Sample records for municipality china sector

  1. Scenario development in China's electricity sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steenhof, P.A.; Fulton, W. [Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography & Environmental Studies

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The continuing growth of China's electricity sector will affect global environmental and economic sustainability due to its impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and global resource depletion. In 2005, the generation of electricity in China resulted in the emissions of 2290 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide (approximately 53% of the nation's total) and required 779 million metric tonnes of coal (approximately 50% of China's total coal consumption). These figures are expected to increase with China's economic growth. In order to gauge the range in which fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions could grow a scenario-based conceptual model has been developed by the authors (published in this journal). The application and analysis of this shows that under a business as usual (BAU) scenario, electricity generation could contribute upwards of 56% of China's energy related greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. Meanwhile, consumption of coal will also increase, growing to nearly 60% of total national demand by 2020. However, variations in a number of key drivers could produce significant deviation from the BAU scenario. With accelerated economic output, even with greater technological advances and greater potential to bring natural gas on stream, carbon dioxide emissions would rise 10% above the BAU. Alternatively, in a scenario where China's economy grows at a tempered pace, less investment would be available for advanced technologies, developing natural gas infrastructure, or nuclear energy. In this scenario, reduced economic growth and electricity demand would thereby be countered by reduced efficiency and a higher contribution of coal.

  2. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    patterns of energy consumption, trends in saturation andand how the energy consumption trend could be changed in athe sectoral energy consumption trends in China in detail,

  3. Energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingsi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, I examine the spatial and economic factors that influence energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector, namely industrial value added, renovation investment, coke consumption, and local coke supply. ...

  4. The domestic travel sector in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Jeff, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China is already the largest domestic tourism market in the world. Chinese citizens made as many as 800 million overnight domestic trips in 2005. While travel is not a new concept in China, the disposable income they wield, ...

  5. Sustainable Energy Future in China's Building Sector 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    policies; this will generate significantly benefits given the fast- growing urbanization process and the number of buildings that will be constructed in the next 20 years in Chinese cities. ENERGY USE HISTORY AND OUTLOOK IN CHINA China...://www.energy.gov/ EIA. International Energy Outlook.2006. DOE, Washington. 2006. ERI. 2003. China’s Sustainable Energy Future. European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport. 2001. Information and Communication. Fisher-Vanden et al...

  6. Municipal Aggregation and Retail Competition in the Ohio Energy Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlechild, Stephen C

    communities Actual number of aggregating communities Ratio Actual to Proportionate Average low income electricity bill 2002 First Energy CEI 0.7 31 104 3.35 $77 OE 1.1 49 65 1.33 $67 TE 0.3 13 14 1.08 CGE/Duke 0.7 31 8 0.26 $52... should be drawn? Is municipal aggregation an efficient competitive mechanism, more 4 NOPEC July 2004, cited in Colton (2006) pp. 6,7. 5 NOPEC Year-end Report 2005. 6 Ohio Regulatory Update, Strategic Energy at http...

  7. Limited Sectoral Trading between the EU ETS and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limited Sectoral Trading between the EU ETS and China Claire Gavard, Niven Winchester and Sergey established research centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy analysis need to be related to the economic, technological, and political forces that drive emissions

  8. Energy use and CO2 emissions of China’s industrial sector from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick W.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China’s final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China’s per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095.

  9. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nuclear Historical Primary Energy Consumption by sector Energy Use by Sector (EJ Services Transportation Agriculture

  10. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    11 Calibration of the Energy Consumption Data forSectoral energy consumption data are available in publishedof the sectoral energy consumption data in the statistics

  11. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Price,Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis ofenergy consumption in China. It recalibrates official Chinese governmentstatistics by reallocating primary energy into categories more commonlyused in international comparisons. It also provides an analysis of trendsin sectoral energy consumption over the past decades. Finally, itassesses the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020,based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity,availability of energy services, and energy intensities. The followingare some highlights of the study's findings: * A reallocation of sectorenergy consumption from the 2000 official Chinese government statisticsfinds that: * Buildings account for 25 percent of primary energy, insteadof 19 percent * Industry accounts for 61 percent of energy instead of 69percent * Industrial energy made a large and unexpected leap between2000-2005, growing by an astonishing 50 percent in the 3 years between2002 and 2005. * Energy consumption in the iron and steel industry was 40percent higher than predicted * Energy consumption in the cement industrywas 54 percent higher than predicted * Overall energy intensity in theindustrial sector grew between 2000 and 2003. This is largely due tointernal shifts towards the most energy-intensive sub-sectors, an effectwhich more than counterbalances the impact of efficiency increases. *Industry accounted for 63 percent of total primary energy consumption in2005 - it is expected to continue to dominate energy consumption through2020, dropping only to 60 percent by that year. * Even assuming thatgrowth rates in 2005-2020 will return to the levels of 2000-2003,industrial energy will grow from 42 EJ in 2005 to 72 EJ in 2020. * Thepercentage of transport energy used to carry passengers (instead offreight) will double from 37 percent to 52 percent between 2000 to 2020,.Much of this increase is due to private car ownership, which willincrease by a factor of 15 from 5.1 million in 2000 to 77 million in2020. * Residential appliance ownership will show signs of saturation inurban households. The increase in residential energy consumption will belargely driven by urbanization, since rural homes will continue to havelow consumption levels. In urban households, the size of appliances willincrease, but its effect will be moderated by efficiency improvements,partially driven by government standards. * Commercial energy increaseswill be driven both by increases in floor space and by increases inpenetration of major end uses such as heating and cooling. Theseincreases will be moderated somewhat, however, by technology changes,such as increased use of heat pumps. * China's Medium- and Long-TermDevelopment plan drafted by the central government and published in 2004calls for a quadrupling of GDP in the period from 2000-2020 with only adoubling in energy consumption during the same period. A bottom-upanalysis with likely efficiency improvements finds that energyconsumption will likely exceed the goal by 26.12 EJ, or 28 percent.Achievements of these goals will there fore require a more aggressivepolicy of encouraging energy efficiency.

  12. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fall in China's coal use and energy intensity after 1995 wasLPG is a major energy source, while coal and electricity arewas the dominance of coal in the energy structure. From 51%

  13. Radiative forcing due to major aerosol emitting sectors in China and India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    emissions in key sectors of China and India using the GISS-E2 chemistry-climate model. Diesel trucks aerosol sources is essential for making effective emission control decisions to mitigate climate change, annual average forcings due mainly to the direct and indirect effects of BC. Emissions from these two

  14. A Sectoral Prospective Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China, USA and France, 2010-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A Sectoral Prospective Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China, USA and France, 2010-2050 Pascal da mitigation targets for CO2 emissions, which reflect their own specific situations. In this article, scenarios for CO2 emissions up to 2050 are set up for three representative countries: the United States of America

  15. Life cycle assessment of four municipal solid waste management scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong Jinglan, E-mail: hongjing@sdu.edu.c [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li Xiangzhi [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, 1301 Catherine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zhaojie Cui [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of municipal solid waste. Four scenarios mostly used in China were compared to assess the influence of various technologies on environment: (1) landfill, (2) incineration, (3) composting plus landfill, and (4) composting plus incineration. In all scenarios, the technologies significantly contribute to global warming and increase the adverse impact of non-carcinogens on the environment. The technologies played only a small role in the impact of carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and non-renewable energy. Similarly, the influence of the technologies on the way other elements affect the environment was ignorable. Specifically, the direct emissions from the operation processes involved played an important role in most scenarios except for incineration, while potential impact generated from transport, infrastructure and energy consumption were quite small. In addition, in the global warming category, highest potential impact was observed in landfill because of the direct methane gas emissions. Electricity recovery from methane gas was the key factor for reducing the potential impact of global warming. Therefore, increasing the use of methane gas to recover electricity is highly recommended to reduce the adverse impact of landfills on the environment.

  16. Reference: Delgoulet, C., Gaudart, C. & Chassaing. K (2009). Job entry and on-the-job skills acquisition in the construction sector, Proceedings of The XVIIth Trienal congress of IEA, Beijing (China), the 9-14th of August.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acquisition in the construction sector, Proceedings of The XVIIth Trienal congress of IEA, Beijing (China

  17. Informal electronic waste recycling: A sector review with special focus on China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chi Xinwen, E-mail: x.chi@pgrad.unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie Street, Carlton, VIC 3010 (Australia); Streicher-Porte, Martin [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Technology and Society Laboratory, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Wang, Mark Y.L. [Department of Resource Management and Geography, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie Street, Carlton, VIC 3010 (Australia); Reuter, Markus A. [Outotec Pty Ltd., Melbourne, 12 Kitchen Road, Dandenong, VIC 3175 (Australia)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Informal recycling is a new and expanding low cost recycling practice in managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste). It occurs in many developing countries, including China, where current gaps in environmental management, high demand for second-hand electronic appliances and the norm of selling e-waste to individual collectors encourage the growth of a strong informal recycling sector. This paper gathers information on informal e-waste management, takes a look at its particular manifestations in China and identifies some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach. Informal e-waste recycling is not only associated with serious environmental and health impacts, but also the supply deficiency of formal recyclers and the safety problems of remanufactured electronic products. Experiences already show that simply prohibiting or competing with the informal collectors and informal recyclers is not an effective solution. New formal e-waste recycling systems should take existing informal sectors into account, and more policies need to be made to improve recycling rates, working conditions and the efficiency of involved informal players. A key issue for China's e-waste management is how to set up incentives for informal recyclers so as to reduce improper recycling activities and to divert more e-waste flow into the formal recycling sector.

  18. What China Can Learn from International Experiences in Developing a Demand Response Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    report on China’s Electricity Sector Statistics (2007).Overview on China’s Electricity Sector Development in 2010.report on China’s Electricity Sector Statistics (2011).

  19. Implications of the market and regulatory environment in China on multinational water companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lung, Wen Zheng

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amidst China's rapid industrialization and urbanization following market-oriented reforms in its economy, the shortcomings of the state-controlled municipal water sector was brought to the fore. The Chinese government ...

  20. Energy use and conservation in China`s residential and commercial sectors: Patterns, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, F.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the determinants of residential and commercial energy demand, profiles the patterns and problems of energy consumption, and evaluates popular energy conservation measures of the People`s Republic of China. It also discusses technological and institutional opportunities for realizing greater energy conservation. General characteristics related to energy use include: population growth, economic growth, residential and commercial energy, and improved standards of living. Specific end-use areas that are examined in detail are space heating, cooking and water heating, and lighting and appliances.

  1. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and costs in China's electricity sector,” Energy Policy 38 (62 5.1 Electricity SectorSector Analysis 5.1 Electricity Sector Introduction China’s

  2. Emissions of PCDD/Fs from municipal solid waste incinerators in China Yuwen Ni, Haijun Zhang, Su Fan, Xueping Zhang, Qing Zhang, Jiping Chen *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Emissions of PCDD/Fs from municipal solid waste incinerators in China Yuwen Ni, Haijun Zhang, Su February 2009 Available online 21 March 2009 Keywords: MSWIs PCDD/Fs Congener patterns Emission factor a b s t r a c t Gas emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD

  3. Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Wei, E-mail: zhaowei.tju@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning University of Technology, 121000 Jinzhou (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huppes, Gjalt, E-mail: huppes@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der, E-mail: Voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

  4. Industrial Sector Energy Conservation Programs in the People's Republic of China during the Seventh Five-Year Plan (1986-1990)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhiping, L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy demand. The energy consumption mix i n China'sstructure and product mix in energy-intensive industries;Table 4). The sector's mix of energy sources that year was

  5. COMPARISON BETWEEN FRESH AND AGED MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES AND THEIR RECYCLING METHODS IN CHINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Zhou; D. Chen; W. Cui

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SUMMARY: Fresh municipal solid wastes (MSW) and aged MSW including MSW from landfills and dumpsite have been characterized and compared by their components, moisture content and lower heat value (LHV) in order to recycle and dispose them properly. Firstly the characterizing experiments were performed and the results showed that generally the fresh MSW are of high moisture contents and their LHV is below 6500kJ/kg; and when 40 % of plastics were separated, their LHV is less than 5000kJ/kg. Combustibles in aged MSW were easily to be separated and their LHV is higher than 11000kJ/kg as just separated. Analysis of aged MSW of different years ’ old showed that as MSW became older the moisture and paper contents decreased. No leachate produced from aged MSW during the analysis and separation process. For both fresh MSW and aged MSW the main contributor to LHV is plastics. Secondly a simple separating system consisting of a roller screen and a winnower is used to separate plastics from fresh MSW and aged MSW, and the quality of plastics were compared by their physical parameters after made into pellets; the results showed that plastics from fresh MSW can be recycled as raw material for secondary product; while plastics separated from aged MSW are of lower quality and only suitable to be recycled as fuel material. Finally different recycling methods were suggested for fresh and aged MSWs based on their characteristics. 1.

  6. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of reform in China’s electricity sector. Pacific Affairs 77,Statistics for the Electricity Sector [????? 2009 ??????????of reform in China’s electricity sector. Pacific Affairs 77,

  7. The Political Economy of Wind Power in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, Ryan Landon

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to transform China’s electricity sector Ryan Landon Swansonto transform China’s electricity sector Ryan Landon SwansonAgency (IEA), China‘s electricity sector in 2007 accounted

  8. WHAT TO EXPECT FROM SECTORAL TRADING: A US-CHINA EXAMPLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and increases electricity generation. Keywords: Climate; sectoral agreements; emissions trading; carbon leakage an Emissions Trading Scheme, international negotiations aim to foster wider agreements, particularly

  9. What to Expect from Sectoral Trading: A U.S.–China Example

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavard, Claire

    In recent United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations, sectoral mechanisms were proposed as a way to encourage early action and spur investment in low carbon technologies in developing ...

  10. Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yu, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal and coke from a macroeconomic perspective, I apply the ...

  11. Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of municipal solid waste energy resources and technologies supplemented by specific information to apply waste to energy within the Federal sector.

  12. China's fuel gas sector: History, current status, and future prospects Chi-Jen Yang a,c,*, Yipei Zhou b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    in cylinders and can- isters in rural areas. Natural gas consumption is increasing throughout China, particularly as a cooking fuel. Expanding the production and supply of natural gas in China faces many challenges. In particular, China's controls on natural gas prices have deterred investment in exploration

  13. China's Pathways to Achieving 40% ~ 45% Reduction in CO{sub 2} Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Ke, Jing

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP) by 40% to 45% percent below 2005 levels by 2020 will require the strengthening and expansion of energy efficiency policies across the buildings, industries and transport sectors. This study uses a bottom-up, end-use model and two scenarios -- an enhanced energy efficiency (E3) scenario and an alternative maximum technically feasible energy efficiency improvement (Max Tech) scenario – to evaluate what policies and technical improvements are needed to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. The findings from this study show that a determined approach by China can lead to the achievement of its 2020 goal. In particular, with full success in deepening its energy efficiency policies and programs but following the same general approach used during the 11th Five Year Plan, it is possible to achieve 49% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP (CO{sub 2} emissions intensity) in 2020 from 2005 levels (E3 case). Under the more optimistic but feasible assumptions of development and penetration of advanced energy efficiency technology (Max Tech case), China could achieve a 56% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions intensity in 2020 relative to 2005 with cumulative reduction of energy use by 2700 Mtce and of CO{sub 2} emissions of 8107 Mt CO{sub 2} between 2010 and 2020. Energy savings and CO{sub 2} mitigation potential varies by sector but most of the energy savings potential is found in energy-intensive industry. At the same time, electricity savings and the associated emissions reduction are magnified by increasing renewable generation and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring the dual importance of end-use efficiency improvements and power sector decarbonization.

  14. China’s Defense Electronics Industry: Innovation, Adaptation, and Espionage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulvenon, James; Luce, Matthew

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2010 China’s Defense Electronics Industry: Innovation,of the Chinese defense electronics sector can be attributedAdvanced defense electronics components and systems play a

  15. Operational energy consumption and GHG emissions in residential sector in urban China : an empirical study in Jinan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiyang, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven by rapid urbanization and increasing household incomes, residential energy consumption in urban China has been growing steadily in the past decade, posing critical energy and greenhouse gas emission challenges. ...

  16. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China’s 2008 Thermal Electricity Sector CO 2 Emissions byheat. Share of thermal electricity sector’s CO 2 emissionsheat. Share of thermal electricity sector’s CO 2 emissions

  17. China’s Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In line with its aim to meet growing energy demand while shifting away from coal, China has set an ambitious goal of doubling its use of natural gas from 2011 levels by 2015. Prospects are good for significant new supplies – both domestic and imported, conventional and unconventional – to come online in the medium term, but notable challenges remain, particularly concerning gas pricing and the institutional and regulatory landscape. While China’s circumstances are, in many respects unique, some current issues are similar to those a number of IEA countries have faced. This report highlights some key challenges China faces in its transition to greater reliance on natural gas, then explores in detail relevant IEA experience, particularly in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the European Union, and the United States. Preliminary suggestions about how lessons learned in other countries could be applied to China’s situation are offered as well. The aim is to provide stakeholders in China with a useful reference as they consider decisions about the evolution of the gas sector in their country. PARTNER COUNTRY SERIES

  18. Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China's building sector--A review of energy and climate models forecast,China's building sector--A review of energy and climate models forecast,

  19. Probe into Gaseous Pollution and Assessment of Air Quality Benefit under Sector Dependent Emission Control Strategies over Megacities in Yangtze River Delta, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xinyi; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S.; Li, Juan; Huang, Kan; Zhuang, G.; Zhou, Ying

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 29th 2012, China published its new National Ambient Air Quality Standard (CH-NAAQS) aiming at revising the standards and measurements for both gaseous pollutants including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and also particle pollutants including PM10 and PM2.5. In order to understand the air pollution status regarding this new standard, the integrated MM5/CMAQ modeling system was applied over Yangtze River Delta (YRD) within this study to examine the criteria gaseous pollutants listed in the new CH-NAAQS. Sensitivity simulations were also conducted to assess the responses of gaseous pollutants under 8 different sector-dependent emission reduction scenarios in order to evaluate the potential control strategies. 2006 was selected as the simulation year in order to review the air quality condition at the beginning of China’s 11th Five-Year-Plan (FYP, from 2006 to 2010), and also compared with air quality status in 2010 as the end of 11th FYP to probe into the effectiveness of the national emission control efforts. Base case simulation showed distinct seasonal variation for gaseous pollutants: SO2, and NO2 were found to have higher surface concentrations in winter while O3 was found to have higher concentrations in spring and summer than other seasons. According to the analyses focused on 3 megacities within YRD, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, we found different air quality conditions among the cities: NO2 was the primary pollutant that having the largest number of days exceeding the CH-NAAQS daily standard (80 ?g/m3) in Shanghai (59 days) and Nanjing (27 days); SO2 was the primary pollutant with maximum number of days exceeding daily air quality standard (150 ?g/m3) in Hangzhou (28 days), while O3 exceeding the daily maximum 8-hour standard (160 ?g/m3) for relatively fewer days in all the three cities (9 days in Shanghai, 14 days in Nanjing, and 11 days in Hangzhou). Simulation results from predefined potential applicable emission control scenarios suggested significant air quality improvements from emission reduction: 90% of SO2 emission removed from power plant in YRD would be able to reduce more than 85% of SO2 pollution, 85% NOx emission reduction from power plant would reduce more than 60% of NO2 pollution, in terms of reducing the number of days exceeding daily air quality standard. NOx emission reduction from transportation and industry were also found to effectively reduce NO2 pollution but less efficient than emission control from power plants. We also found that multi-pollutants emission control including both NOx and VOC would be a better strategy than independent NOx control over YRD which is China’s 12th Five-Year-Plan (from 2011 to 2015), because O3 pollution would be increased as a side effect of NOx control and counteract NO2 pollution reduction benefit.

