Kostin Electronvolt Superconducting Linear Accelerator TESLA is the only linear electron-positron collider project reliably achieved in the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) accelerator. The upgrade of TESLA to 800

16

Development of a Measurement and Verification (M&V) Costing Toolkit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses the development of a M&V Costing Toolkit that has been developed to assist the U.S. Army with the standardization of costing procedures for measuring and verifying energy savings from Energy Service Performance Contracts (ESPC...

Haberl, J. S.; Lewis, T.; Im, P.; Carlson, K. A.; Underwood, D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Application of Risk Analysis to Evaluating M&V Requirement for Energy Efficiency Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shows that increasing the size of lighting project savings for which M&V is waived to 1,400,000 kWh per year would introduce an error of only ±5% to the sum of all lighting savings. The error introduced at the program level would be approximately ±2...

Tan, G.; Gregoire, C.; Gogte, S.; Gowans, D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

New MV cable design for wet environments in underground distribution systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of new wet design MV power cables, up to 35 kV, using EPDM compound as insulation and longitudinal water tightness. The combination of the cable design and the type of insulation compound allow for reduction of the insulation thickness in such a way, as to have an electrical stress at the conductor of 4 kV/mm which is significantly greater than used in MV distribution cables. Following a methodology established, at the author's company, the reliability of this design, cable and EPDM's formulation, in wet location, without metallic water barriers, was well demonstrated. Mini-installation of model cables in service-like conditions, to estimate the ageing rate, are presented and discussed.

Teixeira, M.D.R. Jr. (Ficap Fios e Cabos Plasticos do Brasil SA, Rio De Janeiro (BR))

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

E=1/2Mv2 Pf Pb(Pf>Pb)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/2Mv2 , ( 3.1). 3.1 UF6 , Pf Pb(Pf>Pb) . i J2 = V1P1f V2P2f = M2 M1 1/2 x (1-x) . = y/(1-y) x/(1-x) = (M2/M1)1/2 UF6 = (M2/M1)1/2 =(238 UF6/235 UF6)1/2 = (352/349)1/2 = 1.00429 1 . 5% 900

Hong, Deog Ki

20

Experimental Results with the New ITER-like 1 MV SINGAP Accelerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new 'ITER-like' accelerator, which is a scaled down version of the ITER SINGAP (SINgle GAP, SINGle APerture) accelerator, has been built and installed on the Cadarache 1 MV test bed. The objective is to demonstrate reliable D- beam acceleration as close as possible to 1 MeV with a current density j- {approx_equal} 200 A/m2 with the beam optics required for ITER, i.e. a beamlet divergence of {<=}7 mrad and beamlet steering within {+-}2 mrad of that specified. High voltage hold off tests have been performed and 940 kV has been held without breakdowns. The first beams up to 850 keV (D-, 15 A/m2) have been obtained after 4 weeks of experiments and the highest current density that has been obtained so far is 85 A/m2 (D-, 580 keV)

Svensson, L.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Hemsworth, R.S.; Massmann, P. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA -Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Boilson, D. [Association EURATOM-DCU, PRL/NCPST, Glasnevin, Dublin 13 (Ireland)

2005-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Beam quality conversion factors for parallel-plate ionization chambers in MV photon beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the behavior of plane-parallel ion chambers in high-energy photon beams through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Ten plane-parallel ion chamber types were obtained from the major ion chamber manufacturers. Absorbed dose-to-water calibration coefficients are measured for these chambers and k{sub Q} factors are determined. In the process, the behaviors of the chambers are characterized through measurements of leakage currents, chamber settling in cobalt-60, polarity and ion recombination behavior, and long-term stability. Monte Carlo calculations of the absorbed dose to the air in the ion chamber and absorbed dose to water are obtained to calculate k{sub Q} factors. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors are investigated by varying material properties and chamber dimensions. Results: Chamber behavior was variable in MV photon beams, especially with regard to chamber leakage and ion recombination. The plane-parallel chambers did not perform as well as cylindrical chambers. Significant differences up to 1.5% were observed in calibration coefficients after a period of eight months although k{sub Q} factors were consistent on average within 0.17%. Chamber-to-chamber variations in k{sub Q} factors for chambers of the same type were at the 0.2% level. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors ranged between 0.34% and 0.50% depending on the chamber type. Average percent differences between measured and calculated k{sub Q} factors were - 0.02%, 0.18%, and - 0.16% for 6, 10, and 25 MV beams, respectively. Conclusions: Excellent agreement is observed on average at the 0.2% level between measured and Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors. Measurements indicate that the behavior of these chambers is not adequate for their use for reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams without a more extensive QA program than currently used for cylindrical reference-class ion chambers.

Muir, B. R.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O. [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Project Transformation E.R. Bachmann & P.L. McDowell MV 4202 Page 1 of 14  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project Transformation E.R. Bachmann & P.L. McDowell MV 4202 Page 1 of 14 7. Projection Transformations · Projection Transformations Projections transform three dimensional eye coordinates into points in three dimensional clip coordinates - Three dimensional object coordinates are projected onto

McDowell, Perry

23

Quantum Dissociation of a Vortex-Antivortex Pair in a Long Josephson Junction M.V. Fistul,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum Dissociation of a Vortex-Antivortex Pair in a Long Josephson Junction M.V. Fistul,1 A VAV pair manifests itself in a switching of the Josephson junction from the superconducting biased single Josephson junctions (JJs), various SQUIDs, and small Josephson junction arrays, contain

Wallraff, Andreas

24

BID NO: SKA SSLE 009/2011 SUPPLY, DELIVERY AND INSTALLATION OF ROTARY UPS, MV INDOOR SWITCHGEAR AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and dry-type power transformers only ­ no alternative offers in this regard will be accepted. The contract SWITCHGEAR AND POWER TRANSFORMERS AT THE MeerKAT SITE NEAR CARNARVON, NORTHERN CAPE TENDER NOTICE and Installation of Rotary UPS, MV Indoor Switchgear and Power Transformers at the MeerKAT Site near Carnarvon

Jarrett, Thomas H.

25

Transformation E.R. Bachmann & P.L. McDowell MV 4202 Page 1 of3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transformation E.R. Bachmann & P.L. McDowell MV 4202 Page 1 of3 5. Transformations Overview window coordinates Modeling Transformations Projection Transformation Perspective Division Viewport Transformation Object Coordinates x, y, z, w Modelview Matrix Projection Matrix Eye Coordinates Clip Coordinates

McDowell, Perry

26

Investigations of shot reproducibility for the SMP diode at 4.5 MV.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In experiments conducted on the RITS-6 accelerator, the SMP diode exhibits sig- ni cant shot-to-shot variability. Speci cally, for identical hardware operated at the same voltage, some shots exhibit a catastrophic drop in diode impedance. A study is underway to identify sources of shot-to-shot variations which correlate with diode impedance collapse. To remove knob emission as a source, only data from a shot series conducted with a 4.5-MV peak voltage are considered. The scope of this report is limited to sources of variability which occur away from the diode, such as power ow emission and trajectory changes, variations in pulsed power, dustbin and transmission line alignment, and di erent knob shapes. We nd no changes in the transmission line hardware, alignment, or hardware preparation methods which correlate with impedance collapse. However, in classifying good versus poor shots, we nd that there is not a continuous spectrum of diode impedance behavior but that the good and poor shots can be grouped into two distinct impedance pro les. This result forms the basis of a follow-on study focusing on the variability resulting from diode physics. 3

Bennett, Nichelle [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV] [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV; Crain, Marlon D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV] [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV; Droemer, Darryl W. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV] [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV; Gignac, Raymond Edward [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV] [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV; Lare, Gregory A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV] [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV; Molina, Isidro [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV] [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV; Obregon, Rafael [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV] [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV; Smith, Chase C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV] [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV; Wilkins, Frank Lee [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV] [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV; Welch, Dale Robert [Voss Scienti c, LLC, Albuquerque, NM] [Voss Scienti c, LLC, Albuquerque, NM; Cordova, Steve Ray; Gallegos, M.; Johnston, Mark D.; Kiefer, Mark Linden; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Nielsen, Daniel Scott; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Renk, Timothy Jerome; Romero, Tobias; Webb, Timothy Jay; Ziska, Derek Raymond

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

3 MV hypervelocity dust accelerator at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A hypervelocity dust accelerator for studying micrometeorite impacts has been constructed at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) at the University of Colorado. Based on the Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Kernphysik (MPI-K) accelerator, this accelerator is capable of emitting single particles of a specific mass and velocity selected by the user. The accelerator consists of a 3 MV Pelletron generator with a dust source, four image charge pickup detectors, and two interchangeable target chambers: a large high-vacuum test bed and an ultra-high vacuum impact study chamber. The large test bed is a 1.2 m diameter, 1.5 m long cylindrical vacuum chamber capable of pressures as low as 10{sup -7} torr while the ultra-high vacuum chamber is a 0.75 m diameter, 1.1 m long chamber capable of pressures as low as 10{sup -10} torr. Using iron dust of up to 2 microns in diameter, final velocities have been measured up to 52 km/s. The spread of the dust particles and the effect of electrostatic focusing have been measured using a long exposure CCD and a quartz target. Furthermore, a new technique of particle selection is being developed using real time digital filtering techniques. Signals are digitized and then cross-correlated with a shaped filter, resulting in a suppressed noise floor. Improvements over the MPI-K design, which include a higher operating voltage and digital filtering for detection, increase the available parameter space of dust emitted by the accelerator. The CCLDAS dust facility is a user facility open to the scientific community to assist with instrument calibrations and experiments.

Shu, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kempf, Sascha; Thomas, Evan [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Collette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Northway, Paige [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Gruen, Eberhard [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Mocker, Anna [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); IRS, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Munsat, Tobin [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Srama, Ralf [MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); IRS, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); and others

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Sample M&V Plan from the Texas Workshop: Preparing and Evaluating Measurement and Verification Plans for Energy Performance Contracts in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This document contains a sample M&V plan that has been prepared in accordance with the Texas Guidelines for Measurement and Verification for Energy Performance Contracts. This sample M&V plan was extracted from the March 1999 workshop, entitled...

Haberl, J. S.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Design of a 7-MV Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) for down-hole flash x-ray radiography.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pulsed power driven flash x-ray radiography is a valuable diagnostic for subcritical experiments at the Nevada Test Site. The existing dual-axis Cygnus system produces images using a 2.25 MV electron beam diode to produce intense x-rays from a small source. Future hydrodynamic experiments will likely use objects with higher areal mass, requiring increased x-ray dose and higher voltages while maintaining small source spot size. A linear transformer driver (LTD) is a compact pulsed power technology with applications ranging from pulsed power flash x-ray radiography to high current Z-pinch accelerators. This report describes the design of a 7-MV dual-axis system that occupies the same lab space as the Cygnus accelerators. The work builds on a design proposed in a previous report [1]. This new design provides increased diode voltage from a lower impedance accelerator to improve coupling to low impedance diodes such as the self magnetic pinch (SMP) diode. The design also improves the predicted reliability by operating at a lower charge voltage and removing components that have proven vulnerable to failure. Simulations of the new design and experimental results of the 1-MV prototype are presented.

Cordova, Steve Ray; Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Bryan Velten; Rose, David Vincent (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, David Lee (L-3 Communications - Pulse Sciences, San Leandro, CA); Bruner, Nichelle Lee (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Leckbee, Joshua J.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

310 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 40, NO. 1, JANUARY 2005 A 180-mV Subthreshold FFT Processor Using a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

310 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 40, NO. 1, JANUARY 2005 A 180-mV Subthreshold FFT THERE is significant research activity to minimize energy dissipation at the system level to lengthen battery life

Chandrakasan, Anantha

31

Radiation damage of polyethylene single crystals in electron microscopy between 1 and 2.5 MV. II. The influence of temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1043 Radiation damage of polyethylene single crystals in electron microscopy between 1 and 2.5 MV mécanismes réels décrits par les chimistes. Abstract. 2014 The critical dose measured for polyethylene single. Introduction. Polyethylene single crystals, like every organic sub- stance, lose their crystallinity when

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

Fundamental science investigations to develop a 6-MV laser triggered gas switch for ZR: first annual report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In October 2005, an intensive three-year Laser Triggered Gas Switch (LTGS) development program was initiated to investigate and solve observed performance and reliability issues with the LTGS for ZR. The approach taken has been one of mission-focused research: to revisit and reassess the design, to establish a fundamental understanding of LTGS operation and failure modes, and to test evolving operational hypotheses. This effort is aimed toward deploying an initial switch for ZR in 2007, on supporting rolling upgrades to ZR as the technology can be developed, and to prepare with scientific understanding for the even higher voltage switches anticipated needed for future high-yield accelerators. The ZR LTGS was identified as a potential area of concern quite early, but since initial assessments performed on a simplified Switch Test Bed (STB) at 5 MV showed 300-shot lifetimes on multiple switch builds, this component was judged acceptable. When the Z{sub 20} engineering module was brought online in October 2003 frequent flashovers of the plastic switch envelope were observed at the increased stresses required to compensate for the programmatically increased ZR load inductance. As of October 2006, there have been 1423 Z{sub 20} shots assessing a variety of LTGS designs. Numerous incremental and fundamental switch design modifications have been investigated. As we continue to investigate the LTGS, the basic science of plastic surface tracking, laser triggering, cascade breakdown, and optics degradation remain high-priority mission-focused research topics. Significant progress has been made and, while the switch does not yet achieve design requirements, we are on the path to develop successively better switches for rolling upgrade improvements to ZR. This report summarizes the work performed in FY 2006 by the large team. A high-level summary is followed by detailed individual topical reports.

Warne, Larry Kevin; Van Den Avyle, James A.; Lehr, Jane Marie; Rose, David (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Krompholz, Hermann G. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX); Vela, Russell (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX); Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Timoshkin, Igor (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland); Woodworth, Joseph Ray; Prestwich, Kenneth Randel (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Krile, John (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX); Given, Martin (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland); McKee, G. Randall; Rosenthal, Stephen Edgar; Struve, Kenneth William; Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Benwell, Andrew L. (University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri); Kovaleski, Scott (University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri); LeChien, Keith, R.; Johnson, David (Titan Pulse Sciences Division); Fouracre, R.A. (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland); Yeckel, Chris (University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri); Wakeland, Peter Eric (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. R. (Titan Pulse Sciences Division); Hodge, Keith Conquest (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Pasik, Michael Francis; Savage, Mark Edward; Maenchen, John Eric; Curry, Randy D. (University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri); Feltz, Greg (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Bliss, David Emery; MacGregor, Scott (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland); Corley, J. P. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Anaya, Victor (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Wallace, Zachariah (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Neuber, Andreas. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX)

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

A comparison of small-field tissue phantom ratio data generation methods for an Elekta Agility 6 MV photon beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tissue-phantom ratios (TPRs) are a common dosimetric quantity used to describe the change in dose with depth in tissue. These can be challenging and time consuming to measure. The conversion of percentage depth dose (PDD) data using standard formulae is widely employed as an alternative method in generating TPR. However, the applicability of these formulae for small fields has been questioned in the literature. Functional representation has also been proposed for small-field TPR production. This article compares measured TPR data for small 6 MV photon fields against that generated by conversion of PDD using standard formulae to assess the efficacy of the conversion data. By functionally fitting the measured TPR data for square fields greater than 4 cm in length, the TPR curves for smaller fields are generated and compared with measurements. TPRs and PDDs were measured in a water tank for a range of square field sizes. The PDDs were converted to TPRs using standard formulae. TPRs for fields of 4 × 4 cm{sup 2} and larger were used to create functional fits. The parameterization coefficients were used to construct extrapolated TPR curves for 1 × 1 cm{sup 2}, 2 × 2-cm{sup 2}, and 3 × 3-cm{sup 2} fields. The TPR data generated using standard formulae were in excellent agreement with direct TPR measurements. The TPR data for 1 × 1-cm{sup 2}, 2 × 2-cm{sup 2}, and 3 × 3-cm{sup 2} fields created by extrapolation of the larger field functional fits gave inaccurate initial results. The corresponding mean differences for the 3 fields were 4.0%, 2.0%, and 0.9%. Generation of TPR data using a standard PDD-conversion methodology has been shown to give good agreement with our directly measured data for small fields. However, extrapolation of TPR data using the functional fit to fields of 4 × 4 cm{sup 2} or larger resulted in generation of TPR curves that did not compare well with the measured data.

Richmond, Neil, E-mail: neil.richmond@stees.nhs.uk; Brackenridge, Robert

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

The effect of a paraffin screen on the neutron dose at the maze door of a 15 MV linear accelerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a paraffin screen located at various positions in the maze on the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door.Methods: The neutron dose equivalent was measured at the maze door of a room containing a 15 MV linear accelerator for x-ray therapy. Measurements were performed for several positions of the paraffin screen covering only 27.5% of the cross-sectional area of the maze. The neutron dose equivalent was also measured at all screen positions. Two simple models of the neutron source were considered in which the first assumed that the source was the cross-sectional area at the inner entrance of the maze, radiating neutrons in an isotropic manner. In the second model the reduction in the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door due to the paraffin screen was considered to be a function of the mean values of the neutron fluence and energy at the screen.Results: The results of this study indicate that the equivalent dose at the maze door was reduced by a factor of 3 through the use of a paraffin screen that was placed inside the maze. It was also determined that the contributions to the dosage from areas that were not covered by the paraffin screen as viewed from the dosimeter, were 2.5 times higher than the contributions from the covered areas. This study also concluded that the contributions of the maze walls, ceiling, and floor to the total neutron dose equivalent were an order of magnitude lower than those from the surface at the far end of the maze.Conclusions: This study demonstrated that a paraffin screen could be used to reduce the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door by a factor of 3. This paper also found that the reduction of the neutron dose equivalent was a linear function of the area covered by the maze screen and that the decrease in the dose at the maze door could be modeled as an exponential function of the product ?·E at the screen.

Krmar, M.; Kuzmanovi?, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000 (Serbia)] [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000 (Serbia); Nikoli?, D. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada)] [National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Kuzmanovi?, Z. [International Medical Centers, Banja Luka 78000, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina)] [International Medical Centers, Banja Luka 78000, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Ganezer, K. [Physics Department, California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California 90747 (United States)] [Physics Department, California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California 90747 (United States)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Electron contamination modeling and skin dose in 6 MV longitudinal field MRIgRT: Impact of the MRI and MRI fringe field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: In recent times, longitudinal field MRI-linac systems have been proposed for 6 MV MRI-guided radiotherapy (MRIgRT). The magnetic field is parallel with the beam axis and so will alter the transport properties of any electron contamination particles. The purpose of this work is to provide a first investigation into the potential effects of the MR and fringe magnetic fields on the electron contamination as it is transported toward a phantom, in turn, providing an estimate of the expected patient skin dose changes in such a modality. Methods: Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations of a water phantom exposed to a 6 MV x-ray beam were performed. Longitudinal magnetic fields of strengths between 0 and 3 T were applied to a 30 x 30 x 20 cm{sup 3} phantom. Surrounding the phantom there is a region where the magnetic field is at full MRI strength, consistent with clinical MRI systems. Beyond this the fringe magnetic field entering the collimation system is also modeled. The MRI-coil thickness, fringe field properties, and isocentric distance are varied and investigated. Beam field sizes of 5 x 5, 10 x 10, 15 x 15 and 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} were simulated. Central axis dose, 2D virtual entry skin dose films, and 70 {mu}m skin depth doses were calculated using high resolution scoring voxels. Results: In the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field, electron contamination from the linear accelerator is encouraged to travel almost directly toward the patient surface with minimal lateral spread. This results in a concentration of electron contamination within the x-ray beam outline. This concentration is particularly encouraged if the fringe field encompasses the collimation system. Skin dose increases of up to 1000% were observed for certain configurations and increases above Dmax were common. In nonmagnetically shielded cases, electron contamination generated from the jaw faces and air column is trapped and propagated almost directly to the phantom entry region, giving rise to intense dose hot spots inside the x-ray treatment field. These range up to 1000% or more of Dmax at the CAX, depending on field size, isocenter, and coil thickness. In the case of a fully magnetically shielded collimation system and the lowest MRI field of 0.25 T, the entry skin dose is expected to increase to at least 40%, 50%, 65%, and 80% of Dmax for 5 x 5, 10 x 10, 15 x 15, and 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}, respectively. Conclusions: Electron contamination from the linac head and air column may cause considerable skin dose increases or hot spots at the beam central axis on the entry side of a phantom or patient in longitudinal field 6 MV MRIgRT. This depends heavily on the properties of the magnetic fringe field entering the linac beam collimation system. The skin dose increase is also related to the MRI-coil thickness, the fringe field, and the isocenter distance of the linac. The results of this work indicate that the properties of the MRI fringe field, electron contamination production, and transport must be considered carefully during the design stage of a longitudinal MRI-linac system.

Oborn, B. M.; Metcalfe, P. E.; Butson, M. J.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Keall, P. J. [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia) and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia) and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Obliquity factors for {sup 60}Co and 4, 10, and 18 MV x rays for concrete, steel, and lead and angles of incidence between 0{degrees} and 70{degrees}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The attenuation of {sup 60}Co gamma rays and photons of 4, 10, and 18 MV x-ray beams by concrete, steel, and lead has been studied using the Monte Carlo technique for angles of incidence 0{degrees}, 30{degrees}, 45{degrees}, 60{degrees}, and 70{degrees}. Transmission factors have been determined down to < 2 x 10{sup {minus}5} in all cases. The results show that deviation from the obliquity factor increases with angle but is not significant for angles {le} 45{degrees}. AT 70{degrees} angle of incidence and a transmission factor of 10{sup {minus}5}, the obliquity factor varies between 1.2 and 1.9 for concrete, between 1.4 and 1.7 for steel, and between 1.4 and 1.5 for lead for the range of energies investigated. This amounts to an additional 86 and 50 cm of concrete, 25 and 23 cm of steel, and 8 and 14 cm of lead for {sup 60}Co and 18 MV x rays, respectively. The results for {sup 60}Co is concrete and lead are in good agreement with previously published experimental work. Fits to the data using mathematical models allow reconstruction of all data curves to better than 1% on average and 7% in the worst single case. 9 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

Biggs, P.J. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

LS-81 MCT/MV1125  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LOS ALAMOS, NewattractsDamping s. H.3494 s.

38

The investigation of atmospheric humidity control by hot gas reheat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Number 1, 2, and 3 24 10 Psychrometric Chart with the Processes of Runs Number 1, 2, and 3 Superimposed Upon One Another 25 Nossle Performance Curvos 31 vi LIST OF SM30LS ~Sbol OF ~tit Cubic feet per minute Constant pressure specific heat... tempera- ture L2/T2 in. Hg in, H2O MV PD psig sp gr tdb Inches of mercury Inches of water Pounds mass Pounds mass dry air Pounds mass water vapor Millivolt s Pressure diff'erential (in. Hg) Gage pressure Heat added or re...

Whitlock, Paul Leroy

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Equilibria in aqueous iodine solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the determination of pH and. 1odide concentration. This instrument, reads pH to 0. 001 pH units and millivolts to F 1 mv. An Orion Specific Ion Electrode, Iodide Model 94-53, was used in the iodide determination. A Corning Triple Purpose pH glass elect- rode... with such electrodes fully confirms this statement. The optimum concentration of Solution I was found to be between 5 x 10 and 10 H iodide. Error in ZIIF Although short-term reproducibility to within 0. 001 26 pH unit can in principle be achieved. with the glass...

Burger, Joanne Denise

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Electric Utility Industrial DSM and M&V Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the profile and increase awareness of employees on energy efficiency and conservation. Process Partners can access funds to create a Strategic Energy Management Plan (SEMP), implement an Energy Management Information System (EMIS) and institute a...

Lau, K. P. K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Automotive Accessibility and Efficiency Meet in the Innovative MV-1 |  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustionImprovement3--Logistical5/08 Attendance List1-02Evaluation Report(AO)Automatic Commercial

42

The determination of sulfur-containing surfactants with a high pressure liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the blank millivolt intensities 78 17 Average millivolt intensities for the nickel standard solution 79 Table Page 18 Standard deviations of the nickel standard millivolt intensities 80 19 Slopes of the calibration lines calculated from the blank... widely used sulfur-containing surfactants. The alkylbenzenesulfonates 1 strongly absorb in the UV region and, therefore are easily monitored by UV detectors. Other surfactants, such as alkyl sulfates 2 [13-17], alpha olefin sulfonates 3 [16...

Hobill, Jonathan Edward

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Compiler correctness and the translation of logics Theo M.V. Janssen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be proven by finite algebraic means. PrL Compile - AssL Sem(PrL) IntP L ? Decode CompMod IntAL ? PrL of the rightmost diagram. PrL: Programming Language IntP L Interpretation of PrL AssL: Assembly Language IntAL Interpretation of AssL Sem(PrL): meanings of the PrL CompMod: abstract model of computer Several variants

Amsterdam, University of

44

Case Study of Two MBCx Projects: Using M&V to Track Energy Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operation • Re-establish supply air temperature set point reset control in AHU1 • Other measures • Approximately 483,000 kWh (10%), 2.7M lbs/yr steam (51%) #0;? Estimated using DOE 2 analysis • Cost reduction $84,000 (14%), Payback 0.7 years 13 Soda Hall... 006 3/ 24/ 2 006 3/ 26/ 2 00 6 3/ 28/ 2 00 6 3/ 3 0/ 2 006 Date kW h 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 De g F AHU 1 Daily kWh AHU 3 Daily kWh AHU 4 Daily kWh OAT Daily Average AHU 1 supply fan malf. begins here. Same date as economizer fix. 17 M...

Jump, D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

State and Local Energy Savings Performance Contracting: Savings Measurement and Verification (M&V)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE’s Technical Assistance Program (TAP) supports the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program (EECBG) and the State Energy Program (SEP) by providing state, local, and tribal officials the tools and resources needed to implement successful and sustainable clean energy programs.

46

Stipulations in Performance Contracting M&V: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that project savings exist. Improper and excessive reliance on stipulations may effectively nullify savings guarantees and also miss opportunities to assure measure performance by using verification data for feedback. A review of PCs in the federal sector shows...

Stetz, M.; Webster, L.; Bradford, J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

KG>:b0cMV2> Ris-R-660(EN)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.6 Diffusive Description of Lattice Gas Models 16 1.7 Analysis of Neutron and X-ray Reflectivity Data is in the field of condensed matter physics. The principal activities of the department in the period from 1 Carlo simulations, and methods for data analysis · Magnetic structures, magnetic phase transitions

48

Construction of MV-6 Well Pad at the Central Nevada Test Area Completed |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth Codestheatfor Optimized91Power PlantWorker

49

Dielectric-breakdown tests of water at 6 MV W. A. Stygar,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. R. Woodworth1 1 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185, USA 2 Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123, USA 3 EG&G, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87107, USA (Received 6 May 2008; published-insulated electrical components are often incorporated in the designs of multiterawatt pulsed- power accelerators

50

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

square law for low voltage and current. At high current the resistance of the diode and the load re function. The curve for Rx 1. 5 K ohm follows the square law curve for outputs from 10 millivolts to 150 millivolts. The Rx = 1. 5 K ohm curve starts near the one-diode curve and ap- proaches the two-diode curve

Groppi, Christopher

51

Development of a Monitoring and Verification (M&V) Plan and Baseline for the Fort Hood ESPC Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fort Hood has selected an Energy Services Performance Contract (ESPC) contractor to help achieve its energy reduction goals as mandated by Executive Order. This ESPC is expected to be a $3.8 million, 20 year contract, which includes five primary...

Haberl, J. S.; Liu, Z.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Lynn, B.; Underwood, D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Turning greenhouse gases into gold  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

into an acidic solution of pyridine and CO2 and charging it with just 600 millivolts of electricity, the CO2 could be transformed into formic acid, formaldehyde and methanol. Now...

53

Systems integration and upgrade of an Engineering Flight Simulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Training System Head-down-display Head-up-display Hertz (cycles per second) Level of detail Input / output Light emitting diode Multi Channel Option Millivolt SEI Serial Encoder Interface VME VERSA Module device TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...

Alcorn, William Pleasant

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

mol10x6.0mV10x1.0mC10x2.6 1-231-930 EU rotationdipole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Results I - Pore Formation and Ion Transport A potential over the membrane is generated by placing different numbers of Na (black spheres) and Cl (pink spheres) ions on each side of the membrane (lipid tails the hydrophilic pore. When the potential from the ion imbalance dissipates, the pore subsides and the membrane

Southern California, University of

55

Calculations of atomic sputtering and displacement cross-sections in solid elements by electrons with energies from threshold to 1. 5 MV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of knock-on collisions of relativistic electrons with nuclei and details of the numerical evaluation of differential, recoil, and total Mott cross-sections are reviewed and discussed. The effects of electron beam induced displacement and sputtering, in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) environment, on microanalysis are analyzed with particular emphasis placed on the removal of material by knock-on sputtering. The mass loss predicted due to transmission knock-on sputtering is significant for many elements under conditions frequently encountered in microanalysis. Total Mott cross-sections are tabulated for all naturally occurring solid elements up to Z = 92 at displacement energies of one, two, four, and five times the sublimation energy and for accelerating voltages accessible in the transmission electron microscope. Fortran source code listings for the calculation of the differential Mott cross-section as a function of electron scattering angle (dMottCS), as a function of nuclear recoil angle (RECOIL), and the total Mott cross-section (TOTCS) are included. 48 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

Bradley, C.R.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

REVIEW PAPER The case for sequencing the genome of the electric eel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of years, electric fish have evolved an exceptional capacity to generate aweak (millivolt) electric fieldinREVIEW PAPER The case for sequencing the genome of the electric eel Electrophorus electricus J. S July 2007) A substantial international community of biologists have proposed the electric eel

Stoddard, Philip

57

Mv. Space Res. Vol. 13, Mo. 9, ~. (9)331--(9)339, 1993 0273--1177/93$24.00 Punted in (Ireat Britain. All ri&its reserved. 1993COSPAR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. All ri&its reserved. 1993COSPAR NON-THERMAL PARTICLES IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM Donald V. Reames ubiquitous presence of highly non- thermal particles in collisionless plasmas throughout the heliosphere and bow shocks, in traveling interplanetary shocks, in the interaction region between fast and slow solar

Reames, Donald V.

58

Slide 1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

protocols 2 Pre-approved M&V custom program: Customer must submit M&V Plan for each measure or combination of measures in the program. The M&V plan should follow the...

59

Structural testing and analysis of a non-traditional pier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response with MV1250 under 1992 Landers - Lucerne (475-Response with MV1250 under 1992 Landers - Lucerne (975-under 1992 Landers - Lucerne (475-year) Acceleration (in/sec

Bogage, Adam

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Blog Feed: Vehicles | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The MV-1, a new wheelchair accessible, fuel-efficient vehicle | Photo Courtesy of Vehicle Production Group Automotive Accessibility and Efficiency Meet in the Innovative MV-1 A...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Enzocide - a chemical dip for the reduction of Salmonella on chicken breast skin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Kansas City, MO) to a final product temperature of 79'C. Each sample was combined with three times as much water as the sample weight and blended in a Virtis Homogenizer 23 (Gardiner, NY) for one minute. Replicates of each sample were then placed... was connected to a Corning Science Products 240 pH meter (Corning, NY). Fifty mL of unknown solution and was added 1 mL of the 5 M NaNO, ionic strength adjustor solution to a 100 mL beaker and stirred. Millivolt readings were recorded after the solution had...

Bianchi, Aldo

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a current transformer for operating currents larger than 2kA (two kiloamps) that is capable of detecting a millivolt level resistive voltage in the presence of a large inductive voltage. Specifically, the present invention includes substantially cylindrical primary turns arranged to carry a primary current and substantially cylindrical secondary turns arranged coaxially with and only partially within the primary turns, the secondary turns including an active winding and a dummy winding, the active and dummy windings being coaxial, longitudinally separated and arranged to mutually cancel voltages excited by commonly experienced magnetic fields, the active winding but not the dummy winding being arranged within the primary turns.

Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

63

ISSN 0001-4338, Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2006, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 215227. Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2006. Original Russian Text M.V. Makarova, A.V. Poberovskii, S.V. Yagovkina, I.L. Karol', V.E. Lagun, N.N. Paramonova, A.I. Reshetni  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the prediction of pos- sible climate changes is a correct consideration of the spatiotemporal variability in the atmosphere over northwestern Russia. The study was based on analysis of measurement results [2­4], air to examine changes in TM and atmospheric methane concentra- tions at a qualitatively new level [1, 6

64

ROLE OF AN ABC TRANSPORTER COMPLEX IN VIOLOGEN TOLERANCE IN STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the mechanisms by which S. mutans withstand exposure to various quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) such as methyl viologen (MV) that also generates superoxide radicals in the cell. To elucidate the genes that are essential for MV tolerance, sensitive mutants...

Biswas, Saswati

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 45, No. 279, pp. 1403-1412, October 1994 Experimental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the two electrode voltage-clamp technique, we investigated the ion fluxes involved in this transient membrane potential (PD) hyperpolarizes from the steady-state level (- 100 mV ±30 mV) to a maximum value

Schönknecht, Gerald

66

Psychology 361: Neuropsychology, Spring Semester 2011 Professor: Paul Gilbert, Ph.D.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Textbook: Zillmer, E.A., Spiers, M.V., & Culbertson, W. (2008). Principles of Neuropsychology (2nd Ed

Gallo, Linda C.

67

A block-based scalable motion model for highly scalable video coding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006. [45] J. Lee. Joint optimization of block size andjoint optimization on both MV accuracy and variable block

Kao, Meng-Ping

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Development of Biosensors for Real Time Analysis of Perchlorate in Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

element and redox colorants, particularly methyl viologen (the methyl viologen (MV 2+ ) is used as a redox regenerator

Frankenberger, William T; Okeke, Benedict C; Cheng, Quan Jason

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Exam 2A Phys 111 Section_____ _ Fall 2006 Name____________________________________________ A The exam is closed book and closed notes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

kx2 , Ugi + Usi + KI = Ugf + Usf + Kf Ugi + Usi + KI + Wnc = Ugf + Usf + Kf momentum: p = mv; Pi = Pf

Janow, Rich

70

Molecular dynamics (MD) calculation of the real zeta potential of neutral surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the zeta potential are so poor that it has become common to term their predictions "apparent". Here we demonstrate how MD methods can predict zeta potentials accurate enough they can be termed "real". The critical new aspects of our method are: (1) integrating the net average charge in surface-parallel layers from the midpoint of the fluid layer (where the electrostatic potential is zero) to and then into two solid caps, (2) determining the position of slipping plane with separate Couette flow models, and (3) calculating the charge distribution and electrostatic potential under static conditions. The solids are charge neutral surfaces composed of atoms with zero charge or charge balanced monovalent or divalent ions. The zeta potentials calculated are within a few millivolts of measured values, and the measured values fall within the simulation error bars. The zeta potentials calculated with the Helmholtz and Smoluchowski equation following current practice are 10's of mi...

Liu, Hongyi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Fundamental measure theory for the electric double layer: applications to blue-energy harvesting and water desalination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacitive mixing (CAPMIX) and capacitive deionization (CDI) are promising candidates for harvesting clean, renewable energy and for the energy efficient production of potable water, respectively. Both CAPMIX and CDI involve water-immersed porous carbon electrodes at voltages of the order of hundreds of millivolts, such that counter-ionic packing is important. We propose a density functional theory (DFT) to model the electric double layer which forms near the surfaces of these porous materials. The White-Bear mark II fundamental measure theory (FMT) functional is combined with a mean-field Coulombic and a MSA-type correction to describe the interplay between dense packing and electrostatics, in good agreement with MD simulations. Compared to less elaborate mean-field models our DFT calculations reveal a higher work output for blue-energy cycles and a higher energy demand for desalination cycles.

Andreas Härtel; Mathijs Janssen; Sela Samin; René van Roij

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

72

Electrogenerative oxidation of lower alcohols to useful products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In the disclosed electrogenerative process for converting alcohols such as ethanol to aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, the alcohol starting material is an aqueous solution containing more than the azeotropic amount of water. Good first-pass conversions (<40% and more typically <50%) are obtained at operating cell voltages in the range of about 80 to about 350 millivolts at ordinary temperatures and pressures by using very high flow rates of alcohol to the exposed anode surface (i.e. the "gas" side of an anode whose other surface is in contact with the electrolyte). High molar flow rates of vaporized aqueous alcohol also help to keep formation of undesired byproducts at a low level.

Meshbesher, Thomas M. (4507 Weldin Rd., Wilmington, DE 19803)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Landscape of superconducting membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The AdS/CFT correspondence may connect the landscape of string vacua and the `atomic landscape' of condensed matter physics. We study the stability of a landscape of IR fixed points of N=2 large N gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions, dual to Sasaki-Einstein compactifications of M theory, towards a superconducting state. By exhibiting instabilities of charged black holes in these compactifications, we show that many of these theories have charged operators that condense when the theory is placed at a finite chemical potential. We compute a statistical distribution of critical superconducting temperatures for a subset of these theories. With a chemical potential of one milliVolt, we find critical temperatures ranging between 0.24 and 165 degrees Kelvin.

Frederik Denef; Sean A. Hartnoll

2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

74

Standard Measurement & Verification Plan for Lighting Equipment Retrofit or Replacement Projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a framework for a standard Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan for lighting projects. It was developed to support cost-effective retrofits (partial and complete replacements) of lighting systems and is intended to provide a foundation for an M&V plan for a lighting retrofit utilizing a "best practice" approach, and to provide guidance to site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations on what is essential for a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. This document provides examples of appropriate elements of an M&V plan, including the calculation of expected energy savings. The standard M&V plan, as provided, also allows for consistent comparison with other similar lighting projects. Although intended for lighting retrofit applications, M&V plans developed per this framework document may also be used for other non-lighting technology retrofits and new installations.

Richman, Eric E.

2009-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

75

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

PowerPoint Presentation  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

using GSA Schedule 84. Targets straight-forward ECMs including lighting, water, and HVAC controls. Includes basic levels of measurement and verification (M&V) for each...

77

Operational experience with compressed geometry acceleration tubes in the Oak Ridge 25URC tandem accelerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Installation of compressed geometry acceleration tubes and other associated modifications have increased the effective voltage capability of the Oak Ridge 25URC tandem accelerator by about 3 MV. Since mid-September 1988, the accelerator has been operated routinely at terminal potentials up to 24 MV and occasionally near 25 MV. In 3500 hours of full-column operation, including 1100 hours at potentials about 22 MV, no significant spark-included damage was observed. Some considerations related to further improvements in voltage performance are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Jones, C.M.; Haynes, D.L.; Juras, R.C.; Meigs, M.J.; Ziegler, N.F.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

The Economic Impact of Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples in Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

somewhere  else  in  Australia,  or  it  would  reduce  to  Same-­?Sex  Couples  in   Australia   By M.V. Lee2012 Introduction   If   Australia   grants   same-­?sex  

Badgett, M.V. Lee; Smith, Jennifer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

State and Local Energy Savings Performance Contracting: Savings...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

State and Local Energy Savings Performance Contracting: Savings Measurement and Verification (M&V) State and Local Energy Savings Performance Contracting: Savings Measurement and...

80

Opening Remarks, Grid Integration Initiative Overview  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Loads Power Systems Integration Lab PV and Grid Simulators Energy Systems Integration Lab Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers Outdoor Test Area EVs, MV equipment Rooftop PV & Wind Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Det kologiske Rd, Juni 2005 1 Energibesparelser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fossile brændsler fra politisk ustabile områder m.v. stiller store krav til omstilling af fremtidens

82

E-Print Network 3.0 - af arteria carotis Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

af grader mv. 3.1. ... Source: Technische Universitt Wien, Institute for Software Technology and Interactive Systems, Interactive Media Systems Group Collection: Computer...

83

Electrochemical investigation of the energetics of particulate titanium dioxide photocatalysts. The methyl viologen-acetate system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Addition of methyl viologen (MV/sup 2 +/) enhances the anodic currents observed for TiO/sub 2/ suspensions under illumination by trapping of photogenerated electrons with formation of MV/sup +/. The magnitude of the photocurrent depends upon the relative location of the semiconductor Fermi level and E/sub redox/ of the MV/sup 2 +//MV/sup +/.couple. The location of the Fermi level in the anatase powders was estimated as -0.05 V vs. NHE (pH 0) based on the observed variation of photocurrent with pH. The shift in the quasi-Fermi level with light intensity is also discussed.

Ward, M.D.; White, J.R.; Bard, A.J.

1983-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

84

Department of Energy Offers Vehicle Production Group Nearly ...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

MV-1, a factory-built wheelchair accessible vehicle that will run on compressed natural gas. The vehicle will be produced at the Mishawaka, Indiana AM General Plant....

85

International linear collider reference design report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transformers located along the Service Tunnel tap-o? the MV distribution system to provide power to the LV systems and components.

Aarons, G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

AB Physics 111 Spring 2012-Exam#2 EQUATION SHEET Page 1 of 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Wtotal = Kf ­ Ki Wtot = Fnetd Power: P = dt dW Pavg = t W Pinst = Fv K = ½ mv2 Ug = mgy Us = ½ kx 2 Ugi

Janow, Rich

87

Development of an in situ Remediation Strategy for a Metals-Contaminated, Alkaline Groundwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

under oxygenated or reduced conditions (Appendices 7 and 8). 19 Figure 7. Lead speciation as a function of pH at Eh = -409 mV Figure 8. Lead speciation as a function of pH at Eh = 200 mV Eh = -409 mV Eh = 200 mV 20 The chemistry of lead... and encouragement of my family, especially my wife Jessie and my parents John and Jean. Their unwavering support has helped me tremendously. I am particularly grateful to Dr. Edward Peltier and Dr. Mandy M. Michalsen for the great care with which they reviewed my...

King, Aaron Scott

88

Organometallics and are much lower than those of the related ($-arene)-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by approximately 30 mV.33KtOvP.34 1992,11, 871-876 871 cyclic voltammetry cell, presumably due to the in situ

Jones, William D.

89

E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric membrane channel Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Interfacial polymerization of thin... film nanocomposites: A new concept for reverse osmosis membranes Byeong-Heon Jeonga, Eric M.V. Hoeka... of mixed matrix reverse...

90

E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerated membrane distention Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Interfacial polymerization of thin... film nanocomposites: A new concept for reverse osmosis membranes Byeong-Heon Jeonga, Eric M.V. Hoeka... of mixed matrix reverse...

91

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect oxidant-responsive heme Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine 4 Correlations of Structure and Electronic Properties from EPR Spectroscopy of Hydroxylamine Oxidoreductase Summary: . The reduction of the +288 mV...

92

Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 443 Central Nevada Test Area Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The drilling program described in this report is part of a new corrective action strategy for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The drilling program included drilling two boreholes, geophysical well logging, construction of two monitoring/validation (MV) wells with piezometers (MV-4 and MV-5), development of monitor wells and piezometers, recompletion of two existing wells (HTH-1 and UC-1-P-1S), removal of pumps from existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), redevelopment of piezometers associated with existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), and installation of submersible pumps. The new corrective action strategy includes initiating a new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period to validate the compliance boundary at CNTA (DOE 2007). The new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period begins upon completion of the new monitor wells and collection of samples for laboratory analysis. The new strategy is described in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan addendum (DOE 2008a) that the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved (NDEP 2008).

None

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Solar fuels : integration of molecular catalysts with p-type semiconductor photocathode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on hydrogenated Pd and Pt electrode at 200 mV overpotentialor hydrogenated Pd. All of these electrodes are good proton

Kumar, Bhupendra

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

University of Massachusetts Amherst Measurement & Verification Guidelines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University of Massachusetts Amherst Measurement & Verification Guidelines & Template Plan 11 ..............................................................................................................1 UMASS AMHERST MEASUREMENT & VERIFICATION (M&V) GUIDELINES ..........3 PREFACE ....................................................................................................................................................................3 BENEFITS OF MEASUREMENT & VERIFICATION

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

95

Standard Measurement and Verification Plan for Lighting Retrofit Projects for Buildings and Building Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a framework for standard measurement and verification (M&V) of lighting retrofit and replacement projects. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. It includes details on all aspects of effectively measuring light levels of existing and post-retrofit projects, conducting power measurement, and developing cost-effectiveness analysis. This framework M&V plan also enables consistent comparison among similar lighting projects, and may be used to develop M&V plans for non--lighting-technology retrofits and new installations.

Richman, Eric E.

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

Electric Field Calculations on Dry-Type Medium Voltage Current Transformers.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This research presents potential and electric field calculations on medium voltage (MV) epoxy insulated outdoor current transformers (CTs) using a numeri-cal calculation approach. Two designs… (more)

Lakshmichand Jain, Sandeep Kumar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Introduction to Measurement and Verification for DOE Super ESPC...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) projects. Topics include allocating project risk, steps to verify savings, and M&V plans and reports. intromv.pdf More Documents &...

98

Feasibility of using intermediate x-ray energies for highly conformal extracranial radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using intermediate energy 2 MV x-rays for extracranial robotic intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: Two megavolts flattening filter free x-rays were simulated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP (v4c). A convolution/superposition dose calculation program was tuned to match the Monte Carlo calculation. The modeled 2 MV x-rays and actual 6 MV flattened x-rays from existing Varian Linacs were used in integrated beam orientation and fluence optimization for a head and neck, a liver, a lung, and a partial breast treatment. A column generation algorithm was used for the intensity modulation and beam orientation optimization. Identical optimization parameters were applied in three different planning modes for each site: 2, 6 MV, and dual energy 2/6 MV. Results: Excellent agreement was observed between the convolution/superposition and the Monte Carlo calculated percent depth dose profiles. For the patient plans, overall, the 2/6 MV x-ray plans had the best dosimetry followed by 2 MV only and 6 MV only plans. Between the two single energy plans, the PTV coverage was equivalent but 2 MV x-rays improved organs-at-risk sparing. For the head and neck case, the 2MV plan reduced lips, mandible, tongue, oral cavity, brain, larynx, left and right parotid gland mean doses by 14%, 8%, 4%, 14%, 24%, 6%, 30% and 16%, respectively. For the liver case, the 2 MV plan reduced the liver and body mean doses by 17% and 18%, respectively. For the lung case, lung V20, V10, and V5 were reduced by 13%, 25%, and 30%, respectively. V10 of heart with 2 MV plan was reduced by 59%. For the partial breast treatment, the 2 MV plan reduced the mean dose to the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs by 27% and 47%, respectively. The mean body dose was reduced by 16%. Conclusions: The authors showed the feasibility of using flattening filter free 2 MV x-rays for extracranial treatments as evidenced by equivalent or superior dosimetry compared to 6 MV plans using the same inverse noncoplanar intensity modulated planning method.