  20. China Energy Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  1. China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heater Residential CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) 2020 ResidentialEnergy Industrial Sector CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) IndustrialFigure 5. Power Sector CO2 Emissions by Scenario E3 Max Tech

  2. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  3. Municipal strategies for affordable housing : incenting an exacting public goods from private developers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Ari Alowan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis studies the next generation of municipal housing policy by asking, "How can cities effectively use the private-sector to promote affordable housing development?" In response, it looks at an array of public-sector ...

  4. Industrial Sector Energy Conservation Programs in the People's Republic of China during the Seventh Five-Year Plan (1986-1990)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhiping, L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GOV) and energy consumption grew at annual rates of 12% and 5.6% respectively, and the average energy intensity of China's

  5. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and rural sectors. Second, since electricity access is basically universal in China, electrification

  6. Industrial Sector Energy Conservation Programs in the People's Republic of China during the Seventh Five-Year Plan (1986-1990)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhiping, L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the Ministry of Metallurgy. (6) Coal gas recovery fromby the Ministry of Metallurgy. China's most energy-efficientNo. 1,1991. Ministry of Metallurgy (MOM), Zhongguo Gangti

  7. Cassava, a potential biofuel crop in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansson, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cassava, a potential biofuel crop in China Christer Janssoncassava; bioethanol; biofuel; metabolic engineering; Chinathe potentials of cassava in the biofuel sector and point to

  8. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  9. Municipal Utility Districts (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Municipal Utility Districts, regulated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, may be created for the following purposes: (1) the control, storage, preservation, and distribution of its...

  10. SCOPE CHINA SCOPE CHINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    SCOPE CHINA SCOPE CHINA 92030006 86-351-7010700 86-351-7010700 E-mail: scope #12;SCOPE-ZHONGYU ENvirONmENtal FOrUm 2012 October 11-14, 2012 Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China Chair of Environmental Development Dr. Shu Sun, Academician, President of SCOPE CAST China Former Vice President

  11. Industrial sector energy conservation programs in the People`s Republic of China during the seventh five-year plan (1986--1990)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Zhiping [State Planning Commission, Beijing (China). Energy Research Inst.; Sinton, J.E.; Yang Fuqiang; Levine, M.D.; Ting, M.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impetus at the national level to invest in energy conservation is quite strong and has long been reflected not only in official pronouncements, but also in the investments and organizational activities of the Chinese government. In the early 1980s the central government began a program of direct investments in industrial energy conservation that continues to the present. In addition, concurrently established governmental and quasi-governmental agencies have pursued conservation through administrative and educational measures. In Section 2 of this paper the authors outline the policies and institutions that supported China`s program of energy conservation investments in the Sixth and Seventh Five-Year Plans (FYPs) (1981--1985 and 1986--1990). In Section 3 they describe examples of the types of conservation projects pursued in four industrial subsectors: ferrous metals manufacturing; non-ferrous metals mining and manufacturing; chemicals manufacturing; and building materials manufacturing. Section 4 presents a simple methodology for comparing the costs of energy conservation to those of energy supply. Further discussion points out the applicability and limitations of this methodology to State Planning Commission published statistical material on the overall results of energy conservation investments. Though problematic, such analysis indicates that energy conservation investments were probably substantially cheaper than investments in equivalent energy supply would have been. They end with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered in carrying out the conservation investment programs.

  12. PSNH- Municipal Smart Start Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Public Service of New Hampshire (PSNH), an electric utility, offers the Smart Start Program to Municipal customers. This program assists municipalities in reducing energy consumption and electric...

  13. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions are allocated to that sector accordingly. Biogas.The majority of biogas consumed in China is from rural

  14. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    update for 2004. Energy input tables for China are compiled every year for major energy consuming sectors

  15. EU, CHINA AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGE IN AFRICA A case study from timber industry in Gabon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 EU, CHINA AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGE IN AFRICA A case study from timber industry: .....................................................................................................................................................2 Part I: The EU, China and the external environmental dimension....................................................................3 1.1 China as a competitor normative power in the environmental sector

  16. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy Consumption:10. China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy: Sectoral16 Table 11. China's 2008 CO 2 Emissions from Energy:

  17. Municipal Energy Reduction Fund

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In March 2010, the New Hampshire Community Development Finance Authority (CDFA) launched a revolving loan program to encourage the state’s municipal governments to invest in energy efficiency and...

  18. The mixed economy in China: through rhetorical perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Yuchun

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed economies gradually emerge in many countries. China is no exception. China's traditional planned economy system is limited to state-owned enterprises, which are undergoing reform. In the private sector, the market system has begun to play a...

  19. Coal in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  1. Waste Incineration in China page 1 Figure 1: Visit to MWI in Harbin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Waste Incineration in China page 1 Figure 1: Visit to MWI in Harbin Waste Incineration in China Balz Solenthaler, Rainer Bunge Summary China currently operates 19 municipal waste incinerators (MWI of the low calorific value of the waste (approx. 5 MJ/kg), incineration on a fluidized bed and the addition

  2. The China-in-Global Energy Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, T.

    The China-in-Global Energy Model (C-GEM) is a global Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model that captures the interaction of production, consumption and trade among multiple global regions and sectors – including five ...

  3. Sustainable Energy Future in China's Building Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gases emission. Energy consumption in buildings could be reduced by 100-300 million tons of oil equivalent (mtoe) in 2030 compared to the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, which means that 600-700 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions...

  4. "Market Watch 2010" The Timber Sector in Malaysia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sectors are palm oil & palm oil-based products, crude petroleum, liquefied natural gas and timber Major export countries for Malaysian goods are Singapore, Japan, China, India, Korea as well, the Republic of Singapore, the European Union, the People's Republic of China and Japan. Malaysian FDI reached

  5. Natural Gas and China’s Environment 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greater utilization of natural gas could dramatically improve environmental conditions in China. Results show that China could cut particulate, sulfur dioxide, and carbon emissions by 1, 3, and 70 million tons, respectively, each year if it boosts gas utilization to 10 percent of total energy demand by 2020. But the government first needs to establish a broad new array of market reforms to make this happen. Developing the natural gas sector makes sense economically, independent of carbon control efforts, but an international agreement to credit reductions in carbon emissions could stimulate significant new foreign investment for gas projects in China.

  6. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  7. A portfolio approach to energy governance : state management of China's coal and electric power supply industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Edward A., IV (Edward Albert)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study addresses the extent to which China's central state devolved ownership and investment levels in its energy sector to other actors during the modern reform period (1978- 2008). The project focused on China's coal ...

  8. Preliminary -November 30, 2010 INNOVATE SYMPOSIUM: Globalization and Technology in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Preliminary - November 30, 2010 INNOVATE SYMPOSIUM: Globalization and Technology in China examination of economic and technological development and innovation between China and their own home study of factors affecting their respective technology sectors. The INNOVATE itinerary

  9. Illinois Municipal Electric Agency- Electric Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Municipal Electric Agency (IMEA) offers rebates to member municipal utilities* (those who purchase wholesale electric service from IMEA) and retail customers for energy efficiency...

  10. Essays on Municipal Public Finance in Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Rachel Elizabeth

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Municipal Public Finance in Brazil By Rachel Elizabethon Municipal Public Finance in Brazil by Rachel Elizabethlocal public finance in Brazil, with a focus on how federal

  11. Municipal Energy Plan Program (Ontario, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ontario is supporting local energy planning by introducing the Municipal Energy Plan (MEP) program. The MEP program is designed to help municipalities better understand their local energy needs ...

  12. Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Certain municipal utilities in Massachusetts, in cooperation with Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company ([http://www.mmwec.org/ MMWEC]), have begun offering energy efficiency...

  13. An investigation into the use of REITs to finance affordable housing in Mainland China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yuxuan, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mainland China's system of affordable housing provides housing for low and medium income groups. Housing for sale and housing for rent give residents two choices and also give two choices for municipal governments to provide ...

  14. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  15. The Greening of the Middle Kingdom: The Story of Energy Efficiency in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark D.; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dominant image of China's energy system is of billowing smokestacks from the combustion of coal. More heavily dependent on coal than any other major country, China uses it for about 70 percent of its energy (NBS, 2008). Furthermore, until recently, China had very few environmental controls on emissions from coal combustion; recent efforts to control sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions appear to be meeting with some success (Economy, 2007, 2009). Figure 1 shows the dominant use of coal in China's energy system from 1950 to 1980 (NBS, various years). However, this is just one side of China's energy story. Figure 2 illustrates the second part, and what may be the most important part of the story - China's energy system since 1980, shortly after Deng Xiaoping assumed full leadership. This figure compares the trends in energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) by indexing both values to 100 in 1980. The upper line shows what energy consumption in China would have been if it had grown at the same rate as GDP, since energy consumption usually increases in lockstep with GDP in an industrializing, developing country, at least until it reaches a high economic level. The lower line in Figure 2 shows China's actual energy consumption, also indexed to 1980. The striking difference between the lines shows that GDP in China grew much faster than energy demand from 1980 to 2002. As a result, by 2002 energy and energy-related carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were more than 40% percent of what they would have been if energy and GDP had grown in tandem. In the next chapter of China's energy history, from 2002 to 2005, the increase in energy demand outstripped a very rapidly growing economy, and because of the large size of the Chinese economy, the increase had substantial impacts. The construction of power plants increased to 100 gigawatts per year; over the three-year period newly constructed plants had a capacity of more than 30 percent of total electricity-generation capacity in the United States. At the same time, energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in China increased dramatically. In the latest stage, another abrupt change, this time for the better in terms of energy efficiency, began late in 2005. As senior officials in the government turned their attention to the problem of growing energy demand, the government set a mandatory goal for 2010 of a 20 percent reduction in energy intensity (defined as energy use per unit of GDP) from 2005 levels. To meet this goal, China undertook significant legislative, regulatory, and organizational reforms at the national, provincial, and municipal levels to ensure that measures to reduce energy intensity would be implemented in all sectors and activities in China. At the time of this writing, it appears that China is on its way to meeting the 20 percent goal, thus reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.5 billion tones, as compared with consumption at 2005 energy-intensity levels. In this paper, we describe and assess these three significant periods in China's energy story and provide a context by briefly reviewing the three decades prior to 1980.

  16. Modeling regional transportation demand in China and the impacts of a national carbon constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kishimoto, Paul

    2015-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate and energy policy in China will have important and uneven impacts on the country’s regionally heterogeneous transport system. In order to simulate these impacts, transport sector detail is added to a multi-sector, ...

  17. Household operational energy consumption in urban China : a multilevel analysis on Jinan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dong, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With decades of economic growth and socio-economic transformation, China's residential sector has seen rapid expansion in energy consumption, and is now the second largest energy consuming sector in the country. Faced with ...

  18. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-Fired Electricity Generation Technology Shares and Efficiencies, 2005- Figure 54 China CIS Total and Power Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions,coal capacity 100-200 MW power sector carbon dioxide emissionsemissions. Table 41 Comparison of CCS Assumptions in Different Studies % of Coal Power

  19. In China's Mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barros de Castro, Antônio

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of California, Berkeley In China’s Mirror * Antônio Barrosthe article “No Espelho da China,” which originally appearedThomas, “Produtos Baratos da China Facilitam a Vida de

  20. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China’s domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robertpeak will come around 2020, 24 and that by this point, China’s demand Oil

  1. Web-GIS oriented systems viability for municipal solid waste selective collection optimization in developed and transient economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rada, E.C., E-mail: Elena.Rada@ing.unitn.it [University of Trento, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, Via Mesiano, 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Ragazzi, M. [University of Trento, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, Via Mesiano, 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Fedrizzi, P. [I and S, Informatica e Servizi srl, Via Solteri, 74, 38121 Trento (Italy)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? As an appropriate solution for MSW management in developed and transient countries. ? As an option to increase the efficiency of MSW selective collection. ? As an opportunity to integrate MSW management needs and services inventories. ? As a tool to develop Urban Mining actions. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste management is a multidisciplinary activity that includes generation, source separation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and recovery, and, last but not least, disposal. The optimization of waste collection, through source separation, is compulsory where a landfill based management must be overcome. In this paper, a few aspects related to the implementation of a Web-GIS based system are analyzed. This approach is critically analyzed referring to the experience of two Italian case studies and two additional extra-European case studies. The first case is one of the best examples of selective collection optimization in Italy. The obtained efficiency is very high: 80% of waste is source separated for recycling purposes. In the second reference case, the local administration is going to be faced with the optimization of waste collection through Web-GIS oriented technologies for the first time. The starting scenario is far from an optimized management of municipal solid waste. The last two case studies concern pilot experiences in China and Malaysia. Each step of the Web-GIS oriented strategy is comparatively discussed referring to typical scenarios of developed and transient economies. The main result is that transient economies are ready to move toward Web oriented tools for MSW management, but this opportunity is not yet well exploited in the sector.

  2. Municipal Support of Projects (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Municipalities may choose to support projects, such as those which will generate electricity through the use of a renewable energy source, by tax-exempt bond financing; easements for roads, water...

  3. Nationalities of China Province of China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang

    Outline Nationalities of China Province of China Language of China #12;Nationalities of China 56 of China A province is an administrative division of China. 33 province level divisions. 22 Provinces 4-level cities in China direct- controlled by the central government Beijing Tianjin Shanghai Chongqing #12

  4. Institute of Photo Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Zip: 300071 Sector: Solar Product: A thin-film solar cell research institute in China. References: Institute of Photo-Electronic Thin...

  5. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008) 5 Figure 1-6 China’s SolarFigure 1-6). Figure 1-6 China’s Solar Resources 3,200hs andin rural areas. China has abundant solar resources that can

  6. Contemporary China Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einmahl, Uwe

    Contemporary China Studies Postgraduate #12;Programme: Contemporary China Studies Postgraduate1 Chinese - Level 2 5 2 · Basic vocabulary & grammar Dealing with China: 3 1 Intercultural management · China's political constellation and its impact on business life · Human resources issues for China

  7. Sector 30 - useful links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Useful Links Sector 30 Printing from your laptop at the beamline Data retrival onsite from ftp:ftp.xray.aps.anl.govpubsector30 Sector Orientation Form HERIX experiment header...

  8. Development of a Low-Carbon Indicator System for China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    more efficient buildings/low energy buildings such as LEED-low carbon indicator value by indexing and weighting end-use indicators Residential includes buildings energylow carbon indicator for China’s commercial buildings sector is defined as commercial buildings final energy/

  9. Municipal Solid Waste in The United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    2007 Facts and Figures Municipal Solid Waste in The United States #12;United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste (5306P) EPA530-R-08-010 November 2008 www.epa.gov #12;MUNICIPAL SOLID ............................................................................................................................... 1 WHAT IS INCLUDED IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

  10. Advanced Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Ashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Ashes Preparatory thesis Randi Skytte Pedersen is to investigate Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes with respect to particle sizes, structures and composition with characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes from the Danish power plant M°abjergværket, Holstebro. MSW

  11. Municipal Solid Waste in The United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barlaz, Morton A.

    2011 Facts and Figures Municipal Solid Waste in The United States #12;United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste (5306P) EPA530-R-13-001 May 2013 www.epa.gov #12;MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN THE UNITED STATES: 2011 FACTS AND FIGURES Table of Contents Chapter Page MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

  12. Illegal Logging and Illegal Activites in the Forestry Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illegal Logging and Illegal Activites in the Forestry Sector : Overview and Possible Issues, China #12;Quebec Wood Export Bureau Why Illegal logging and illegal activities ? ­ Threats for our export members companies ? · Unfair competition ? · New trade barriers ? Literature review ­ Data

  13. China's Dream Army

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MILLER, Joseph

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study of Innovation and Technology in China AN IGCC PROJECTleaders/21577070-vision-chinas- new-president-should-serve-In Case You Missed It: China Dream. ” The China Beat, April

  14. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    21, 2008. Ying, Wang. “ China, Venezuela firms to co-developoilfields. ” China Daily (27 August 2005) http://David and Bi Jianhai. “China’s Global Hunt for Energy. ”

  15. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    International Energy Agency (IEA), China’s Worldwide QuestSecurity, (Paris: OCED/IEA, 2000), 74. Thomas Woodrow, “TheInternational Energy Agency (IEA), China’s Worldwide Quest

  16. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2-1). In addition to attaining oil resources, China’s energyWith limited domestic oil resources, China’s major oilgrowth, limited crude oil resources and the late development

  17. China's Dream Army

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MILLER, Joseph

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in China Study of Innovation and Technology in China AN IGCCOffice. SITC Study of Innovation and Technology in ChinaStudy of Innovation and Technology in China AN IGCC PROJECT

  18. China Business Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einmahl, Uwe

    China Business Development Postgraduate Programme #12;Programme: China Business Development with China: Intercultural Management 3 1 Daily life and business behaviour explained from a cultural perspective Chinese strategic thinking China's political constellation and its impact on business life Human

  19. Outsourcing CO2 within China.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sectors, and 1 electricity sector. The regressions forsectors 6–21), and 1 electricity sector (sector 22). For gas

  20. Outsourcing CO2 within China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sectors, and 1 electricity sector. The regressions forsectors 6–21), and 1 electricity sector (sector 22). For gas

  1. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    refer to IEA (2007), World Energy Outlook 2007: China andIEA (2007), World Energy Outlook 2007: China and India

  2. China's Civil-Military Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LAFFERTY, Brian; SHRABERG, Aaron; CLEMENS, Morgan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China’s civil-military integration, and China’s high tech2013 China’s Civil-Military Integration Brian LAFFERTY Aarons pursuit of civil-military integration (CMI) intensified in

  3. Hythane project by Hydrogen China Ltd and China Railway Construction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by Hydrogen China Ltd and China Railway Construction Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hythane project by Hydrogen China Ltd and China Railway Construction Corporation...

  4. Denton Municipal Electric- Standard Offer Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Within the GreenSense program, Denton Municipal Electric's Standard Offer Program provides rebates to large commercial and industrial customers for lighting retrofits, HVAC upgrades and motor...

  5. Lassen Municipal Utility District- PV Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lassen Municipal Utility District (LMUD) is providing incentives for its customers to purchase solar electric photovoltaic (PV) systems. Rebate levels will decrease annually over the life of the...

  6. 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Northwest Region Workshop, held in Seattle July 15, 2011.

  7. Role Of Informal Solid Waste Management Sector And Possibilities Of Integration; The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Role Of Informal Solid Waste Management Sector And Possibilities Of Integration; The Case 2047 GMT GPC Composition of Urban solid waste in India Organic 40% Recyclable 20% Inert debris 35% Misc religion. Attracts tourist from all over the globe. #12;Municipal Solid Waste management : Current Formal

  8. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    s inconsistent electricity sector development policies.Figure 3-14). The electricity sector, as categorized as anof this increase came from electricity sector emissions. The

  9. Draft Transcript on Municipal PV Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar on navigating the legal, tax, and finance issues associated with the installation of Municipal PV Systems. The following agenda was developed based on Pat Boylston's experience assisting municipalities with their PV projects and the requests for information that the Solar America City technical team leads have received from many of the 25 Solar America Cities since the April 2008 meeting in Tucson.

  10. Alameda Municipal Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Motors: 0.18per kWh saved Lighting: 0.20per kWh saved HVAC: 0.22per kWh saved Refrigeration: 0.22per kWh saved Provider Alameda Municipal Power Alameda Municipal Power...

  11. Federal, Municipal, Universities and Other ESPC Case Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal, Municipal, Universities and Other ESPC Case Studies from Different States Federal, Municipal, Universities and Other ESPC Case Studies from Different States Provides a...

  12. Toward Energy Efficient Municipalities: General Comments on Policy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Efficient Municipalities: General Comments on Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation Toward Energy Efficient Municipalities: General Comments on...

  13. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification The Bioenergy Technologies...

  14. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers the Demand and Energy Efficiency Program (DEEP) to eligible commercial, industrial, and municipal government customers served by OMPA. This...

  15. February 19, 2013 Webinar: Exploring How Municipal Utilities...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    February 19, 2013 Webinar: Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects February 19, 2013 Webinar: Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects This...

  16. Wakefield Municipal Gas and Light Department- Residential Conservation Services Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Wakefield Municipal Gas and Light Department (WMGLD), in cooperation with the Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company (MMWEC), offers the "Incentive Rebate Program" to encourage...

  17. Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act provides for planning for the processing and disposal of municipal waste; requires counties to submit plans for municipal waste management systems within their boundaries; authorizes...

  18. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs Jump to: navigation, search Name State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs AgencyCompany...

  19. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is...

  20. Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind Awards Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind...

  1. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commission (NDRC), China, http://zhangguobao.ndrc.gov.cn/of Land and Resources, China, January 19, 2009, http://NewsShow.asp? NewsID=10650. 6 China Energy Group (October

  2. Japan's China Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TAKAHASHI, Sugio

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    11, JANUARY 2012 Japan’s China Strategy Sugio TAKAHASHIAsia with the ascendancy of China as a world economic power.War policy of “shaping” China into a model country while “

  3. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China made an Iranian oil investment valued at $70 billion.across Iran, China’s oil investment may exceed $100 billionthese involving investment in oil and gas, really undermine

  4. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unfettered access to oil resources including the possibleChina’s search for oil resources around the world. However,a survey of China’s oil resources, while others focus

  5. Regulatory and technical barriers to wind energy integration in northeast China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Michael (Michael Roy)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China leads the world in installed wind capacity, which forms an integral part of its long-term goals to reduce the environmental impacts of the electricity sector. This primarily centrally-managed wind policy has concentrated ...

  6. FE-Funded Study Released on Key Factors Affecting China Shale...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    government gives priority to the development of China's shale gas sector to help fight air pollution and reduce reliance on natural gas imports; and The U.S. government supports...

  7. China's Political Uses of Seapower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    YOSHIHARA, Toshi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BRIEF 2013-6, APRIL 2013 China’s Political Uses of Seapowerassertiveness in the South China Seas is a harbinger ofdividends that advance China’s larger aims at sea. The Study

  8. China's Civil-Military Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LAFFERTY, Brian; SHRABERG, Aaron; CLEMENS, Morgan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    industrial development plans, China hopes that civilianin primary source research on China’s defense-related S&Tresearch interests in- clude China’s defense-related S&T

  9. China's Nuclear Industry After Fukushima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    YUAN, Jingdong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brief 2013-9 January 2013 China’s Nuclear Industry Aftera significant impact on the future of China’s nuclear power.the importance of safety as China builds more nuclear power

  10. Trip to China

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to China By row boat or by plane... 16 hours later Linda Field Patent Counsel Department of Energy Destination: Wuhan, China Purpose: Innovation Promotion in CERC - IP Clarity &...

  11. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    s Energy Administration .30same time, the National Energy Administration has agreed toRegulation China’s energy administration has operated in a

  12. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Will Start Its State Oil Reserve, JOGMEC, February 4, 2005.s Proved Oil Reserves (2008) . 215 Table 2-3 China’s Current Strategic Oil Reserve

  13. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Regulation ..power reactor (AP-1000) 2. Energy Regulation China’s energys Renewable Energy Law and Regulations, Center for Renewable

  14. Concord Municipal Light Plant- Solar Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Concord Municipal Light Plant (CMLP) offers rebates to customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems that are designed to offset the customer's electrical needs. Systems must be owned by...

  15. Alameda Municipal Power- Residential Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alameda Municipal Power (AMP) offers a grant to help its residential customers who have electric heat weatherize homes to increase efficiency. To participate, customers must complete and send in a...

  16. 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Northeast Region Workshop, held in Philadelphia, May 19–20, 2011.

  17. 2011 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Southwest Region Workshop, held in San Jose, California, August 25­–26, 2011.

  18. 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Southwest Region Workshop, held in Los Angeles on September 30, 2010.

  19. River Falls Municipal Utilities- Distributed Solar Tariff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    River Falls Municipal Utilities (RFMU), a member of WPPI Energy, offers a special energy purchase rate to its customers that generate electricity using solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. The special...

  20. Experimental analysis of municipal solid waste samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendoza Sanchez, Itza

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE SAMPLES A Thesis by ITZA MENDOZA SANCHEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University tn partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 2002 Major Subject: Civil Engmeering EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE SAMPLES A Thesis by ITZA MENDOZA SANCHEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M Umversity in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  1. U.S.-China Trade Relations, 1983: Six Essays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bays, Daniel H.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and political areas of China.18 In addition, foreign engineering, technology and equip ment will be major components in the development of other high priority sectors like hydropower, coal, port and railway construc tion and light industry.19 A final... are the machinery industry and consumer goods. In April 1982 a People's Daily editorial singled out the automotive vehicle industry as well as seamless steel pipe, mining equipment and other sectors as suffering from the effects of "blind imports."25 Shanghai...

  2. SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China; 2 Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China; 3 School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute

  3. ESCO Industry in China

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information about the development, achievements, and functions of the China Energy Conservation project and ESCO.

  4. SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Density-functional-theory formulation of classical and quantum Hooke's law. Sci China Tech Sci, 2014, 57- sider an equilibrium lattice without strain (=0), but elec- #12;Hu H, et al. Sci China Tech Sci April

  5. . RESEARCH PAPER . SCIENCE CHINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . RESEARCH PAPER . SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences January 2013, Vol. 56 012104:1­012104:10 doi: 10.1007/s11432-012-4616-5 c Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 info, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; 2Beijing Aerospace Control Center, Beijing 100094, China; 3

  6. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lighting and other electric application will increase their share to 18% (Figure 13). In comparison,

  7. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency) Scenario: Ref Region: All Regions Boiler GasEfficiencies End Use Technology District Heating Boiler GasCogen Boiler Stove Heat Pump Figure 48 Example of Efficiency

  8. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of primary energy excluding biomass fuels. Figure 10 showsof primary energy without counting biomass fuels which areFinal Energy Consumption by Fuel (with Biomass) Coal

  9. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oil, coke, other Coal,oil and oil product, crude oil, otherCoal,oil and oil product, crude oil, other Diesel, GasolinePipelin e Crude oil, oil products, NG, other Gas electricity

  10. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    12, August, pp. 1499-1507 IEA, 1997. Indicators of Energyand Human Activity , Paris, IEA/OECD. Institute of EnergyInternational Energy Agency (IEA), 2001, Energy Statistics

  11. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    31% of the world’s energy consumption increase from 2003 totrends in energy consumption in the world’s largest country.s energy consumption has a growing impact on world energy

  12. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ci ty Heat NG Fuel Oil Heavy oil Electri city Heat Coal CokeElectr icity H eat Coal Heavy oil NG Electr icity H eat NGRef Region: All Regions Heavy Oil Electricity Heat Variable:

  13. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    share). Coal Oil Gas Hydropower Biomass Figure 5 ResidentialRenewables Oil Nuclear Gas Hydropower Figure 6 ResidentialCoal Oil Nuclear Gas Hydropower Figure 10 Commercial Primary

  14. Limited Sectoral Trading between the EU ETS and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavard, Claire

    2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In the negotiations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), new market mechanisms are proposed to involve Non-Annex I countries in the carbon markets developed by Annex I countries, beyond ...

  15. Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector: An Overview of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from agriculture, and analyze how these efforts would in turn impact agricultural productivity and trade. In order to realize this goal, we have the following specific...

  16. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Japan which has short-hauls and small trucks turns out to beFor example trucks and locomotives used to haul freight can

  17. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Walsh, M. , 2005. “Oil consumption and CO 2 emissions inadjustment. Fuel oil. Fuel oil consumption figures includeonly 26% of total oil consumption. On an adjusted basis,

  18. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas boiler boiler stove district heating heat pump airsmall cogen stove district heating heat pump Central AC Roomrespectively, followed by district heating of 22%, while in

  19. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel Oil Natural Gas Electricity Total Transportation FuelHeavy Oil Natural Gas Electricity Heat Total Transportation

  20. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal Heat Pump Central AC by NG electric water heaterwater heating Technologies Electric heater gas boiler boiler small cogen stove district heating heat pump

  1. Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector: An Overview of Impacts,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png El CER esDatasetCity ofClarkEnergy -Project Phase

  2. Where is the North ChinaSouth China block boundary in eastern China?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Where is the North China­South China block boundary in eastern China? Michel Faure, Wei Lin of the North China and South China blocks. The eastern extension of the belt (the Sulu area) consists and the lack of ocean-basin rock shows that the boundary between the North China block and South China block

  3. Hepp and Speer Sectors within Modern Strategies of Sector Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Smirnov; V. A. Smirnov

    2008-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Hepp and Speer sectors were successfully used in the sixties and seventies for proving mathematical theorems on analytically or/and dimensionally regularized and renormalized Feynman integrals at Euclidean external momenta. We describe them within recently developed strategies of introducing iterative sector decompositions. We show that Speer sectors are reproduced within one of the existing strategies.

  4. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum, 1995. China's biomass, solar, wind, tidal, anda focus of China's rural power development, with solar waterPassive solar design has been incor- II-6 China Energy

  5. China's Space Robotic Arms Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    POLLPETER, Kevin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SITC Study of Innovation and Technology in ChinaStudy of Innovation and Technology in China AN IGCC PROJECTand-security/innovation-and-technology-in-china/sitc-

  6. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advertising Co. China Automotive Industry Corporation andQiche Gongye Nianjian (China Automotive Industry Yearbook).Board of the China Automotive Industry Yearbook. Editorial

  7. Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities Arun to minimize public health and environmental impacts. Landfilling is the process by which residual solid waste is placed in a landfill. #12;Case in Supreme Court · Pathetic condition of Solid waste practices in India

  8. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1996 19950414. Municipal solid waste processing facility andconversion of municipal-solid-waste to ethanol. Biotechnol.Bioconversion of municipal solid waste to glucose for bio-

  9. Industrial energy efficiency policy in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese industrial sector energy-efficiency policy has gone through a number of distinct phases since the founding of the People s Republic in 1949. An initial period of energy supply growth in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s was followed by implementation of significant energy efficiency programs in the 1980s. Many of these programs were dismantled in the 1990s during the continuing move towards a market-based economy. In an effort to once again strengthen energy efficiency, the Chinese government passes the Energy Conservation Law in 1997 which provides broad guidance for the establishment of energy efficiency policies. Article 20 of the Energy Conservation Law requires substantial improvement in industrial energy efficiency in the key energy-consuming industrial facilities in China. This portion of the Law declares that ''the State will enhance energy conservation management in key energy consuming entities.'' In 1999, the industrial sector consumed nearly 30 EJ, or 76 percent of China's primary energy. Even though primary energy consumption has dropped dramatically in recent years, due mostly to a decline in coal consumption, the Chinese government is still actively developing an overall policy for energy efficiency in the industrial sector modeled after policies in a number of industrialized countries. This paper will describe recent Chinese government activities to develop industrial sector energy-efficiency targets as a ''market-based'' mechanism for improving the energy efficiency of key industrial facilities.

  10. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. China's Nuclear Industry After Fukushima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    YUAN, Jingdong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2013-9 January 2013 China’s Nuclear Industry After FukushimaMarch 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident has had a significanton the future of China’s nuclear power. First, it highlights

  12. China’s Space Industry in 2009: A Year in Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollpeter, Kevin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of historic challenges. As China’s leading space industryprob- lems associated with China’s economic reforms. Inhas un- Kevin POLLPETER is China program manager at Defense

  13. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; T. Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After rapid growth in economic development and energy demand over the last three decades, China has undertaken energy efficiency improvement efforts to reduce its energy intensity under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP). Since becoming the world's largest annual CO{sub 2} emitter in 2007, China has set reduction targets for energy and carbon intensities and committed to meeting 15% of its total 2020 energy demand with non-fossil fuel. Despite having achieved important savings in 11th FYP efficiency programs, rising per capita income and the continued economic importance of trade will drive demand for transport activity and fuel use. At the same time, an increasingly 'electrified' economy will drive rapid power demand growth. Greater analysis is therefore needed to understand the underlying drivers, possible trajectories and mitigation potential in the growing industrial, transport and power sectors. This study uses scenario analysis to understand the likely trajectory of China's energy and carbon emissions to 2030 in light of the current and planned portfolio of programs, policies and technology development and ongoing urbanization and demographic trends. It evaluates the potential impacts of alternative transportation and power sector development using two key scenarios, Continued Improvement Scenario (CIS) and Accelerated Improvement Scenario (AIS). CIS represents the most likely path of growth based on continuation of current policies and meeting announced targets and goals, including meeting planned appliance efficiency standard revisions, fuel economy standards, and industrial targets and moderate phase-out of subcritical coal-fired generation with additional non-fossil generation. AIS represents a more aggressive trajectory of accelerated improvement in energy intensity and decarbonized power and transport sectors. A range of sensitivity analysis and power technology scenarios are tested to evaluate the impact of additional actions such as carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and integrated mine-mouth generation. The CIS and AIS results are also contextualized and compared to model scenarios in other published studies. The results of this study show that China's energy and CO{sub 2} emissions will not likely peak before 2030, although growth is expected to slow after 2020. Moreover, China will be able to meet its 2020 carbon intensity reduction target of 40 to 45% under both CIS and AIS, but only meet its 15% non-fossil fuel target by 2020 under AIS. Under both scenarios, efficiency remains a key resource and has the same, if not greater, mitigation potential as new technologies in transport and power sectors. In the transport sector, electrification will be closely linked the degree of decarbonization in the power sector and EV deployment has little or no impact on China's crude oil import demand. Rather, power generation improvements have the largest sector potential for overall emission mitigation while mine-mouth power generation and CCS have limited mitigation potential compared to fuel switching and efficiency improvements. Comparisons of this study's results with other published studies reveal that CIS and AIS are within the range of other national energy projections but alternative studies rely much more heavily on CCS for carbon reduction. The McKinsey study, in particular, has more optimistic assumptions for reductions in crude oil imports and coal demand in its abatement scenario and has much higher gasoline reduction potential for the same level of EV deployment. Despite these differences, this study's scenario analysis of both transport and power sectors illustrate the necessity for continued efficiency improvements and aggressive power sector decarbonization in flattening China's CO{sub 2} emissions.

  14. Multi-Sector

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA /Ml'.SolarUS Dept ofActing Chiefof Inks andmulti-sector

  15. Georgia: Data Center and Historic Municipal Building Go Green...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Municipal Building Go Green Georgia: Data Center and Historic Municipal Building Go Green August 21, 2013 - 9:45am Addthis Data centers can consume 100 to 200 times more...

  16. Saint Peter Municipal Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency ([http://www.smmpa.com SMMPA]) is a joint-action agency which generates and sells reliable electricity at wholesale to its eighteen non-profit, municipally...

  17. Mora Municipal Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency ([http://www.smmpa.com SMMPA]) is a joint-action agency which generates and sells reliable electricity at wholesale to its eighteen non-profit, municipally...

  18. Advanced Vehicle Electrification & Transportation Sector Electrificati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Transportation Sector Electrification Advanced Vehicle Electrification & Transportation Sector Electrification 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies...

  19. Energy Sector Cybersecurity Framework Implementation Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DRAFT FOR PUBLIC COMMENT SEPTEMBER, 2014 ENERGY SECTOR CYBERSECURITY FRAMEWORK IMPLEMENTATION GUIDANCE Energy Sector Cybersecurity Framework Implementation Guidance Table of...