Dong, Peng; Yu, Victoria; Nguyen, Dan; Demarco, John; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Woods, Kaley; Boucher, Salime [RadiaBeam Technologies, Santa Monica, California 90404 (United States)] [RadiaBeam Technologies, Santa Monica, California 90404 (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

EFFECT OF AN ENHANCED CAMV 35S PROMOTER AND A FRUIT-SPECIFIC PROMOTER ON UIDA GENE EXPRESSION IN TRANSGENIC TOMATO PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECT OF AN ENHANCED CAMV 35S PROMOTER AND A FRUIT-SPECIFIC PROMOTER ON UIDA GENE EXPRESSION from alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 (designated as CaMV 35S/AMV) and an E-8 fruit-ripening-specific promoter by the CaMV 35S/AMV or the E-8 fruit-ripening-specific promoter. Southern blot hybridization confirmed

Korban, Schuyler S.

100

Patterned Linear Systems Sarah C. Hamilton and Mireille E. Broucke  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-invariant subspace V, belongs to F(MV ). Given V X, TV F(MV ). Then · Under certain conditions, there is a lifting-invariant. · Spectral subspaces of T are M-invariant and M-decoupling. · TV , the restriction of T to an M

Broucke, Mireille E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fistul, Vinokur, and Baturina reply.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

M.V. Fistul, V.M. Vinokur, and T.I. Baturina wrote a paper titled 'Collective Cooper-Pair Transport in the Insulating State of Josephson-Junction Arrays' which K.B. Efetov, M.V. Feigelman, and P.B. Wiegmann then made comments on that paper and this is Fistul, Vinokur, and Baturina's reply.

Fistul, M. V.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.; Materials Science Division; Ruhr-Univ. Bochum; Inst. Semiconductor Physics

2009-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

102

Integrated Framework toward a Closed Loop Measurement and Verification Shankar Earni, Phil Coleman, Mark Sanders, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of electricity at least hourly. These data, coupled with data from the energy management control systems, provide to integrate M&V and commissioning activities into the ESPC process, combining M&V activities and advanced&M) expenses, albeit with little capital funding. One recent directive, the Energy Independence and Security

103

Development of new methodologies for evaluating the energy performance of new commercial buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-study building in Austin, Texas. First, three new M&V methods were developed to enhance the previous generic M&V framework for new buildings, including: 1) The development of a method to synthesize weathernormalized cooling energy use from a correlation of Motor...

Song, Suwon

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

104

Multiobjective service restoration in distribution networks using an evolutionary approach and fuzzy sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the SR problem is dealt with in a multiple objectives (MO) formulation. Indeed, the power losses' term if the concerned area is large, namely, when the fault occurs close to or inside the HV/MV substation. If this is the case, and one of the HV/ MV transformers is out of service, the SR problem is that of finding

Coello, Carlos A. Coello

105

U.S. Contributions to ITER Ned Sauthoff  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field Conductor: #12;What's Ahead · Quality Assurance plan being developed. · Cabling Services · Jacket&D and design, with the IO. Central Solenoid Assembly: · Manufacturing CS- Insert Coil for testing in Japan System #12;The U.S. Role Electric Power Systems HV Switchgear HV Transformers MV Switchgear MV

106

PE, MASc, BSc, BEng, LEED AP Enermodal Engineering Ltd.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Associates, Inc. #12;Creating energy and resource efficient buildings Agenda Why does it matter? How much energy does my building use? M&V Overview University of Massachusetts Amherst Campus Police Station M&V Case Studies #12;Creating energy and resource efficient buildings Why Lower energy consumption

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

107

EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 11: Solar Cell Parameters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mV ­ Commercial silicon solar cells 500-600 mV 11 Power & IV Curve · Power (Watts) is the rate · The power output by a source is the product of the current supplied and the voltage at which the current was supplied 12 · Power output = Source voltage x Source current ­ P=V x I (Watts = Joules/second) = (Volts

Kaiser, Todd J.

108

Robust Efficient Frontier Analysis with a Separable Uncertainty Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robust Efficient Frontier Analysis with a Separable Uncertainty Model Seung-Jean Kim Stephen Boyd efficient frontier, i.e., the optimal trade-off curve in terms of worst-case MV preference, as the extension of the efficient frontier to the worst-case MV analysis setting. We establish some basic properties of the robust

109

Pulse radiolytic study of aqueous solutions containing nitrobenzene and methylviologen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solutions containing 2-propanol, nitrobenzene (NB), and methylviologen (MVS ) have been studied in wide ranges of concentrations and pHs. The two radicals NB and MV are formed by the reactions of NB and MV S , respectively, with both the hydrated electron and the 2-propanol radical. Studies were carried out at 578 nm where only the MV absorbs light. The decay of MV follows a single second-order process whose rate constant depends on (NB), (H ), and (MVS ). The findings could be explained by a fast equilibrium between the viologen and nitrobenzene redox systems followed by a slow reaction between MV and either NB or its acidic form NBH. 17 references, 7 figures.

Nahor, G.S.; Rabini, J.

1985-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

110

Fundamental measure theory for the electric double layer: implications for blue-energy harvesting and water desalination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacitive mixing (CAPMIX) and capacitive deionization (CDI) are promising candidates for harvesting clean, renewable energy and for the energy efficient production of potable water, respectively. Both CAPMIX and CDI involve water-immersed porous carbon (supercapacitors) electrodes at voltages of the order of hundreds of millivolts, such that counter-ionic packing is important for the electric double layer (EDL) which forms near the surface of these porous materials. Thus, we propose a density functional theory (DFT) to model the EDL, where the White-Bear mark II fundamental measure theory functional is combined with a mean-field Coulombic and a mean spherical approximation-type correction to describe the interplay between dense packing and electrostatics, in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss the concentration-dependent potential rise due to changes in the chemical potential in capacitors in the context of an over-ideal theoretical description and its impact on energy harvesting and water desalination. Compared to less elaborate mean-field models our DFT calculations reveal a higher work output for blue-energy cycles and a higher energy demand for desalination cycles.

Andreas Härtel; Mathijs Janssen; Sela Samin; René van Roij

2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

111

Calculation of shielding door thicknesses for radiation therapy facilities using the ITS Monte Carlo program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shielding calculations for door thicknesses for megavoltage radiotherapy facilities with mazes are generally straightforward. To simplify the calculations, the standard formalism adopts several approximations relating to the average beam path, scattering coefficients, and the mean energy of the spectrum of scattered radiation. To test the accuracy of these calculations, the Monte Carlo program, ITS, was applied to this problem by determining the dose and energy spectrum of the radiation at the door for 4- and 10-MV bremsstrahlung beams incident on a phantom at isocenter. This was performed for mazes, one termed 'standard' and the other a shorter maze where the primary beam is incident on the wall adjacent to the door. The peak of the photon-energy spectrum at the door was found to be the same for both types of maze, independent of primary beam energy, and also, in the case of the conventional maze, of the primary beam orientation. The spectrum was harder for the short maze and for 10 MV vs. 4 MV. The thickness of the lead door for a short maze configuration was 1.5 cm for 10 MV and 1.2 cm for 4 MV vs. approximately less than 1 mm for a conventional maze. For the conventional maze, the Monte Carlo calculation predicts the dose at the door to be lower than given by NCRP 49 and NCRP 51 by about a factor of 2 at 4 MV but to be the same at 10 MV. For the short maze, the Monte Carlo predicts the dose to be a factor of 3 lower for 4 MV and about a factor of 1.5 lower for 10 MV. Experimental results support the Monte Carlo findings for the short maze.

Biggs, P.J. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

March 2010 Groundwater Sampling at the Project Shoal Site, Nevada (Data Validation Package)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) in March 2010. Wells HC-4, HC-5, HC-7, HC-8, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 were sampled March 10-12, 2010, as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Wells HC-1, HC-2, HC-3, and HC-6 were sampled March 24, 2010, by Desert Research Institute personnel.

None

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Forward production of high-energy electrons from megavoltage photon beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The forward production of high-energy electrons from materials with various atomic numbers from carbon to lead has been measured for megavoltage photon beams from 4- to 25-MV peak bremsstrahlung energy by placing a thin-window parallel-plate ionization chamber directly behind foils of the various materials. The relative forward production of electrons decreases with atomic number for energies less than or equal to10 MV until about Z = 50, after which it rises. For photon energies greater than or equal to15 MV, forward production increases with atomic number with a break point at Z--50, beyond which the curve becomes steeper.

Biggs, P.J.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Robust Efficient Frontier Analysis with a Separable Uncertainty Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tainty, meaning that the MV efficient portfolios constructed with an estimate of the ... market impact constraints with convex impact costs, transaction cost ... is called the optimal capital allocation line (CAL) or capital market line (CML) (when the.

2007-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

115

External proton beam analysis of plasma facing materials for magnetic confinement fusion applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A 1.7MV tandem accelerator was reconstructed and refurbished for this thesis and for surface science applications at the Cambridge laboratory for accelerator study of surfaces (CLASS). At CLASS, an external proton beam ...

Barnard, Harold Salvadore

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Using Embryonic Stem Cells as a Novel Model to Compare the Toxicological Effects of Harm Reduction and Conventional Cigarette Smoke on Early Embryo Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gynecol Scand 85, 675-81. 21. Hoffmann, D. , Djordjevic, M.V. & Hoffmann, I. (1997). The changing cigarette. PreventiveS. ; Gribaldo, L. ; Halder, M. ; Hoffmann, S. ; Roi, A. J. ;

Lin, Sabrina Chia-Chin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Notch regulates the angiogenic response via induction of VEGFR-1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JK), (F31HL090032-01) (HHO), (5K01DK744629, R01CA136673) (Japan. Authors’ contributions YF, CJS, MV, AS and HHO.performed experiments; HHO, CJS and YF, analyzed results and

Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Shawber, Carrie J; Vorontchikhina, Marina; Sharma, Anshula; Outtz, Hasina H; Kitajewski, Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia Elec-xonics Division Internal Report 140 MV The battery voltage as a function of temperature was also measured. The voltage was extremely

Groppi, Christopher

119

Plannin; Dtccmber Bv J o n a t h a n B a r i i r l l . i \\ M  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to call to tnind Allan Jacohs's 1993 maniksto for traditional street design. Great Streeti. In designating t MV.II Streets--part of APA's Great Places In America program--APA wa.s lining up with Allan lacohs

Handy, Susan L.

120

A comparative study of Scleractinian coral diversity in Mo'orea, French Polynesia, and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center, Townesville, Australia. Pg. 78-90. Mueller-Dombois,Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Wilson, M.V. and Shmida,GREAT BARRIER REEF, AUSTRALIA A LEXANDRA T ITLE Molecular

Title, Alexandra C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

2011-02-24 13.36 US Dept of Energys EECBG_SEP TA Program Webinar...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

to thank all of you for joining us for this webinar on energy savings performance contracting -M&V for state and local grantees. This is presented as a part for the United...

122

October 2014 Implementation Manual  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of this size justify a simple, streamlined analytical approach, including M&V, due to the small scale of energy savings and incentive. An ESIP is closely involved with Small...

123

Development of a mathematical model for determining drug absorption parameters in Caco-2 cell monolayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of time in the three compartments during permeation in both directions transport direction apical to basal compartment apical basal cellular transport direction basal to apical compartment apical basal cellular ( ) A Cab CabACabAabAab VSm MK MvVSmCCP dt d...C /**/** max ++??= BBabCabBab VSmCCPdt dC /*)(* ?= SmCCPSmMK MvSmCCPdtdM BabCab Cab CabCabAabCab *)(****)(* max ?? +??= A Cba CbaAAbaCbaAba VSm MK MvVSmCCP dt dC /**/*)(* max ++?= BCbaBbaBba VSmCCPdt dC /*)(* ??= SmMK MvSmCCPSmCCPdtdM Cba Cba...

Blaser, David

2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

124

A chimeric measles virus with a lentiviral envelope replicates exclusively in CD4+/CCR5+ cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We generated a replicating chimeric measles virus in which the hemagglutinin and fusion surface glycoproteins were replaced with the gp160 envelope glycoprotein of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239). Based on a previously cloned live-attenuated Schwarz vaccine strain of measles virus (MV), this chimera was rescued at high titers using reverse genetics in CD4+ target cells. Cytopathic effect consisted in the presence of large cell aggregates evolving to form syncytia, as observed during SIV infection. The morphology of the chimeric virus was identical to that of the parent MV particles. The presence of SIV gp160 as the only envelope protein on chimeric particles surface altered the cell tropism of the new virus from CD46+ to CD4+ cells. Used as an HIV candidate vaccine, this MV/SIVenv chimeric virus would mimic transient HIV-like infection, benefiting both from HIV-like tropism and the capacity of MV to replicate in dendritic cells, macrophages and lymphocytes.

Mourez, Thomas [Unite de Genomique Virale et Vaccination, CNRS URA 3015, Institut Pasteur, F-75015 Paris (France); APHP, GH Saint-Louis-Lariboisiere, Laboratoire de Bacteriologie-Virologie, F-75010 Paris (France); Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, F-75010 Paris (France); Mesel-Lemoine, Mariana; Combredet, Chantal; Najburg, Valerie [Unite de Genomique Virale et Vaccination, CNRS URA 3015, Institut Pasteur, F-75015 Paris (France); Cayet, Nadege [Institut Pasteur, Plateforme de Microscopie Ultrastructurale, F-75015 Paris (France); Tangy, Frederic, E-mail: ftangy@pasteur.fr [Unite de Genomique Virale et Vaccination, CNRS URA 3015, Institut Pasteur, F-75015 Paris (France)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

125

Phoroc.hc,r,ii.\\tr!. trnd fhorohiok~y!~Vol. 34. pp. 775 to 793. 1981 Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: diphenylcarbazide; E,: redox potential; Em:midpoint potential; EPR; electron paramag- netic resonance; f,: initial Chl a/b protein complex; MV: methyl viologen: MW: molecular weight: P680: PS I1 reaction center Chl u

Govindjee

126

Biosensors from conjugated polyelectrolyte complexes , Xiong Gong*, Peter S. Heeger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, (DNP-BS ), and positively charged methyl viologen (MV2 ). Use of the CNC minimizes nonspecific of the conjugated polymer produces changes in the luminescence, UV-visible absorption, or redox potential

Wang, Deli

127

Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MISO MP MRO MWDRI M&V NYISO PJM PUC RAP RFC RTO RTP SERC AirRTOs such as New England or PJM. In 2005 MISO became theEdison is a member of PJM). Interruptible (Total = 3398, N =

Bharvirkar, Ranjit

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

System Assessment Standards: Defining the Market for Assessment Services  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency as a result of using recognized assessment practices and M&V protocols. The end goal of this effort is developing a self sustaining program (without Federal government financial assistance) to certifying plants for energy efficiency by 2011...

McKane, A. T.; Sheaffer, P. E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

THE DESIGN OF AN Fe-12Mn-O.2Ti ALLOY STEEL FOR LOW TEMPERATURE USE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

62, p. 690. W. Jolley: J. Iron Steel Inst. , Feb. , 1968, V.V. 215, p. 2. J. Iron Steel Inst. , Mar. , 1958, Trans. M.v. 41, p. 1185. J. Iron Steel Inst. , Mar. , 1965, D. W.

Hwang, S.-K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Cdc7l1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12. Montagnoli A, Tenca P, Sola F, Carpani D, Brotherton D,A, Rainoldi S, Sirtori FR, Sola F, Thieffine S, Tibolla M,V, Alzani R, Ciavolella A, Sola F, Molinari A, Volpi D,

Toh, Gaik Theng; Masai, Hisao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

E-Print Network 3.0 - area electron beam Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

D.L. Summary: , Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA Abstract We have used electron and photon beams from the 50 MV electron... the magnetic confinement of HE electron and photon...

132

Topic 1: Basics of Power Systems A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Transmission Lines Several Hundred Miles Switching Stations Transformers Circuit Breakers #12;Power Systems Grid 7 · Power Distribution: Medium Voltage (MV) Transmission Lines ( in Smart Grid 11 Nodes: Buses Links: Transmission Lines Generator Load #12;Power Grid Graph Representation

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

133

E-Print Network 3.0 - anoxic bulk soil Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Redox potentiala (mV) n120 Soil water contentb (% wet weight) n4 Bulk densityb (g cm... ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Gordon W. Holtgrieve Peter K. Jewett Pamela A. ... Source:...

134

Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IOU IRC ISO LMP LBNL LSE MISO MP MRO MWG M&V NERC OATT PUCrecommended a focus on what MISO refers to as DRR Type IIis consistent with trends in MISO and elsewhere and suggests

Bharvirkar, Ranjit

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Main Parameters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

m Revolution frequency f0 271.554 kHz Revolution time T0 3.682 mu s Harmonic number htextrmrf 1296 Typical RF voltage V0 9.5 MV Typical synchronous...

136

A high-gradient high-duty-factor Rf photo-cathode electron gun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approximately 13 MV/m, but in the gun cell the fields couldBeam Radius [mm] End of rf gun Uncompensated Compensated 6preliminary analysis of the gun indicates that the fields in

Rimmer, Robert A.; Hartman, Neal; Lidia, Steven M.; Wang, Shaoheng

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Measurement and Verification for Commissioning Projects: Challenges and Opportunities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESL-IC-10/05-49 1 Measurement and Verification for Commissioning Projects: Challenges and Opportunities Kristin Heinemeier, Ph.D., P.E. Portland Energy Conservation, Inc., Sacramento CA Measurement and Verification (M&V) is a key...

Heinemeier, K.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Application of CC® at a Corporate Headquarters Facility in Dallas, TX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consisted of three components: traditional commissioning activities, CC measure implementation, and low cost retrofits. Various M&V strategies were also utilized to quantify the resulting energy savings in a building whose energy use is dominated...

Meline, K.; Kimla, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

E-Print Network 3.0 - aseptic fistulized acromioclavicular Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Medicine 54 ENERGY LEVEL SPECTROSCOPY OF A BOUND VORTEX-ANTIVORTEX PAIR Summary: ENERGY LEVEL SPECTROSCOPY OF A BOUND VORTEX-ANTIVORTEX PAIR A. Kemp1, M.V. Fistul1, A....

140

ORNL/TM 2004/294 Seeing Savings from an ESPC Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................................................ 18 4.6 Summary of M&V Best Practices............................................................. 22 Savings from Utility Bill Analysis .............. 5 3.5 Resolution of Reduced Peak Demand from Utility 4.1 Risk and Responsibility Matrix

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Better Buildings Alliance, Advanced Rooftop Unit Campaign: Rooftop Unit Measurement and Verification (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides facility managers and building owners an introduction to measurement and verification (M&V) methods to estimate energy and cost savings of rooftop units replacement or retrofit projects to estimate paybacks or to justify future projects.

Not Available

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Noise removal at the rod synapse of mammalian retina   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mammalian rods respond to single photons with a hyperpolarization of about 1 mV which is accompanied by continuous noise. Since the mammalian rod bipolar cell collects signals from 20-100 rods, the noise from the converging ...

van Rossum, Mark; Smith, Robert

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an example of M&V uses, the EIS Project Tracker module hasand then fixed Wal-Mart's EIS challenges are largelyindependent of the EIS technology itself. Submetering has

Granderson, Jessica

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Improving the Performance of MIQP Solvers for Quadratic Programs ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

xjzheng@tongji.edu.cn. Xiaoling Sun ...... Next, we consider 5 instances of (MV) from OR-Library, where the mean vector µ and the covariance matrix Q were ...

2013-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

145

Pathways of viologen-mediated oxidation-reduction reactions across dihexadecyl phosphate bilayer membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transmembrane reduction of methylviologen (N,N-dimethyl-4,4[prime]-bipyridinium, MV[sup 2+]) and several n-alkylmethyl analogs, i.e., N-alkyl-N[prime]-methyl-4,4[prime]-bipyridinium, (C[sub n]MV[sup 2+],n[le]10), entrapped within dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) vesicles by S[sub 2]O[sub 4][sup 2[minus

Patterson, B.C.; Hurst, J.K (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton (United States))

1993-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

146

Electrochemistry and photocurrents of the tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) and methyl viologen cations immobilized in carrageenan hydrogel. [tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A procedure for immobilization of both a photochromophore, tris(2,2{prime}-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}), and a quencher, methyl viologen (MV{sup 2+}), within a carrageenan hydrogel matrix at an electrode surface is described. Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} and MV{sup 2+} exhibited diffusion coefficients that ranged from 10{sup {minus} 7} to 10{sup {minus} 6} cm{sup 2}/s in the hydrogel, which represents an improvement over other immobilization matrices. Photolysis of the resulting hydrogel surface modified electrodes gave rise to a significant photocurrent which depended on the concentrations of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, MV{sup 2+}, and triethanolamine and resulted in a maximum value of 12 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} after the hydrogel was cured with a solution containing 5 mM Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} and 50 mM MV{sup 2+}. The photocurrent was the result of reoxidation of MV{sup +} at the electrode surface following reduction of MV{sup 2+} by photoexcited Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. The quenching rate constant of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} by MV{sup 2+} in the hydrogel was 4.2 {times} 10{sup 8} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. The photocurrent action spectrum was consistent with Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} acting as the photochromophore. Offsetting the potential of the hydrogel electrode verified the role of the MV{sup 2+}/{sup +} redox couple as the source of the current.

Rillema, D.P.; Edwards, A.K. (Univ., of North Carolina, Charlotte (United States)); Perine, S.C.; Crumbliss, A.L. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States))

1991-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

147

Technical note 12406 Alignment of Platform Three-circle X-ray Diffractometer General suggestion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shutter with SMART (or APEX) 19.) The GM meter should read a positive MV reading a. (negative if dual plug into the outlet 7.) Plug the dual plug into multi-meter 8.) Turn dial on multi-meter to 200mv DC volts (meter will read 0.0) 9.) Place Radiation meter below collimator on platform and turn on 10.) With the service key

Meagher, Mary

148

Reduction potentials of vesicle-bound viologens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermodynamic reduction potentials have been determined by using spectroelectrochemical and cyclic voltammetric methods for a homologous series of amphiphilic ciologens (N-methyl-N{prime}-alkyl-4,4{prime}-bipyridinium ions, C{sub n}MV{sup 2+}) in a variety of media, including dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP), dioctadecylimethylammonium, and phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles. In general, potentials for both one-electron steps, i.e., C{sub n}MV{sup 2+} + e{sup {minus}} {yields} C{sub n}MV{sup +} and C{sub n}MV{sup +} + e{sup {minus}} {yields} C{sub n}MV{sup 0}, were insensitive to the alkyl chain length, which was varied over the range n = 6{minus}20. The single exception was a large decrease ({approximately}100 mV) in the first reduction potential for DHP-bound viologens when the chain length was increased from n = 10 to n = 12; this effect was attributed to a change in binding topography. The magnitudes of the reduction potentials were highly dependent upon the vesicle charge; the pattern observed indicated that interfacial electrostatic interactions between the surfactant headgroups and bipyridinium rings were the dominant factors determining the potentials. As discussed in the text, the data allow resolution of several heretofore puzzling observations concerning viologen reactivities in microphase suspensions.

Yabin Lei; Hurst, J.K. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton (United States))

1991-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

149

Do metallic ports in tissue expanders affect postmastectomy radiation delivery?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) is often delivered to patients with permanent breast implants. On occasion, patients are irradiated with a tissue expander (TE) in place before their permanent implant exchange. Because of concern of potential under-dosing in these patients, we examined the dosimetric effects of the Magna-Site (Santa Barbara, CA) metallic port that is present in certain TEs. Methods and Materials: We performed ex vivo film dosimetry with single 6-MV and 15-MV photon beams on a water phantom containing a Magna-Site disc in two orientations. Additionally, using in vivo films, we measured the exit dose from 1 patient's TE-reconstructed breast during chest wall treatment with 15-MV tangent beams. Finally, we placed thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) on 6 patients with TEs who received PMRT delivered with 15-MV tangent beams. Results: Phantom film dosimetry revealed decreased transmission in the region of the Magna-Site, particularly with the magnet in the parallel orientation (at 22 mm: 78% transmission with 6 MV, 84% transmission with 15 MV). The transmission measured by in vivo films during single beam treatment concurred with ex vivo results. TLD data showed acceptable variation in median dose to the skin (86-101% prescription dose). Conclusion: Because of potential dosimetric effects of the Magna-Site, it is preferable to treat PMRT patients with permanent implants. However, it is not unreasonable to treat with a TE because the volume of tissue affected by attenuation from the Magna-Site is small. In this scenario, we recommend using 15 MV photons with compensating bolus.

Damast, Shari [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Beal, Kathryn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: bealk@mskcc.org; Ballangrud, Ase [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Losasso, Thomas J. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Cordeiro, Peter G. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Disa, Joseph J. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Hong, Linda [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); McCormick, Beryl L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study of poxvirus entry and membrane fusion has been invigorated by new biochemical and microscopic findings that lead to the following conclusions: (1) the surface of the mature virion (MV), whether isolated from an infected cell or by disruption of the membrane wrapper of an extracellular virion, is comprised of a single lipid membrane embedded with non-glycosylated viral proteins; (2) the MV membrane fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate gene expression; (3) fusion is mediated by a newly recognized group of viral protein components of the MV membrane, which are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family; (4) the latter MV entry/fusion proteins are required for cell to cell spread necessitating the disruption of the membrane wrapper of extracellular virions prior to fusion; and furthermore (5) the same group of MV entry/fusion proteins are required for virus-induced cell-cell fusion. Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors.

Moss, Bernard [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-0445 (United States)]. E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

151

CEBAF Upgrade: Cryomodule Performance And Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is currently engaged in the 12 GeV Upgrade Project. The goal of the 12 GeV Upgrade is a doubling of the available beam energy of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) from 6 GeV to 12 GeV. This increase in beam energy will be due in large part to the addition of ten C100 cryomodules plus associated new RF in the CEBAF linacs. The C100 cryomodules are designed to deliver 100 MeV per installed cryomodule. Each C100 cryomodule is built around a string of eight seven-cell, electro-polished, superconducting RF cavities. While an average performance of 100MV per cryomodule is needed to achieve the overall 12 GeV beam energy goal, the actual performance goal for the cryomodules is an average energy gain of 108 MV to provide operational headroom. Cryomodule production started in December 2010. All ten of the C100 cryomodules are installed in the linac tunnels and are on schedule to complete commissioning by September 2013. Performance during Commissioning has ranged from 104 MV to 118 MV. In May, 2012 a test of an early C100 achieved 108 MV with full beam loading. This paper will discuss the performance of the C100 cryomodules along with operational challenges and lessons learned for future designs.

Drury, Michael A.; Davis, G. Kirk; Hogan, John P.; Hovater, J. Curt; King, Lawrence; Marhauser, Frank; Park, HyeKyoung; Preble, Joe; Reece, Charles E.; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng; Wiseman, Mark A.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Comparative Simulation Studies of Multipacting in Higher-Order-Mode Couplers of Superconducting RF Cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multipacting (MP) in higher-order-mode (HOM) couplers of the International Linear Collider (ILC) baseline cavity and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) 12 GeV upgrade cavity is studied by using the ACE3P suites, developed by the Advanced Computations Department at SLAC. For the ILC cavity HOM coupler, the simulation results show that resonant trajectories exist in three zones, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 0.6?1.6 MV/m, 21?34 MV/m, 32?35 MV/m, and > 40MV/m, respectively. For the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity HOM coupler, resonant trajectories exist in one zone, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 6?13 MV/m. Potential implications of these MP barriers are discussed in the context of future high energy pulsed as well as medium energy continuous wave (CW) accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency cavities. Frequency scaling of MP?s predicted in HOM couplers of the ILC, CBEAF upgrade, SNS and FLASH third harmonic cavity is given and found to be in good agreement with the analytical result based on the parallel plate model.

Li, Y. M. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Liu, Kexin [Peking University, Beijing (China); Geng, Rongli [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Electrogenic and electroneutral pathways for methyl viologen-mediated transmembrane oxidation-reduction across dihexadecylphosphate vesicular membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two pathways for transmembrane reduction of dihexadecylphosphate (DHP) vesicle-entrapped Co(bpy)[sub 3][sup 3+] ion by photogenerated methyl viologen radical cation have been identified by quantitative evaluation of the reaction kinetics. One pathway involves electrogenic diffusion of MV[sup +] and the other electroneutral diffusion of MV[sup 0] across the bilayer. The pathways were clearly distinguished by the self-impeding character of the electrogenic reaction, which was progressively retarded as the membrane polarization increased, and by the net stoichiometry of viologen uptake accompanying transmembrane oxidation-reduction. The first-order rate constants for transmembrane diffusion of MV[sup +] and MV[sup 0] were estimated to be 2.7 x 10[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] and 1.1 x 10[sup 3] s[sup [minus]1], respectively, at 23[degree]C. The rate constant for MV[sup +] diffusion is identical to the value previously measured by [sup 14]C-isotopic labeling methods, and other kinetic parameters were consistent with thermodynamic data obtained from measurements of Donnan equilibria. 31 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Lymar, S.V. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States) Inst. of Catalysis, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Hurst, J.K. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States))

1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

154

Raman and surface-enhanced Raman study of asymmetrically substituted viologens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The normal Raman (NR), resonance Raman (RR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) spectra of the three redox forms of several asymmetric viologens, N-octyl-N'-methylviologen (C/sub 8/MV), N-dodecyl-N'-methylviologen (C/sub 12/MV), and N-hexadecyl-N'-methylviologen (C/sub 16/MV), have been characterized and compared with the corresponding spectra of the three redox forms of methylviologen (MV). It was observed that the substituents of the two N atoms of the viologen do not affect its overall symmetry. Only the Raman bands near 1200 cm/sup /minus/1/, containing major contributions from the N-alkyl stretching vibrations, are affected by the asymmetric substitution. The RR spectra of both the monomer and dimer forms of the cation radicals were obtained by varying the experimental conditions used in their preparation. As previously observed for MV, dimerization of the asymmetric viologen radicals produces splitting of certain RR bands. Resonance Raman spectra of the fully reduced viologens were also obtained and used to monitor the disproportionation reaction between the dication and fully reduced form of the viologen. Surface-enhanced Raman and SERRS spectra of the different asymmetric viologens were found to vary slightly due to changes in their adsorption behavior with increasing chain length of the alkyl substituent.

Lu, T.; Cotton, T.M.; Hurst, J.K.; Thompson, D.H.P.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

One-electron reduction of dihexadecyl phosphate vesicle bound viologens by dithionite ion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

N-Methyl-N'-alkyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (C/sub n/MV/sup 2 +/) ions bound to dihexadecyl phosphate vesicles are rapidly reduced to radical cations by S/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup 2 -/ in weakly alkaline solutions. For the short-chain viologens investigated (n = 1, 6, 8), the reaction obeys the rate law d(C/sub n/MV/sup +/)/dt = k(C/sub n/MV/sup 2 +/)(S/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup 2 -/)/sup 1/2/. The measured rate constants were identical for preparations in which viologen was added to preformed vesicles and in which vesicles were formed in the presence of viologen, although in the latter systems 10-30% of the viologen was inaccessible to the reductant. For longer chain C/sub n/MV/sup 2 +/ (n = 12, 14, 16, 18, 20), viologen radical formation was biphasic when binding was constrained to the external aqueous-vesicle interface, but it was triphasic when viologen was bound at both interfaces. Where determined, each step was first order in C/sub n/MV/sup 2 +/ and half order in S/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup 2 -/; viologen radical yields were identical in vesicles prepared by either method. The results are interpreted to indicate the simultaneous existence of multiple binding domains for long-chain viologens within the vesicles. Possible structures and relationships to transmembrane redox pathways are briefly discussed.

Thompson, D.H.P.; Barrette, W.C. Jr.; Hurst, J.K.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Solicitation and Selection of Partner Projects, Technical Team Leads, and Measurement and Validation Contractors for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Funded Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP-2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In March 2010, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) joined two other labs receiving ARRA funding, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Renewable National Laboratory (NREL), to began weekly conference calls with the goal of coordinating a joint lab solicitation to support the ARRA-funded CBP project. Two solicitations were identified for: 1) new CBP Partners; 2) technical contractors to provide technical assistance and measurement and verification (M&V) contractors. The M&V contractors support the work by providing model reviews and conducting monitoring studies to verify building performance. This report documents the process used by the labs for the solicitations, and describes the process and outcomes for PNNL, selection of candidate Partners, technical teams, and M&V contractors.

Nesse, Ronald J.; Baechler, Michael C.; Iverson, Megan M.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

157

Performance of 3-cell Seamless Niobium cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the last several months we have surface treated and cryogenically tested three TESLA-type 3-cell cavities, which had been manufactured at DESY as seamless assemblies by hydroforming. The cavities were completed at JLab with beam tube/flange assemblies. All three cavities performed very well after they had been post-purified with titanium at 1250C for 3 hrs. The cavities, two of which consisted of an end cell and 2 center cells and one was a center cell assembly, achieved gradients of Eacc = 32 MV/m, 34 MV/m and 35 MV/m without quenches. The performance was limited by the appearance of the “Q-drop” in the absence of field emission. This contribution reports about the various measurements undertaken with these cavities.

Kneisel, Peter K. [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLBA; Jelezov, I. [DESY, Hamburg; Singer, W. [DESY, Hamburg; Singer, X. [DESY, Hamburg

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Ultra-High Gradient Compact S-Band Linac for Laboratory and Industrial Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is growing demand from the industrial and research communities for high gradient, compact RF accelerating structures. The commonly used S-band SLAC-type structure has an operating gradient of only about 20 MV/m; while much higher operating gradients (up to 70 MV/m) have been recently achieved in X-band, as a consequence of the substantial efforts by the Next Linear Collider (NLC) collaboration to push the performance envelope of RF structures towards higher accelerating gradients. Currently however, high power X-band RF sources are not readily available for industrial applications. Therefore, RadiaBeam Technologies is developing a short, standing wave S-band structure which uses frequency scaled NLC design concepts to achieve up to a 50 MV/m operating gradient at 2856 MHz. The design and prototype commissioning plans are presented.

Faillace, Luigi; /RadiaBeam Tech.; Agustsson, Ronald; /RadiaBeam Tech.; Frigola, Pedro; /RadiaBeam Tech.; Murokh, Alex; /RadiaBeam Tech.; Dolgashev, Valery; /SLAC; Rosenzweig, James; /UCLA

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

159

Beam Profile Disturbances from Implantable Pacemakers or Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The medical community is advocating for progressive improvement in the design of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and implantable pacemakers to accommodate elevations in dose limitation criteria. With advancement already made for magnetic resonance imaging compatibility in some, a greater need is present to inform the radiation oncologist and medical physicist regarding treatment planning beam profile changes when such devices are in the field of a therapeutic radiation beam. Treatment plan modeling was conducted to simulate effects induced by Medtronic, Inc.-manufactured devices on therapeutic radiation beams. As a continuation of grant-supported research, we show that radial and transverse open beam profiles of a medical accelerator were altered when compared with profiles resulting when implantable pacemakers and cardioverter-defibrillators are placed directly in the beam. Results are markedly different between the 2 devices in the axial plane and the sagittal planes. Vast differences are also presented for the therapeutic beams at 6-MV and 18-MV x-ray energies. Maximum changes in percentage depth dose are observed for the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator as 9.3% at 6 MV and 10.1% at 18 MV, with worst distance to agreement of isodose lines at 2.3 cm and 1.3 cm, respectively. For the implantable pacemaker, the maximum changes in percentage depth dose were observed as 10.7% at 6 MV and 6.9% at 18 MV, with worst distance to agreement of isodose lines at 2.5 cm and 1.9 cm, respectively. No differences were discernible for the defibrillation leads and the pacing lead.

Gossman, Michael S., E-mail: mgossman@tsrcc.com [Tri-State Regional Cancer Center, Medical Physics Section, Ashland, KY (United States); Comprehensive Heart and Vascular Associates, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashland, KY (United States); Medtronic, Inc., External Research Program, Mounds View, MN (United States); Nagra, Bipinpreet; Graves-Calhoun, Alison; Wilkinson, Jeffrey [Tri-State Regional Cancer Center, Medical Physics Section, Ashland, KY (United States); Comprehensive Heart and Vascular Associates, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashland, KY (United States); Medtronic, Inc., External Research Program, Mounds View, MN (United States)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Vertical and horizontal test results of 3.9-GHz accelerating cavities at FNAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 3rd harmonic 3.9GHz accelerating cavity was proposed to improve the beam performance of the VUV FEL, FLASH. In the frame of a collaborative agreement, Fermilab will provide DESY with a cryomodule containing a string of four cavities. Seven 9-cell Nb cavities were tested and six of them did reach accelerating gradient up to 24 MV/m almost twice more than design value of 14 MV/m. Two of these cavities are with new HOM couplers with improved design. In this paper we present all results of the vertical and horizontal tests.

Khabiboulline, T.; Edwards, H.; Foley, M.; Harms, E.; Hocker, James Andrew; Mitchell, D.; Rowe, A.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Full field automated flow analysis of a spray using digital pulsed laser velocimetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . The MV image double B. The MV image double C. . Target grid for the EP doubles. . . Target grid for the EP singles. The EP image double 11. The EP image single 11. The EP image double 12. Page 35 36 36 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 47 47 48 51.... The EP image single 13. . The EP image double 14, The EP image single 14. Target grid for the analysis of EP doubles. Target grid for the analysis of EP singles. Region of EP double 11 used for analysis. Region of EP single 11 used for analysis...

Delahunte, Katey Eileen

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Inhibition of KCa3.1 by depolarisation and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) during Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ (CRAC) entry in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells: Implications for the interpretation of 2-APB inhibition of CRAC entry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-mediated Ca2+ oscillations and oscillations in KCa3.1 activity [30,31,32]. Following transition to the whole cell configuration the cell was held at -80 mV and 200 ms voltage ramps from -100 to +100 mV 18 administered every three seconds. The magnitude... ], voltage-gated K+ channels [10], the non-selective cation channel TRPM7 [11], a Mg2+-inhibited K+ conductance described in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells [12] and mitochondrial Ca2+ release [7]. Although it is well established to block CRAC currents...

Littlechild, Robert; Zaidman, Nathalie; Khodaverdi, Darren; Mason, Michael James

2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

163

Toward a molecular understanding of iron homeostasis in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The role of Bacterioferritin B.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), and these are involved in many redox reactions [7]. The redox potential of Fe2+/Fe3+ fluctuates from -490 mV to +330 mV (Vs SHE) and mainly depends on the ligands that are coordinated to iron. Thus, as a very useful redox mediator in biology, iron can be found... generates hydroxyl anions, oxygen and reactive hydroxyl radicals as products. It is noteworthy, however, that the Haber –Weiss reaction can take place only in the presence of catalytic amounts of a redox active metal such as iron. #7...

Weeratunga, Saroja Kumari

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

Commercial Buildings Partnership Projects - Metered Data Format and Delivery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of the Commercial Building Partnership Projects (CBPs) will require metering, monitoring, data analysis and verification of savings after the retrofits are complete. Although monitoring and verification (M&V) agents are free to use any metering and monitoring devices that they chose, the data they collect should be reported to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in a standard format. PNNL will store the data collected in its CBP database for further use by PNNL and U.S. Department of Energy. This document describes the data storage process and the deliver format of the data from the M&V agents.

Katipamula, Srinivas

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

165

Megavoltage imaging with a photoconductor based sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photodetector for detecting megavoltage (MV) radiation comprises a semiconductor conversion layer having a first surface and a second surface disposed opposite the first surface, a first electrode coupled to the first surface, a second electrode coupled to the second surface, and a low density substrate including a detector array coupled to the second electrode opposite the semiconductor conversion layer. The photodetector includes a sufficient thickness of a high density material to create a sufficient number of photoelectrons from incident MV radiation, so that the photoelectrons can be received by the conversion layer and converted to a sufficient of recharge carriers for detection by the detector array.

Partain, Larry Dean (Los Altos, CA); Zentai, George (Mountain View, CA)

2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

166

To cite this document: Fernandez, Mayra and Barroso, Benot and Meyer, Michel and Meyer, Xuan Mi and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To cite this document: Fernandez, Mayra and Barroso, Benoît and Meyer, Michel and Meyer, Xuan Mi and modelling M. F. Fernandeza,b,c,d,e , B. Barrosoe , X. M. Meyera* , M. Meyera , M.-V. Le Lannb,c , G. Le

Mailhes, Corinne

167

LYSTROSAURUS GEORGI, A DICYNODONT FROM THE LOWER TRIASSIC OF RUSSIA MIKHAIL V. SURKOV1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LYSTROSAURUS GEORGI, A DICYNODONT FROM THE LOWER TRIASSIC OF RUSSIA MIKHAIL V. SURKOV1 , NIKOLAS N Saratov, Russia, SurkovMV@info.sgu.ru 2 Paleontologicheskii Institut, Profsoyuznaya 123, 117647 Moscow, Russia. 3 Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1RJ, U.K., mike

Benton, Michael

168

Meissner's Mysterious Bodies Bernd Kawohl & Christof Weber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by plaster. Figure 1 appears to be the earliest drawing showing a nontrivial three-dimensional body of "the" Meissner body. The earliest printed photograph of a plaster Meissner body, the one de- scribed") in the Palais de la D´ecouverte in Paris (see #12;3 Figure 2: Plaster Model of Meissner body MV Figure 8

Kawohl, Bernd

169

INSTRUCTION MANUAL digital pH/mV meter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSTRUCTION MANUAL model 701A digital pH/mV meter /r^ ORION RESEARCH #12;contents Introduction 1 701A digital pH/mV meter is the ideal meter for all research and precision measurements with pH and chemical sensing electrodes. In both the absolute and relative mV modes, the meter covers a range of ± 1999

Kleinfeld, David

170

THE ACCELERATOR TUBE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME AT DARESBURY LABORATORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of 20 to 30 MV. 2. Construction. - Early work on the development of a diffusion bonding process suitable and consistent materials preparation needed for reliable bonding. The cônditions necessary for bonding pure tita- nium to ceramic were soon established. However a harder alloy of titanium which had a better resis

Boyer, Edmond

171

November 30-December 17, 2012 A Special Small Group Tour for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sightseeing ... Argentine dinner and tango show ... Three-night Southern Patagonia cruise ... Beagle Channel of the world's last great frontiers: the majestic fjords and glaciers of Southern Patagonia, on a small Acebos Hotel First Class 6-8 Patagonia cruise M/V Stella Australis Sup. First Class 9-11 Torres del Paine

Connor, Ed

172

Erste Satzung zur nderung der Fachprfungsordnung des Masterstudiengangs Health Care Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Erste Satzung zur Änderung der Fachprüfungsordnung des Masterstudiengangs Health Care-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald die folgende Satzung zur Änderung der Fachprüfungsordnung des Masterstudiengangs Health Care Masterstudiengangs Health Care Management vom 15. März 2011 (Mittl.bl. BM M-V 2011 S. 288) wird wie folgt geändert

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

173

Aegean Seals of the Late Bronze Age: Stylistic Groups VII. Concordance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-5 1758, 1759 (gold cups) not in CMS Pithoi VI 73 NMA 2646 M-V LIII 49 8709 (electrum mask) not in CMS StGeorg IV 98 Sofia, AcRomania 475 98 Copenhagen NM 7137 not in CMS StGeorg IV 98 7138 StGeorg 98 Copenhagen NM 7308 not in CMS IV 98...

Younger, John G.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Optimization of High Tunability Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films Grown by RF Magnetron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of High Tunability Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films Grown by RF Magnetron Abstract-- Barium strontium titanate is a solid solution perovskite with a field-dependent permittivity.7 MV/cm. I. INTRODUCTION In recent years there has been much interest in thin-film barium strontium

York, Robert A.

175

Backbone Dipoles Generate Positive Potentials in all Proteins: Origins and Implications of the Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

potential in 305 proteins is 109 30 mV (2.5 0.7 kcal/mol/e). Because the backbone has zero net charge, the non-zero potential is unexpected. The larger oxygen at the negative and smaller proton at the positive, 1994; Gandini et al., 1996) and by calculation of the intra- protein electrostatic potential (Spassov

Gunner, Marilyn

176

Schubert and Macdonald Polynomials, a parallel Alain Lascoux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 #12;Schubert and Macdonald Polynomials, a parallel Alain Lascoux 'oooooo 'oooooo 'oooooo 'oooooo Schubert and (non-symmetric) Macdonald polynomials are two lin- ear bases of the ring of polynomials which, x = {x1, . . . , xn}. Schubert polynomials {Yv : v Nn } and Macdonald polynomials {Mv : v Nn

Lascoux, Alain

177

Schubert and Macdonald Polynomials, a parallel Alain Lascoux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Schubert and Macdonald Polynomials, a parallel Alain Lascoux 'oooooo 'oooooo 'oooooo 'oooooo Schubert and (non-symmetric) Macdonald polynomials are two lin- ear bases of the ring of polynomials which, x = {x1, . . . , xn}. Schubert polynomials {Yv : v Nn } and Macdonald polynomials {Mv : v Nn

Lascoux, Alain

178

Umweltphysik W. Aeschbach-Hertig  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­ Piezometerhöhe (hydraulic head) h: Potential 11 Definition der Piezometerhöhe h aus Fitts, 2002. Groundwater Science, Academic Press Totale Energie auf Höhe z: 21 E pV mgz mv 2 = + + E p h z mg g = = + Energie.: hydraulic head 12 Hydraulischer Head und Aquifertypen aquifer aquitard impermeable permeable unsaturated

Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

179

Curriculum Vitae PAOLO D'ODORICO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­ Piezometerhöhe (hydraulic head) h: Potential 11 Definition der Piezometerhöhe h aus Fitts, 2002. Groundwater Science, Academic Press Totale Energie auf Höhe z: 21 E pV mgz mv 2 = + + E p h z mg g = = + Energie.: hydraulic head 12 Hydraulischer Head und Aquifertypen aquifer aquitard impermeable permeable unsaturated

D'Odorico, Paolo

180

INTRODUCTION Information on the abundance of large whales in Greenland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTRODUCTION Information on the abundance of large whales in Greenland waters, including fin whales surveys were conducted in West Greenland by the Greenland Fisheries Research Institute (m/v Regina Maris when survey conditions are optimal in Greenlandic waters. Between 1983 and 1993, visual aerial surveys

Laidre, Kristin L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Fred A.' Seaton, ,Secretary FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MvOll:US pelamis), little tunny (E1£thynnus yaito), and frigate maekerel (A1£xi.~ thazard Skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) .. .. _.. .. ______ 40 Little tunny (Euthynnus yaito of distribution .. "___ __ __ ____ 57 Latitudinal distribution of Katsuwon·u.~ pelamis and Neothu.n- nus mac

182

Q0 Improvement of Large-Grain Multi-Cell Cavities by Using JLab's Standard ILC EP Processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As reported previously at the Berlin workshop, applying the JLab standard ILC electropolishing (EP) recipe on previously buffered chemical polishing (BCP) etched fine-grain multi-cell cavities results in improvement both in gradient and Q{sub 0}. We recently had the opportunity to experiment with two 1300 MHz 9-cell large-gain niobium cavities manufactured by JLab and Peking University. Both cavities were initially BCP etched and further processed by using JLab's standard ILC EP recipe. Due to fabrication defects, these two cavities only reached a gradient in the range of 20-30 MV/m. Interestingly both cavities demonstrated significant Q{sub 0} improvement in the gradient range of 15-20 MV/m. At 2K, a Q{sub 0} value of 2E10 is achieved at 20 MV/m. At a reduced temperature of 1.8K, a Q{sub 0} value of 3E10 is achieved at 20 MV/m. These results suggest that a possible path for obtaining higher Q{sub 0} in the medium gradient range is to use the large-grain material for cavity fabrication and EP and low temperature bake for cavity processing.

Geng, R. L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Eremeev, G. V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Kneisel, P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Liu, K. X. [IHIP, Peking University, Beijing (China); Lu, X. Y. [IHIP, Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhao, K. [IHIP, Peking University, Beijing (China)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

n the night of July 5-6, 1989 a group of researchers led by the late John R. Winck-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

grows, forming a so- called streamer-leader tree. Finally, when a conducting path is created between electrons rapidly attach to oxy- gen molecules. However, in a sufficiently strong electric field (higher than 3.2 MV/m in air at standard tempe- rature and pressure) a free electron can gain enough energy

Ebert, Ute

184

Vol. 175, No. 21JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, Nov. 1993, p. 7105-7108 0021-9193/93/21 7105-04$02.00/0  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Ap). The electrical potential (At) together with the difference in proton concen- tration between potential difference of hydrogen ions across the cytoplasmic membrane and is termed the proton motive force-state value of - 150 to - 200 mV (14). Ap is harnessed to drive nutrient transport, ATP synthesis, and other

Gage, Daniel J.

185

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 18 SEPTEMBER 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2090 Gamma-rays from harmonically resonant betatron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that are limited to fields of 10­100 MV m-1 because of electrical breakdown, which results in very large matter. However, they now have the potential to transform accelerator and light source technology. In the late 1970s, Tajima and Dawson1 proposed harnessing the ponderomotive force associated with intense

Loss, Daniel

186

Battery-assisted and Photovoltaic-sourced Switched-inductor CMOS Harvesting ChargerSupply  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Battery-assisted and Photovoltaic-sourced Switched-inductor CMOS Harvesting Charger­Supply Rajiv-scale photovoltaic (PV) cells harness a diminutive fraction of light and artificial lighting avails a small 25 mV at 10 ­ 80 kHz and with 77% ­ 89% efficiency. Index Terms--Harvester, photovoltaic (PV

Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

187

RATEDISTORTION OPTIMIZATION FOR VBR ENVIRONMENTS USING A MOTION COMPENSATED WAVELET CODER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is achieved by jointly optimizing the block size, motion vector (MV) and coding mode (CM) for each block distortion coding at minimal rate is desired. The R­ D optimization is achieved by jointly optimizing the coding parameters in both the variable block size mo­ tion estimation and the region­based embedded

Hemami, Sheila S.

188

Effect of pH and Ionic Strength on Boron Adsorption by Pyrophyllite R. Keren* and D. L. Sparks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, attributableto the weak electrical field at this pH (electrical potential, \\|»0 = -47 mV) together with the low B the hypothesis that the negative electrical field associated with thisplanarsurfacesaffects B adsorption. BORON was dependent on the pH of the clay suspension. Exchangeable cation species (Na+ vs. Ca2+ ) had little effect

Sparks, Donald L.

189

Implementation of low-energy surface-induced dissociation (eV SID) and high-energy collision-induced dissociation (keV CID)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Implementation of low-energy surface-induced dissociation (eV SID) and high-energy collision is that the instrument implements both high-energy collision-induced dissociation (keV CID) and low-energy surface energy expression, E mv2 /2. As pointed out in the foreword to Cotter's book on TOF mass spectrometry [1

Wysocki, Vicki H.

190

a-and b-Tubulin Phylogenies Support a Close Relationship Between the Microsporidia Brachiola algerae and Antonospora locustae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

algerae and Antonospora locustae RENNY C.H. LEE,a BRYONY A.P. WILLIAMS,a,1 AMANDA M.V. BROWN,b MARTIN L. ADAMSON,b PATRICK J. KEELINGa and NAOMI M. FASTa a Department of Botany, University of British Columbia by Ichthyosporidium; Group II represented by Endoreticulatus; Group III represented by Enceph- alitozoon; and Group IV

Keeling, Patrick

191

DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: This paper examines the market efficiency of oil spot and futures prices by using both mean-variance (MV of crude oil prices, oil futures have become one of the most popular derivatives to hedge the risk of oil price hikes or crashes. Spot and futures prices of oil have been investigated over an extended period

Hickman, Mark

192

Single hole quantum dot transistors in silicon Effendi Leobandung, Lingjie Guo, and Stephen Y. Choua)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the gate voltage have been observed at temperatures over 81 K and drain biases over 66 mV. The oscillations to the drain. As the gate voltage was scanned, the drain current i.e., the hole current oscil- lated Fig. 3-dot transistors were fabricated in silicon-on-insulator. Strong oscillations in the drain current as a function

193

Persistent Sodium Currents in Mesencephalic V Neurons Participate in Burst Generation and Control of Membrane Excitability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

current (INaP) previously proposed to participate in the generation of subthreshold oscillations and burstV, with V1/2 of ­58.7 mV. Ramp voltage-clamp protocols showed that INaP undergoes time- as well as voltage), and subthreshold oscillations, and completely blocked bursting, but produced modest effects on the fast transient

Izhikevich, Eugene

194

The dynamic structure underlying subthreshold oscillatory activity and the onset  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stellate cells display subthresh- old oscillations (STOs). We study a single compartment biophysical model and a reset voltage. We show that the synchronization properties in networks made up of the NAS cells established that the SCs develop low-amplitude (1-4 mV) rhythmic subthreshold membrane potential oscillations

Rotstein, Horacio G.

195

J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 140, No. 5, May 1993 9 The Electrochemical Society, Inc. 1471 assumed from the edge of the SiO2 conduction band corre-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

centers excited by hot electrons accelerated by the high field of about 22 MV/cm in the SiQ layer of pure water, citric acid [1.5 weight percent (w/o)], and am- monium citrate (1.5 w/o). The spectrum, wafer temperature, and etc

Economou, Demetre J.

196

Survival rates of fishes and macroinvertebrates impinged on the vertically revolving intake screens of a power plant on Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the western side of Galveston Bay near Bacliff, Texas (Fig. 1). The fossil-fueled plant consisted of four generating units: Unit 1, 450 MW; Unit 2, 450 MN; Unit 3, 565 MW; and Unit 4, 750 MV, for a total capacity of 2, 215 NV. Based on manufacturers' name...

Chase, David Mayo

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

31-mar-2011. Embedded software version 1.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-board micro-controller. Photo of. CEAD20 ADC can work in different modes. The base mode is a multi - 1500 . 18. Temperature sensitivity of on-board sensor (typical) ­ 1,9 mV/°. 19. Output voltage of temperature sensor at +25 ° ­ 0.56 ±10%.. 20. CANbus transceiver is galvanically isolated from network

Kozak, Victor R.

198

Embedded software version 1. 1. Features  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are connected with connector on front panel; - a temperature sensor, placed on the board; - header, which allows to change base address of device; - embedded microcontroller. A photo of device. The device may work sensitivity of on-board sensor ­ 1,9 mV/°. 13. Output voltage of temperature sensor at +25 ° ­ 0.56 ±10%. 14

Kozak, Victor R.

199

Effect of Rotational Mobility on Photoelectron Transfer: Comparison of Two Zeolite Michael A. Coutant, Joseph R. Sachleben, and Prabir K. Dutta*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the rate of the photoinduced forward and back electron transfer from Ru- (bpy)3 2+ to methyl viologen of photochemically created reactive redox species.1 Thus, considerable effort is being made to understand such as methyl viologen (MV2+) using the inherent ion-exchange properties of the zeolite. It has been shown

Dutta, Prabir K.

200

Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Viologen . 40 Band Positions of p-GaP and p-Si With Redoxredox couple, figure 2-12 shows the cyclic voltammetry using methyl viologen.viologen, MV) were used to characterize the photoelectrodes. These were chosen because they have multiple reversible redox

Sathrum, Aaron John

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

ReprintedfromTheJournalof OrganicChemistry,1981,46,4622. CopyrightO 1981by the AmericanChemicalSocietyandreprintedb-',-permissionof the copyrightowner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl Viologen and Flavoenzymes Summary; A procedure for enzyme-catalyzed organic synthesisis of oxidized to reducedmethyl viologen (MV2+-' MVl*) followed by flavoenzyme NADP via re- action with FDR has been reported previously,6'7appli- cation of this redox cycleto

Prentiss, Mara

202

Methyl viologen mediated oxidation-reduction across dihexadecylphosphate vesicles involves transmembrane diffusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerous reports have appeared describing oxidation-reduction across bilayer membranes. Mechanisms proposed for specific systems include the following: (i) electron tunneling across the hydrocarbon barrier between interfacially bound redox partners, (ii) molecular diffusion of bound redox components across the barrier, and (iii) formation of barrier-penetrating aggregates, or electron-conducting channels, across the bilayer. Nonetheless, the actual reaction mechanisms remain obscure due to the general unavailability of transverse diffusion rates, possible loss of compartmentation of reactants, particularly in photochemical systems, and the ambiguities inherent in deducing reaction mechanisms from rate data, which form the primary evidence in most systems studied. The reactions of dihexadecylphosphate (DHP) vesicle-bound methyl viologen (MV/sup 2 +/) describes in this report are unique in allowing deduction of molecular details of a transmembrane redox event from the product composition and microphase distribution. Specifically, they have found that MV/sup 2 +/ bound at the outer vesicle interface mediates reduction of inner-localized MV/sup 2 +/ by dithionite ion in bulk solution in a manner that requires comigration of MV/sup +/ with the electron transferred across the membrane barrier.

Patterson, B.C.; Thompson, D.H.; Hurst, J.K.

1988-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

203

Species-specific residues calibrate SoxR sensitivity to redox-active molecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to viologens, which have redox potentials below -350 mV. Using a mutagenic approach, we pin- pointed threeSpecies-specific residues calibrate SoxR sensitivity to redox-active molecules Rebecca Sheplock,1, the transcription factor SoxR triggers a global stress response by sensing a broad spectrum of redox

Dietrich, Lars

204

2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Highly stable tetrathiafulvalene radical dimers in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stoddart1 * Two [3]catenane `molecular flasks' have been designed to create stabilized, redox observation of p­p radical-cation dimers on the redox stimulation of electron rich or poor heterocycles, rather than the fundamental cornerstone of functional devices7 . Specifically, methyl viologen (MV2þ

Goddard III, William A.

205

Magnetic field-induced phase transformation & power harvesting capabilities in magnetic shape memory alloys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The possibility of harvesting waste mechanical work as electrical power by means of VR in NiMnGa MSMAs was explored: without enhanced pickup coil parameters or optimized power conditioning circuitry, 280 mV was harvested at 10 Hz frequency within a strain range...

Basaran, Burak

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

206

The following contribution was presented at the 28. European PV Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and apply Al screen printing and firing. As already published, we confirm that the surface recombination-solidification after firing or by laser doping before firing. We show evidences of laser doping for ns laser, whereas collection with simultaneous higher bulk carrier lifetime enabling open circuit voltages above 700 mV, c) use

207

Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

Goldman, Charles

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

In Situ Electrochemical X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysis with High Oxygen Flux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the widespread application of fuel cells and air-cathode batteries in automotive and stationary power a progressive evolution of the electronic structure of the metal clusters that is both potential) and the large overpotential (300 mV) in fuel cell cathodes necessitate the use of high loadings of precious-metal

Frenkel, Anatoly

209

Infrastructure iThemba LABS' infrastructure is based at two sites, namely  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Current and future projects iThemba Labs is committed to: ·developing a beamsplitter capable of delivering-MV Tandem Accelerator. Particle beams delivered by the accelerator are used for low energy nuclear two beams of different intensities, thereby increasing the production of radionuclides, ·establishing

Wagner, Stephan

210

SEARCH FOR EXTRATERRESTRIAL PARTICLES IN SEDIMENT FROM THE SOUTH PACIFIC BARE ZONE. K. Schreiber1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rate suggests that the area may contain an enhanced concentration of extraterrestrial matter, together with MV0502-15JC [5], at 31º 42.194'S, 143º 30.331'W; 5082 m water depth in the South Pacific bare zone). The top 2 m of the core are dominated by dark brown zeolitic clay, followed by a rust

211

A Critical History of Electric Propulsion: The First Fifty Years (1906-1956)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

m = Propellant mass flow rate P = Input electric power p P/Mv = Input electric power per unit Physics Group, MAE Department. e-mail: choueiri@princeton.edu. Presented at the 40th AIAA/ASME by the AIAA with permission. Also published in the Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 193

Choueiri, Edgar

212

Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions: The future of high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;5 Record efficiencies #12;6 Diffused-junction solar cells Diffused-junction solar cell Chemical passivation to ~650 mV #12;7 Silicon heterojunction solar cells a-Si:H provides excellent passivation of c-Si surface Heterojunction solar cell Chemical passivation Chemical passivation #12;8 Voc and silicon heterojunction solar

Firestone, Jeremy

213

RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN 2011 www.PosterPresentations.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gallagher Expected Results Methodology We will merge life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology with urban: Urban Metabolism and Life Cycle Assessment Our team is composed of seven researchers from three Chester, M.V, S. Pincetl, and P. Bunje, 2011, Complementing Urban Metabolisms with Life-cycle Assessment

Hall, Sharon J.

214

Crystal structure of the di-haem cytochrome c peroxidase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-potential (-330 mV) centre where hydrogen peroxide is reduced (the perox- idatic site); the other is a high in that it does not require a stable free radical for catalysis and instead uses two haem c groups [1] cova- lently attached to a single polypeptide chain to store the two oxidizing equivalents in the high-energy

Fülöp, Vilmos

215

A Novel Robust Communication Algorithm for Distributed Secondary Control of Islanded  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Novel Robust Communication Algorithm for Distributed Secondary Control of Islanded Micro of distributed generators (DGs) and loads, placed in low voltage (LV) and medium voltage (MV) distribution transmission/distribution losses and preventing electrical network congestion by shifting the generation closer

Vasquez, Juan Carlos

216

Cw rf operation of the FMIT RFQ  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 80-MHz RFQ for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility prototype accelerator has been rf conditioned for cw operation to the design field level of 17.5 MV/m (1.68 x Kilpatrick limit). Experimental results and operating experience will be discussed.

Fazio, M.V.; Brandeberry, F.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Abstract--This work develops a three-phase unbalanced load flow tool tailored for radial distribution networks based  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) generators where most of the systems are single phase. New ancillary service such as static reactive power, thermal limits of grid components and power losses in radial MV-LV networks with photovoltaic (PV support by PV inverters can be also merged together with the load flow solution tool and thus, the impact

Teodorescu, Remus

218

ORIGINAL PAPER Sex differences in circulatory oxygen transport parameters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aerobic energy demands, and suggests that the higher [Hb] of female fish may com- pensate for the smaller has commenced, and so their stored energy reserves must satisfy the energetic demands of the migra rMV. These findings reject the hypothesis that all aspects of the circulatory oxygen trans- port

Hinch, Scott G.

219

A world of hope through accelerator-based science and technologies.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a 6-MV Tandem Accelerator. Particle beams delivered by the accelerator are used for low energy nuclear nuclear reactions with various solid targets. #12;Particle therapy PROGRAMME #12;iThemba LABS is the only radionuclides, radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine and mainstream radiopharmaceuticals for positron

Wagner, Stephan

220

Unmanned Cooperative Fire-Seeking and -Fighting Robot with Bluetooth Communication and Stair-Climbing Capability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a prototype of Unmanned Cooperative Fire-Seeking and -Fighting Robots (UCSFRs) which have a new way to climb up the stairs or traverse over obstacles with a ball screw. There are three unmanned vehicles (one Mother Vehicle (MV...

Chao, Ying-Chin

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Theoretical analysis and experiments on antireflection coatings for laser diodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was set on dB, the time constant ivas 100 ms, and the sensitivity was 10 mV. A special controller was designed and constructed to operate the monochromator and to provide a, voltage proportional to the grating position. The X-axis of the plotter ivas...

Chin, Kai Jian

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Analytical study of the propagation of acoustic waves in a 1D weakly disordered lattice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analytical study of the propagation of acoustic waves in a 1D weakly disordered lattice O. Richoux of the propagation of an acoustic wave through a normally distributed disordered lattice made up of Helmholtz propagation in random media, waveguide, scattering of acoustic waves. PACS 11.80.La ; 42.25.Dd ; 43.20.Mv ; 43

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

223

A gas ion source for continuous-flow AMS R.J. Schneider a,*, S.-W. Kim a,c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A and negative ion currents up to 80 lA. Recently, the compact, permanent-magnet microwave plasma ion source and magnesium vapor charge-exchange canal were coupled to the recombinator injector of the 2.5 MV Tandetron magnet. Small samples containing several micromoles of CO2 could be entrained in a stream of argon used

Sessions, Alex L.

224

PLANNING AND CONTROL OF PLANAR UNDERACTUATED MARINE VEHICLES SUBJECT TO LINEAR AND QUADRATIC DRAG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in hazardous environments: wheeled robots defuse mines, unmanned air vehicles take photographs of a battlefield), such as hovercrafts, surface and underwater vehicles are playing a crucial role in the exploitation of oceanic for underactuated MV, i.e., surface vessels (SV), autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) and hovercrafts (HC

Papadopoulos, Evangelos

225

A Wireless Differential Protection System for Air-Core Inductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these medium voltage (MV) inductors is relatively simple by comparison where most are typically designed as dry-type, Inductors, Transformers, Communication systems. I. Introduction Distributed capacitance in AC transmission inductors on the tertiary side of a step-down transformer or auto- transformer [2]. The construction

Brown III, Donald R.

226

E-Print Network 3.0 - air bag technology Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of 2:5 cm at 6 MV X-rays. The Vacbag should... -2-422-65397. E-mail address: mbutson@usa.net, mbutson@guessmail.com (M.J. Butson). whereby the ... Source: Yu, Peter K.N. -...

227

cpp header will be provided by the publisher Properties of Dense Fluid Hydrogen and Helium in Giant Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cpp header will be provided by the publisher Properties of Dense Fluid Hydrogen and Helium in Giant molecular dynamics, equation of state, giant gas planets, hydrogen-helium mix- tures PACS 61.20.Ja, 61.25.Em, 61.25.Mv, 61.20.-p Equilibrium properties of hydrogen-helium mixtures under thermodynamic conditions

Militzer, Burkhard

228

QOS AND PERFORMANCE OF REMPLI PLC NETWORK Liping LU1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QOS AND PERFORMANCE OF REMPLI PLC NETWORK Liping LU1,2 , Raul BRITO1 , YeQiong SONG1 1 ­ LORIA Abstract: REMPLI uses MV and LV PLC network to establish a wide-scale distributed infrastructure for real, special QoS control mechanisms should be implemented in the PLC network for providing real-time access

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

A two-stage stochastic mixed-integer program modelling and hybrid solution approach to portfolio selection problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was developed by Harry Markowitz firstly in the 1950's. In his work, the PSP was formulated as the mean, in the classic MV model and other models of PSP (Chang, Meade et al. 2000, Kellerer, Mansini et al. 2000, Crama

Qu, Rong

230

Gate-Level Characterization: Foundations and Hardware Security Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Meguerdichian Miodrag Potkonjak Computer Science Department University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Los and manifestation properties. It is a key step in the IC applications regarding cryptography, security, and digital rights management. However, GLC is challenging due to the existence of manufacturing variability (MV

Potkonjak, Miodrag

231

Technetium Sorption by Cementitious Materials Under Reducing Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to measure technetium ({sup 99}Tc) sorption to cementitious materials under reducing conditions to simulate Saltstone Disposal Facility conditions. {sup 99}Tc(VII) batch sorption experiments were conducted for 319 days in an inert glovebag with a variety of cementitious materials (aged cement, Vault 2, TR545, and TR547) containing varying amounts of blast furnace slag. Between 154 and 319 days, the {sup 99}Tc aqueous concentrations tended to remain constant and samples amended with different initial {sup 99}Tc concentrations, tended to merge at about 10{sup -9} M for Vault 2 (17% slag) and TR545 (90% slag) and 10{sup -8} M for TR547 (45% slag). This data provided strong evidence that solubility, and not adsorption (K{sub d} values), was controlling aqueous {sup 99}Tc concentrations. Laboratory data superimposed over thermodynamic speciation diagrams further supported the conclusion that solubility, and not adsorption controlled {sup 99}Tc aqueous concentrations. The oxidation state of the aqueous {sup 99}Tc at the end of the sorption experiment was determined by solvent extraction to be almost entirely {sup 99}Tc(VII). The pH of the present system was ~11.8. Previously proposed solubility controlling phases including Tc-sulfides may be present, but do not appear to control solubility. After the 319 day sorption period, the suspensions were removed from the glovebag and a desorption step under oxic conditions was conducted for 20 days by adding oxic, pH-buffered solutions to the suspensions. {sup 99}Tc aqueous concentrations increased by more than an order of magnitude and Eh increased by several hundred millivolts within 24 hours after the introduction of the oxic solutions. These desorption results are consistent with re-oxidation and dissolution/desorption of {sup 99}Tc(IV) phases possibly present in the cementitious materials after the anoxic sorption step of the experiment. Aqueous {sup 99}Tc concentrations continued to increase slowly until the termination of the desorption experiment after 20 days. Although the cementitious materials investigated demonstrated the ability to strongly sequester aqueous {sup 99}Tc under anoxic conditions, the introduction of oxygen resulted in the rapid remobilization of {sup 99}Tc. These studies provide experimental support for the use of a solubility based model under reducing saltstone conditions where Tc(IV) is expected to be the dominant species. The existing Kd model would be appropriate for oxidized saltstone conditions (aged saltstone, not directly evaluated in this study) where Tc(VII) is expected to be the dominant species.

Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Estes, Shanna L. [Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Powell, Brian A. [Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

Evaluation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters for passive dosimetry of high-energy photon and electron beams in radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article investigates the performance of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for application in radiotherapy. Central-axis depth dose curves and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) responses were obtained in a water phantom for 6 and 18 MV photons, and for 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV electron beams from a Varian 21EX linear accelerator. Single OSL measurements could be repeated with a precision of 0.7% (one standard deviation) and the differences between absorbed doses measured with OSLDs and an ionization chamber were within {+-}1% for photon beams. Similar results were obtained for electron beams in the low-gradient region after correction for a 1.9% photon-to-electron bias. The distance-to-agreement values were of the order of 0.5-1.0 mm for electrons in high dose gradient regions. Additional investigations also demonstrated that the OSL response dependence on dose rate, field size, and irradiation temperature is less than 1% in the conditions of the present study. Regarding the beam energy/quality dependence, the relative response of the OSLD for 18 MV was (0.51{+-}0.48)% of the response for the 6 MV photon beam. The OSLD response for the electron beams relative to the 6 MV photon beam. The OSLD response for the electron beams relative to the 6 MV photon beam was in average 1.9% higher, but this result requires further confirmation. The relative response did not seem to vary with electron energy at d{sub max} within the experimental uncertainties (0.5% in average) and, therefore, a fixed correction factor of 1.9% eliminated the energy dependence in our experimental conditions.

Yukihara, E. G.; Mardirossian, G.; Mirzasadeghi, M.; Guduru, S.; Ahmad, S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami Beach, Florida 33140 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 825 Northeast 10th Street, OUPB 1430, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104 (United States); Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 825 Northeast 10th Street, OUPB 1430, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104 (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

Use of Quantitative Uncertainty Analysis to Support M&VDecisions in ESPCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurement and Verification (M&V) is a critical elementof an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) - without M&V, thereisno way to confirm that the projected savings in an ESPC are in factbeing realized. For any given energy conservation measure in an ESPC,there are usually several M&V choices, which will vary in terms ofmeasurement uncertainty, cost, and technical feasibility. Typically,M&V decisions are made almost solely based on engineering judgmentand experience, with little, if any, quantitative uncertainty analysis(QUA). This paper describes the results of a pilot project initiated bythe Department of Energy s Federal Energy Management Program to explorethe use of Monte-Carlo simulation to assess savings uncertainty andthereby augment the M&V decision-making process in ESPCs. The intentwas to use QUA selectively in combination with heuristic knowledge, inorder to obtain quantitative estimates of the savings uncertainty withoutthe burden of a comprehensive "bottoms-up" QUA. This approach was used toanalyze the savings uncertainty in an ESPC for a large federal agency.The QUA was seamlessly integrated into the ESPC development process andthe incremental effort was relatively small with user-friendly tools thatare commercially available. As the case study illustrates, in some casesthe QUA simply confirms intuitive or qualitative information, while inother cases, it provides insight that suggests revisiting the M&Vplan. The case study also showed that M&V decisions should beinformed by the portfolio risk diversification. By providing quantitativeuncertainty information, QUA can effectively augment the M&Vdecision-making process as well as the overall ESPC financialanalysis.

Mathew, Paul A.; Koehling, Erick; Kumar, Satish

2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

234

Critical Appraisal of Acuros XB and Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm Dose Calculation in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treatments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess the clinical impact of the Acuros XB algorithm (implemented in the Varian Eclipse treatment-planning system) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. Methods and Materials: A CT dataset of 10 patients presenting with advanced NSCLC was selected and contoured for planning target volume, lungs, heart, and spinal cord. Plans were created for 6-MV and 15-MV beams using three-dimensional conformal therapy, intensity-modulated therapy, and volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc. Calculations were performed with Acuros XB and the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm. To distinguish between differences coming from the different heterogeneity management and those coming from the algorithm and its implementation, all the plans were recalculated assigning Hounsfield Unit (HU) = 0 (Water) to the CT dataset. Results: Differences in dose distributions between the two algorithms calculated in Water were <0.5%. This suggests that the differences in the real CT dataset can be ascribed mainly to the different heterogeneity management, which is proven to be more accurate in the Acuros XB calculations. The planning target dose difference was stratified between the target in soft tissue, where the mean dose was found to be lower for Acuros XB, with a range of 0.4% {+-} 0.6% (intensity-modulated therapy, 6 MV) to 1.7% {+-} 0.2% (three-dimensional conformal therapy, 6 MV), and the target in lung tissue, where the mean dose was higher for 6 MV (from 0.2% {+-} 0.2% to 1.2% {+-} 0.5%) and lower for 15 MV (from 0.5% {+-} 0.5% to 2.0% {+-} 0.9%). Mean doses to organs at risk presented differences up to 3% of the mean structure dose in the worst case. No particular or systematic differences were found related to the various modalities. Calculation time ratios between calculation time for Acuros XB and the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm were 7 for three-dimensional conformal therapy, 5 for intensity-modulated therapy, and 0.2 for volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc. Conclusion: The availability of Acuros XB could improve patient dose estimation, increasing the data consistency of clinical trials.

Fogliata, Antonella, E-mail: afc@iosi.ch [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland)] [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland)] [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Design, prototyping and testing of a compact superconducting double quarter wave crab cavity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel design of superconducting Crab Cavity was proposed and designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The new cavity shape is a Double Quarter Wave or DQWCC. After fabrication and surface treatments, the niobium proof-of-principle cavity was cryogenically tested in a vertical cryostat. The cavity is extremely compact yet has a low frequency of 400 MHz, an essential property for service for the Large Hadron Collider luminosity upgrade. The electromagnetic properties of the cavity are also well matched for this demanding task. The demonstrated deflecting voltage of 4.6 MV is well above the requirement for a crab cavity in the future High Luminosity LHC of 3.34 MV. In this paper we present the design, prototyping and test results of the DQWCC.

Xiao, Binping; Belomestnykh, Sergey; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Calaga, Rama; Cullen, Chris; Capatina, Ofelia; Hammons, Lee; Li, Zenghai; Marques, Carlos; Skaritka, John; Verdú-Andres, Silvia; Wu, Qiong

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Surface Treatments of Nb by Buffered Electropolishing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Buffered electropolishing (BEP) is a Nb surface treatment technique developed at Jefferson Lab1. Experimental results obtained from flat Nb samples show2-4 that BEP can produce a surface finish much smoother than that produced by the conventional electropolishing (EP), while Nb removal rate can be as high as 4.67 ?m/min. This new technique has been applied to the treatments of Nb SRF single cell cavity employing a vertical polishing system5 constructed at JLab as well as a horizontal polishing system at CEA Saclay. Preliminary results show that the accelerating gradient can reach 32 MV/m for a large grain cavity and 26.7 MV/m for a regular grain cavity. In this presentation, the latest progresses from the international collaboration between Peking University, CEA Saclay, and JLab on BEP will be summarized.

Wu, Andy T. [JLAB; Rimmer, Robert A. [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Manus, Robert L. [JLAb; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Williams, J. S. [JLAB; Eozénou, F. [CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette; Jin, S. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Lin, L. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Lu, X.Y. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Mammosser, John D. [JLAB; Wang, E. [BNL

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Multivariate analysis of remote LIBS spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantitative analysis with LIBS traditionally employs calibration curves that are complicated by the chemical matrix effects. These chemical matrix effects influence the LIBS plasma and the ratio of elemental composition to elemental emission line intensity. Consequently, LIBS calibration typically requires a priori knowledge of the unknown, in order for a series of calibration standards similar to the unknown to be employed. In this paper, three new Multivariate Analysis (MV A) techniques are employed to analyze the LIBS spectra of 18 disparate igneous and highly-metamorphosed rock samples. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to generate a calibration model from which unknown samples can be analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) are employed to generate a model and predict the rock type of the samples. These MV A techniques appear to exploit the matrix effects associated with the chemistries of these 18 samples.

Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sklute, Elizabeth [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Dyare, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Solution medium control of the photoredox yield in the Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +//methyl viologen/EDTA system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The observed quantum yield of formation of the methyl viologen radical cation, phi(MV/sup +/-), upon 450-nm irradiation of the Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +//methyl viologen dication/EDTA system at pH 11.0 is dependent on the concentrations of all three components. Under the conditions of the experiments, phi(MV/sup +/-)approx. =2eta/sub cr/ where eta/sub cr/ is the efficiency of release of redox products from the solvent cage. The maximum value of eta/sub cr/ is approx. =0.17 at high concentrations of all components where the photosensitizer, electron relay, and sacrificial electron donor exist as ion-paired aggregates within a single solvent-caged unit. 3 figures.

Mandal, K.; Hoffman, M.Z.

1984-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

239

Photoinduced electron transfer reactions in zeolite cages. Progress report, January 15, 1990--August 1, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes work in the two areas of zeolites and layered double hydroxides. Results of studies on structural aspects of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}-zeolite Y are summarized. Photoinduced electron transfer between entrapped Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} and methylviologen (MV) in neighboring supercages was examined. Benzylviologen was also used. Since molecules larger than 13 {angstrom} cannot be accomodated in zeolite cages, the layered double metal hydroxides (LDH) LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}{sup +}X{sup {minus}} is being investigated. Organized assemblies of hydrophobic domains are made by introducing into the interlayer long-chain carboxylic acids R(CH{sub 2}){sub n}COOH. Zinc tetraphenylporphyrin sulfonate (ZnTPPS) is introduced into myristate-LiAl-LDH; photolysis of ZnTPPS-AiAl-LDH with MV{sup 2+} in solution was examined.

Dutta, P.K.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

Multi-DOF precision positioning methodology using two-axis Hall-effect sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?s surface. A photograph of the 2D-VH-11SO mounted on an IC board is shown in Figure 8. The specifications are shown in Table I. The 2D-VH-11SO requires either a constant current source of 2 mA or a constant voltage source of 5 V. 3Sentron AG, Baarerstrasse...T,Ic = 2 mA 2.2 kOmega Output resistance B = 0mT,Ic = 2 mA 8.5 kOmega Output voltage Constant Current Drive 400 mV B = 1T,Ic = 2mA Offset voltage B = 0mT,Ic = 2mA ?3mV Sensitivity Ic = 2 mA 400 mV/T Magnetic sensitive volume 0.25 ?0.25 ?0.20 mm3 B...

Kawato, Yusuke

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Recent developments in electropolishing and tumbling R&D at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fermi National Accelerator Lab (Fermilab) is continuing to improve its infrastructure for research and development on the processing of superconducting radio frequency cavities. A single cell 3.9 GHz electropolishing tool built at Fermilab and operated at an industrial partner was recently commissioned. The EP tool was used to produce a single cell 3.9 GHz cavity that reached an accelerating gradient of 30 MV/m with a quality factor of 5 x 10{sup 9}. A single cell 1.3 GHz cavity was also electropolished at the same industrial vendor using the vendor's vertical full-immersion technique. On their first and only attempt the vendor produced a single cell 1.3 GHz cavity that reached 30 MV/m with a quality factor of 1 x 10{sup 10}. These results will be detailed along with preliminary tumbling results.

Cooper, C.; Brandt, J.; Cooley, L.; Ge, M.; Harms, E.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab; Boffo, C.; /Babcock Noell, Wuerzburg

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) injector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ATA injector, developed from experience gained from the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) linac, has recently been completed. The injector consists of ten 0.25 MV cells that are used to develop 2.5 MV across a single diode gap. The 10 kA beam is extracted from a 500 cm/sup 2/ plasma cathode at average rates of up to 5 Hz and burst rates to 1 kHz. Pulsed power from 20 water filled blumleins is divided and introduced symmetrically through four ports on each cell. All major insulators are fabricated from filled epoxy castings. With these improvements, the ATA injector is smaller than the ETA injector; has a faster pulse response; has lower voltage stress on insulators and higher ultimate performance. Injector characterization tests began in October 1982. These tests include beam current, energy, and emittance measurements.

Jackson, C.H.; Bubp, D.G.; Fessenden, T.J.; Hester, R.E.; Neil, V.K.; Paul, A.C.; Prono, D.S.

1983-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

243

Application of electrical methods to measure microbial activity in soils: Preliminary microcosm results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application of the geophysical technique known as self-potential to the measurement of microbial activity was tested on laboratory microcosms containing ferric iron and iron-reducing bacteria Shewanella alga BrY. Measurements of the electrical response of silver-coated copper electrodes distributed along a Teflon probe inserted into sterile and inoculated layers containing either ferric chloride, ferric citrate, or ferric oxide rich soil were recorded over hours or days. Strong electrical signals reached values more negative than {minus}400 mV for all types of inoculated ferric iron layers. Electric signals in sterile control layers, by contrast, rarely reached values more negative than {minus}150 mV. These preliminary experiments indicate that it may be possible to apply the self-potential geophysical method to monitor bioremediation in the field.

Cox, B.L. Sweet, A.; Majer, E.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Effect of exogenous electron shuttles on growth and fermentative metabolism in Clostridium sp. BC1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the influence exogenous electron shuttles on the growth and glucose fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. BC1 was investigated. Bicarbonate addition to mineral salts (MS) medium accelerated growth and glucose fermentation which shifted acidogenesis (acetic- and butyric-acids) towards solventogenesis (ethanol and butanol). Addition of ferrihydrite, anthraquinone disulfonate, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in bicarbonate to growing culture showed no significant influence on fermentative metabolism. In contrast, methyl viologen (MV) enhanced ethanol- and butanol-production by 28- and 12-fold, respectively with concomitant decrease in hydrogen, acetic- and butyric-acids compared to MS medium. The results show that MV addition affects hydrogenase activity with a significant reduction in hydrogen production and a shift in the direction of electron flow towards enhanced production of ethanol and butanol.

Yarlagadda V. N.; Francis A.; Gupta, A.; Dodge, C. J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Peltier heats in cryolite melts with alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Seebeck coefficient was measured for cells with electrolytes of molten mixtures of sodium fluoride and aluminum fluoride saturated with alumina. The electrodes were either a pair of oxygen electrodes or a pair of aluminum electrodes. For the molar ratio NaF/AlF{sub 3} equal to 1.8, 1.2 and 1.0, the authors obtained the Seebeck coefficients {minus}1.80 mV K{sup {minus}1} at 971 C, {minus}1.63 mV K{sup {minus}1} at 813.6 C and {minus}0.583 mV K{sup {minus}1} at 758 C, respectively, for the oxygen electrodes. For the aluminum electrodes, the authors obtained the Seebeck coefficient {minus}1.23 mV K{sup {minus}1} at 962 C, for the molar ratio NaF/AlF{sub 3} equal to 1.8. The results suggest that there is a substantial reversible heat consumption at the anode during aluminum electrolysis and a large reversible heat production at the cathode. The highest temperature in the Hall-Heroult cell is then closer to the cathode than the anode. The transported entropies of Al{sup 3+} and O{sup 2{minus}} were calculated to be 77 J mol{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1} and 10 J mol{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}, respectively, when the molar ratio NaF/AlF{sub 3} was equal to 1.0.

Flem, B.E.; Ratkje, S.K.; Sterten, A. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

A 900MHz RF Energy Harvesting Module TARIS Thierry, VIGNERAS Valrie  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract --This paper presents a guideline to design and optimize a RF energy harvester operating in ISM-the-shelf devices. The topology of the impedance transformation block is selected to reduce the losses which sensitivity of -22.5 dBm for a dc output voltage of 200 mV up to -11 dBm for 1.08 V. A wireless power

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

X-Band Photonic Band-Gap Accelerator Structure Breakdown Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to understand the performance of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures under realistic high gradient, high power, high repetition rate operation, a PBG accelerator structure was designed and tested at X band (11.424 GHz). The structure consisted of a single test cell with matching cells before and after the structure. The design followed principles previously established in testing a series of conventional pillbox structures. The PBG structure was tested at an accelerating gradient of 65 MV/m yielding a breakdown rate of two breakdowns per hour at 60 Hz. An accelerating gradient above 110 MV/m was demonstrated at a higher breakdown rate. Significant pulsed heating occurred on the surface of the inner rods of the PBG structure, with a temperature rise of 85 K estimated when operating in 100 ns pulses at a gradient of 100 MV/m and a surface magnetic field of 890 kA/m. A temperature rise of up to 250 K was estimated for some shots. The iris surfaces, the location of peak electric field, surprisingly had no damage, but the inner rods, the location of the peak magnetic fields and a large temperature rise, had significant damage. Breakdown in accelerator structures is generally understood in terms of electric field effects. These PBG structure results highlight the unexpected role of magnetic fields in breakdown. The hypothesis is presented that the moderate level electric field on the inner rods, about 14 MV/m, is enhanced at small tips and projections caused by pulsed heating, leading to breakdown. Future PBG structures should be built to minimize pulsed surface heating and temperature rise.

Marsh, Roark A.; /MIT /MIT /NIFS, Gifu /JAERI, Kyoto /LLNL, Livermore; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.; /MIT; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Laurent, Lisa L.; Lewandowski, James R.; Yeremian, A.Dian; Tantawi, Sami G.; /SLAC

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

248

Basic DC Meter Design ECE 2100 Circuit Analysis Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Basic DC Meter Design ECE 2100 Circuit Analysis Laboratory updated 8 January 2008 Pre-Laboratory Assignment 1. Design an ammeter with full scale current IFS equal to 5 mA using a meter movement rated at 0.5 mA and 100 mV. 2. Design a voltmeter with a full scale voltage VFS equal to 10 V using the meter

Miller, Damon A.

249

The Mutation F227I Increases the Coupling of Metal Ion Transport in DCT1*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stoichiometry. At pH 7 and membrane potentials of 90 to 30 mV, DCT1 transports one Fe2 ion with one H . At highThe Mutation F227I Increases the Coupling of Metal Ion Transport in DCT1* Received for publication, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel Metal ion transport

Nelson, Nathan

250

ENERGIA E`OLICA La font d'energia amb el creixement mes gran  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.lada: 48.000 MW Web World Wind energy Association http://www.wwindea.org Web Associaci´o danesa de la ind = 1 2 mv2 Pot`encia P = dEk dt = 1 2 dm dt v2 dm dt = Sv P = 1 2 Sv3 #12;RECURSOS EOLICS 1-2% de l L'ENERGIA E`OLICA #12;MERCAT PER FABRICANTS #12;PARCS E`OLICS MARINS #12;

Batiste, Oriol

251

Page 1 4/17/2012 Physics 111 Common Exam 3 Formulas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

= 0 and torques = 0, If net force on a system is zero, then the net torque is the same for any chosen = Frsin() = r x F net = = Fnet = F = m a Energy: W = net Wtot = Kf - Ki K = Krot + Kcm Kcm=1/2 mvcm 2 = P cm = P, s = r, acm = r Angular momentum: l = r x p p = mv L = li net = dL/dt L = I Lpoint mass

Janow, Rich

252

2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

None

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

On the determination of trace elements in cocoa and coffee by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Charlene Helton for her helpful and productive suggestions, and, of course, for undertaking the laborious task or. typing the final manuscript. DEDICATION To mv parents. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter ~Pa e INTRODUCTION THEORY Neutron Activation..., commercial cocoa. CHAPTER II THEORY Neutron Activation Analysis Neutron Activation Analysis was proposed by Von Hevesy and Levi in 1936 (32). hey irradiated a yttrium sample with neutrons from a radium-beryllium source and determined the im urity...

Adanuvor, Prosper Kwasi

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

254

Jaloro': A New Multiple Virus Resistant Hot Yellow Jalapeno Pepper.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

growing condi tions and lack ing heavy pressure from insects and diseases. The effects of a complex of insects, diseases, and unfavorable environment are reflected in low yields in some temporate and sub tropical regions of Texas such as the Lower... per cultivars are susceptible to to bacco etch virus (TEV), potato virus Y (PVY), pepper mottle virus (PeMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Texas pepper gemini virus (TPGV). Some yellow types exhibit a local...

Villalon, Benigno

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Monte Carlo simulations of dose near a nonradioactive gold seed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relative doses and hot/cold spot positions around a non-radioactive gold seed, irradiated by a 6 or 18 MV photon beam in water, were calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. Phase space files of 6 and 18 MV photon beams with a field size of 1x1 cm{sup 2} were generated by a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator using the EGSnrc and BEAMnrc code. The seed (1.2x1.2x3.2 mm{sup 3}) was positioned at the isocenter in a water phantom (20x20x20 cm{sup 2}) with source-to-axis distance=100 cm. For the single beam geometry, the relative doses (normalized to the dose at 5 mm distance above the isocenter) at the upstream seed surface were calculated to be 1.64 and 1.56 for the 6 and 18 MV beams respectively when the central beam axis (CAX) is parallel to the width of the seed. These doses were slightly higher than those (1.58 and 1.52 for 6 and 18 MV beams respectively) calculated when the CAX is perpendicular to the width of the seed. Compared to the relative dose profiles with the same beam geometry without the seed in the water phantom, the presence of the seed affects the dose distribution at about 3 mm distance beyond both the upstream and downstream seed surface. For a pair of opposing beams with equal and unequal beam weight, the hot and cold spots of both opposing beams were mixed. For a 360 degree photon arc around the longitudinal axis of the seed, the relative dose profile along the width of the seed was similar to that of the opposing beam pair, except the former geometry has a larger dose gradient near the seed surface. In this study, selected results from our simulation were compared to previous measurements using film dosimetry.

Chow, James C. L.; Grigorov, Grigor N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto and Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON N2G 1G3 (Canada) and Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Medical Physics Department, Grand River Regional Cancer Center, Grand River Hospital, 835 King Street West, Kitchener, ON N2G 1G3 (Canada)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Choice of beam energy and dosimetric implications for radiation treatment in a subpopulation of women with large breasts in the United States and Japan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation complications are often related to the dose inhomogeneity (hot spot) in breast tissue treated with conservative therapy, especially for large patients. The effect of photon energy on radiation dose distribution is analyzed to provide guidelines for the selection of beam energy when tangential fields and limited slices are used to treat women with large breasts. Forty-eight patients with chest wall separation > 22 cm were selected for dosimetric analysis. We compared the maximum dose in the central axis (CAX) plane (2D) using 6-, 10-, and 18-MV photon beams in all patients and 3D data set for 16 patients. Correlation between hot spot dose (HSD), separation, breast cup size, breast volume, and body weight was derived with beam energy. Among the 48 patients in this study, HSD > 10% in the CAX plane was noted in 98%, 46%, and 4% of the population when 2D dosimetry was performed; however, with 3D study, it was in 50%, 19%, and 6% of the patients with 6-MV, 10-MV and 18-MV beams, respectively. The chest wall separation, body weight, and breast volume were correlated with the HSD in both the 2D and 3D plans. Patient's bra size was not correlated with the hot spot. The chest wall separation was found to be the most important parameter to correlate with hot spot in tangential breast treatment. Simple guidelines are provided for dose uniformity in breast with respect to chest wall separation, body weight, bra size, and breast volume with tangential field irradiations.

Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: das@xrt.upenn.edu; Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Cheng, C.-W. [Department of Radiology, Morristown Memorial Hospital, Morristown, NJ (United States); Solin, Lawrence J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Intermediate Range Order and Transport Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulation Study February 7, 2005 Patrick Pfleiderer ICP, University of Stuttgart in Collaboration: 2 2 21 ),...,,( dt d mV i iNii r rrrF =-= t m ttt ttt t m t ttttt i ii ii i i iii 2 )()( )()( 2-range and responsible for covalent character · obtained from ab initio calculations · time step: 1.6fs 6 2 r C eA r eqq

Harting, Jens

258

Formulas/Constants: Physics/Oceanography 4500/5500 A Atmospheric Physics In addition to these formulas, there are many thermodynamic concepts and interrelationships between  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the lifting condensation level: TLCL = 9.8Tdo - 1.8To 8 Entropy S = S0 + CV ln( TV -1 T0V -1 0 ) where T0 weight of each consituent. R = 8.314 J mol-1 K-1 is the universal gas constant. p = RdTv (for moist air where Tv is the virtual temperature) Rv = 461.5 J/(kg K) (ideal gas constant for water vapor) = Mv

Folkins, Ian

259

Results of Cavity Series Fabrication at Jefferson Laboratory for the Cryomodule “R100”  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series production of eight superconducting RF cavities for the cryomodule R100 was conducted at JLab in 2010. The cavities underwent chemical post-processing prior to vertical high power testing and routinely exceeded the envisaged performance specifications. After cryomodule assembly, cavities were successfully high power acceptance tested. In this paper, we present the achievements paving the way for the first demonstration of 100 MV (and beyond) in a single cryomodule to be operated at CEBAF.