  20. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High initial costs can impede the deployment of clean energy technologies. Financing can reduce these costs. And, state, municipal, and utility-sponsored loan programs have emerged to fill the gap between clean energy technology financing needs and private sector lending. In general, public loan programs are more favorable to clean energy technologies than are those offered by traditional lending institutions; however, public loan programs address only the high up-front costs of clean energy systems, and the technology installed under these loan programs rarely supports clean energy production at levels that have a notable impact on the broader energy sector. This report discusses ways to increase the impact of these loan programs and suggests related policy design considerations.

  1. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chun (2008), China’s Wind-Power Generation Policy and Market67 Figure 2-29 Wind Power Generation Capacity by Province (By 2010, on-grid wind power generation capacity will reach 5

  2. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    firms to co-develop oilfields. ” China Daily (27 Augustof a Chinese-controlled oilfield may indicate this to be thefirms to co-develop oilfields,” China Daily, 27 August 2005,

  3. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    current pace of growth in oil demand as staying consistentthis point, China’s demand Oil Demand vs. Domestic Supply inand predictions of oil supply and demand affected foreign

  4. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    42 Figure 2-11 Crude Oil Production by Oilfield (1980-Stabilize the increase in crude oil production and implementSinopec CNOOC China’s crude oil production increased from

  5. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7 Table 1-3 China’s Exploitable HydropowerGW of technically exploitable hydropower reserves capable ofTable 1-3). The major hydropower resources are in Southwest

  6. Shakespeare Studies in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Hui

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    , the characteristic of Shakespeare studies in China is closely associated with the political and cultural situation of the time. This thesis chronicles and analyzes noteworthy scholarship of Shakespeare studies in China, especially since the 1990s, in terms...

  7. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of America’sDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, “Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil,” (Council on Foreign Relations,

  8. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    42 Figure 2-11 Crude Oil Production by Oilfield (1980-for 44.8% of China’s total oil production in 2006, a drop ofgas, a by-product of oil production, has been used primarily

  9. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strategic Research Center of Oil and Gas Resources, Ministryand Myanmar Signed on Construction of Oil and Gas PipelineAgreements”, China Oil and Gas Weekly News, China5E

  10. Energy Department Works with Sacramento Municipal Utility District...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About Us Initiatives & Projects Energy Transition Initiative Energy Department Works with Sacramento Municipal Utility District on Renewable Electricity Generation and...

  11. the uva meets china the uva meets china6 7 The UvA meets China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Rooij, Robert

    the uva meets china the uva meets china6 7 The UvA meets China Amsterdam University Press 9789089646156 The UvA meets China Collaboration with China has been designated a key strategic target contributions by various authors from both China and the Netherlands, particularly Amsterdam, on a wide range

  12. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants M. Leskens , R.h.Bosgra@tudelft.nl, p.m.j.vandenhof@tudelft.nl Keywords : nonlinear model predictive control, municipal solid waste combus- tion Abstract : Combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW; = household waste) is used to reduce

  13. Department of Environmental Engineering Leaching from Municipal Solid Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Environmental Engineering Leaching from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues Ji í Hyk s #12;#12;Leaching from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues Ji í Hyks Ph.D. Thesis Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues Cover: Torben Dolin & Julie Camilla Middleton Printed by: Vester

  14. Improved Economic Performance Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Improved Economic Performance of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants by Model Based Combustion Control #12;#12;Improved Economic Performance of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants by Model Based-of-the-art and challenges in the operation of MSWC plants . . . 1 1.1.1 The aims of municipal solid waste combustion

  15. China reala Assinado protocolo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Cavaco na China realça papel de emigrantes em Macau Assinado protocolo para promover trocas entre portugueses "é factor essencial para a valorização das relações" com a China. "Podemos teste- munhar o sucesso China. Para o Presidente, cada emigrante por- tuguês é "um verdadeiro embai- xador de Portugal, um

  16. 25 Cologne Municipal Museum 30 Museum Ludwig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iosup, Alexandru

    TAXI TAXI TAXI TAXI TAXI TAXI TAXI TAXI TAXI H H TAXI Museums 25 Cologne Municipal Museum 30 Museum Ludwig 33 EL-DE Haus NS-Documentation Centre 34 Roman-Germanic Museum 36 Applied Arts and Crafts Museum 48 Käthe-Kollwitz Museum 52 Wallraf-Richartz-Museum 54 Museum of East-Asian Art 56 Schnütgen Museum

  17. Essays on Municipal Public Finance in Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Rachel Elizabeth

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Revenue Generation Infrastructure IV-2SLS Coefficient onIV-2SLS estimates indicate a null relationship between transfers and per capita revenue generation.IV-2SLS fixed effects estimates without municipality fixed effects seem to indicate 0.2 cent increase in local revenue generation

  18. Contaminant Transport in Municipal Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    Chapter 1 Contaminant Transport in Municipal Water Systems Presented at the 3rd PIMS Industrial the inverse problem. We begin in the following sections with an overview of the physics of ow in water forcing to raise the hydraulic head of the water in the network. The nodes are either junctions, tanks

  19. QUALITY OF COMPOSTS FROM MUNICIPAL BIODEGRADABLE WASTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    QUALITY OF COMPOSTS FROM MUNICIPAL BIODEGRADABLE WASTE OF DIFFERENT ORIGINS I. ZDANEVITCH AND O countries. One of the outputs of this treatment is a compost prepared from the organic matter of the waste the total MSW in the plant. Unlike in Germany or Austria, where only the compost from selective collection

  20. Made in China, Mined in Australia: Interdependency and Business-Cycle Transmission between Chinese and Australian Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mineral resources is to development in China. Mineral resources such as iron ore are inputs of international trade fluctuations. Both the boom period leading up to the Global Financial Crisis and its industry to China and its resource-intensive manufacturing sector. By conducting this analysis, this study

  1. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, Bill; Price, Lynn

    2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    After over two decades of staggering economic growth and soaring energy demand, China has started taking serious actions to reduce its economic energy and carbon intensity by setting short and medium-term intensity reduction targets, renewable generation targets and various supporting policies and programs. In better understanding how further policies and actions can be taken to shape China's future energy and emissions trajectory, it is important to first identify where the largest opportunities for efficiency gains and emission reduction lie from sectoral and end-use perspectives. Besides contextualizing China's progress towards reaching the highest possible efficiency levels through the adoption of the most advanced technologies from a bottom-up perspective, the actual economic costs and benefits of adopting efficiency measures are also assessed in this study. This study presents two modeling methodologies that evaluate both the technical and economic potential of raising China's efficiency levels to the technical maximum across sectors and the subsequent carbon and energy emission implications through 2030. The technical savings potential by efficiency measure and remaining gap for improvements are identified by comparing a reference scenario in which China continues the current pace of with a Max Tech scenario in which the highest technically feasible efficiencies and advanced technologies are adopted irrespective of costs. In addition, from an economic perspective, a cost analysis of selected measures in the key industries of cement and iron and steel help quantify the actual costs and benefits of achieving the highest efficiency levels through the development of cost of conserved energy curves for the sectors. The results of this study show that total annual energy savings potential of over one billion tonne of coal equivalent exists beyond the expected reference pathway under Max Tech pathway in 2030. CO2 emissions will also peak earlier under Max Tech, though the 2020s is a likely turning point for both emission trajectories. Both emission pathways must meet all announced and planned policies, targets and non-fossil generation targets, or an even wider efficiency gap will exist. The savings potential under Max Tech varies by sector, but the industrial sector appears to hold the largest energy savings and emission reduction potential. The primary source of savings is from electricity rather than fuel, and electricity savings are magnified by power sector decarbonization through increasing renewable generation and coal generation efficiency improvement. In order to achieve the maximum energy savings and emission reduction potential, efficiency improvements and technology switching must be undertaken across demand sectors as well as in the growing power sector. From an economic perspective, the cost of conserved energy analysis indicates that nearly all measures for the iron and steel and cement industry are cost-effective. All 23 efficiency measures analyzed for the cement industry are cost-effective, with combined CO2 emission reduction potential of 448 Mt CO2. All of the electricity savings measures in the iron and steel industry are cost-effective, but the cost-effective savings potential for fuel savings measures is slightly lower than total technical savings potential. The total potential savings from these measures confirm the magnitude of savings in the scenario models, and illustrate the remaining efficiency gap in the cement and iron and steel industries.

  2. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  3. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    years, we exclude electricity sector investment in steam andyears, we exclude electricity sector investment in steam andand Construction. Electricity sector capacity figures before

  4. Public Sector Electric Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity (DCEO) Bureau of Energy and Recycling administers the public sector energy efficiency programs required by the Illinois Energy...

  5. Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, Rotich K. [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China); Zhao Yongsheng [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)]. E-mail: zhaoyongsheng@jlu.edu.cn; Dong Jun [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60% of the urban population on only 5% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored.

  6. Coal use in the People`s Republic of China. Volume 1: Environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatti, N.; Tompkins, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Carlson, J.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.]|[Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States); Simbeck, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.]|[SFA Pacific, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The People`s Republic of China (hereafter referred to as China) is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Coal makes up 76% and 74% of China`s primary energy consumption and production, respectively. This heavy dependence on coal has come at a high price for China, accounting for a large share of its environmental problems. This report examines the dominance of coal in China`s energy balance, its impact on the environment, and the need for technical and financial assistance, specifically for two distinct aspects: the effect of coal use on the environment and the importance of coal to China`s economy. The results of the analysis are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 focuses on full fuel cycle coal emissions and the environmental effects of coal consumption. Volume 2 provides a detailed analysis by sector of China`s economy and examines the economic impact of constraints on coal use. 51 refs., 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

  8. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary Energy Consumption (Shares) Coal Crude Oil Naturalconsumption doubled from 5.1 to 10.53 Mtce , while both crude oilfuel consumption in 2006. The sector’s use of crude oil

  9. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  10. Planning for municipal solid waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belnay, G.A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research identifies those community characteristics and program components that have resulted in early, consistent, high levels of recycling participation in New Jersey. Discriminant analysis of socio-economic, demographic, institutional, and motivational factors is used to classify each of the state's 567 minor civil divisions into groups that describe participation levels. Of the four hypotheses advanced to explain the variation of recycling around the state, leadership emerges as the key factor in local program success. Local political and governmental leaders set the municipal recycling agenda, and through their knowledge, programs that fit the unique characteristics of their town are designed and aggressively implemented. Significant savings in the municipality's solid waste disposal budget and the added bonus of State Tonnage Grant Award Revenues are obtained by the urban, well-established, experienced recyclers identified by the analysis and confirmed by the individual case studies discussed.

  11. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  12. Surveying China’s Science and Technology Human Talents Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    YANG, Fan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STUDY OF INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA RESEARCH BRIEFThe Study of Innovation and Technology in China (SITC) is ain Science and Technology Innovation—was es- tablished in

  13. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Resources of China. Washington D.C. , U.S.U.S. Department of Energy. A-4 China Energy Databook EnergyImproved Biomass Stoves in China: How Was It Done? E W C / E

  14. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial Energy Consumption China TX-12 India Japan USAEnergy Consumption by Source, 1992 I.Mtce Country China India Japan USAEnergy Consumption by Source, 1992 I.Mtce Country Coal Liquid Gas China India* Japan USA

  15. China's Building Energy Demand: Long-Term Implications from a Detailed Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present here a detailed, service-based model of China’s building energy use, nested in the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment framework. Using the model, we explore long-term pathways of China’s building energy use and identify opportunities of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The inclusion of a structural model of building energy demands within an integrated assessment framework represents a major methodological advance. It allows for a structural understanding of the drivers of building energy consumption while simultaneously considering the other human and natural system interactions that influence changes in the global energy system and climate. We also explore a range of different scenarios to gain insights into how China’s building sector might evolve and what the implications might be for improved building energy technology and carbon policies. The analysis suggests that China’s building energy growth will not wane anytime soon, although technology improvement will put downward pressure on this growth. Also, regardless of the scenarios represented, the growth will involve the continued, rapid electrification of the buildings sector throughout the century, and this transition will be accelerated by the implementation of carbon policy.

  16. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth of China's Total Primary Energy Production (TPE) byFuel (Mtce) Primary Energy Production (Mtce) AAGR Coal Rawof China's Total Primary Energy Production (Mtce) AAGR Total

  17. China's Space Robotic Arms Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    POLLPETER, Kevin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2013 China’s Space Robotic Arm Programs Kevin POLLPETERdebris observation and space robotic arm technologies. Thelikely equipped with a robotic arm, grappling the target

  18. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    includes natural crude and shale oil. Source: China Energyincludes natural crude and shale oil. U Converted based onincludes natural crude and shale oil. Source: China Energy

  19. Energy Sector Cybersecurity Framework Implementation Guidance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    JANUARY 2015 ENERGY SECTOR CYBERSECURITY FRAMEWORK IMPLEMENTATION GUIDANCE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ELECTRICITY DELIVERY AND ENERGY RELIABILITY Energy Sector...

  20. Federal Sector Renewable Energy Project Implementation: ""What...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Sector Renewable Energy Project Implementation: ""What's Working and Why Federal Sector Renewable Energy Project Implementation: ""What's Working and Why Presentation by...

  1. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Marshall Municipal Utilities offers incentives to commercial customers which help cover the installation costs of energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling equipment, motors, variable...

  2. River Falls Municipal Utilities- Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    River Falls Municipal Utility (RFMU) offers a variety of rebates to business customers for implementing energy efficient equipment upgrades. Rebates are available for commercial lighting, central...

  3. Standards for Municipal Small Wind Regulations and Model Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2008, New Hampshire enacted legislation designed to prevent municipalities from adopting ordinances or regulations that place unreasonable limits on or hinder the performance of wind energy...

  4. Hercules Municipal Utility- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hercules Municipal Utility provides financial incentives for its residential members to increase the energy efficiency of participating homes. Rebates are offered for a variety of home appliances...

  5. River Falls Municipal Utilities- Energy Star Appliance Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    River Falls Municipal Utility (RFMU), in conjuction with the Wisconsin Focus on Energy program, offers a variety of rebates to residential electric customers for upgrading to energy efficient...

  6. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- WISE Energy Efficiency Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers loans for a variety of measures and equipment through its WISE Loan Program. This program encourages residential and commercial customers to...

  7. Anoka Municipal Utility- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anoka Municipal Utility (AMU) offers the Commercial and Industrial Lighting and Motor Rebate Program for commercial and industrial customers who install high efficiency lighting, motors, and...

  8. Northern Municipal Power Agency- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Northern Municipal Power Agency, in association with the Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc., offers a variety of rebates for the purchase of qualifying energy efficient equipment. Rebates are...

  9. Elk River Municipal Utilities- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Elk River Municipal Utilities offers a variety of rebates to commercial, industrial, and agricultural customers for the installation of specific energy efficient equipment. Rebates are available...

  10. Anoka Municipal Utility- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anoka Municipal Utilities (AMU) offers incentives for residential customers to install energy-efficient appliances and light bulbs in eligible homes. Rebates are available for Energy Star qualified...

  11. Mansfield Municipal Electric Department- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mansfield Municipal Electric Department encourages energy efficiency through the ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Incentive Program. Cash rebates are offered for ENERGY STAR central air conditioners,...

  12. Elk River Municipal Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    [http://www.elkriverutilities.com/index.php Elk River Municipal Utilities] provides rebates to their residential electric customers who purchase and install Energy Star rated appliances and HVAC...

  13. Lassen Municipal Utility District- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lassen Municipal Utility District (LMUD) offers an incentive for residential customers who purchase and install efficient lighting, HVAC equipment and ENERGY STAR rated appliances for eligible...

  14. Business Case for CNG in Municipal Fleets (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation about compressed natural gas in municipal fleets, assessing investment profitability, the VICE model, base-case scenarios, and pressing questions for fleet owners.

  15. Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials—Phoenix, AZ

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to presentations and materials from the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Annual Meeting held in Phoenix on September 11, 2013.

  16. Municipal Bond - Power Purchase Agreement Model Continues to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for power purchase agreement model to provide low-cost solar energy. Author: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Municipal Bond - Power Purchase Agreement Model Continues to...

  17. Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains plants radically improve the overall quality of the treated wastewa- ter compared to secondary plants

  18. Reading Municipal Light Department- Business Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers incentives for non-residential customers to install energy efficient lights and sensors in existing facilities. In addition to rebates for the...

  19. Northern Municipal Power Agency- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Northern Municipal Power Agency, in collaboration with Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc., offers rebates for non-residential customers to improve the energy efficiency of eligible facilities....

  20. Wellesley Municipal Light Plant- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wellesley Municipal Light Plant (WMLP) offers a number of appliance rebates to residential customers who purchase and install energy efficient equipment. Rebates are available for refrigerators,...

  1. art municipal waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and tested by reality Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 24 Composition of Municipal Solid Waste-Need for Thermal Treatment in the present Indian context Renewable Energy...

  2. China power - thermal coal and clean coal technology export. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binsheng Li

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    China is the world`s fourth largest electric power producer, and is expected to surpass Japan within the next two years to become the third largest power producer. During the past 15 years, China`s total electricity generation more than tripled, increasing from about 300 TWh to about 1,000 TWh. Total installed generating capacity grew at an average of 8.2 percent per year, increasing from 66 to 214 GW. The share of China`s installed capacity in Asia increased from 21 to 31 percent. The Chinese government plans to continue China`s rapid growth rate in the power sector. Total installed capacity is planned to reach 300 GW by 2000, which will generate 1,400 TWh of electricity per year. China`s long-term power sector development is subject to great uncertainty. Under the middle scenario, total capacity is expected to reach 700 GW by 2015, with annual generation of 3,330 TWh. Under the low and high scenarios, total capacity will reach 527-1,005 GW by 2015. The high scenario representing possible demand. To achieve this ambitious scenario, dramatic policy changes in favor of power development are required; however, there is no evidence that such policy changes will occur at this stage. Even under the high scenario, China`s per capita annual electricity consumption would be only 3,000 kWh by 2015, less than half of the present per capita consumption for OECD countries. Under the low scenario, electricity shortages will seriously curb economic growth.