F. Marhauser, W.A. Clemens, M.A. Drury, D. Forehand, J. Henry, S. Manning, R.B. Overton, R.S. Williams

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

The influence of surface interactions on the reversibility of ferri/ferrocyanide at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochemistry of four redox analytes [Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup {minus}3/{minus}4}, Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup +2/+3}, IrCl{sub 6}{sup {minus}2/{minus}3}, and methyl viologen, MV{sup +2/+/0}] was investigated at polycrystalline, boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes before and after anodic polarization and hydrogen plasma treatment. The as-deposited diamond surface is predominantly hydrogen treatment, and quasi-reversible cyclic voltammograms ({Delta}E{sub p} of 60--80 mV) were observed for all of these couples at 0.1 V/s. After anodic polarization in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the surface atomic O/C ratio, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, increased from 0.02 to ca. 0.20. Concomitant with the increase in surface oxygen, the {Delta}E{sub p} for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup {minus}3/{minus}4} increased to over 200 mV, while the {Delta}E{sub p} values for the other redox systems remained relatively unchanged. After acid washing and rehydrogenating the surface in hydrogen plasma (i.e., atomic hydrogen), the {Delta}E{sub p} for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup {minus}3/{minus}4} returned to ca. 80 mV, while the {Delta}E{sub p} values for the other three redox analytes remained close to the original values. The results demonstrate the electron transfer for ferri/ferrocyanide is very sensitive to the presence of surface carbon-oxygen functionalities and that the electron transfer involves a site associated with the hydrogen-terminated surface. The results also unequivocally rule out the influence of adventitious nondiamond phases as the sole sites for the electron transfer.

Granger, M.C.; Swain, G.M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Incorporation of 4d and 5d Transition Metal Cyanometallates into Magnetic Clusters and Materials.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND PENTADECANUCLEAR CLUSTERS BASED ON MV(CN)8 (M = Mo, W) AND NiII .............. 35 Introduction .................................................................................... 35 Experimental Section... scheme of Prussian Blue analogs, M' = V,Cr, Fe, Co, M = V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni , L = labile ligand or solvent molecule. 6 cancel, and the remaining unpaired spins align with the field as a ferromagnet does (Scheme 2a). Although these magnetic...

Hilfiger, Matthew Gary

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

262

CSc-165 Spring 2014 Week 2 (d) 3D / Objects / Cameras  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) public class ForwardAction extends AbstractInputAction { private ICamera camera; private SetSpeedAction by the above Action class (imports go here) public class SetSpeedAction extends AbstractInputAction { private.getFirstGamepadName(); SetSpeedAction setSpeed = new SetSpeedAction(); ForwardAction mvForward = new ForwardAction

Gordon, Scott

263

Conduction-Band-Offset Rule Governing J-V Distortion in CdS/CI(G)S Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conduction-Band-Offset Rule Governing J-V Distortion in CdS/CI(G)S Solar Cells A. Kanevce, MV at the n/p interface of a solar cell can lead to significant distortion of the current-voltage (J-V) curve-layer [TCO/CdS/CI(G)S] approximation for the solar cell. The parameters that influence the barrier height

Sites, James R.

264

both T1 and T2 transgenic plants (Fig. 4C). The amount of NPTII protein was not af-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

promoter in the T3 construct suggests that viral transcription could potentially be down-regulated in those. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 47, 23 (1996); C. B. Taylor, Plant Cell 9, 1245 (1997). 6. S. N. Covey true leaf) with 1 g of CaMV virions (isolate Cabb B-JI) in 10 l of 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7

Losos, Jonathan B.

265

Homework Schedule Email Single PDF to ajlee@ucsd.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

differentials ­ Internal energy vs. enthalpy · 1st Law of thermodynamics ­ Relate heat, work, energy · Heat/work cycles (and path integrals) ­ Energy vs. heat/work? ­ Adiabatic processes ­ Reversible "P-V" work define change v ­ Nuclear energy for mass change m Van Ness, p. 13 E = U p,V,T( )+ mgz + 1 2 mv2 - c2 m = Q

Russell, Lynn

266

A Framework for Estimating NBTI Degradation of Microarchitectural Components Michael DeBole, K. Ramakrishnan, Varsha Balakrishnan1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) of the pMOS device by up to 50mV over a ten year period. This can result in a reduction of circuit speed in Section 2, a background on NBTI is given in Section 3, the New-Age framework is introduced in Section 4, case studies are presented in Section 5, and the concluding remarks are given in Section 6. II. RELATED

Wang, Yu

267

Development of a Proteoliposome Model to Probe Transmembrane Electron-Transfer Reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mineral respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes brought together inside a transmembrane porin to transport electrons across the outer membrane to a variety of mineral-based electron acceptors. A proteoliposome system has been developed that contains methyl viologen (MV) as an internalised electron acceptor and valinomycin (V) as a membrane associated cation exchanger. These proteoliposomes can be used as a model system to investigate MtrCAB function.

White, Gaye F.; Shi, Zhi; Shi, Liang; Dohnalkova, Alice; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Clarke, Thomas

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Strategies and Project Delivery Methods for Captial Improvement Projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Access to Capital FUNDING/FINANCING OPTION PUBLIC AGENCY PRIVATE COMPANY Utility Rebates X X Incentives X X Tax Exempt Bonds X Not for Profit only KOs X LoanSTAR X Tax Exempt Lease X Commercial Loans X X Shared Savings... of selected improvement measures • Establish energy baseline • Pursue grants and rebates, secure financing • Complete construction schedule • Determine commissioning and M&V plan • Select and manage subcontractors • Secure permits • Procure...

White, D.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Garg, Sarpong, and Stoltz: Dragmacidin D Synthesis 1 Supplemental materials for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a Rainin C18, Microsorb MV, 5mm, 300 x 4.6 mm reversed-phased column in 0.1% (wt/v) TFA with acetonitrile as eluent and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, gradient elution of 1.25% acetonitrile/min. Preparatory reversed with a guard, 0.1% (wt/v) TFA with acetonitrile as eluent, and gradient elution of 0.50% acetonitrile

Stoltz, Brian M.

270

Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

1988-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

271

Spectroscopic metallicities for Fornax UCDs, GCs and dE,Ns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Various formation channels for the puzzling ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) have been proposed in the last few years. To better judge on some of the competing scenarios, we present spectroscopic [Fe/H] estimates for a sample of 26 compact objects in the central region of the Fornax cluster, covering the magnitude range of UCDs and bright globular clusters. We find a break in the metallicity distribution of compact objects at M_V ~ -11 mag (~3*10^6 M_sun): for M_V-11 mag. This metallicity break is accompanied by a change in the size-luminosity relation for compact objects, as deduced from HST-imaging: for M_V-11 mag, r_h is almost luminosity-independent. We therefore assume a limiting absolute magnitude of M_V=-11 mag between UCDs and globular clusters. The mean metallicity of five Fornax dE,N nuclei included in our study is about 0.8 dex lower than that of the UCDs, at 4.5 sigma significance. Because of this large metallicity discrepancy we disfavor the hypothesis that most of the Fornax UCDs are the remnant nuclei of tidally stripped dE,Ns. Our metallicity estimates for UCDs are closer to but slightly below those derived for young massive clusters (YMCs) of comparable masses. We therefore favor a scenario where most UCDs in Fornax are successors of merged YMCs produced in the course of violent galaxy-galaxy mergers. It is noted that in contrast to that, the properties of Virgo UCDs are more consistent with the stripping scenario, suggesting that different UCD formation channels may dominate in either cluster.

S. Mieske; M. Hilker; L. Infante; A. Jordan

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

272

Energy Performance Contracting for Texas: The Collaborative Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the firm that can best achieve the results envisioned by the Owner. Two methods may be used for selecting providers of performance based projects. The Request for Qualifications (RFQ) method and the Request for Proposals (RFP) method. The subcommittee... requirements must be followed when selecting a provider by means of RFQ or RFP. Although it is not required it is highly recommended that school districts adopt the guidelines for developing contracts. EARS, M&V, and periodic energy savings reports...

Huff, H.; Matthews, J.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Large scale two-dimensional arrays of magnesium diboride superconducting quantum interference devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic field sensors based on two-dimensional arrays of superconducting quantum interference devices were constructed from magnesium diboride thin films. Each array contained over 30?000 Josephson junctions fabricated by ion damage of 30?nm weak links through an implant mask defined by nano-lithography. Current-biased devices exhibited very large voltage modulation as a function of magnetic field, with amplitudes as high as 8?mV.

Cybart, Shane A., E-mail: scybart@ucsd.edu; Dynes, R. C. [Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Wong, T. J.; Cho, E. Y. [Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Beeman, J. W. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Yung, C. S.; Moeckly, B. H. [Superconductor Technologies Inc., Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

274

New BPM installed in BC2 Jan Hauschildt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New BPM installed in BC2 Compact! Thanks to: Jan Hauschildt Dirk Noelle Silke Vilcins Holger 30 40 time (ns) Volts chicane BPM scope traces for 12-16 MV/m gradient Scope in tunnel ~ 150 um resolution => 5*10-4 resolution #12;-20 -15 -10 -5 0 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 BPM slope phase (deg

275

March 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Project Shoal Site (Data Validation Package)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) in March 2011. Wells HC-1, HC-2, HC-4, HC-5, HC-6, HC-7, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 were sampled as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Two extra tritium samples were collected from well HC-4, one sample (HC-4-400) was collected at about 1/3 of the purge volume (135 gallons), the second sample (HC-4-400) was collected at 2/3 of purge volume (270 gallons). These additional samples were collected prior to completing the well purging process to evaluate the effects well purging has on the analytical results. Samples were not collected from locations HC-3 and HC-8 at the direction of the S.M. Stoller Corporation site lead.

None

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Performance of First C100 Cryomodules for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is currently engaged in the 12 GeV Upgrade Project. The goal of the project is a doubling of the available beam energy of CEBAF from 6 GeV to 12 GeV. This increase in beam energy will be due primarily to the construction and installation of ten "C100" cryomodules in the CEBAF linacs. The C100 cryomodules are designed to deliver an average 108 MV each from a string of eight seven-cell, electropolished superconducting RF cavities operating at an average accelerating gradient of 19.2 MV/m. The new cryomodules fit in the same available linac space as the original CEBAF 20 MV cryomodules. Cryomodule production started in September 2010. Initial acceptance testing started in June 2011. The first two C100 cryomodules were installed and tested from August 2011 through October 2011, and successfully operated during the last period of the CEBAF 6 GeV era, which ended in May 2012. This paper will present the results of acceptance testing and commissioning of the C100 style cryomodules to date.

Drury, Michael A.; Burrill, Andrew B.; Davis, G. Kirk; Hogan, John P.; King, Lawrence; Marhauser, Frank; Park, HyeKyoung; Preble, Joseph; Reece, Charles E.; Reilly, Anthony V.; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng; Wiseman, Mark A.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Chlorophyll a sensitized redox processes in microemulsion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A chlorophyll-containing microemulsion was prepared on 80% water w/w and sodium hexadecyl sulfate, hexadecane, 1-pentanol, and chlorophyll a. The droplet radius as determined by autocorrelated Rayleigh scattering is 130 angstroms. Using a pulsed ruby laser the chl-a triplet spectrum was measured. It peaks at approximately 465 nm and shows minima due to ground-state bleaching at 430 and 420 nm. Chl-a reduces methyl viologen (MV/sup 2 +/) with a specific rate of 4 x 10/sup 8/ M/sup -1/ sec./sup -1/. At 5 x 10/sup -3/ M MV/sup 2 +/ concentration the efficiency of this process is unity. The cation radical Chl-a/sup +/ reacts with both ascorbate and NADh. In the latter case Chl-a can sensitize irreversible electron transfer from NADh to MV/sup 2 +/. If this system is coupled with a suitable hydrogenation catalyst, hydrogen evolution from water is observed. 34 references.

Kiwi, J.; Gratzel, M.

1980-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

278

Inelastic tunneling conductance and magnetoresistance investigations in dual ion-beam sputtered CoFeB(110)/MgO/CoFeB (110) magnetic tunnel junctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) comprising Ta(5)/NiFe(5)/IrMn(15)/CoFeB(5)/Mg(1)/MgO(3.5)/ CoFeB(5)/Ta(5)/Ag(20) (thickness in nm) with (110) oriented CoFeB layers are grown using dual ion beam sputtering. The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of MTJs is found to be significantly bias dependent and exhibits zero bias anomaly (ZBA) which is attributed to the presence of magnetic impurities or diffusion of Mn from antiferromagnetic IrMn in the barrier. Adjacent to the ZBA, two peaks at 24?±?3?mV and 34?±?3?mV are also observed, which differ both in intensity as well as their position in the antiparallel and parallel magnetic states, suggesting that they are due to magnon excitations. In addition to this, a phonon peak at 65?±?3?mV is also observed. The effect of temperature on the inelastic and elastic tunneling contributions is studied in detail in 25–300?K range using the Glazman and Matveev model. Ten series of localized states are found to be involved in hopping conduction in the forbidden gap of MgO barrier. The effect of presence of such inelastic channels is found to be insignificant at low temperatures yielding sizeable enhancement in TMR.

Bhusan Singh, Braj; Chaudhary, Sujeet, E-mail: sujeetc@physics.iitd.ac.in [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

279

Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Phase II: The Application of Medium-Voltage Electrical Apparatus to the Class of Variable Speed Multi-Megawatt Low Wind Speed Turbines; 15 June 2004--30 April 2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kilowatt ratings of modern wind turbines have progressed rapidly from 50 kW to 1,800 kW over the past 25 years, with 3.0- to 7.5-MW turbines expected in the next 5 years. The premise of this study is simple: The rapid growth of wind turbine power ratings and the corresponding growth in turbine electrical generation systems and associated controls are quickly making low-voltage (LV) electrical design approaches cost-ineffective. This report provides design detail and compares the cost of energy (COE) between commercial LV-class wind power machines and emerging medium-voltage (MV)-class multi-megawatt wind technology. The key finding is that a 2.5% reduction in the COE can be achieved by moving from LV to MV systems. This is a conservative estimate, with a 3% to 3.5% reduction believed to be attainable once purchase orders to support a 250-turbine/year production level are placed. This evaluation considers capital costs as well as installation, maintenance, and training requirements for wind turbine maintenance personnel. Subsystems investigated include the generator, pendant cables, variable-speed converter, and padmount transformer with switchgear. Both current-source and voltage-source converter/inverter MV topologies are compared against their low-voltage, voltage-source counterparts at the 3.0-, 5.0-, and 7.5-MW levels.

Erdman, W.; Behnke, M.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Coaxial Coupling Scheme for TESLA/ILC-type Cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports about our efforts to develop a flangeable coaxial coupler for both HOM and fundamental coupling for 9-cell TESLA/ILC-type cavities. The cavities were designed in early 90‘s for pulsed operation with a low duty factor, less than 1 %. The proposed design of the coupler has been done in a way, that the magnetic flux B at the flange connection is minimized and only a field of <5 mT would be present at the accelerating field Eacc of ~ 36 MV/m (B =150 mT in the cavity). Even though we achieved reasonably high Q-values at low field, the cavity/coupler combination was limited in the cw mode to only ~ 7 MV/m, where a thermally initiated degradation occurred. We have improved the cooling conditions by initially drilling radial channels every 30 degrees, then every 15 degrees into the shorting plate. The modified prototype performed well up to 9 MV/m in cw mode. This paper reports about our experiences with the further modified coaxial coupler and about test results in cw and low duty cycle pulsed mode, similar to the TESLA/ILC operation conditions.

J.K. Sekutowicz, P. Kneisel

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diode physics evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hotside operating temperatures for many projected thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion system applications are approximately 1,000 C, which sets an upper limit on the TPV diode bandgap of 0.6 eV from efficiency and power density considerations. This bandgap requirement has necessitated the development of new diode material systems, never previously considered for energy generation. To date, InGaAsSb quaternary diodes grown lattice-matched on GaSb substrates have achieved the highest performance. This report relates observed diode performance to electro-optic properties such as minority carrier lifetime, diffusion length and mobility and provides initial links to microstructural properties. This analysis has bounded potential diode performance improvements. For the 0.52 eV InGaAsSb diodes used in this analysis the measured dark current is 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} A/cm{sup 2}, versus a potential Auger limit 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} A/cm{sup 2}, a radiative limit of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} A/cm{sup 2} (no photon recycling), and an absolute thermodynamic limit of 1.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} A/cm{sup 2}. These dark currents are equivalent to open circuit voltage gains of 20 mV (7%), 60 mV (20%) and 140 mV (45%), respectively.

Charache, G.W.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Danielson, L.R. [Lockheed-Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Analysis of the Junction Properties of CdS/CdTe Devices in Substrate and Superstrate Configurations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The best efficiency of CdS/CdTe devices fabricated in the substrate configuration reported to date is about 8%, which is about half the 17.3% reported for the conventional superstrate configuration. The performance of substrate devices is affected by lower open-circuit voltage (Voc), about 700 mV, and low fill factor (FF), which indicates that these devices are primarily limited by non-ideal junction properties and possibly by the ohmic contact to CdTe. In our study of the junction properties of superstrate devices, we show that lower-Voc devices (< 720 mV) with SnO2/CdTe and CdS/CdTe structures are true heterojunction devices. High charged defect density at the heterointerfaces is present in the depletion region and contributes to the dark current density, thereby reducing Voc. On the other hand, for higher-performance devices with Voc > 800 mV, the junction is between an n-type, Te-rich CdSTe alloy with a bandgap of 1.45 eV and p-type CdTe with a bandgap of 1.5 eV. Because the crystal structure of both the Te-rich alloy and the CdTe is cubic zinc blende, and the lattice mismatch between the two is minimal, the device in this case can be considered a quasi-homojunction. These higher-Voc devices are therefore affected less by the high charged defect density at the hetero-interface, which lies outside of the depletion region. We present analysis of the junction properties of our recent and improved substrate-configuration devices with Voc well in excess of 800 mV, FF approaching 60%, and efficiencies around 10%. We also compare devices fabricated in both the substrate and superstrate configurations and with comparable Voc in the range of 700 to more than 800 mV. Photoluminescence (PL) and temperature-dependent PL, current density-voltage and quantum efficiency analysis, and modulated reflectance measurements are used to study device properties.

Dhere, R. G.; Duenow, J. N.; DeHart, C. M.; Li, J. V.; Kuciauskas, D.; Young, M. R.; Alberi, K.; Mascarenhas, A.; Gessert, T. A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Application of spherical diodes for megavoltage photon beams dosimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) usually uses heterogeneous dose distributions in a given volume. Designing detectors for quality control of these treatments is still a developing subject. The size of the detectors should be small to enhance spatial resolution and ensure low perturbation of the beam. A high uniformity in angular response is also a very important feature in a detector, because it has to measure radiation coming from all the directions of the space. It is also convenient that detectors are inexpensive and robust, especially to performin vivo measurements. The purpose of this work is to introduce a new detector for measuring megavoltage photon beams and to assess its performance to measure relative dose in EBRT. Methods: The detector studied in this work was designed as a spherical photodiode (1.8 mm in diameter). The change in response of the spherical diodes is measured regarding the angle of incidence, cumulated irradiation, and instantaneous dose rate (or dose per pulse). Additionally, total scatter factors for large and small fields (between 1 × 1 cm{sup 2} and 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}) are evaluated and compared with the results obtained from some commercially available ionization chambers and planar diodes. Additionally, the over-response to low energy scattered photons in large fields is investigated using a shielding layer. Results: The spherical diode studied in this work produces a high signal (150 nC/Gy for photons of nominal energy of 15 MV and 160 for 6 MV, after 12 kGy) and its angular dependence is lower than that of planar diodes: less than 5% between maximum and minimum in all directions, and 2% around one of the axis. It also has a moderated variation with accumulated dose (about 1.5%/kGy for 15 MV photons and 0.7%/kGy for 6 MV, after 12 kGy) and a low variation with dose per pulse (±0.4%), and its behavior is similar to commercial diodes in total scatter factor measurements. Conclusions: The measurements of relative dose using the spherical diode described in this work show its feasibility for the dosimetry of megavoltage photon beams. A particularly important feature is its good angular response in the MV range. They would be good candidates forin vivo dosimetry, and quality assurance of VMAT and tomotherapy, and other modalities with beams irradiating from multiple orientations, such as Cyberknife and ViewRay, with minor modifications.

Barbés, Benigno, E-mail: bbarbes@unav.es [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Avda. Pío XII, 36, E-31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)] [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Avda. Pío XII, 36, E-31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Azcona, Juan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Avda. Pío XII 36, E-31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Avda. Pío XII 36, E-31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Burguete, Javier [Departamento de Física y Matemática Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra, Irunlarrea 1, E-31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)] [Departamento de Física y Matemática Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra, Irunlarrea 1, E-31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Martí-Climent, Josep M. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Avda. Pío XII 36, E-31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)] [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Avda. Pío XII 36, E-31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Development and clinical evaluation of automatic fiducial detection for tumor tracking in cine megavoltage images during volumetric modulated arc therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Real-time tracking of implanted fiducials in cine megavoltage (MV) imaging during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery is complicated due to the inherent low contrast of MV images and potential blockage of dynamic leaves configurations. The purpose of this work is to develop a clinically practical autodetection algorithm for motion management during VMAT. Methods: The expected field-specific segments and the planned fiducial position from the Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) treatment planning system were projected onto the MV images. The fiducials were enhanced by applying a Laplacian of Gaussian filter in the spatial domain for each image, with a blob-shaped object as the impulse response. The search of implanted fiducials was then performed on a region of interest centered on the projection of the fiducial when it was within an open field including the case when it was close to the field edge or partially occluded by the leaves. A universal template formula was proposed for template matching and normalized cross correlation was employed for its simplicity and computational efficiency. The search region for every image was adaptively updated through a prediction model that employed the 3D position of the fiducial estimated from the localized positions in previous images. This prediction model allowed the actual fiducial position to be tracked dynamically and was used to initialize the search region. The artifacts caused by electronic interference during the acquisition were effectively removed. A score map was computed by combining both morphological information and image intensity. The pixel location with the highest score was selected as the detected fiducial position. The sets of cine MV images taken during treatment were analyzed with in-house developed software written in MATLAB (The Mathworks, Inc., Natick, MA). Five prostate patients were analyzed to assess the algorithm performance by measuring their positioning accuracy during treatment. Results: The algorithm was able to accurately localize the fiducial position on MV images with success rates of more than 90% per case. The percentage of images in which each fiducial was localized in the studied cases varied between 23% and 65%, with at least one fiducial having been localized between 40% and 95% of the images. This depended mainly on the modulation of the plan and fiducial blockage. The prostate movement in the presented cases varied between 0.8 and 3.5 mm (mean values). The maximum displacement detected among all patients was of 5.7 mm. Conclusions: An algorithm for automatic detection of fiducial markers in cine MV images has been developed and tested with five clinical cases. Despite the challenges posed by complex beam aperture shapes, fiducial localization close to the field edge, partial occlusion of fiducials, fast leaf and gantry movement, and inherently low MV image quality, good localization results were achieved in patient images. This work provides a technique for enabling real-time accurate fiducial detection and tumor tracking during VMAT treatments without the use of extra imaging dose.

Azcona, Juan Diego [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Physics, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra 31008 (Spain); Li Ruijiang; Mok, Edward; Hancock, Steven; Xing Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Physics strategies for sparing neural stem cells during whole-brain radiation treatments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Currently, there are no successful long-term treatments or preventive strategies for radiation-induced cognitive impairments, and only a few possibilities have been suggested. One such approach involves reducing the dose to neural stem cell compartments (within and outside of the hippocampus) during whole-brain radiation treatments for brain metastases. This study investigates the fundamental physics issues associated with the sparing of neural stem cells during photon radiotherapy for brain metastases. Methods: Several factors influence the stem cell dose: intracranial scattering, collimator leakage, beam energy, and total number of beams. The relative importance of these factors is investigated through a set of radiation therapy plans, which are all variations of an initial 6 MV intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan designed to simultaneously deliver a whole-brain dose of 30 Gy and maximally reduce stem cell compartment dose. Additionally, an in-house leaf segmentation algorithm was developed that utilizes jaw motion to minimize the collimator leakage. Results: The plans are all normalized such that 50% of the PTV receives 30 Gy. For the initial 6 MV IMRT plan, 50% of the stem cells receive a dose greater than 6.3 Gy. Calculations indicate that 3.6 Gy of this dose originates from intracranial scattering. The jaw-tracking segmentation algorithm, used in conjunction with direct machine parameter optimization, reduces the 50% stem cell dose to 4.3 and 3.7 Gy for 6 and 10 MV treatment beams, respectively. Conclusions: Intracranial scattering alone is responsible for a large dose contribution to the stem cell compartment. It is, therefore, important to minimize other contributing factors, particularly the collimator leakage, to maximally reduce dose to these critical structures. The use of collimator jaw tracking in conjunction with modern collimators can minimize this leakage.

Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean; Hwang, Andrew; Barani, Igor J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Zwitterion mediator/quenchers. Coulombic minimization of the back-reaction in photocatalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zwitterionic analogues of methyl viologen, N,N'-bis(carboxyethyl)-4,4'-bipyridyl (CEB), and N,N'-bis(sulfonatopropyl)-4,4'-bipyridyl (SPB) have been studied as electron-transfer quenchers of excited-state photocatalysts. The molecules are formally neutral when oxidized but become negatively charged when reduced. This charge buildup minimizes undesirable back-recombination of the photogenerated redox products. This Coulombic effect is demonstrated both by direct flash photolysis measurements of back-recombination and by catalytic studies of water reduction. Results are compared for the zwitterion quenchers and methyl viologen, reacting with soluble anionic porphyrins and with micelle-associated reactants. For the anionic porphyrin system zinc tetrakis (sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin(4-) the rates of back-recombination are as follows: ZnTSPP/sup 3 -/ + MV/sup +/...-->.. ZnTSPP/sup 4 -/ + MV/sup 2 +/ (k), k = 2 x 10/sup 9/M/sup -1/s/sup -1/; ZnTSPP/sup 3 -/ + CEB/sup -/. ..-->.. ZnTSPP/sup 4 -/ + CEB +- (k), k = 6 x 10/sup 8/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. In a corresponding catalytic system incorporating ZnTPPS as the photoacceptor, CEB or methyl viologen as the quencher, and N-phenylglycine as the electron donor, a >2-fold enhancement of catalysis is observed by replacing MV/sup 2 +/ with CEB. These events can be greatly accentuated by increasing the charge on the components, via micellar localization. Thus, by using an amphiphilic derivative of Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/ as photoactive donor solubilized in anionic micelles and SPB as electron acceptor, one can achieve 200-fold reduction in the rate of the back-reaction.

Brugger, P.A. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne, Switzerland); Graetzel, M.; Guarr, T.; McLendon, G.

1982-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

287

Influence of compensator thickness, field size, and off-axis distance on the effective attenuation coefficient of a cerrobend compensator for intensity-modulated radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be performed by using compensators. To make a compensator for an IMRT practice, it is required to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient (?{sub eff}) of its material, which is affected by various factors. We studied the effect of the variation of the most important factors on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} of the cerrobend compensator for 6-MV photon beams, including the field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis distance. Experimental measurements were carried out at 100 cm source-to-surface distance and 10 cm depth for the 6-MV photon beams of an Elekta linac using various field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis settings. The field sizes investigated ranged from 4 × 4 to 25 × 25 cm{sup 2} and the cerrobend compensator thicknesses from 0.5–6 cm. For a fixed compensator thickness, variation of the ?{sub eff} with the field size ranged from 3.7–6.8%, with the highest value attributed to the largest compensator thickness. At the reference field size of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}, the ?{sub eff} varied by 16.5% when the compensator thickness was increased from 0.5–6 cm. However, the variation of the ?{sub eff} with the off-axis distance was only 0.99% at this field size, whereas for the largest field size, it was more significant. Our results indicated that the compensator thickness and field size have the most significant effect on the calculation of the compensator ?{sub eff} for the 6-MV photon beam. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these parameters when calculating the compensator thickness for an IMRT practice designed for these beams. The off-axis distance had a significant effect on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} only for the largest field size. Hence, it is recommended to consider the effect of this parameter only for field sizes larger than 25 × 25 cm{sup 2}.

Haghparast, Abbas [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Overview of high gradient SRF R&D for ILC cavities at Jefferson Lab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the progress on high gradient R&D of ILC cavities at Jefferson Lab (JLab) since the Beijing workshop. Routine 9-cell cavity electropolishing (EP) processing and RF testing has been enhanced with added surface mapping and T-mapping instrumentations. 12 new 9-cell cavities (10 of them are baseline fine-grain TESLA-shape cavities: 5 built by ACCEL/Research Instruments, 4 by AES and 1 by JLab; 2 of them are alternative cavities: 1 fine-grain ICHIRO-shape cavity built by KEK/Japan industry and 1 large-grain TESLA-shape cavity built by JLab) are EP processed and tested. 76 EP cycles are accumulated, corresponding to more than 200 hours of active EP time. Field emission (FE) and quench behaviors of electropolished 9-cell cavities are studied. EP process continues to be optimized, resulting in advanced procedures and hence improved cavity performance. Several 9-cell cavities reached 35 MV/m after the first light EP processing. FE-free performance has been demonstrated in 9-cell cavities in 35-40 MV/m range. 1-cell cavity studies explore new techniques for defect removal as well as advanced integrated cavity processing. Surface studies of niobium samples electropolished together with real cavities provide new insight into the nature of field emitters. Close cooperation with the US cavity fabrication industry has been undertaking with the successful achievement of 41 MV/m for the first time in a 9-cell ILC cavity built by AES. As the size of the data set grows, it is now possible to construct gradient yield curves, from which one can see that significant progress has been made in raising the high gradient yield.

Geng, Rongli [JLAB

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Structures and solution properties of two novel periplasmic sensor domains with c-type heme from chemotaxis proteins of Geobacter sulfurreducens : implications for signal transduction.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Periplasmic sensor domains from two methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins from Geobacter sulfurreducens (encoded by genes GSU0935 and GSU0582) were expressed in Escherichia coli. The sensor domains were isolated, purified, characterized in solution, and their crystal structures were determined. In the crystal, both sensor domains form swapped dimers and show a PAS-type fold. The swapped segment consists of two helices of about 45 residues at the N terminus with the hemes located between the two monomers. In the case of the GSU0582 sensor, the dimer contains a crystallographic 2-fold symmetry and the heme is coordinated by an axial His and a water molecule. In the case of the GSU0935 sensor, the crystals contain a non-crystallographic dimer, and surprisingly, the coordination of the heme in each monomer is different; monomer A heme has His-Met ligation and monomer B heme has His-water ligation as found in the GSU0582 sensor. The structures of these sensor domains are the first structures of PAS domains containing covalently bound heme. Optical absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance and NMR spectroscopy have revealed that the heme groups of both sensor domains are high-spin and low-spin in the oxidized and reduced forms, respectively, and that the spin-state interconversion involves a heme axial ligand replacement. Both sensor domains bind NO in their ferric and ferrous forms but bind CO only in the reduced form. The binding of both NO and CO occurs via an axial ligand exchange process, and is fully reversible. The reduction potentials of the sensor domains differ by 95 mV (-156 mV and -251 mV for sensors GSU0582 and GSU0935, respectively). The swapped dimerization of these sensor domains and redox-linked ligand switch might be related to the mechanism of signal transduction by these chemotaxis proteins.

Pokkuluri, P. R.; Pessanha, M.; Londer, Y. Y.; Wood, S. J.; Duke, N. E. C.; Wilton, R.; Catarino, T.; Salgueiro, C. A.; Schiffer, M.; Biosciences Division; Univ.Nova de Lisboa; Insti. de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica

2008-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

290

A search for ultra-compact dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus galaxy cluster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aim: To extend the investigations of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) beyond the well studied Fornax and Virgo clusters. Methods: We measured spectroscopic redshifts of about 400 compact object candidates with 19.2 < V < 22.4 mag in the central region of the Centaurus galaxy cluster (d=43Mpc), using VIMOS@VLT. The luminosity range of the candidates covers that of bright globular clusters (GCs) and of UCDs in Fornax and Virgo. Results: We confirm the cluster membership of 27 compact objects, covering an absolute magnitude range -12.2 < M_V < -10.9 mag. We do not find counterparts to the two very large and bright UCDs in Fornax and Virgo with M_V=-13.5 mag, possibly due to survey incompleteness. The compact objects' distribution in magnitude and space is consistent with that of the GC population. Their kinematics and spatial distribution associate them to the central galaxies rather than to the overall cluster potential. The compact objects have a mean metallicity consistent with that of the metal-rich globular cluster sub-population. Compact objects with high S/N spectra exhibit solar [alpha/Fe] abundances, consistent with typical dwarf elliptical galaxy values and unlike galactic bulge globular clusters. HST based size estimates for a sub-sample of eight compact objects reveal the existence of one very large object with half-light radius r_h around 30 pc, having M_V=-11.6 mag (~10^7 M_sun). This source shows super-solar [alpha/Fe] abundances. Seven further sources are only marginally larger than typical GCs with r_h in the range 4 to 10 pc. Conclusions: We consider the largest compact object found to be the only bona-fide UCD detected in our study. In order to improve our understanding of UCDs in Centaurus, a significant increase of our survey completeness is necessary.

S. Mieske; M. Hilker; A. Jordan; L. Infante; M. Kissler-Patig

2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

291

Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bloom level, occurred when 7-day accumulated inflows were <10 x 106 m3 for Lake Possum Kingdom, <20 x 106 m3 for Lake Granbury and conservatively <40 x 106 m3 for Lake Whitney. These bloom inflow-thresholds corresponded to system flushing rates of 0...-24 h at -20? C. Extracts were filtered (0.2 ?m) and injected (300 ul) into an HPLC system equipped with reverse-phase C18 columns in series (Rainin Microsorb-MV, 0.46 x 10 cm, 3mm, Vydac 201TP, 0.46 x 25cm, 5mm). A nonlinear binary gradient...

Harris, B.L.; Roelke, Daniel; Grover, James; Brooks, Bryan

292

Measurement of delayed neutron yields from {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work is in progress at the University of Birmingham, UK, on the preliminary calibration of detectors and neutron beam characterisation required in order to carry out the accurate measurement of the total and absolute delayed neutron yields from the fast fission of uranium 235 and 238. The work is being undertaken in order to try and resolve the discrepancies that exist in the yield for the uranium 238 isotope. The University`s 3 MV Dynamitron accelerator is being used to produce the required neutron fluxes of 10{sup 9} neutrons per steradian per second, as generated via the D(d,n){sup 3}He reaction.

Kellett, M.A.; Weaver, D.R. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Filip, A. [CEN Cadarache, St. Paul-les-Durance (France)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

293

Comparative Effectiveness of Analgesic Sedation as Primary Sedation in Medical ICU Patients vs. Conventional Sedation and Analgesia Regimens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

more than one therapy Table 2. Outcomes of Analgosedation in the Rozendaal, FW et al Study16 Ventilator Outcomes Conventional Sedation & Analgesia n = 109 Remifentanil n = 96 P Value Duration of MV(mean days) + (95% CI) 5.1 (3....7, 95% CI = (0.47, 1.18). This was confirm after adjusting for patient socio-demographic and clinical characteristics HR= 0.99, 95% CI = (0.6, 1.63). The ICU length of stay was significantly different between the two treatment groups in both...

Taylor, Scott M.

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

Tandem-ESQ for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A folded tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ElectroStatic Quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed as a machine for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT). The machine is shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep seated tumors in less than an hour.

Kreiner, A. J. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad de Gral San Martin (Argentina); CONICET, (Argentina); Kwan, J. W.; Henestroza, E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Burlon, A. A.; Di Paolo, H.; Minsky, D.; Debray, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad de Gral San Martin (Argentina); Valda, A.; Somacal, H. R. [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad de Gral San Martin (Argentina)

2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

295

Pulsed Zeeman spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wheel was attached to the wavei( ngth indicator and was used to interrupt the light striking a small photodiode. The output voltage from the photodiode was used to provide calibration points on the recorder. Photomultiplier An Amperex 56UVP... Vertical: 2 mv/cm Horizontal: 5 microseconds/cm 23 Phc tographic Measurements ~A. Ald t p t 1 pbd. db spectra of ruby as in Fig. l. A photodiode with a risetime of four nanoseconds was used to position the magneti. c field pulse in order...

Cullen, Raymond Paul

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

296

NCRF gun status and test plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summary of this presentation are: (1) NCRF injector has achieved >7MV/m average gradients; (2) RGA trace shows little water in cathode cell; (3) NCRF injector has produced electron beams; (4) Dark current can be reduced with solenoid magnetic field; (5) An RF window failed at RF power above 800kW; (6) Beam tests will be performed with both RLWG (each exposed to 500kW of RF power); and (7) Beam tests will use CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathodes fabricated using low-temperature alkali sources.

Nguyen, Dinh C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

297

Probing the fundamental limit of niobium in high radiofrequency fields by dual mode excitation in superconducting radiofrequency cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied thermal breakdown in several multicell superconducting radiofrequency cavity by simultaneous excitation of two TM{sub 010} passband modes. Unlike measurements done in the past, which indicated a clear thermal nature of the breakdown, our measurements present a more complex picture with interplay of both thermal and magnetic effects. JLab LG-1 that we studied was limited at 40.5 MV/m, corresponding to B{sub peak} = 173 mT, in 8{pi}/9 mode. Dual mode measurements on this quench indicate that this quench is not purely magnetic, and so we conclude that this field is not the fundamental limit in SRF cavities.

Eremeev, Grigory; Geng, Rongli; Palczewski, Ari

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

2001 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation www.fairchildsemi.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical Characteristics (KA7805/KA7805R) (Refer to test circuit ,0° C mA, VI =10V TJ =+25 o C 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.0mA Io 1.0A, PO 15W VI = 7V to 20V 4.75 5.0 5.25 V Line Regulation (Note) Regload TJ=+25 o C IO = 5.0mA to1.5A - 9 100 mV IO =250mA to 750mA - 4 50 Quiescent Current IQ TJ =+25 o C

Ravikumar, B.

299

Experimental densities, entropies and energies for pure H?S and equimolar mixtures of H?S/CH? and H?S/CO? between 300 and 500 K  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and temperature data for H 5, H 5/CH and H S/CO were 2 2 4 2 2 measured between 300 and 500 K and 0 to 60 MPa using the Burnett- coupled isochoric technique. Second and third virial coefficients, densities, entropies and energies were derived from the pressure..., M , which has temperature and pressure R as independent variables, is defined in a similar fashion M (T, P) = M(T, P) ? M (T, P) (20) The density and pressure residual functions are related as follows 0 M (T, P) ? M (T, p) = ( -ln 2 if M=V or H...

Liu, Chung Hsiu

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Liu UCD Phy9B 07 1 Ch 14. Fluid Mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liu UCD Phy9B 07 1 Ch 14. Fluid Mechanics #12;Liu UCD Phy9B 07 2 14-1. Density Density =m/V - kg/m3;Liu UCD Phy9B 07 3 14-2. Pressure in a Fluid Pressure in a fluid of uniform density (Static Case) p2 - p1=-g(y2-y1) p=po+ gh Pressure is the same for any 2 points at the same level in the fluid. Gauge

Yoo, S. J. Ben

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301

Evaluation methodology for structures subjected to seismic loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

} and rearranging Eq. (2. 5): 15 The load distribution applied during the pushover analysis is: au where R i(i) = i-th story shear resistance at the previous computation step, V?= total base shear at the current computation step, and n = current computation... to: $?mv(t) = $?m$, Y, + $?m$z Yz+. . . +P?m)?Y? (2. 14) where $? is the transpose of the n-th mode shape vector. Because of the orthogonality property with respect to mass in which $?m$ = 0 for all n c m, all the terms on the right side of Eq. (2...

O'Boyle, Margaret

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Photoinduced electron transfer reactions in zeolite cages  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes work in the two areas of zeolites and layered double hydroxides. Results of studies on structural aspects of Ru(bpy)[sub 3][sup 2+]-zeolite Y are summarized. Photoinduced electron transfer between entrapped Ru(bpy)[sub 3][sup 2+] and methylviologen (MV) in neighboring supercages was examined. Benzylviologen was also used. Since molecules larger than 13 [angstrom] cannot be accomodated in zeolite cages, the layered double metal hydroxides (LDH) LiAl[sub 2](OH)[sub 6][sup +]X[sup [minus

Dutta, P.K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

High-field half-cycle terahertz radiation from relativistic laser interaction with thin solid targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is found that half-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses with the peak field over 100 MV/cm can be produced in ultrashort intense laser interactions with thin solid targets. These THz pulses are shown to emit from both the front and rear sides of the solid target and are attributed to the coherent transition radiation by laser-produced ultrashort fast electron bunches. After the primary THz pulses, subsequent secondary half-cycle pulses are generated while some refluxing electrons cross the vacuum-target interfaces. Since such strong THz radiation is well synchronized with the driving lasers, it is particularly suitable for applications in various pump-probe experiments.

Ding, W. J.; Koh, W. S. [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)] [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Sheng, Z. M. [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

304

Infinitely many new partition Greg Warrington  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(M) = Amax(r, s, n) - vVM v/sNout(v, M); mid(M) = Amax(r, s, n) - v,wVM Ein(v, M)Nin(w, M)(v w); ctot(M) = v homotopy H - H + H - H + x = 0 x = r/s x = r'/s' = = #12;Main Lemma [Loehr-W] For all positive rational r/s and all integers n 0, H+ r/s(n; t) = n t h+ r/s () = n t h- r/s () = H- r/s(n; t). #12;à la J. Sjöstrand

Warrington, Greg

305

Microstructure of electrodeposited Cu-Ni binary alloy films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The codeposition of Cu and Ni in the electrodeposition method without a complexing agent is difficult, since the standard electrode potentials of Cu and Ni differ by approximately 600 mV. In this study, the electrodeposited Cu-Ni alloy films with various compositions were obtained using glycine as the complexing agent. Consequently, composition of the deposited Cu-Ni alloy films can be controlled by bath composition and pH, and the crystallographic structure of all the deposited Cu-Ni alloy films consists of a single solid solution and is not influenced by pH.

Mizushima, Io; Chikazawa, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Tohru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

EBT GAFCHROMIC{sup TM} film dosimetry in compensator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electron benefit transfer (EBT) GAFCHROMIC films possess a number of features making them appropriate for high-quality dosimetry in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Compensators to deliver IMRT are known to change the beam-energy spectrum as well as to produce scattered photons and to contaminate electrons; therefore, the accuracy and validity of EBT-film dosimetry in compensator-based IMRT should be investigated. Percentage-depth doses and lateral-beam profiles were measured using EBT films in perpendicular orientation with respect to 6 and 18 MV photon beam energies for: (1) different thicknesses of cerrobend slab (open, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 cm), field sizes (5×5, 10×10, and 20×20 cm{sup 2}), and measurement depths (D{sub max}, 5.0 and 10.0 cm); and (2) step-wedged compensator in a solid phantom. To verify results, same measurements were implemented using a 0.125 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber in a water phantom and also in Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code. The mean energy of photons was increased due to beam hardening in comparison with open fields at both 6 and 18 MV energies. For a 20×20 cm{sup 2} field size of a 6 MV photon beam and a 6.0 cm thick block, the surface dose decreased by about 12% and percentage-depth doses increased up to 3% at 30.0 cm depth, due to the beam-hardening effect induced by the block. In contrast, at 18 MV, the surface dose increased by about 8% and depth dose reduced by 3% at 30.0 cm depth. The penumbral widths (80% to 20%) increase with block thickness, field size, and beam energy. The EBT film results were in good agreement with the ionization chamber dose profiles and Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code simulation behind the step-wedged compensator. Also, there was a good agreement between the EBT-film and the treatment-planning results on the anthropomorphic phantom. The EBT films can be accurately used as a 2D dosimeter for dose verification and quality assurance of compensator-based C-IMRT.

Vaezzadeh, Seyedali [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Mahmoud, E-mail: alahverdi@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Radiotherapy—Oncology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nedaie, Hasan A. [Department of Radiotherapy—Oncology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ay, Mohammadreza [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirazi, Alireza; Yarahmadi, Mehran [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

The Host Galaxies of Radio-Loud and Radio-Quiet Quasars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I review our knowledge of the properties of the host galaxies of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, both in comparison to each other and in the context of the general galaxy population. It is now clear that the hosts of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars with M_V 10^9 solar masses appears to be a necessary (although perhaps not sufficient) condition for the production of radio jets of sufficient power to produce an FRII radio source within a massive galaxy halo.

James S. Dunlop

2001-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable operating conditions, and this necessitates additional power beyond that used by the lamp itself. HID lamps offer important advantages compared to other lighting technologies, making them well suited for certain applications. HID lamps can be very efficient, have long operating lives, are relatively temperature-insensitive and produce a large quantity of light from a small package. For these reasons, HID lamps are often used when high levels of illumination are required over large areas and where operating and maintenance costs must be kept to a minimum. Furthermore, if the installation has a significant mounting height, high-power HID lamps can offer superior optical performance luminaires, reducing the number of lamps required to illuminate a given area. The indoor environments best suited to HID lamps are those with high ceilings, such as those commonly found in industrial spaces, warehouses, large retail spaces, sports halls and large public areas. Research into efficacy improvements for HID lighting technologies has generally followed market demand for these lamps, which is in decline for MV and LPS, has reached a plateau for HPS and is growing for MH. Several manufacturers interviewed for this study indicated that although solid-state lighting was now receiving the bulk of their company's R&D investment, there are still strong HID lamp research programs, which concentrate on MH technologies, with some limited amount of investment in HPS for specific niche applications (e.g., agricultural greenhouses). LPS and MV lamps are no longer being researched or improved in terms of efficacy or other performance attributes, although some consider MH HID lamps to be the next-generation MV lamp. Thus, the efficacy values of commercially available MV, LPS and HPS lamps are not expected to increase in the next 5 to 10 years. MH lamps, and more specifically, ceramic MH lamps are continuing to improve in efficacy as well as light quality, manufacturability and lamp life. Within an HID lamp, the light-producing plasma must be heated to sufficiently high temperatures to achieve high efficiencie

Scholand, Michael

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Austrian refiner benefits from advanced control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OeMV-AG Energy implemented advanced process controls on 27 units at its refinery in Schwechat, Austria. A variety of controls were implemented on the butadiene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) units in January 1993. After more than 1 year of operation, the butadiene/MTBE project has shown a number of benefits, including reduced energy consumption and increased capacity in both units. The paper discusses the process, advanced control, the simple model predictive controller, control objectives, the butadiene unit, the MTBE unit, and benefits of the advanced controllers.