  3. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy in China’s overall energy mix, in February 2005 thehalf of the nation’s energy mix (Figure 2-3). Figure 2-3energy conversion has only slightly increased since 1980 with an increase of only 2.6 Mt, after overall fuel mix

  4. SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg HU HongChang, TIAN FuQiang* & HU HePing Department of Hydraulic Engineering, State Key Laboratory as a key soil physical parameter and has been widely used to predict soil hydraulic and other related

  5. China Refrigerator Information Label

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-246E China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact Jianhong Cheng China National Institute of Standardization Tomoyuki Sakamoto The Institute of Energy by the United States Gov- ernment. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither

  6. China's Approaches to Financing Sustainable Development: Policies, Practices, and Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    composition of China’s green energy investment portfolio.financing mechanisms for green energy development in China.Composition of China’s green energy investment portfolio •

  7. Will China's Vehicle Population Grow Even Faster than Forecasted?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yunshi; Teter, Jacob; Sperling, Daniel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2011. “China’s Soaring Vehicle Population: Even Greater Thanversion, “China’s Soaring Vehicle Population: Even Greater2012. “Modeling Future Vehicle Sales and Stock in China,”

  8. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

    2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

  9. Donation of municipal open space in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buzzingham, Donald

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Donors - City Size . 39 47 51 Figure 4 ? Open Space Donations Restrictions - City Size CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem As reported by the 1970 Census of Populati on, 73. 5 percent of all Americans now live in urban areas occupying... by the Playground and Recreation Association (1929) surveyed 956 municipalities which reported 3, 158 do- nated parks and playgrounds constituting 69, 716. 71 acres. When this donated acreage is compared with total park acre- age of 248, 627. 2 acres as reported...

  10. Edinburg Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to: navigation, search ToolEcoware Spa JumpEdinburg Municipal

  11. Woodstock Municipal Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 Wind Project JumpWisconsin: EnergyWoodruff ElectricMunicipal

  12. Philippi Municipal Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska: Energy Resources JumpPfhotonika Jump to:Philippi Municipal Electric

  13. Working With Municipal Utilities | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting Strong,Women @ Energy:TerriWith Municipal Utilities Working

  14. Mohawk Municipal Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLu anMicrogreen PolymersModular Energy Devices IncMohawk Municipal

  15. Minnesota Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio:Menomonee|MililaniMindanao GEPPMinnesota Municipal Power Agency

  16. Kenyon Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec SrlKenyon Municipal Utilities

  17. Minnesota Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLu anMicrogreen Polymers Inc JumpFinancing MechanismsMunicipal

  18. Waverly Municipal Elec Utility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmweltVillageGraph HomeWaranaWater PowerWaverly Municipal Elec

  19. Utah Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planning methodologies and tools |UC 54-2Full Proof ofUtah Municipal

  20. Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tufts University

    Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin American Economic Development Kevin P-author of the new book, The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization, Stanford University Press. The author would like to thank Elen Shrethsa for research as- sistance #12;Taking the China

  1. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanat, Gurdal, E-mail: gkanat@gmail.co [Yildiz Teknik Universitesi Cevre Muh Bolumu, 34220 Davutpasa-Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

  2. Challenges of Handling Storm Water Runoff Through Municipal Sewer Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    cleaned and retained as a Best Management Practice (BMP). Receives only non-industrial storm water on storm water are leading municipalities to change permitting practices. As a result, facilitiesChallenges of Handling Storm Water Runoff Through Municipal Sewer Systems A South Carolina Case

  3. Country report Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Country report Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003­2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000

  4. Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills G. Vincent Calder, Ph.D.1 ; and Timothy D. Stark, Ph.D., P.E., F.ASCE2 Abstract: Aluminum enters municipal solid waste MSW landfills from: Solid wastes; Aluminum; Chemicals; Waste disposal; Landfills. Author keywords: Solid waste; Leachate

  5. Metals in Municipal Landfill Leachate And Their Health Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    raw leachate contains concentrations of heavy metals in excess ofthe drinking water standards of the un- saturated zone. If municipal solid waste is placed di- rectly into ground water, or if leachateMetals in Municipal Landfill Leachate And Their Health Effects STEPHEN C. JAMES, BS, MSCE Abstract

  6. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF HEAVY METALS BEHAVIOUR DURING MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF HEAVY METALS BEHAVIOUR DURING MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION Y. ME´ NARD, A Me´tallurgie (LSG2M) Nancy, France T he incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) contributes occurring during waste combustion. Second, results from the bed model were taken as boundary conditions

  7. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions across end-use sectors. Adjustments for the China-specific conventions of reporting foreign bunkers and domestic bunkers fueling abroad are made following IPCC definitions of international bunkers and EIA reporting conventions, while the sequestration of carbon in carbon steel is included as an additional adjustment. Under the sectoral approach, fuel consumption of bunkers and other transformation losses as well as gasoline consumption are reallocated to conform to EIA sectoral reporting conventions. To the extent possible, this study relies on official energy data from primary sources. A limited number of secondary sources were consulted to provide insight into the nature of consumption of some products and to guide the analysis of carbon sequestered in steel. Beyond these, however, the study avoided trying to estimate figures where directly unavailable, such as natural gas flaring. As a result, the basic calculations should be repeatable for other years with the core set of data from National Bureau of Statistics and Sinopec (or a similarly authoritative source of oil product data). This study estimates China's total energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2008 to be 6666 Mt CO{sub 2}, including 234.6 Mt of non-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions and 154 Mt of sequestered CO{sub 2}. Bunker fuel emissions in 2008 totaled 15.9 Mt CO{sub 2}, but this figure is underestimated because fuel use by Chinese ship and planes for international transportation and military bunkers are not included. Of emissions related to energy consumption, 82% is from coal consumption, 15% from petroleum and 3% from natural gas. From the sectoral approach, industry had the largest share of China's energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions with 72%, followed by residential at 11%, transport and telecommunications at 8%, and the other four (commerce, agriculture, construction and other public) sectors having a combined share of 9%. Thermal electricity and (purchased) heat (to a lesser degree) are major sources of fuel consumption behind sectoral emissions, responsible for 2533 Mt CO2 and 321 Mt CO{sub 2}, respec

  8. Alternative approaches for better municipal solid waste management in Mumbai, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathi, Sarika [International Research Institute for Climate Prediction, Earth Institute, Columbia University, 61 Rt. 9W, Monell, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States)]. E-mail: sarika@iri.columbia.edu

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste is an unavoidable by product of human activities. Economic development, urbanization and improving living standards in cities, have led to an increase in the quantity and complexity of generated waste. Rapid growth of population and industrialization degrades the urban environment and places serious stress on natural resources, which undermines equitable and sustainable development. Inefficient management and disposal of solid waste is an obvious cause of degradation of the environment in most cities of the developing world. Municipal corporations of the developing countries are not able to handle increasing quantities of waste, which results in uncollected waste on roads and in other public places. There is a need to work towards a sustainable waste management system, which requires environmental, institutional, financial, economic and social sustainability. This study explores alternative approaches to municipal solid waste (MSW) management and estimates the cost of waste management in Mumbai, India. Two alternatives considered in the paper are community participation and public private partnership in waste management. Data for the present study are from various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and from the private sector involved in waste management in Mumbai. Mathematical models are used to estimate the cost per ton of waste management for both of the alternatives, which are compared with the cost of waste management by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). It is found that the cost per ton of waste management is Rs. 1518 (US$35) with community participation; Rs. 1797 (US$41) with public private partnership (PPP); and Rs. 1908 (US$44) when only MCGM handles the waste. Hence, community participation in waste management is the least cost option and there is a strong case for comprehensively involving community participation in waste management.

  9. Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition Presentation about the value proposition for...

  10. FirstEnergy (Potomac Edison)- Municipal and Street Lighting Program (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FirstEnergy offers several incentives for non-residential and municipal customers to upgrade traffic signals, pedestrian signals, street lights to more efficient fixtures. The Municipal Lighting...

  11. An Economic Assessment of Market-Based Approaches to Regulating the Municipal Solid Waste Stream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menell, Peter S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rates for Municipal Solid Waste: Implementation Experience,in the Northeast, Solid Waste Digest: National Edition,Residential Municipal Solid Waste as a Pollution Prevention

  12. China's Pathways to Energy Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beard, Steven; Caruana, Craig; Coats, Charles; Haguewood, Robert; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Morgan, Broderick; Murray, Joshua; Riedell, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese Bilateral Investment/Projects Involved Countries Projects Year China-Kazakhstan Oil pipeline (Atasu-Alashankou ) Gas pipeline China offers $10 bln loan Will complete in 2011 Completed in 2009 For future oil supply China-Turkmenistan Gas pipeline... that China can directly import energy from, bypassing Russia Chinese ventures in Cen. Asia: Kazakh-China oil pipeline (finished Dec. 2009) (Garrison 47) Could increase Chinese imports from this country from their current 1% of total imports to around 15...

  13. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7 Figure 3. Map of China's Solar Resourceand Wang Sicheng, 2007, “China Solar PV Report. ” Beijing:tower. Figure 3. Map of China's Solar Resource Distribution

  14. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    31. China's Electricity Generation Output by Fuel under33. China's Electricity Generation Output by Fuel under31. China's Electricity Generation Output by Fuel under

  15. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Runqing Hu, 2005, “Solar thermal in China: Overview andperspectives of the Chinese solar thermal market. ” RefocusProspectives for China’s solar thermal power technology

  16. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    32 Table 13. Total Resource Requirements for Hydropower23 Figure 12. China's Hydropower Installed Capacity, 1980-and costs of China’s hydropower: Development or slowdown? ”

  17. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habib, Komal, E-mail: koh@kbm.sdu.dk [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohr’s Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per [Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, DK-9220 Aalborg OE (Denmark)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding environmental performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global Warming Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} of MSWM.

  18. Energy Audit Practices in China: National and Local Experiences and Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn; Lu, Hongyou

    2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    China has set an ambitious goal of reducing its energy use per unit of GDP by 20% between 2006 and 2010. Since the industrial sector consumes about two-thirds of China's primary energy, many of the country's efforts are focused on improving the energy efficiency of this sector. Industrial energy audits have become an important part of China's efforts to improve its energy intensity. In China, industrial energy audits have been employed to help enterprises indentify energy-efficiency improvement opportunities for achieving the energy-saving targets. These audits also serve as a mean to collect critical energy-consuming information necessary for governments at different levels to supervise enterprises energy use and evaluate their energy performance. To better understand how energy audits are carried out in China as well as their impacts on achieving China's energy-saving target, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an in-depth study that combines a review of China's national policies and guidelines on energy auditing and a series of discussions with a variety of Chinese institutions involved in energy audits. This report consists of four parts. First, it provides a historical overview of energy auditing in China over the past decades, describing how and why energy audits have been conducted during various periods. Next, the report reviews current energy auditing practices at both the national and regional levels. It then discusses some of the key issues related to energy audits conducted in China, which underscore the need for improvement. The report concludes with policy recommendations for China that draw upon international best practices and aim to remove barriers to maximizing the potential of energy audits.

  19. Can China’s Political System Sustain Its Peaceful Rise?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SHIRK, Susan L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is Ho Miu Lam Professor of China and Pacific Relations at2013-4, APRIL 2013 Can China’s Political System Sustain ItsIt also would seem that China’s growing economic ties with

  20. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Construction Other Oil Consumption by Sector (1980-2009) Mtto "Other". Final Oil Consumption by Sectoral SharesOil Natural Gas Note: Data based on total final consumption

  1. Housing policy in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Lu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last three decades, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has managed to replace its welfare-based urban housing system with a market-based housing provision scheme. With such significant housing policy changes, the ...

  2. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    anthracite, and lignite and brown coal make up the remainingCoal Anthracite Lignite and Brown Coal Source: China Energyof Coal in 2006 Lignite and Brown Coal Anthracite Bituminous

  3. Plague From China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

    2011-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: Those of you who have been paying attention to Postcards these past three years are already aware that China takes credit for many of the world's firsts, including pasta, gunpowder and golf. Well, ...

  4. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    s Worldwide Quest for Energy Security, (Paris: OCED/IEA,s Worldwide Quest for Energy Security, (Paris: OCED/IEA,China’s Quest for Energy Security, (Washington: RAND Project

  5. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    assumption of four distinct motivations in pursuing international oilassumption that China has a unified strategy for international oiloil demand as staying consistent into the future, but this is perhaps an unreasonable assumption;

  6. China’s Rise as a Global S&T Power and China–EU Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bräuner, Oliver

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is a researcher in the China and Global Security Program ofChinese foreign and security policy, primarily on China–EUrelations and China’s international science and technology

  7. Sector 1 Frequently Asked Questions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Sector 1 Safety Plan (pdf) Useful X-Ray Related Numbers Si a0 5.4308 Angstrom CeO2 a05.411 Angstrom Cd-109 gamma 88.036 keV X-ray energywavelength conversion...

  8. THE HOUSEHOLD AS SECURITY: STRATEGIES OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRANTS IN CHINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    205 CHAPTER 11 THE HOUSEHOLD AS SECURITY: STRATEGIES OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRANTS IN CHINA C. Cindy Fan and lack of economic opportunities on their own. Agriculture faces an uncertain future, so do peasant work in urban industries and services, the sectors of the Chinese economy characterized by poorly paid

  9. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The benefits and costs of China’s hydropower: Development orpower in China: A case study of nonrenewable energy cost andCost of rapeseed-based biodiesel as alternative energy in China. ”

  10. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangolells, Marta, E-mail: marta.gangolells@upc.edu; Casals, Miquel, E-mail: miquel.casals@upc.edu; Forcada, Núria, E-mail: nuria.forcada@upc.edu; Macarulla, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.macarulla@upc.edu

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also help contractors to implement environmental management systems.

  11. Cogeneration Development and Market Potential in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, F.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development i n China The scarcity of local investment capital offers for- eign investors opportunitied i n China's energy

  12. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China’s Energy Security,’ European Management Journal 22(2): 150-164. Figure 16: Historical and Forecast

  13. Working With Municipal Utilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | DepartmentKavitaEnergyWorking Fluids:

  14. Frequently Asked Questions About the Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page addresses many of the questions about the Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium.

  15. Water Impacts of the Electricity Sector (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, J.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the water impacts of the electricity sector. Nationally, the electricity sector is a major end-user of water. Water issues affect power plants throughout the nation.

  16. Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector is a fact sheet that explains how biomass resources can be incorporated into the federal sector, and also how they can provide opportunities to meet federal renewable energy goals.

  17. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences 2008 SCIENCE IN CHINA PRESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences © 2008 SCIENCE IN CHINA PRESS Springer Sci China Ser D, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China; 2 China Meteorological Administration Training Centre, Beijing 100081, China; 3 Heilongjiang Meteorological Observatory, Harbin 150030, China Using correlation

  18. Advanced Vehicle Electrification and Transportation Sector Electrifica...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Vehicle Electrification and Transportation Sector Electrification Plug-in Hybrid (PHEV) Vehicle Technology Advancement and Demonstration Activity Advanced Vehicle...

  19. China's policy towards US adversaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swartz, Peter Goodings

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If the Chinese government is trying to reassure the US that China's rise is not threatening, why does China diplomatically support adversaries of the US such as Iran, Sudan, Libya, and Syria? This thesis shows that soft ...

  20. China Marches West: Jacket cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perdue, Peter C.

    The China we know today is the product of vast frontier conquests of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries by the expanding Qing empire. China Marches West tells the story of this unprecedented expansion and explores ...

  1. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    239 Mt World's Oil Consumption (2010) US China Japan IndiaKorea Canada Other Total World Oil Consumption: 4,028 MtTotal China Oil Consumption: 445 Mt Natural Gas Production

  2. China's Space Robotic Arms Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    POLLPETER, Kevin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blog, “Gen. Chilton on a Space Weapons Treaty,” October 30,archive/2076/general-chilton-on-a-space-weapons-treaty. 31on the military use of space, see Kevin Pollpeter, “China’s

  3. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  4. Municipal wireless mesh networks as a competitive broadband delivery platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassan-Ali, Mudhafar

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently there has been a growing interest in deploying Wireless Mesh Networks by municipalities. This interest stems from the desire to provide broadband connectivity to users lacking access to broadband alternatives. The ...

  5. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    [http://www.marshallutilities.com/index.php Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU)] offers a variety of incentives for its residential customers to install energy-efficient equipment in their homes. ...

  6. Denton Municipal Electric- GreenSense Solar Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Denton Municipal Electric offers rebates to its electric customers for the installation of solar PV and solar water heating systems. The solar rebates are designed for residential and small...

  7. Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant- Residential PV Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Customers of Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant (TMLP) may be eligible for $2.00/watt rebate on solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. The minimum system size eligible for this rebate is 1 kilowatt ...

  8. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production...

  9. Clayton Municipal Airport (CAO) Pavement Condition and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    Clayton Municipal Airport (CAO) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M. Lucero, AICP .................................................................................................................Skid Resistance 13 .......................................3. Predicted Pavement Conditions Assuming No Maintenance 13 .....................Table 4. Predicted Pavement Conditions (PCI) Assuming no Maintenance 14

  10. Raton Municipal Airport (RTN) Pavement Condition and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    Raton Municipal Airport (RTN) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M. Lucero, AICP .................................................................................................................Skid Resistance 14 .......................................3. Predicted Pavement Conditions Assuming No Maintenance 14 ...............Table 4. Predicted Pavement Conditions (PCI) Assuming no Maintenance After 2007

  11. Deming Municipal Airport (DMN) Pavement Condition and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    Deming Municipal Airport (DMN) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M. Lucero, AICP .................................................................................................................Skid Resistance 16 .......................................3. Predicted Pavement Conditions Assuming No Maintenance 16 2 #12;...............Table 4. Predicted Pavement Conditions (PCI) Assuming no Maintenance After

  12. Belen Alexander Municipal Airport (E80) Pavement Condition and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    Belen Alexander Municipal Airport (E80) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M ........................................................................................................................Skid Resistance 13 ...............................................3. Predicted Pavement Conditions Assuming No Maintenance 13 ..........Table 4. Predicted Pavement Conditions (PCI) Assuming no Maintenance

  13. Moriarty Municipal Airport (0E0) Pavement Condition and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    Moriarty Municipal Airport (0E0) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M. Lucero, AICP Effect of Coal Tar Seal on PCI 13 .......................................4. Predicted Pavement Conditions Assuming No Maintenance 14 ...............Table 5. Predicted Pavement Conditions (PCI) Assuming

  14. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers residential customers rebates for installing a ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater. Rebates are based on the size of the system; MMU offers $20 per...

  15. Denton Municipal Electric- GreenSense Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Denton Municipal Electric pays residential and small commercial customers to reduce energy demand and consumption in order to reduce the utility bills of DME customers, reduce peak load, reduce...

  16. Mandatory Green Power Option for Large Municipal Utilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Municipal electric utilities serving more than 40,000 customers in Colorado must offer an optional green-power program that allows retail customers the choice of supporting emerging renewable...

  17. River Falls Municipal Utilities- Renewable Energy Finance Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    River Falls Municipal Utilities (RFMU) offers loans of $2,500 - $50,000 to its residential customers for the installation of photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal, geothermal, wind electric systems. The...

  18. City of Greensburg- Green Building Requirement for New Municipal Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the aftermath of a May 2007 tornado that destroyed 95% of the city, the Greensburg City Council passed an ordinance requiring that all newly constructed or renovated municipally owned facilities...

  19. City of Dallas- Green Building Requirements for Municipal Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2003 the Dallas City Council passed a resolution requiring that all new municipal buildings larger than 10,000 square feet be constructed to meet LEED Silver Certification standards. In 2006...

  20. New York City- Green Building Requirements for Municipal Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2005 New York City passed a law (Local Law No. 86) making a variety of green building and energy efficiency requirements for municipal buildings and other projects funded with money from the...

  1. Reading Municipal Light Department- Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers energy efficiency incentives to eligible commercial and industrial customers. Rebates of up to $50,000 are available to customers who wish to reduce...

  2. 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium North Central Region Workshop, held in Kansas City, MO, March 8–9, 2011.

  3. 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium North Central Region Workshop, held in Detroit, June 16–17, 2011.

  4. Alameda Municipal Power- Commercial New Construction Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alameda Municipal Power (AMP) offers the following grant and rebate programs to AMP customers. Projects will only be funded if AMP receives and approves the application and performs a pre...

  5. Concord Municipal Light Plant- Solar Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Concord Municipal Light Plant (CMLP) offers rebates to customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems that are designed to offset the customer's electrical needs. Systems must be owned by...

  6. Municipal Solid Waste Generation: Feasibility of Reconciling Measurement Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Shelly H.

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    to be measured. This research investigates the reconciliation of results from two methodologies for estimating municipal solid waste (MSW) generation, and assessing the potential for solid waste planners to combine the two methods in a cost-effective manner...

  7. Willmar Municipal Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Willmar Municipal Utilities offer rebates on Energy Star rated appliances and air conditioners and Marathon water heaters. In addition to these rebates, WMU also offers a Load Sharing Program. ...

  8. Reading Municipal Light Department- Residential ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers rebates to residential customers who install Energy Star appliances in eligible homes. The offer is limited to one rebate per appliance or a maximum...

  9. Energy Smart- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (20 Municipalities)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Franklin Energy Services has partnered with the Michigan Public Power Agency (MPPA), which is made up of 20 municipal utilities, to offer the Energy Smart Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...

  10. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- WISE Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers rebates on a variety of HVAC equipment through its WISE Rebate program. This program encourages residential customers and builders to upgrade to...

  11. City of Houston- Green Building Requirements for New Municipal Structures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June 2004 the Houston City Council passed a resolution requiring adherence to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) guidelines in the construction or renovation of municipal...

  12. Mora Municipal Utilities- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency ([http://www.smmpa.com SMMPA]) is a joint-action agency which generates and sells reliable electricity at wholesale to its eighteen non-profit,...

  13. Concord Municipal Light Plant- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Concord Municipal Light Plant (CMLP) offers rebates to commercial customers for a variety of appliances, ETS heating systems, general lighting upgrades, CFL bulbs, and exit sign retrofit kits. A...

  14. Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This May 6, 2010 webcast served as the first official meeting of the new DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Ed Smalley of Seattle City Light and Bruce Kinzey of Pacific Northwest...

  15. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    scrap metal processors. On the other hand, China still uses considerably more energy than the steel industries

  16. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China Oil Use Refinery Loss/Self Use Residential Power Generation/Heat Commerce, Const. , Agriculture, Gov.

  17. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China Oil Use Refinery Loss/Self Use Residential Power Generation/Heat Commerce, Const. , Agriculture, Gov.

  18. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Building Sector Electricity Consumption parameterin Building Sector Electricity Consumption Appendix 1. WorldElectricity in Building Sector Electricity Consumption iii

  19. Power Politics: The Political Economy of Russia's Electricity Sector Liberalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wengle, Susanne Alice

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Private Participation in the Electricity Sector World BankTelecommunications and Electricity Sectors." Governance 19,41 with journalist covering electricity sector, Vladivostok,

  20. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za; Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from ?290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to ?19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  1. Essays on rural-urban migration in hinterland China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Lei

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marriage Rates in Rural China . . . . . . . . . . .Urban Migration in Hinterland China . . . . . . . . . .and Rural-Urban Migration in Hinterland China . . . . . 1.

  2. China's sustainable energy future: Scenarios of energy and carbon emissions (Summary)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy use. China’s Sustainable Energy Future Summary next31 -ii- China’s Sustainable Energy Future Executive Summarystudy, entitled China’s Sustainable Energy Future: Scenarios

  3. China's Space Robotic Arms Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    POLLPETER, Kevin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    innovation-and-technology-in-china/sitc-publications/. 34Andrea Shalal-Esa, “U.S. Sees China Launch as Test of Anti-arti- cle/2013/05/15/us-china-launch-idUSBRE94E07D20130515.

  4. SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guangyu

    SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin.1007/s11433-012-4970-8 Carbon-based spintronics CHEN Peng & ZHANG GuangYu* Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China

  5. Submitted to *Xidian University, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    THESIS Submitted to *Xidian University, China *Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Rouen, France To obtain China-France Joint PhD in Discipline: PHYSICS Speciality: Energy by WANG Jiajie Shaped.09.2011 Members of the jury: Reviewers: Bai Jintao Professor, Northwest University, Xi'an, China Liu Weidong

  6. to China: A Bridge Between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    From Yale to China: A Bridge Between Cultures Students often invoke the metaphor of a journey in China," she said. "Yale oered a vast array of resources to help me improve my language compe- tency program and myriad exchanges with China. The summer before her sophomore year at Yale, Jenna received

  7. Smart Grids: Sectores y actividades clave | 1 Smart Grids: Sectores y actividades clave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Smart Grids: Sectores y actividades clave | 1 Smart Grids: Sectores y actividades clave INFORME para la Sostenibilidad Energética y Ambiental, FUNSEAM. #12;Smart Grids: Sectores y actividades clave eléctrica y los diferentes sectores que forman la smart grid. 6 Figura 2. Evolución y previsión de

  8. Model documentation report: Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module is a simulation tool based upon economic and engineering relationships that models commercial sector energy demands at the nine Census Division level of detail for eleven distinct categories of commercial buildings. Commercial equipment selections are performed for the major fuels of electricity, natural gas, and distillate fuel, for the major services of space heating, space cooling, water heating, ventilation, cooking, refrigeration, and lighting. The algorithm also models demand for the minor fuels of residual oil, liquefied petroleum gas, steam coal, motor gasoline, and kerosene, the renewable fuel sources of wood and municipal solid waste, and the minor services of office equipment. Section 2 of this report discusses the purpose of the model, detailing its objectives, primary input and output quantities, and the relationship of the Commercial Module to the other modules of the NEMS system. Section 3 of the report describes the rationale behind the model design, providing insights into further assumptions utilized in the model development process to this point. Section 3 also reviews alternative commercial sector modeling methodologies drawn from existing literature, providing a comparison to the chosen approach. Section 4 details the model structure, using graphics and text to illustrate model flows and key computations.

  9. Financial Sector Ups and Downs and the Real Sector: Up by the Stairs and Down by the Parachute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua; Pinto, Brian; Sushko, Vladyslav

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    May 2012 Financial Sector Ups and Downs and the Real Sector:to reclassifying financial sector ups and downs as turning

  10. The Changing US Electric Sector Business Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aliff, G.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Changing US Electric Sector Business Model CATEE 2013 Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference San Antonio, Texas December 17, 2013 ESL-KT-13-12-57 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16...-18 Copyright © 2013 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. • Fundamentals of the US Electric Sector Business Model • Today’s Challenges Faced by U.S. Electric Sector • The Math Does Not Lie: A Look into the Sector’s Future • Disruption to Today...

  11. Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koehler, J. [Woodward-Clyde International -- Americas, Oakland, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

  12. Cross-sector Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department of EnergyCross-Sector Sign In About |

  13. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  14. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    linking municipal solid waste treatment facilities as wellReview of Municipal Solid Waste Thermal Treatment Practices.Biological Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste. Available at

  15. Power Politics: The Political Economy of Russia's Electricity Sector Liberalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wengle, Susanne Alice

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity Sector in Russia: Regional Aspects " In Economics EducationElectricity Sector in Russia: Regional Aspects " in Economics Education

  16. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oliver, H.H. et. al. 2009. “China’s Fuel Economy Standardset. al. , 2009. Figure 30 China's Fuel Economy Standards forGermany. Bradsher, K. 2009. “China Vies to be World’s Leader

  17. Evolution and System Characteristics of China’s Science, Technology, and Innovation Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WANG, Yuan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STUDY OF INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA POLICY BRIEF STIThe Study of Innovation and Technology in China (SITC) is aof China’s Science, Technology, and Innovation Policies WANG

  18. China’s Space Industry in 2009: A Year in Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollpeter, Kevin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    challenges. As China’s leading space industry organization,particular, Pollpeter focuses on the Chinese space program.10 September 2010 China’s Space Industry in 2009: A Year in

  19. Macroscopic theory of dark sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris E. Meierovich

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple Lagrangian with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term turned out an adequate tool for macroscopic description of the dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant. Massive fields {\\phi}_{I} with {\\phi}^{K}{\\phi}_{K}0 describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like ({\\phi}^{K}{\\phi}_{K}0) massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating non-singular scenarios of evolution of the universe. In particular, the singular big bang turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with the accelerate expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution is a particular limiting case at the boundary of existence of regular oscillating solutions in the absence of vector fields. The simplicity of the general covariant expression for the energy-momentum tensor allows to display the main properties of the dark sector analytically and avoid unnecessary model assumptions.

  20. Experts in Defense: How China’s Academicians Contribute to Its Defense Science and Technology Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WILSON, Jordan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STUDY OF INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA RESEARCH BRIEFThe Study of Innovation and Technology in China (SITC) is a

  1. Specialist Communities: People and Cultures in China’s Defense Science and Technology System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KROLIKOWSKI, Alanna

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STUDY OF INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA RESEARCH BRIEFThe Study of Innovation and Technology in China (SITC) is a

  2. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 mitigation potential and costs in China's electricityCO2 mitigation potential and costs in China's electricity

  3. Expanding Natural Gas Use in China Primary Authors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many individuals and groups deserve out thanks for making this study possible. Paul Schwengels from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency deserves special recognition for conceptualizing the project and working with colleagues in China to make it a reality. Kong Chiu, also from the U.S. EPA, managed many of the daily issues associated with the study. Xu Dingming and Zhang Yuqing of the State Development Planning Commission directed the work for the Chinese. Our thanks also go out to the dozens of Chinese and non-Chinese natural gas experts in the public and private sector who offered guidance and suggestions in writing this report. More than once, Chris Adams of the U.S. Foreign Commercial Service in Beijing brought together participants from the U.S.-China Oil and Gas Industry Forum to discuss natural gas issues in China. While this study is not associated with the Forum, it benefited from the expertise and guidance of Forum participants. Laura Hudson and Ann Weeks played important roles in catalyzing discussion on how China could boost the use of natural gas. Scott Roberts, Chen Changhong, Owen Ward, and Reggie Zhan volunteered generous support in researching and writing some of the case study examples found in the report. We also thank the following Chinese experts who helped us with our research. Luo Weidong and

  4. Institutional Design for Strategic Environmental Assessment on Urban Economic and Social Development Planning in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Guojun, E-mail: Songguojun@vip.sohu.com; Zhou Li; Zhang Lei

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Economic and Social Development Plans (NESDPs) of cities in China, given their comprehensive, integrated and strategic nature, have significant and profound impacts on the development of cities and their embedded ecological environments. Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) on city NESDPs have the potential to improve environmental policy integration at strategic level and to safeguard the sustainable development of cities. However, these plans are normally exempted from the current SEA requirement in China. We argue that it is more feasible to apply SEAs on city NESDPs before SEAs are expanded to higher level NESDPs in China. This article attempts to propose a China-specific institutional design for SEAs on city NESDPs based on experiments in selected cities and within the current legal framework. To obtain a holistic view about the long-term development of cities, more qualitative and descriptive analysis-based assessment methods should be adopted to broaden participation, to encourage the exchange of information and to reach consensus. - Highlights: > National Economic and Social Development Plans for Cities (NESDPs) in China is a very popular and significant decision made by municipal government. > We propose a institutional framework to conduct strategic environmental assessment to NESDPs. > The key features of the institutional framework are the independent SEA approval committee and a professional consulting agency.

  5. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences 2008 SCIENCE IN CHINA PRESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Jinnan

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences © 2008 SCIENCE IN CHINA PRESS Springer Sci China Ser D.springerlink.com Anachronistic facies in the Lower Triassic of South China and their implications to the ecosystems during and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China; 2 Yichang Institute of Geology

  6. Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management processes for municipalities - A comparative review focusing on Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted due to waste management in the cities of developing countries is predicted to rise considerably in the near future; however, these countries have a series of problems in accounting and reporting these gases. Some of these problems are related to the status quo of waste management in the developing world and some to the lack of a coherent framework for accounting and reporting of greenhouse gases from waste at municipal level. This review summarizes and compares GHG emissions from individual waste management processes which make up a municipal waste management system, with an emphasis on developing countries and, in particular, Africa. It should be seen as a first step towards developing a more holistic GHG accounting model for municipalities. The comparison between these emissions from developed and developing countries at process level, reveals that there is agreement on the magnitude of the emissions expected from each process (generation of waste, collection and transport, disposal and recycling). The highest GHG savings are achieved through recycling, and these savings would be even higher in developing countries which rely on coal for energy production (e.g. South Africa, India and China) and where non-motorized collection and transport is used. The highest emissions are due to the methane released by dumpsites and landfills, and these emissions are predicted to increase significantly, unless more of the methane is captured and either flared or used for energy generation. The clean development mechanism (CDM) projects implemented in the developing world have made some progress in this field; however, African countries lag behind.

  7. Understanding the China energy market: trends and opportunities 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbara Drazga

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The report is broken up into 4 Sections: Section I - Overview of China Energy Market (historical background, market value, consumption, production, reserves, export and import, market segmentation, market forecast); Section II - Market Analysis (PEST analysis, Porter's five forces analysis, socio-economic trends, consumption trends); Section III - Market Segments (electricity, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, nuclear power, coal, renewables, photovoltaics, wind power, hydroelectric power. Each market segment details current and planned projects, and lists participants in that sector); and Section IV - Breaking Into the Market (regulatory framework, methods of market entry, foreign investment, challenges, government agencies).

  8. Public Sector New Construction and Retrofit Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity (DCEO) Bureau of Energy and Recycling administers the public sector energy efficiency programs required by the Illinois Energy...

  9. Public Sector Energy Efficiency Aggregation Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity (DCEO) administers the Illinois Energy Now programs, including the Public Sector Energy Efficiency Aggregation Program. The program will...

  10. Accelerating Investments in the Geothermal Sector, Indonesia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the Geothermal Sector, Indonesia (Presentation) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Accelerating Investments in the Geothermal...

  11. Energy Sector Cybersecurity Framework Implementation Guidance...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technology (NIST) released a Cybersecurity Framework. DOE has collaborated with private sector stakeholders through the Electricity Subsector Coordinating Council (ESCC) and the...

  12. Draft Energy Sector Cybersecurity Framework Implementation Guidance...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technology (NIST) released a Cybersecurity Framework. DOE has collaborated with private sector stakeholders through the Electricity Subsector Coordinating Council (ESCC) and the...

  13. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Electric Power

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Letters of IntentAgreements The electric power sector participates in the Climate VISION program through the Electric Power Industry Climate Initiative (EPICI) and its Power...

  14. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Business Roundtable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Results Every Sector, One RESOLVE: A Progress Report on Business Roundtable's Climate RESOLVE Program, September 2004 (PDF 1.8 MB) Download Acrobat Reader...

  15. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Cement

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    various sources describing the energy consumption of the industrial sector and the carbon emissions in particular. Below is an estimate of the emissions expressed in million...

  16. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Automobile Manufacturers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    various sources describing the energy consumption of the industrial sector and the carbon emissions in particular. Below is an estimate of the million metric tons of carbon...