Richard, L.A.; Spencer, M. [Setpoint Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Schuster, R.; Tuppinger, D.M.; Wilmsen, W.F. [OeMV-AG Energy, Schwechat (Austria)

1995-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

310

Three-dimensional, Time-Resolved, Intrafraction Motion Monitoring Throughout Stereotactic Liver Radiation Therapy on a Conventional Linear Accelerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the time-resolved 3-dimensional (3D) internal motion throughout stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of tumors in the liver using standard x-ray imagers of a conventional linear accelerator. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with implanted gold markers received 11 treatment courses of 3-fraction SBRT in a stereotactic body-frame on a conventional linear accelerator. Two pretreatment and 1 posttreatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were acquired during each fraction. The CBCT projection images were used to estimate the internal 3D marker motion during CBCT acquisition with 11-Hz resolution by a monoscopic probability-based method. Throughout the treatment delivery by conformal or volumetric modulated arc fields, simultaneous MV portal imaging (8 Hz) and orthogonal kV imaging (5 Hz) were applied to determine the 3D marker motion using either MV/kV triangulation or the monoscopic method when marker segmentation was unachievable in either MV or kV images. The accuracy of monoscopic motion estimation was quantified by also applying monoscopic estimation as a test for all treatments during which MV/kV triangulation was possible. Results: Root-mean-square deviations between monoscopic estimations and triangulations were less than 1.0 mm. The mean 3D intrafraction and intrafield motion ranges during liver SBRT were 17.6 mm (range, 5.6-39.5 mm) and 11.3 mm (2.1-35.5mm), respectively. The risk of large intrafraction baseline shifts correlated with intrafield respiratory motion range. The mean 3D intrafractional marker displacement relative to the first CBCT was 3.4 mm (range, 0.7-14.5 mm). The 3D displacements exceeded 8.8 mm 10% of the time. Conclusions: Highly detailed time-resolved internal 3D motion was determined throughout liver SBRT using standard imaging equipment. Considerable intrafraction motion was observed. The demonstrated methods provide a widely available approach for motion monitoring that, combined with motion-adaptive treatment techniques, has the potential to improve the accuracy of radiation therapy for moving targets.

Worm, Esben S., E-mail: esbeworm@rm.dk [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University (Denmark); Høyer, Morten; Fledelius, Walter [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Poulsen, Per R. [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark) [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University (Denmark)

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Effect of RF Gradient upon the Performance of the Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of the Wisconsin 200-MHz SRF electron gun is simulated for several values of the RF gradient. Bunches with charge of 200 pC are modeled for the case where emittance compensation is completed during post-acceleration to 85 MeV in a TESLA module. We first perform simulations in which the initial bunch radius is optimal for the design gradient of 41 MV/m. We then optimize the radius as a function of RF gradient to improve the performance for low gradients.

Bosch, Robert [SRC U. Wisconsin-Madison; Legg, Robert A. [JLAB

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Studies on superconducting thin films for SRF applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to overcome the fundamental limit of Nb's critical magnetic field ({approx} 200 mT) that corresponds to E{sub acc} {approx}50 MV/m, an idea of coating several thin layers of a superconductor has been proposed. MgB{sub 2}, a superconductor that has a T{sub c} of {approx}39 K, has been studied to explore the effect of coating in terms of DC and RF critical magnetic fields, and RF surface losses. MgB{sub 2} has shown an excellent behavior, although there is some discrepancy between DC and RF measurements.

Tajima, Tsuyoshi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haberkorn, Nestor [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Civale, Leonardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hawley, Marilyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schulze, Roland [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zocco, Adam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eremeev, Grigory [TJNAF; Guo, Jiquan [SLAC; Dolgashev, Valery [SLAC; Martin, David [SLAC; Tantawi, Sami [SLAC; Yoneda, Charles [SLAC; Doi, Toshiya [KAGOSHIMA UNIV.; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi [NIMS

2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

313

Dark Matter and Stellar Mass in the Luminous Regions of Disk Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the correlations among stellar mass (M_*), disk scale length (R_d), and rotation velocity at 2.2 disk scale lengths (V_2.2) for a sample of 81 disk-dominated galaxies (disk/total >= 0.9) selected from the SDSS. We measure V_2.2 from long-slit H-alpha rotation curves and infer M_* from galaxy i-band luminosities (L_i) and g-r colors. We find logarithmic slopes of 2.60+/-0.13 and 3.05+/-0.12 for the L_i-V_2.2 and M_*-V_2.2 relations, somewhat shallower than most previous studies, with intrinsic scatter of 0.13 dex and 0.16 dex. Our direct estimates of the total-to-stellar mass ratio within 2.2R_d, assuming a Kroupa IMF, yield a median ratio of 2.4 for M_*>10^10 Msun and 4.4 for M_*=10^9-10^10 Msun, with large scatter at a given M_* and R_d. The typical ratio of the rotation speed predicted for the stellar disk alone to the observed rotation speed at 2.2R_d is ~0.65. The distribution of R_d at fixed M_* is broad, but we find no correlation between disk size and the residual from the M_*-V_2.2 relation, implying that this relation is an approximately edge-on view of the disk galaxy fundamental plane. Independent of the assumed IMF, this result implies that stellar disks do not, on average, dominate the mass within 2.2R_d. We discuss our results in the context of infall models of disk formation in cold dark matter halos. A model with a disk-to-halo mass ratio m_d=0.05 provides a reasonable match to the R_d-M_* distribution for spin parameters \\lambda ranging from ~0.04-0.08, and it yields a reasonable match to the mean M_*-V_2.2 relation. A model with m_d=0.1 predicts overly strong correlations between disk size and M_*-V_2.2 residual. Explaining the wide range of halo-to-disk mass ratios within 2.2R_d requires significant scatter in m_d values, with systematically lower m_d for galaxies with lower $M_*$.

James Pizagno; Francisco Prada; David H. Weinberg; Hans-Walter Rix; Daniel Harbeck; Eva K. Grebel; Eric Bell; Jon Brinkmann; Jon Holtzman; Andrew West

2005-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

314

Microsoft Word - S05827_WCR_Final.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment ofofOxford SiteToledo SiteTonawanda North BaselineDateHTH-2 DataMV-5

315

uvby-Hbeta CCD Photometry of NGC 1817 and NGC 1807  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have investigated the area of two NGC entries, NGC 1817 and NGC 1807, with deep CCD photometry in the uvby-Hbeta intermediate-band system. The photometric analysis of a selected sample of stars of the open cluster NGC 1817 yields a reddening value of E(b-y)= 0.19$\\pm$0.05, a distance modulus of V0-MV= 10.9$\\pm$0.6, a metallicity of [Fe/H]= -0.34$\\pm$0.26 and an age of log t = 9.05$\\pm$0.05. Our measurements allow us to confirm that NGC 1807 is not a physical cluster.

Balaguer-Nuñez, L; Galadi-Enriquez, D; Masana, E

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Large voltage modulation in magnetic field sensors from two-dimensional arrays of Y-Ba-Cu-O nano Josephson junctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have fabricated and tested two-dimensional arrays of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} superconducting quantum interference devices. The arrays contain over 36?000 nano Josephson junctions fabricated from ion irradiation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} through narrow slits in a resist-mask that was patterned with electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Measurements of current-biased arrays in magnetic field exhibit large voltage modulations as high as 30?mV.

Cybart, Shane A., E-mail: scybart@ucsd.edu; Dynes, R. C. [Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Cho, E. Y.; Wong, T. J. [Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Glyantsev, V. N.; Huh, J. U.; Yung, C. S.; Moeckly, B. H. [Superconductor Technologies Inc., Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Beeman, J. W.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Wu, S. M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

317

China's Energy Management System Program for Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 | iipnetwork.org Waste Heat Recovery in Cement – Market Status 4 5 7 15 24 9 12 24 26 739 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Rest of World Americas Europe Mid East Other Asia Pakistan Thailand Japan India China...MS Implementation guidance for Thermal Power – EnMS Implementation guidance for Coke – EnMS Implementation guidance Plate Coal Industry – M&V guidance on energy performance • 2015 – EnMS Implementation guidance for Paper – EnMS Implementation guidance...

Hedman, B.; Yu, Y.; Friedman, Z.; Taylor, R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The Evaluation of High Tannin Cotton Lines for Resistance to Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium aphanidermatum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Pest Resistance. p 31. In Proc Beltwide Cotton Prod. Res. Conf. New Orleans, LA. 3-8 Jan. 1988. Natl. Cotton Coun. Am., Memphis, TN. Bell, A.A., K. M. El-Zik, and P. M. Thaxton, 1992. Chemistry, Biological Significance and Genetic Control.... and M.V. Patel. 1997. Cotton Disease Loss Estimate Committee Report. p. 130- 131. In Proc Beltwide Cotton Prod. Res. Conf. New Orleans, LA. 6-10 Jan. 1997. Natl. Cotton Coun. Am., Memphis, TN. Bush, D.L., L.S. Bird and F.M. Bourland. 1978...

Kennett, Raymond Matthew

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

319

Influence of surface modifications on pitting corrosion behavior of nickel-base alloy 718. Part 1: Effect of machine hammer peening  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of surface modifications induced by machine hammer peening on pitting corrosion behavior of nickel-base alloy 718 in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution is investigated. Severe work hardening and high compressive residual stress are generated with surface smoothing and microstructure evolution in terms of formation of nano-grains and nano-twins in the near surface region after machine hammer peening. Electrochemical tests results show that machine hammer peening has a beneficial influence on the corrosion resistance, indicated by a significant increase of the critical pitting potential (+134 mV) accompanied with lower corrosion current density and higher polarization resistance.

None

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes and Coral Growth in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea as Environmental and Climate Indicators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thanks goes to the crew of the M/V Fling; the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) staff, E. Hickerson, G.P. Schmal, L. Kurjelja; the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary staff, J. Halas, B. Causey, A. Massey; U.S. Geological Survey... OXYGEN AND CARBON ISOTOPES AND CORAL GROWTH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO AND CARIBBEAN SEA AS ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE INDICATORS A Dissertation by AMY JO WAGNER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

Wagner, Amy Jo

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

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321

Effect of voltage polarity on oxidation-reduction potential by plasma in water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of plasma in water for water treatment and medical treatment is growing and raises expectations of finding advanced functions such as an increase of biological compatibility. In the present study with a focus on the variation of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), relationships between the electrode polarities of plasma in water and the change of water quality such as conductivity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, dissolved hydrogen concentration, pH and ORP were revealed. Similar line spectra of radiation at the electrode tip were observed for each case of positive and negative electrode polarity. The emission intensities of OH (309 nm), H? (656 nm), and OI (777 nm) for the positive discharge were significantly higher than those for the negative one, though the energy consumption during the discharge period of both cases was nearly the same. Positive electrode polarity was found to be more suitable than negative electrode polarity for increasing dissolved hydrogen gas and hydrogen peroxide. The ORP for the positive polarity decreased from 460 to 45 mV and that for the negative polarity decreased from 460 to 183 mV, although the pH and conductivity were not significantly changed.

Miyahara, Takashi [Faculty of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)] [Faculty of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Oizumi, Masanobu [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan (Currently, Nippon Steel and Sumikin Engineering Co. Ltd.) (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan (Currently, Nippon Steel and Sumikin Engineering Co. Ltd.) (Japan); Nakatani, Tatsuyuki [Toyo Advanced Technologies Co., Ltd., 5-3-38 Ujinahigashi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8501 (Japan)] [Toyo Advanced Technologies Co., Ltd., 5-3-38 Ujinahigashi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8501 (Japan); Sato, Takehiko, E-mail: sato@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)] [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Turing machines based on unsharp quantum logic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we consider Turing machines based on unsharp quantum logic. For a lattice-ordered quantum multiple-valued (MV) algebra E, we introduce E-valued non-deterministic Turing machines (ENTMs) and E-valued deterministic Turing machines (EDTMs). We discuss different E-valued recursively enumerable languages from width-first and depth-first recognition. We find that width-first recognition is equal to or less than depth-first recognition in general. The equivalence requires an underlying E value lattice to degenerate into an MV algebra. We also study variants of ENTMs. ENTMs with a classical initial state and ENTMs with a classical final state have the same power as ENTMs with quantum initial and final states. In particular, the latter can be simulated by ENTMs with classical transitions under a certain condition. Using these findings, we prove that ENTMs are not equivalent to EDTMs and that ENTMs are more powerful than EDTMs. This is a notable difference from the classical Turing machines.

Yun Shang; Xian Lu; Ruqian Lu

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

323

Development of a one-stop beam verification system using electronic portal imaging devices for routine quality assurance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, a computer-based system for routine quality assurance (QA) of a linear accelerator (linac) was developed by using the dosimetric properties of an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID). An acrylic template phantom was designed such that it could be placed on the EPID and be aligned with the light field of the collimator. After irradiation, portal images obtained from the EPID were transferred in DICOM format to a computer and analyzed using a program we developed. The symmetry, flatness, field size, and congruence of the light and radiation fields of the photon beams from the linac were verified simultaneously. To validate the QA system, the ion chamber and film (X-Omat V2; Kodak, New York, NY) measurements were compared with the EPID measurements obtained in this study. The EPID measurements agreed with the film measurements. Parameters for beams with energies of 6 MV and 15 MV were obtained daily for 1 month using this system. It was found that our QA tool using EPID could substitute for the film test, which is a time-consuming method for routine QA assessment.

Lim, Sangwook, E-mail: medicalphysics@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kosin University College of Medicine, Seo-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Sun Young; Jeung, Tae Sig [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kosin University College of Medicine, Seo-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Byong Yong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Lee, Sang Hoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Jung-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sam Ju [Department of Radiation Oncology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Eulji General Hospital, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jinho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Namdong-gu, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Development of Ultra High Gradient and High Q{sub 0} Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the recent progress at Jefferson Lab in developing ultra high gradient and high Q{sub 0} superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for future SRF based machines. A new 1300 MHz 9-cell prototype cavity is being fabricated. This cavity has an optimized shape in terms of the ratio of the peak surface field (both magnetic and electric) to the acceleration gradient, hence the name low surface field (LSF) shape. The goal of the effort is to demonstrate an acceleration gradient of 50 MV/m with Q{sub 0} of 10{sup 10} at 2 K in a 9-cell SRF cavity. Fine-grain niobium material is used. Conventional forming, machining and electron beam welding method are used for cavity fabrication. New techniques are adopted to ensure repeatable, accurate and inexpensive fabrication of components and the full assembly. The completed cavity is to be first mechanically polished to a mirror-finish, a newly acquired in-house capability at JLab, followed by the proven ILC-style processing recipe established already at JLab. In parallel, new single-cell cavities made from large-grain niobium material are made to further advance the cavity treatment and processing procedures, aiming for the demonstration of an acceleration gradient of 50 MV/m with Q{sub 0} of 2?10{sup 10} at 2K.

Geng, Rongli [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Clemens, William A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Follkie, James E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Harris, Teena M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Kushnick, Peter W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Machie, Danny [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Martin, Robert E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Palczewski, Ari D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Perry, Era A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Slack, Gary L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Williams, R. S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Adolphsen, C. [SLAC, Menlo Park, California, (United States); Li, Z. [SLAC, Menlo Park, California, (United States); Hao, J. K. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Li, Y. M. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Liu, K. X. [Peking University, Beijing (China)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

dc field-emission analysis of GaAs and plasma-source ion-implanted stainless steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field-emission studies have been performed on a GaAs wafer and a sample of its stainless-steel (SS) support electrode that are part of a photocathode gun for the 10 kW Upgrade infrared free electron laser at Jefferson Lab. The objective of the studies presented here is to characterize the effect of both the cleanliness of the wafer and the plasma-source ion-implanted layer on the electrode to suppress field emission. Field emission is the limiting factor to achieve the required 6 MV/m at the surface of the wafer. Potential field emitters are first located on the surface of 1 in. diameter samples with a dc scanning field-emission microscope at 60 MV/m, then each emitter is characterized in a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The GaAs wafer was hydrogen cleaned before the study. The results show three emitters caused by indium contamination during wafer handling. The GaAs wafer thus shows good high-voltage characteristics and the need to maintain cleanliness during handling. The SS sample is hand polished with diamond paste to a 1-m surface finish, then implanted with N2/SiO2 in a plasma-source ion-implantation chamber in preparation for the field-emission studies.

C. Hernandez; T. Wang; T. Siggins; D. Bullard; H. F. Dylla; C. Reece; N. D. Theodore; D. M. Manos

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Flexible Pillared Graphene-Paper Electrodes for High-Performance Electrochemical Supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flexible graphene paper (GP) pillared by carbon black (CB) nanoparticles using a simple vacuum filtration method is developed as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. Through the introduction of CB nanoparticles as spacers, the self-restacking of graphene sheets during the filtration process is mitigated to a great extent. The pillared GP-based supercapacitors exhibit excellent electrochemical performances and cyclic stabilities compared with GP without the addition of CB nanoparticles. At a scan rate of 10 mV s?1, the specific capacitance of the pillared GP is 138 F g^?1 and 83.2 F g^?1 with negligible 3.85% and 4.35% capacitance degradation after 2000 cycles in aqueous and organic electrolytes, respectively. At an extremely fast scan rate of 500 mV s ^?1, the specific capacitance can reach 80 F g^?1 in aqueous electrolyte. No binder is needed for assembling the supercapacitor cells and the pillared GP itself may serve as a current collector due to its intrinsic high electrical conductivity. The pillared GP has great potential in the development of promising flexible and ultralight-weight supercapacitors for electrochemical energy storage.

Wang, Gongkai; Sun, Xiang; Lu, Fengyuan; Sun, Hongtao; Yu, Mingpeng; Jiang, Weilin; Liu, Changsheng; Lian, Jie

2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

327

Review of Prior Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit Evaluation: A Report to Snohomish Public Utilities District  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Snohomish County Public Utilities District (the District or Snohomish PUD) provides electricity to about 325,000 customers in Snohomish County, Washington. The District has an incentive programs to encourage commercial customers to improve energy efficiency: the District partially reimburses the cost of approved retrofits if they provide a level of energy performance improvement that is specified by contract. In 2013 the District contracted with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to provide a third-party review of the Monitoring and Verification (M&V) practices the District uses to evaluate whether companies are meeting their contractual obligations. This work helps LBNL understand the challenges faced by real-world practitioners of M&V of energy savings, and builds on a body of related work such as Price et al. (2013). The District selected a typical project for which they had already performed an evaluation. The present report includes the District's original evaluation as well as LBNL's review of their approach. The review is based on the document itself; on investigation of the load data and outdoor air temperature data from the building evaluated in the document; and on phone discussions with Bill Harris of the Snohomish County Public Utilities District. We will call the building studied in the document the subject building, the original Snohomish PUD report will be referred to as the Evaluation, and this discussion by LBNL is called the Review.

Price, Phillip

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

328

A multi-platform approach to image guided radiation therapy (IGRT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Siemens Medical Solutions, Oncology Care Systems Group (SMSOCSG) is supporting the development of several technologies that enable image acquisition and decision making processes required for IGRT in various clinical settings. Four such technologies are presented including: (i) the integration of a traditional multi-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner 'on rails' with a C-arm gantry linear accelerator; (ii) the development of a high sensitivity, fast, megavoltage (MV) electronic portal imaging device capable of clinical MV Conebeam CT (MVCBCT) reconstruction and fluoroscopy mounted on a C-arm gantry linear accelerator; (iii) the modification of a mobile C-arm with flat panel kilovoltage (kV) diagnostic imager; and (iv) the development of an in-line megavoltage and kilovoltage flat panel imaging system that has the potential to image both anatomical and dosimetric information in 'real-time' utilizing the traditional C-arm gantry linear accelerator geometry. Each method of IGRT has unique as well as complementary qualities which are discussed from both a clinical and technical perspective.

Amies, Christopher [Clinical and Collaborative Development, Siemens Medical Solutions, Oncology Care Systems Group, Concord, CA (United States)]. E-mail: christopher.amies@siemens.com; Bani-Hashemi, Ali [Advance Development, Siemens Medical Solutions, Oncology Care Systems Group, Concord, CA (United States); Celi, Juan-Carlos [Product Development, Siemens Medical Solutions, Oncology Care Systems Group, Concord, CA (United States); Grousset, Guillaume [Clinical and Collaborative Development, Siemens Medical Solutions, Oncology Care Systems Group, Concord, CA (United States); Ghelmansarai, Farhad [Advance Development, Siemens Medical Solutions, Oncology Care Systems Group, Concord, CA (United States); Hristov, Dimitre [Clinical and Collaborative Development, Siemens Medical Solutions, Oncology Care Systems Group, Concord, CA (United States); Lane, Derek [Product Development, Siemens Medical Solutions, Oncology Care Systems Group, Concord, CA (United States); Mitschke, Matthias [Product Development, Siemens Medical Solutions, Oncology Care Systems Group, Concord, CA (United States); Singh, Ajit [Clinical and Collaborative Development, Siemens Medical Solutions, Oncology Care Systems Group, Concord, CA (United States); Shukla, Himanshu [Clinical and Collaborative Development, Siemens Medical Solutions, Oncology Care Systems Group, Concord, CA (United States); Stein, Joerg [Clinical and Collaborative Development, Siemens Medical Solutions, Oncology Care Systems Group, Concord, CA (United States); Wofford, Mark [Clinical and Collaborative Development, Siemens Medical Solutions, Oncology Care Systems Group, Concord, CA (United States)

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Crystal Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells by Hot-Wire CVD: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) is a promising technique for fabricating Silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. In this paper we describe our efforts to increase the open circuit voltage (Voc) while improving the efficiency of these devices. On p-type c-Si float-zone wafers, we used a double heterojunction structure with an amorphous n/i contact to the top surface and an i/p contact to the back surface to obtain an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 679 mV in a 0.9 cm2 cell with an independently confirmed efficiency of 19.1%. This is the best reported performance for a cell of this configuration. We also made progress on p-type CZ wafers and achieved 18.7% independently confirmed efficiency with little degradation under prolong illumination. Our best Voc for a p-type SHJ cell is 0.688 V, which is close to the 691 mV we achieved for SHJ cells on n type c-Si wafers.

Wang, Q.; Page, M. R.; Iwaniczko, E.; Xu, Y. Q.; Roybal, L.; Bauer, R.; To, B.; Yuan, H. C.; Duda, A.; Yan, Y. F.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Summary Report for the C50 Cryomodule Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has recently completed the C50 cryomodule refurbishment project. The goal of this project was to enable robust 6 GeV, 5 pass operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The scope of the project included removal, refurbishment and reinstallation of ten CEBAF cryomodules at a rate of three per year. The refurbishment process included reprocessing of SRF cavities to eliminate field emission and to increase the nominal gradient from the original 5 MV/m to 12.5 MV/m. New 'dogleg' couplers were installed between the cavity and helium vessel flanges to intercept secondary electrons that produce arcing in the fundamental Power Coupler (FPC). Other changes included new ceramic RF windows for the air to vacuum interface of the FPC and improvements to the mechanical tuner. Damaged or worn components were replaced as well. All ten of the refurbished cryomodules are now installed in CEBAF and are currently operational. This paper will summarize the performance of the cryomodules.

Drury, Michael; Davis, G; Fischer, John; Grenoble, Christiana; Hogan, John; King, Lawrence; Preble, Joseph; Wang, Haipeng; Reilly, Anthony; Mammosser, John; Saunders, Jeffrey; Macha, Kurt

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Performance of the First Refurbished CEBAF Cryomodule  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has begun a cryomodule refurbishment project. The goal of this project is robust 6 GeV, 5 pass operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The scope of the project includes removing, refurbishing and replacing 10 CEBAF cryomodules at a rate of three per year. Refurbishment includes reprocessing of SRF cavities to eliminate field emission and increase the nominal gradient from the original 5 MV/m to 12.5 MV/m. New “dogleg” couplers between the cavity and helium vessel flanges will intercept secondary electrons that produce arcing on the 2 K ceramic window in the Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC). Modification of the Qext of the FPC will allow higher gradient operations. Other changes include new ceramic RF windows for the air to vacuum interface of the FPC and improvements to the mechanical tuners. Any damaged or worn components will be replaced as well. Currently, the first of the refurbished cryomodules has been installed and tested both in the Cryomodule Test Facility and in place in the North Linac of CEBAF. This paper will summarize the results of these tests.

Michael Drury; Edward Daly; G. Davis; John Fischer; Christiana Grenoble; William Hicks; John Hogan; Lawrence King; Robert Nichols; Tomasz Plawski; Joseph Preble; Timothy Rothgeb; Haipeng Wang

2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

332

Overview of the First Five Refurbished CEBAF Cryomodules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is currently engaged in a cryomodule refurbishment project known as the C50 project. The goal of this project is robust 6 GeV, 5 pass operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The scope of the project includes removing, refurbishing and replacing ten CEBAF cryomodules at a rate of three per year. Refurbishment includes reprocessing of SRF cavities to eliminate field emission and increase the nominal gradient from the original 5 MV/m to 12.5 MV/m. New "dogleg" couplers between the cavity and helium vessel flanges will intercept secondary electrons that produce arcing at the 2 K ceramic window in the fundamental Power Coupler (FPC). Modifications of the external Q (Qext) of the FPC will allow higher gradient operations. Other changes include new ceramic RF windows for the air to vacuum interface of the FPC and improvements to the mechanical tuner. Any damaged or worn components will be repla

Drury, Michael; Daly, Edward; Davis, G.; Fischer, John; Grenoble, Christiana; Hogan, John; Humphry, Frank; King, Lawrence; Preble, Joseph; Worland, Kenneth

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Photooxidation of tetraanionic sensitizer ions by dihexadecyl phosphate vesicle-bound viologens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Triplet state lifetimes of several photoredox-active anions were shortened by adding N-alkyl-N-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (C/sub n/MV/sup 2 +/) ions in the presence of dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) vesicles. Optical spectroscopic measurements indicate that the predominant reaction mechanism is one-electron oxidative quenching. For (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphinato)zinc(II) (ZnTPPS/sup 4 -/) ion, yields of charge-separated product ions are high, so that overall quantum yields exceeding 0.5 redox pairs per photon absorbed can be realized; for tetrakis(diphosphito)diplatinate(II), tris(4,7-bis(4-sulfonato-benzyl)-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenate(II), and tris(4,4'-dicarboxylato-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenate(II) yields are markedly less, a consequence of their shorter intrinsic triplet lifetimes and poor cage escape yields. In the absence of vesicles, product formation is negligible because ion pairing of viologens with sensitizers is extensive, giving rise to static quenching of the photoexcited states. The ionic strength dependence of the kinetics of /sup 3/ZnTPPS/sup 4 -/ ion oxidation by C/sub n/MV/sup 2 +/-DHP particles suggests a diffusion-controlled mechanism with electron transfer occurring over a distance of separation approximating the hard-sphere collision diameter of sensitizer and viologen.

Hurst, J.K.; Thompson, D.H.P.; Connolly, J.S.

1987-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

334

Photoinduced and redox-induced transmembrane processes with vesicle-stabilized colloidal cadmium sulfide and multicharged viologen derivatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Colloidal cadmium sulfide (CdS) and methylviologen (MV{sup 2+}) or new viologen derivatives carrying more positive charges were placed at specific sites of dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) vesicles. Benzyl alcohol was used as a sacrificial electron donor to promote reduction of the viologens by photoexcited CdS colloid majority carriers. Transmission electron microscopy, {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, and differential scanning calorimetry were used for physical characterization. Photochemical events were followed by in situ optical and electrochemical monitoring. Redox-induced transmembrane diffusion, which had been found with MV{sup 2+}, could be reduced by a factor 18 by using a triply charged viologen derivative and by a further factor of 30 in a configuration involving transmembrane electron transfer. In that case the quantum yield was ca. 0.05 at 410 nm, while virtually no reduced viologen leaking could be observed during at least 10 min. Physical evidence was found for a partial penetration of the CdS colloids into the DHP membrane.

Tricot, Y.M.; Porat, Z.; Manassen, J. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel))

1991-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

335

A study of plasma modification of low k polyimide thin film  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+5 4e+5 6e+5 8e+5 1e+6 Frequency(Hz) (a) 7600A ~100C ~ ? 200 C ? 350 C 36 3. 4 3 3. 2 O o 30 'c 2. 8 2e+5 4e+5 6e+5 Be+5 1e+6 Frequency(Hz) (b) 5350 A O ~ 100 C ~ ? 200 C ? 350 C 2e+5 4e+5 6e+5 Be+5 1e+6 Frequency(Hz) (c) 4150 A...(MV/cm) (a) 7600A 0. 4 1e-6 ) 1er $ 1e-8 c E 1e-9 0 ~ 100'C ~ 200'C ~ 350'C ~ 450'C 1e-10 0 0. 2 0. 3 E(MV/cm/ (b) 5350 A 0. 4 1e-6 E 1e-7 $ 14-8 /2 c 1e-9 0 ~ 100'C ~ 200 C ~ 350'C 450'C 1e-10 01 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0 6 E...

Chung, Taewoo

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Characterization of Epitaxial Film Silicon Solar Cells Grown on Seeded Display Glass: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report characterizations of epitaxial film crystal silicon (c-Si) solar cells with open-circuit voltages (Voc) above 560 mV. The 2-um absorber cells are grown by low-temperature (<750 degrees C) hot-wire CVD (HWCVD) on Corning EAGLE XG display glass coated with a layer-transferred (LT) Si seed. The high Voc is a result of low-defect epitaxial Si (epi-Si) growth and effective hydrogen passivation of defects. The quality of HWCVD epitaxial growth on seeded glass substrates depends on the crystallographic quality of the seed and the morphology of the epitaxial growth surface. Heterojunction devices consist of glass/c-Si LT seed/ epi n+ Si:P/epi n- Si:P/intrinsic a-Si:H/p+ a-Si:H/ITO. Similar devices grown on electronically 'dead' n+ wafers have given Voc {approx}630 mV and {approx}8% efficiency with no light trapping features. Here we study the effects of the seed surface polish on epi-Si quality, how hydrogenation influences the device character, and the dominant junction transport physics.

Young, D. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C.; Stradins, P.; LaSalvia, V.; Chuang, T. K.; Couillard, J. G.; Branz, H. M.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

The use of LBB concept in French fast reactors: Application to SPX plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The leak before break (LBB) concept was not used at the design level for SUPERPHENIX (SPX), but different studies have been performed or are in progress concerning different components : Main Vessel (MV), pipings. These studies were undertaken to improve the defense in depth, an approach used in all French reactors. In a first study, the LBB approach has been applied to the MV of SPX plant to verify the absence of risk as regards the core supporting function and to help in the definition of in-service inspection (ISI) program. Defining a reference semi-elliptic defect located in the welds of the structure, it is verified that the crack growth is limited and that the end-of-life defect is smaller than the critical one. Then it is shown that the hoop welds (those which are the most important for safety) located between the roof and the triple point verify the leak-before-break criteria. However, generally speaking, the low level of membrane primary stresses which is favorable for the integrity of the vessel makes the application of the leak-before-break concept more difficult due to small crack opening areas. Finally, the extension of the methodology to the secondary pipings of SPX incorporating recent European works of DCRC is briefly presented.

Turbat, A.; Deschanels, H.; Sperandio, M. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Performance status of 0.55 eV InGaAs thermophotovoltaic cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data on {approximately} 0.55 eV In{sub 0.72}Ga{sub 0.28}As cells with an average open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 298 mV (standard deviation 7 mV) at an average short-circuit current density of 1.16 A/cm{sup 2} (sdev. 0.1 A/cm{sup 2}) and an average fill-factor of 61.6% (sdev. 2.8%) is reported. The absorption coefficient of In{sub 0.72}Ga{sub 0.28}As was measured by a differential transmission technique. The authors use a numerical integration of the absorption data to determine the radiative recombination coefficient for In{sub 0.72}Ga{sub 0.28}As. Using this absorption data and simple one-dimensional analytical formula the above cells are modeled. The models show that the cells may be limited more by Auger recombination rather than Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination at dislocation centers caused by the 1.3% lattice mismatch of the cell to the host InP wafer.

Wojtczuk, S.; Colter, P. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States); Charache, G.; DePoy, D. [Lockheed Martin Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

805 MHz and 201 MHz RF cavity development for MUCOOL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A muon cooling channel calls for very high acceleratinggradient RF structures to restore the energy lost by muons in theabsorbers. The RF structures have to be operated in a strong magneticfield and thus the use of superconducting RF cavities is excluded. Toachieve a high shunt impedance while maintaining a large enough apertureto accommodate a large transverse emittance muon beam, the cavity designadopted is a pillbox-like geometry with thin Be foils to terminate theelectromagnetic field at the cavity iris. The possibility of using gridsof thin-walled metallic tubes for the termination is also being explored.Many of the RF-related issues for muon cooling channels are being studiedboth theoretically and experimentally using an 805 MHz cavity that has apillbox-like geometry with thin Be windows to terminate the cavityaperture. The design and performance of this cavity are reported here.High-power RF tests of the 805 MHz cavity are in progress at Lab G inFermilab. The cavity has exceeded its design gradient of 30 MV/m,reaching 34 MV/m without external magnetic field. No surface damage wasobserved at this gradient. The cavity is currently under conditioning atLab G with an external magnetic field of 2.5 T. We also present here a201 MHz cavity design for muoncooling channels. The proposed cavitydesign is also suitable for use in a proof-of-principle Muon IonizationCooling Experiment (MICE).

DLi@lbl.gov

2002-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

340

Prompt Optical Emission from Gamma-ray Bursts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) seeks to measure contemporaneous and early afterglow optical emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The ROTSE-I telescope array has been fully automated and responding to burst alerts from the GRB Coordinates Network since March 1998, taking prompt optical data for 30 bursts in its first year. We will briefly review observations of GRB990123 which revealed the first detection of an optical burst occurring during the gamma-ray emission, reaching 9th magnitude at its peak. In addition, we present here preliminary optical results for seven other gamma-ray bursts. No other optical counterparts were seen in this analysis, and the best limiting sensitivities are m(V) > 13.0 at 14.7 seconds after the gamma-ray rise, and m(V) > 16.4 at 62 minutes. These are the most stringent limits obtained for GRB optical counterpart brightness in the first hour after the burst. This analysis suggests that there is not a strong correlation between optical flux and gamma-ray emission.

Robert Kehoe; Carl Akerlof; Richard Balsano; Scott Barthelmy; Jeff Bloch; Paul Butterworth; Don Casperson; Tom Cline; Sandra Fletcher; Fillippo Frontera; Galen Gisler; John Heise; Jack Hills; Kevin Hurley; Brian Lee; Stuart Marshall; Tim McKay; Andrew Pawl; Luigi Piro; Bill Priedhorsky; John Szymanski; Jim Wren

1999-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

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341

On The Linearity of The Black Hole - Bulge Mass Relation in Active and in Nearby Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of PG quasar observations suggests a nonlinear relation between the black hole mass, M_BH, and the bulge mass, M_bulge, although a linear relation, as proposed for nearby galaxies, cannot be ruled out. New M_BH values for nearby galaxies from Gebhardt et al., and L_bulge measurements for Seyfert 1 galaxies from Virani et al., are used here to obtain a more accurate value for the slope of the M_BH-M_bulge relation. The combined sample of 40 active and non-active galaxies suggests a significantly nonlinear relation, M_BH\\propto M_bulge^{1.53\\pm 0.14}. Further support for a nonlinear relation is provided by the slope of the M_BH-stellar velocity dispersion relation found recently, and by the low M_BH found in late type spiral galaxies. The mean M_BH/M_bulge ratio is therefore not a universal constant, but rather drops from ~0.5% in bright (M_V ~ -22) ellipticals, to ~0.05% in low luminosity (M_V ~ -18) bulges. Hubble Space Telescope determinations of M_BH in late type spirals, and of the bulge magnitude in narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies (both predicted to have low M_BH), can further test the validity of the nonlinear M_BH-M_bulge relation.

Ari Laor

2001-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

342

A Reconsideration of Matter Waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Matter waves were discovered in the early 20th century from their wavelength, predicted by DeBroglie, Planck's constant divided by the particle's momentum, that is, lmw = h/mv. But, the failure to obtain a reasonable theory for the matter wave frequency resulted somewhat in loss of further interest. It was expected that the frequency of the matter wave should correspond to the particle kinetic energy, that is, fmw = 1/2mv^2/h but the resulting velocity of the matter of the particle, v = fmw x lmw, is that the matter wave moves at one half the speed of the particle, obviously absurd as the particle and its wave must move together. If relativistic mass is used (as it should in any case) the problem remains, the same mass appearing in numerator and denominator and canceling. It is no help to hypothesize that the total energy, not just the kinetic energy, yields the matter wave. That attributes a matter wave to a particle at rest. It also gives the resulting velocity as c^2/v, the wave racing ahead of its particle. A reinterpretation of Einstein's derivation of relativistic kinetic energy (which produced his famous E = mc^2) leads to a valid matter wave frequency and a new understanding of particle kinetics and of the atom's stable orbits.

Roger Ellman

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

343

Overview and Lessons Learned of the Jefferson Lab Cryomodule Production for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab is nearing completion of an energy upgrade from 6 to 12 GeV. An integral part of the upgrade is the addition of ten new cryomodules, each consisting of eight seven-cell superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. An average performance of 100+MV of acceleration per cryomodule is needed to achieve the 12 GeV beam energy goal. The production methodology was for industry to provide and deliver the major components to Jefferson Lab, where they were tested and assembled into cryomodules. The production process begins with an inspection upon receiving of all major components followed by individual performance qualification testing. The SRF cavities received their final chemical processing and cleaning at Jefferson Lab. The qualified components along with all associated hardware and instrumentation are assembled, tested, installed into CEBAF and run through an integrated system checkout in preparation for beam operations. The production process is complete and one of the first completed cryomodules has successfully produced 108 MV of acceleration with a linac beam current of 465 {micro}A.

Hogan, John P. [JLAB; Burrill, Andrew B. [JLAB; Drury, Michael A. [JLAB; Harwood, Leigh H. [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curt [JLAB; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Wiseman, Mark A. [JLAB

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Dry Mergers in GEMS: The Dynamical Evolution of Massive Early-Type Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used the 28'x 28' HST image mosaic from the GEMS (Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs) survey in conjunction with the COMBO-17 photometric redshift survey to constrain the incidence of major mergers between spheroid-dominated galaxies with little cold gas (dry mergers) since z = 0.7. A set of N-body merger simulations was used to explore the morphological signatures of such interactions: they are recognizable either as < 5kpc separation close pairs or because of broad, low surface brightness tidal features and asymmetries. Data with the depth and resolution of GEMS are sensitive to dry mergers between galaxies with M_V < -20.5 for z < 0.7; dry mergers at higher redshifts are not easily recovered in single-orbit HST imaging. Seven dry mergers (14 galaxies) with luminosity ratios between 1:1 and 4:1 were found from a sample of 379 red early-type galaxies with M_V < -20.5 and 0.1 < z < 0.7. The simulations suggest that the morphological signatures of dry merging are visible for ~2...

Bell, E F; McIntosh, D H; Somerville, R S; Caldwell, J A R; Barden, M; Wolf, C; Rix, H W; Beckwith, S V W; Borch, A; Haeussler, B; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; Jogee, S; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Sánchez, S F; Wisotzki, L; Bell, Eric F.; Naab, Thorsten; Intosh, Daniel H. Mc; Somerville, Rachel S.; Caldwell, John A. R.; Barden, Marco; Wolf, Christian; Rix, Hans-Walter; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Borch, Andrea; Haeussler, Boris; Heymans, Catherine; Jahnke, Knud; Jogee, Shardha; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Peng, Chien Y.; Sanchez, Sebastian F.; Wisotzki, Lutz

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The electrochemical performance of ordered mesoporous carbon/nickel compounds composite material for supercapacitor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of high performance ordered mesoporous carbon/nickel compounds composites have been synthesized by a combination of incipient wetness impregnation and hydrothermal method for the first time. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the composites derived at the hydrothermal temperature of 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 275 and 300 {sup o}C. The formation of nanosized nickel compounds, fully inside the mesopore system, was confirmed with XRD and TEM. An N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms measurements still revealed mesoporosity for the host/guest compounds. It is noteworthy that an OMC/nickel nitrate hydroxide hydrate composite (OMCN-150) exhibits more excellent performance. Based on the various hydrothermal temperatures of the composite, the capacitance of an OMCN-150 delivering the best electrochemical performance is about 2.4 (5 mV s{sup -1}) and 1.5 (50 mV s{sup -1}) times of the pristine OMC. The capacitance retention of an OMCN-150 is 96.1%, which indicates that the electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor is improved greatly, and represents novel research and significant advances in the field of electrode composite materials for supercapacitor. -- Graphical abstract: A series of high performance nickel compound/ordered mesoporous carbon composites were synthesized by a combination of incipient wetness impregnation and hydrothermal method for the first time. Display Omitted

Feng, Jicheng; Zhao, Jiachang; Tang, Bohejin; Liu, Ping [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xu, Jingli, E-mail: jinglixu@sues.edu.c [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Construction and Test of a Novel Superconducting RF Electron gun  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Wisconsin-Madison has completed installation of a superconducting electron gun. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility with multiple megahertz repetition rate end stations. This VHF superconducting configuration holds the promise of the highest performance for CW injectors. Initial commissioning efforts show that the cavity can achieve gradients of 35 MV/m at the cathode position. With the cathode inserted CW operation has been achieved at 20 MV/m with good control of microphonics, negligible dark current, and Q0 > 3×109 at 4 K. Bunch charges of ~100 pC have been delivered, and first simple beam measurements made. These preliminary results are very encouraging for production of 100s pC bunches with millimeter-milliradian or smaller normalized emittances. Plans are in place to carry out more definitive studies to establish the full capabilities. However, since the grant was not renewed, the electron gun is currently mothballed, and without supplemental fund the opportunity for further work will be lost.

Bisognano, Joseph J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] [University of Wisconsin-Madison

2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

347

The blue plume population in dwarf spheroidal galaxies: genuine blue stragglers or young stellar population?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abridged... Blue stragglers (BSS) are thought to be the product of either primordial or collisional binary systems. In the context of dwarf spheroidal galaxies it is hard to firmly disentangle a genuine BSS population from young main sequence (MS) stars tracing a ~1-2 Gyr old star forming episode. Assuming that their blue plume populations are made of BSS, we estimate the BSS frequency for 8 Local Group non star-forming dwarf galaxies, using a compilation of ground and space based photometry. Our results can be summarized as follows: (i) The BSS frequency in dwarf galaxies, at any given Mv, is always higher than that in globular clusters of similar luminosities; (ii) the BSS frequency for the lowest luminosity dwarf galaxies is in excellent agreement with that observed in the Milky Way halo; and most interestingly (iii) derive a statistically significant anti-correlation between the BSS frequency and the galaxy Mv. The low density, almost collision-less, environments of our dwarf galaxy sample allow us to infer (i) their very low dynamical evolution; (ii) a negligible production of collisional BSS; and consequently (iii) that their blue plumes are mainly made of primordial binaries. The dwarf galaxies anti-correlation can be used as a discriminator: galaxies obeying the anti-correlation are more likely to possess genuine primordial BSS rather than young main sequence stars.

Y. Momany; E. V. Held; I. Saviane; S. Zaggia; L. Rizzi; M. Gullieuszik

2007-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

348

ULTRA-COMPACT ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR APPLICATION IN NUCLEAR TECHNIQUES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on compact accelerator technology development for potential use as a pulsed neutron source quantitative post verifier. The technology is derived from our on-going compact accelerator technology development program for radiography under the US Department of Energy and for a clinic sized compact proton therapy systems under an industry sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. The accelerator technique relies on the synchronous discharge of a prompt pulse generating stacked transmission line structure with the beam transit. The goal of this technology is to achieve {approx}10 MV/m gradients for 10s of nanoseconds pulses and to {approx}100 MV/m gradients for {approx}1 ns systems. As a post verifier for supplementing existing x-ray equipment, this system can remain in a charged, stand-by state with little or no energy consumption. We detail the progress of our overall component development effort with the multilayer dielectric wall insulators (i.e., the accelerator wall), compact power supply technology, kHz repetition-rate surface flashover ion sources, and the prompt pulse generation system consisting of wide-bandgap switches and high performance dielectric materials.

Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Carazo, V; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Guse, S; Harris, J R; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Paul, A C; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Schmidt, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sitaraman, S; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

349

A high sensitivity fiber optic macro-bend based gas flow rate transducer for low flow rates: Theory, working principle, and static calibration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel fiber optic macro-bend based gas flowmeter for low flow rates is presented. Theoretical analysis of the sensor working principle, design, and static calibration were performed. The measuring system consists of: an optical fiber, a light emitting diode (LED), a Quadrant position sensitive Detector (QD), and an analog electronic circuit for signal processing. The fiber tip undergoes a deflection in the flow, acting like a cantilever. The consequent displacement of light spot center is monitored by the QD generating four unbalanced photocurrents which are function of fiber tip position. The analog electronic circuit processes the photocurrents providing voltage signal proportional to light spot position. A circular target was placed on the fiber in order to increase the sensing surface. Sensor, tested in the measurement range up to 10 l min{sup -1}, shows a discrimination threshold of 2 l min{sup -1}, extremely low fluid dynamic resistance (0.17 Pa min l{sup -1}), and high sensitivity, also at low flow rates (i.e., 33 mV min l{sup -1} up to 4 l min{sup -1} and 98 mV min l{sup -1} from 4 l min{sup -1} up to 10 l min{sup -1}). Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. The high sensitivity, along with the reduced dimension and negligible pressure drop, makes the proposed transducer suitable for medical applications in neonatal ventilation.