  17. Biomonitoring of the genotoxic potential of aqueous extracts of soils and bottom ash resulting from municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    municipal solid waste incineration, using the comet and micronucleus tests on amphibian (Xenopus laevis ash resulting from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWIBA percolate), using amphibian larvae waste incineration bottom ash; Percolate 1. Introduction Environmental management of municipal solid

  18. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and subsidies initiated in the last few years, China’s solarChina has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar,

  19. China's Approaches to Financing Sustainable Development: Policies, Practices, and Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOEs have also dominated China’s solar power project market44 It also provided China’s major solar panel manufacturersmany years China lacked incentives to foster domestic solar

  20. Additive Manufacturing in China: Threats, Opportunities, and Developments (Part I)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANDERSON, Eric

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    application of additive manufacturing in China’s aviationAnalysis May 2013 Additive Manufacturing in China: Threats,an overview of China’s additive manufacturing industry is

  1. China's Nuclear Industry After Fukushima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    YUAN, Jingdong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China will continue to pursue nuclear expansion as part of an energy strategy that aims to increase clean and renewable energies (solar,

  2. Outsourcing CO2 within China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    6. Lo AY (2012) Carbon emissions trading in China. Nat Climof interprovincial emissions trading (6–9). Additionally,the central coast. The emissions trading scheme being tested

  3. Outsourcing CO2 within China.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    6. Lo AY (2012) Carbon emissions trading in China. Nat Climof interprovincial emissions trading (6–9). Additionally,the central coast. The emissions trading scheme being tested

  4. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Institute, 1994; LDC Energy Database, Internationalof China 1994; India — LDC Energy Database, InternationalNational Laboratory (1995). LDC Energy Database. JIA

  5. Looking for Law in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubman, Stanley

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environment of Corporate Governance in China and Its Policyas institutions for corporate governance by a shareholder’sGerman model. Rules on corporate governance were adopted in

  6. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from geothermal and wind generators is negligible in thebeen so designated. Wind generators have also been used toand total capacity of all wind generator systems in China is

  7. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the China National Petrochemical Corporation, or Sinopec)for fertilizers and petrochemical products, feedstock usesrapid con- struction of petrochemical processing facilities

  8. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries GasHeating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries GasRefueling in China Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries

  9. China's Nuclear Industry After Fukushima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    YUAN, Jingdong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the previous year. NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY AND FUEL CYCLES China’third-generation nuclear technology and reactor design, withs own third-generation nuclear technology. Westing- house,

  10. China's Nuclear Industry After Fukushima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    YUAN, Jingdong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China Experimen- tal Fast Reactor, or CEFR) and highpressurized water reactor—fast reactors—fusion reactor,”experimental fast breeder reactors, and heavy water

  11. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of China's Total Primary Energy Production by Source (1950-AAGR EJ Primary Energy Production (Mtce) Coal Oil NaturalRenewables Total Primary Energy Production by Source Shares*

  12. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    containing monthly energy production statistics] ChinaReserves Chapter IL Energy Production Chapter III. EnergyCountries CHAPTER II. ENERGY PRODUCTION 1. Primary Energy

  13. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Xinjiang Liaoning Inner Mongolia Gansu Hebei Beijing Qinghaiin China (2010) Inner Mongolia Shanxi Shaanxi Henan GuizhouIndonesia Australia Vietnam Mongolia Russia South Africa

  14. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GOV 80% _t 160%-J A .E V) Transport P7| Construction f~] Commerce |f | Industry Agriculture X-J6 I960 China

  15. NAWS-China Lake Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the NAWS-China Lake Project at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting, held on November 18-19, 2009.

  16. Does it have to be so complicated? : municipal renewable energy projects in Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riberio, Lori A. (Lori Ann)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines municipal implementation of renewable energy projects in Massachusetts. It explores projects that have been planned and completed, drivers for municipal adoption of renewable energy, the implementation ...

  17. North Branch Municipal Water and Light- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency ([http://www.smmpa.com SMMPA]) is a joint-action agency which generates and sells reliable electricity at wholesale to its eighteen non-profit, municipally...

  18. Feasibility of Municipal Water Mains as Heat Sink for Residential Air-Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed that municipal water mains be used as the heat sink or the heat source for air-conditioning or heating, respectively. This paper addresses the extent of thermal contamination associated with the use of municipal water...

  19. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e.g. waste water treatment, solid waste combustion) weretreatments. Results and Discussions Cellulosic MSW Feedstocks Municipal solid waste (

  20. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4. Solar PV Cell Production and Installed Capacity, 2000-23 Figure 12. China's Hydropower Installed Capacity, 1980-4 Table 2. China Installed Capacity for Alternative Energy

  1. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    factors for China’s coal generation results largely from therelative share of coal generation decreases significantlycompetitive with coal-fired generation (Wang, 2010).

  2. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) (Zhou et al. , Anothernuclear companies as China’s NNSA lacks independence andAs mentioned previously, the NNSA has limited staffing

  3. China's Defense Electronics and Information Technology Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RAGLAND, LeighAnn; MCREYNOLDS, Joe; GEARY, Debra

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2013 China’s Defense Electronics and Information Technologythe Chinese defense electronics and information technology (is moving the defense electronics and IT industry toward

  4. National Electric Sector Cybersecurity Organization Resource (NESCOR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the National Electric Sector Cybersecurity Organization Resource (NESCOR) project was to address cyber security issues for the electric sector, particularly in the near and mid-term. The following table identifies the strategies from the DOE Roadmap to Achieve Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity published in September 2011 that are applicable to the NESCOR project.

  5. Institute of Public Sector Accounting Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    THE STATE" New Public Sector Seminar, Edinburgh, 6-7th November 2014 Co-Chairs: Liisa Kurunmaki, Irvine and consultants depend on in the management of public service organisations, and what is the statusInstitute of Public Sector Accounting Research I·P·S·A·R In Government, Public Services

  6. Managing Technical Risk: Understanding Private Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    action. Our study seeks to inform the decisions of both government managers and private entrepreneursApril 2000 Managing Technical Risk: Understanding Private Sector Decision Making on Early Stage 00-787 Managing Technical Risk Understanding Private Sector Decision Making on Early Stage Technology

  7. The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol-restricted Halocarbons in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol-restricted Halocarbons of Geophysics #12;2 #12;The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. With several hundred MSW landfills in both the US and UK, estimating

  8. Environmental Audit of Municipal Solid Waste T. V. Ramachandra Shruthi Bachamanda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    1 Environmental Audit of Municipal Solid Waste Management T. V. Ramachandra Shruthi Bachamanda Abstract The management of municipal solid waste has become an acute problem due to enhanced economic to handle this problem in a safe and hygienic manner. In this regard, Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM

  9. THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF LICENTIATE OF PHILOSOPHY Mathematical Models in Municipal Solid Waste Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patriksson, Michael

    THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF LICENTIATE OF PHILOSOPHY Mathematical Models in Municipal Solid Waste¨oteborg University G¨oteborg, Sweden February 15, 2007 #12;Mathematical Models in Municipal Solid Waste Michael K waste planners in decisions concerning the overall management of solid waste in a municipality

  10. Advance Refundings of Municipal Bonds Columbia Business School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Advance Refundings of Municipal Bonds Andrew Ang Columbia Business School and NBER Richard C. Green of Vineer Bhansali, Trevor Harris, Tal Heppenstall, Andrew Kalotay, Kemp Lewis, Paul Luhmann, Matt of colleagues, especially Jennifer Carpenter, Dan Li, Norman Sch¨urhoff, and Chester Spatt, along with seminar

  11. Broadband municipal optical networks in Greece: A suitable business model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouras, Christos

    Broadband municipal optical networks in Greece: A suitable business model Christos Bouras a, Greece b Research Academic Computer Technology Institute, N. Kazanzaki, University of Patras Campus, GR-26500 Rio, Greece c Department of Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, PO Box 114, GR

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  13. The Effect of Municipal Initiatives on State Climate Change Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenton, Barbara Parsons

    2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Faced with near-unanimous scientific consensus that climate change is being accelerated by human activity and no decisive federal policy on the issue, U.S. states and municipalities are taking the initiative to mitigate the problem despite the lack...

  14. Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Timothy D. Stark, F.ASCE1 landfills may contain aluminum from residential and commercial solid waste, industrial waste, and aluminum American Society of Civil Engineers. CE Database subject headings: Solid wastes; Leaching; Aluminum

  15. Heavy metals in composted municipal solid wastes for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    Heavy metals in composted municipal solid wastes for amendment of agricultural soils/ Métaux lourds dans le compost de déchets municipaux pour application agricole Valérie Duchesneau, #4634809 EVS4904 métaux lourds des compostes de déchets municipaux? http://www.ecometiers.com/fiche/images/43.jpg La

  16. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  18. Configurable Process Models: Experiences from a Municipality Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Aalst, Wil

    Configurable Process Models: Experiences from a Municipality Case Study Florian Gottschalk1 , Teun.larosa@qut.edu.au Abstract. Configurable process models integrate different variants of a business process into a single model. Through configuration users of such models can then combine the variants to derive a process

  19. 202-328-5000 www.rff.orgSector Effects of the Shale Gas Revolution in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This paper reviews the impact of the shale gas revolution on the sectors of electricity generation, transportation, and manufacturing in the United States. Natural gas is being substituted for other fuels, particularly coal, in electricity generation, resulting in lower greenhouse gas emissions from this sector. The use of natural gas in the transportation sector is currently negligible but is projected to increase with investments in refueling infrastructure and natural gas vehicle technologies. Petrochemical and other manufacturing industries have responded to lower natural gas prices by investing in domestically located manufacturing projects. This paper also speculates on the impact of a possible shale gas boom in China. Key Words: shale gas, electricity, transportation, and manufacturing JEL Classification Numbers: L71, L9, Q4 © 2013 Resources for the Future. All rights reserved. No portion of this paper may be reproduced without permission of the authors. Discussion papers are research materials circulated by their authors for purposes of information and discussion.

  20. Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshmukh, Ranjit

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. and Yuan, L.Y. (2007), “China’s Solar Energy Industry:the examples of China and Taiwan that Solar PV saw a largetariffs Figure 7: China’s annual solar PV installation and

  1. CHINA KYRGYZSTAN UZBEKISTAN TURKMENISTAN TURKEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorf, Martin E.

    CHINA · KYRGYZSTAN · UZBEKISTAN TURKMENISTAN · TURKEY The Ultimate Silk Road Journey: From Xian through the mountains and deserts of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, and on through vibrant and continue along the fabled route to Western China, mountainous Kyrgyzstan, the blue-tiled Silk Road oases

  2. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total Crude Oil Imports: 239 Mt World's Oil Consumption (consumption - Urban Statistical Difference Appendix 3: Energy Balance/China 2010 (cont’d) Mtce Crude Oilconsumption - Urban Other Statistical Difference Appendix 3: Energy Balance/China 2010 (cont’d) Physical Quantity Crude Oil

  3. China is the New Baseball

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2007-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: Baseball is called bang qiu here in China. And, if a recent exploration trip taken by New York Yankee bigwigs is any indication, it looks as if China might be the next major outsource for major league outfielders. Not right...

  4. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China’sof China’s total energy consumption mix. However, accuratelyof China’s total energy consumption, while others estimate

  5. A comparison of municipal solid waste management in Berlin and Singapore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Dongqing, E-mail: dqzhang@ntu.edu.s [DHI-NTU Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Keat, Tan Soon [Maritime Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Gersberg, Richard M. [Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, Hardy Tower 119, 5500 Campanile, San Diego CA 92182-4162 (United States)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Singapore and Berlin was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two cities is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced with respect to the involvement of the government and the private sector, are also presented. Over last two decades, the city of Berlin has made impressive progress with respect to its waste management. The amounts of waste have declined significantly, and at the same time the proportion that could be recovered and recycled has increased. In contrast, although Singapore's recycling rate has been increasing over the past few years, rapid economic and population growth as well as change in consumption patterns in this city-state has caused waste generation to continue to increase. Landfilling of MSW plays minor role in both cities, one due to geography (Singapore) and the other due to legislative prohibition (Berlin). Consequently, both in Singapore and Berlin, waste is increasingly being used as a valuable resource and great efforts have been made for the development of incineration technology and energy recovery, as well as climate protection.

  6. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power Generation The electricity sector accounts for a large2005 - 2050 Electricity Commercial sector’s emerging role asuse of coal and electricity in demand sectors, and the

  7. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Aden, Nathaniel; Chunxia, Zhang; Xiuping, Li; Fangqin, Shangguan

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of iron and steel is an energy-intensive manufacturing process. In 2006, the iron and steel industry accounted for 13.6% and 1.4% of primary energy consumption in China and the U.S., respectively (U.S. DOE/EIA, 2010a; Zhang et al., 2010). The energy efficiency of steel production has a direct impact on overall energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity (energy use per unit of steel produced) of steel production. The methodology is applied to the steel industry in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and indicators in order to develop a common framework for comparing steel industry energy use. This study uses a bottom-up, physical-based method to compare the energy intensity of China and U.S. crude steel production in 2006. This year was chosen in order to maximize the availability of comparable steel-sector data. However, data published in China and the U.S. are not always consistent in terms of analytical scope, conversion factors, and information on adoption of energy-saving technologies. This study is primarily based on published annual data from the China Iron & Steel Association and National Bureau of Statistics in China and the Energy Information Agency in the U.S. This report found that the energy intensity of steel production is lower in the United States than China primarily due to structural differences in the steel industry in these two countries. In order to understand the differences in energy intensity of steel production in both countries, this report identified key determinants of sector energy use in both countries. Five determinants analyzed in this report include: share of electric arc furnaces in total steel production, sector penetration of energy-efficiency technologies, scale of production equipment, fuel shares in the iron and steel industry, and final steel product mix in both countries. The share of lower energy intensity electric arc furnace production in each country was a key determinant of total steel sector energy efficiency. Overall steel sector structure, in terms of average plant vintage and production capacity, is also an important variable though data were not available to quantify this in a scenario. The methodology developed in this report, along with the accompanying quantitative and qualitative analyses, provides a foundation for comparative international assessment of steel sector energy intensity.

  8. China's forest products trade falls nearly 18% China's forest products trade falls nearly 18%

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    China's forest products trade falls nearly 18% China's forest products trade falls nearly 18% 11/08/2009 - 09:05 According to China's latest Customs statistics, foreign trade of China's forest products in the first five months showed a year-on-year general downturn. The total value of foreign trade of China

  9. Science in China Series B: Chemistry 2009 SCIENCE IN CHINA PRESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jianbo

    Science in China Series B: Chemistry © 2009 SCIENCE IN CHINA PRESS Springer Sci China Ser B Sciences, Beijing 100871, China In this paper, we report the synthesis of furan derivatives from allenic-009-0224-7 Corresponding author (email: wangjb@pku.edu.cn) Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China

  10. Study China Programme Live and learn in China for three weeks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakley, Jeremy

    Study China Programme Live and learn in China for three weeks Study China is a unique learning, arts and business. About Study China Finance is provided by the UK government and managed Universities. Study China is in it's fourth year and has enabled over 1000 students to explore this fascinating

  11. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    CHP plants. f "Other" includes conventional hydro, geothermal, wood, wood waste, all municipal waste, landfill gas, other biomass, solar, wind power, pumped storage, and fuel cells...

  12. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    geothermal, wood, wood waste, all municipal waste, landfill gas, other biomass, solar, wind, pumped storage, and fuel cells. h IHSGI cumulative capacity retirements are...

  13. China Today IAS 2123.001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    China Today IAS 2123.001 Kevin Carrico Tuesdays & Thursdays 10:30 am -11:45 am Approved for Non-Western culture credit Everyone knows that China today is a "rising superpower," but the real story of China's modern history is considerably more complex. This course looks beyond the headlines to rediscover China

  14. China Initiatives at Michigan State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    China Initiatives at Michigan State University Office of China Programs The Office of International Studies and Programs at Michigan State University established the Office of China Programs in July 2005 to help implement President Lou Anna K. Simon's "China Initiative," part of the university's long

  15. The University of Nottingham Ningbo China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Gail

    The University of Nottingham Ningbo China International Student Prospectus 2013 www China (UNNC) is a unique, world-class, international institution. Situated on China's prosperous east in the UK, China and Malaysia, and students from more than 150 countries, we can offer you access

  16. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1992 12. End Use Electricity Consumption by Sector, 1992 13.Sources) Per Capita Electricity Consumption, 1990 EnergyUrban Rural 2. Electricity Consumption Shares Year Urban TWh

  17. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cities, December 1994 6. Ex-Refinery Oil Products Prices,and residential sectors. Includes refinery gas, LPG, variousOil Field Petroleum Refinery Output Natural Gas Production

  18. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    55 Industrial Sector Oil Consumption, 1990 IV-56 Industrialdominant at 40% of total oil consumption, but the share issumption climbs. Fuel oil consumption continues to increase,

  19. A Glance at China’s Household Consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Bin

    2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Known for its scale, China is the most populous country with the world’s third largest economy. In the context of rising living standards, a relatively lower share of household consumption in its GDP, a strong domestic market and globalization, China is witnessing an unavoidable increase in household consumption, related energy consumption and carbon emissions. Chinese policy decision makers and researchers are well aware of these challenges and keen to promote green lifestyles. China has developed a series of energy policies and programs, and launched a wide?range social marketing activities to promote energy conservation.

  20. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting and monitoring progress on the targets, and methodology improvements, are included.

  1. China's Building Energy Use: A Long-Term Perspective based on a Detailed Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

    2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present here a detailed, service-based model of China's building energy use, nested in the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment framework. Using the model, we explore long-term pathways of China's building energy use and identify opportunities of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The inclusion of a structural model of building energy demands within an integrated assessment framework represents a major methodological advance. It allows for a structural understanding of the drivers of building energy consumption while simultaneously considering the other human and natural system interactions that influence changes in the global energy system and climate. We also explore a range of different scenarios to gain insights into how China's building sector might evolve and what the implications might be for improved building energy technology and carbon policies. The analysis suggests that China's building energy growth will not wane anytime soon, although technology improvement will put downward pressure on this growth. Also, regardless of the scenarios represented, the growth will involve the continued, rapid electrification of the buildings sector throughout the century, and this transition will be accelerated by the implementation of carbon policy.

  2. Electricity sector restructuring and competition : lessons learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We now have over a decade of experience with the privatization, restructuring, regulatory reform, and wholesale and retail competition in electricity sectors around the world. The objectives and design attributes of these ...

  3. Top partner probes of extended Higgs sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearney, John

    Natural theories of the weak scale often include fermionic partners of the top quark. If the electroweak symmetry breaking sector contains scalars beyond a single Higgs doublet, then top partners can have sizable branching ...

  4. Private Sector Rates (FY 2015) Instrument Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashir, Rashid

    Source Laser $150 $175 Nanophoton Raman 11 Raman Spectroscopy $150 $175 Newport Solar Simulator Solar Rates for the Material Research Laboratory Facilities Rates for Private Sector companies and researchers

  5. Activities to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Activities to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector Activities to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector Presentation-given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working...

  6. Power Politics: The Political Economy of Russia's Electricity Sector Liberalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wengle, Susanne Alice

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Private Participation in the Electricity Sector World BankTelecommunications and Electricity Sectors." Governance 19,Power Struggle: Reforming the Electricity Industry." In The

  7. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and market assessment Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size2008. “The Size of the U.S. Energy Efficiency Market. Reportmarket spending Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size

  8. EIA Energy Efficiency-Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities: 1992- 2003 Released Date: December 2004 Page Last Revised: August 2009 These tables...

  9. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Sector Electricity Consumption parameter logisticin Building Sector Electricity Consumption iii iv Sectoralsome water with electricity consumption, it is not possible

  10. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Transportation sector energy demand Transportation energy use grows slowly in comparison with historical trend figure data Transportation sector energy consumption grows at an...

  11. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Transportation sector energy demand Growth in transportation energy consumption flat across projection figure data The transportation sector consumes 27.1 quadrillion Btu of energy...