Schena, Emiliano; Saccomandi, Paola; Silvestri, Sergio [Center for Integrated Research, Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome (Italy)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Dark Matter and Stellar Mass in the Luminous Regions of Disk Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the correlations among stellar mass (M_*), disk scale length (R_d), and rotation velocity at 2.2 disk scale lengths (V_2.2) for a sample of 81 disk-dominated galaxies (disk/total >= 0.9) selected from the SDSS. We measure V_2.2 from long-slit H-alpha rotation curves and infer M_* from galaxy i-band luminosities (L_i) and g-r colors. We find logarithmic slopes of 2.60+/-0.13 and 3.05+/-0.12 for the L_i-V_2.2 and M_*-V_2.2 relations, somewhat shallower than most previous studies, with intrinsic scatter of 0.13 dex and 0.16 dex. Our direct estimates of the total-to-stellar mass ratio within 2.2R_d, assuming a Kroupa IMF, yield a median ratio of 2.4 for M_*>10^10 Msun and 4.4 for M_*=10^9-10^10 Msun, with large scatter at a given M_* and R_d. The typical ratio of the rotation speed predicted for the stellar disk alone to the observed rotation speed at 2.2R_d is ~0.65. The distribution of R_d at fixed M_* is broad, but we find no correlation between disk size and the residual from the M_*-V_2.2 rela...

Pizagno, J; Weinberg, D H; Rix, H W; Harbeck, D; Grebel, E K; Bell, E; Brinkmann, J; Holtzman, J; West, A; Pizagno, James; Prada, Francisco; Weinberg, David H.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Harbek, Daniel; Grebel, Eva K.; Bell, Eric; Brinkmann, Jon; Holtzman, Jon; West, Andrew

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Identification of X-ray Point Sources and Study on the Nature of 62 X-ray Globular Cluster Candidates in M31  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper includes two parts. The first is to present the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 49 globular cluster (GC) X-ray sources in the BATC 13 intermediate-band filters from 3800 to 10000 A, and identify 8 unidentified X-ray sources in M31. Using the X-ray data of Einstein observation from 1979 to 1980, ROSAT HRI observation in 1990, Chandra HRC and ACIS-I observations from 1999 to 2001, and the BATC optical survey from 1995 to 1999, we find 49 GC X-ray sources and 8 new unidentified X-ray sources in the BATC M31 field. By analyzing SEDs and FWHMs, 4 of the 8 X-ray sources may be GC candidates. The second is to present some statistical relationships about 62 GC X-ray sources, of which 58 are already known, and 4 are identified in this paper. The distribution of M31 GC X-ray sources' V mags is bimodal, with peaks at m_v = 15.65 and m_v = 17.89, which is different from the distribution of GC candidates. The distribution of B-V color shows that,the GC X-ray sources seem to be associated preferentially ...

Fan, Z; Zhou, X; Chen, J; Jiang, Z; Wu, Z; Fan, Zhou; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Xu; Chen, Jiansheng; Jiang, Zhaoji; Wu, Zhenyu

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

SEPARATION OF OVERLAPPED ELECTROCHEMICAL PEAKS USING THE KALMAN FILTER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major limitation in the use of electrochemical techniques for the quantitative analysis of mixtures is the difficulty of resolving overlapped peaks. This problem is further complicated by the low signal-to-noise ratios often encountered in trace analysis and by the use of electrochemical techniques that produce broad, asymmetric waveforms. This paper demonstrates the use of the Kalman Filter for multi-component analysis of linear sweep voltammograms. Even with the broad, asymmetric LSV waveform, synthetic data runs show that a peak separation of as little as 2.5 mV is sufficient for peak deconvolution in the presence of random noise. Besides separating overlapped peaks, the methods also filters the noise from the signal and can be used to separate the capacitive current component from the faradaic current component. The method is validated further using the Cd(II)/In(III) and Cd(II)/In(III)/Pb(II) systems which show peak separations of 40 to 200 mV. The use of the techniques with two other voltammetric waveforms is also demonstrated.

Brown, T.F.; Brown, S.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Fluorescence quenching of water-soluble porphyrins. A novel fluorescence quenching of anionic porphyrin by anionic anthraquinone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fluorescence quenching of 5-phenyl-10,15,20-tris(p-sulfonatophenyl)porphine (TPPS/sup 3 -/) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine (TMPyP/sup 4 +/) has been studied in water (pH 8.0) by using 9,10-anthra-quinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS/sup 2 -/) and methyl viologen (MV/sup 2 +/) as quenchers. While electrostatic repulsion is expected, AQDS/sup 2 -/ quenched the TPPS/sup 3 -/ fluorescence more efficiently than MV/sup 2 +/. The steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements indicated that static quenching took place in the TPPS/sup 3 -/-AQDS/sup 2 -/ system. Studies on the absorption spectra and the effects of ionic strength on the fluorescence quenching indicated the formation of the ground-state complex of TPPS/sup 3 -/ and AQDS/sup 2 -/. The thermodynamic parameters (..delta..H and ..delta..S) suggested that the ground-state complex was formed via van der Walls interaction.

Kano, K.; Sato, T.; Yamada, S.; Ogawa, T.

1983-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

354

Measuring linac photon beam energy through EPID image analysis of physically wedged fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have proven to be useful tools for measuring several parameters of interest in linac quality assurance (QA). However, a method for measuring linac photon beam energy using EPIDs has not previously been reported. In this report, such a method is devised and tested, based on fitting a second order polynomial to the profiles of physically wedged beams, where the metric of interest is the second order coefficient?. The relationship between ? and the beam quality index [percentage depth dose at 10 cm depth (PDD{sub 10})] is examined to produce a suitable calibration curve between these two parameters. Methods: Measurements were taken in a water-tank for beams with a range of energies representative of the local QA tolerances about the nominal value 6 MV. In each case, the beam quality was found in terms of PDD{sub 10} for 100 × 100 mm{sup 2} square fields. EPID images of 200 × 200 mm{sup 2} wedged fields were then taken for each beam and the wedge profile was fitted in MATLAB 2010b (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). ? was then plotted against PDD{sub 10} and fitted with a linear relation to produce the calibration curve. The uncertainty in ? was evaluated by taking five repeat EPID images of the wedged field for a beam of 6 MV nominal energy. The consistency of measuring ? was found by taking repeat measurements on a single linac over a three month period. The method was also tested at 10 MV by repeating the water-tank crosscalibration for a range of energies centered approximately about a 10 MV nominal value. Finally, the calibration curve from the test linac and that from a separate clinical machine were compared to test consistency of the method across machines in a matched fleet. Results: The relationship between? and PDD{sub 10} was found to be strongly linear (R{sup 2} = 0.979) while the uncertainty in ? was found to be negligible compared to that associated with measuring PDD{sub 10} in the water-tank (±0.3%). The repeat measurements over a three month period showed the method to be reasonably consistent (i.e., well within the limits defined by local QA tolerances). The measurements were repeated on a matched machine and the same linear relationship between ? and PDD{sub 10} was observed. The results for both machines were found to be indistinguishable across the energy range of interest (i.e., across and close to the thresholds defined by local QA tolerances), hence a single relation could be established across a matched fleet. Finally, the experiment was repeated on both linacs at 10 MV, where the linear relationship between ? and PDD{sub 10} was again observed. Conclusions: The authors conclude that EPID image analysis of physically wedged beam profiles can be used to measure linac photon beam energy. The uncertainty in such a measurement is dominated by that associated with measuring PDD{sub 10} in the water-tank; hence, the accuracies of these two methods are directly comparable. This method provides a useful technique for quickly performing energy constancy measurements while saving significant clinical downtime for QA.

Dawoud, S. M., E-mail: samir.dawoud@leedsth.nhs.uk; Weston, S. J.; Bond, I.; Ward, G. C.; Rixham, P. A.; Mason, J.; Huckle, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, St. James Institute of Oncology, St. James University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, St. James Institute of Oncology, St. James University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Sykes, J. R. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia and Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, St. James Institute of Oncology, St. James University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia and Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, St. James Institute of Oncology, St. James University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radiofrequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ~140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ~140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ~140 MV/m. To address concerns on the effect of natural air drying process on EFE, a comparative study was conducted on Nb and the results showed insignificant difference under the experimental conditions. Nb thin films deposited on Cu present a possible alternative to bulk Nb in superconducting cavities. The EFE performance of a preliminary energetically deposited Nb thin film sample are presented.

Tong Wang

2002-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

356

An overview of the facilities, activities, and developments at the University of North Texas Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) at the University of North Texas includes several accelerator facilities with capabilities of producing a variety of ion beams from tens of keV to several MeV in energy. The four accelerators are used for research, graduate and undergraduate education, and industrial applications. The NEC 3MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has three ion sources for negative ions: He Alphatross and two different SNICS-type sputter ion sources. Presently, the tandem accelerator has four high-energy beam transport lines and one low-energy beam transport line directly taken from the negative ion sources for different research experiments. For the low-energy beam line, the ion energy can be varied from {approx}20 to 80 keV for ion implantation/modification of materials. The four post-acceleration beam lines include a heavy-ion nuclear microprobe; multi-purpose PIXE, RBS, ERD, NRA, and broad-beam single-event upset; high-energy ion implantation line; and trace-element accelerator mass spectrometry. The NEC 3MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator has an RF ion source mainly for hydrogen, helium and heavier inert gases. We recently installed a capacitive liner to the terminal potential stabilization system for high terminal voltage stability and high-resolution microprobe analysis. The accelerator serves a beam line for standard RBS and RBS/C. Another beamline for high energy focused ion beam application using a magnetic quadrupole lens system is currently under construction. This beam line will also serve for developmental work on an electrostatic lens system. The third accelerator is a 200 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator with an RF ion source. The fourth accelerator is a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which was in operation for last several decades is currently planned to be used mainly for educational purpose. Research projects that will be briefly discussed include materials synthesis/modification for photonic, electronic, and magnetic applications, surface sputtering and micro-fabrication of materials, development of high-energy ion microprobe systems, and educational and outreach activities.

Rout, Bibhudutta; Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Poudel, Prakash R.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Pandey, Bimal; Deoli, Naresh T.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Mulware, Stephen J.; Baxley, Jacob; Manuel, Jack E.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Szilasi, Szabolcs; Weathers, Duncan L.; Reinert, Tilo; Glass, Gary A.; Duggan, Jerry L.; McDaniel, Floyd D. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, University of North Texas, Department of Physics, 1155 Union Circle 311427, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

357

Commissioning of the Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator: A multi-institutional study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Latest generation linear accelerators (linacs), i.e., TrueBeam (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and its stereotactic counterpart, TrueBeam STx, have several unique features, including high-dose-rate flattening-filter-free (FFF) photon modes, reengineered electron modes with new scattering foil geometries, updated imaging hardware/software, and a novel control system. An evaluation of five TrueBeam linacs at three different institutions has been performed and this work reports on the commissioning experience. Methods: Acceptance and commissioning data were analyzed for five TrueBeam linacs equipped with 120 leaf (5 mm width) MLCs at three different institutions. Dosimetric data and mechanical parameters were compared. These included measurements of photon beam profiles (6X, 6XFFF, 10X, 10XFFF, 15X), photon and electron percent depth dose (PDD) curves (6, 9, 12 MeV), relative photon output factors (Scp), electron cone factors, mechanical isocenter accuracy, MLC transmission, and dosimetric leaf gap (DLG). End-to-end testing and IMRT commissioning were also conducted. Results: Gantry/collimator isocentricity measurements were similar (0.27-0.28 mm), with overall couch/gantry/collimator values of 0.46-0.68 mm across the three institutions. Dosimetric data showed good agreement between machines. The average MLC DLGs for 6, 10, and 15 MV photons were 1.33 {+-} 0.23, 1.57 {+-} 0.24, and 1.61 {+-} 0.26 mm, respectively. 6XFFF and 10XFFF modes had average DLGs of 1.16 {+-} 0.22 and 1.44 {+-} 0.30 mm, respectively. MLC transmission showed minimal variation across the three institutions, with the standard deviation <0.2% for all linacs. Photon and electron PDDs were comparable for all energies. 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beam quality, %dd(10){sub x} varied less than 0.3% for all linacs. Output factors (Scp) and electron cone factors agreed within 0.27%, on average; largest variations were observed for small field sizes (1.2% coefficient of variation, 10 MV, 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cm{sup 2}) and small cone sizes (<1% coefficient of variation, 6 Multiplication-Sign 6 cm{sup 2} cone), respectively. Conclusions: Overall, excellent agreement was observed in TrueBeam commissioning data. This set of multi-institutional data can provide comparison data to others embarking on TrueBeam commissioning, ultimately improving the safety and quality of beam commissioning.

Glide-Hurst, C.; Bellon, M.; Wen, N.; Zhao, B.; Chetty, I. J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health Systems, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Foster, R.; Speiser, M.; Solberg, T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235 (United States); Altunbas, C.; Westerly, D.; Miften, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Altman, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Feasibility of a simple method of hybrid collimation for megavoltage grid therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Megavoltage grid therapy is currently delivered with step-and-shoot multisegment techniques or using a high attenuation block with divergent holes. However, the commercial availability of grid blocks is limited, their construction is difficult, and step-and-shoot techniques require longer treatment times and are not practical with some multileaf collimators. This work studies the feasibility of a hybrid collimation system for grid therapy that does not require multiple segments and can be easily implemented with widely available technical means. Methods: The authors have developed a system to generate a grid of beamlets by the simultaneous use of two perpendicular sets of equally spaced leaves that project stripe patterns in orthogonal directions. One of them is generated with the multileaf collimator integrated in the accelerator and the other with an in-house made collimator constructed with a low melting point alloy commonly available at radiation oncology departments. The characteristics of the grid fields for 6 and 18 MV have been studied with a shielded diode, an unshielded diode, and radiochromic film. Results: The grid obtained with the hybrid collimation is similar to some of the grids used clinically with respect to the beamlet size (about 1 cm) and the percentage of open beam (1/4 of the total field). The grid fields are less penetrating than the open fields of the same energy. Depending on the depth and the direction of the profiles (diagonal or along the principal axes), the measured valley-to-peak dose ratios range from 5% to 16% for 6 MV and from 9% to 20% for 18 MV. All the detectors yield similar results in the measurement of profiles and percent depth dose, but the shielded diode seems to overestimate the output factors. Conclusions: The combination of two stripe pattern collimators in orthogonal directions is a feasible method to obtain two-dimensional arrays of beamlets and has potential usefulness as an efficient way to deliver grid therapy. The implementation of this method is technically simpler than the construction of a conventional grid block.

Almendral, Pedro; Mancha, Pedro J.; Roberto, Daniel [Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica y Radiofisica Hospitalaria, Hospital Infanta Cristina, 06080 Badajoz (Spain)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

In vivo measurements for high dose rate brachytherapy with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To show the feasibility of clinical implementation of OSLDs for high dose-rate (HDR) in vivo dosimetry for gynecological and breast patients. To discuss how the OSLDs were characterized for an Ir-192 source, taking into account low gamma energy and high dose gradients. To describe differences caused by the dose calculation formalism of treatment planning systems.Methods: OSLD irradiations were made using the GammaMedplus iX Ir-192 HDR, Varian Medical Systems, Milpitas, CA. BrachyVision versions 8.9 and 10.0, Varian Medical Systems, Milpitas, CA, were used for calculations. Version 8.9 used the TG-43 algorithm and version 10.0 used the Acuros algorithm. The OSLDs (InLight Nanodots) were characterized for Ir-192. Various phantoms were created to assess calculated and measured doses and the angular dependence and self-absorption of the Nanodots. Following successful phantom measurements, patient measurements for gynecological patients and breast cancer patients were made and compared to calculated doses.Results: The OSLD sensitivity to Ir-192 compared to 6 MV is between 1.10 and 1.25, is unique to each detector, and changes with accumulated dose. The measured doses were compared to those predicted by the treatment planning system and found to be in agreement for the gynecological patients to within measurement uncertainty. The range of differences between the measured and Acuros calculated doses was -10%-14%. For the breast patients, there was a discrepancy of -4.4% to +6.5% between the measured and calculated doses at the skin surface when the Acuros algorithm was used. These differences were within experimental uncertainty due to (random) error in the location of the detector with respect to the treatment catheter.Conclusions: OSLDs can be successfully used for HDR in vivo dosimetry. However, for the measurements to be meaningful one must account for the angular dependence, volume-averaging, and the greater sensitivity to Ir-192 gamma rays than to 6 MV x-rays if 6 MV x-rays were used for OSLD calibration. The limitations of the treatment planning algorithm must be understood, especially for surface dose measurements. Use of in vivo dosimetry for HDR brachytherapy treatments is feasible and has the potential to detect and prevent gross errors. In vivo HDR brachytherapy should be included as part of the QA for a HDR brachytherapy program.

Sharma, Renu; Jursinic, Paul A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, West Michigan Cancer Center, 200 North Park Street, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49007 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Solid electrolyte based sensor for monitoring the magnesium level during reclamation of aluminum scrap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum alloy scrap often contains excess magnesium which must be removed during recycling by a process referred to as demagging. The efficiency of this process could be improved with an in-situ magnesium sensor, which could be used to optimize the process parameters to the changing magnesium content. The sensor developed in this work consists of a galvanic cell with a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) solid electrolyte and a molten magnesium reference electrode. The voltage output of the sensor changes by about 100 mV for the change in magnesium content which occurs during the demagging process (5 wt% to 0.1 wt%) and is in excellent agreement with thermodynamic measurements using molten chloride electrolytes. This paper focuses on the effect of silicon, which is a common alloying element in aluminum alloys, on the output of an electrochemical magnesium sensor.

Fergus, J.W.; Hui, S. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Materials Research and Education Center

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

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361

Exploring the effect of Al2O3 ALD coating on a high gradient ILC single-cell cavity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Encouraged by work at Argonne National Lab, we investigated atomic layer deposition technique (ALD) for high gradient superconducting RF cavities at JLab with an ALD coating system of Old Dominion University located on the JLab site. The goal of this study was to look into the possibility of coating a dielectric layer on top of RF niobium surface at a lower temperature of 120 C as compared to ANL coatings at 200 C to preserve niobium pentoxide on niobium surface. The initial coatings showed complete, but non-uniform coatings of the surface with several areas exhibiting discoloration, which was probably due to the temperature variation across the cavity surface. The initial coating showed a high RF losses, which were improved after discolored areas on the beam tubes were removed with HF rinse of the beam tubes only. The best result was 2 109 low field Q0 and Eacc = 18 MV/m limited by available power.

Grigory Eremeev, Anne-Marie Valente, Andy Wu, Diefeng Gu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrents around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials’ photosensitivity.

Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

363

Field Emission Measurements from Niobium Electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing the operating voltage of a DC high voltage photogun serves to minimize space charge induced emittance growth and thereby preserve electron beam brightness, however, field emission from the photogun cathode electrode can pose significant problems: constant low level field emission degrades vacuum via electron stimulated desorption which in turn reduces photocathode yield through chemical poisoning and/or ion bombardment and high levels of field emission can damage the ceramic insulator. Niobium electrodes (single crystal, large grain and fine grain) were characterized using a DC high voltage field emission test stand at maximum voltage -225kV and electric field gradient > 10MV/m. Niobium electrodes appear to be superior to diamond-paste polished stainless steel electrodes.

M. BastaniNejad, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, S. Covert, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Mammei, M. Poelker

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Laser-seeded modulation instability in a proton driver plasma wakefield accelerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method for initiating the modulation instability (MI) of a proton beam in a proton driver plasma wakefield accelerator using a short laser pulse preceding the beam is presented. A diffracting laser pulse is used to produce a plasma wave that provides a seeding modulation of the proton bunch with the period equal to that of the plasma wave. Using the envelope description of the proton beam, this method of seeding the MI is analytically compared with the earlier suggested seeding technique that involves an abrupt truncation of the proton bunch. The full kinetic simulation of a realistic proton bunch is used to validate the analytic results. It is further used to demonstrate that a plasma density ramp placed in the early stages of the laser-seeded MI leads to its stabilization, resulting in sustained accelerating electric fields (of order several hundred MV/m) over long propagation distances (?100–1000 m)

Siemon, Carl; Khudik, Vladimir; Austin Yi, S.; Shvets, Gennady [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Pukhov, Alexander [Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf 40225 (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf 40225 (Germany)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Tycho Brahe's supernova: light from centuries past  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The light curve of SN 1572 is described in the terms used nowadays to characterize SNeIa. By assembling the records of the observations done in 1572--74 and evaluating their uncertainties, it is possible to recover the light curve and the color evolution of this supernova. It is found that, within the SNe Ia family, the event should have been a SNIa with a normal rate of decline, its stretch factor being {\\it s} $\\sim$ 0.9. Visual light curve near maximum, late--time decline and the color evolution sustain this conclusion. After correcting for extinction, the luminosity of this supernova is found to be M$_{V}$ $=$ --19.58 --5 log (D/3.5 kpc) $\\pm$ 0.42.

Pilar Ruiz-Lapuente

2003-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

366

Tycho Brahe's supernova: light from centuries past  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The light curve of SN 1572 is described in the terms used nowadays to characterize SNeIa. By assembling the records of the observations done in 1572--74 and evaluating their uncertainties, it is possible to recover the light curve and the color evolution of this supernova. It is found that, within the SNe Ia family, the event should have been a SNIa with a normal rate of decline, its stretch factor being {\\it s} $\\sim$ 0.9. Visual light curve near maximum, late--time decline and the color evolution sustain this conclusion. After correcting for extinction, the luminosity of this supernova is found to be M$_{V}$ $=$ --19.58 --5 log (D/3.5 kpc) $\\pm$ 0.42.

Ruiz-Lapuente, P

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Portable radiography system using a relativistic electron beam  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable radiographic generator is provided with an explosive magnetic flux compression generator producing the high voltage necessary to generate a relativistic electron beam. The relativistic electron beam is provided with target materials which generates the desired radiographic pulse. The magnetic flux compression generator may require at least two conventional explosively driven generators in series to obtain a desired output voltage of at least 1 MV. The cathode and anode configuration of the diode are selected to provide a switching action wherein a high impedance load is presented to the magnetic flux compression generator when the high voltage is being generated, and thereafter switching to a low impedance load to generate the relativistic electron beam. Magnetic flux compression generators can be explosively driven and provided in a relatively compact, portable form for use with the relativistic x-ray equipment. 8 figs.

Hoeberling, R.F.

1987-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

368

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE CORROSION POTENTIAL OF THE 241-AN-102 MULTI PROBE CORROSION MONITORING SYSTEM SECONDARY REFERENCE ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A test program using 241-AN-102 waste simulants and metallic secondary reference electrodes similar to those used on the 241-AN-102 MPCMS was performed to characterize the relationship between temperature and secondary reference electrode open-circuit corrosion potential. This program showed that the secondary reference electrodes can be used to make tank and tank steel corrosion potential measurements, but that a correction factor of approximately 2 mV per degree Celsius of temperature difference must be applied, where temperature difference is defined as the difference between tank temperature at the time of measurement and 30 C, the average tank temperature during the first several months of 241-AN-102 MPCMS operation (when the corrosion potentials of the secondary reference electrodes were being recorded relative to the primary reference electrodes).

EDGEMON GL; TAYLOR TM

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

369

Evaluating the size-dependent quantum efficiency loss in a SiO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hybrid gated type-II InAs/GaSb long-infrared photodetector array  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growing Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} on 20?nm SiO{sub 2} to passivate a 11??m 50% cut-off wavelength long-wavelength infrared type-II superlattice gated photodetector array reduces its saturated gate bias (V{sub G,sat}) to ?7 V. Size-dependent quantum efficiency (QE) losses are evaluated from 400??m to 57??m size gated photodiode. Evolution of QE of the 57??m gated photodiode with gate bias and diode operation bias reveals different surface recombination mechanisms. At 77?K and V{sub G,sat}, the 57??m gated photodiode exhibits QE enhancement from 53% to 63%, and it has 1.2 × 10{sup ?5} A/cm{sup 2} dark current density at ?200?mV, and a specific detectivity of 2.3?×?10{sup 12} Jones.

Chen, G.; Hoang, A. M.; Razeghi, M., E-mail: razeghi@eecs.northwestern.edu [Center for Quantum Devices, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

370

The Bucharest FN Tandem Accelerator: Modernization and Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bucharest FN tandem accelerator, installed in 1973 and upgraded in 1983 to 9 MV, has been used for atomic and nuclear physics studies as well as for different applications using accelerated ion beams. In the last three years a program of modernization of the tandem accelerator including the replacement of the old accelerator equipment by new ones, installation of a pelletron system for the Van de Graaff generator and installation of new negative ion injectors was undertaken. In parallel a development of the tandem accelerator was started. In 2009, a beam pulsing system in the nanosecond range is scheduled to be installed. All these works aimed to transform the tandem accelerator in a reliable and efficient tool for research and applications are presented. The main lines of the research program at the Bucharest tandem accelerator are shortly presented too.

Dobrescu, S.; Mosu, D. V.; Moisa, D.; Papureanu, S. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering 'Horia Hulubei' (IFIN-HH) 77125 Magurele-Ilfov (Romania)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

371

Electrochemically induced deposition method to prepare {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites as electrode material in supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}/multi-walled carbon nanotube ({gamma}-MnO{sub 2}/MWNT) composite has been prepared by electrochemically induced deposition method. The morphology and crystal structure of the composite were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The capacitive properties of the {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}/MWNT composite have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). A specific capacitance (based on {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}) as high as 579 F g{sup -1} is obtained at a scan rate of 10 mV s{sup -1} in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution. Additionally, the {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}/MWNT composite electrode shows excellent long-term cycle stability (only 2.4% decrease of the specific capacitance is observed after 500 CV cycles)

Fan Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen Jinhua [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)], E-mail: chenjinhua@hnu.cn; Zhang Bing; Sun Feng; Liu Bo; Kuang Yafei [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

372

TiN/VN composites with core/shell structure for supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research highlights: {yields} Vanadium and titanium nitride nanocomposite with core-shell structure was prepared. {yields} TiN/VN composites with different V:Ti molar ratios were obtained. {yields} TiN/VN composites can provide promising electronic conductivity and favorable capacity storage. -- Abstract: TiN/VN core-shell composites are prepared by a two-step strategy involving coating of commercial TiN nanoparticles with V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O sols followed by ammonia reduction. The highest specific capacitance of 170 F g{sup -1} is obtained when scanned at 2 mV s{sup -1} and a promising rate capacity performance is maintained at higher voltage sweep rates. These results indicate that these composites with good electronic conductivity can deliver a favorable capacity performance.

Dong, Shanmu; Chen, Xiao [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China)] [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Gu, Lin [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 9808577 (Japan)] [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 9808577 (Japan); Zhou, Xinhong [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266101 (China)] [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266101 (China); Wang, Haibo; Liu, Zhihong; Han, Pengxian; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Li [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China)] [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Cui, Guanglei, E-mail: cuigl@qibebt.ac.cn [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China)] [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Chen, Liquan [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China) [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

The ACS LCID project VII: the blue stragglers population in the isolated dSph galaxies Cetus and Tucana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the first investigation of the Blue Straggler star (BSS) population in two isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, Cetus and Tucana. Deep HST/ACS photometry allowed us to identify samples of 940 and 1214 candidates, respectively. The analysis of the star formation histories of the two galaxies suggests that both host a population of BSSs. Specifically, if the BSS candidates are interpreted as young main sequence stars, they do not conform to their galaxy's age-metallicity relationship. The analysis of the luminosity function and the radial distributions support this conclusion, and suggest a non-collisional mechanism for the BSS formation, from the evolution of primordial binaries. This scenario is also supported by the results of new dynamical simulations presented here. Both galaxies coincide with the relationship between the BSS frequency and the absolute visual magnitude Mv found by Momany et al (2007). If this relationship is confirmed by larger sample, then it could be a valuab...

Monelli, M; Mapelli, M; Bernard, E J; Aparicio, A; Skillman, E D; Stetson, P B; Gallart, C; Hidalgo, S L; Mayer, L; Tolstoy, E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Bright and fast voltage reporters across the visible spectrum via electrochromic FRET (eFRET)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a palette of brightly fluorescent genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) with excitation and emission peaks spanning the visible spectrum, sensitivities from 6 - 10% Delta F/F per 100 mV, and half-maximal response times from 1 - 7 ms. A fluorescent protein is fused to an Archaerhodopsin-derived voltage sensor. Voltage-induced shifts in the absorption spectrum of the rhodopsin lead to voltage-dependent nonradiative quenching of the appended fluorescent protein. Through a library screen, we identified linkers and fluorescent protein combinations which reported neuronal action potentials in cultured rat hippocampal neurons with a single-trial signal-to-noise ratio from 6.6 to 11.6 in a 1 kHz imaging bandwidth at modest illumination intensity. The freedom to choose a voltage indicator from an array of colors facilitates multicolor voltage imaging, as well as combination with other optical reporters and optogenetic actuators.

Zou, Peng; Douglass, Adam D; Hochbaum, Daniel R; Brinks, Daan; Werley, Christopher A; Harrison, D Jed; Campbell, Robert E; Cohen, Adam E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

High-k (k=30) amorphous hafnium oxide films from high rate room temperature deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amorphous hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) is deposited by sputtering while achieving a very high k{approx}30. Structural characterization suggests that the high k is a consequence of a previously unreported cubiclike short range order in the amorphous HfO{sub x} (cubic k{approx}30). The films also possess a high electrical resistivity of 10{sup 14} {Omega} cm, a breakdown strength of 3 MV cm{sup -1}, and an optical gap of 6.0 eV. Deposition at room temperature and a high deposition rate ({approx}25 nm min{sup -1}) makes these high-k amorphous HfO{sub x} films highly advantageous for plastic electronics and high throughput manufacturing.

Li, Flora M.; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hofmann, Stephan; Milne, William I.; Flewitt, Andrew J. [Department of Engineering, Electrical Engineering Division, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Dutson, James D.; Wakeham, Steve J.; Thwaites, Mike J. [Plasma Quest Ltd., Unit 1B, Rose Estate, Osborn Way, Hook, Hampshire RG27 9UT (United Kingdom)

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

376

Electrocatalytic H2 production with a turnover frequency >107 s?1: The medium provides an increase in rate but not overpotential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exceptionally fast electrocatalytic H2 production (up to 3 x 107 s -1) at overpotentials of ~400 mV are catalysed by [Ni(PPh2NC6H4X2)2]2+ complexes in an acidic ionic liquid - water medium ([(DMF)H]NTf2-H2O, ?H2O = 0.71). This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences and the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the US DOE, BES (W.J.S.). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Hou, Jianbo; Fang, Ming; Cardenas, Allan J.; Shaw, Wendy J.; Helm, Monte L.; Bullock, R. Morris; Roberts, John A.; O'Hagan, Molly J.

2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

377

High open circuit voltages of solar cells based on quantum dot and dye hybrid-sensitization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A type of solar cell based on quantum dot (QD) and dye hybrid-sensitized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film electrode was designed and reported. The electrode was consisted of a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle (NP) thin film layer sensitized with CdS quantum dot (QD) and an amorphous TiO{sub 2} coated TiO{sub 2} NP thin film layer that sensitized with C106 dye. The amorphous TiO{sub 2} layer was obtained by TiCl{sub 4} post-treatment to improve the properties of solar cells. Research showed that the solar cells fabricated with as-prepared hybrid-sensitized electrode exhibited excellent photovoltaic performances and a fairly high open circuit voltage of 796?mV was achieved.

Zhao, Yujie; Zhao, Wanyu; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Fu, Wuyou, E-mail: hari@hpu.edu.cn, E-mail: fuwy56@163.com; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Bala, Hari, E-mail: hari@hpu.edu.cn, E-mail: fuwy56@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China)

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

378

Architecture, implementation, and testing of a multiple-shell gas injection system for high current implosions on the Z accelerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests are ongoing to conduct {approx}20 MA z-pinch implosions on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratory using Ar, Kr, and D{sub 2} gas puffs as the imploding loads. The relatively high cost of operations on a machine of this scale imposes stringent requirements on the functionality, reliability, and safety of gas puff hardware. Here we describe the development of a prototype gas puff system including the multiple-shell nozzles, electromagnetic drivers for each nozzle's valve, a UV pre-ionizer, and an inductive isolator to isolate the {approx}2.4 MV machine voltage pulse present at the gas load from the necessary electrical and fluid connections made to the puff system from outside the Z vacuum chamber. This paper shows how the assembly couples to the overall Z system and presents data taken to validate the functionality of the overall system.

Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Madden, Robert E. [Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation, San Leandro, California 94577 (United States); Coleman, P. L. [Evergreen Hill Sciences, Philomath, Oregon 97370 (United States); Thompson, John R. [812 Temple Street, San Diego, California 92106 (United States); Bixler, Alex [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lamppa, D. C.; McKenney, J. L.; Strizic, T.; Johnson, D.; Johns, O.; Vigil, M. P.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Savage, M. E.; Cuneo, M. E.; Jones, M. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Comparison of probing sites for estimating individual swine carcass measurements and value  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'w i@'ihip i~ fbi iieeim isle, :. ":: ' -", " . '::":. , :::?:;:I tug e'@4i4p og ~' ySNi %he @py~xL@te. @%~ice @ax%eik oS'g. ~ ~oh~ si&e m ~ ~~~:, m~ @a~ W@b ~. zt ~v~ Xi. , . ~mme 2. ~ Zi i~i, w ~:~:~m ~. . ". . . - im4e. eimei. . +:. 'b...4'~p '554~, '-, ". '. ::" ', i. ". '; 'i", 'j 1 CS@p L4 ~ 48~44' 4p C&M~XAS. AQ iL~&M~ C8~+Q55 %$LAg -'4M'7th L5p 34SL:A5p 4M XSSM l~? IM ~Vga~'V@~~M158' @COO' ~' ~-~ 8 45~$4. V4'kMV1C . ". ~' ~4Lp30 ' ie~2g+eie em'. -'5e: icon ~ &~~a. g mg . 8...

Polzer, Eugene Francis

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Voltage spike detection in high field superconducting accelerator magnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A measurement system for the detection of small magnetic flux changes in superconducting magnets, which are due to either mechanical motion of the conductor or flux jump, has been developed at Fermilab. These flux changes are detected as small amplitude, short duration voltage spikes, which are {approx}15mV in magnitude and lasts for {approx}30 {micro}sec. The detection system combines an analog circuit for the signal conditioning of two coil segments and a fast data acquisition system for digitizing the results, performing threshold detection, and storing the resultant data. The design of the spike detection system along with the modeling results and noise analysis will be presented. Data from tests of high field Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets at currents up to {approx}20KA will also be shown.

Orris, D.F.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; /Fermilab

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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381

The effect of some dissolved constituents on the redox potential of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4Laa&Xs?4 esSygea ~ashS?tgasa, Xaa&41&t&Iy' b&fes? e&als1- Lag ths ieaLN~ Swa a?&mt&4 aa4 ih& yg aa4 ssLXXLeali s?&4Laga?eea ebs&La&4 fecss ih& So&be?a a?tee, The ebsyeeok to ih& esssyle bobble eaa i&&b&L Tb&eeqysa Li &&a fLXX&4 &a4 yose4it&4 ic... R IAI IS D o Ial 0 Sl Sl NUMERICAL VALUES INDICATE pH 0 Zg0 300 400 SOO 800 700 Eh, mv. 50 The s44itiea of tbe ferrio iea to the se4i~ ohlori4e solatiea iaoreases tbo re4cec yoteatial of the solntiea. At a yU valse of 7, 00 the re4oa...

Wales, Robert David

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

382

IBEX - a pulsed power accelerator that generates no prepulse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intense relativistic electron beams are produced in vacuum diodes driven by pulsed power accelerators. For pulse widths approx. 100 nsec, pulse forming lines (PPL) are used to generate the accelerating voltage pulse. This pulse is produced by sequential switching of stored energy through two or more stages. Capacitance and/or inductive coupling usually results in the generation of a low level prepulse voltage some time during the switching sequence. This prepulse is known to have a substantial effect on the performance of the vacuum diode during the main accelerating pulse. Most accelerators use various schemes for reducing this prepulse to acceptable levels. The Isolated Blumlein PPL concept was developed at Sandia to allow for the generation of the main accelerating pulse without generating a prepulse voltage. This concept was implemented into the IBEX accelerator that generates a 4 MV, 100 kA, 20 nsec output pulse. Design and performance data are presented.

Ramirez, J.J.; Corley, J.P.; Mazarakis, M.G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Superluminous X-rays from a superluminous supernova  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The discovery of a population of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), with peak luminosities a factor of ~100 brighter than normal SNe (typically SLSNe have M_V engine, or an origin in the catastrophic destruction of the star following a loss of pressure due to pair production in an extremely massive stellar core (so-called pair instability supernovae). Here we consider constraints that can be placed on the explosion mechanism of Hydrogen-poor SLSNe (SLSNe-I) via X-ray observations, with XMM-Newton, Chandra and Swift, and show that at least one SLSNe-I is likely the brightest X-ray supernovae ever observed, with L_X ~ 10^45 ergs/s, ~150 days after its initial discovery. This is a luminosity 3 orders of magnitude higher than seen in ...

Levan, A J; Metzger, B D; Wheatley, P J; Tanvir, N R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Reproducibility of High-Q SRF Cavities by High Temperature Heat Treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent work on high-temperature (> 600 °C) heat treatment of ingot Nb cavities in a customized vacuum furnace for several hours showed the possibility of achieving Q0-values of up to ~5×1010 at 2.0 K, 1.5 GHz and accelerating gradients of ~20 MV/m. This contribution presents results on further studies of the heat treatment process to produce cavities with high Q0 values for continuous-wave accelerator application. Single-cell cavities of different Nb purity have been processed through few cycles of heat-treatments and chemical etching. Measurements of Q0 as a function of temperature at low RF field and of Q0 as a function of the RF field at or below 2.0 K have been made after each treatment. Measurements by TOF-SIMS of the impurities? depth profiles were made on samples heat treated with the cavities.

Dhakal, Pashupati [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter [JLAB; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [JLAB

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Cavitation erosion in blocked flow with a ducted ice-class propeller  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ships that operate in ice often encounter momentary increased propeller cavitation because ice pieces block the flow into the propeller. For ducted propellers, this additional cavitation is more significant than it is for open propellers; ice pieces may become lodged against and within the duct and subject the propeller to longer periods of increased cavitation due to the blocked flow. Associated with this blocked flow is the possibility of cavitation erosion on the propeller. An erosion study, using paint films, was conducted in a cavitation tunnel with a model propeller of the type fitted to the Canadian Marine Drilling Ltd. vessel MV Robert LeMeur. A simulated ice blockage was installed ahead of the propeller model and within the duct. Tests were carried out over a range of advance coefficients for various test conditions. The resulting types of cavitation were documented, the erosion patterns were photographed and comparisons between each test were made.

Doucet, J.M.; Bose, N.; Walker, D. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Ocean Engineering Research Centre; Jones, S.J. [National Research Council of Canada, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Inst. for Marine Dynamics

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

386

Lyapunov Exponents from Kinetic Theory for a Dilute, Field-driven Lorentz Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Positive and negative Lyapunov exponents for a dilute, random, two-dimensional Lorentz gas in an applied field, $\\vec{E}$, in a steady state at constant energy are computed to order $E^{2}$. The results are: $\\lambda_{\\pm}=\\lambda_{\\pm}^{0}-a_{\\pm}(qE/mv)^{2}t_{0}$ where $\\lambda_{\\pm}^{0}$ are the exponents for the field-free Lorentz gas, $a_{+}=11/48, a_{-}=7/48$, $t_{0}$ is the mean free time between collisions, $q$ is the charge, $m$ the mass and $v$ is the speed of the particle. The calculation is based on an extended Boltzmann equation in which a radius of curvature, characterizing the separation of two nearby trajectories, is one of the variables in the distribution function. The analytical results are in excellent agreement with computer simulations. These simulations provide additional evidence for logarithmic terms in the density expansion of the diffusion coefficient.

H. van Beijeren; J. R. Dorfman; E. G. D. Cohen; H. A. Posch; Ch. Dellago

1996-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

387

Cathodic protection of carbon steel in simulated geothermal environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The applicability of cathodic protection to mitigate corrosion of carbon steel in two different environments containing H{sub 2}S has been investigated using impressed current and sacrificial anode techniques. Results of impressed current tests conducted under potential control shows that the weight loss can be reduced significantly by shifting the potential of the metal 60 to 80 mV cathodic to the open circuit potential. The relationship between the applied current and the potential shift shows that the current requirement does not necessarily increase with the voltage shift, thus implying that the cost of cathodic protection may not increase in proportion to the protection achieved. The feasibility of using zinc as a sacrificial anode in the environment of interest has also been studied.

Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

1982-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

388

Characteristics of flattening filter free beams at low monitor unit settings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Newer linear accelerators (linacs) have been equipped to deliver flattening filter free (FFF) beams. When FFF beams are used for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the stability of delivery of small numbers of monitor units (MU) is important. The authors developed automatic measurement techniques to evaluate the stability of the dose profile, dose linearity, and consistency. Here, the authors report the performance of the Artiste™ accelerator (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) in delivering low-MU FFF beams.Methods: A 6 MV flattened beam (6X) with 300 MU/min dose rate and FFF beams of 7 (7XU) and 11 MV (11XU), each with a 500 MU/min dose rate, were measured at 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 20 MU settings. For the 2000 MU/min dose rate, the 7 (7XUH) and 11 MV (11XUH) beams were set at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 MU because of the limits of the minimum MU settings. Beams with 20 × 20 and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field sizes were alternately measured ten times in intensity modulated (IM) mode, with which Siemens linacs regulate beam delivery for step-and-shoot IMRT. The in- and crossplane beam profiles were measured using a Profiler™ Model 1170 (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) in multiframe mode. The frames of 20 × 20 cm{sup 2} beams were identified at the off-axis profile. The 6X beam profile was normalized at the central axis. The 7 and 11 MV FFF beam profiles were rescaled to set the dose at the central axis at 145% and 170%, respectively. Point doses were also measured using a Farmer-type ionization chamber and water-equivalent solid phantom to evaluate the linearity and consistency of low-MU beam delivery. The values displayed on the electrometer were recognized with a USB-type camera and read with open-source optical character recognition software.Results: The symmetry measurements of the 6X, 7XU, and 11XU beam profiles were better than 2% for beams ?2 MU and improved with increasing MU. The variations in flatness of FFF beams ?2 MU were ±5%. The standard deviation of the symmetry and flatness also decreased with increasing MU. The linearity of the 6X beam was ±1% and ±2% for the beams of ?5 and ?3 MU, respectively. The 7XU and 11XU beams of ?2 MU showed linearity with ±2% except the 7XU beam of 8 MU (+2.9%). The profiles of the FFF beams with 2000 and 500 MU/min dose rate were similar.Conclusions: The characteristics of low-MU beams delivered in IM mode were evaluated using an automatic measurement system developed in this study. The authors demonstrated that the profiles of FFF beams of the Artiste™ linac were highly stable, even at low MU. The linearity of dose output was also stable for beams ?2 MU.

Akino, Yuichi [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan and Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan and Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ota, Seiichi; Inoue, Shinichi; Mizuno, Hirokazu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sumida, Iori; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Isohashi, Fumiaki [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Synthesis, characterization and electrostatic properties of WS{sub 2} nanostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the direct growth of atomically thin WS{sub 2} nanoplates and nanofilms on the SiO{sub 2}/Si (300 nm) substrate by vapor phase deposition method without any catalyst. The WS{sub 2} nanostructures were systematically characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We found that growth time and growth temperature play important roles in the morphology of WS{sub 2} nanostructures. Moreover, by using Kelvin probe force microscopy, we found that the WS{sub 2} nanoplates exhibit uniform surface and charge distributions less than 10 mV fluctuations. Our results may apply to the study of other transition metal dichalcogenides by vapor phase deposition method.

Fan, Yinping; Hao, Guolin, E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn, E-mail: guolinhao@xtu.edu.cn; Luo, Siwei; Qi, Xiang; Li, Hongxing; Ren, Long; Zhong, Jianxin, E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn, E-mail: guolinhao@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China) [Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

Spectrally dependent photovoltages in Schottky photodiode based on (100) B-doped diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spectrally and spatially resolved photovoltages were measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on a Schottky photo-diode made of a 4?nm thin tungsten-carbide (WC) layer on a 500?nm oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond epitaxial layer (O-BDD) that was grown on a Ib (100) diamond substrate. The diode was grounded by the sideways ohmic contact (Ti/WC), and the semitransparent Schottky contact was let unconnected. The electrical potentials across the device were measured in dark (only 650?nm LED of KPFM being on), under broad-band white light (halogen lamp), UV (365?nm diode), and deep ultraviolet (deuterium lamp) illumination. Illumination induced shift of the electrical potential remains within 210?mV. We propose that the photovoltage actually corresponds to a shift of Fermi level inside the BDD channel and thereby explains orders of magnitude changes in photocurrent.

?ermák, Jan, E-mail: cermakj@fzu.cz; Rezek, Bohuslav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnická 10, 16200 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Koide, Yasuo [Sensor Materials Center, National Institute for Material Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Takeuchi, Daisuke [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

391

A measurement of the energy and timing resolution of GlueX Forward Calorimeter using an electron beam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The performance of the GlueX Forward Calorimeter was studied using a small version of the detector and a variable energy electron beam derived from the Hall B tagger at Jefferson Lab. For electron energies from 110 MeV to 260 MeV, which are near the lower-limits of the design sensitivity, the fractional energy resolution was measured to range from 20% to 14%, which meets the design goals. The use of custom 250 MHz flash ADCs for readout allowed precise measurements of signal arrival times. The detector achieved timing resolutions of 0.38 ns for a single 100 mV pulse, which will allow timing discrimination of photon beam bunches and out-of-time background during the operation of the GlueX detector.

Kei Moriya; John P. Leckey; Matthew R. Shepherd; Kevin Bauer; Daniel Bennett; John Frye; Juan Gonzalez; Scott J. Henderson; David Lawrence; Ryan Mitchell; Elton S. Smith; Paul Smith; Alexander Somov; Hovanes Egiyan

2013-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

392

Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447, Project Shoal Area, Churchill County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Well Completion Report is being provided as part of the implementation of the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). The CADD/CAP is part of an ongoing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) funded project for the investigation of CAU 447 at the Project Shoal Area (PSA). All work performed on this project was conducted in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996), and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. Investigation activities included the drilling, construction, and development of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells at the PSA. This report summarizes the field activities and data collected during the investigation.

Rick Findlay

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Doped surfaces in one sun, point-contact solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This letter reports two new types of large-area (>8.5 cm/sup 2/), backside, point-contact solar cells with doped surfaces, designed for use in unconcentrated sunlight. One type was fabricated on an intrinsic substrate with an optimized phosphorus diffusion on the sunward surface. The apertured-area efficiency was independently measured to be 22.3% at 1 sun (0.100 W/cm/sup 2/), 25 /sup 0/C, the highest reported for a silicon solar cell. The other type is constructed on a doped substrate, and has an apertured-area efficiency of 20.9%, the highest reported for a point-contact solar cell with a base in low-level injection. Both cells have record open-circuit voltages above 700 mV.

King, R.R.; Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M.

1989-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

394

26-percent efficient point-junction concentrator solar cells with a front metal grid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on silicon concentrator cells with point diffusions and metal contacts on both the front and back sides. The design minimizes reflection losses by forming an inverted pyramid topography on the front surface and by shaping the metal grid lines in the form of a triangular ridge. A short-circuit current density of 39.6 mA/cm{sup 2} has been achieved even though the front grid covers 16 percent of the cell's active area of 1.56 cm{sup 2}. This, together with an open-circuit voltage of 700 mV, has led to an efficiency of 22 percent at one sun, AM1.5 global spectrum. Under direct-spectrum, 8.8-W/cm{sup 2}, concentrated light, the efficiency is 26 percent. This is the highest ever reported for a silicon cell having a front metal grid.

Cuevas, A.; Sinton, R.A.; Midkiff, N.E.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

PERFORMANCE OF THE CEBAF PROTOTYPE CRYOMODULE RENASCENCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The prototype cryomodule Renascence was constructed as an energy building block for securing 6 GeV operation of CEBAF and to validate design elements for future CEBAF upgrade modules. These elements include the new “HG” and “LL” 7-cell cavity designs and a new tuner design.[1,2] Issues were identified during initial testing in 2005. The module has been reworked to address the issues with thermal stability, component breakage, and tuner motion. In addition, opportunity was taken to employ upgraded cleaning and assembly techniques for the cavity string. The HOM coupler heating issue was resolved, and seven of the eight cavities in the cryomodule have run stably at an average of 20 MV/m CW. The cryogenic, rf, and mechanical performance of the cryomodule are presented. Commissioning in CEBAF has just been completed in October 2007.

Charles Reece; Edward Daly; G. Davis; Michael Drury; William Hicks; Joseph Preble; Haipeng Wang

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

396

Production and Testing Experience with the SRF Cavities for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CEBAF recirculating CW electron linear accelerator at Jefferson Lab is presently undergoing a major upgrade to 12 GeV. This project includes the fabrication, preparation, and testing of 80 new 7-cell SRF cavities, followed by their incorporation into ten new cryomodules for subsequent testing and installation. In order to maximize the cavity Q over the full operable dynamic range in CEBAF (as high as 25 MV/m), the decision was taken to apply a streamlined preparation process that includes a final light temperature-controlled electropolish of the rf surface over the vendor-provided bulk BCP etch. Cavity processing work began at JLab in September 2010 and will continue through December 2011. The excellent performance results are exceeding project requirements and indicate a fabrication and preparation process that is stable and well controlled. The cavity production and performance experience to date will be summarized and lessons learned reported to the community.

A. Burrill, G.K. Davis, F. Marhauser, C.E. Reece, A.V. Reilly, M. Stirbet

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Field Emission and Consequences as Observed and Simulated for CEBAF Upgrade Cryomodules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High gamma and neutron radiation levels were monitored at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) after installation of new cavity cryomodules and initial test runs in the frame of the ongoing 12 GeV upgrade program. The dose rates scaled exponentially with cavity accelerating fields, but were independent of the presence of an electron beam in the accelerator. Hence, field emission (FE) is the source of origin. This has led to concerns regarding the high field operation (100 MV per cryomodule) in the future 12 GeV era. Utilizing supercomputing, novel FE studies have been performed with electrons tracked through a complete cryomodule. It provides a principal understanding of experimental observations as well as ways to mitigate FE as best as practicable by identification of problematic cavities.

Marhauser, Frank; Johnson, Rolland; Rodriguez, Rodolfo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Hutton, Andrew; Kharashvili, George; Reece, Charles; Rimmer, Robert

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Sustained water cleavage by visible light  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sustained cleavage of water by 4 quanta of visible light is achieved in aqueous solutions by using a bifunctional redox catalyst composed of Pt and RuO/sub 2/ cosupported by colloidal TiO/sub 2/ particles. A photochemical model system containing Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/ as a sensitizer and methyl viologen (MV/sup 2 +/) as an electron relay is used to test the effect of catalyst composition, sensitizer concentration, pH, and temperature on the efficiency of light-induced water decomposition. Electron relay free systems also exhibit high photoactivity. Direct band gap irradiation by uv light leads to efficient water cleavage in the absence of sensitizer and relay.

Borgarello, E.; Kiwi, J.; Pelizzetti, E.; Visca, M.; Graetzel, M.

1981-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

399

Silicon heterojunction solar cell with passivated hole selective MoO{sub x} contact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explore substoichiometric molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub x}, x?mV and power conversion efficiency of 18.8%. Due to the wide band gap of MoO{sub x}, we observe a substantial gain in photocurrent of 1.9?mA/cm{sup 2} in the ultraviolet and visible part of the solar spectrum, when compared to a p-type amorphous silicon emitter of a traditional silicon heterojunction cell. Our results emphasize the strong potential for oxides as carrier selective heterojunction partners to inorganic semiconductors.

Battaglia, Corsin; Yin, Xingtian; Zheng, Maxwell; Javey, Ali, E-mail: ajavey@eecs.berkeley.edu [Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Martín de Nicolás, Silvia; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe [Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

400

Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study describes the results of a low-cost approach used to measure reported load reductions from a residential electric water heater (EWH) load control program operated as part of PJM Interconnection's Demand Response small customer pilot program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted this independent review of the engineering estimates for EWH load control reported by a Curtailment Service Provider (CSP) at PJM's request. LBNL employed low-cost measurement and verification (M&V) approaches that utilized existing interval metering equipment to monitor results for a series of load control tests. The CSP collected hourly load data for two substations and several hundred households over a six-week period in October and November 2003. During this time period, the CSP operated its electric water heater load control program during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems signifiogram during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems significantly limit our ability to differentiate between control-related and non-control related differences in substation-level load shape data. The usefulness and accuracy of the results were hampered by operational problems encountered during the measurement period as well as in sufficient number of load research grade interval meters at one cooperative. Given the larger sample size at one electric cooperative and more statistically-robust results, there is some basis to suggest that the Adjusted Diversified Demand Factor (ADDF) values used by the CSP somewhat over-state the actual load reductions. Given the results and limitations of the M&V approach as implemented, we suggest several options for PJM to consider: (1) require load aggregators participating in ISODR programs to utilize formal PURPA-compliant load research samples in their M&V plans, and (2) continue developing lower cost M&V approaches for mass market load control programs that incorporate suggested improvements described in this study.

Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices that contain a thin Ta2O5 film deposited onto the CdS window layer by sputtering. We show that for thicknesses below 5 nm, Ta2O5 films between CdS and CdTe positively affect the solar cell performance, improving JSC, VOC, and the cell power conversion efficiency despite the insulating nature of the interlayer material. Using the Ta2O5 interlayer, a VOC gain of over 100 mV was demonstrated compared to a CdTe/CdS baseline. Application of a 1nm Ta2O5 interlayer enabled the fabrication of CdTe solar cells with extremely thin (less than 30 nm) CdS window layers. The efficiency of these cells exceeded that of a base line cell with 95 nm of CdS.

Lemmon, John P.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Bennett, Wendy D.; Kovarik, Libor

2012-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

402

A measurement of the energy and timing resolution of GlueX Forward Calorimeter using an electron beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of the GlueX Forward Calorimeter was studied using a small version of the detector and a variable energy electron beam derived from the Hall B tagger at Jefferson Lab. For electron energies from 110 MeV to 260 MeV, which are near the lower-limits of the design sensitivity, the fractional energy resolution was measured to range from 20% to 14%, which meets the design goals. The use of custom 250 MHz flash ADCs for readout allowed precise measurements of signal arrival times. The detector achieved timing resolutions of 0.38 ns for a single 100 mV pulse, which will allow timing discrimination of photon beam bunches and out-of-time background during the operation of the GlueX detector.

Moriya, Kei [Indiana U.; Leckey, John P. [Indiana U.; Shepherd, Matthew R. [Cornell U.; Bauer, Kevin [Indiana U.; Bennett, Daniel William [Indiana U.; Frye, John Michael [Indiana U.; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos [Christopher Newport U., JLAB; Henderson, Scott J. [Indiana U.; Lawrence, David W. [JLAB; Mitchell, Ryan E. [Indiana U.; Smith, Elton S. [JLAB; Smith, Paul T. [Indiana U.; Somov, Alexander Sergeyevich [JLAB; Egiyan, Hovanes [JLAB

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Azimuthal harmonics of color fields in a high energy nucleus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent experimental results have revealed a surprisingly rich structure of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy proton-nucleus collisions. Final state collective effects can be responsible for many of the observed effects, but it has recently been argued that a part of these correlations are present already in the wavefunctions of the colliding particles. We evaluate the momentum space 2-particle cumulant azimuthal anisotropy coefficients v_n{2}, n=2,3,4 from fundamental representation Wilson line distributions describing the high energy nucleus. These would correspond to the flow coefficients in very forward proton nucleus scattering. We find significant differences beteen Wilson lines from the MV model and from JIMWLK evolution. The magnitude and transverse momentum dependence of the v_n{2} values suggest that the fluctuations present in the initial fields are a significant contribution to the observed anisotropies.

Lappi, T

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Effect of sidewall surface recombination on the quantum efficiency in a Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivated gated type-II InAs/GaSb long-infrared photodetector array  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was applied to passivate a long-wavelength infrared type-II superlattice gated photodetector array with 50% cut-off wavelength at 11??m, resulting in a saturated gate bias that was 3 times lower than in a SiO{sub 2} passivated array. Besides effectively suppressing surface leakage, gating technique exhibited its ability to enhance the quantum efficiency of 100?×?100??m size mesa from 51% to 57% by suppressing sidewall surface recombination. At 77?K, the gated photodetector showed dark current density and resistance-area product at ?300?mV of 2.5?×?10{sup ?5} A/cm{sup 2} and 1.3?×?10{sup 4}???cm{sup 2}, respectively, and a specific detectivity of 1.4?×?10{sup 12} Jones.

Chen, G.; Hoang, A. M.; Bogdanov, S.; Haddadi, A.; Darvish, S. R.; Razeghi, M., E-mail: razeghi@eecs.northwestern.edu [Center for Quantum Devices, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

405

Development of ZnTe:Cu Contacts for CdTe Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-320  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main focus of the work at NREL was on the development of Cu-doped ZnTe contacts to CdTe solar cells in the substrate configuration. The work performed under the CRADA utilized the substrate device structure used at NREL previously. All fabrication was performed at NREL. We worked on the development of Cu-doped ZnTe as well as variety of other contacts such as Sb-doped ZnTe, CuxTe, and MoSe2. We were able to optimize the contacts to improve device parameters. The improvement was obtained primarily through increasing the open-circuit voltage, to values as high as 760 mV, leading to device efficiencies of 7%.

Dhere, R.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Results from GROCSE: A Real-time Search for Gamma Ray Burst Optical Counterparts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Gamma-Ray Optical Counterpart Search Experiment (GROCSE) has searched for contemporaneous optical counterparts to gamma ray bursts (GRBs) using an automated rapidly slewing wide field of view optical telescope at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The telescope was triggered in real time by the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) data telemetry stream as processed and distributed by the BATSE COordinates DIstribution NEtwork (BACODINE). GROCSE recorded sky images for 28 GRB triggers between January 1994 and June 1996. The analysis of the 12 best events is presented here, half of which were recorded during detectable gamma ray emission. No optical counterparts have been detected to limiting magnitudes $m_V \\leq 8.5$ despite near complete coverage of burst error boxes.

Brian Lee; Carl Akerlof; David Band; Scott Barthelmy; Paul Butterworth; Thomas Cline; Donald Ferguson; Neil Gehrels; Kevin Hurley

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Real-Time Optical Flux Limits From Gamma-Ray Bursts Measured By The GROCSE Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Gamma-Ray Optical Counterpart Search Experiment (GROCSE) presents new experimental upper limits on the optical flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Our experiment consisted of a fully-automated very wide-field opto-electronic detection system that imaged locations of GRBs within a few seconds of receiving trigger signals provided by BATSE's real-time burst coordinate distribution network (BACODINE). The experiment acquired ~3800 observing hours, recording 22 gamma-ray burst triggers within $\\sim$30 s of the start of the burst event. Some of these bursts were imaged while gamma-ray radiation was being detected by BATSE. We identified no optical counterparts associated with gamma-ray bursts amongst these events at the m$_V$ $\\sim$ 7.0 to 8.5 sensitivity level. We find the ratio of the upper limit to the V-band optical flux, F$_\

H. S. Park; E. Ables; D. L. Band; S. D. Barthelmy; R. M. Bionta; P. S. Butterworth; T. L. Cline; D. H. Ferguson; G. J. Fishman; N. Gehrels; K. Hurley; C. Kouveliotou; B. C. Lee; C. A. Meegan; L. L. Ott; E. L. Parker

1997-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

408

Overview of Theory and Modeling in the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents analytical and simulation studies of intense heavy ion beam propagation, including the injection, acceleration, transport and compression phases, and beam transport and focusing in background plasma in the target chamber. Analytical theory and simulations that support the High Current Experiment (HCX), the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and the advanced injector development program are being used to provide a basic understanding of the nonlinear beam dynamics and collective processes, and to develop design concepts for the next-step Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX), an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE), and a heavy ion fusion driver. Three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear perturbative simulations have been applied to collective instabilities driven by beam temperature anisotropy and to two-stream interactions between the beam ions and any unwanted background electrons. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the 2 MV Electrostatic Quadrupole (ESQ) injector have clarified t...

Davidson, R C; Celata, C M; Cohen, R H; De Hoon, M; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Henestroza, E; Kaganovich, I D; Lee, E P; Lee, W W; Lund, S M; Olson, C L; Qin, H; Rose, D V; Sharp, W M; Startsev, E A; Tzenov, Stephan I; Vay, J L; Welch, D R; Yu, S S

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Physical picture of immersed diode experiments on HERMES III and SABRE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A needle-like, high-current, electron beam has been produced on the Hermes III and SABRE accelerators at SNL using inductive voltage adder (IVA) technology, and a diode consisting of a needle cathode and a planar anode/bremmstrahlung converter which are both fully immersed in a strong solenoidal magnetic field (12--50 T). Desired nominal parameters are 10 MV, 40 kA, 0.5 mm radius cathode, and 5--35 cm anode-cathode gaps. High dose and small x-ray spot size are required for radiography applications. Results are presented of initial experiments on Hermes III and SABRE, which have produced doses up to 1 kRad {at} 1 meter, and at lower doses, spot sizes as small as 1.7 mm diameter.

Olson, C.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Menge, P.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

Larsen, Cory A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Electrodeposition of corrosion-resistant Ni-Zn alloy. I. Cyclic voltammetric study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction between different reacting species involved in the initial stage of electrodeposition of nickel-zinc alloy was investigated. A cyclic voltammetric study indicates that codeposition of hydrogen and nickel occurs, with formation of two types of hydrogen-nickel solid solution, i.e., [beta]-Ni and [alpha]-Ni. This nickel hydride formation during Ni-Zn alloy electrodeposition was verified by analyzing the voltammograms of nickel, zinc, and Ni-Zn alloy during initial deposition on various substrates. The dissolution potential of zinc and nickel from electrodeposited nickel-zinc alloy spans a wide range (ca. 400 mV). The influence of the interaction between nickel, hydrogen, and zinc on the nucleation of nickel-zinc electrodeposition is reported in part II of this paper.

Lin, Yu-Po; Selman, J.R. (Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Development of an alternating integrator for magnetic measurements for experimental advanced superconducting tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-performance integrator is one of the key electronic devices for reliably controlling plasma in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak for long pulse operation. We once designed an integrator system of real-time drift compensation, which has a low integration drift. However, it is not feasible for really continuous operations due to capacitive leakage error and nonlinearity error. To solve the above-mentioned problems, this paper presents a new alternating integrator. In the new integrator, the integrator system of real-time drift compensation is adopted as one integral cell while two such integral cells work alternately. To achieve the alternate function, a Field Programmable Gate Array built in the digitizer is utilized. The performance test shows that the developed integrator with the integration time constant of 20 ms has a low integration drift (<15 mV) for 1000?s.

Liu, D. M., E-mail: dmliu@live.cn; Zhao, W. Z.; He, Y. G.; Chen, B. [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Wan, B. N.; Shen, B.; Huang, J.; Liu, H. Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Construction of a scattering chamber for ion-beam analysis of environmental materials in undergraduate physics research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a new scattering chamber for ion-beam analysis of environmental materials with the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator at the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. The chamber was constructed from a ten-inch, Conflat, multi-port cross and includes a three-axis target manipulator and target ladder assembly, an eight-inch turbo pump, an Amptek X-ray detector, and multiple charged particle detectors. Recent projects performed by our undergraduate research team include proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analyses of atmospheric aerosols collected with a nine-stage cascade impactor in Upstate New York. We will describe the construction of the chamber and discuss the results of some commissioning experiments.

LaBrake, Scott M.; Vineyard, Michael F.; Turley, Colin F.; Moore, Robert D.; Johnson, Christopher [Department of Physics and Astronomy Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

414

The gamma-ray spectrometer HORUS and its applications for nuclear astrophysics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A dedicated setup for the in-beam measurement of absolute cross sections of astrophysically relevant charged-particle induced reactions is presented. These, usually very low, cross sections at energies of astrophysical interest are important to improve the modeling of the nucleosynthesis processes of heavy nuclei. Particular emphasis is put on the production of the $p$ nuclei during the astrophysical $\\gamma$ process. The recently developed setup utilizes the high-efficiency $\\gamma$-ray spectrometer HORUS, which is located at the 10 MV FN tandem ion accelerator of the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Cologne. The design of this setup will be presented and results of the recently measured $^{89}$Y(p,$\\gamma$)$^{90}$Zr reaction will be discussed. The excellent agreement with existing data shows, that the HORUS spectrometer is a powerful tool to determine total and partial cross sections using the in-beam method with high-purity germanium detectors.

L. Netterdon; V. Derya; J. Endres; C. Fransen; A. Hennig; J. Mayer; C. Müller-Gatermann; A. Sauerwein; P. Scholz; M. Spieker; A. Zilges

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

415

Synthesis of Triphenylamine Trisazo Dye and Study of its Uses in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new triazo dye was synthesized from tri(p-aminophenyl)amine and 2 hydroxy-3-napthoic acid and explored the possibilities of its uses in dye sensitized solar cells for the first time. The photocells were able to generate reasonably high photocurrent in the presence of the electron donating ionic liquids in the electrolyte composed of redox couple I3- /I-. Cells fabricated by sensitizing TiO2 generated a short-circuit photocurrent of ~ 3.5 mA cm-2, an open-circuit photovoltage of ~ 500 mV with a total power conversion efficiency of ~ 1 % under simulated full sunlight of 100 mW cm-2 (Air Mass 1.5). 1.

G. K. R. Senadeera; K-j. Jiang

416

The nutritive content of the grazing sheep's diet as affected by season, botanical composition, and stage of maturity of range forage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE MJTRITIYE CONTENT OF THE GRAZING- SHEEP'S DIET AS AFFECTED BY SEASON, BOTANICAL COMPOSITION, AND STAGE OP MATURITY- OP RANGE FORAGE T HEMJRJ IY COTNFGA Z-TSPG C''D TBB,LUMV *J 5L J5Y7M *1V 3L15M15 i8Y CL22R55MM THE NUTRITIVE CONTENT... OF THE GRAZING SHEEP* S DIET AS AFFECTED BY SEASON, BOTANICAL COMPOSITION, AND STAGE OF MATURITY OF RANGE FORAGE IY COTNFGA ZT!PG jB'D T HEMJRJ A~82R55MV 5L 5EM ?,*V~*5M A3ELL7 L? 5EM T?,R3~75~,*7 *1V ?M3E*1R3*7 CL77M?M L? HM?*J R1 B*,5R*7 ?~7?R772M15 L? 5...

Cook, C. Wayne

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

A miniaturized mW thermoelectric generator for nw objectives: continuous, autonomous, reliable power for decades.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have built and tested a miniaturized, thermoelectric power source that can provide in excess of 450 {micro}W of power in a system size of 4.3cc, for a power density of 107 {micro}W/cc, which is denser than any system of this size previously reported. The system operates on 150mW of thermal input, which for this system was simulated with a resistive heater, but in application would be provided by a 0.4g source of {sup 238}Pu located at the center of the device. Output power from this device, while optimized for efficiency, was not optimized for form of the power output, and so the maximum power was delivered at only 41mV. An upconverter to 2.7V was developed concurrently with the power source to bring the voltage up to a usable level for microelectronics.

Aselage, Terrence Lee; Siegal, Michael P.; Whalen, Scott; Frederick, Scott K.; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Moorman, Matthew Wallace

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Preparation and Testing of the SRF Cavities for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eighty new 7-cell, low-loss cell-shaped cavities are required for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade project. In addition to ten pre-production units fabricated at JLab, the full set of commercially-produced cavities have been delivered. An efficient processing routine, which includes a controlled 30 micron electropolish, has been established to transform these cavities into qualified 8-cavity strings. This work began in 2010 and will run through the end of 2011. The realized cavity performance consistently exceeds project requirements and also the maximum useful gradient in CEBAF: 25 MV/m. We will describe the cavity processing and preparation protocols and summarize test results obtained to date.

Reilly, A. V.; Bass, T.; Burrill, A.; Davis, G. K.; Marhauser, F.; Reece, C. E.; Stirbet, M.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7??m, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10?×?10{sup ?7} A/cm{sup 2} at ?5?mV and 150?K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320?×?256 IC focal plane array up to 180?K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120?K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications.

Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S. [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

420

High performance photodiodes based on InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Very long wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices are demonstrated on GaSb substrate. A heterostructure photodiode was grown with 50% cut-off wavelength of 14.6??m. At 77?K, the photodiode exhibited a peak responsivity of 4.8?A/W, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 46% at ?300?mV bias voltage from front side illumination without antireflective coating. With the dark current density of 0.7?A/cm{sup 2}, it provided a specific detectivity of 1.4?×?10{sup 10} Jones. The device performance was investigated as a function of operating temperature, revealing a very stable optical response and a background limited performance below 50?K.

Hoang, A. M.; Chen, G.; Chevallier, R.; Haddadi, A.; Razeghi, M., E-mail: razeghi@eecs.northwestern.edu [Center for Quantum Devices, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mv millivolts ngvd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A compact stilbene crystal neutron spectrometer for EAST D-D plasma neutron diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new compact stilbene crystal neutron spectrometer has been investigated and applied in the neutron emission spectroscopy on the EAST tokamak. A new components analysis method is presented to study the anisotropic light output in the stilbene crystal detector. A Geant4 code was developed to simulate the neutron responses in the spectrometer. Based on both the optimal light output function and the fitted pulse height resolution function, a reliable neutron response matrix was obtained by Geant4 simulations and validated by 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutron measurements at a 4.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The spectrometer was used to diagnose the ion temperature in plasma discharges with lower hybrid wave injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating on the EAST tokamak.

Zhang Xing; Yuan Xi; Xie Xufei; Chen Zhongjing; Peng Xingyu; Chen Jinxiang; Zhang Guohui; Li Xiangqing; Fan Tieshuan [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Chengfu Road 201, 100871 Beijing (China); Zhong Guoqiang; Hu Liqun; Wan Baonian [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1126, 230031 Hefei, Anhui (China)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Determination of absorbed dose to water around a clinical HDR {sup 192}Ir source using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs demonstrates an LET dependence of detector response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Experimental radiation dosimetry with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), calibrated in a {sup 60}Co or megavoltage (MV) photon beam, is recommended by AAPM TG-43U1for verification of Monte Carlo calculated absorbed doses around brachytherapy sources. However, it has been shown by Carlsson Tedgren et al.[Med. Phys. 38, 5539-5550 (2011)] that for TLDs of LiF:Mg,Ti, detector response was 4% higher in a {sup 137}Cs beam than in a {sup 60}Co one. The aim of this work was to investigate if similar over-response exists when measuring absorbed dose to water around {sup 192}Ir sources, using LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters calibrated in a 6 MV photon beam. Methods: LiF dosimeters were calibrated to measure absorbed dose to water in a 6 MV photon beam and used to measure absorbed dose to water at distances of 3, 5, and 7 cm from a clinical high dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. Measured values were compared to values of absorbed dose to water calculated using a treatment planning system (TPS) including corrections for the difference in energy absorption properties between calibration quality and the quality in the users'{sup 192}Ir beam and for the use of a PMMA phantom instead of the water phantom underlying dose calculations in the TPS. Results: Measured absorbed doses to water around the {sup 192}Ir source were overestimated by 5% compared to those calculated by the TPS. Corresponding absorbed doses to water measured in a previous work with lithium formate electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimeters by Antonovic et al. [Med. Phys. 36, 2236-2247 (2009)], using the same irradiation setup and calibration procedure as in this work, were 2% lower than those calculated by the TPS. The results obtained in the measurements in this work and those obtained using the EPR lithium formate dosimeters were, within the expanded (k = 2) uncertainty, in agreement with the values derived by the TPS. The discrepancy between the results using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs and the EPR lithium formate dosimeters was, however, statistically significant and in agreement with the difference in relative detector responses found for the two detector systems by Carlsson Tedgren et al. [Med. Phys. 38, 5539-5550 (2011)] and by Adolfsson et al.[Med. Phys. 37, 4946-4959 (2010)]. Conclusions: When calibrated in {sup 60}Co or MV photon beams, correction for the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of LiF:Mg,Ti detector response will be needed as to measure absorbed doses to water in a {sup 192}Ir beam with highest accuracy. Such corrections will depend on the manufacturing process (MTS-N Poland or Harshaw TLD-100) and details of the annealing and read-out schemes used.

Carlsson Tedgren, Aasa; Elia, Rouba; Hedtjaern, Haakan; Olsson, Sara; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun [Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE 171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Department of Radiation Physics UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

Cold RF test and associated mechanical features correlation of a TESLA-style 9-cell superconducting niobium cavity built in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The RF performance of a 1.3 GHz 9-cell superconducting niobium cavity was evaluated at cryogenic temperatures following surface processing by using the standard ILC-style recipe. The cavity is a TESLA-style 9-cell superconducting niobium cavity, with complete end group components including a higher order mode coupler, built in China for practical applications. An accelerating gradient of 28.6 MV/m was achieved at an unloaded quality factor of 4 x 10{sup 9}. The morphological property of mechanical features on the RF surface of this cavity was characterized through optical inspection. Correlation between the observed mechanical features and the RF performance of the cavity is attempted.

Dai, Jing; Quan, Sheng-Wen; Zhang, Bao-Cheng; Lin, Lin; Hao, Jian-Kui; Zhu, Feng; Xu, Wen-Can; He, Fei-Si; Jin, Song; Wang, Fang; Liu, Ke-Xin; Geng, R L

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Neutron capture of 26Mg at thermonuclear energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The neutron capture cross section of 26Mg was measured relative to the known gold cross section at thermonuclear energies using the fast cyclic activation technique. The experiment was performed at the 3.75 MV Van-de-Graaff accelerator, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The experimental capture cross section is the sum of resonant and direct contributions. For the resonance at E(n,lab) = 220 keV our new results are in disagreement with the data from Weigmann et al. An improved Maxwellian averaged capture cross section is derived from the new experimental data taking into account s- and p-wave capture and resonant contributions. The properties of so-called potential resonances which influence the p-wave neutron capture of 26}Mg are discussed in detail.

P. Mohr; H. Beer; H. Oberhummer; G. Staudt

1998-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

425

Defining Homomorphisms and Other Generalized Morphisms of Fuzzy Relations in Monoidal Fuzzy Logics by Means of BK-Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present paper extends generalized morphisms of relations into the realm of Monoidal Fuzzy Logics by first proving and then using relational inequalities over pseudo-associative BK-products (compositions) of relations in these logics. In 1977 Bandler and Kohout introduced generalized homomorphism, proteromorphism, amphimorphism, forward and backward compatibility of relations, and non-associative and pseudo-associative products (compositions) of relations into crisp (non-fuzzy Boolean) theory of relations. This was generalized later by Kohout to relations based on fuzzy Basic Logic systems (BL) of H\\'ajek and also for relational systems based on left-continuous t-norms. The present paper is based on monoidal logics, hence it subsumes as special cases the theories of generalized morphisms (etc.) based on the following systems of logics: BL systems (which include the well known Goedel, product logic systems; Lukasiewicz logic and its extension to MV-algebras related to quantum logics), intuitionistic logics and linear logics.

Ladislav J. Kohout

2003-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

426

Maximum screening fields of superconducting multilayer structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown that a multilayer comprised of alternating thin superconducting and insulating layers on a thick substrate can fully screen the applied magnetic field exceeding the superheating fields $H_s$ of both the superconducting layers and the substrate, the maximum Meissner field is achieved at an optimum multilayer thickness. For instance, a dirty layer of thickness $\\sim 0.1\\; \\mu$m at the Nb surface could increase $H_s\\simeq 240$ mT of a clean Nb up to $H_s\\simeq 290$ mT. Optimized multilayers of Nb$_3$Sn, NbN, some of the iron pnictides, or alloyed Nb deposited onto the surface of the Nb resonator cavities could potentially double the rf breakdown field, pushing the peak accelerating electric fields above 100 MV/m while protecting the cavity from dendritic thermomagnetic avalanches caused by local penetration of vortices.

Gurevich, Alex

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

An X-Band Gun Test Area at SLAC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The X-Band Test Area (XTA) is being assembled in the NLCTA tunnel at SLAC to serve as a test facility for new RF guns. The first gun to be tested will be an upgraded version of the 5.6 cell, 200 MV/m peak field X-band gun designed at SLAC in 2003 for the Compton Scattering experiment run in ASTA. This new version includes some features implemented in 2006 on the LCLS gun such as racetrack couplers, increased mode separation and elliptical irises. These upgrades were developed in collaboration with LLNL since the same gun will be used in an injector for a LLNL Gamma-ray Source. Our beamline includes an X-band acceleration section which takes the electron beam up to 100 MeV and an electron beam measurement station. Other X-Band guns such as the UCLA Hybrid gun will be characterized at our facility.

Limborg-Deprey, C.; Adolphsen, C.; Chu, T.S.; Dunning, M.P.; Jobe, R.K.; Jongewaard, E.N.; Hast, C.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, F.; Walz, D.R.; /SLAC; Marsh, R.A.; Anderson, S.G.; Hartemann, F.V.; Houck, T.L.; /LLNL, Livermore

2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

428

Initial Testing of the Mark-0 X-Band RF Gun at SLAC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new X-band RF gun (Mark-0) has been assembled, tuned and was tested in the ASTA facility at SLAC. This gun has been improved from an earlier gun used in Compton-scattering experiments at SLAC by the introduction of a racetrack dual-input coupler to reduce quadrupole fields. Waveguide-to-coupler irises were also redesigned to reduce surface magnetic fields and therefore peak pulse surface heating. Tests of this photocathode gun will allow us to gain early operational experience for beam tests of a new gun with further improvements (Mark-1) being prepared for SLAC's X-Band Test Area (XTA) program and the LLNL MEGa-ray program. Results of current testing up to {approx} 200 MV/m peak surface Electric fields are presented.

Vlieks, Arnold; Adolphsen, C.; Dolgashev, V.; Lewandowski, J.; Limborg, Cecile; Weathersby, S.; /SLAC

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

429

Electron gun jitter effects on beam bunching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For routine operation of Beijing Electron Positron Collider II (BEPCII) linac, many factors may affect the beam bunching process directly or indirectly. We present the measurements and analyses of the gun timing jitter, gun high voltage jitter, and beam energy at the exit of the standard acceleration section of the linac quantitatively. Almost 80 mV and more than 200 ps of gun high voltage and time jitters have ever been measured, respectively. It was analyzed that the gun timing jitter produced severe effects on beam energy than the gun high voltage jitter, if the timing jitter exceeded 100 ps which eventually deteriorates both the beam performance and the injection rate to the storage ring.

Liu, M. S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Iqbal, M., E-mail: muniqbal.chep@pu.edu.pk [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Centre for High Energy Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 45590 (Pakistan)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Model studies of the effects of certain factors of the marine environment on enzyme activity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.!Vmc/q! ?? ?? eT)!c/!/V (TV!KTq T? !?/ sTc?)/!/? Eq.!Vmc/q! ?? ?? sKV?mK! T? +/SmK)! =*V?/)) ?/!/V ?? ? s*)?m)*!/? ?mV?/. ?TV !?/ (T!/q!KTc/!VK? jK!V*!KTq T? y!*q?*V? y/* ?*!/V ?K!? yK)?/V 6K!V*!/ ?+/?VKq!? ?? ? smV?/. ?TV !?/ (T!/q!KTc/!VK? jK!V*!KTq T? * ym...K? y!V/q?!? 2 t??*V/q! rq/V?^ T? t?!K?*!KTq Kqs*)TVK/. ?/V lT)/ ?TV !?/ a^.K. T? y?1 )m!/* =T? ???? s*)?m)*!/? ?VTc !?/ b*!* T? j*S)/ 1 ? t??*V/q! rq/V?^ T? t?!K?*!KTq T? yTc/ rq?^c/. eE =^?VT)^.K. T? ?/)*!Kq S^ jV^?.Kq r??/?! T? [V/* Tq j...

Proctor, Charles Mahan

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

432

Design, fabrication, RF test at 2 K of 1050MHz, ?=0.49 single cell large and fine grain niobium cavity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BARC is developing a technology for the accelerator driven subcritical system (ADSS) that will be mainly utilized for the transmutation of nuclear waste and enrichment of U233. Design and prototyping of a superconducting medium velocity cavity has been taken up as a part of the ADSS project. The cavity design for {beta} = 0.49, f = 1050 MHz has been optimized to minimize the peak electric and magnetic fields, with a goal of 5 MV/m of accelerating gradient at a Q > 5 x 10{sup 9} at 2 K. After the design optimization, two single cell cavities were fabricated from polycrystalline (RRR > 200) and large grain (RRR > 96) Niobium material. The cavities have been tested at 2 K in a vertical cryostat at Jefferson Lab and both achieved the performance specifications.

Jayanta Mondal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Peter Kneisel, Kailash Mittal, Ganapati Rao Myneni

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Superconducting weak bonds at grain boundaries in MgB{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibility of preparing bicrystalline Josephson junctions and bolometers based on superconducting MgB{sub 2} on specially prepared bicrystalline MgO substrates is investigated. Microbridges 0.85-6.00 {mu}m in width, intersecting the bicrystalline interface, are formed in epitaxial bicrystalline MgB{sub 2} films grown on these substrates. It is found that annealing of bicrystalline samples in oxygen leads to a systematic decrease in the critical current, an increase in the temperature width of the superconducting transition region, and to an improvement of the current-voltage (IV) characteristic, which becomes close in shape to the IV characteristic of a Josephson junction. The response of such a junction to radiation at a frequency of 110 GHz with an amplitude attaining 0.5 mV is measured.

Tarasov, M. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)], E-mail: tarasov@hitech.cplire.ru; Stepantsov, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Naito, M.; Tsukada, A. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (Japan); Winkler, D.; Kalabukhov, A. S. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience (Sweden); Kupriyanov, M. Yu. [Moscow State University, Research Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Spin transport in benzofurane bithiophene based organic spin valves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we present spin transport in organic spin-valves using benzofurane bithiophene (BF3) as spacer layer between NiFe and Co ferromagnetic electrodes. The use of an AlO{sub x} buffer layer between the top electrode and the organic layer is discussed in terms of improvements of stacking topology, electrical transport and oxygen contamination of the BF3 layer. A study of magnetic hysteresis cycles evidences spin-valve behaviour. Transport properties are indicative of unshorted devices with non-linear I-V characteristics. Finally we report a magnetoresistance of 3% at 40 K and 10 mV in a sample with a 50 nm thick spacer layer, using an AlO{sub x} buffer layer.

Palosse, Mathieu; Séguy, Isabelle; Bedel-Pereira, Élena [CNRS, LAAS, 7 avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France) [CNRS, LAAS, 7 avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA, INP, ISAE (France); LAAS (France) [France; CEMES, F-31077 Toulouse (France)] [France; Villeneuve-Faure, Christina [Université de Toulouse (France) [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA, INP, ISAE (France); LAAS (France) [France; CEMES, F-31077 Toulouse (France) [France; LAPLACE, Université Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Mallet, Charlotte; Frère, Pierre [MOLTECH-Anjou, UMR CNRS 6200, Université d’Angers, 2 Bd Lavoisier 49045 ANGERS Cedex (France)] [MOLTECH-Anjou, UMR CNRS 6200, Université d’Angers, 2 Bd Lavoisier 49045 ANGERS Cedex (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte; Biziere, Nicolas [Université de Toulouse (France) [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA, INP, ISAE (France); LAAS (France) [France; CEMES, F-31077 Toulouse (France) [France; CNRS, CEMES-CNRS UPR 8011, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, FR-31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Bobo, Jean-François, E-mail: jfbobo@cemes.fr [Université de Toulouse (France) [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA, INP, ISAE (France); LAAS (France) [France; CEMES, F-31077 Toulouse (France) [France; CNRS, CEMES-ONERA, NMH, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, FR-31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

C32, A Young Star Cluster in IC 1613  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Local Group irregular galaxy IC 1613 has remained an enigma for many years because of its apparent lack of star clusters. We report the successful search for clusters among several of the candidate objects identified many years ago on photographic plates. We have used a single HST WFPC2 pointing and a series of images obtained with the WIYN telescope under exceptional seeing conditions, examining a total of 23 of the previously published candidates. All but six of these objects were found to be either asterisms or background galaxies. Five of the six remaining candidates possibly are small, sparse clusters and the sixth, C32, is an obvious cluster. It is a compact, young object, with an age of less than 10 million years and a total absolute magnitude of M_V = -5.78+/-0.16 within a radius of 13 pc.

Ted K. Wyder; Paul W. Hodge; Andrew Cole

2000-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

436

Offline multiple adaptive planning strategy for concurrent irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Concurrent irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs) can be challenging due to the independent motion of the two target volumes. To address this challenge, the authors have proposed a strategy referred to as Multiple Adaptive Planning (MAP). To minimize the number of MAP plans, the authors’ previous work only considered the prostate motion in one major direction. After analyzing the pattern of the prostate motion, the authors investigated a practical number of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans needed to accommodate the prostate motion in two major directions simultaneously. Methods: Six patients, who received concurrent irradiation of the prostate and PLNs, were selected for this study. Nine MAP-IMRT plans were created for each patient with nine prostate contours that represented the prostate at nine locations with respect to the PLNs, including the original prostate contour and eight contours shifted either 5 mm in a single anterior-posterior (A-P), or superior-inferior (S-I) direction, or 5 mm in both A-P and S-I directions simultaneously. From archived megavoltage cone beam CT (MV-CBCT) and a dual imaging registration, 17 MV-CBCTs from 33 available MV-CBCT from these patients showed large prostate displacements (>3 mm in any direction) with respect to the pelvic bones. For each of these 17 fractions, one of nine MAP-IMRT plans was retrospectively selected and applied to the MV-CBCT for dose calculation. For comparison, a simulated isocenter-shifting plan and a reoptimized plan were also created for each of these 17 fractions. The doses to 95% (D95) of the prostate and PLNs, and the doses to 5% (D5) of the rectum and bladder were calculated and analyzed. Results: For the prostate, D95 > 97% of the prescription dose was observed in 16, 16, and 17 of 17 fractions for the MAP, isocenter-shifted, and reoptimized plans, respectively. For PLNs, D95 > 97% of the prescription doses was observed in 10, 3, and 17 of 17 fractions for the three types of verification plans, respectively. The D5 (mean ± SD) of the rectum was 45.78 ± 5.75, 45.44 ± 4.64, and 44.64 ± 2.71 Gy, and the D5 (mean ± SD) of the bladder was 45.18 ± 2.70, 46.91 ± 3.04, and 45.67 ± 3.61 Gy for three types of verification plans, respectively. Conclusions: The MAP strategy with nine IMRT plans to accommodate the prostate motions in two major directions achieved good dose coverage to the prostate and PLNs. The MAP approach can be immediately used in clinical practice without requiring extra hardware and software.

Qi, Peng; Xia, Ping, E-mail: xiap@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Pouliot, Jean; Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Bowel sparing in pediatric cranio-spinal radiotherapy: a comparison of combined electron and photon and helical TomoTherapy techniques to a standard photon method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to compare the dose to organs at risk (OARs) from different craniospinal radiotherapy treatment approaches available at the Northern Centre for Cancer Care (NCCC), with a particular emphasis on sparing the bowel. Method: Treatment plans were produced for a pediatric medulloblastoma patient with inflammatory bowel disease using 3D conformal 6-MV photons (3DCP), combined 3D 6-MV photons and 18-MeV electrons (3DPE), and helical photon TomoTherapy (HT). The 3DPE plan was a modification of the standard 3DCP technique, using electrons to treat the spine inferior to the level of the diaphragm. The plans were compared in terms of the dose-volume data to OARs and the nontumor integral dose. Results: The 3DPE plan was found to give the lowest dose to the bowel and the lowest nontumor integral dose of the 3 techniques. However, the coverage of the spine planning target volume (PTV) was least homogeneous using this technique, with only 74.6% of the PTV covered by 95% of the prescribed dose. HT was able to achieve the best coverage of the PTVs (99.0% of the whole-brain PTV and 93.1% of the spine PTV received 95% of the prescribed dose), but delivered a significantly higher integral dose. HT was able to spare the heart, thyroid, and eyes better than the linac-based techniques, but other OARs received a higher dose. Conclusions: Use of electrons was the best method for reducing the dose to the bowel and the integral dose, at the expense of compromised spine PTV coverage. For some patients, HT may be a viable method of improving dose homogeneity and reducing selected OAR doses.

Harron, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.harron@nuh.nhs.uk [Regional Medical Physics Department, Freeman Hospital, Freeman Road, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Lewis, Joanne [Northern Centre for Cancer Care, Freeman Hospital, Freeman Road, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Hadron Therapy in Latin America  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

Kreiner, A. J.; Minsky, D. M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia. Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, M. De Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

439

Reliable detection of fluence anomalies in EPID-based IMRT pretreatment quality assurance using pixel intensity deviations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: This work uses repeat images of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields to quantify fluence anomalies (i.e., delivery errors) that can be reliably detected in electronic portal images used for IMRT pretreatment quality assurance. Methods: Repeat images of 11 clinical IMRT fields are acquired on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator at energies of 6 MV and 18 MV. Acquired images are corrected for output variations and registered to minimize the impact of linear accelerator and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioning deviations. Detection studies are performed in which rectangular anomalies of various sizes are inserted into the images. The performance of detection strategies based on pixel intensity deviations (PIDs) and gamma indices is evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Residual differences between registered images are due to interfraction positional deviations of jaws and multileaf collimator leaves, plus imager noise. Positional deviations produce large intensity differences that degrade anomaly detection. Gradient effects are suppressed in PIDs using gradient scaling. Background noise is suppressed using median filtering. In the majority of images, PID-based detection strategies can reliably detect fluence anomalies of {>=}5% in {approx}1 mm{sup 2} areas and {>=}2% in {approx}20 mm{sup 2} areas. Conclusions: The ability to detect small dose differences ({<=}2%) depends strongly on the level of background noise. This in turn depends on the accuracy of image registration, the quality of the reference image, and field properties. The longer term aim of this work is to develop accurate and reliable methods of detecting IMRT delivery errors and variations. The ability to resolve small anomalies will allow the accuracy of advanced treatment techniques, such as image guided, adaptive, and arc therapies, to be quantified.

Gordon, J. J.; Gardner, J. K.; Wang, S.; Siebers, J. V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Hydrogen Production using Nickel Electrocatalysts with Pendant Amines: Ligand Effects on Rates and Overpotentials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Ni-based electrocatalyst for H2 production, [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2](BF4)2, featuring eight-membered cyclic diphosphine ligands incorporating a single amine base, 1-para-bromo-phenyl-3,7-triphenyl-1-aza-3,7-diphosphacycloheptane (8PPh2NC6H4Br) has been synthesized and characterized. X-ray ?diffraction studies reveal that the cation of [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 has a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. In CH3CN [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2]2+ is an electrocatalyst for reduction of protons, and it has a maximum turnover frequency for H2 production of 800 s-1 with a 700 mV overpotential (at Ecat/2) when using [(DMF)H]OTf as the acid. Addition of H2O to acidic CH3CN solutions of [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2]2+ results in an increase of the turnover frequency for H2 production to a maximum of 3,300 s?1 with an overpotential of 760 mV at Ecat/2. Computational studies carried out on [Ni(8PPh2NC6H4Br)2]2+ indicate the observed catalytic rate is limited by formation of non-productive protonated isomers, diverting active catalyst from the catalytic cycle. The results of this research show that proton delivery from the exogenous acid to the correct position on the proton relay of the metal complex is essential for fast H2 production. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Wiese, Stefan; Kilgore, Uriah J.; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Raugei, Simone; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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441

CuIn{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Ga{sub {ital x}}Se{sub 2} and CdTe PV solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Higher indium proportion in the first precursor was employed to eliminate pits in CuIn{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Ga{sub {ital x}}Se{sub 2} films prepared by two Se-vapor selenizations of metallic precursors. CuIn{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Ga{sub {ital x}}Se{sub 2} films had large, faceted grains, and a near-optimum composition Cu:In:Ga:Se 24.25:22.21:4.40:49.14. Ga incorporated using a Cu-Ga(22 at. {percent}) alloy target was enhanced by optimizing the time-temperature profiles of selenizations. CuIn{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Ga{sub {ital x}}Se{sub 2} solar cells gave {ital V}{sub oc} of 451.8 mV, {ital J}{sub sc} of 34.5 mA, FF of 57.87{percent}, total area efficiency of 9.02{percent}. CdTe thin films were prepared by heat treatment of magnetron-sputtered elemental Cd/Te stacks. Formation of extraneous oxide phases was avoided by optimizing ambients, temperature, and CdCl{sub 2} treatment. CdTe solar cells gave maximum {ital V}{sub oc} of {approximately}600 mV, {ital J}{sub sc} of {approximately}5 mA.cm{sup {minus}2}, very low FF and efficiency probably due to blocking layer or junction away from CdS{backslash}CdTe interface. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Dhere, N.G. [Florida Solar Energy Center, 300 State Rd 401, Cape Canaveral, Florida 32920-4099 (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Laser triggering of water switches in terrawatt-class pulse power accelerators.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Focused Beams from high-power lasers have been used to command trigger gas switches in pulse power accelerators for more than two decades. This Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project was aimed at determining whether high power lasers could also command trigger water switches on high-power accelerators. In initial work, we determined that focused light from three harmonics of a small pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm could be used to form breakdown arcs in water, with the lowest breakdown thresholds of 110 J/cm{sup 2} or 14 GW/cm{sup 2} at 532 nm in the green. In laboratory-scale laser triggering experiments with a 170-kV pulse-charged water switch with a 3-mm anode-cathode gap, we demonstrated that {approx}90 mJ of green laser energy could trigger the gap with a 1-{sigma} jitter of less than 2ns, a factor of 10 improvement over the jitter of the switch in its self breaking mode. In the laboratory-scale experiments we developed optical techniques utilizing polarization rotation of a probe laser beam to measure current in switch channels and electric field enhancements near streamer heads. In the final year of the project, we constructed a pulse-power facility to allow us to test laser triggering of water switches from 0.6- MV to 2.0 MV. Triggering experiments on this facility using an axicon lens for focusing the laser and a switch with a 740 kV self-break voltage produced consistent laser triggering with a {+-} 16-ns 1-{sigma} jitter, a significant improvement over the {+-} 24-ns jitter in the self-breaking mode.

Woodworth, Joseph Ray; Johnson, David Lee (Titan Pulse Sciences, San Leandro, CA); Wilkins, Frank (Bechtel Nevada, Las Vegas, NV); Van De Valde, David (EG& G Technical Services, Albuquerque, NM); Sarkisov, Gennady Sergeevich (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Zameroski, Nathan D.; Starbird, Robert L. (Bechtel Nevada, Las Vegas, NV)

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Impact of Computed Tomography Image Quality on Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Based on Soft Tissue Registration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), different computed tomography (CT) modalities with varying image quality are being used to correct for interfractional variations in patient set-up and anatomy changes, thereby reducing clinical target volume to the planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margins. We explore how CT image quality affects patient repositioning and CTV-to-PTV margins in soft tissue registration-based IGRT for prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four CT-based IGRT modalities used for prostate RT were considered in this study: MV fan beam CT (MVFBCT) (Tomotherapy), MV cone beam CT (MVCBCT) (MVision; Siemens), kV fan beam CT (kVFBCT) (CTVision, Siemens), and kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) (Synergy; Elekta). Daily shifts were determined by manual registration to achieve the best soft tissue agreement. Effect of image quality on patient repositioning was determined by statistical analysis of daily shifts for 136 patients (34 per modality). Inter- and intraobserver variability of soft tissue registration was evaluated based on the registration of a representative scan for each CT modality with its corresponding planning scan. Results: Superior image quality with the kVFBCT resulted in reduced uncertainty in soft tissue registration during IGRT compared with other image modalities for IGRT. The largest interobserver variations of soft tissue registration were 1.1 mm, 2.5 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.2 mm for kVFBCT, kVCBCT, MVFBCT, and MVCBCT, respectively. Conclusions: Image quality adversely affects the reproducibility of soft tissue-based registration for IGRT and necessitates a careful consideration of residual uncertainties in determining different CTV-to-PTV margins for IGRT using different image modalities.

Morrow, Natalya V.; Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Qi, X. Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado (United States); Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

The structure and electrochemical behavior of nitrogen-containing nanocrystalline diamond films deposited from CH4/N2/Ar mixtures.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrically conductive nanocrystalline diamond films (approximately 750 to 1000 nm thick) were deposited on conducting Si and W substrates from CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2}/Ar gas mixtures using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Such films are continuous over the surface and nanometer smooth. The grain size is 3 to 10 nm, and the grain boundaries are 0.2 to 0.5 nm wide (two carbon atoms). Nitrogen appears to substitutionally insert into the grain boundaries and the film concentration ({approx}10{sup 20} atom/cm{sup 3}) scales with the N{sub 2} added to the source gas mixture up to about the 5% level. The nitrogen-incorporated films are void of pinholes and cracks, and electrically conducting due in part to the high concentration of nitrogen impurities and or the nitrogen-related defects (sp{sup 2} bonding). The films possess semimetallic electronic properties over a potential range from at least -1.5 to 1.0 V vs. SCE. The electrodes, like boron-doped microcrystalline diamond, exhibit a wide working potential window, a low background current, and high degree of electrochemical activity for redox systems such as Fe(CN)6{sup -3/-4}, Ru(NH{sub 3}6{sup +3/+2}), IrCl6{sup -2/-3}, and methyl viologen (MV{sup +2/+}). More sluggish electrode kinetics are observed for 4-methylcatechol, presumably due to weak adsorption on the surface. Apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants of 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} cm/s are observed for Fe(CN)6{sup -3/-4}, Ru(NH{sub 3})6{sup +3/+2}, IrCl6{sup -2/-3}, and MV {sup +2/+} at films without any pretreatment.

Chen, Q.; Gruen, D. M.; Krauss, A. R.; Corrigan, T. D.; Swain, G. M.; Utah State Univ.; Northwestern Univ.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Fundamental studies in charge separation at interfaces in relation to water photolysis. Progress report, September 1, 1983-December 31, 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental research on the dynamic behavior of vesicles containing bound redox ions is described; emphasis has been placed in these studies upon developing simple systems capable of carrying out net transmembrane oxidation-reduction and characterizing their reaction mechanisms. Two systems exhibiting this phenomenon have been devised using (a) amphiphilic (NH/sub 3/)/sub 5/Ru(III)-4-alkylpyridine ions bound to egg lecithin liposomes and (b) a series of N-methyl-N'-alkylviologen (C/sub n/MV/sup 2 +/) cations bound to anionic dihexadecylphosphate (DHP) vesicles. For reaction system (a), reduction of externally-bound Ru(III) ions was accomplished by adding one of several reducing agents (Cr/sup 2 +/, V/sup 2 +/, Cu/sup +/, ascorbate ions) and the subsequent slow transmembrane electron exchange between Ru(III) and Ru(II) ions was followed spectrophotometrically. The data from several types of kinetic experiments indicated that reaction proceeded by electron tunneling through the membrane barrier, rather than by transverse diffusion of reactants. For reaction system (b), we have found that chemical reduction of C/sub n/MV/sup 2 +/-DHP particles by added dithionite ion gives rise to detectable transmembrane redox only if the N-alkylsubstituent exceeds a critical length (n = 10). In these instances, the transmembrane redox step appears to involve electron tunneling. This conclusion is supported by continuous photolysis experiments in which Fe(CN)/sub 6//sup 3 -/ ion compartmented within the DHP vesicle is capable of oxidizing viologen radical cation generated by oxidative quenching of /sup 2/ZnTPPS/sup 4 -/ ion only when viologen is bound to both inner and outer particle surfaces. The magnitudes of the estimated transmembrane redox rate constants are very close to calculated values based upon the hopping conduction tunneling model. 2 figures, 1 table.

Hurst, J.K.

1984-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

446

Ca II H and K Chromospheric Emission Lines in Late K and M Dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have measured the profiles of the Ca II H and K chromospheric emission lines in 147 main sequence stars of spectral type M5-K7 (0.30-0.55 solar masses) using multiple high resolution spectra obtained during six years with the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck 1 telescope. Remarkably, the average FWHM, equivalent widths, and line luminosities of Ca II H and K increase by a factor of 3 with increasing stellar mass over this small range of stellar masses. We fit the H and K lines with a double Gaussian model to represent both the chromospheric emission and the non-LTE central absorption. Most of the sample stars display a central absorption that is typically redshifted by ~0.1 km/s relative to the emission, but the nature of this velocity gradient remains unknown. The FWHM of the H and K lines increase with stellar luminosity, reminiscent of the Wilson-Bappu effect in FGK-type stars. Both the equivalent widths and FWHM exhibit modest temporal variability in individual stars. At a given value of M_v, stars exhibit a spread in both the equivalent width and FWHM of Ca II H and K, due both to a spread in fundamental stellar parameters including rotation rate, age, and possibly metallicity, and to the spread in stellar mass at a given M_v. The K line is consistently wider than the H line, as expected, and its central absorption is more redshifted, indicating that the H and K lines form at slightly different heights in the chromosphere where the velocities are slightly different. The equivalent width of H-alpha correlates with Ca II H and K only for stars having Ca II equivalent widths above ~2 angstroms, suggesting the existence of a magnetic threshold above which the lower and upper chromospheres become thermally coupled.

Emily Rauscher; Geoffrey W. Marcy

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

447

Photoelectrochemical performance of DSSC with monodisperse and polydisperse ZnO SPs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zinc oxide, ZnO, is one of oxide semiconductors being used in DSSC. ZnO is promising material for having fairly higher energy band gap and much higher bulk electron mobility than that of anatase TiO{sub 2}, the most widely used semiconductor for DSSC photoelectrode. This study introduces the synthesis of ZnO by precipitation method. The synthesis involves ZnAc dihydrate and diethylene glycol (DEG) for the chemicals. Various size of ZnO spherical particles (SPs) are obtained in polydisperse and monodisperse particles. Monolayer and bilayer DSSCs are fabricated in sandwich structure and sensitized with N719 dye for 3 and 5 hours. Monolayer DSSC using monodisperse particles (422 nm) is able to generate highest conversion efficiency of 0.569% (V{sub oc} = 541.3 mV, J{sub sc} = 1.92 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 54.78%). Bilayer DSSC, i.e. combined 422 - 185 nm ZnO layer, can optimize the photocurrent action spectra in UV regime leading to high conversion efficiency of 0.568 (V{sub oc} = 568.2 mV, J{sub sc} = 2.22 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 47.25%). The longer sensitizing time does not always produce better conversion efficiency since it can induce the dissolution of Zn atoms and formation of Zn{sup 2+} - dye resisting the electron transport from dye to ZnO photoelectrode.

Wahyuono, Ruri Agung, E-mail: r-agung-w@ep.its.ac.id; Risanti, Doty D., E-mail: r-agung-w@ep.its.ac.id [Department of Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (Indonesia); Shirosaki, Tomohiro; Nagaoka, Shoji [Kumamoto Industrial Research Institute (Japan); Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University (Japan)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

448

Electrodic voltages accompanying stimulated bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The inability to track the products of subsurface microbial activity during stimulated bioremediation has limited its implementation. We used spatiotemporal changes in electrodic potentials (EP) to track the onset and persistence of stimulated sulfate-reducing bacteria in a uranium-contaminated aquifer undergoing acetate amendment. Following acetate injection, anomalous voltages approaching -900 mV were measured between copper electrodes within the aquifer sediments and a single reference electrode at the ground surface. Onset of EP anomalies correlated in time with both the accumulation of dissolved sulfide and the removal of uranium from groundwater. The anomalies persisted for 45 days after halting acetate injection. Current-voltage and current-power relationships between measurement and reference electrodes exhibited a galvanic response, with a maximum power density of 10 mW/m{sup 2} during sulfate reduction. We infer that the EP anomalies resulted from electrochemical differences between geochemically reduced regions and areas having higher oxidation potential. Following the period of sulfate reduction, EP values ranged from -500 to -600 mV and were associated with elevated concentrations of ferrous iron. Within 10 days of the voltage decrease, uranium concentrations rebounded from 0.2 to 0.8 {mu}M, a level still below the background value of 1.5 {mu}M. These findings demonstrate that EP measurements provide an inexpensive and minimally invasive means for monitoring the products of stimulated microbial activity within aquifer sediments and are capable of verifying maintenance of redox conditions favorable for the stability of bioreduced contaminants, such as uranium.

Williams, K.H.; N'Guessan, A.L.; Druhan, J.; Long, P.E.; Hubbard, S.S.; Lovley, D.R.; Banfield, J.F.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers the research and development activities of the Physics Division for the 1988 fiscal year, beginning October 1, 1987, and ending September 30, 1988. The activities of this Division are concentrated in the areas of experimental nuclear physics, experimental atomic physics, and theoretical nuclear and atomic physics. Operation of the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility as a national user facility continues to represent the single largest activity within the Division. This year saw the completion of the acceleration tube upgrade of the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator and the achievement of record terminal potentials, operation for an experiment with 25 million volts on terminal, and successful tests with beam at 25.5 MV. The experimental nuclear physics program continues to be dominated by research utilizing heavy ions. These activities, while continuing to center largely on the Holifield Facility, have seen significant growth in the use of facilities that provide intermediate energies and especially ultrarelativistic beams. The UNISOR program, since its inception, has been intimately associated with the Division and, most particularly, with the Holifield Facility. In addition to the Holifield Facility, the Division operates two smaller facilities, the EN Tandem and the ECR Ion Source Facility, as ''User Resources.'' The efforts in theoretical physics, covering both nuclear and atomic physics, are presented. In addition to research with multicharged heavy ions from the ECR source, the effort on atomic physics in support of the controlled fusion program includes a plasma diagnostics development program. The concentration of this program on optical and laser technology is marked by the change in designation to the Laser and Electro-Optics Lab. A small, continuing effort in elementary particle physics, carried out in collaboration with the University of Tennessee, is reported.

Livingston, A.B. (ed.)

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Public and private funding for end-use energy efficiency actions is expected to increase significantly in the United States over the next decade. For example, Barbose et al (2009) estimate that spending on ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs in the U.S. could increase from $3.1 billion in 2008 to $7.5 and 12.4 billion by 2020 under their medium and high scenarios. This increase in spending could yield annual electric energy savings ranging from 0.58% - 0.93% of total U.S. retail sales in 2020, up from 0.34% of retail sales in 2008. Interest in and support for energy efficiency has broadened among national and state policymakers. Prominent examples include {approx}$18 billion in new funding for energy efficiency programs (e.g., State Energy Program, Weatherization, and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants) in the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Increased funding for energy efficiency should result in more benefits as well as more scrutiny of these results. As energy efficiency becomes a more prominent component of the U.S. national energy strategy and policies, assessing the effectiveness and energy saving impacts of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for policymakers and private and public funders of efficiency actions. Thus, it is critical that evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) is carried out effectively and efficiently, which implies that: (1) Effective program evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methodologies and tools are available to key stakeholders (e.g., regulatory agencies, program administrators, consumers, and evaluation consultants); and (2) Capacity (people and infrastructure resources) is available to conduct EM&V activities and report results in ways that support program improvement and provide data that reliably compares achieved results against goals and similar programs in other jurisdictions (benchmarking). The National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2007) presented commonly used definitions for EM&V in the context of energy efficiency programs: (1) Evaluation (E) - The performance of studies and activities aimed at determining the effects and effectiveness of EE programs; (2) Measurement and Verification (M&V) - Data collection, monitoring, and analysis associated with the calculation of gross energy and demand savings from individual measures, sites or projects. M&V can be a subset of program evaluation; and (3) Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification (EM&V) - This term is frequently seen in evaluation literature. EM&V is a catchall acronym for determining both the effectiveness of program designs and estimates of load impacts at the portfolio, program and project level. This report is a scoping study that assesses current practices and methods in the evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs, with a focus on methods and practices currently used for determining whether projected (ex-ante) energy and demand savings have been achieved (ex-post). M&V practices for privately-funded energy efficiency projects (e.g., ESCO projects) or programs where the primary focus is greenhouse gas reductions were not part of the scope of this study. We identify and discuss key purposes and uses of current evaluations of end-use energy efficiency programs, methods used to evaluate these programs, processes used to determine those methods; and key issues that need to be addressed now and in the future, based on discussions with regulatory agencies, policymakers, program administrators, and evaluation practitioners in 14 states and national experts in the evaluation field. We also explore how EM&V may evolve in a future in which efficiency funding increases significantly, innovative mechanisms for rewarding program performance are adopted, the role of efficiency in greenhouse gas mitigation is more closely linked, and programs are increasingly funded from multiple sources often with multiple program administrators and in

Messenger, Mike; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Golemboski, Bill; Goldman, Charles A.; Schiller, Steven R.

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

451

Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO Markets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Organization of Midwest ISO States (OMS) launched the Midwest Demand Resource Initiative (MWDRI) in 2007 to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) region and develop policies to overcome them. The MWDRI stakeholders decided that a useful initial activity would be to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This additional detail could then be used to assess any"seams issues" affecting coordination and integration of retail DR resources with MISO's wholesale markets. Working with state regulatory agencies, we conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs, dynamic pricing tariffs, and their features in MISO states. Utilities were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g., seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. This report describes the results of this comprehensive survey and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into organized wholesale markets. Survey responses from 37 MISO members and 4 non-members provided information on 141 DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs with a peak load reduction potential of 4,727 MW of retail DR resource. Major findings of this study area:- About 72percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;18percent. Almost 90percent of the DR resources included in this survey are provided by investor-owned utilities. - Approximately, 90percent of the DR resources are available with less than two hours advance notice and over 1,900 MW can be dispatched on less than thirty minutes notice. These legacy DR programs are increasingly used by utilities for economic in addition to reliability purposes, with over two-thirds (68percent) of these programs callable based on market conditions. - Approximately 60percent of DLC programs and 30percent of interruptible rate programs called ten or more DR events in 2006. Despite the high frequency of DR events, customer complaints remained low. The use of economic criteria to trigger DR events and the flexibility to trigger a large number of events suggests that DR resources can help improve the efficiency of MISO wholesale markets. - Most legacy DR programs offered a reservation payment ($/kW) for participation; incentive payment levels averaged about $5/kW-month for interruptible rate tariffs and $6/kW-month for DLC programs. Few programs offered incentive payments that were explicitly linked to actual load reductions during events and at least 27 DR programs do not have penalties for non-performance. - Measurement and verification (M&V) protocols to estimate load impacts vary significantly across MISO states. Almost half of the DR programs have not been evaluated in recent times and thus performance data for DR events is not available. For many DLC programs, M&V protocols may need to be enhancedin order to allow participation in MISO's proposed EDR schedule. System operators and planners will need to develop more accurate estimates of the load reduced capability and actual performance.

Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Heffner, Grayson; Sedano, Richard

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

452

Low Temperature Surface Carburization of Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-temperature colossal supersaturation (LTCSS) is a novel surface hardening method for carburization of austenitic stainless steels (SS) without the precipitation of carbides. The formation of carbides is kinetically suppressed, enabling extremely high or colossal carbon supersaturation. As a result, surface carbon concentrations in excess of 12 at. % are routinely achieved. This treatment increases the surface hardness by a factor of four to five, improving resistance to wear, corrosion, and fatigue, with significant retained ductility. LTCSS is a diffusional surface hardening process that provides a uniform and conformal hardened gradient surface with no risk of delamination or peeling. The treatment retains the austenitic phase and is completely non-magnetic. In addition, because parts are treated at low temperature, they do not distort or change dimensions. During this treatment, carbon diffusion proceeds into the metal at temperatures that constrain substitutional diffusion or mobility between the metal alloy elements. Though immobilized and unable to assemble to form carbides, chromium and similar alloying elements nonetheless draw enormous amounts of carbon into their interstitial spaces. The carbon in the interstitial spaces of the alloy crystals makes the surface harder than ever achieved before by more conventional heat treating or diffusion process. The carbon solid solution manifests a Vickers hardness often exceeding 1000 HV (equivalent to 70 HRC). This project objective was to extend the LTCSS treatment to other austenitic alloys, and to quantify improvements in fatigue, corrosion, and wear resistance. Highlights from the research include the following: • Extension of the applicability of the LTCSS process to a broad range of austenitic and duplex grades of steels • Demonstration of LTCSS ability for a variety of different component shapes and sizes • Detailed microstructural characterization of LTCSS-treated samples of 316L and other alloys • Thermodynamic modeling to explain the high degree of carbon solubility possible in austenitic grades under the LTCSS process and experimental validation of model results • Corrosion testing to determine the corrosion resistance improvement possible from the LTCSS process • Erosion testing to determine the erosion resistance improvement possible from the LTCSS process • Wear testing to quantify the wear resistance improvement possible from the LTCSS process • Fatigue testing for quantifying the extent of improvement from the LTCSS process • Component treating and testing under simulated and in-line commercial operations XRD verified expanded austenite lattice, with no evidence of carbide precipitation. Carbon concentration profiles via Auger and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) showed carbon levels in excess of 12 at. % in treated, type 316 SS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of pulled-to-failure treated tensile specimens showed slip bands and no de-cohesion of the treated layer, verifying that the layer remains ductile. Compressive stresses in excess of 2 GPa (300 ksi) have been calculated at the surface of the case. Phase diagram (CALPHAD) (ThermoCalc) and Wagner dilute solution thermodynamic models were developed that calculate the solubility of carbon in austenite as a function of alloying content for the process time and temperature. Several commercial alloys have been modeled, and the model has been used to design experimental alloys with enhanced affinity for carbon solubility at treatment temperatures. Four experimental alloys were melted, rolled, and manufactured into test specimens, and the LTCSS treatment indicated successfully enhanced results and validated the predictions based on thermodynamic modeling. Electrochemical polarization curves show a 600 to 800 mV increase in pitting potential in treated (900-1000 mV) versus non-treated (200-300 mV) type 316 in chloride solutions. Treated 316L showed crevice-corrosion behavior similar to that of Ti-6Al-4V and Hastelloy C22. Cavitation tests showed significant increases in cavitatio

Collins, Sunniva R.; Heuer, Arthur H.; Sikka, Vinod K.

2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

453

Validation Analysis of the Shoal Groundwater Flow and Transport Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental restoration at the Shoal underground nuclear test is following a process prescribed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Characterization of the site included two stages of well drilling and testing in 1996 and 1999, and development and revision of numerical models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Agreement on a contaminant boundary for the site and a corrective action plan was reached in 2006. Later that same year, three wells were installed for the purposes of model validation and site monitoring. The FFACO prescribes a five-year proof-of-concept period for demonstrating that the site groundwater model is capable of producing meaningful results with an acceptable level of uncertainty. The corrective action plan specifies a rigorous seven step validation process. The accepted groundwater model is evaluated using that process in light of the newly acquired data. The conceptual model of ground water flow for the Project Shoal Area considers groundwater flow through the fractured granite aquifer comprising the Sand Springs Range. Water enters the system by the infiltration of precipitation directly on the surface of the mountain range. Groundwater leaves the granite aquifer by flowing into alluvial deposits in the adjacent basins of Fourmile Flat and Fairview Valley. A groundwater divide is interpreted as coinciding with the western portion of the Sand Springs Range, west of the underground nuclear test, preventing flow from the test into Fourmile Flat. A very low conductivity shear zone east of the nuclear test roughly parallels the divide. The presence of these lateral boundaries, coupled with a regional discharge area to the northeast, is interpreted in the model as causing groundwater from the site to flow in a northeastward direction into Fairview Valley. Steady-state flow conditions are assumed given the absence of groundwater withdrawal activities in the area. The conceptual and numerical models were developed based upon regional hydrogeologic investigations conducted in the 1960s, site characterization investigations (including ten wells and various geophysical and geologic studies) at Shoal itself prior to and immediately after the test, and two site characterization campaigns in the 1990s for environmental restoration purposes (including eight wells and a year-long tracer test). The new wells are denoted MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3, and are located to the northnortheast of the nuclear test. The groundwater model was generally lacking data in the north-northeastern area; only HC-1 and the abandoned PM-2 wells existed in this area. The wells provide data on fracture orientation and frequency, water levels, hydraulic conductivity, and water chemistry for comparison with the groundwater model. A total of 12 real-number validation targets were available for the validation analysis, including five values of hydraulic head, three hydraulic conductivity measurements, three hydraulic gradient values, and one angle value for the lateral gradient in radians. In addition, the fracture dip and orientation data provide comparisons to the distributions used in the model and radiochemistry is available for comparison to model output. Goodness-of-fit analysis indicates that some of the model realizations correspond well with the newly acquired conductivity, head, and gradient data, while others do not. Other tests indicated that additional model realizations may be needed to test if the model input distributions need refinement to improve model performance. This approach (generating additional realizations) was not followed because it was realized that there was a temporal component to the data disconnect: the new head measurements are on the high side of the model distributions, but the heads at the original calibration locations themselves have also increased over time. This indicates that the steady-state assumption of the groundwater model is in error. To test the robustness of the model d

A. Hassan; J. Chapman

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Quality assurance for the clinical implementation of kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring for prostate cancer VMAT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) is a real-time 3D tumor monitoring system for cancer radiotherapy. KIM uses the commonly available gantry-mounted x-ray imager as input, making this method potentially more widely available than dedicated real-time 3D tumor monitoring systems. KIM is being piloted in a clinical trial for prostate cancer patients treated with VMAT (NCT01742403). The purpose of this work was to develop clinical process and quality assurance (QA) practices for the clinical implementation of KIM. Methods: Informed by and adapting existing guideline documents from other real-time monitoring systems, KIM-specific QA practices were developed. The following five KIM-specific QA tests were included: (1) static localization accuracy, (2) dynamic localization accuracy, (3) treatment interruption accuracy, (4) latency measurement, and (5) clinical conditions accuracy. Tests (1)–(4) were performed using KIM to measure static and representative patient-derived prostate motion trajectories using a 3D programmable motion stage supporting an anthropomorphic phantom with implanted gold markers to represent the clinical treatment scenario. The threshold for system tolerable latency is <1 s. The tolerances for all other tests are that both the mean and standard deviation of the difference between the programmed trajectory and the measured data are <1 mm. The (5) clinical conditions accuracy test compared the KIM measured positions with those measured by kV/megavoltage (MV) triangulation from five treatment fractions acquired in a previous pilot study. Results: For the (1) static localization, (2) dynamic localization, and (3) treatment interruption accuracy tests, the mean and standard deviation of the difference are <1.0 mm. (4) The measured latency is 350 ms. (5) For the tests with previously acquired patient data, the mean and standard deviation of the difference between KIM and kV/MV triangulation are <1.0 mm. Conclusions: Clinical process and QA practices for the safe clinical implementation of KIM, a novel real-time monitoring system using commonly available equipment, have been developed and implemented for prostate cancer VMAT.

Ng, J. A. [School of Medicine, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Booth, J. T. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, NSW 2065 (Australia); O’Brien, R. T.; Huang, C.-Y.; Keall, P. J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [School of Medicine, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Colvill, E. [School of Medicine, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, NSW 2065 (Australia); Poulsen, P. R. [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, Aarhus C 8000 (Denmark)

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Thermochemical and Mechanistic Studies of Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Cobalt Complexes Containing Pendant Amines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two cobalt(tetraphosphine) complexes [Co(PnC-PPh22NPh2)(CH3CN)](BF4)2 with a tetradentate phosphine ligand (PnC-PPh22NPh2 = 1,5-diphenyl-3,7-bis((diphenylphosphino)alkyl)-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane; alkyl = (CH2)2, n = 2 (L2); (CH2)3, n = 3 (L3)) have been studied for electrocatalytic hydrogen production using 1:1 [(DMF)H]+:DMF. A turnover frequency of 980 s–1 with an overpotential of 1210 mV was measured for [CoII(L2)(CH3CN)]2+, and a turnover frequency of 980 s–1 with an overpotential of 930 mV was measured for [CoII(L3)(CH3CN)]2+. Addition of water increases the turnover frequency of [CoII(L2)(CH3CN)]2+ to 19,000 s–1. The catalytic wave for each of these complexes occurs at the reduction potential of the corresponding HCoIII complex. Comprehensive thermochemical studies of [CoII(L2)(CH3CN)]2+ and [CoII(L3)(CH3CN)]2+ and species derived from them by addition/removal of protons/electrons were carried out using values measured experimentally and calculated using DFT. Notably, HCoI(L2) and HCoI(L2) were found to be remarkably strong hydride donors, with HCoI(L2) being a better hydride donor than BH4-. Mechanistic studies of these catalysts reveal that H2 formation can occur by protonation of a HCoII intermediate, and that the pendant amines of these complexes facilitate proton delivery to the cobalt center. The rate-limiting step for catalysis is a net intramolecular isomerization of the protonated pendant amine from the non-productive exo-isomer to the productive endo isomer. We thank Dr. Shentan Chen for many helpful discussions. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Wiedner, Eric S.; Appel, Aaron M.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

456

Estimating dose to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator outside the treatment fields using a skin QED diode, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters, and LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this work was to determine the relative sensitivity of skin QED diodes, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) (microStar Trade-Mark-Sign DOT, Landauer), and LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as a function of distance from a photon beam field edge when applied to measure dose at out-of-field points. These detectors have been used to estimate radiation dose to patients' implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) located outside the treatment field. The ICDs have a thin outer case made of 0.4- to 0.6-mm-thick titanium ({approx}2.4-mm tissue equivalent). A 5-mm bolus, being the equivalent depth of the devices under the patient's skin, was placed over the ICDs. Response per unit absorbed dose-to-water was measured for each of the dosimeters with and without bolus on the beam central axis (CAX) and at a distance up to 20 cm from the CAX. Doses were measured with an ionization chamber at various depths for 6- and 15-MV x-rays on a Varian Clinac-iX linear accelerator. Relative sensitivity of the detectors was determined as the ratio of the sensitivity at each off-axis distance to that at the CAX. The detector sensitivity as a function of the distance from the field edge changed by {+-} 3% (1-11%) for LiF TLD-700, decreased by 10% (5-21%) for OSLD, and increased by 16% (11-19%) for the skin QED diode (Sun Nuclear Corp.) at the equivalent depth of 5 mm for 6- or 15-MV photon energies. Our results showed that the use of bolus with proper thickness (i.e., {approx}d{sub max} of the photon energy) on the top of the ICD would reduce the scattered dose to a lower level. Dosimeters should be calibrated out-of-field and preferably with bolus equal in thickness to the depth of interest. This can be readily performed in clinic.

Chan, Maria F., E-mail: chanm@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Song, Yulin; Dauer, Lawrence T.; Li Jingdong; Huang, David; Burman, Chandra [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overarching goal of this work is to advance the capabilities of technology evaluators in evaluating the building-level baseline modeling capabilities of Energy Management and Information System (EMIS) software. Through their customer engagement platforms and products, EMIS software products have the potential to produce whole-building energy savings through multiple strategies: building system operation improvements, equipment efficiency upgrades and replacements, and inducement of behavioral change among the occupants and operations personnel. Some offerings may also automate the quantification of whole-building energy savings, relative to a baseline period, using empirical models that relate energy consumption to key influencing parameters, such as ambient weather conditions and building operation schedule. These automated baseline models can be used to streamline the whole-building measurement and verification (M&V) process, and therefore are of critical importance in the context of multi-measure whole-building focused utility efficiency programs. This report documents the findings of a study that was conducted to begin answering critical questions regarding quantification of savings at the whole-building level, and the use of automated and commercial software tools. To evaluate the modeling capabilities of EMIS software particular to the use case of whole-building savings estimation, four research questions were addressed: 1. What is a general methodology that can be used to evaluate baseline model performance, both in terms of a) overall robustness, and b) relative to other models? 2. How can that general methodology be applied to evaluate proprietary models that are embedded in commercial EMIS tools? How might one handle practical issues associated with data security, intellectual property, appropriate testing ‘blinds’, and large data sets? 3. How can buildings be pre-screened to identify those that are the most model-predictable, and therefore those whose savings can be calculated with least error? 4. What is the state of public domain models, that is, how well do they perform, and what are the associated implications for whole-building measurement and verification (M&V)? Additional project objectives that were addressed as part of this study include: (1) clarification of the use cases and conditions for baseline modeling performance metrics, benchmarks and evaluation criteria, (2) providing guidance for determining customer suitability for baseline modeling, (3) describing the portfolio level effects of baseline model estimation errors, (4) informing PG&E’s development of EMIS technology product specifications, and (5) providing the analytical foundation for future studies about baseline modeling and saving effects of EMIS technologies. A final objective of this project was to demonstrate the application of the methodology, performance metrics, and test protocols with participating EMIS product vendors.

Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael; Addy, Nathan; Jump, David

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

A Two Bunch Beam Position Monitor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new beam position monitor digitizer module has been designed, tested and tuned at SLAC. This module, the electron-positron beam position monitor (epBPM), measures position of single electron and positron bunches for the SLC, LINAC, PEPII injections lines and final focus. The epBPM has been designed to improve resolution of beam position measurements with respect to existing module and to speed feedback correction. The required dynamic range is from 5 x 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 11} particles per bunch (46dB). The epBPM input signal range is from {+-}2.5 mV to {+-}500 mV. The pulse-to-pulse resolution is less than 2 {mu}m for 5 x 10{sup 10} particles per bunch for the 12 cm long striplines, covering 30{sup o} at 9 mm radius. The epBPM module has been made in CAMAC standard, single width slot, with SLAC type timing connector. 45 modules have been fabricated. The epBPM module has four input channels X{sup +}, X{sup -}, Y{sup +}, Y{sup -} (Fig. 1), named to correspond with coordinates of four striplines - two in horizontal and two in vertical planes, processing signals to the epBPM inputs. The epBPM inputs are split for eight signal processing channels to catch two bunches, first - the positron, then the electron bunch in one cycle of measurements. The epBPM has internal and external trigger modes of operations. The internal mode has two options - with or without external timing, catching only first bunch in the untimed mode. The epBPM has an on board calibration circuit for measuring gain of the signal processing channels and for timing scan of programmable digital delays to synchronize the trigger and the epBPM input signal's peak. There is a mode for pedestal measurements. The epBPM has 3.6 {mu}s conversion time.

Medvedko, E.; Aiello, R.; Smith, S.; /SLAC

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

459

Development and characterization of a three-dimensional radiochromic film stack dosimeter for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) dosimeters are particularly useful for verifying the commissioning of treatment planning and delivery systems, especially with the ever-increasing implementation of complex and conformal radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy. However, currently available 3D dosimeters require extensive experience to prepare and analyze, and are subject to large measurement uncertainties. This work aims to provide a more readily implementable 3D dosimeter with the development and characterization of a radiochromic film stack dosimeter for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry. Methods: A film stack dosimeter was developed using Gafchromic{sup ®} EBT2 films. The dosimeter consists of 22 films separated by 1 mm-thick spacers. A Virtual Water™ phantom was created that maintains the radial film alignment within a maximum uncertainty of 0.3 mm. The film stack dosimeter was characterized using simulations and measurements of 6 MV fields. The absorbed-dose energy dependence and orientation dependence of the film stack dosimeter were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. The water equivalence of the dosimeter was determined by comparing percentage-depth-dose (PDD) profiles measured with the film stack dosimeter and simulated using Monte Carlo methods. Film stack dosimeter measurements were verified with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) microcube measurements. The film stack dosimeter was also used to verify the delivery of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) procedure. Results: The absorbed-dose energy response of EBT2 film differs less than 1.5% between the calibration and film stack dosimeter geometries for a 6 MV spectrum. Over a series of beam angles ranging from normal incidence to parallel incidence, the overall variation in the response of the film stack dosimeter is within a range of 2.5%. Relative to the response to a normally incident beam, the film stack dosimeter exhibits a 1% under-response when the beam axis is parallel to the film planes. Measured and simulated PDD profiles agree within a root-mean-square difference of 1.3%. In-field film stack dosimeter and TLD measurements agree within 5%, and measurements in the field penumbra agree within 0.5 mm. Film stack dosimeter and TLD measurements have expanded (k = 2) overall measurement uncertainties of 6.2% and 5.8%, respectively. Film stack dosimeter measurements of an IMRT dose distribution have 98% agreement with the treatment planning system dose calculation, using gamma criteria of 3% and 2 mm. Conclusions: The film stack dosimeter is capable of high-resolution, low-uncertainty 3D dose measurements, and can be readily incorporated into an existing film dosimetry program.

McCaw, Travis J., E-mail: mccaw@wisc.edu; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Partnerships  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2007, the United States Department of Energy designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at Idaho National Laboratory, as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). This designation made test space within the ATR and post-irradiation examination (PIE) equipment at INL available for use by researchers via a proposal and peer review process. The goal of the ATR NSUF is to provide researchers with the best ideas access to the most advanced test capability, regardless of the proposer's physical location. Since 2007, the ATR NSUF has expanded its available reactor test space, and obtained access to additional PIE equipment. Recognizing that INL may not have all the desired PIE equipment, or that some equipment may become oversubscribed, the ATR NSUF established a Partnership Program. This program enables and facilitates user access to several university and national laboratories. So far, seven universities and one national laboratory have been added to the ATR NSUF with capability that includes reactor-testing space, PIE equipment, and ion beam irradiation facilities. With the addition of these universities, irradiation can occur in multiple reactors and post-irradiation exams can be performed at multiple universities. In each case, the choice of facilities is based on the user's technical needs. Universities and laboratories included in the ATR NSUF partnership program are as follows: (1) Nuclear Services Laboratories at North Carolina State University; (2) PULSTAR Reactor Facility at North Carolina State University; (3) Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory (1.7 MV Tandetron accelerator) at the University of Michigan; (4) Irradiated Materials at the University of Michigan; (5) Harry Reid Center Radiochemistry Laboratories at University of Nevada, Las Vegas; (6) Characterization Laboratory for Irradiated Materials at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; (7) Tandem Accelerator Ion Beam. (1.7 MV terminal voltage tandem ion accelerator) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; (8) Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Materials Research Collaborative Access Team (MRCAT) beamline at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source; and (9) Nanoindenter in the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Nuclear Engineering laboratory Materials have been analyzed for ATR NSUF users at the Advanced Photon Source at the MRCAT beam, the NIST Center for Neutron Research in Gaithersburg, MD, the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, and the SHaRE user facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Additionally, ORNL has been accepted as a partner facility to enable ATR NSUF users to access the facilities at the High Flux Isotope Reactor and related facilities.

Frances M. Marshall; Todd R. Allen; Jeff B. Benson; James I. Cole; Mary Catherine Thelen

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

X-Band Photoinjector Beam Dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SLAC is studying the feasibility of using an X-band RF photocathode gun to produce low emittance bunches for applications such as a mono-energetic MeV {gamma} ray source (in collaboration with LLNL) and a photoinjector for a compact FEL. Beam dynamics studies are being done for a configuration consisting of a 5.5-cell X-band gun followed by several 53-cell high-gradient X-band accelerator structures. A fully 3D program, ImpactT, is used to track particles taking into account space charge forces, short-range longitudinal and transverse wakefields, and the 3D rf fields in the structures, including the quadrupole component of the couplers. The effect of misalignments of the various elements, including the drive-laser, gun, solenoid and accelerator structures, are evaluated. This paper presents these results and estimates of the expected bunch emittance vs cathode gradient, and the effects of mixing between the fundamental and off-frequency longitudinal modes. An X-band gun at SLAC has been shown to operate reliably with a 200 MV/m acceleration gradient at the cathode, which is nearly twice the 115 MV/m acceleration gradient in the LCLS gun. The higher gradient should roughly balance the space charge related transverse emittance growth for the same bunch charge but provide a 3-4 times shorter bunch length. The shorter length would make the subsequent bunch compression easier and allow for a more effective use of emittance exchange. Such a gun can also be used with an X-band linac to produce a compact FEL or g ray source that would require rf sources of only one frequency for beam generation and acceleration. The feasibility of using an X-band rf photocathode gun and accelerator structures to generate high quality electron beams for compact FELs and g ray sources is being studied at SLAC. Results from the X-band photoinjector beam dynamics studies are reported in this paper.

Zhou, Feng; /SLAC; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC; Ding, Yuantao; /SLAC; Li, Zenghai; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

462

Superficial dosimetry imaging based on ?erenkov emission for external beam radiotherapy with megavoltage x-ray beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: ?erenkov radiation emission occurs in all tissue, when charged particles (either primary or secondary) travel at velocity above the threshold for the ?erenkov effect (about 220 KeV in tissue for electrons). This study presents the first examination of optical ?erenkov emission as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial dose for MV x-ray beams.Methods: In this study, Monte Carlo simulations of flat and curved surfaces were studied to analyze the energy spectra of charged particles produced in different regions near the surfaces when irradiated by MV x-ray beams. ?erenkov emission intensity and radiation dose were directly simulated in voxelized flat and cylindrical phantoms. The sampling region of superficial dosimetry based on ?erenkov radiation was simulated in layered skin models. Angular distributions of optical emission from the surfaces were investigated. Tissue mimicking phantoms with flat and curved surfaces were imaged with a time domain gating system. The beam field sizes (50 × 50–200 × 200 mm{sup 2}), incident angles (0°–70°) and imaging regions were all varied.Results: The entrance or exit region of the tissue has nearly homogeneous energy spectra across the beam, such that their ?erenkov emission is proportional to dose. Directly simulated local intensity of ?erenkov and radiation dose in voxelized flat and cylindrical phantoms further validate that this signal is proportional to radiation dose with absolute average discrepancy within 2%, and the largest within 5% typically at the beam edges. The effective sampling depth could be tuned from near 0 up to 6 mm by spectral filtering. The angular profiles near the theoretical Lambertian emission distribution for a perfect diffusive medium, suggesting that angular correction of ?erenkov images may not be required even for curved surface. The acquisition speed and signal to noise ratio of the time domain gating system were investigated for different acquisition procedures, and the results show there is good potential for real-time superficial dose monitoring. Dose imaging under normal ambient room lighting was validated, using gated detection and a breast phantom.Conclusions: This study indicates that ?erenkov emission imaging might provide a valuable way to superficial dosimetry imaging in real time for external beam radiotherapy with megavoltage x-ray beams.

Zhang, Rongxiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 and Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 and Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Glaser, Adam K. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)] [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Gladstone, David J.; Fox, Colleen J. [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 and Department of Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)] [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 and Department of Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Pogue, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States) [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States); Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Calculation and Verification of a Planar Pencil Beam Kernel Through the Hankel Transform of Measured OARs for a Radiosurgery System with Cones  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A planar multienergetic pencil beam kernel with rotational symmetry is calculated for a stereotactic radiosurgery system, SRS, BrainLAB with cones, employing the deconvolution method of the off axis ratio profile, OAR, corresponding to the cone of 35 mm in diameter for a 6 MV photon beam produced by a linear accelerator Varian 2100 C/D. Before the deconvolution, the experimental OAR is corrected for beam divergence and variations of the spectral fluence {Phi}, using a boundary function BF. The function BF and the fluence {Phi} are transformed to the conjugate space with the zero order Hankel function, which is the appropriate transform due to the radial symmetry of the circular beams generated by the cones. The kernel in the conjugate space is obtained as the ratio of the transform of BF to the transform of {Phi}, therefore the kernel in the real space is calculated as the inverse transform of the kernel in the conjugate space. To validate the kernel in the real space, it is convolved with the fluence of the cones of 7.5, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 30 and 35 mm in diameter. The comparison of the OARs calculated and measured shows a maximum difference of 4.5% in the zones of high gradient of dose, and a difference less than 2% in the regions of low gradient of dose. Finally, the expanded uncertainty of the kernel is estimated and reported.

Vargas Verdesoto, Milton X. [Centro Oncologico de Chihuahua, Hacienda de la Esperanza 6304, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Alvarez Romero, Jose T. [SSDL, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico 52750 (Mexico)

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

464

Effect of non-uniform slow wave structure in a relativistic backward wave oscillator with a resonant reflector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides a fresh insight into the effect of non-uniform slow wave structure (SWS) used in a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) with a resonant reflector. Compared with the uniform SWS, the reflection coefficient of the non-uniform SWS is higher, leading to a lower modulating electric field in the resonant reflector and a larger distance to maximize the modulation current. Moreover, for both types of RBWOs, stronger standing-wave field takes place at the rear part of the SWS. In addition, besides Cerenkov effects, the energy conversion process in the RBWO strongly depends on transit time effects. Thus, the matching condition between the distributions of harmonic current and standing wave field provides a profound influence on the beam-wave interaction. In the non-uniform RBWO, the region with a stronger standing wave field corresponds to a higher fundamental harmonic current distribution. Particle-in-cell simulations show that with a diode voltage of 1.02 MV and beam current of 13.2 kA, a microwave power of 4 GW has been obtained, compared to that of 3 GW in the uniform RBWO.

Chen, Changhua; Xiao, Renzhen; Sun, Jun; Song, Zhimin; Huo, Shaofei; Bai, Xianchen; Shi, Yanchao; Liu, Guozhi [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)] [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Effects of water chemistry on itergranular cracking of irradiated austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To determine the effects of water chemistry on the susceptibility to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in austenitic stainless steels. constant-extension-rate tests were conducted in simulated BWR environments on several heats of high- and commercial-purity (HP and CP) Type 304 SS specimens from BWR components irradiated to fluences up to 2.4 {times} 10{sup 21} n cm{sup {minus}2} (E > I MeV). Effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) and electrochemical potential (ECP) in 289{degrees}C water were investigated. Dependence of Susceptibility to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) on DO was somewhat different for the two materials. Susceptibility of the HP heats. less influenced by DO and ECP, was higher than that of CP material for all DO and fluence levels. Percent IGSCC in the CP material was negligible for DO <0.01 ppm or ECP <{minus}140 mV SHE. Results of analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy indicated that the HP neutron absorber tubes were characterized by relatively lower concentrations of C, Ni, and Li and relatively higher concentrations of F and N on grain boundaries than those of the CP materials. It is suggested that a synergism between irradiation-induced grain-boundary Cr depletion and fabrication-related fluorine contamination plays an important role in the stress corrosion cracking behavior of the HP neutron absorber tubes.

Chung, H.M.; Ruther, W.E.; Sanecki, J.E.; Hins, A.; Kassner, T.F.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

466

Liquid scintillator for 2D dosimetry for high-energy photon beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complex radiation therapy techniques require dosimetric verification of treatment planning and delivery. The authors investigated a liquid scintillator (LS) system for application for real-time high-energy photon beam dosimetry. The system was comprised of a transparent acrylic tank filled with liquid scintillating material, an opaque outer tank, and a CCD camera. A series of images was acquired when the tank with liquid scintillator was irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam, and the light data measured with the CCD camera were filtered to correct for scattering of the optical light inside the liquid scintillator. Depth-dose and lateral profiles as well as two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions were found to agree with results from the treatment planning system. Further, the corrected light output was found to be linear with dose, dose rate independent, and is robust for single or multiple acquisitions. The short time needed for image acquisition and processing could make this system ideal for fast verification of the beam characteristics of the treatment machine. This new detector system shows a potential usefulness of the LS for 2D QA.

Poenisch, Falk; Archambault, Louis; Briere, Tina Marie; Sahoo, Narayan; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam; Gillin, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard., Unit 94, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

467

Investigation of a pulsed current annealing method in reusing MOSFET dosimeters for in vivo IMRT dosimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To explore the feasibility of pulsed current annealing in reusing metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters forin vivo intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry. Methods: Several MOSFETs were irradiated atd{sub max} using a 6 MV x-ray beam with 5 V on the gate and annealed with zero bias at r