  12. Energy Department Announces New Private Sector Partnership to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Department Announces New Private Sector Partnership to Accelerate Renewable Energy Projects Energy Department Announces New Private Sector Partnership to Accelerate...

  13. Designing Effective State Programs for the Industrial Sector...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sector - New SEE Action Publication March 24, 2014 - 12:56pm Addthis Industrial Energy Efficiency: Designing Effective State Programs for the Industrial Sector provides...

  14. Climate Change and the Transporation Sector - Challenges and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Climate Change and the Transporation Sector - Challenges and Mitigation Options Climate Change and the Transporation Sector - Challenges and Mitigation Options 2003 DEER Conference...

  15. The Economics of Public Sector Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollock, Rufus

    result in incentives for over-investment in quality and capacity improvements because, by over-investing, the PSIH stimulates demand and obtains a larger subsidy. In terms of responsiveness an organization operating a more ‘commercial’ pricing policy (e... area (building especially), or keeping up to date with the decisions of their elected representatives. While much data is supplied from outside the public sector, compared to many other areas of the economy, the public sector plays an unusually...

  16. Visiting entertainment venues and sexual health in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of market vendors in eastern China. Sexually Transmittedcommercial sex workers in China. Journal of Acquired Immunefemale entertainment workers in China. AIDS Education and

  17. Additive Manufacturing in China: Aviation and Aerospace Applications (Part 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANDERSON, Eric

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis May 2013 Additive Manufacturing in China: Aviationan overview of China’s additive manufacturing industry wasmilitary achievements in additive manufacturing. 2 Initial

  18. China Solar Photovoltaic Group CNPV aka Dongying Photovoltaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Solar Photovoltaic Group CNPV aka Dongying Photovoltaic Power Co Ltd or China Solar PV Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Solar Photovoltaic Group (CNPV, aka Dongying...

  19. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    problems; the China Sustainable Energy Program (funded byFoundation's China Sustainable Energy Program commissionedFoundation (China Sustainable Energy Program) became major

  20. The Political Economy of Wind Power in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, Ryan Landon

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Yichong. ?The Politics of Nuclear Energy in China. ? Guestauthor of The Politics of Nuclear Energy in China, nuclearYichong, ?The Politics of Nuclear Energy in China,? (guest

  1. Additive Manufacturing in China: Threats, Opportunities, and Developments (Part I)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANDERSON, Eric

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    html. Study of Innovation and Technology in ChinaOffice. Study of Innovation and Technology in China SITCRevolution. ” Study of Innovation and Technology in China

  2. Additive Manufacturing in China: Aviation and Aerospace Applications (Part 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANDERSON, Eric

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulletin Analysis May 2013 Additive Manufacturing in China:an overview of China’s additive manufacturing industry wasmilitary achievements in additive manufacturing. 2 Initial

  3. China's china : Jingdezhen porcelain and the production of art in the Nineteenth Century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Ellen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Worked in Traditional China. New York: Columbia University1935. Chen Jian. Mao’s China and the Cold War. Chapel Hill,Trans. , John C. Ferguson. China Journal 11 (5) 1929: 218-

  4. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China CIS Electricity Generation Capacity, 2000-2030 Installed Capacity (GW) SolarRenew Solar Coal Total 2030 2010-2030 AAGR Table 30: ChinaChina AIS Power Generation Capacity, 2000-2030 Installed Capacity (GW) Solar

  5. Red, But More Expert: The Evolution of China’s “Two Chiefs” Program Manager System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    POLLPETER, Kevin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the Study of Innovation and Technology in China (SITC).STUDY OF INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA RESEARCH BRIEFThe Study of Innovation and Technology in China (SITC) is a

  6. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report (CEACER). Beijing:Oil consumption and CO2 emissions in China’s road transport:Growth, Oil Demand and CO2 Emissions through 2050. Report

  7. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are represented, in addition to the extensive data compiled from recent studies on bottom-up representation of efficiency measures for the sector. We also defined various mitigation scenarios including long-term production trends to project country-specific production, energy use, trading, carbon emissions, and costs of mitigation. Such analyses can provide useful information to assist policy-makers when considering and shaping future emissions mitigation strategies and policies. The technical objective is to analyze the costs of production and CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the U.S, China, and India’s iron and steel sectors under different emission reduction scenarios, using the ISEEM-IS as a cost optimization model. The scenarios included in this project correspond to various CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets for the iron and steel sector under different strategies such as simple CO{sub 2} emission caps (e.g., specific reduction goals), emission reduction via commodity trading, and emission reduction via carbon trading.

  8. Best Practices for Establishing Municipal Funds for Energy Efficiency Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Better Buildings Program, See Action Network, and Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Technical Assistance Program sponsored this webinar about energy efficiency in public sector buildings on December 4, 2012.

  9. Taiwan`s experience with municipal waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H. [Da-Yeh Univ., Chang-Hwa (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, each person on the average produces 1.15 kg of the municipal waste per day and a total of 9 million metric tons were generated annually in Taiwan. The disposal of such a huge amount of waste presents tremendous challenge for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. EPA of Taiwan, R.O.C. thus takes an active role in promoting waste recycling to reduce the garbage produced in municipalities. In order to efficiently utilize the government`s human and financial resources used in recycling, started from January 31, 1989, EPA has mandated the producer responsibility recycling program for several designated post-consumer products such as PET, PVC bottles, scrap tires, scrap motor vehicles, etc. Producer responsibility recycling program specifies that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of these designated products have the responsibility to retrieve their products and recycle them properly. Several negative effects have been encountered while the implementation of this producer responsibility recycling program in Taiwan which resulted in a modification of this recycling program recently. This paper presents the encountered experiences on the implementation of municipal waste recycling program in Taiwan.

  10. Blazing the energy trail: The Municipal Energy Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force pioneers energy and environmental solutions for US cities and counties. When local officials participate in the task force, they open the door to many resources for their communities. The US is entering a period of renewed interest in energy management. Improvements in municipal energy management allow communities to free up energy operating funds to meet other needs. These improvements can even keep energy dollars in the community through the purchase of services and products used to save energy. With this idea in mind, the US Department of Energy Municipal Energy Management Program has funded more than 250 projects that demonstrate innovative energy technologies and management tools in cities and counties through the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF). UCETF helps the US Department of Energy foster municipal energy management through networks with cities and urbanized counties and through links with three national associations of local governments. UCETF provides funding for projects that demonstrate innovative and realistic technologies, strategies, and methods that help urban America become more energy efficient and environmentally responsible. The task force provides technical support to local jurisdictions selected for projects. UCETF also shares information about successful energy management projects with cities and counties throughout the country via technical reports and project papers. The descriptions included here capsulize a sample of UCETF`s demonstration projects around the country.

  11. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management – Costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji, E-mail: christian.lohri@eawag.ch; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph, E-mail: ephraimcamenzind@hotmail.com; Zurbrügg, Christian, E-mail: christian.zurbruegg@eawag.ch

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Cost-revenue analysis over 2 years revealed insufficient cost-recovery. • Expenses for motorized secondary collection increased by 82% over two years. • Low fee collection rate and reliance on only one revenue stream are problematic. • Different options for cost reduction and enhanced revenue streams are recommended. • Good public–private alliance is crucial to plan and implement improvement measures. - Abstract: Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar’s SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident financial deficit could else endanger the public-private partnership (PPP) and lead to failure of this setup in the medium to long term, thus also endangering the now existing improved and currently reliable service. We present four options on how financial sustainability of the SWM system in Bahir Dar might be enhanced: (i) improved fee collection efficiency by linking the fees of solid waste collection to water supply; (ii) increasing the value chain by sales of organic waste recycling products; (iii) diversifying revenue streams and financing mechanisms (polluter-pays-, cross-subsidy- and business-principles); and (iv) cost reduction and improved cost-effectiveness. We argue that in a PPP setup such as in Bahir Dar, a strong alliance between the municipality and private enterprise is important so that appropriate solutions for improved financial sustainability of a SWM system can be sought and implemented.

  12. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Energy Efficiency for Heavy Industry in China, 1996-and energy efficiency for heavy industry (defined as ferrousand Energy Efficiency for Heavy Industry in China, 1996-2007

  13. Quenching China's Thirst for Renewable Power: Water Implications of China's Renewable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tower plant in China. ” Renewable and Sustainable Energyby plant in Guangxi. ” Renewable and Sustainable EnergyChina’s Thirst for Renewable Power: Water Implications of

  14. China’s Military Representatives: Striving Toward Professional Contracting and Procurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puska, Susan M; McReynolds, Joe; Geary, Debra

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    di- rection. Military representative reform could raise2011 China’s Military Representatives: Striving Towardreforms is the Military Representative Office (MRO) system

  15. Building China's Information Technology Industry: Tariff Policy and China's Accession to the WTO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrus, Michael; Cohen, Stephen

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology Industry: Tariff Policy and China's Accession toand thereby eliminate China's tariffs on semiconductors,make further substantial tariff reductions. A major issue

  16. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity Council. 2010. “Smart Grid Snapshot: China Topswww.zpryme.com/reports/smart_grid_snapshot_global_and_china%Figure 48 2010 Federal Stimulus Investments in Smart Grid by

  17. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    South Korea Other Crude Oil Production by Region (1985-2010)North West Chinese Crude Oil Production by Regional SharesHenan Other Total Crude Oil Production: 209 Mt China's Crude

  18. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    India i Japan Electricity Q i USA G a s China EnergyIndia Japan USA FSUf 3S4.8 Liquid Gas Electricity Heat fiIndia Japan USA FSU World f H Hydro- electricity Uranium §

  19. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    continued growth of its coal- dominated energy system, Chinasectoral end use from coal China Energy Databook IX-3 (TableAND EXPORTS Net Energy Exports Coal Imports and Exports by

  20. China Energy Databook. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinton, J. E.; Fridley, D. G.; Levine, M. D.; Yang, F.; Zhenping, J.; Xing, Z.; Kejun, J.; Xiaofeng, L.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Analysis Program at LBL first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and energy demand held in Nanjing Nov. 1988. EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. It was decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system; thus the primary criterion was to relate the data to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and to indicate probable developments (eg, as indicated by patterns of investment). Caveats are included in forewords to both the 1992 and 1996 editions. A chapter on energy prices is included in the 1996 edition. 1993 energy consumption data are not included since there was a major disruption in energy statistical collection in China that year.

  1. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    South Korea Other Crude Oil Production by Region (1985-2010)West Chinese Crude Oil Production by Regional Shares EastHenan Other Total Crude Oil Production: 209 Mt China's Crude

  2. Sustainable energy in china: the closing window of opportunity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei Feng; Roland Priddle; Leiping Wang; Noureddine Berrah

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    China's remarkable economic growth has been supported by a generally adequate and relatively low-cost supply of energy, creating the world's largest coal industry, its second-largest oil market, and an eclectic power business that is adding capacity at an unprecedented rate. If energy requirements continue to double every decade, China will not be able to meet the energy demands of the present without seriously compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own energy needs. This title uses historical data from 1980 and alternative scenarios through 2020 to assess China's future energy requirements and the resources to meet them. It calls for a high-level commitment to develop and implement an integrated, coordinated, and comprehensive energy policy. The authors recommend eight building blocks to reduce energy consumption growth well below the targeted rate of economic growth, to use national resources on an economically and environmentally sound basis, and to establish a robust energy system that can better ensure the security of a diverse supply of competitively priced energy forms. Sustainability calls for persistence of effort, greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, and better standards enforcement. Achieving these goals will require policy initiatives that restrict demand and create a 'resources-conscious society', reconcile energy needs with environmental imperatives, rationalize pricing, and tackle supply security. While the challenges are daunting, China has a unique opportunity to position itself as a world leader in the application of cutting-edge energy developments to create a sustainable energy sector effectively supporting a flourishing economy and society.

  3. China energy databook. 1992 Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  4. China-NAMA Programme for the Construction Sector in Asia | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpenadd:InformationInformationLow Carbon

  5. Live Webinar on Better Buildings Challenge: Public-Sector Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Better Buildings Challenge: Public-Sector Update."

  6. Distributed Generation Potential of the U.S. Commercial Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    residential and commercial sector installations, for a total of 9 GW. Clearly, commercial DG with CHP

  7. Inter-provincial Permanent and Temporary Migration in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Mingjie

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the role of migration in China's regional development and9: 485-502. Zhu, Yu. 2007. "China's floating population andThe settlement intention of China’s floating population in

  8. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    full end-use model of China’s energy economy for 2020.Assessed ways for China to meet its goal of reducing energyCenter (BSDC) Beijing University China Academy of Building

  9. International Flooring Conference 26 March 2009, Changzhou, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Flooring Conference 26 March 2009, Changzhou, China Global Trade of Wood Products;International Flooring Conference 26 March 2009, Changzhou, China Subjects I. Overview of developments II 26 March 2009, Changzhou, China Acknowledgements · China National Forest Products Industry

  10. Climatic effects of different aerosol types in China simulated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. GU

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vignola (2000), China’s dust affects solar resource in theof Earth’s surface solar radiation in China during 30 recentthe dust from China affects the solar radiation resource in

  11. Additive Manufacturing in China: Threats, Opportunities, and Developments (Part I)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANDERSON, Eric

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    examine the application of additive manufacturing in China’sBulletin Analysis May 2013 Additive Manufacturing in China:an overview of China’s additive manufacturing industry is

  12. The Political Economy of Wind Power in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, Ryan Landon

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Policies for Renewable Energy-the example of China‘s windframework,? Energy Policy 32 (2004): ?PR China,? Global WindWind Power in China: Policy and development challenges,? Energy Policy

  13. The Political Economy of Wind Power in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, Ryan Landon

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China‘s Potent Wind Potential. ? Technology Review,Fairley, ?China‘s Potent Wind Potential,? Technology Review,s Grid-Limited Wind Energy Potential. ? Carbon-Nation. 15

  14. Global Imbalances: Is Germany the new China? A Skeptical View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua; Sengupta, Rajeswari

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    led growth of China and reducing the cost of funding therepression in China imply that the costs of sterilization in

  15. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    produced. Primary energy associated with coal products wasUse EJ China Residential Energy Use Gas Coal Oil Biomass GasUse EJ China Residential Energy Use Gas Coal Oil Gas Biomass

  16. "Embrace China" show in Houston will celebrate 65th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    "Embrace China" show in Houston will celebrate 65th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China "Embrace China," a multi-arts show of the People's Republic of China. The Sino Professionals Association will host

  17. The Oklahoma Municipal Clerks and Treasurers Institute is an advanced educational program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    The Oklahoma Municipal Clerks and Treasurers Institute is an advanced educational program designed 21 2014 InsTITuTe Oklahoma Municipal Clerks & Treasurers OklahOMa sTaTe unIversITyWes WaTkIns CenTer sTIllWaTer, OklahOMa enrOll TOday 1-866-678-3933 | cepd.okstate.edu The Oklahoma Municipal Clerks

  18. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, Ed., David; Aden, Ed., Nathaniel; Lu, Ed., Hongyou; Zheng, Ed., Nina

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 2001, China's energy consumption has grown more quickly than expected by Chinese or international observers. This edition of the China Energy Databook traces the growth of the energy system through 2006. As with version six, the Databook covers a wide range of energy-related information, including resources and reserves, production, consumption, investment, equipment, prices, trade, environment, economy, and demographic data. These data provide an extensive quantitative foundation for understanding China's growing energy system. In addition to providing updated data through 2006, version seven includes revised energy and GDP data back to the 1990s. In the 2005 China Energy Statistical Yearbook, China's National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) published revised energy production, consumption, and usage data covering the years 1998 to 2003. Most of these revisions related to coal production and consumption, though natural gas data were also adjusted. In order to accommodate underestimated service sector growth, the NBS also released revised GDP data in 2005. Beyond the inclusion of historical revisions in the seventh edition, no attempt has been made to rectify known or suspected issues in the official data. The purpose of this volume is to provide a common basis for understanding China's energy system. In order to broaden understanding of China's energy system, the Databook includes information from industry yearbooks, periodicals, and government websites in addition to data published by NBS. Rather than discarding discontinued data series, information that is no longer possible to update has been placed in C section tables and figures in each chapter. As with previous versions, the data are presented in digital database and tabular formats. The compilation of updated data is the result of tireless work by Lu Hongyou and Nina Zheng.

  19. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gasemissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2006-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2000, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a new set of baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). The SRES team defined four narrative storylines (A1, A2, B1 and B2) describing the relationships between the forces driving GHG and aerosol emissions and their evolution during the 21st century. The SRES reports emissions for each of these storylines by type of GHG and by fuel type to 2100 globally and for four world regions (OECD countries as of 1990, countries undergoing economic reform, developing countries in Asia, rest of world). Specific assumptions about the quantification of scenario drivers, such as population and economic growth, technological change, resource availability, land-use changes, and local and regional environmental policies, are also provided. End-use sector-level results for buildings, industry, or transportation or information regarding adoption of particular technologies and policies are not provided in the SRES. The goal of this report is to provide more detailed information on the SRES scenarios at the end use level including historical time series data and a decomposition of energy consumption to understand the forecast implications in terms of end use efficiency to 2030. This report focuses on the A1 (A1B) and B2 marker scenarios since they represent distinctly contrasting futures. The A1 storyline describes a future of very rapid economic growth, low population growth, and the rapid introduction of new and more efficient technologies. Major underlying themes are convergence among regions, capacity building, and increased cultural and social interactions, with a substantial reduction in regional differences in per capita income. The B2 storyline describes a world with an emphasis on economic, social, and environmental sustainability, especially at the local and regional levels. It is a world with moderate population growth, intermediate levels of economic development, and less rapid and more diverse technological change (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). Data were obtained from the SRES modeling teams that provide more detail than that reported in the SRES. For the A1 marker scenario, the modeling team provided final energy demand and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by fuel for industry, buildings, and transportation for nine world regions. Final energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions for three sectors (industry, transport, buildings) for the four SRES world regions were provided for the B2 marker scenario. This report describes the results of a disaggregation of the SRES projected energy use and energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions for the industrial, transport, and buildings sectors for 10 world regions (see Appendix 1) to 2030. An example of further disaggregation of the two SRES scenarios for the residential buildings sector in China is provided, illustrating how such aggregate scenarios can be interpreted at the end use level.

  20. EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site -- Biomass Power Analysis Re-direct Destination: Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic...