Sample records for multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction

  1. Anomalous X-ray Diffraction Studies for Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous X-ray Diffraction (AXRD) has become a useful technique in characterizing bulk and nanomaterials as it provides specific information about the crystal structure of materials. In this project we present the results of AXRD applied to materials for photovoltaic applications: ZnO loaded with Ga and ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel. The X-ray diffraction data collected for various energies were plotted in Origin software. The peaks were fitted using different functions including Pseudo Voigt, Gaussian, and Lorentzian. This fitting provided the integrated intensity data (peaks area values), which when plotted as a function of X-ray energies determined the material structure. For the first analyzed sample, Ga was not incorporated into the ZnO crystal structure. For the ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel Co was found in one or both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The use of anomalous X-ray diffraction (AXRD) provides element and site specific information for the crystal structure of a material. This technique lets us correlate the structure to the electronic properties of the materials as it allows us to probe precise locations of cations in the spinel structure. What makes it possible is that in AXRD the diffraction pattern is measured at a number of energies near an X-ray absorption edge of an element of interest. The atomic scattering strength of an element varies near its absorption edge and hence the total intensity of the diffraction peak changes by changing the X-ray energy. Thus AXRD provides element specific structural information. This method can be applied to both crystalline and liquid materials. One of the advantages of AXRD in crystallography experiments is its sensitivity to neighboring elements in the periodic tables. This method is also sensitive to specific crystallographic phases and to a specific site in a phase. The main use of AXRD in this study is for transparent conductors (TCs) analysis. TCs are considered to be important materials because of their efficiency and low risk of environmental pollution. These materials are important to solar cells as a result of their remarkable combination of optical and electrical properties, including high electrical conductivity and high optical transparency in the spectrum of visible light. TCs provide a transparent window, which allows sunlight to pass through while also allowing electricity to conduct out of the cell. Spinel materials have the chemical form AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and are made of a face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice of oxygen anions and cations in specific interstitial sites. A normal spinel has all A cations on tetrahedral sites and B cations on octahedral sites. In contrast; an inverse spinel has the A and half of the B cations on octahedral sites and the other half of the B cations on tetrahedral sites; a mixed spinel lies between. In the spinel structure, 8 of 64 possible tetrahedral sites and 16 of 32 possible octahedral sites are filled. Normal spinels have particularly high conduction as the linear octahedral chains of B cations likely serve as conduction paths. In this paper we present how the data obtained with AXRD is used to analyze TCs properties as they apply to photovoltaic applications. One of the materials used for this analysis is zinc oxide. It has been loaded with 5% and 10% of Ga, which has an absorption edge of 10367 eV. The peak (100) was measured for the zinc oxide loaded with 10% Ga. In the case of 5% Ga, we measured peaks (100) and (101). With the information provided by the AXRD we can identify if Ga is being incorporated in the ZnO crystal structure. The analysis of 311 plane in the ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel shows if Co is in tetrahedral or octahedral site.

  2. anomalous diffraction method: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD AND OSCILLATIONS IN THE DIFFRACTION CONE CiteSeer Summary: The...

  3. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Kurtz, Sarah R. (Golden, CO)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect.

  4. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect. 5 figs.

  5. Diffraction anomalous fine structure analysis on (Bi,Pb){sub 2}PtO{sub 4} powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vacinova, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France). Lab. de Cristallographie; Hodeau, J.L.; Bordet, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS) method can provide site selective and chemical selective structural information. The possibilities of DAFS experimental and data analysis procedures are demonstrated for (Bi{sub 1.67},Pb{sub 0.33}) powder samples. Experiments have been performed at both L{sub III} and K Pt edges (11.56.564keV and 78keV), using several data collection set-ups (analyser crystals, 1D-detector, 2D-detector). Based on this example, a comparison between these experimental procedures and analysis is given and discussed.

  6. Testing of the Modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation with T-Matrix Calculations for Hexagonal Columns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  7. Step-by-step capping and strain state of GaN/AlN quantum dots studied by grazing-incidence diffraction anomalous fine structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coraux, J.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Renevier, H. [Commissariat l'Energie Atomique, Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SP2M/NRS, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Proietti, M. G. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, c. Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Daudin, B. [Commissariat l'Energie Atomique, Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SP2M/NRS, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigation of small-size embedded nanostructures, by a combination of complementary anomalous diffraction techniques, is reported. GaN quantum dots (QD's), grown by molecular beam epitaxy in a modified Stranski-Krastanow mode, are studied in terms of strain and local environment, as a function of the AlN cap layer thickness, by means of grazing-incidence anomalous diffraction. That is, the x-ray photon energy is tuned across the Ga absorption K edge which makes diffraction chemically selective. Measurement of hkl scans, close to the AlN (3030) Bragg reflection, at several energies across the Ga K edge, allows the extraction of the Ga partial structure factor, from which the in-plane strain of GaN QD's is deduced. From the fixed-Q energy-dependent diffracted intensity spectra, measured for diffraction-selected isostrain regions corresponding to the average in-plane strain state of the QD's, quantitative information regarding the composition and out-of-plane strain has been obtained. We recover the in-plane and out-of-plane strains in the dots. The comparison to the biaxial elastic strain in a pseudomorphic layer indicates a tendency to an overstrained regime.

  8. Multiple-wavelength spectroscopic quantitation of light-absorbing species in scattering media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nathel, Howard (Albany, CA); Cartland, Harry E. (Livermore, CA); Colston, Jr., Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Everett, Matthew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Roe, Jeffery N. (San Ramon, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen concentration measurement system for blood hemoglobin comprises a multiple-wavelength low-coherence optical light source that is coupled by single mode fibers through a splitter and combiner and focused on both a target tissue sample and a reference mirror. Reflections from both the reference mirror and from the depths of the target tissue sample are carried back and mixed to produce interference fringes in the splitter and combiner. The reference mirror is set such that the distance traversed in the reference path is the same as the distance traversed into and back from the target tissue sample at some depth in the sample that will provide light attenuation information that is dependent on the oxygen in blood hemoglobin in the target tissue sample. Two wavelengths of light are used to obtain concentrations. The method can be used to measure total hemoglobin concentration [Hb.sub.deoxy +Hb.sub.oxy ] or total blood volume in tissue and in conjunction with oxygen saturation measurements from pulse oximetry can be used to absolutely quantify oxyhemoglobin [HbO.sub.2 ] in tissue. The apparatus and method provide a general means for absolute quantitation of an absorber dispersed in a highly scattering medium.

  9. anomalous behaviours studied: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the diffraction patterns. Several 42 ANOMALOUS ISOTOPE SHIFTS IN Pb NUCLEI IN RMF THEORY CiteSeer Summary: We have studied the anomalous behaviour of isotopic shifts of Pb...

  10. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stix, Thomas H. (Princeton, NJ); Ono, Masayuki (Princeton Junction, NJ)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  11. Diffraction Results from CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulianos, Konstantin

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present final results by the CDF II collaboration on diffractive W and Z production, report on the status of ongoing analyses on diffractive dijet production and on rapidity gaps between jets, and briefly summarize results obtained on exclusive production pointing to their relevance to calibrating theoretical models used to predict exclusive Higgs-boson production at the LHC.

  12. Origin of anomalous anharmonic lattice dynamics of lead telluride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiga, Takuma; Hori, Takuma; Delaire, Olivier; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of the anomalous anharmonic lattice dynamics of lead telluride is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations with interatomic force constants (IFCs) up to quartic terms obtained from first principles. The calculations reproduce the peak asymmetry of the radial distribution functions and the double peaks of transverse optical phonon previously observed with neutron diffraction and scattering experiments. They are identified to be due to the extremely large nearest-neighbor cubic IFCs in the [100] direction. The outstanding strength of the nearest-neighbor cubic IFCs relative to the longer-range ones explains the reason why the distortion in the radial distribution function is local.

  13. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  14. Nonlinear diffusion and beam self-trapping in diffraction-managed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    / OPTICS EXPRESS 9547 #12;14. S. Somekh, E. Garmire, A. Yariv, H. L. Garvin, and R. G. Hunsperger, "Channel. Garanovich, Andrey A. Sukhorukov, and Yuri S. Kivshar Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultra. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, "Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems

  15. Particle Diffraction at High Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir A. Petrov

    1998-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief ideological and historical review of problems of high energy diffractive scattering is given.

  16. Diffraction at collider energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frankfurt, L.L.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Lessons with ``soft`` hadron physics to explain (a) feasibility to observe and to investigate color transparency, color opacity effects at colliders; (b) significant probability and specific features of hard diffractive processes; (c) feasibility to investigate components of parton wave functions of hadrons with minimal number of constituents. This new physics would be more important with increase of collision energy.

  17. Diffraction at collider energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frankfurt, L.L.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lessons with soft'' hadron physics to explain (a) feasibility to observe and to investigate color transparency, color opacity effects at colliders; (b) significant probability and specific features of hard diffractive processes; (c) feasibility to investigate components of parton wave functions of hadrons with minimal number of constituents. This new physics would be more important with increase of collision energy.

  18. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  19. Diffraction at collider energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frankfurt, L.L. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this talk is to outline lessons with soft'' hadron physics to explain (a) feasibility to observe and to investigate color transparency, color opacity effects at colliders; (b) significant probability and specific features of hard diffractive processes; (c) feasibility to investigate components of parton wave functions of hadrons with minimal number of constituents. This new physics would be more important with increase of collision energy.

  20. Anomalous

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  1. Anomalous Emission from HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Dickinson

    2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinning dust appears to be the best explanation for the anomalous emission that has been observed at $\\sim 10-60$ GHz. One of the best examples of spinning dust comes from a HII region in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of other HII regions also show tentative evidence for excess emission at frequencies $\\sim 30$ GHz, although at lower emissivity levels. A new detection of excess emission at 31 GHz in the HII region RCW175 has been made. The most plausible explanation again comes from spinning dust. HII regions are a good place to look for spinning dust as long as accurate radio data spanning the $\\sim 5-100$ GHz range is available.

  2. Study of optical Laue diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarthy, Giridhar, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Allam, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Satyanarayana, S. V. M., E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Sharan, Alok, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the study of the optical diffraction pattern of one and two-dimensional gratings with defects, designed using desktop pc and printed on OHP sheet using laser printer. Gratings so prepared, using novel low cost technique provides good visual aid in teaching. Diffraction pattern of the monochromatic light (632.8nm) from the grating so designed is similar to that of x-ray diffraction pattern of crystal lattice with point defects in one and two-dimensions. Here both optical and x-ray diffractions are Fraunhofer. The information about the crystalline lattice structure and the defect size can be known.

  3. Anomalous transport through porous and fractured media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Peter Kyungchul

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous transport, understood as the nonlinear scaling with time of the mean square displacement of transported particles, is observed in many physical processes, including contaminant transport through porous and fractured ...

  4. anomalous x-ray diffraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the soft X-rays emitted by the neutron-star surface. The relation between these heating rates and measured near-infrared fluxes in the K and Ks bands places severe...

  5. Diffractive bremsstrahlung in hadronic collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasechnik, Roman; Potashnikova, Irina

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of heavy photons (Drell-Yan), gauge bosons, Higgs bosons, heavy flavors, which is treated within the QCD parton model as a result of hard parton-parton collision, can be considered as a bremsstrahlung process in the target rest frame. In this review, we discuss the basic features of the diffractive channels of these processes in the framework of color dipole approach. The main observation is a dramatic breakdown of diffractive QCD factorisation due to the interplay between soft and hard interactions, which dominates these processes. This observation is crucial for phenomenological studies of diffractive reactions in high-energy hadronic collisions.

  6. Detonation Diffraction into a Confined Volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, Nolan Lee

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    little attention. Experimental work needs to be conducted on detonation diffraction into a confined volume to better understand how the interaction of the diffracted shock wave with a confining wall impacts the detonation diffraction process. Therefore, a...

  7. Anomalous scalings in differential models of turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Thalabard; Sergey Nazarenko; Sebastien Galtier; Medvedev Sergey

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Differential models for hydrodynamic, passive-scalar and wave turbulence given by nonlinear first- and second-order evolution equations for the energy spectrum in the $k$-space were analysed. Both types of models predict formation an anomalous transient power-law spectra. The second-order models were analysed in terms of self-similar solutions of the second kind, and a phenomenological formula for the anomalous spectrum exponent was constructed using numerics for a broad range of parameters covering all known physical examples. The first-order models were examined analytically, including finding an analytical prediction for the anomalous exponent of the transient spectrum and description of formation of the Kolmogorov-type spectrum as a reflection wave from the dissipative scale back into the inertial range. The latter behaviour was linked to pre-shock/shock singularities similar to the ones arising in the Burgers equation. Existence of the transient anomalous scaling and the reflection-wave scenario are argued to be a robust feature common to the finite-capacity turbulence systems. The anomalous exponent is independent of the initial conditions but varies for for different models of the same physical system.

  8. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  9. Theory of the Anomalous Hall Effect in the Insulating Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiongjun

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hall resistivity in ferromagnetic materials has an anomalous contribution proportional to the magnetization, which is defined as the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). Being a central topic in the study of ferromagnetic materials for many decades...

  10. anomalous gauge couplings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fichet; Gero von Gersdorff 2013-11-26 16 Anomalous gauge-boson couplings and the Higgs-boson mass HEP - Phenomenology (arXiv) Summary: We study anomalous gauge-boson couplings...

  11. Slow dynamics and anomalous nonlinear fast dynamics in diverse solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slow dynamics and anomalous nonlinear fast dynamics in diverse solids Paul Johnsona) Geophysics study of anomalous nonlinear fast dynamics and slow dynamics in a number of solids. Observations are presented from seven diverse materials showing that anomalous nonlinear fast dynamics ANFD and slow dynamics

  12. Anomalous scalings in differential models of turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thalabard, Simon; Galtier, Sebastien; Sergey, Medvedev

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Differential models for hydrodynamic, passive-scalar and wave turbulence given by nonlinear first- and second-order evolution equations for the energy spectrum in the $k$-space were analysed. Both types of models predict formation an anomalous transient power-law spectra. The second-order models were analysed in terms of self-similar solutions of the second kind, and a phenomenological formula for the anomalous spectrum exponent was constructed using numerics for a broad range of parameters covering all known physical examples. The first-order models were examined analytically, including finding an analytical prediction for the anomalous exponent of the transient spectrum and description of formation of the Kolmogorov-type spectrum as a reflection wave from the dissipative scale back into the inertial range. The latter behaviour was linked to pre-shock/shock singularities similar to the ones arising in the Burgers equation. Existence of the transient anomalous scaling and the reflection-wave scenario are argu...

  13. High-pressure neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hongwu [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This lecture will cover progress and prospect of applications of high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques to Earth and materials sciences. I will first introduce general high-pressure research topics and available in-situ high-pressure techniques. Then I'll talk about high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques using two types of pressure cells: fluid-driven and anvil-type cells. Lastly, I will give several case studies using these techniques, particularly, those on hydrogen-bearing materials and magnetic transitions.

  14. Diffraction encoded position measuring apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tansey, R.J.

    1991-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    When a lightwave passes through a transmission grating, diffracted beams appear at the output or opposite side of the grating that are effectively Doppler shifted in frequency (phase) whereby a detector system can compare the phase of the zero order and higher order beams to obtain an indication of position. Multiple passes through the grating increase resolution for a given wavelength of a laser signal. The resolution can be improved further by using a smaller wavelength laser to generate the grating itself. Since the grating must only have a pitch sufficient to produce diffracted orders, inexpensive, ultraviolet wavelength lasers can be utilized and still obtain high resolution detection. 3 figures.

  15. Anomalous Cherenkov spin-orbit sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smirnov, Sergey [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cherenkov effect is a well-known phenomenon in the electrodynamics of fast charged particles passing through transparent media. If the particle is faster than the light in a given medium, the medium emits a forward light cone. This beautiful phenomenon has an acoustic counterpart where the role of photons is played by phonons and the role of the speed of light is played by the sound velocity. In this case the medium emits a forward sound cone. Here, we show that in a system with spin-orbit interactions in addition to this normal Cherenkov sound there appears an anomalous Cherenkov sound with forward and backward sound propagation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the transition from the normal to anomalous Cherenkov sound happens in a singular way at the Cherenkov cone angle. The detection of this acoustic singularity therefore represents an alternative experimental tool for the measurement of the spin-orbit coupling strength.

  16. Anomalous Topological Pumps and Fractional Josephson Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan Zhang; C. L. Kane

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We discover novel topological pumps in the Josephson effects for superconductors. The phase difference, which is odd under the chiral symmetry defined by the product of time-reversal and particle-hole symmetries, acts as an anomalous adiabatic parameter. These pumping cycles are different from those in the "periodic table", and are characterized by $Z\\times Z$ or $Z_2\\times Z_2$ strong invariants. We determine the general classifications in class AIII, and those in class DIII with a single anomalous parameter. For the $Z_2\\times Z_2$ topological pump in class DIII, one $Z_2$ invariant describes the coincidence of fermion parity and spin pumps whereas the other one reflects the non-Abelian statistics of Majorana Kramers pairs, leading to three distinct fractional Josephson effects.

  17. A Model Graphene Diffraction Pattern Frank Rioux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Frank

    A Model Graphene Diffraction Pattern Frank Rioux The purpose of this tutorial is to model graphene d Pj k px j py k 2 i 1 A Graphene Model Diffraction Pattern #12;

  18. Fabrication of extremely smooth blazed diffraction gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Hao, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High efficiency diffraction gratings are important in a variety of applications, such as optical telecommunications, lithography, and spectroscopy. Special interest has been placed on blazed diffraction gratings for their ...

  19. Diffractive optical elements for spectroscopy Hallvard Angelskar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tom Henning

    Diffractive optical elements for spectroscopy by Hallvard Angelsk°ar Submitted in partial;Abstract Diffractive optical elements can be used in spectroscopy instruments to fulfill several tasks to precisely fabricate complex diffractive optical elements with feature sizes below the micrometer scale

  20. anomalous diffusion dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transport became a very important topic over the past couple Wright, Francis 5 Fractal Location and Anomalous Diffusion Dynamics for Oil Wells from the KY Geological Survey...

  1. anomalous energy exchange: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measured and calculated cross sections for spin-exchange between alkali atoms and noble gases (specifically sodium and helium) are used to constrain anomalous spin-dependent forces...

  2. Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath the Coso volcanic region, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  3. The investigation of anomalous magnetization in the Raft River...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    River valley, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: The investigation of anomalous magnetization in the Raft River...

  4. anomalous dielectric absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the radiative one. The case is similar to the recently introduced anomalous scattering PRL vol. 97, 263902 (2006) and exhibits similar peculiarities. Tribelsky, Michael I...

  5. anomalous laser light: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the radiative one. The case is similar to the recently introduced anomalous scattering PRL vol. 97, 263902 (2006) and exhibits similar peculiarities. Tribelsky, Michael I...

  6. anomalous isotope effect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the following recombination Reid, Scott A. 4 Anomalous quantum and isotope effects in water clusters: Physical phenomenon, model artifact, or bad approximation? CERN Preprints...

  7. anomalous discrete chiral: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Masahiro Ibe; John Kehayias; Tsutomu T. Yanagida 2011-11-10 17 Disoriented Chiral Condensates and Anomalous Production of Pions CERN Preprints Summary: The leading-particle...

  8. anomalous thermal behavior: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exponential term to describe the shape. A. A. Bylinkin; A. A. Rostovtsev 2011-12-24 12 Thermal fluctuations and anomalous elasticity of homogeneous nematic elastomers Condensed...

  9. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

  10. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

  11. A Possible Explanation of Anomalous Earth Flybys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter Petry

    2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Doppler shift observations of several spacecrafts during near Earth flybys show an unexplained frequency shift. This shift is interpreted as an unexpected velocity change called Earth flyby anomaly. A theory of non-privileged reference frames is used to study the Doppler shift in such frames which are experimentally justified by the measured dipole anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in the solar system. The system in which the CMB is isotropic defines the privileged reference frame. The calculated frequency shift in non-privileged reference frames may give an explanation of the anomalous Earth flybys.

  12. Anomalous Light Absorption by Small Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael I. Tribelsky

    2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of resonant light absorption by a small particle (nanocluster) is reported. The problem cannot be described within the commonly used dipole scattering approximation and should be studied with methods based upon the exact Mie solution. It is shown that the absorption cross-section has giant maxima realized at small values of the imaginary part of the complex dielectric permittivity of the particle. The maxima are situated in the vicinity of the plasmon (polariton) resonances and correspond to the regions where the dissipative damping equals the radiative one. The case is similar to the recently introduced anomalous scattering [PRL vol. 97, 263902 (2006)] and exhibits similar peculiarities.

  13. Top polarisation measurement and anomalous $Wtb$ coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arun Prasath; Rohini M. Godbole; Saurabh D. Rindani

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Kinematical distributions of the decay products of the top quark carry information on the polarisation of the top as well as on any possible new physics in the decay of the top quark. We construct observables in the form of asymmetries in the kinematical distributions to probe their effects. Charged-lepton angular distributions in the decay are insensitive to anomalous couplings and are a sensitive measure of top polarisation. However, these are difficult to measure in the case of highly boosted top quarks as compared to energy distributions of decay products. These are then sensitive, in general, to both top polarisation and top anomalous couplings. We compare various asymmetries for their sensitivities to the polarisation of the top quark as well as to possible new physics in the $Wtb$ vertex, paying special attention to the case of highly boosted top quarks. We perform a $\\chi ^2$- analysis to determine the regions in the polarisation of the top quark and the couplings of the $Wtb$ vertex constrained by different combinations of the asymmetries.

  14. anomalous light absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anomalous light absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Anomalous Light Absorption...

  15. Diffractive J/Psi Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assis Jesus, Ana Carolina; /Rio de Janeiro Federal U.; ,

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents measurements of two diffractive production ratio for heavy flavour physics with the use of a reconstructed J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} sample in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using the D0 detector at Fermilab Tevatron. These events were selected using the Luminosity Monitor detectors, the calorimeter system and the muon system in a pseudo-rapidity region with range 2.7 {le} |{eta}| {le} 4.4. The measured ratio were estimated to be N{sub diff}{sup J/{psi}}/N{sub total}{sup J/{psi}} = (1.74 {+-} 0.16(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst))% e N{sub diff}{sup b}/N{sub total}{sup b} = (0.79 {+-} 0.11(stat) {+-} 0.23(syst))%.

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalously interacting extra Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON ANOMALOUS Summary: questionable, if one should study models with a fundamental Higgs boson, but with extra anomalous vector boson... vector bosons via normal standard model...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous specific heat Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be important for redistributing the anomalous heat content in the hot spot region to the remote Tropics... . The anomalous heat content of ... Source: Sobel, Adam - Department of...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous field effect Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with an anomalous friction torque being driven... by altering both the diabatic heating and surface friction fields. For example, in regions of anomalous... (Fig. 3b) and...

  19. Diffractive Higgs boson photoproduction in peripheral collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. B. Gay Ducati; G. G. Silveira

    2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative process is proposed for the diffractive Higgs boson production in peripheral $pp$ collisions, exploring it through the photon-proton interaction by Double Pomeron Exchange. It is estimated the event rate of the diffractive Higgs production in central rapidity for Tevatron and LHC energies, being of the order of 1 fb, in agreement to the predictions from other diffractive processes. The results are confronted with those obtained from a similar approach of the Durham group.

  20. Diffraction gratings used as identifying markers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A finely detailed diffraction grating is applied to an object as an identifier or tag which is unambiguous, difficult to duplicate, or remove and transfer to another item, and can be read and compared with prior readings with relative ease. The exact pattern of the diffraction grating is mapped by diffraction moire techniques and recorded for comparison with future readings of the same grating. 7 figures.

  1. A computational inverse diffraction grating problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 2, 2012 ... Consider the diffraction of a time-harmonic plane wave incident on a perfectly ... The mathematical questions on uniqueness and stability for.

  2. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); London, Richard A. (Oakland, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed.

  3. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, N.M.; Hawryluk, A.M.; London, R.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed. Thin film embodiments are described. 21 figures.

  4. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); London, Richard A. (Oakland, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed. Thin film embodiments are described.

  5. Anomalous Flavor U(1)_X for Everything

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an ambitious model of flavor, based on an anomalous U(1)_X gauge symmetry with one flavon, only two right-handed neutrinos and only two mass scales: M_{grav} and m_{3/2}. In particular, there are no new scales introduced for right-handed neutrino masses. The X-charges of the matter fields are such that R-parity is conserved exactly, higher-dimensional operators are sufficiently suppressed to guarantee a proton lifetime in agreement with experiment, and the phenomenology is viable for quarks, charged leptons, as well as neutrinos. In our model one of the three light neutrinos automatically is massless. The price we have to pay for this very successful model are highly fractional X-charges which can likely be improved with less restrictive phenomenological ansatze for mass matrices.

  6. Examining Anomalous Network Performance with Confidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL] [ORNL; Hodson, Stephen W [ORNL] [ORNL; Kuehn, Jeffery A [ORNL] [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variability in network performance is a major obstacle in effectively analyzing the throughput of modern high performance computer systems. High performance interconnection networks offer excellent best-case network latencies; however, highly parallel applications running on parallel machines typically require consistently high levels of performance to adequately leverage the massive amounts of available computing power. Performance analysts have usually quantified network performance using traditional summary statistics that assume the observational data is sampled from a normal distribution. In our examinations of network performance, we have found this method of analysis often provides too little data to understand anomalous network performance. In particular, we examine a multi-modal performance scenario encountered with an Infiniband interconnection network and we explore the performance repeatability on the custom Cray SeaStar2 interconnection network after a set of software and driver updates.

  7. Diagnosing Anomalous Network Performance with Confidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL] [ORNL; Hodson, Stephen W [ORNL] [ORNL; Kuehn, Jeffery A [ORNL] [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variability in network performance is a major obstacle in effectively analyzing the throughput of modern high performance computer systems. High performance interconnection networks offer excellent best-case network latencies; however, highly parallel applications running on parallel machines typically require consistently high levels of performance to adequately leverage the massive amounts of available computing power. Performance analysts have usually quantified network performance using traditional summary statistics that assume the observational data is sampled from a normal distribution. In our examinations of network performance, we have found this method of analysis often provides too little data to understand anomalous network performance. In particular, we examine a multi-modal performance scenario encountered with an Infiniband interconnection network and we explore the performance repeatability on the custom Cray SeaStar2 interconnection network after a set of software and driver updates.

  8. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, Roderick A. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  9. Sampling and Characterization of 618-2 Anomalous Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.E. Zacharias

    2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Excavation of the 618-2 Burial Ground has produced many items of anomalous waste. Prior to temporary packaging and/or storage, these items have been characterized in the field to identify radiological and industrial safety conditions.

  10. Quantum transport, anomalous dephasing, and spin-orbit coupling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum transport, anomalous dephasing, and spin-orbit coupling in an open ballistic bismuth nanocavity Home Author: B. Hackens, J. P. Minet, S. Faniel, G. Farhi, C. Gustin, J. P....

  11. Origin of anomalous atomic vibrations in efficient thermoelectrics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    White arrows point out anomalous double-peak in PbTe, which is absent in SnTe. Thermoelectric SnTe and PbTe compounds were investigated with inelastic neutron scattering (INS)...

  12. anomalously high photocurrents: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Baier; M. Dirks; O. Kober 1996-03-13 7 Anomalous behavior of pion production in high energy particle collisions HEP - Experiment (arXiv) Summary: A shape of invariant...

  13. anomalously high bed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Baier; M. Dirks; O. Kober 1996-03-13 5 Anomalous behavior of pion production in high energy particle collisions HEP - Experiment (arXiv) Summary: A shape of invariant...

  14. anomalously high number: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Baier; M. Dirks; O. Kober 1996-03-13 7 Anomalous behavior of pion production in high energy particle collisions HEP - Experiment (arXiv) Summary: A shape of invariant...

  15. anomalous microwave emission: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UV discharge in the lamp 1 was from 20x50 mm. The spectral characteristics 1 of the electrodeless lamp resemble more those of high-pressure Cirkva, Vladimir 302 Anomalous...

  16. anomalous scaling spikes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Entropy of the Nordic electricity market: anomalous scaling, spikes, and mean-reversion CERN Preprints Summary:...

  17. anomalous coupling limits: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the WWZ couplings. D0 Collaboration 1999-05-04 4 Limits on Anomalous Couplings from Higgs Boson Production at the Tevatron HEP - Phenomenology (arXiv) Summary: We estimate the...

  18. anomalous scattering factor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D. Mitra; D. R. Lorimer; A. G. Lyne 2001-11-08 5 Anomalous gauge couplings of the Higgs boson at the CERN LHC: Semileptonic mode in WW scatterings HEP - Phenomenology (arXiv)...

  19. anomalous scattering boosts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are not excluded, but they are constrained to be functions of conformal cross ratios of kinematic variables. Einan Gardi; Lorenzo Magnea 2009-01-08 3 Notes on Anomalous...

  20. Method for processing seismic data to identify anomalous absorption zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taner, M. Turhan

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for identifying zones anomalously absorptive of seismic energy. The method includes jointly time-frequency decomposing seismic traces, low frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine a general trend of mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces, and high frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine local variations in the mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces. Anomalous zones are determined where there is difference between the general trend and the local variations.

  1. Diagnosing Anomalous Network Performance with Confidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL; Hodson, Stephen W [ORNL; Kuehn, Jeffery A [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variability in network performance is a major obstacle in effectively analyzing the throughput of modern high performance computer systems. High performance interconnec- tion networks offer excellent best-case network latencies; how- ever, highly parallel applications running on parallel machines typically require consistently high levels of performance to adequately leverage the massive amounts of available computing power. Performance analysts have usually quantified network performance using traditional summary statistics that assume the observational data is sampled from a normal distribution. In our examinations of network performance, we have found this method of analysis often provides too little data to under- stand anomalous network performance. Our tool, Confidence, instead uses an empirically derived probability distribution to characterize network performance. In this paper we describe several instances where the Confidence toolkit allowed us to understand and diagnose network performance anomalies that we could not adequately explore with the simple summary statis- tics provided by traditional measurement tools. In particular, we examine a multi-modal performance scenario encountered with an Infiniband interconnection network and we explore the performance repeatability on the custom Cray SeaStar2 interconnection network after a set of software and driver updates.

  2. New diffractive results from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results in diffractive processes are summarized and a few notable characteristics described in terms of Quantum Chromodynamics. Exclusive dijet production is used to establish a benchmark for future experiments in the quest for diffractive Higgs production at the Large Hadron Collider. Using new data from the Tevatron and dedicated diffractive triggers, no excess over a smooth falling distribution for exclusive dijet events could be found. Stringent upper limits on the exclusive dijet production cross section are presented. The quark/gluon composition of dijet final states is used to provide additional hints on exclusive dijet production.

  3. Fresnel diffraction patterns as accelerating beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Yuanyuan; Lu, Keqing; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that beams originating from Fresnel diffraction patterns are self-accelerating in free space. In addition to accelerating and self-healing, they also exhibit parabolic deceleration property, which is in stark contrast to other accelerating beams. We find that the trajectory of Fresnel paraxial accelerating beams is similar to that of nonparaxial Weber beams. Decelerating and accelerating regions are separated by a critical propagation distance, at which no acceleration is present. During deceleration, the Fresnel diffraction beams undergo self-smoothing, in which oscillations of the diffracted waves gradually focus and smooth out at the critical distance.

  4. Element-and site-specific oxidation state and cation distribution in manganese ferrite films by diffraction anomalous fine structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haskel, Daniel

    Element- and site-specific oxidation state and cation distribution in manganese ferrite films Received 2 April 2008; accepted 9 July 2008; published online 8 August 2008 Epitaxial manganese ferrite.1063/1.2969406 Spinel ferrites represent an important class of materials that provide high permeability, moderate

  5. Nuclear diffractive structure functions at high energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Marquet; H. Kowalski; T. Lappi; R. Venugopalan

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A future high-energy electron-ion collider would explore the non-linear weakly-coupled regime of QCD, and test the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach to high-energy scattering. Hard diffraction in deep inelastic scattering off nuclei will provide many fundamental measurements. In this work, the nuclear diffractive structure function F_{2,A}^D is predicted in the CGC framework, and the features of nuclear enhancement and suppression are discussed.

  6. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques 2011 DOE...

  7. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Molecular Simulation Study of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Powder Diffraction and Molecular Simulation Study of the Structural Evolution of Ammonia Borane from 15 to 340 K. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Molecular Simulation Study of the...

  8. Kinetics of Methane Hydrate Decomposition Studied via in Situ Low Temperature X-ray Powder Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Susan M [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Keffer, David J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mull, Derek L [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas hydrates are known to have a slowed decomposition rate at ambient pressure and temperatures below the melting point of ice termed self-preservation or anomalous preservation. As hydrate exothermically decomposes, gas is released and water of the clathrate cages transforms into ice. Two regions of slowed decomposition for methane hydrate, 180 200 K and 230 260 K, were observed, and the kinetics were studied by in situ low temperature x-ray powder diffraction. The kinetic constants for ice formation from methane hydrate were determined by the Avrami model within each region and activation energies, Ea, were determined by the Arrhenius plot. Ea determined from the data for 180 200 K was 42 kJ/mol and for 230 260 K was 22 kJ/mol. The higher Ea in the colder temperature range was attributed to a difference in the microstructure of ice between the two regions.

  9. Diffractive Higgs boson photoproduction in $?p$ process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. B. Gay Ducati; G. G. Silveira

    2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore an alternative process for the diffractive Higgs boson production in peripheral pp collisions arising from Double Pomeron Exchange in photon-proton interaction. We introduce the impact factor formalism in order to enable the gluon ladder exchange in the photon-proton subprocess, and to permit the central Higgs production. The event rate for the diffractive Higgs production in central rapidity is estimated to be about 0.6 pb at Tevatron and LHC energies. This result is higher than predictions from other approaches for diffractive Higgs production, showing that the alternative production process leads to an enhanced signal for the detection of the Higgs boson at hadron colliders. Our results are compared to those obtained from a similar approach proposed by the Durham group. In this way we may examine the future developments in its application to pp and AA collisions.

  10. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  11. Anomalous magnetic behavior in nanocomposite materials of reduced graphene oxide-Ni/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollu, Pratap, E-mail: pk419@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in, E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in [DST-INSPIRE Faculty, Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Prathapani, Sateesh; Varaprasadarao, Eswara K.; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bahadur, D., E-mail: pk419@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in, E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Santosh, Chella; Grace, Andrews Nirmala, E-mail: pk419@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in, E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic Reduced Graphene Oxide-Nickel/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (RGO-Ni/NF) nanocomposite has been synthesized by one pot solvothermal method. Respective phase formations and their purities in the composite are confirmed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope and X Ray Diffraction, respectively. For the RGO-Ni/NF composite material finite-size effects lead to the anomalous magnetic behavior, which is corroborated in temperature and field dependent magnetization curves. Here, we are reporting the behavior of higher magnetization values for Zero Field Cooled condition to that of Field Cooled for the RGO-Ni/NF nanocomposite. Also, the observed negative and positive moments in Hysteresis loops at relatively smaller applied fields (100?Oe and 200?Oe) are explained on the basis of surface spin disorder.

  12. Anomalous transport and confinement scaling studies in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, W.M.; Cheng, C.Z.; Krommes, J.A.; Lee, W.W.; Oberman, C.R.; Perkins, F.W.; Rewoldt, G.; Smith, R.; Bonoli, P.; Coppi, B.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In addressing the general issue of anomalous energy transport, this paper reports on results of theoretical studies concerning: (1) the characteristics and relative strength of the dominant kinetic instabilities likely to be present under realistic tokamak operating conditions; (2) specific nonlinear processes relevant to the saturation and transport properties of drift-type instabilities; (3) the construction of semiempirical models for electron thermal transport and the scaling trends inferred from them; and (4) the application of specific anomalous transport models to simulate recent large-scale confinement experiments (TFTR and JET) and current drive experiments.

  13. Anomalous Magnetic and Electric Dipole Moments of the Tau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucas Taylor

    1998-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the theoretical predictions for and the experimental measurements of the anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments of the tau lepton. In particular, recent analyses of the $\\eettg$ process from the L3 and OPAL collaborations are described. The most precise results, from L3, for the anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments respectively are: $\\atau = 0.004 \\pm 0.027 \\pm 0.023$ and $\\dtau = (0.0 \\pm 1.5 \\pm 1.3)\\times 10^{-16}{e{\\cdot}\\mathrm{cm}}$.

  14. Controlling anomalous stresses in soft field-responsive systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Reguera; J. M. Rubí; A. Pérez-Madrid

    2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a new phenomenon occurring in field-responsive suspensions: shear-induced anomalous stresses. Competition between a rotating field and a shear flow originates a multiplicity of anomalous stress behaviors in suspensions of bounded dimers constituted by induced dipoles. The great variety of stress regimes includes non-monotonous behaviors, multi-resonances, negative viscosity effect and blockades. The reversibility of the transitions between the different regimes and the self-similarity of the stresses make this phenomenon controllable and therefore applicable to modify macroscopic properties of soft condensed matter phases

  15. Anomalous $tq?$ couplings in $?p$ collision at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Köksal; S. C. ?nan

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have examined the constraints on the anomalous $tq\\gamma$ ($q=u,c$) couplings through the process $pp\\to p\\gamma p\\to pWbX$ at the LHC by considering three forward detector acceptances: $0.00150.5$, $0.00150.5$. The sensitivity bounds on the anomalous couplings have been obtained at the $95%$ confidence level in a model independent effective lagrangian approach. We have found that the bounds on these couplings can be highly improved compared to current experimental bounds.

  16. On the Tropospheric Response to Anomalous Stratospheric Wave Drag and Radiative Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the Tropospheric Response to Anomalous Stratospheric Wave Drag and Radiative Heating DAVID W. J of anomalous diabatic heating in the polar stratosphere as stratospheric temperatures relax to climatology

  17. Residual Stresses in Weldments by Neutron Diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandara, Arosha

    Rectors and Pressurised Water Reactors Source of Problem · Internal Residual Stress · Material propertiesResidual Stresses in Weldments by Neutron Diffraction Shanmukha Rao M, Jon James, Shirley Northover of Residual Stress inside Materials Material: 3 Pass Weld Austenitic Stainless Steel Working Principle

  18. Multiscale analysis of three consecutive years of anomalous flooding in Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    Multiscale analysis of three consecutive years of anomalous flooding in Pakistan By K. L. Rasmussen investigation into three years of anomalous floods in Pakistan provides insight into their formation, unifying for the formation of anomalous easterly midlevel flow across central India into Pakistan that advected deep

  19. CRITICAL FLUCTUATIONS. ANOMALOUS LINE SHAPES OF Fe3+ -MOSSBAUER SPECTRA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CRITICAL FLUCTUATIONS. ANOMALOUS LINE SHAPES OF Fe3+ -MOSSBAUER SPECTRA IN MAGNETICALLY ORDERED Mossbauer ont montre qu'un recuit incomplet des solutions solides CrzO3-Fez03 et A12 0 3-Fez03 donnelieu203-Fe203pures ou dopeespar Fe2+donnent lieu uneespkceentierementnouvelle de spectres Mossbauer

  20. Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation D. Babikov *, B.K. Kendrick, R mechanical calculations of the ðJ ¼ 0Þ energies and lifetimes of the metastable states of ozone on a new effect in the reaction that forms ozone because of their role in the energy transfer mechanism, in which

  1. anomalous energy dependence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anomalous energy dependence First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Scale-dependent mass...

  2. Anomalous Phase Inversion in Polymer Blends Prepared by Cryogenic Mechanical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , as well as interpenetrating and bicontinu- ous networks.7,8 Phase inversion occurs when the mi- norityAnomalous Phase Inversion in Polymer Blends Prepared by Cryogenic Mechanical Alloying Archie P strategies for producing highly dis- persed multicomponent polymer blends. By their very nature

  3. Anomalous Size Dependence of the Thermal Conductivity of Graphene Ribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anomalous Size Dependence of the Thermal Conductivity of Graphene Ribbons Denis L. Nika,, Artur S. Askerov, and Alexander A. Balandin*, Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California

  4. Anomalous emissions of 103mRh biphoton transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao Cheng; Bing Xia

    2009-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the anomalous emissions, centered on the one half transition energy 39.76/2 keV, are observed from the long-lived Mossbauer state of 103mRh excited by bremsstrahlung exposure. Strong coupling with identical nuclei in Rh crystals opens cascade channels for biphoton transitions.

  5. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medecki, Hector (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams.

  6. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medecki, H.

    1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams. 8 figs.

  7. Diffractive and exclusive measurements at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results from the CDF experiment at the Tevatron in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are presented on the diffractive structure function at different values of the exchanged momentum transfer squared in the range 0 < Q{sup 2} < 10,000 GeV{sup 2}, on the four-momentum transfer |t| distribution in the region 0 < |t| < 1 GeV{sup 2} for both soft and hard diffractive events up to Q{sup 2} {approx} 4,500 GeV{sup 2}, and on the first experimental evidence of exclusive production in both dijet and diphoton events. A novel technique to align the Roman Pot detectors is also presented.

  8. QCD and hard diffraction at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrow, Michael G.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As an introduction to QCD at the LHC the author gives an overview of QCD at the Tevatron, emphasizing the high Q{sup 2} frontier which will be taken over by the LHC. After describing briefly the LHC detectors the author discusses high mass diffraction, in particular central exclusive production of Higgs and vector boson pairs. The author introduces the FP420 project to measure the scattered protons 420m downstream of ATLAS and CMS.

  9. Diffractive production of isolated photons at HERA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Bussey; for the ZEUS Collaboration

    2015-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The ZEUS detector at HERA has been used to measure the photoproduction of isolated photons in diffractive events. Cross sections are evaluated in the photon transverse-energy and pseudorapidity ranges 5 energy an pseudorapidity in the ranges 4 energy and of the colourless exchange ("Pomeron") energy that are imparted to a photon-jet final state. Comparison is made to predictions from the RAPGAP Monte Carlo simulation.

  10. Design and transformation of three dimensional pupils : diffractive and subwavelength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hanhong

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three dimensional pupils are investigated in both diffractive and subwavelength regimes and in various applications to shape the flow of light. In diffractive regime, volume holograms are good candidates for pupils of ...

  11. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Highlights | In situ neutron diffraction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In situ neutron diffraction study of CO clathrate hydrate The structure of a CO clathrate hydrate has been studied for the first time using high-P low-T neutron diffraction....

  12. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer grating designs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick (Oakland, CA); Goldberg, Kenneth Alan (Berkeley, CA); Tejnil, Edita (San Carlos, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer, by sending the zeroth-order diffraction to the reference pinhole of the mask and the first-order diffraction to the test beam window of the mask, the test and reference beam intensities can be balanced and the fringe contrast improved. Additionally, using a duty cycle of the diffraction grating other than 50%, the fringe contrast can also be improved.

  13. Method of collecting and processing electron diffraction data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billinge, Simon; Farrow, Christopher; Gorelik, Tatiana E; Kanatzidis, Mercouri; Schmidt, Martin U

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of using electron diffraction to obtain PDFs from crystalline, nanocrystalline, and amorphous inorganic, organic, and organometallic compound.

  14. In-situ mechanical testing during X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Swygenhoven, Helena, E-mail: helena.vanswygenhoven@psi.ch; Van Petegem, Steven

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Deforming metals during recording X-ray diffraction patterns is a useful tool to get a deeper understanding of the coupling between microstructure and mechanical behaviour. With the advances in flux, detector speed and focussing techniques at synchrotron facilities, in-situ mechanical testing is now possible during powder diffraction and Laue diffraction. The basic principle is explained together with illustrative examples.

  15. Measurement of the Longitudinal Structure Function in Diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement of the Longitudinal Structure Function in Diffraction FL D David Sálek Institute Workshop 2009, Italy First Measurement of FLD 2 Diffractive Kinematics and Rapidity Gap Workshop 2009, Italy First Measurement of FLD 3 Proton Structure Functions in DiffractionProton Structure

  16. Effective field theory: A modern approach to anomalous couplings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degrande, Céline, E-mail: cdegrand@illinois.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Greiner, Nicolas [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Kilian, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); University of Siegen, Fachbereich Physik, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Mattelaer, Olivier [Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)] [Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Mebane, Harrison; Stelzer, Tim; Willenbrock, Scott [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Zhang, Cen [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We advocate an effective field theory approach to anomalous couplings. The effective field theory approach is the natural way to extend the standard model such that the gauge symmetries are respected. It is general enough to capture any physics beyond the standard model, yet also provides guidance as to the most likely place to see the effects of new physics. The effective field theory approach also clarifies that one need not be concerned with the violation of unitarity in scattering processes at high energy. We apply these ideas to pair production of electroweak vector bosons. -- Highlights: •We discuss the advantages of effective field theories compared to anomalous couplings. •We show that one need not be concerned with unitarity violation at high energy. •We discuss the application of effective field theory to weak boson physics.

  17. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4442180.552290 m Left: 268655.053363 m Right: 359915.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  18. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359411.975000 m Bottom: 4447521.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  19. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolores County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  20. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  1. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies). Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144825.235807 m Left: 285446.256851 m Right: 350577.338852 m Bottom: 4096962.250137 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  2. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  3. Anomalous dynamics of confined water at low hydration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Gallo; M. Rovere

    2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The mobility of water molecules confined in a silica pore is studied by computer simulation in the low hydration regime, where most of the molecules reside close to the hydrophilic substrate. A layer analysis of the single particle dynamics of these molecules shows an anomalous diffusion with a sublinear behaviour at long time. This behaviour is strictly connected to the long time decay of the residence time distribution analogously to water at contact with proteins.

  4. Anomalous spin of the Chern-Simons-Georgi-Glashow model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huo Qiu-Hong; Jiang Yunguo

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    With the Coulomb gauge, the Chern-Simons-Georgi-Glashow (CSGG) model is quantized in the Dirac formalism for the constrained system. Combining the Gauss law and Coulomb gauge consistency condition, the difference between the Schwinger angular momentum and canonical angular momentum of the system is found to be an anomalous spin. The reason for this result lies in that the Schwinger energy momentum tensor and the canonical one have different symmetry properties in presence of the Chern-Simons term.

  5. Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buller, Gerald S.

    The optical system was based around a commercially available Meade LX200 catadioptric Schmidt a collection fiber and camera in the image plane of the telescope; and c optical routing: an optical routing demonstrated good performance at ranges of up to 17 km in daylight conditions. Analysis techniques were

  6. Anomalous Lagrangians and the radiative muon capture in hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Smejkal; E. Truhlik; F. C. Khanna

    2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of an anomalous Lagrangian of the pi-rho-omega-a_1 system is investigated within the hidden local SU(2)_R x SU(2)_L symmetry approach. The interaction of the external electromagnetic and weak vector and axial-vector fields with the above hadron system is included. The Lagrangian of interest contains the anomalous Wess-Zumino term following from the well known Wess-Zumino-Witten action and six independent homogenous terms. It is characterized by four constants that are to be determined from a fit to the data on various elementary reactions. Present data allows one to extract the constants with a good accuracy. The homogenous part of the Lagrangian has been applied in the study of anomalous processes that could enhance the high energy tail of the spectrum of photons, produced in the radiative muon capture in hydrogen. It should be noted that recently, an intensive search for such enhancement processes has been carried in the literature, in an attempt to resolve the so called "g_P puzzle": an about 50 % difference between the theoretical prediction of the value of the induced pseudoscalar constant g_P and its value extracted from the high energy tail of the photon spectrum, measured in the precision TRIUMF experiment. Here, more details on the studied material are presented and new results, obtained by using the Wess-Zumino term, are provided.

  7. Dynamical diffraction peak splitting in time-of-flight neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uestuendag, E.; Karnesky, R. A.; Daymond, M. R.; Noyan, I. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Materials Science Program, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-of-flight neutron diffraction data from 20 and 0.7 mm thick perfect Si single crystal samples, which exhibit dynamical diffraction effects associated with finite crystal size, are presented. This effect is caused by constructive interference occurring solely from thin layers bounded by the front (entry) and back (exit) surfaces of the sample with no scattering originating from the layers in between, resulting in two distinct peaks observed for each reflection. If the sample is thin and/or the instrument resolution is insufficient, these two peaks can convolve and cause peak shape aberrations which can lead to significant errors in the strain and peak-broadening parameters obtained from a kinematical diffraction analysis.

  8. Optical-diffraction method for determining crystal orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1982-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an optical diffraction technique for characterizing the three-dimensional orientation of a crystal sample. An arbitrary surface of the crystal sample is texture etched so as to generate a pseudo-periodic diffraction grating on the surface. A laser light beam is then directed onto the etched surface, and the reflected light forms a farfield diffraction pattern in reflection. Parameters of the diffraction pattern, such as the geometry and angular dispersion of the diffracted beam are then related to grating shape of the etched surface which is in turn related to crystal orientation. This technique may be used for examining polycrystalline silicon for use in solar cells.

  9. Diffraction Patterns in Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asmita Mukherjee

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a calculation to show that the Fourier transform of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) amplitude with respect to the skewness variable \\zeta at fixed invariant momentum transfer squared t gives results that are analogous to the diffractive scattering of a wave in optics. As a specific example, we utilize the quantum fluctuations of a fermion state at one loop in QED to obtain the behavior of the DVCS amplitude for electron-photon scattering. We then simulate the wavefunctions for a hadron by differentiating the above LFWFs with respect to M^2 and study the corresponding DVCS amplitudes in light-front longitudinal space.

  10. Zemax simulations of diffraction and transition radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aumeyr, T; Bobb, L M; Bolzon, B; Lefevre, T; Mazzoni, S; Billing, M G

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffraction Radiation (DR) and Transition Radiation (TR) are produced when a relativistic charged particle moves in the vicinity of a medium or through a medium respectively. The target atoms are polarised by the electric field of the charged particle, which then oscillate thus emitting radiation with a very broad spectrum. The spatialspectral properties of DR/TR are sensitive to various electron beam parameters. Several projects aim to measure the transverse (vertical) beam size using DR or TR. This paper reports on how numerical simulations using Zemax can be used to study such a system.

  11. Lessons from LHC elastic and diffractive data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D. Martin; V. A. Khoze; M. G. Ryskin

    2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In the light of LHC data, we discuss the global description of all high energy elastic and diffractive data, using a one-pomeron model, but including multi-pomeron interactions. The LHC data indicate the need of a $k_t(s)$ behaviour, where $k_t$ is the gluon transverse momentum along the partonic ladder structure which describes the pomeron. We also discuss tensions in the data, as well as the $t$ dependence of the slope of $d\\sigma_{el}/dt$ in the small $t$ domain.

  12. Elastic and diffractive scattering at D0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Tamsin; /Manchester U.

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first search for diffractively produced Z bosons in the muon decay channel is presented, using a data set collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV between April and September 2003, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 110 pb{sup -1}. The first dN/d|t| distribution for proton-antiproton elastic scattering at this c.o.m. energy is also presented, using data collected by the D0 Forward Proton Detector between January and May 2002. The measured slope is reproduced by theoretical predictions.

  13. Near-perfect diffraction grating rhomb

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wantuck, Paul J. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A near-perfect grating rhomb enables an output beam to be diffracted to an angle offset from the input beam. The correcting grating is tipped relative to the dispersing grating to provide the offset angle. The correcting grating is further provided with a groove spacing which differs from the dispersing grating groove space by an amount effective to substantially remove angular dispersion in the output beam. A near-perfect grating rhomb has the capability for selective placement in a FEL to suppress sideband instabilities arising from the FEL.

  14. Reconciliation of generalized refraction with diffraction theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larouche, Stéphane

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When an electromagnetic wave is obliquely incident on the interface between two homogeneous media with different refractive indices, the requirement of phase continuity across the interface generally leads to a shift in the trajectory of the wave. When a linearly position dependent phase shift is imposed at the interface, the resulting refraction may be described using a generalized version of Snell's law. In this Letter, we establish a formal equivalence between generalized refraction and blazed diffraction gratings, further discussing the relative merits of the two approaches.

  15. Characterization of Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, T.; Connor, D; Dilmanian, F; Faulconer, L; Liu, T; Parham, C; Pisano, E; Zhong, Z

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) is a new x-ray imaging modality that has been shown to enhance contrast between normal and cancerous breast tissues. In this study, diffraction-enhanced imaging in computed tomography (DEI-CT) mode was used to quantitatively characterize the refraction contrasts of the organized structures associated with invasive human breast cancer. Using a high-sensitivity Si (3 3 3) reflection, the individual features of breast cancer, including masses, calcifications and spiculations, were observed. DEI-CT yields 14, 5 and 7 times higher CT numbers and 10, 9 and 6 times higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for masses, calcifications and spiculations, respectively, as compared to conventional CT of the same specimen performed using the same detector, x-ray energy and dose. Furthermore, DEI-CT at ten times lower dose yields better SNR than conventional CT. In light of the recent development of a compact DEI prototype using an x-ray tube as its source, these results, acquired at a clinically relevant x-ray energy for which a pre-clinical DEI prototype currently exists, suggest the potential of clinical implementation of mammography with DEI-CT to provide high-contrast, high-resolution images of breast cancer (Parham 2006 PhD Dissertation University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill).

  16. Realizing in-plane surface diffraction by x-ray multiple-beam diffraction with large incidence angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xian-Rong, E-mail: xiahuang@aps.anl.gov; Gog, Thomas; Assoufid, Lahsen [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Peng, Ru-Wen, E-mail: rwpeng@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Siddons, D. P. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on rigorous dynamical-theory calculations, we demonstrate the principle of an x-ray multiple-beam diffraction (MBD) scheme that overcomes the long-lasting difficulties of high-resolution in-plane diffraction from crystal surfaces. This scheme only utilizes symmetric reflection geometry with large incident angles but activates the out-of-plane and in-plane diffraction processes simultaneously and separately in the continuous MBD planes. The in-plane diffraction is realized by detoured MBD, where the intermediate diffracted waves propagate parallel to the surface, which corresponds to an absolute Bragg surface diffraction configuration that is extremely sensitive to surface structures. A series of MBD diffraction and imaging techniques may be developed from this principle to study surface/interface (misfit) strains, lateral nanostructures, and phase transitions of a wide range of (pseudo)cubic crystal structures, including ultrathin epitaxial films and multilayers, quantum dots, strain-engineered semiconductor or (multi)ferroic materials, etc.

  17. Anomalous effects due to the inertial anti-gravitational potential of the sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. L. Khokhlov

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It is introduced inertial anti-gravitational potential into the theory of gravity to stop gravitational collapse at the nuclear density and thus prevent singularities. It is considered effective gravity which includes Newtonian potential and inertial anti-gravitational potential. It is investigated footprints of the effective gravity in the solar system. The inertial anti-gravitational potential of the sun allows to explain the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11, the anomalous increase in the lunar semi-major axis, the residuals of the seasonal variation of the proper angular velocity of the earth, the anomalous increase of the Astronomical Unit, the anomalous shift of the perihelion of mercury.

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous heat conduction Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    parallel studies of the upper ocean heat budget have been conducted... of the anomalous heat ... Source: Kelly, Kathryn A. - Air-Sea Interaction and Remote Sensing Department,...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous physical effects Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    advection (including the effect of ocean waves) and evaporational cooling... ) and the remote and local impact of the anomalous monsoon (Fig. 12d). The ... Source: Chang,...

  20. Influence of the radial profile of the magnetic fluctuations on anomalous transport Boris WEYSSOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of the radial profile of the magnetic fluctuations on anomalous transport Boris WEYSSOW with radial profiles are considered. Comparisons between correct Langevin solutions and solutions

  1. anomalous flux-ratio gravitational: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lens systems appears to be higher than that predicted in the standard cold dark matter cosmology. We present a possible alternative route to anomalous flux ratios from lens...

  2. anomalous low-temperature behavior: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Investigation on Reliability and Anomalous Degradation of Low Temperature Poly-Si Thin-Film Transistor. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??In this thesis, we will...

  3. Anomalous diffusion for inertial particles under gravity in parallel flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Martins Afonso

    2014-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the bounds between normal or anomalous effective diffusion for inertial particles transported by parallel flows. The infrared behavior of the fluid kinetic-energy spectrum, i.e. the possible presence of long-range spatio-temporal correlations, is modeled as a power law by means of two parameters, and the problem is studied as a function of these latter. Our results, obtained in the limit of weak relative inertia, extend well-known results for tracers and apply to particles of any mass density, subject to gravity and Brownian diffusion. We consider both steady and time-dependent flows, and cases of both vanishing and finite particle sedimentation.

  4. Anomalous magnetic behavior at the graphene/Co interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandal, Sumit; Saha, Shyamal K., E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An intensive theoretical study on the interaction between graphene and transition metal atom has been carried out; however, its experimental verification is still lacking. To explore the theoretical prediction of antiferromagnetic coupling due to charge transfer between graphene and cobalt, epitaxial layer of cobalt is grown on graphene surface. Predicted antiferromagnetic interaction with Neel temperature (T{sub N}???32?K) which anomalously shifts to higher temperature (34?K) and becomes more prominent under application of magnetic field of 1 T is reported. Lowering of magnetoresistance as a consequence of this antiferromagnetic coupling at the interface is also observed.

  5. Effective Field Theory: A Modern Approach to Anomalous Couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celine Degrande; Nicolas Greiner; Wolfgang Kilian; Olivier Mattelaer; Harrison Mebane; Tim Stelzer; Scott Willenbrock; Cen Zhang

    2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We advocate an effective field theory approach to anomalous couplings. The effective field theory approach is the natural way to extend the standard model such that the gauge symmetries are respected. It is general enough to capture any physics beyond the standard model, yet also provides guidance as to the most likely place to see the effects of new physics. The effective field theory approach also clarifies that one need not be concerned with the violation of unitarity in scattering processes at high energy. We apply these ideas to pair production of electroweak vector bosons.

  6. The Running coupling BFKL anomalous dimensions and splitting functions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorne, Robert S

    2 2 + 30.72?¯50? ) . (2.36) 14 This contribution to the splitting function for t = 6 and is shown in fig. 6.a. Note that because of the truncation of GE(N, t), beyond 6th order the expression for PLOgg (?, ?s(Q2)) is not what one would really get... .K. Abstract I explicitly calculate the anomalous dimensions and splitting functions governing the Q2 evolu- tion of the parton densities and structure functions which result from the running coupling BFKL equation at LO, i.e. I perform a resummation in powers...

  7. Diffractive Dissociation into ?- ?- ?+ Final States at COMPASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florian Haas; for the COMPASS Collaboration

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffractive dissociation reactions studied at the COMPASS experiment at CERN provide access to the light-meson spectrum. During a pilot run in 2004, using a pion beam and a lead target, 420k \\pi- \\pi- \\pi+ final-state events with masses below 2.5 GeV/c2 were recorded, yielding a significant spin-exotic signal for the controversial \\pi 1(1600) resonance. After a significant upgrade of the spectrometer in 2007, the following two years were dedicated to meson spectroscopy. Using again a pion beam, but now with a liquid hydrogen target, an unique statistics of ~60M events of the same final state was gathered in 2008. During a short campaign in 2009, the H2 target was exchanged by several solid state targets in order to compare final states produced on targets with different atomic numbers. A partial-wave Analysis (PWA) was performed on all these data sets and results are presented.

  8. Diffraction in Time of Polymer Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Martín-Ruiz

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the quantum dynamics of a suddenly released beam of particles using a background independent (polymer) quantization scheme. We show that, in the first order of approximation, the low-energy polymer distribution converges to the standard quantum-mechanical result in a clear fashion, but also arises an additional small polymer correction term. We find that the high-energy polymer behaviour becomes predominant at short distances and short times. Numerical results are also presented. We find that particles whose wave functions satisfy the polymer wave equation do not exhibit the diffraction in time phenomena. The implementation of a lower bound to the possible resolution of times into the time-energy Heisenberg uncertainty relation is briefly discussed.

  9. 2010 Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ana Gonzalez

    2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in basic methodologies have played a major role in the dramatic progress in macromolecular crystallography over the past decade, both in terms of overall productivity and in the increasing complexity of the systems being successfully tackled. The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology will, as in the past, focus on the most recent developments in methodology, covering all aspects of the process from crystallization to model building and refinement, complemented by examples of structural highlights and complementary methods. Extensive discussion will be encouraged and it is hoped that all attendees will participate by giving oral or poster presentations, the latter using the excellent poster display area available at Bates College. The relatively small size and informal atmosphere of the meeting provides an excellent opportunity for all participants, especially younger scientists, to meet and exchange ideas with leading methods developers.

  10. Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyde, Roderick Allen

    1998-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

  11. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.E.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of {sup 57}Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2{plus_minus}0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 1{1/2} natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei.

  12. Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P. (5239 Miles Ave., Apt. A, Oakland, CA 94618); Goldberg, Kenneth Alan (1195 Keeler Ave., Berkeley, CA 94708)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI is provided. The dual-domain PS/PDI combines the separate noise-suppression capabilities of the widely-used phase-shifting and Fourier-transform fringe pattern analysis methods. The dual-domain PS/PDI relies on both a more restrictive implementation of the image plane PS/PDI mask and a new analysis method to be applied to the interferograms generated and recorded by the modified PS/PDI. The more restrictive PS/PDI mask guarantees the elimination of spatial-frequency crosstalk between the signal and the scattered-light noise arising from scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam. The new dual-domain analysis method is then used to eliminate scattered-light noise arising from both the scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam and the scattered-reference-light interfering with the "true" pinhole-diffracted reference light. The dual-domain analysis method has also been demonstrated to provide performance enhancement when using the non-optimized standard PS/PDI design. The dual-domain PS/PDI is essentially a three-tiered filtering system composed of lowpass spatial-filtering the test-beam electric field using the more restrictive PS/PDI mask, bandpass spatial-filtering the individual interferogram irradiance frames making up the phase-shifting series, and bandpass temporal-filtering the phase-shifting series as a whole.

  13. Ultrafast Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction with Megavolt Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastings, J.B.; /SLAC; Rudakov, F.M.; /Brown U.; Dowell, D.H.; Schmerge, J.F.; /SLAC; Cardoza, J.D.; /Brown U.; Castro, J.M.; Gierman, S.M.; Loos, H.; /SLAC; Weber, P.M.; /Brown U.

    2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An rf photocathode electron gun is used as an electron source for ultrafast time-resolved pump-probe electron diffraction. We observed single-shot diffraction patterns from a 160 nm Al foil using the 5.4 MeV electron beam from the Gun Test Facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Excellent agreement with simulations suggests that single-shot diffraction experiments with a time resolution approaching 100 fs are possible.

  14. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Li-ion batteries Using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program DOE 2011 Vehicle...

  15. Chapter 2 Diffractive Optics 2.1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffractive optics is an emerging technology with many applications. Some of the important applications include the design and fabrication of optical elements ...

  16. Numerical solution of an inverse diffraction grating problem from ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 5, 2013 ... The diffraction of time- harmonic electromagnetic waves by some periodic material ... patterns [7–10]. Uniqueness results and stability estimates.

  17. Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of a CZT Growth Tip...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of a CZT Growth Tip from a Vertical Gradient Freeze Furnace. Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of a CZT Growth Tip from a Vertical Gradient Freeze Furnace....

  18. Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giuseppe Levi; Evelyn Foschi; Torbjörn Hartman; Bo Höistad; Roland Pettersson; Lars Tegnér; Hanno Essén

    2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation of possible anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube named E-Cat HT is carried out. The reactor tube is charged with a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder plus some additives. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils inside the reactor tube. Measurement of the produced heat was performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras, recording data every second from the hot reactor tube. The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three-phase power analyzer. Data were collected in two experimental runs lasting 96 and 116 hours, respectively. An anomalous heat production was indicated in both experiments. The 116-hour experiment also included a calibration of the experimental set-up without the active charge present in the E-Cat HT. In this case, no extra heat was generated beyond the expected heat from the electric input. Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be far above those of any known chemical source. Even by the most conservative assumptions as to the errors in the measurements, the result is still one order of magnitude greater than conventional energy sources.

  19. Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Giuseppe; Hartman, Torbjörn; Höistad, Bo; Pettersson, Roland; Tegnér, Lars; Essén, Hanno

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation of possible anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube named E-Cat HT is carried out. The reactor tube is charged with a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder plus some additives. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils inside the reactor tube. Measurement of the produced heat was performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras, recording data every second from the hot reactor tube. The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three-phase power analyzer. Data were collected in two experimental runs lasting 96 and 116 hours, respectively. An anomalous heat production was indicated in both experiments. The 116-hour experiment also included a calibration of the experimental set-up without the active charge present in the E-Cat HT. In this case, no extra heat was generated beyond the expected heat from the electric input. Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be fa...

  20. New Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations - On the Anomalous Gyromagnetic Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. G. Nyambuya

    2008-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    I propose three new curved spacetime versions of the Dirac Equation. These equations have been developed mainly to try and account in a natural way for the observed anomalous gyromagnetic ratio of Fermions. The derived equations suggest that particles including the Electron which is thought to be a point particle do have a finite spatial size which is the reason for the observed anomalous gyromagnetic ratio. A serendipitous result of the theory, is that, two of the equation exhibits an asymmetry in their positive and negative energy solutions the first suggestion of which is clear that a solution to the problem as to why the Electron and Muon - despite their acute similarities - exhibit an asymmetry in their mass is possible. The Mourn is often thought as an Electron in a higher energy state. Another of the consequences of three equations emanating from the asymmetric serendipity of the energy solutions of two of these equations, is that, an explanation as to why Leptons exhibit a three stage mass hierarchy is possible.

  1. Apparent anomalous fading of thermoluminescence associated with competition with radiationless transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Reuven

    of a thermoluminescence (TL) peak for its application in TL dosimetry and even more so, in TL dating is its stability; accepted 8 March 2000 Abstract Anomalous fading of thermoluminescence (TL) is the eect of a fading whichApparent anomalous fading of thermoluminescence associated with competition with radiationless

  2. Formation of ozone: Metastable states and anomalous isotope effect Dmitri Babikov,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Formation of ozone: Metastable states and anomalous isotope effect Dmitri Babikov,a) Brian K for an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation is given in terms of the energy transfer mechanism, where the metastable states of ozone are formed first, and then stabilized by collisions with other atoms. Unusual

  3. MAGNETISM AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF ANOMALOUS RARE-EARTH METALS AND ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    MAGNETISM AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF ANOMALOUS RARE-EARTH METALS AND ALLOYS B. COQBLIN Laboratoire de impurities. 1. Introduction. -The rare-earth metals can be divided in two groups : - The (( normal )) rare-earths lantha- num are (( anomalous )) rare-earths metals. The same duality exists in alloys with rareearth

  4. Temperature fluctuations and anomalous scaling in low-Mach-number compressible turbulent flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elperin, Tov

    Temperature fluctuations and anomalous scaling in low-Mach-number compressible turbulent flow Tov 25 October 1996; revised manuscript received 20 February 1997 Temperature fluctuations in a low pressure fluctuations, the anomalous scaling may occur in the second moment of the temperature field

  5. Oceanic processes associated with anomalous events in the Indian Ocean with relevance to 19971998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    Oceanic processes associated with anomalous events in the Indian Ocean with relevance to 1997 Abstract. An anomalous climatic event occurred in the Indian Ocean (IO) region during 1997­1998, which 1997, warm SSTAs appeared in the western IO, and they peaked in February 1998. An ocean general

  6. Residual stress measurement using X-ray diffraction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderoglu, Osman

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    .3.6.2. Synchrotron Diffraction.........................................................................9 II. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS IN X-RAY DIFFRACTION.....................................12 2.1. X-ray Source... radiations ...................................................................16 Table 2.2 Structure factors and reflection conditions ...................................................20 Table 4.1 Chemical composition of SS316...

  7. applied diffractive optics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applied diffractive optics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Diffractive read-out of...

  8. Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhurl, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

  9. Running Coupling Corrections to Nonlinear Evolution for Diffractive Dissociation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri V. Kovchegov

    2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine running coupling corrections to the kernel of the non-linear evolution equation for the cross section of single diffractive dissociation in high energy DIS. The running coupling kernel for diffractive evolution is found to be exactly the same as the kernel of the rcBK evolution equation.

  10. Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

  11. Prospects for Diffractive and Forward Physics at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albrow, M; Arneodo, M; Avati, V; Bartalini, P; Berardi, V; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brucken, E; Burtovoy, V; Buzzo, A; Calicchio, M; Capurro, F; Catanesi, M G; Catastini, P; Ciocci, M A; Croft, R; Datsko, K; Deile, M; De Favereau De Jeneret, J; De Jesus Damiao, D; Robutti, E; de Roeck, A; D'Enterria, D G; De Wolf, E A; Eggert, K; Engel, R; Erhan, S; Ferro, F; García-Fuertes, W; Geist, W; Grothe, M; Guillaud, J P; Heino, J; Hees, A; Hilden, T; Kalliopuska, J; Kaspar, J; Katsas, P; Kim, V; Klyukhin, V; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Kuznetsov, A; Lami, S; Lamsa, J; Latino, G; Lauhakanga, R; Lippmaa, E; Lippmaa, J; Liu, Y; Loginov, A; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodriguez, F; Macri, M; Mäki, T; Meucci, M; Minutoli, S; Mnich, J; Moussienko, I; Murray, M; Niewiadomski, H; Noschis, E; Notarnicola, G; Ochesanu, S; Österberg, K; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Ottela, M; Ovyn, S; Palazzi, P; Panagiotou, A D; Paoletti, R; Popov, V; Petrov, V; Pierzchala, T; Piotrzkowski, K; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Rella, G; Reucroft, S; Ropelewski, Leszek; Rouby, X; Ruggiero, G; Rummel, A; Ruspa, M; Ryutin, R; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santoro, A F S; Santroni, A; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sarycheva, L; Schilling, F P; Schlein, P E; Scribano Memoria, A; Sette, G; Snoeys, W; Snow, G R; Sobol, A; Solano, A; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Swain, J; Sznajder, A; Tasevsky, M; Taylor, C C; Torp, F; Trummal, A; Turini, N; Van Der Donckt, M; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Vilela-Pereira, A; Whitmore, J; Zaborov, D

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CMS and TOTEM experiments intend to carry out a joint diffractive/forward physics program with an unprecedented rapidity coverage. The present document outlines some aspects of such a physics program, which spans from the investigation of the low-x structure of the proton to the diffractive production of a SM or MSSM Higgs boson.

  12. Modeling anomalous/non-CCM extinction using nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rai, Rakesh K

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling extinction along anomalous/non-CCM sightlines, which are characterized by a broad $217.5 nm$ bump and steep far-ultraviolet (FUV) rise, is reported. The extinction along these sightlines, viz. {HD 210121}, {HD 204827}, {HD 29647} and {HD 62542}, is difficult to reproduce using standard silicate and graphite grains. Very good match with the observed extinction is obtained by considering nanodiamond component as part of carbonaceous matter. Most of these sightlines are rich in carbon and are invariably backed by a young hot stellar object. Nanodiamond is taken as core within amorphous carbon and graphite. These core-mantle particles taken as additional components along with graphite and silicates lead to reduction in the silicate requirement. The abundance of carbonaceous matter is not affected as a very small fraction of nanodiamond is required. Extinction along sightlines that show steep FUV is also reported demonstrating the importance of nanodiamond component in all such regions.

  13. Anomalous skin effects in a weakly magnetized degenerate electron plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, G., E-mail: gohar.abbas@gcu.edu.pk; Sarfraz, M. [Department of Physics, GC University Lahore, Katchery Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Shah, H. A. [Forman Christian College University, Farozpur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fully relativistic analysis of anomalous skin effects for parallel propagating waves in a weakly magnetized degenerate electron plasma is presented and a graphical comparison is made with the results obtained using relativistic Maxwellian distribution function [G. Abbas, M. F. Bashir, and G. Murtaza, Phys. Plasmas 18, 102115 (2011)]. It is found that the penetration depth for R- and L-waves for degenerate case is qualitatively small in comparison with the Maxwellian plasma case. The quantitative reduction due to weak magnetic field in the skin depth in R-wave for degenerate plasma is large as compared to the non-degenerate one. By ignoring the ambient magnetic field, previous results for degenerate field free case are salvaged [A. F. Alexandrov, A. S. Bogdankevich, and A. A. Rukhadze, Principles of Plasma Electrodynamics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg, 1984), p. 90].

  14. Final Report: Algorithms for Diffractive Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elser, Veit

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomenal coherence and brightness of x-ray free-electron laser light sources, such as the LCLS at SLAC, have the potential of revolutionizing the investigation of structure and dynamics in the nano-domain. However, this potential will go unrealized without a similar revolution in the way the data are analyzed. While it is true that the ambitious design parameters of the LCLS have been achieved, the prospects of realizing the most publicized goal of this instrument — the imaging of individual bio-particles — remains daunting. Even with 10{sup 12} photons per x-ray pulse, the feebleness of the scattering process represents a fundamental limit that no amount of engineering ingenuity can overcome. Large bio-molecules will scatter on the order of only 10{sup 3} photons per pulse into a detector with 106 pixels; the diffraction “images” will be virtually indistinguishable from noise. Averaging such noisy signals over many pulses is not possible because the particle orientation cannot be controlled. Each noisy laser snapshot is thus confounded by the unknown viewpoint of the particle. Given the heavy DOE investment in LCLS and the profound technical challenges facing single-particle imaging, the final two years of this project have concentrated on this effort. We are happy to report that we succeeded in developing an extremely efficient algorithm that can reconstruct the shapes of particles at even the extremes of noise expected in future LCLS experiments with single bio-particles. Since this is the most important outcome of this project, the major part of this report documents this accomplishment. The theoretical techniques that were developed for the single-particle imaging project have proved useful in other imaging problems that are described at the end of the report.

  15. Diffractive optics for compact flat panel displays. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, D.; DeLong, K.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Three years ago LLNL developed a practical method to dramatically reduce the chromatic aberration in single element diffractive imaging lenses. High efficiency, achromatic imaging lenses have been fabricated for human vision correction. This LDRD supported research in applying our new methods to develop a unique, diffraction-based optical interface with solid state, microelectronic imaging devices. Advances in microelectronics have led to smaller, more efficient components for optical systems. There have, however, been no equivalent advances in the imaging optics associated with these devices. The goal of this project was to replace the bulky, refractive optics in typical head-mounted displays with micro-thin diffractive optics to directly image flat-panel displays into the eye. To visualize the system think of the lenses of someone`s eyeglasses becoming flat-panel displays. To realize this embodiment, we needed to solve the problems of large chromatic aberrations and low efficiency that are associated with diffraction. We have developed a graceful tradeoff between chromatic aberrations and the diffractive optic thickness. It turns out that by doubling the thickness of a micro-thin diffractive lens we obtain nearly a two-times improvement in chromatic performance. Since the human eye will tolerate one diopter of chromatic aberration, we are able to achieve an achromatic image with a diffractive lens that is only 20 microns thick, versus 3 mm thickness for the comparable refractive lens. Molds for the diffractive lenses are diamond turned with sub-micron accuracy; the final lenses are cast from these molds using various polymers. We thus retain both the micro- thin nature of the diffractive optics and the achromatic image quality of refractive optics. During the first year of funding we successfully extended our earlier technology from 1 cm diameter optics required for vision applications up to the 5 cm diameter optics required for this application. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Optical loss due to diffraction by concentrator Fresnel lenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornung, Thorsten, E-mail: thorsten.hornung@ise.fraunhofer.de; Nitz, Peter, E-mail: thorsten.hornung@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Fresnel lenses are widely used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems as a primary optical element. They focus sunlight on small solar cells or on the entrance apertures of secondary optical elements. A Fresnel lens consists of several prism rings and diffraction by these prism rings is unavoidable. Some of the light that would reach a designated target area according to geometric optics will miss it due to diffraction. This diffraction loss may be of relevant magnitude for CPV applications. The results of published analytical calculations are evaluated, discussed, and compared to computer simulations and measurements.

  17. Design and demonstration of broadband thin planar diffractive acoustic lenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wenqi; Xie, Yangbo; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A., E-mail: cummer@ee.duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present here two diffractive acoustic lenses with subwavelength thickness, planar profile, and broad operation bandwidth. Tapered labyrinthine unit cells with their inherently broadband effective material properties are exploited in our design. Both the measured and the simulated results are showcased to demonstrate the lensing effect over more than 40% of the central frequency. The focusing of a propagating Gaussian modulated sinusoidal pulse is also demonstrated. This work paves the way for designing diffractive acoustic lenses and more generalized phase engineering diffractive elements with labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials.

  18. Diffraction in Two-Photon Collisions at TESLA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. De Roeck; R. Engel; A. Rostovtsev

    1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we discuss the possibility to measure diffraction dissociation in collisions of real and weakly virtual photons at a 500 GeV e+e- linear collider.

  19. angle diffraction studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A. 3 DMSO-Induced Dehydration of DPPC Membranes Studied by X-ray Diffraction, Small-Angle Neutron Scattering, and Calorimetry Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: The influence of...

  20. Radiation induced by relativistic beams passing over a diffraction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 2000 FEL 2000 1 Radiation Induced by Relativistic Beams Passing Over a Diffraction Grating J.H. Brownell, J. Walsh, J. Swartz, S. Trotz Dept. of Physics and Astronomy,...

  1. Gas-phase electron diffraction studies of unstable molecules 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble-Eddy, Robert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) is the only viable technique for the accurate structural study of gas-phase molecules that contain more than ~10 atoms. Recent advances in Edinburgh have made it possible to study ...

  2. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin Films. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin...

  3. Nanofabrication of Diffractive X-ray Optics for Synchrotrons...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the soft x-ray range and down to 15 nm in the multi keV range. For use at x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources, diffractive optics must be capable of withstanding extreme...

  4. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12.0.2.2 Citation: J.J. Turner et al., "X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011). Web: http:prl.aps.orgpdfPRLv107i3e033904...

  5. Increased Photovoltaic Power Output via Diffractive Spectrum Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ganghun

    In this Letter, we report the preliminary demonstration of a new paradigm for photovoltaic power generation that utilizes a broadband diffractive-optical element (BDOE) to efficiently separate sunlight into laterally spaced ...

  6. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  7. Overcoming the far-field diffraction limit via absorbance modulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Hsin-Yu Sidney

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffraction limits the resolution of far-field lithography and imaging to about half of the wavelength, which greatly limits the capability of optical techniques. The proposed technique with absorbance modulation aims to ...

  8. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Ciricosta, Orlando; Suggit, Matthew J.; Wark, Justin S. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Tang, Henry [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored.

  9. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  10. Quality experimental and calculated powder x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullenger, D.B.; Cantrell, J.S.; Beiter, T.A.; Tomlin, D.W.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For several years, we have submitted quality powder XRD patterns to the International Centre for Diffraction Data for inclusion as reference standards in their Powder Diffraction File. The procedure followed is described; examples used are {beta}-UH{sub 3}, {alpha}- BaT{sub 2}, alpha-lithium disilicate ({alpha}-Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}), and 2,2`,4,4`,6,6`hexanitroazobenzene-III (HNAB-III).

  11. Violations of Lorentz invariance in the neutrino sector: an improved analysis of anomalous threshold constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Maccione; Stefano Liberati; David M. Mattingly

    2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently there has been a renewed activity in the physics of violations of Lorentz invariance in the neutrino sector. Flavor dependent Lorentz violation, which generically changes the pattern of neutrino oscillations, is extremely tightly constrained by oscillation experiments. Flavor independent Lorentz violation, which does not introduce new oscillation phenomena, is much more weakly constrained with constraints coming from time of flight and anomalous threshold analyses. We use a simplified rotationally invariant model to investigate the effects of finite baselines and energy dependent dispersion on anomalous reaction rates in long baseline experiments and show numerically that anomalous reactions do not necessarily cut off the spectrum quite as sharply as currently assumed. We also present a revised analysis of how anomalous reactions can be used to cast constraints from the observed atmospheric high energy neutrinos and the expected cosmogenic ones.

  12. Modified Gravitational Theory and the Pioneer 10 and 11 Spacecraft Anomalous Acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Moffat

    2004-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The nonsymmetric gravitational theory leads to a modified acceleration law that can at intermediate distance ranges account for the anomalous acceleration experienced by the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft.

  13. Nature of the Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Thompson

    2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    I summarize recent developments in the magnetar model of the Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars, give a critical inventory of alternative models for the AXPs, and outline the improved diagnostics expected from present observational efforts.

  14. Higgs Mechanism and Anomalous Hall Effect in Three-Dimensional Topological Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nogueira, Flavio S; Eremin, Ilya

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that the Higgs mechanism in three-dimensional topological superconductors exhibits unique features with experimentally observable consequences. The Higgs model we discuss has two superconducting components and an axion-like magnetoelectric term with the phase difference of the superconducting order parameters playing the role of the axion field. Due to this additional term, quantum electromagnetic and phase fluctuations lead to a robust topologically non-trivial state that cannot be continuously deformed into a topologically non-trivial one. In the low frequency London regime an anomalous Hall effect is induced in the presence of an applied electric field parallel to the surface. This anomalous Hall current is induced by a Lorentz-like force arising from the axion term, and it involves the relative superfluid velocity of the superconducting components. The anomalous Hall current has a negative sign, a situation reminiscent, but quite distinct in physical origin, of the anomalous Hall effect obs...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous quasi-elastic electron Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sample search results for: anomalous quasi-elastic electron Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Neutron scattering study of the quasi-elastic spectral width in CeMg, CeMg3 and NdMg3...

  16. Atomic Resolution Coherent Diffractive Imaging and Ultrafast Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Jian-min (University of Illinois) [University of Illinois

    2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A major scientific challenge is determining the 3-D atomic structure of small nanostructures, including single molecules. Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) is a promising approach. Recent progress has demonstrated coherent diffraction patterns can be recorded from individual nanostructures and phased to reconstruct their structure. However, overcoming the dose limit imposed by radiation damage is a major obstacle toward the full potential of CDI. One approach is to use ultrafast x-ray or electron pulses. In electron diffraction, amplitudes recorded in a diffraction pattern are unperturbed by lens aberrations, defocus, and other microscope resolution-limiting factors. Sub-A signals are available beyond the information limit of direct imaging. Significant contrast improvement is obtained compared to high-resolution electron micrographs. progress has also been made in developing time-resolved electron diffraction and imaging for the study of ultrafast dynamic processes in materials. This talk will cover these crosscutting issues and the convergence of electron and x-ray diffraction techniques toward structure determination of single molecules.

  17. Five-degrees-of-freedom diffractive laser encoder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Huang, Hsueh-Liang; Lee, Hau-Wei

    2009-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear laser encoders have been widely used for precision positioning control of a linear stage. We develop a five-degrees-of-freedom (5-DOF) laser linear encoder to simultaneously measure the position, straightness, pitch, roll, and yaw errors along one moving axis. This study integrates the circular polarized interferometric technique with the three-dimensional diffracted ray-tracing method to develop a novel laser encoder with 5-DOF. The phases encoded within the +1 and -1 order diffraction lights reflected from the diffraction grating are decoded by the circular polarized interferometric technique to measure the linear displacement when the diffraction grating moves. The three-dimensional diffracted ray tracing of the +1- and -1-order diffraction lights induced by the motion errors of the moved grating were analyzed to calculate the other motion errors based on the detection of light spots on two quadrant photodiode detectors. The period of the grating is 0.83 {mu}m and the experimental results show that the measurement accuracy was better than {+-}0.3 {mu}m/{+-}41 {mu}m for straightness, {+-}1 arc sec.

  18. SOLAR WIND MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS TURBULENCE: ANOMALOUS SCALING AND ROLE OF INTERMITTENCY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salem, C.; Bale, S. D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mangeney, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, F-92195 Meudon (France); Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Rende (Italy)], E-mail: salem@ssl.berkeley.edu

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present a study of the scaling properties and intermittency of solar wind MHD turbulence based on the use of wavelet transforms. More specifically, we use the Haar Wavelet transform on simultaneous 3 s resolution particle and magnetic field data from the Wind spacecraft, to investigate anomalous scaling and intermittency effects of both magnetic field and solar wind velocity fluctuations in the inertial range. For this purpose, we calculated spectra, structure functions, and probability distribution functions. We show that this powerful wavelet technique allows for a systematic elimination of intermittency effects on spectra and structure functions and thus for a clear determination of the actual scaling properties in the inertial range. The scaling of the magnetic field and the velocity fluctuations are found to be fundamentally different. Moreover, when the most intermittent structures superposed to the standard fluctuations are removed, simple statistics are recovered. The magnetic field and the velocity fluctuations exhibit a well-defined, although different, monofractal behavior, following a Kolmogorov -5/3 scaling and a Iroshnikov-Kraichnan -3/2 scaling, respectively. The multifractal properties of solar wind turbulence appear to be determined by the presence of those most intermittent structures. Finally, our wavelet technique also allows for a direct and systematic identification of the most active, singular structures responsible for the intermittency in the solar wind.

  19. An Explanation of Dayton Miller's Anomalous "Ether Drift" Result

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas J. Roberts

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1933 Dayton Miller published in this journal the results of his voluminous observations using his ether drift interferometer, and proclaimed that he had determined the "absolute motion of the earth". This result is in direct conflict with the prediction of Special Relativity, and also with numerous related experiments that found no such signal or "absolute motion". This paper presents a complete explanation for his anomalous result by: a) showing that his results are not statistically significant, b) describing in detail how flaws in his analysis procedure produced a false signal with precisely the properties he expected, and c) presenting a quantitative model of his systematic drift that shows there is no real signal in his data. In short, this is every experimenter's nightmare: he was unknowingly looking at statistically insignificant patterns in his systematic drift that mimicked the appearance of a real signal. An upper limit on "absolute motion" of 6 km/sec is derived from his raw data, fully consistent with similar experimental results and the prediction of Special Relativity. The key point of this paper is the need for a comprehensive and quantitative error analysis. The concepts and techniques used in this analysis were not available in Miller's day, but are now standard. These problems also apply to the famous measurements of Michelson and Morley, and to most if not all similar experiments; appendices are provided discussing several such experiments.

  20. Anomalous transport in Charney-Hasegawa-Mima flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leoncini, Xavier; Agullo, Olivier; Benkadda, Sadruddin; Zaslavsky, George M. [PIIM, Universite, de Provence, CNRS, Centre Universitaire de Saint Jerome, F-13397 Marseilles (France); Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, New York 10012, USA and Department of Physics, New York University, 2-4 Washington Place, New York, New York 10003 (United States)

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport properties of particles evolving in a system governed by the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation are investigated. Transport is found to be anomalous with a nonlinear evolution of the second moments with time. The origin of this anomaly is traced back to the presence of chaotic jets within the flow. All characteristic transport exponents have a similar value around {mu}=1.75, which is also the one found for simple point vortex flows in the literature, indicating some kind of universality. Moreover, the law {gamma}={mu}+1 linking the trapping-time exponent within jets to the transport exponent is confirmed, and an accumulation toward zero of the spectrum of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent is observed. The localization of a jet is performed, and its structure is analyzed. It is clearly shown that despite a regular coarse-grained picture of the jet, the motion within the jet appears as chaotic, but that chaos is bounded on successive small scales.

  1. Supplementary Figure 1| Neutron diffraction data at 86 % relative humidity. a) Schematic representation of neutron diffraction geometry for -2 scans. Diffraction data are obtained

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    distributions of lipid and protein under varying levels of hydration. Predicted neutron scattering profiles as number density profiles weighted by the neutron scattering lengths of individual atoms, then symmetrizedSupplementary Figure 1| Neutron diffraction data at 86 % relative humidity. a) Schematic

  2. LFV decays and anomalous magnetic (electric) moments in a lepton mass matrices ansatz induced by SUSY GUT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. J. Huo

    2003-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    By using the anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments of the $\\tau$ lepton in an effective lagrangian approach to the new physics, we investigate the lepton flavor violation (LFV) decays, $l\\to l'\\gamma$, and $\\mu,\\tau$ anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments in a lepton mass matrices ansatz which induced by SUSY GUT. We put very stringent constraints LFV decays and $\\tau$ anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments.

  3. Optical diffraction for measurements of nano-mechanical bending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermans, Rodolfo I; Ndieyira, Joseph Wafula; McKendry, Rachel A; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micromechanical transducers such as cantilevers for AFM often rely on optical readout methods that require illumination of a specific region of the microstructure. Here we explore and exploit the diffraction effects that have been previously neglected when modeling cantilever bending measurement techniques. The illumination of a cantilever end causes an asymmetric diffraction pattern at the photodetector that significantly affects the calibration of the signal in the popular optical beam deflection technique (OBDT). Conditions for optimized linear signals that avoid detection artifacts conflict with small numerical aperture illumination and narrow cantilevers which are softer and therefore more sensitive. Embracing diffraction patterns as a physical measurable allows a richer detection technique that decouples measurements of tilt and curvature and simultaneously relaxes the requirements on the alignment of illumination and detector. We show analytical results, numerical simulations and physiologically releva...

  4. Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shapiro, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Thibault, P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Beetz, T. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Elser, V. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Howells, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Jacobsen, C. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Kirz, J. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Lima, E. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Miao, H. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Neiman, A. M. [State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, NY (United States); Sayre, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffraction microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.

  5. Cryo diffraction microscopy: Ice conditions and finite supports

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miao, H; Downing, K; Huang, X; Kirz, J; Marchesini, S; Nelson, J; Shapiro, D; Steinbrener, J; Stewart, A; Jacobsen, C

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution imagesmore »using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.« less

  6. High precision astrometry with a diffractive pupil telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyon, Olivier; Milster, Thomas D; Eisner, Josh A; Angel, Roger; Woolf, Neville J; Ammons, Stephen M; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie; Nemati, Bijan; Pitman, Joe; Woodruff, Robert A; Belikov, Ruslan; 10.1088/0067-0049/200/2/11

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrometric detection and mass determination of Earth-mass exoplanets requires sub-microarcsec accuracy, which is theoretically possible with an imaging space telescope using field stars as an astrometric reference. The measurement must however overcome astrometric distortions which are much larger than the photon noise limit. To address this issue, we propose to generate faint stellar diffraction spikes using a two-dimensional grid of regularly spaced small dark spots added to the surface of the primary mirror (PM). Accurate astrometric motion of the host star is obtained by comparing the position of the spikes to the background field stars. The spikes do not contribute to scattered light in the central part of the field and therefore allow unperturbed coronagraphic observation of the star's immediate surrounding. Because the diffraction spikes are created on the PM and imaged on the same focal plane detector as the background stars, astrometric distortions affect equally the diffraction spikes and the backg...

  7. Cryo diffraction microscopy: Ice conditions and finite supports

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miao, H; Downing, K; Huang, X; Kirz, J; Marchesini, S; Nelson, J; Shapiro, D; Steinbrener, J; Stewart, A; Jacobsen, C

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution images using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.

  8. Application of Electron Backscatter Diffraction to Phase Identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Dasher, B S; Deal, A

    2008-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The identification of crystalline phases in solids requires knowledge of two microstructural properties: crystallographic structure and chemical composition. Traditionally, this has been accomplished using X-ray diffraction techniques where the measured crystallographic information, in combination with separate chemical composition measurements for specimens of unknown pedigrees, is used to deduce the unknown phases. With the latest microstructural analysis tools for scanning electron microscopes, both the crystallography and composition can be determined in a single analysis utilizing electron backscatter diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. In this chapter, we discuss the approach required to perform these experiments, elucidate the benefits and limitations of this technique, and detail via case studies how composition, crystallography, and diffraction contrast can be used as phase discriminators.

  9. Biological Imaging by Soft X-ray Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro,D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; et al.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffraction microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.

  10. Microarcsecond relative astrometry from the ground with a diffractive pupil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammons, S M; Bendek, E; Guyon, O

    2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The practical use of astrometry to detect exoplanets via the reflex motion of the parent star depends critically on the elimination of systematic floors in imaging systems. In the diffractive pupil technique proposed for space-based detection of exo-earths, extended diffraction spikes generated by a dotted primary mirror are referenced against a wide-field grid of background stars to calibrate changing optical distortion and achieve microarcsecond astrometric precision on bright targets (Guyon et al. 2010). We describe applications of this concept to ground-based uncrowded astrometry using a diffractive, monopupil telescope and a wide-field camera to image as many as {approx}4000 background reference stars. Final relative astrometric precision is limited by differential tip/tilt jitter caused by high altitude layers of turbulence. A diffractive 3-meter telescope is capable of reaching {approx}35 {micro}as relative astrometric error per coordinate perpendicular to the zenith vector in three hours on a bright target star (I < 10) in fields of moderate stellar density ({approx}40 stars arcmin{sup -2} with I < 23). Smaller diffractive apertures (D < 1 m) can achieve 100-200 {micro}as performance with the same stellar density and exposure time and a large telescope (6.5-10 m) could achieve as low as 10 {micro}as, nearly an order of magnitude better than current space-based facilities. The diffractive pupil enables the use of larger fields of view through calibration of changing optical distortion as well as brighter target stars (V < 6) by preventing star saturation. Permitting the sky to naturally roll to average signals over many thousands of pixels can mitigate the effects of detector imperfections.

  11. Hand held phase-shifting diffraction Moire interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An interferometer is described in which a coherent beam of light is generated within a remote case and transmitted to a hand held unit tethered to said remote case, said hand held unit having optical elements for directing a pair of mutually coherent collimated laser beams at a diffraction grating. Data from the secondary or diffracted beams are then transmitted to a separate video and data acquisition system for recording and analysis for load induced deformation or for identification purposes. Means are also provided for shifting the phase of one incident beam relative to the other incident beam and being controlled from within said remote case. 4 figs.

  12. Evidence for color fluctuations in hadrons from coherent nuclear diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frankfurt, L. (Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv (Israel)); Miller, G.A. (Department of Physcis, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)); Strikman, M. (Department of Physcis, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16801 (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A QCD-based treatment of projectile size fluctuations is used to compute inelastic diffractive cross sections [sigma][sub diff] for coherent hadron-nuclear processes. We find that fluctuations near the average size give the major contribution to the cross section with [lt] few % contribution from small size configurations. The computed values of [sigma][sub diff] are consistent with the limited available data. The importance of coherent diffraction studies for a wide range of projectiles for high energy Fermilab fixed target experiments is emphasized. The implications of these significant color fluctuations for relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed.

  13. Borman effect in resonant diffraction of X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oreshko, A. P., E-mail: ap.oreshko@physics.msu.ru [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamic theory of resonant diffraction (occurring when the energy of incident radiation is close to the energy of the absorption edge of an element in the composition of a given substance) of synchronous X-rays is developed in the two-wave approximation in the coplanar Laue geometry for large grazing angles in perfect crystals. A sharp decrease in the absorption coefficient in the substance with simultaneously satisfied diffraction conditions (Borman effect) is demonstrated, and the theoretical and first experimental results are compared. The calculations reveal the possibility of applying this approach in analyzing the quadrupole-quadrupole contribution to the absorption coefficient.

  14. Nanoparticle-Enhanced Diffraction Gratings for Ultrasensitive Surface Plasmon Biosensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanoparticle-Enhanced Diffraction Gratings for Ultrasensitive Surface Plasmon Biosensing Alastair W in a surface plasmon resonance geometry is observed due to the optical coupling of the planar surface plasmons in the grating to the localized surface plasmons in the gold nanoparticles. As a first example

  15. A neutron diffraction study of nano-crystalline graphite oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and regions containing oxidized chain-like structures. The neutron scattering pair distribution function is heterogeneous, the total neutron scattering data presented in this paper gives a statistically averagedA neutron diffraction study of nano-crystalline graphite oxide J.A. Johnsona,b,*, C.J. Benmoreb , S

  16. CONTROLLED SCATTERING OF LIGHT WAVES: OPTIMAL DESIGN OF DIFFRACTIVE OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, David C.

    CONTROLLED SCATTERING OF LIGHT WAVES: OPTIMAL DESIGN OF DIFFRACTIVE OPTICS DAVID C. DOBSON 1. Introduction. Di ractive optics is a vigorously growing technol- ogy in which optical components functions unattainable with conventional optics. These devices have great advantages in terms of size

  17. Supermode control in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehuys, D.; Mitsunaga, K.; Eng, L.; Marshall, W.K.; Yariv, A.

    1988-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Supermode control is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays. A linear theory is presented to determine the supermode threshold gain as a function of the coupling cavity length. By fabricating devices with different coupling cavity lengths, array operation in both the fundamental and highest order supermodes is achieved.

  18. Inverse diffraction grating of Maxwell's equations in biperiodic ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    K. Ito and F. Reitich, “A high-order perturbation approach to profile .... as corrective lenses, anti-reflective interfaces, beam splitters, and sensors. .... To reduced the diffraction grating problem from an unbounded domain ?S ...... To test the stability of the method, some relative random noise is added to the ... Table 2 reports.

  19. Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate Thordis Vierke and Jürgen Jahns A conventional Fresnel zone plate (FZP) consists of concentric rings with an alternating binary transmission of zero and one. In an azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate (aFZP), the light transmission

  20. Diffracted light from latent images in photoresist for exposure control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bishop, Kenneth P. (Rio Rancho, NM); Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gaspar, Susan M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hickman, Kirt C. (Albuquerque, NM); McNeil, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Naqvi, S. Sohail H. (Albuquerque, NM); Stallard, Brian R. (Albuquerque, NM); Tipton, Gary D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In microelectronics manufacturing, an arrangement for monitoring and control of exposure of an undeveloped photosensitive layer on a structure susceptible to variations in optical properties in order to attain the desired critical dimension for the pattern to be developed in the photosensitive layer. This is done by ascertaining the intensities for one or more respective orders of diffracted power for an incident beam of radiation corresponding to the desired critical dimension for the photosensitive layer as a function of exposure time and optical properties of the structure, illuminating the photosensitive layer with a beam of radiation of one or more frequencies to which the photosensitive layer is not exposure-sensitive, and monitoring the intensities of the orders of diffracted radiation due to said illumination including at least the first order of diffracted radiation thereof, such that when said predetermined intensities for the diffracted orders are reached during said illumination of photosensitive layer, it is known that a pattern having at least approximately the desired critical dimension can be developed on the photosensitive layer.

  1. Constraints on anomalous quartic gauge boson couplings from ??bar ?? and qqbar ?? events at CERN LEP2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Graham Wallace; Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Å kesson, P. F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.

    2004-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW D 70, 032005 ~2004!Constraints on anomalous quartic gauge boson couplings from nn¯ gg and qq¯gg events at CERN LEP2 G. Abbiendi,2 C. Ainsley,5 P. F. Åkesson,3,v G. Alexander,21 J. Allison,15 P. Amaral,8 G. Anagnostou,1 K. J. Anderson..., the ratio of the observ expectation is R(data/SM)50.9260.0760.04, where tainties respectively. The nn¯gg and qq¯gg data are use couplings. Combining with previous OPAL results fr limits on the anomalous coupling parameters a0 Z , ac Z ,0.023 GeV22, 20.029 Ge...

  2. A like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry at Tevatron induced by the anomalous top quark couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jong Phil Lee; Kang Young Lee

    2011-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the recently measured 3.2 $\\sigma$ deviations of the charge asymmetry of like-sign dimuon events from the standard model prediction by the D0 collaboration at Tevatron can be explained by introducing the anomalous right-handed top quark couplings. Combined analysis with the $\\bs$ and $\\bd$ mixings and $B \\to X_s \\gamma$ decays has been performed. We discuss how to discriminate the effects on the dimuon charge asymmetry of the anomalous $\\tsW$ and $\\tbW$ couplings.

  3. Equivalence of the channel-corrected-T-matrix and anomalous-propagator approaches to condensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morawetz, K. [Muenster University of Applied Science, Stegerwaldstrasse 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany); International Institute of Physics (IIP), Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Norte, BrazilAvenida Odilon Gomes de Lima, 1722-CEP 59078-400, Natal/RN (Brazil) and Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Any many-body approximation corrected for unphysical repeated collisions in a given condensation channel is shown to provide the same set of equations as they appear by using anomalous propagators. The ad hoc assumption in the latter theory about nonconservation of particle numbers can be released. In this way, the widespread used anomalous-propagator approach is given another physical interpretation. A generalized Soven equation follows which improves a chosen approximation in the same way as the coherent-potential approximation improves the averaged T matrix for impurity scattering.

  4. Anomalous transport effects and possible environmental symmetry "violation" in heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jinfeng Liao

    2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The heavy ion collision provides a unique many-body environment where local domains of strongly interacting chiral medium may occur and in a sense allow environmental symmetry "violation" phenomena. For example certain anomalous transport processes, forbidden in usual medium, become possible in such domains. We briefly review recent progress in both the theoretical understanding and experimental search of various anomalous transport effects (such as the Chiral Magnetic Effect, Chiral Separation Effect, Chiral Electric Separation Effect, Chiral Electric/Magnetic Waves, etc) in the hot QCD fluid created by such collisions.

  5. QCD radiation in WH and WZ production and anomalous coupling measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco Campanario; Robin Roth; Dieter Zeppenfeld

    2014-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study QCD radiation for the WH and WZ production processes at the LHC. We identify the regions sensitive to anomalous couplings, by considering jet observables, computed at NLO QCD with the use of the Monte Carlo program VBFNLO. Based on these observations, we propose the use of a dynamical jet veto. The dynamical jet veto avoids the problem of large logarithms depending on the veto scale, hence, providing more reliable predictions and simultaneously increasing the sensitivity to anomalous coupling searches, especially in the WZ production process.

  6. Enhanced anomalous photo-absorption from TiO{sub 2} nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solanki, Vanaraj; Majumder, Subrata; Mishra, Indrani; Varma, Shikha, E-mail: shikha@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Dash, P. [Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004 (India); Singh, C. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Two dimensional nanostructures have been created on the rutile TiO{sub 2} (110) surfaces via ion irradiation technique. Enhanced anomalous photo- absorption response is displayed, where nanostructures of 15?nm diameter with 0.5?nm height, and not the smaller nanostructures with larger surface area, delineate highest absorbance. Comprehensive investigations of oxygen vacancy states, on ion- irradiated surfaces, display a remarkable result that the number of vacancies saturates for higher fluences. A competition between the number of vacancy sites on the nanostructure in conjunction with its size is responsible for the observed anomalous photo-absorption.

  7. $B_d-\\bar{B}_d$ mixing vs. $B_s-\\bar{B}_s$ mixing with the anomalous $Wtb$ couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jong Phil Lee; Kang Young Lee

    2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the effects of the anomalous $tbW$ couplings on the $\\bd$ mixing and recently measured $\\bs$ mixing. The combined analysis of mixings via box diagrams with penguin decays provides strong constraints on the anomalous top quark couplings. We find the bound from the $\\bd$ mixing data is stronger than that from the $\\bs$ mixing.

  8. JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 18, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2000 2167 10 Gb/s Multiple Wavelength, Coherent Short Pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jalali. Bahram

    /s by year 2002 with a further doubling every two years. Utilizing the entire 40 THz low loss transmission links. The preferred approach to utilize the low loss transmis- sion window of silica fibers calculate the coherence degradation due to amplification of incoherent energy during the SC generation

  9. Hidden local symmetry for anomalous processes with isospin- and SU(3)-breaking effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashimoto, M. [Department of Physics Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan)] [Department of Physics Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that isospin- and SU(3)-breaking terms can be introduced to the anomalous {ital VVP} coupling in the hidden local symmetry scheme without changing the Wess-Zumino-Witten term in the low-energy limit. We make the analysis for anomalous processes of two-body and three-body decays such as radiative vector meson decays ({ital V}{r_arrow}{ital P}{gamma}), conversion decays of a photon into a lepton pair ({ital V}{r_arrow}{ital Pl}{sup +}{ital l}{sup {minus}}), and hadronic anomalous decays ({ital V}{r_arrow}{ital PPP}). The predictions successfully reproduce all experimental data of anomalous decays. In particular, we predict the decay widths of {rho}{sup 0}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} and {phi}{r_arrow}{eta}{prime}{gamma} as 101{plus_minus}9 keV and 0.508{plus_minus}0.035 keV, respectively, which will be tested in the DA{Phi}NE {phi} factory. Moreover, predictions are also made for {phi}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup 0}{ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}, {rho}{r_arrow}3{pi}, {ital K}{asterisk}{r_arrow}{ital K}{pi}{pi}, and so on, for which only the experimental upper bounds are available now. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. ANOMALOUS DISPERSION OF SLOW NEUTRONS IN CRYSTALS By H. G. SMITH and S. W. PETERSON (1),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Studies of anomalous scattering of neutrons from CdI2 single crystals were conti- nued over an energy neutron scattering by nuclei and crystals has been fairly well understood for many years. An incident, and depends on the neutron-nucleus interactions. In general, the scattering amplitude can be expressed

  11. Anomalous density dependence of static friction in sand Viktor K. Horvath,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jánosi, Imre M.

    Anomalous density dependence of static friction in sand Viktor K. Horva´th,1 Imre M. Ja´nosi,2; revised manuscript received 26 April 1996 We measured experimentally the static friction force Fs on the surface of a glass rod immersed in dry sand. We observed that Fs is extremely sensitive to the closeness

  12. Semiclassical wave packet study of anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Semiclassical wave packet study of anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation Evgeny Vetoshkin represent the metastable O3 * species and play a central role in the process of ozone formation.1063/1.2778432 I. INTRODUCTION Ozone O3 is formed in the stratosphere as a product of the following recombination

  13. Oil and Gas CDT Anomalous compaction and lithification during early burial in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Anomalous compaction and lithification during early burial in sedimentary basins training in a range of skills will mean opportunities for academic, government or Oil and Gas sector (e geoscience for oil and gas). References & Further Reading Neagu, R.C. Cartwright, J., Davies R.J. & Jensen L

  14. Anomalous Microfluidic Phonons Induced by the Interplay of Hydrodynamic Screening and Incompressibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tlusty, Tsvi

    Anomalous Microfluidic Phonons Induced by the Interplay of Hydrodynamic Screening the acoustic normal modes (``phonons'') of a 1D microfluidic droplet crystal at the crossover between 2D flow.55.Dÿ, 47.60.+i, 47.63.mf, 63.22.+m Microfluidic two-phase flow offers experimental tools to investigate

  15. Physical causes and modeling challenges of anomalous diffusion of sediment tracers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Physical causes and modeling challenges of anomalous diffusion of sediment tracers Douglas] #12;Velocity autocorrelation: Controlled by inertia 0.1 1 Dispersion: inertial at short time particles spend much more time at rest than in motion. Stochastic modeling approach: Direct solution of f

  16. Prolonged suppression of ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake after an anomalously warm year

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    LETTERS Prolonged suppression of ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake after an anomalously warm year , Yiqi Luo5 & David S. Schimel6 Terrestrial ecosystems control carbon dioxide fluxes to and from and heterotrophic respira- tion, that determines whether an ecosystem is sequestering carbon or releasing

  17. Conversion from interchange-type modes to tearing modes: an explanation of tokamak anomalous transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Atsushi

    Conversion from interchange-type modes to tearing modes: an explanation of tokamak anomalous of non-classical tearing mode exists in tokamaks: viz., current interchange tearing modes (CITMs). CITMs type (e.g., interchange/ballooning modes, drift waves, etc.) due to resistivity gradient in tokamaks

  18. Anomalous trichromats' judgments of surface color in natural scenes under different daylights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, David H.

    Anomalous trichromats' judgments of surface color in natural scenes under different daylights daylight illuminants were presented on a high-resolution color monitor to 7 deuteranomalous, 7 to the daylight locus rather than along the daylight locus ~Foster & Linnell, 1995; Amano et al., 2003

  19. Effective anomalous Hall coefficient in an ultrathin Co layer sandwiched by Pt layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Di; Jiang, Zhengsheng; Sang, Hai, E-mail: weiwei.lin@u-psud.fr, E-mail: haisang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Lin, Weiwei, E-mail: weiwei.lin@u-psud.fr, E-mail: haisang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay 91405 (France)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pt multilayer is important to study the effect of interface with strong spin-orbit coupling. However, the shunting effect of the layers in such system and the circuit in the plane perpendicular to the injected current were overlooked in most works and thus, anomalous Hall coefficient in Co/Pt multilayer has not been determined accurately. Considering the shunting effect and the equivalent circuit, we show that the effective anomalous Hall coefficient of a 0.5?nm thick Co layer sandwiched by Pt layers R{sub S} is 0.29?±?0.01????cm/T at the zero temperature limit and increases to about 0.73????cm/T at the temperature of 300?K. R{sub S} is one order larger than that in bulk Co film, indicating the large contribution of the Co/Pt interface. R{sub S} increases with the resistivity of Co as well as a resistivity independent contribution of ?0.23?±?0.01????cm/T. The equivalent anomalous Hall current in the Co layer has a maximum of 1.1% of the injected transverse current in the Co layer around the temperature of 80?K.

  20. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 483 (2002) 482487 Anomalous free electron laser interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerby, Eli

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Road, Ramat Aviv 69978, Israel Abstract Free electron lasers (FELs) are considered, typically, as fast: 41.60 Cr Keywords: Free electron laser 1. Introduction Free electron lasers (FELs) and cyclotronNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 483 (2002) 482­487 Anomalous free electron

  1. Light supersymmetric axion in an anomalous Abelian extension of the standard model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coriano, Claudio; Guzzi, Marco; Mariano, Antonio; Morelli, Simone [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento Via Arnesano 73100 Lecce (Italy) and INFN Sezione di Lecce, Via Arnesano 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a supersymmetric extension of the standard model (USSM-A) with an anomalous U(1) and Stueckelberg axions for anomaly cancellation, generalizing similar nonsupersymmetric constructions. The model, built by a bottom-up approach, is expected to capture the low-energy supersymmetric description of axionic symmetries in theories with gauged anomalous Abelian interactions, previously explored in the nonsupersymmetric case for scenarios with intersecting branes. The choice of a USSM-like superpotential, with one extra singlet superfield and an extra Abelian symmetry, allows a physical axionlike particle in the spectrum. We describe some general features of this construction and, in particular, the modification of the dark-matter sector which involves both the axion and several neutralinos with an axino component. The axion is expected to be very light in the absence of phases in the superpotential but could acquire a mass which can also be in the few GeV range or larger. In particular, the gauging of the anomalous symmetry allows independent mass/coupling interaction to the gauge fields of this particle, a feature which is absent in traditional (invisible) axion models. We comment on the general implications of our study for the signature of moduli from string theory due to the presence of these anomalous symmetries.

  2. Search for anomalous production of multilepton events in pp collisions at ?s = 7 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Gerry P.

    A search for anomalous production of events with three or more isolated leptons in pp collisions at ?s = 7 TeV is presented. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.98 fb[superscript ?1], were collected ...

  3. Hadronic contributions to the muon anomalous magnetic moment Workshop. $(g-2)_?$: Quo vadis? Workshop. Mini proceedings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurice Benayoun; Johan Bijnens; Tom Blum; Irinel Caprini; Gilberto Colangelo; Henryk Czy?; Achim Denig; Cesareo A. Dominguez; Simon Eidelman; Christian S. Fischer; Paolo Gauzzi; Yuping Guo; Andreas Hafner; Masashi Hayakawa; Gregorio Herdoiza; Martin Hoferichter; Guangshun Huang; Karl Jansen; Fred Jegerlehner; Benedikt Kloss; Bastian Kubis; Zhiqing Liu; William Marciano; Pere Masjuan; Harvey B. Meyer; Tsutomu Mibe; Andreas Nyffeler; Vladimir Pascalutsa; Vladyslav Pauk; Michael R. Pennington; Santiago Peris; Christoph F. Redmer; Pablo Sanchez-Puertas; Boris Shwartz; Evgeny Solodov; Dominik Stoeckinger; Thomas Teubner; Marc Unverzagt; Marc Vanderhaeghen; Magnus Wolke

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the mini-proceedings of the workshops Hadronic contributions to the muon anomalous magnetic moment: strategies for improvements of the accuracy of the theoretical prediction and $(g-2)_{\\mu}$: Quo vadis?, both held in Mainz from April 1$^{\\rm rst}$ to 5$^{\\rm th}$ and from April 7$^{\\rm th}$ to 10$^{\\rm th}$, 2014, respectively.

  4. Limits on anomalous WW? and WWZ couplings from WW/WZ? e?jj production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baringer, Philip S.; Coppage, Don; Hebert, C.

    2000-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Limits on anomalous WW? and WWZ couplings are presented from a study of WW/WZ? e?jj events produced in pp¯ collisions at s?=1.8?TeV. Results from the analysis of data collected using the DØ detector during the 1993–1995 Tevatron collider run...

  5. Leading-order hadronic contributions to the electron and tau anomalous magnetic moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florian Burger; Grit Hotzel; Karl Jansen; Marcus Petschlies

    2015-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The leading hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moments of the electron and the $\\tau$-lepton are determined by a four-flavour lattice QCD computation with twisted mass fermions. The continuum limit is taken and systematic uncertainties are quantified. Full agreement with results obtained by phenomenological analyses is found.

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 061128 (2012) Universal anomalous diffusion of weakly damped particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gothenburg, Sweden (Received 6 March 2012; published 26 June 2012) We show that anomalous diffusion arises. In this paper we describe two physically natural models for the diffusion of a particle that is accelerated- Rosenbluth model for diffusion [7,8], in which a test particle interacts with a gas of point masses via

  7. Ab initio prediction of GaN ,,1010... and ,,110... anomalous surface relaxation John E. Jaffe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandey, Ravi

    Ab initio prediction of GaN ,,101¯0... and ,,110... anomalous surface relaxation John E. Jaffe Received 22 September 1995 The results of a study of the surface relaxation of GaN in the framework is minimized the Ga-N surface bonds show a very small rotation angle of about 6° accompanied by a reduction

  8. Detecting Anomalous Sensor Events in Smart Home Data for Enhancing the Living Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    Detecting Anomalous Sensor Events in Smart Home Data for Enhancing the Living Experience is on the rise and the place for smart home solutions is growing. One of the major concerns for smart home data captured from a smart home testbed. Introduction Smart homes are built by adding intelligent

  9. Splenic Artery Aneurysm of the Anomalous Splenomesenteric Trunk: Successful Treatment by Transcatheter Embolization Using Detachable Coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Motohiro [Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)], E-mail: mo-sato@chubyoin.pref.ibaraki.jp; Anno, Izumi; Yamaguchi, Masayuki [Institute of Clinical Medicine University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology (Japan); Iida, Hiroyuki; Orii, Kazuo [Tsukuba Gakuen Hospital, Department of Surgery (Japan)

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A splenomesenteric trunk, which involves replacing the splenic artery from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), is rare and occurs in less than 1% of patients. We report a case of an aneurysm involving the origin of the splenic artery that anomalously arose from the SMA, and which was successfully treated using Guglielmi detachable coils.

  10. Space charge effects in ultrafast electron diffraction and imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao Zhensheng; Zhang He; Duxbury, P. M.; Berz, Martin; Ruan, Chong-Yu [Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-2320 (United States)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding space charge effects is central for the development of high-brightness ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy techniques for imaging material transformation with atomic scale detail at the fs to ps timescales. We present methods and results for direct ultrafast photoelectron beam characterization employing a shadow projection imaging technique to investigate the generation of ultrafast, non-uniform, intense photoelectron pulses in a dc photo-gun geometry. Combined with N-particle simulations and an analytical Gaussian model, we elucidate three essential space-charge-led features: the pulse lengthening following a power-law scaling, the broadening of the initial energy distribution, and the virtual cathode threshold. The impacts of these space charge effects on the performance of the next generation high-brightness ultrafast electron diffraction and imaging systems are evaluated.

  11. Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffraction elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P. (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques for fabricating a well-controlled, quantized-level, engineered surface that serves as substrates for EUV reflection multilayer overcomes problems associated with the fabrication of reflective EUV diffraction elements. The technique when employed to fabricate an EUV diffraction element that includes the steps of: (a) forming an etch stack comprising alternating layers of first and second materials on a substrate surface where the two material can provide relative etch selectivity; (b) creating a relief profile in the etch stack wherein the relief profile has a defined contour; and (c) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. For a typical EUV multilayer, if the features on the substrate are larger than 50 nm, the multilayer will be conformal to the substrate. Thus, the phase imparted to the reflected wavefront will closely match that geometrically set by the surface height profile.

  12. Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaidi, Saleem H.; Gee, James M.

    2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction is described. Triangular, rectangular, and blazed subwavelength periodic structures are shown to improve performance of solar cells. Surface reflection can be tailored for either broadband, or narrow-band spectral absorption. Enhanced absorption is achieved by efficient optical coupling into obliquely propagating transmitted diffraction orders. Subwavelength one-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-dependent, wavelength-selective absorption in solar cells and photodetectors, while two-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-independent, wavelength-selective absorption therein. Suitable one and two-dimensional subwavelength periodic structures can also be designed for broadband spectral absorption in solar cells and photodetectors. If reactive ion etching (RIE) processes are used to form the grating, RIE-induced surface damage in subwavelength structures can be repaired by forming junctions using ion implantation methods. RIE-induced surface damage can also be removed by post RIE wet-chemical etching treatments.

  13. Study of photon dissociation in diffractive photoproduction at HERA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breitweg, J.; Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Mikunas, D.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R. L.; Yoshida, R.; Zhang, H.; ZEUS Collaboration; High Energy Physics

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffractive dissociation of quasi-real photons at a photon-proton centre of mass energy of W >> 200 GeV is studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The process under consideration is {gamma}{rho}{yields} XN, where X is the diffractively dissociated photon system of mass MX and N is either a proton or a nucleonic system with mass MN < 2 GeV. The cross section for this process in the interval 3 < MX < 24 GeV relative to the total photoproduction cross section was measured to be s{sup partial}D/s{sub tot} = 6.2 {+-}0.2 (stat) {+-}1.4 (syst)%. After extrapolating this result to the mass interval of mf2 < MX2 < 0.05W2 and correcting it for proton dissociation, the fraction of the total cross section attributed to single diffractive photon dissociation, {gamma}{rho}{yields}, is found to be s{sub SD}/s{sub tot} = 13.3 {+-}0.5 (stat){+-}3.6(syst)%. The mass spectrum of the dissociated photon system in the interval 8 < MX < 24 GeV can be described by the triple pomeron (PPP) diagram with an effective pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P}(0)=1.12{+-}0.04(stat) {+-}0.08(syst). The cross section for photon dissociation in the range 3 < MX < 8 GeV is significantly higher than that expected from the triple pomeron amplitude describing the region 8 < MX < 24 GeV. Assuming that this discrepancy is due to a pomeron-pomeron-reggeon (PPR) term, its contribution to the diffractive cross section in the interval 3 < MX < 24 GeVis estimated to be f{sub PPR}=26{+-} 3(stat) {+-} 12(syst).

  14. Aberration-corrected and energy-filtered precession electron diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggeman, Alexander S; Barnard, Jonathan S; Midgley, Paul A

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    structure using elastic-only intensities. 1. Introduction Although x-ray and neutron diffraction methods remain the techniques of choice to determine unknown crystal structures, there are a variety of materials, e.g. multi-phase systems, interfacial phases... Hovmöller, to whom this special issue is dedicated, has been at the forefront of this method [5-10]. However, if the sample is relatively thick and composed of strongly scattering species, then the phases derived from images may not be directly...

  15. HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRY WITH A DIFFRACTIVE PUPIL TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guyon, Olivier; Eisner, Josh A.; Angel, Roger; Woolf, Neville J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bendek, Eduardo A.; Milster, Thomas D. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mark Ammons, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physics Division L-210, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie; Nemati, Bijan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Pitman, Joe [Exploration Sciences, P.O. Box 24, Pine, CO 80470 (United States); Woodruff, Robert A. [2081 Evergreen Avenue, Boulder, CO 80304 (United States); Belikov, Ruslan, E-mail: guyon@naoj.org [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrometric detection and mass determination of Earth-mass exoplanets require sub-{mu}as accuracy, which is theoretically possible with an imaging space telescope using field stars as an astrometric reference. The measurement must, however, overcome astrometric distortions, which are much larger than the photon noise limit. To address this issue, we propose to generate faint stellar diffraction spikes using a two-dimensional grid of regularly spaced small dark spots added to the surface of the primary mirror (PM). Accurate astrometric motion of the host star is obtained by comparing the position of the spikes to the background field stars. The spikes do not contribute to scattered light in the central part of the field and therefore allow unperturbed coronagraphic observation of the star's immediate surroundings. Because the diffraction spikes are created on the PM and imaged on the same focal plane detector as the background stars, astrometric distortions affect equally the diffraction spikes and the background stars and are therefore calibrated. We describe the technique, detail how the data collected by the wide-field camera are used to derive astrometric motion, and identify the main sources of astrometric error using numerical simulations and analytical derivations. We find that the 1.4 m diameter telescope, 0.3 deg{sup 2} field we adopt as a baseline design achieves 0.2 {mu}as single measurement astrometric accuracy. The diffractive pupil concept thus enables sub-{mu}as astrometry without relying on the accurate pointing, external metrology, or high-stability hardware required with previously proposed high-precision astrometry concepts.

  16. Diffraction coupled phase-locked semiconductor laser array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, J.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new monolithic, diffraction coupled phase-locked semiconductor laser array has been fabricated. Stable narrow far-field patterns (approx.3/sup 0/) and peak power levels of 1 W have been obtained for 100-..mu..m-wide devices with threshold currents as low as 250 mA. Such devices may be useful in applications where high power levels and stable radiation patterns are needed.

  17. Hadron Optics: Diffraction Patterns in Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. Brodsky; D. Chakrabarti; A. Harindranath; A. Mukherjee; J. P. Vary

    2006-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the Fourier transform of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) amplitude with respect to the skewness variable $\\zeta$ at fixed invariant momentum transfer squared $t$ provides a unique way to visualize the structure of the target hadron in the boost-invariant longitudinal coordinate space. The results are analogous to the diffractive scattering of a wave in optics. As a specific example, we utilize the quantum fluctuations of a fermion state at one loop in QED to obtain the behavior of the DVCS amplitude for electron-photon scattering. We then simulate the wavefunctions for a hadron by differentiating the above LFWFs with respect to $M^2$ and study the corresponding DVCS amplitudes in light-front longitudinal space. In both cases we observe that the diffractive patterns in the longitudinal variable conjugate to $\\zeta$ sharpen and the positions of the first minima move in with increasing momentum transfer. For fixed $t$, higher minima appear at positions which are integral multiples of the lowest minimum. Both these observations strongly support the analogy with diffraction in optics.

  18. Electron diffraction from cylindrical nanotubes Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    Electron diffraction from cylindrical nanotubes L. C. Qin Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (Received 14 January 1994; accepted 26 April 1994) Electron diffraction intensities from cylindrical objects can be conveniently

  19. Running Coupling Evolution for Diffractive Dissociation and the NLO Odderon Intercept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri V. Kovchegov

    2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarize the results of including running coupling corrections into the nonlinear evolution equation for diffractive dissociation. We also document a prediction that the NLO QCD odderon intercept is zero resulting from a discussion at the Diffraction 2012 Workshop.

  20. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser (CXIDB ID 3)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chapman, H. N.

    The diffraction pattern of this entry corresponds to the one shown in **figure 2a** of the corresponding citation.

  1. What Can We Learn from the Study of Single Diffractive Dissociation at High Energies?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Arkhipov

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamental relations in the dynamics of single diffraction dissociation and elastic scattering at high energies are discussed.

  2. Improvement of Laser Damage Resistance and Diffraction Efficiency of Multilayer Dielectric Diffraction Gratings by HF-Etchback Linewidth Tailoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, H T; Larson, C C; Britten, J A

    2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Multilayer dielectric (MLD) diffraction gratings for Petawatt-class laser systems possess unique laser damage characteristics. Details of the shape of the grating lines and the concentration of absorbing impurities on the surface of the grating structures both have strong effects on laser damage threshold. It is known that electric field enhancement in the solid material comprising the grating lines varies directly with the linewidth and inversely with the line height for equivalent diffraction efficiency. Here, they present an overview of laser damage characteristics of MLD gratings, and describe a process for post-processing ion-beam etched grating lines using very dilute buffered hydrofluoric acid solutions. This process acts simultaneously to reduce grating linewidth and remove surface contaminants, thereby improving laser damage thresholds through two pathways.

  3. On the representation of the diffracted field of Hermite-Gaussian modes in an alien basis and the young diffraction principle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smirnov, V.N.; Strokovskii, G.A. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical form of expansion coefficients of a diffracted field for an arbitrary Hermite-Gaussian beam in an alien Hermite-Gaussian basis is obtained. A possible physical interpretation of the well-known Young phenomenological diffraction principle and experiments on diffraction of Hermite-Gaussian beams of the lowest types (n = 0 - 5) from half-plane are discussed. The case of nearly homogenous expansion corresponding to misalignment and mismatch of optical systems is also analyzed. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Grain size, size-distribution and dislocation structure from diffraction peak profile analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    Grain size, size-distribution and dislocation structure from diffraction peak profile analysis T, Budapest, Hungary Abstract Diffraction peak profile analysis (or Line Profile Analysis, LPA) has recently and the strain diffraction profiles. Strain anisotropy is rationalized in terms of the contrast factors

  5. Fresnel diffraction in an interferometer: application to MATISSE S. Robbe-Dubois*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fresnel diffraction in an interferometer: application to MATISSE S. Robbe-Dubois*a , Y. Bressonb in a collimated beam thus introducing Fresnel diffraction. We study the instrumental contrast taking into account, but this study can apply to any other instrument concerned with Fresnel diffraction. Keywords: Interferometer

  6. Accurate and fast simulation of Fresnel zone plates and multi-level diffractive lenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Accurate and fast simulation of Fresnel zone plates and multi-level diffractive lenses Qing Cao, such as various Fresnel zone plates [1, 2] and muti-level diffractive lenses [3], can be used for focusing and fast simulation of various Fresnel zone plates and multi-level diffractive lenses. As two tests, we

  7. Structural studies of magnesium nitride fluorides by powder neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brogan, Michael A. [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hughes, Robert W. [WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Smith, Ronald I. [ISIS Pulsed Neutron and Muon Source, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gregory, Duncan H., E-mail: Duncan.Gregory@glasgow.ac.uk [WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of ternary nitride fluorides, Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF have been prepared by solid state reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} at 1323-1423 K and investigated by powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} is cubic (space group: Pm3m) and has a structure related to rock-salt MgO, but with one cation site vacant. Mg{sub 2}NF is tetragonal (space group: I4{sub 1}/amd) and has an anti-LiFeO{sub 2} related structure. Both compounds are essentially ionic and form structures in which nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered. The nitride fluorides show temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour between 5 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Definitive structures of the ternary magnesium nitride fluorides Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and the lower temperature polymorph of Mg{sub 2}NF have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. The nitride halides are essentially ionic and exhibit weak temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definitive structures of Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF were determined by neutron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered in both structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds exhibit weak, temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds are essentially ionic with ionicity increasing with F{sup -} content.

  8. Hybrid shearing and phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth Alan; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A new interferometry configuration combines the strengths of two existing interferometry methods, improving the quality and extending the dynamic range of both. On the same patterned mask, placed near the image-plane of an optical system under test, patterns for phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry and lateral shearing interferometry coexist. The former giving verifiable high accuracy for the measurement of nearly diffraction-limited optical systems. The latter enabling the measurement of optical systems with more than one wave of aberration in the system wavefront. The interferometry configuration is a hybrid shearing and point diffraction interferometer system for testing an optical element that is positioned along an optical path including: a source of electromagnetic energy in the optical path; a first beam splitter that is secured to a device that includes means for maneuvering the first beam splitter in a first position wherein the first beam splitter is in the optical path dividing light from the source into a reference beam and a test beam and in a second position wherein the first beam splitter is outside the optical path: a hybrid mask which includes a first section that defines a test window and at least one reference pinhole and a second section that defines a second beam splitter wherein the hybrid mask is secured to a device that includes means for maneuvering either the first section or the second section into the optical path positioned in an image plane that is created by the optical element, with the proviso that the first section of the hybrid mask is positioned in the optical path when first beam splitter is positioned in the optical path; and a detector positioned after the hybrid mask along the optical path.

  9. A neutron diffraction study of the crystal structure of ferrocene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takusagawa, Fusao; Koetzle, Thomas F.

    1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . E. (1968) . Acta Chem. Scand. 22, 2 6 5 3 - 2 6 7 0 . HOLM, C. H. & IBERS, J. A . (1959) . J. Chem. Phys. 30, 885-888. HYAMS, I. J. & RON, A . (1973) . J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3027- 3030. JOHNSON, C . K. (1965) . ORTEP. Report ORNL-3794. Oak Ridge... //(neutron, X = 1-0399 A) = 0-198 * Seiler & Dunitz (1979). 1076 A NEUTRON DIFFRACTION STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE OF FERROCENE according to A20 = 1-76° (1 + 6-90 tan 0) for 20 > 50° and A20 = 4-00° for 29 < 50°. The step size was adjusted to give approximately...

  10. Diffraction Properties of Periodic Lattices under Free Electron Laser Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajkovic, I.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Quevedo, W. [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37070 Goettingen (Germany); Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A. [Max-Planck Advanced Study Group at CFEL, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Tschentscher, T. [European XFEL GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22671 Hamburg (Germany); Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R. [HASYLAB at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Tolkiehn, M. [Institut fuer Roentgenphysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Techert, S. [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37070 Goettingen (Germany); Max-Planck Advanced Study Group at CFEL, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we report the pioneering use of free electron laser radiation for the investigation of periodic crystalline structures. The diffraction properties of silver behenate single nanocrystals (5.8 nm periodicity) with the dimensions of 20 nmx20 nmx20 {mu}m and as powder with grain sizes smaller than 200 nm were investigated with 8 nm free electron laser radiation in single-shot modus with 30 fs long free electron laser pulses. This work emphasizes the possibility of using soft x-ray free electron laser radiation for these crystallographic studies on a nanometer scale.

  11. Elementary amplitudes in the multiple diffraction theory reexamined

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, A.F.; Menon, M.J. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, (Brasil)] [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, (Brasil); Thober, D.S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Piazza Torricelli 2, I56100 Pisa (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Piazza Torricelli 2, I56100 Pisa (Italy)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that, in the context of Glauber{close_quote}s multiple diffraction theory, the square of the correction factor introduced by Bourrely, Soffer, and Wu in a double-pole form factor parametrization, may be interpreted as an elementary (parton-parton) amplitude. The condition concerning the existence of a well-defined Fourier transform is demonstrated, and it is shown that the corresponding profile function comes from an ordinary transform (Bessel function) plus a generalized transform ({delta} distribution). Comparisons with a modified parametrization and results from a model-independent analysis are also presented and discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. Diffraction crystals for sagittally focusing x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J. Jr.

    1982-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a new type of diffraction crystal designed for sagittally focusing photons of various energies. The invention is based on the discovery that such focusing is not obtainable with conventional crystals because of distortion resulting from anticlastic curvature. The new crystal comprises a monocrystalline base having a front face contoured for sagittally focusing photons and a back face provided with rigid, upstanding, stiffening ribs restricting anticlastic curvature. When mounted in a suitable bending device, the reflecting face of the crystal can be adjusted to focus photons having any one of a range of energies.

  13. Diffraction crystal for sagittally focusing x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ice, Gene E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sparks, Jr., Cullie J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a new type of diffraction crystal designed for sagittally focusing photons of various energies. The invention is based on the discovery that such focusing is not obtainable with conventional crystals because of distortion resulting from anticlastic curvature. The new crystal comprises a monocrystalline base having a front face contoured for sagittally focusing photons and a back face provided with rigid, upstanding, stiffening ribs restricting anticlastic curvature. When mounted in a suitable bending device, the reflecting face of the crystal can be adjusted to focus photons having any one of a range of energies.

  14. Micron-scale lens array having diffracting structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth A

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel micron-scale lens, a microlens, is engineered to concentrate light efficiently onto an area of interest, such as a small, light-sensitive detector element in an integrated electronic device. Existing microlens designs imitate the form of large-scale lenses and are less effective at small sizes. The microlenses described herein have been designed to accommodate diffraction effects, which dominate the behavior of light at small length scales. Thus a new class of light-concentrating optical elements with much higher relative performance has been created. Furthermore, the new designs are much easier to fabricate than previous designs.

  15. Diffractions politiques du march (Cte-d'Ivoire, Vietnam)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    politique, à partir des cas de la Côte-d'Ivoire et du Vietnam. Il s'inscrit contre une autonomisation de la'être burkinabè et empêché de se présenter aux élections. Mots clés Côte d'Ivoire ; Vietnam ; Politique ; �tat/clerse/ ainsi que http://www.tem.ird.fr #12;Bazin & Selim, 2001. Diffractions politiques du marché (Côte- d'Ivoire

  16. High-pressure behavior and thermoelastic properties of niobium studied by in situ x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Yongtao, E-mail: yongtao.zou@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: yongtaozou6@gmail.com; Li, Baosheng [Mineral Physics Institute, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Qi, Xintong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Wang, Xuebing; Chen, Ting [Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Li, Xuefei [Mineral Physics Institute, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Welch, David [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ synchrotron energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments on Nb have been conducted at pressures up to 6.4 GPa and temperatures up to 1073 K. From the pressure-volume-temperature measurements, thermoelastic parameters were derived for the first time for Nb based on the thermal pressure (?P{sub th}) equation of state (EOS), modified high-T Birch-Murnaghan EOS, and Mie-Grüneisen-Debye EOS. With the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus K{sub T}{sup ´} fixed at 4.0, we obtained the ambient isothermal bulk modulus K{sub T0}=174(5) GPa, the temperature derivative of bulk modulus at constant pressure (?K{sub T}/?T){sub P}=-0.060(8) GPa K?¹ and at constant volume (?K{sub T}/?T){sub V}=-0.046(8) GPa K?¹, the volumetric thermal expansivity ?{sub T}(T)=2.3(3)×10??+0.3(2)×10??T (K?¹), as well as the pressure dependence of thermal expansion (??/?P){sub T}=(?2.0±0.4)×10?? K?¹ GPa?¹. Fitting the present data to the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye EOS with Debye temperature ??=276.6 K gives ??=1.27(8) and K{sub T0}=171(3) GPa at a fixed value of q=3.0. The ambient isothermal bulk modulus and Grüneisen parameter derived from this work are comparable to previously reported values from both experimental and theoretical studies. An in situ high-resolution, angle dispersive XRD study on Nb did not indicate any anomalous behavior related to pressure-induced electronic topological transitions at ~5 GPa as has been reported previously.

  17. Search for anomalous production of events with a photon, jet, b-quark jet, and missing transverse energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Si

    We present a signature-based search for the anomalous production of events containing a photon, two jets, of which at least one is identified as originating from a b quark, and missing transverse energy (E?[subscript T]). ...

  18. Anomalous Fiber Optic Gyroscope Signals Observed above Spinning Rings at Low Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tajmar; F. Plesescu; B. Seifert

    2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Precision fiber optic gyroscopes were mounted mechanically de-coupled above spinning rings inside a cryostat. Below a critical temperature (typically <30 K), the gyroscopes measure a significant deviation from their usual offset due to Earth's rotation. This deviation is proportional to the applied angular ring velocity with maximum signals towards lower temperatures. The anomalous gyroscope signal is about 8 orders of magnitude smaller then the applied angular ring velocity, compensating about one third of the Earth rotation offset at an angular top speed of 420 rad/s. Moreover, our data shows a parity violation as the effect appears to be dominant for rotation against the Earth's spin. No systematic effect was found to explain this effect including the magnetic environment, vibration and helium gas friction suggesting that our observation is a new low temperature phenomenon. Tests in various configurations suggest that the rotating low temperature helium may be the source of our anomalous signals.

  19. Time-series investigation of anomalous thermocouple responses in a liquid-metal-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, K.C.; Planchon, H.P.; Poloncsik, J.

    1988-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was undertaken using SAS software to investigate the origin of anomalous temperature measurements recorded by thermocouples (TCs) in an instrumented fuel assembly in a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor. SAS macros that implement univariate and bivariate spectral decomposition techniques were employed to analyze data recorded during a series of experiments conducted at full reactor power. For each experiment, data from physical sensors in the tests assembly were digitized at a sampling rate of 2/s and recorded on magnetic tapes for subsequent interactive processing with CMS SAS. Results from spectral and cross-correlation analyses led to the identification of a flow rate-dependent electromotive force (EMF) phenomenon as the origin of the anomalous TC readings. Knowledge of the physical mechanism responsible for the discrepant TC signals enabled us to device and justify a simple correction factor to be applied to future readings.

  20. Enhanced reflection via phase compensation from anomalous dispersion in atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Junxiang; Zhou Haitao [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Wang Dawei [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhu Shiyao [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase compensation mechanism induced by anomalous dispersion in the reflection process of four-wave mixing (or reflection from a grating) in a three-level system is investigated, where the four wave vectors do not match in vacuum. An efficiency of the reflected signal of as high as 43% from a hot atomic cell of Cs is observed. The maximum reflection occurs when the frequency of the probe beam (and consequently the frequency of the reflected signal) is slightly red detuned from the transition frequency, which is attributed to the phase compensation from the steep anomalous dispersion accompanied with a strong probe absorption. The dependences of the efficiency on the angle between the coupling and probe lights, on the intensity of the coupling, field and on atomic density are studied. A theoretical model is presented and it is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry with 9 fb?¹ of pp? collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Aoki, M.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Atramentov, O.; Avila, C.; BackusMayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Calpas, B.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chen, G.; Chevalier-Théry, S.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Croc, A.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; De, K.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dorland, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hubacek, Z.; Huske, N.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jamin, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnston, D.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirby, M. H.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kulikov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kur?a, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kvita, J.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lellouch, J.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; Obrant, G.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Otero y Garzón, G. J.; Padilla, M.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Parsons, J.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, K.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Piegaia, R.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Polozov, P.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Renkel, P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Safronov, G.; Sajot, G.; Salcido, P.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Sanghi, B.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schliephake, T.; Schlobohm, S.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K. J.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an updated measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry Absl for semileptonic b-hadron decays in 9.0 fb?¹ of pp? collisions recorded with the D0 detector at a center-of-mass energy of ?s=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We obtain Absl=(-0.787±0.172(stat)±0.093(syst))%. This result differs by 3.9 standard deviations from the prediction of the standard model and provides evidence for anomalously large CP violation in semileptonic neutral B decay. The dependence of the asymmetry on the muon impact parameter is consistent with the hypothesis that it originates from semileptonic b-hadron decays.

  2. Effect of entropy on anomalous transport in electron-temperature-gradient-modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaqub Khan, M., E-mail: myaqubsultani@gmail.com [Department of Basic Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Iqbal, J. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ul Haq, A. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Physics, Riphah International University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the interconnection of entropy with temperature and density of plasma, it would be interesting to investigate plasma related phenomena with respect to entropy. By employing Braginskii transport equations, it is proved that entropy is proportional to a function of potential and distribution function of entropy is re-defined, ?S–drift in obtained. New dispersion relation is derived; it is found that the anomalous transport depends on the gradient of the entropy.

  3. Fault Characterization using Induced Electric Currents Presumed to Undergo Anomalous Diffusion in Mason, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Blaine Cullen

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FAULT CHARACTERIZATION USING INDUCED ELECTRIC CURRENTS PRESUMED TO UNDERGO ANOMALOUS DIFFUSION IN MASON, TEXAS A Thesis by BLAINE CULLEN MURPHY Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Blaine Cullen Murphy ABSTRACT A tensorial (9-component) controlled source electromagnetic survey over an oblique slip fault in Mason County, Texas was acquired and the data were analyzed in order to characterize the structure of the fault and observe...

  4. Semiclassical origin of anomalous shell effect for tetrahedral deformation in radial power-law potential model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ken-ichiro Arita; Yasunori Mukumoto

    2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Shell structures in single-particle energy spectra are investigated against regular tetrahedral type deformation using radial power-law potential model. Employing a natural way of shape parametrization which interpolates sphere and regular tetrahedron, we find prominent shell effects at rather large tetrahedral deformations, which bring about shell energies much larger than the cases of spherical and quadrupole type shapes. We discuss the semiclassical origin of these anomalous shell structures using periodic orbit theory.

  5. Critical Review of Theoretical Models for Anomalous Effects (Cold Fusion) in Deuterated Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chechin, V A; Rabinowitz, M; Kim, Y E

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly summarize the reported anomalous effects in deuterated metals at ambient temperature, commonly known as "Cold Fusion" (CF), with an emphasis on important experiments as well as the theoretical basis for the opposition to interpreting them as cold fusion. Then we critically examine more than 25 theoretical models for CF, including unusual nuclear and exotic chemical hypotheses. We conclude that they do not explain the data.

  6. Critical Review of Theoretical Models for Anomalous Effects (Cold Fusion) in Deuterated Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Chechin; V. A. Tsarev; M. Rabinowitz; Y. E. Kim

    2003-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly summarize the reported anomalous effects in deuterated metals at ambient temperature, commonly known as "Cold Fusion" (CF), with an emphasis on important experiments as well as the theoretical basis for the opposition to interpreting them as cold fusion. Then we critically examine more than 25 theoretical models for CF, including unusual nuclear and exotic chemical hypotheses. We conclude that they do not explain the data.

  7. COMMENTS ON ANOMALOUS EFFECTS IN CHARGING OF PD POWDERS WITH HIGH DENSITY HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanahan, K.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Kitamura, et al, Pd-containing materials are exposed to isotopes of hydrogen and anomalous results obtained. These are claimed to be a replication of another experiment conducted by Arata and Zhang. Erroneous basic assumptions are pointed out herein that alter the derived conclusions significantly. The final conclusion is that the reported results are likely normal chemistry combined with noise. Thus the claim to have proven that cold fusion is occurring in these systems is both premature and unlikely.

  8. Anomalous light-by-light scattering at the LHC: recent developments and future perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fichet, Sylvain

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The installation of forward proton detectors at the LHC will provide the possibility to perform new high-precision measurements, opening a novel window on physics beyond the Standard Model. We review recent simulations and theoretical developments about the measurement of anomalous light-by-light scattering. The search for this process is expected to provide bounds on a wide range of new particles. Future perspectives for precision QED at the LHC are also briefly discussed.

  9. Diffraction of surface wave on conducting rectangular wedge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor A. Kotelnikov; Vasily V. Gerasimov; Boris A. Knyazev

    2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffraction of a surface wave on a rectangular wedge with impedance faces is studied using the Sommerfeld-Malyuzhinets technique. An analog of Landau's bypass rule in the theory of plasma waves is introduced for selection of a correct branch of the Sommerfeld integral, and the exact solution is given in terms of imaginary error function. The formula derived is valid both in the near-field and far-wave zones. It is shown that a diffracted surface wave is completely scattered into freely propagating electromagnetic waves and neither reflected nor transmitted surface waves are generated in case of bare metals which have positive real part of surface impedance. The scattered waves propagate predominantly at a grazing angle along the direction of propagation of the incident surface wave and mainly in the upper hemisphere regarding the wedge face. The profile of radiated intensity is nonmonotonic and does not resemble the surface wave profile which exponentially evanesces with the distance from the wedge face. Comparison with experiments carried out in the terahertz spectral range at Novosibirsk free electron laser has shown a good agreement of the theory and the experiments.

  10. Electron backscatter diffraction of plutonium-gallium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehlert, C. J. (Carl J.); Zocco, T. G. (Thomas G.); Schulze, R. K. (Roland K.); Mitchell, J. N. (Jeremy N.); Pereyra, R. A. (Ramiro A.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory a recent experimental technique has been developed to characterize reactive metals, including plutonium arid cerium, using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructural characterization of plutonium and its alloys by EBSD had been previously elusive primarily because of the extreme toxicity and rapid surface oxidation rate associated with plutonium metal. The experimental techniques, which included ion-sputtering the metal surface using a scanning auger microprobe (SAM) followed by vacuum transfer of the sample from the SAM to the scanning electron microscope (SEM), used to obtain electron backscatter diffraction Kikuchi patterns (EBSPs) and orientation maps for plutonium-gallium alloys are described and the initial microstructural observations based on the analysis are discussed. Combining the SEM and EBSD observations, the phase transformation behavior between the {delta} and {var_epsilon} structures was explained. This demonstrated sample preparation and characterization technique is expected to be a powerful means to further understand phase transformation behavior, orientation relationships, and texlure in the complicated plutonium alloy systems.

  11. Uncorrelated versus independent elliptically-contoured distributions for anomalous change detection in hyperspectral imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scovel, James C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detection of actual changes in a pair of images is confounded by the inadvertent but pervasive differences that inevitably arise whenever two pictures are taken of the same scene, but at different times and under different conditions. These differences include effects due to illumination, calibration, misregistration, etc. If the actual changes are assumed to be rare, then one can 'learn' what the pervasive differences are, and can identify the deviations from this pattern as the anomalous changes. A recently proposed framework for anomalous change detection recasts the problem as one of binary classification between pixel pairs in the data and pixel pairs that are independently chosen from the two images. When an elliptically-contoured (EC) distribution is assumed for the data, then analytical expressions can be derived for the measure of anomalousness of change. However, these expression are only available for a limited class of EC distributions. By replacing independent pixel pairs with uncorrelated pixel pairs, an approximate solution can be found for a much broader class of EC distributions. The performance of this approximation is investigated analytically and empirically, and includes experiments comparing the detection of real changes in real data.

  12. X-ray observations during a Her X-1 anomalous low-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. N. Parmar; T. Oosterbroek; D. Dal Fiume; M. Orlandini; A. Santangelo; A. Segreto; S. Del Sordo

    1999-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a 1999 July 8-10 BeppoSAX observation during an anomalous low-state of Her X-1 are presented. The standard on-state power-law and blackbody continuum model is excluded at high confidence unless partial covering is included. This gives a power-law photon index of 0.63 +/- 0.02 and implies that 0.28 +/- 0.03 of the flux undergoes additional absorption of (27 +/- 7) 10^22 atom/cm2. 11% of the observed 0.1-10 keV flux is from the 0.068 +/- 0.015 keV blackbody. 1.237747(2) s pulses with a semi-amplitude of 2.1 +/- 0.8% are detected at >99.5% confidence and confirmed by RXTE measurements. This implies that Her X-1 underwent substantial spin-down close to the start of the anomalous low-state. The spectral and temporal changes are similar to those recently reported from 4U1626-67. These may result from a strongly warped disk that produces a spin-down torque. The X-ray source is then mostly viewed through the inner regions of the accretion disk. A similar mechanism could be responsible for the Her X-1 anomalous low-states. Shadowing by such an unusually warped disk could produce observable effects in the optical and UV emission from the companion star.

  13. XFEL diffraction: developing processing methods to optimize data quality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sauter, Nicholas K.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Serial crystallography, using either femtosecond X-ray pulses from free-electron laser sources or short synchrotron-radiation exposures, has the potential to reveal metalloprotein structural details while minimizing damage processes. However, deriving a self-consistent set of Bragg intensities from numerous still-crystal exposures remains a difficult problem, with optimal protocols likely to be quite different from those well established for rotation photography. Here several data processing issues unique to serial crystallography are examined. It is found that the limiting resolution differs for each shot, an effect that is likely to be due to both the sample heterogeneity and pulse-to-pulse variation in experimental conditions. Shotsmore »with lower resolution limits produce lower-quality models for predicting Bragg spot positions during the integration step. Also, still shots by their nature record only partial measurements of the Bragg intensity. An approximate model that corrects to the full-spot equivalent (with the simplifying assumption that the X-rays are monochromatic) brings the distribution of intensities closer to that expected from an ideal crystal, and improves the sharpness of anomalous difference Fourier peaks indicating metal positions.« less

  14. 3-dimensional imaging system using crystal diffraction lenses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, R.K.

    1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for imaging a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. Diffracting crystals are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to a detector which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for a method for imaging x-ray and gamma radiation by supplying a plurality of sources of radiation; focusing the radiation onto a detector; analyzing the focused radiation to collect data as to the type and location of the radiation; and producing an image using the data. 18 figs.

  15. Ultrafast electron diffraction with radio-frequency compressed electron pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatelain, Robert P.; Morrison, Vance R.; Godbout, Chris; Siwick, Bradley J. [Departments of Physics and Chemistry, Center for the Physics of Materials, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the complete characterization of time resolution in an ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) instrument based on radio-frequency electron pulse compression. The temporal impulse response function of the instrument was determined directly in pump-probe geometry by performing electron-laser pulse cross-correlation measurements using the ponderomotive interaction. With optimal settings, a stable impulse response of 334{+-}10 fs was measured at a bunch charge of 0.1 pC (6.24 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} electrons/pulse); a dramatic improvement compared to performance without pulse compression. Phase stability currently limits the impulse response of the UED diffractometer to the range of 334-500 fs, for bunch charges ranging between 0.1 and 0.6 pC.

  16. 3-dimensional imaging system using crystal diffraction lenses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for imaging a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. Diffracting crystals are used for focussing the radiation and directing the radiation to a detector which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for a method for imaging x-ray and gamma radiation by supplying a plurality of sources of radiation; focussing the radiation onto a detector; analyzing the focused radiation to collect data as to the type and location of the radiation; and producing an image using the data.

  17. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.; Lima, E.; Huang, X.; Krupin, O.; Seu, K.; Parks, D.; Kevan, S.; Kisslinger, K.; McNulty, I.; Gambino, R.; Mangin, S.; Roy, S. and Fischer, P.

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first proof-of-principle experiment of iterative phase retrieval from magnetic x-ray diffraction. By using the resonant x-ray excitation process and coherent x-ray scattering, we show that linearly polarized soft x rays can be used to image both the amplitude and the phase of magnetic domain structures. We recovered the magnetic structure of an amorphous terbium-cobalt thin film with a spatial resolution of about 75 nm at the Co L{sub 3} edge at 778 eV. In comparison with soft x-ray microscopy images recorded with Fresnel zone plate optics at better than 25 nm spatial resolution, we find qualitative agreement in the observed magnetic structure.

  18. A pulsed electron gun for ultrafast electron diffraction at surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janzen, A.; Krenzer, B.; Heinz, O.; Zhou, P.; Thien, D.; Hanisch, A.; Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J.; Linde, D. von der; Horn von Hoegen, M. [Department of Physics and Centre for Nanointegration (CeNIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The construction of a pulsed electron gun for ultrafast reflection high-energy electron diffraction experiments at surfaces is reported. Special emphasis is placed on the characterization of the electron source: a photocathode, consisting of a 10 nm thin Au film deposited onto a sapphire substrate. Electron pulses are generated by the illumination of the film with ultraviolet laser pulses of femtosecond duration. The photoelectrons are emitted homogeneously across the photocathode with an energy distribution of 0.1 eV width. After leaving the Au film, the electrons are accelerated to kinetic energies of up to 15 keV. Focusing is accomplished by an electrostatic lens. The temporal resolution of the experiment is determined by the probing time of the electrons traveling across the surface which is about 30 ps. However, the duration of the electron pulses can be reduced to less than 6 ps.

  19. High Pressure Neutron Powder Diffraction Study of Superhydrated Natrolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colligan,M.; Lee, Y.; Vogt, T.; Celestian, A.; Parise, J.; Marshall, W.; Hriljac, J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron powder diffraction data were collected on a sample of natrolite and a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of perdeuterated methanol and water at a pressure of 1.87(11) GPa. The natrolite sample was superhydrated, with a water content double that observed at ambient pressure. All of the water deuterium atoms were located and the nature and extent of the hydrogen bonding elucidated for the first time. This has allowed the calculation of bond valence sums for the water oxygen atoms, and from this, it can be deduced that the key energetic factor leading to loss of the additional water molecule upon pressure release is the poor coordination to sodium cations within the pores.

  20. On the Bragg Diffraction Spectra of a Meyer Set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolae Strungaru

    2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Meyer sets have a relatively dense set of Bragg peaks and for this reason they may be considered as basic mathematical examples of (aperiodic) crystals. In this paper we investigate the pure point part of the diffraction of Meyer sets in more detail. The results are of two kinds. First we show that given a Meyer set and any intensity a less than the maximum intensity of its Bragg peaks, the set of Bragg peaks whose intensity exceeds a is itself a Meyer set (in the Fourier space). Second we show that if a Meyer set is modified by addition and removal of points in such a way that its density is not altered too much (the allowable amount being given explicitly as a proportion of the original density) then the newly obtained set still has a relatively dense set of Bragg peaks.

  1. Oxygen as a site specific structural probe in neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Simonson, J Michael {Mike} [ORNL; Salmon, Phil [University of Bath; Zeidler, Anita [University of Bath; Fischer, Henry E [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Rauch, Helmut [E141 Atominstitut der & #xD6; sterreichischen Universit& #xE4; ten,; Markland, Thomas [Columbia University; Lemmel, Hartmut [Technical University Vienna

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen is a ubiquitous element, playing an essential role in most scientific and technological disciplines, and is often incorporated within a structurally disordered material where examples include molten silicates in planetary science, glasses used for lasers and optical communication, and water in biological processes. Establishing the structure of a liquid or glassy oxide and thereby its relation to the functional properties of a material is not, however, a trivial task owing to the complexity associated with atomic disorder. Here we approach this challenge by measuring the bound coherent neutron scattering lengths of the oxygen isotopes with the sensitive technique of neutron interferometry. We find that there is a small but finite contrast of 0.204(6) fm between the scattering lengths of the isotope 18O and oxygen of natural isotopic abundance natO, contrary to tables of recommended values. This has enabled us to investigate the structure of both light and heavy water by exploiting, for the first time, the method of oxygen isotope substitution in neutron diffraction, thus circumventing many of the significant problems associated with more traditional methods in which hydrogen is substituted by deuterium. We find a difference of ~0.5% between the O-H and O-D intra-molecular bond distances which is much smaller than recent estimates based on diffraction data and is found to be in excellent agreement with path integral molecular dynamics simulations made with a flexible polarisable water model. Our results demonstrate the potential for using oxygen isotope substitution as a powerful and effective site specific probe in a plethora of materials, of pertinence as instrumentation at next generation neutron sources comes online

  2. Crystal diffraction lens telescope for focusing nuclear gamma rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source; Ballmoos, P. von; Naya, J.; Albernhe, F.; Vedrenne, G. [Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse (France); Faiz, M. [KFUPM, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Physics Dept.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A crystal diffraction lens was constructed at Argonne National Laboratory for use as a telescope to focus nuclear gamma rays. It consisted of 600 single crystals of germanium arranged in 8 concentric rings. The mounted angle of each crystal was adjusted to intercept and diffract the incoming gamma rays with an accuracy of a few arc sec. The performance of the lens was tested in two ways. In one case, the gamma rays were focused on a single medium size germanium detector. In the second case, the gamma rays were focused on the central germanium detector of a 3 x 3 matrix of small germanium detectors. The efficiency, image concentration and image quality, and shape were measured. The tests performed with the 3 x 3 matrix detector system were particularly interesting. The wanted radiation was concentrated in the central detector. The 8 other detectors were used to detect the Compton scattered radiation, and their energy was summed with coincident events in the central detector. This resulted in a detector with the efficiency of a large detector (all 9 elements) and the background of a small detector (only the central element). The use of the 3 x 3 detector matrix makes it possible to tell if the source is off axis and, if so, to tell in which direction. The crystal lens acts very much like a simple convex lens for visible light. Thus if the source is off to the left then the image will focus off to the right illuminating the detector on the right side: telling one in which direction to point the telescope. Possible applications of this type of crystal lens to balloon and satellite experiments will be discussed.

  3. Dynamical x-ray diffraction from an icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kycia, S.

    1996-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary extinction effects in diffraction from single grains of Al-Pd- Mn, and presumably many other FCI alloys, may be significant and should be corrected for prior to use of diffraction data in structural determinations. Probes based on dynamical diffraction effects, such as x-ray standing wave fluorescence, multiple beam interference, and x-ray transmission topographs, may now be used to study the bulk and surface structure of some quasicrystals. The observation of dynamical diffraction from icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn is a striking confirmation of the fact that quasicrystals can present a degree of structural perfection comparable to that found in the best periodic intermetallic crystals.

  4. Quantification of thin film crystallographic orientation using X-ray diffraction with an area detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Jessica L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    elastic  properties of Au thin films by X?ray diffraction interface in  polythiophene thin?film transistors.  Nat copper  phthalocyanine thin films evaporated on amorphous 

  5. Huygens-Fresnel-Kirchhoff construction for quantum propagators with application to diffraction in space and time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arseni Goussev

    2012-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the phenomenon of diffraction of non-relativistic matter waves on openings in absorbing screens. To this end, we expand the full quantum propagator, connecting two points on the opposite sides of the screen, in terms of the free particle propagator and spatio-temporal properties of the opening. Our construction, based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, describes the quantum phenomena of diffraction in space and diffraction in time, as well as the interplay between the two. We illustrate the method by calculating diffraction patterns for localized wave packets passing through various time-dependent openings in one and two spatial dimensions.

  6. Diffractive heavy quark production in AA collisions at the LHC at NLO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machado, M. M.; Ducati, M. B. Gay; Machado, M. V. T. [High Energy Physics Phenomenology Group, GFPAE, IF-UFRGS, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The single and double diffractive cross sections for heavy quarks production are evaluated at NLO accuracy for hadronic and heavy ion collisions at the LHC. Diffractive charm and bottom production is the main subject of this work, providing predictions for CaCa, PbPb and pPb collisions. The hard diffraction formalism is considered using the Ingelman-Schlein model where a recent parametrization for the Pomeron structure function (DPDF) is applied. Absorptive corrections are taken into account as well. The diffractive ratios are estimated and theoretical uncertainties are discussed. Comparison with competing production channels is also presented.

  7. Achim Hillenbrand Diffraction 2010, Otranto (Lecce), Italy1 Latest results on transverse momentum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V Aerogel; n=1.03 C4F10; n=1.0014 #12;Achim Hillenbrand Diffraction 2010, Otranto (Lecce), Italy4 Transverse

  8. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies of phase transitions and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prilliman, Gerald Stephen

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of nanocrystals under extreme pressure was investigated using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. A major part of this investigation was the testing of a prototype synchrotron endstation on a bend magnet beamline at the Advanced Light Source for high pressure work using a diamond anvil cell. The experiments conducted and documented here helped to determine issues of efficiency and accuracy that had to be resolved before the construction of a dedicated ''super-bend'' beamline and endstation. The major conclusions were the need for a cryo-cooled monochromator and a fully remote-controllable pressurization system which would decrease the time to change pressure and greatly reduce the error created by the re-placement of the diamond anvil cell after each pressure change. Two very different types of nanocrystal systems were studied, colloidal iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and thin film TiN/BN. Iron oxide nanocrystals were found to have a transition from the {gamma} to the {alpha} structure at a pressure strongly dependent on the size of the nanocrystals, ranging from 26 GPa for 7.2 nm nanocrystals to 37 GPa for 3.6 nm nanocrystals. All nanocrystals were found to remain in the {alpha} structure even after release of pressure. The transition pressure was also found, for a constant size (5.7 nm) to be strongly dependent on the degree of aggregation of the nanocrystals, increasing from 30 GPa for completely dissolved nanocrystals to 45 GPa for strongly aggregated nanocrystals. Furthermore, the x-ray diffraction pattern of the pressure induced {alpha} phase demonstrated a decrease in intensity for certain select peaks. Together, these observations were used to make a complete picture of the phase transition in nanocrystalline systems. The size dependence of the transition was interpreted as resulting from the extremely high surface energy of the {alpha} phase which would increase the thermodynamic offset and thereby increase the kinetic barrier to transition that must be overridden with pressure. The anomalous intensities in the x-ray diffraction patterns were interpreted as being the result of stacking faults, indicating that the mechanism of transition proceeds by the sliding of {gamma}(111) planes to form {alpha}(001) planes. The increasing transition pressure for more aggregated samples may be due to a positive activation volume, retarding the transition for nanocrystals with less excess (organic) volume available to them. The lack of a reverse transition upon decompression makes this interpretation more difficult because of the lack of an observable hysteresis, and it is therefore difficult to ascertain kinetic effects for certain. In the case TiN/BN nanocomposite systems, it was found that the bulk modulus (B{sub 0}) of the TiN nanoparticles was not correlated to the observed hardness or Young's modulus of the macroscopic thin film. This indicates that the origin of the observed super-hard nature of these materials is not due to any change in the Ti-N interatomic potential. Rather, the enhanced hardness must be due to nano-structural effects. It was also found that during pressurization the TiN nanoparticles developed a great deal of strain. This strain can be related to defects induced in individual nanoparticles which generates strain in adjacent particles due to the highly coupled nature of the system.

  9. Anomalously increased effective thermal conductivities of ethylene glycol-based nanofluids containing copper nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastman, J. A.; Choi, S. U. S.; Li, S.; Yu, W.; Thompson, L. J.

    2001-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that a ''nanofluid'' consisting of copper nanometer-sized particles dispersed in ethylene glycol has a much higher effective thermal conductivity than either pure ethylene glycol or ethylene glycol containing the same volume fraction of dispersed oxide nanoparticles. The effective thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol is shown to be increased by up to 40% for a nanofluid consisting of ethylene glycol containing approximately 0.3 vol% Cu nanoparticles of mean diameter <10 nm. The results are anomalous based on previous theoretical calculations that had predicted a strong effect of particle shape on effective nanofluid thermal conductivity, but no effect of either particle size or particle thermal conductivity.

  10. Anomalous Quantum Hall Effect of 4D Graphene in Background Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. B Drissi; H. Mhamdi; E. H Saidi

    2011-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Bori\\c{c}i-Creutz (\\emph{BC}) model describing the dynamics of light quarks in lattice \\emph{QCD} has been shown to be intimately linked to the four dimensional extension of 2D graphene refereed below to as four dimensional graphene (\\emph{4D-graphene}). Borrowing ideas from the field theory description of the usual \\emph{2D} graphene, we study in this paper the anomalous quantum Hall effect (AQHE) of the \\emph{BC} fermions in presence of a constant background field strength $\\mathcal{F}_{\\mu \

  11. Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Hg_1-yMn_yTe Quantum Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum Hall effect is usually observed when the two-dimensional electron gas is subjected to an external magnetic field, so that their quantum states form Landau levels. In this work we predict that a new phenomenon, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, can be realized in Hg{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}Te quantum wells, without the external magnetic field and the associated Landau levels. This effect arises purely from the spin polarization of the Mn atoms, and the quantized Hall conductance is predicted for a range of quantum well thickness and the concentration of the Mn atoms. This effect enables dissipationless charge current in spintronics devices.

  12. Anomalous triple gauge couplings from $B$-meson and kaon observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bobeth, Christoph

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the three CP-conserving dimension-6 operators that encode the leading new-physics effects in the triple gauge couplings. The contributions to the standard-model electromagnetic dipole and semi-leptonic vector and axial-vector interactions that arise from the insertions of these operators are calculated. We show that radiative and rare $B$-meson decays provide, under certain assumptions, constraints on two out of the three anomalous couplings that are competitive with the restrictions obtained from LEP II, Tevatron and LHC data. The constraints arising from the $Z \\to b \\bar b$ electroweak pseudo observables, $K \\to \\pi \

  13. Anomalous sea surface temperatures of the North Pacific Ocean and their relationship to precipitation in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Garey Cecil

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the North Pacific and precip1tation in the ten climatic divisions of Texas, concurrently, and for t1me lags of up to six months. Anomalous sea surface temperatures for the 20 year period, 1947-1966, were correlated to prec1 pi tation totals that were... reported for the ten climatic divisions of Texas. An examination of the levels of significance for each correlat1on coeffic1ent was conducted. Correlation coefficients with high levels of significance were studied for patterns and peak frequencies...

  14. Anomalous behaviour of magnetic coercivity in graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagani, K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Kaur, J.; Rai Chowdhury, A.; Ghosh, B.; Banerjee, S., E-mail: sangam.banerjee@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Surface Physics Division, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sardar, M. [Material Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we present the temperature dependence of the magnetic coercivity of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). We observe an anomalous decrease in coercivity of GO and RGO with decreasing temperature. The observation could be understood by invoking the inherent presence of wrinkles on graphene oxide due to presence of oxygen containing groups. Scanning electron microscopic image reveals high wrinkles in GO than RGO. We observe higher coercivity in RGO than in GO. At room temperature, we observe antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic behaviours in GO and RGO, respectively. Whereas, at low temperatures (below T?=?60–70?K), both materials show paramagnetic behaviour.

  15. Search for Anomalous Production of Events with Two Photons and Additional Energetic Objects at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U. /Kosice, IEF; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present results of a search for anomalous production of two photons together with an electron, muon, {tau} lepton, missing transverse energy, or jets using p{bar p} collision data from 1.1-2.0 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The event yields and kinematic distributions are examined for signs for new physics without favoring a specific model of new physics. The results are consistent with the standard model expectations. The search employs several new analysis techniques that significantly reduce instrumental backgrounds in channels with an electron and missing transverse energy.

  16. Hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment from lattice QCD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blum, Thomas [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chowdhury, Saumitra [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Hayakawa, Masashi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Izubuchi, Taku [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The form factor that yields the light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is computed in lattice QCD+QED and QED. A non-perturbative treatment of QED is used and is checked against perturbation theory. The hadronic contribution is calculated for unphysical quark and muon masses, and only the diagram with a single quark loop is computed. Statistically significant signals are obtained. Initial results appear promising, and the prospect for a complete calculation with physical masses and controlled errors is discussed.

  17. Anomalous Scaling of Structure Functions and Dynamic Constraints on Turbulence Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor Yakhot; Katepalli R. Sreenivasan

    2005-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The connection between anomalous scaling of structure functions (intermittency) and numerical methods for turbulence simulations is discussed. It is argued that the computational work for direct numerical simulations (DNS) of fully developed turbulence increases as $Re^{4}$, and not as $Re^{3}$ expected from Kolmogorov's theory, where $Re$ is a large-scale Reynolds number. Various relations for the moments of acceleration and velocity derivatives are derived. An infinite set of exact constraints on dynamically consistent subgrid models for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) is derived from the Navier-Stokes equations, and some problems of principle associated with existing LES models are highlighted.

  18. Influence of disordered porous media in the anomalous properties of a simple water model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furlan, A P; Barbosa, M C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamic, dynamic and structural behavior of a water-like system confined in a matrix is analyzed for increasing confining geometries. The liquid is modeled by a two dimensional associating lattice gas model that exhibits density and diffusion anomalies, in similarity to the anomalies present in liquid water. The matrix is a triangular lattice in which fixed obstacles impose restrictions to the occupation of the particles. We show that obstacules shortens all lines, including the phase coexistence, the critical and the anomalous lines. The inclusion of a very dense matrix not only suppress the anomalies but also the liquid-liquid critical point.

  19. Numerical study and optimization of a diffraction grating for surface plasmon excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    Numerical study and optimization of a diffraction grating for surface plasmon excitation Ga¨etan L Laboratory EPFL-STI-NAM, Station 11, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland ABSTRACT The numerical study of plasmonic plasmon polariton wave on a gold-air interface by a diffraction grating. Our calculations are performed

  20. Structure of K-doped polyacetylene and its variations with annealing, studied by neutron diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    complementary information to X-ray diffraction can be obtained with neutrons. In addition, neutron scatteringL-379 Structure of K-doped polyacetylene and its variations with annealing, studied by neutron~u le 9 janvier 1985, accepte le 21 fevrier 1985) Résumé. 2014 On a étudié par diffraction de neutrons

  1. Analytic model of electron pulse propagation in ultrafast electron diffraction experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sipe,J. E.

    Analytic model of electron pulse propagation in ultrafast electron diffraction experiments A. M pulses used in ultrafast electron diffraction experiments UED . We assume a Gaussian form to characterize the electron pulse, and derive a system of ordinary differential equations that are solved quickly and easily

  2. A pulsed electron gun for ultrafast electron diffraction at surfaces A. Janzen,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von der Linde, D.

    A pulsed electron gun for ultrafast electron diffraction at surfaces A. Janzen,a B. Krenzer, O The construction of a pulsed electron gun for ultrafast reflection high-energy electron diffraction experiments: a photocathode, consisting of a 10 nm thin Au film deposited onto a sapphire substrate. Electron pulses

  3. Optical theorem for acoustic non-diffracting beams and application to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Optical theorem for acoustic non-diffracting beams and application to radiation force and torque University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 USA lzhang@chaos.utexas.edu Abstract: Acoustical and optical non-diffracting beams are potentially useful for manipulating particles and larger objects. An extended optical theorem

  4. Fourier analysis of X-ray micro-diffraction profiles to characterize laser shock peened metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    .L., 1950. The effect of cold-work distortion on X-ray pat- terns. Journal of Applied Physics 21, 595LSP need to be further studied from the measured X-ray micro-diffraction profile. Broadening of X-rayFourier analysis of X-ray micro-diffraction profiles to characterize laser shock peened metals

  5. Characterization of Microstructure of Severely Deformed Titanium by X-ray Diffraction Profile Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    Characterization of Microstructure of Severely Deformed Titanium by X-ray Diffraction Profile deformation, X-ray peak profile analysis. Abstract. Nanocrystalline titanium was produced by equal channel of the measured X-ray diffraction peak profiles. The peak profile analysis provided the median and the variance

  6. Image distortion in thermoacoustic tomography caused by microwave diffraction Changhui Li,* Manojit Pramanik,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    Image distortion in thermoacoustic tomography caused by microwave diffraction Changhui Li,* Manojit-induced thermoacoustic tomography. The distortion, due to microwave diffraction in the object to be imaged, leads Thermoacoustic TA tomography TAT in biological tis- sue reconstructs the TA source distribution from the acoustic

  7. Diffraction de Fresnel des electrons diffuss lastiquement et inlastiquement par des crans semi-transparents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1353 Diffraction de Fresnel des electrons diffusés élastiquement et inélastiquement par des écrans 1980) Résumé. 2014 L'application du principe de Huygens-Fresnel à l'étude de la diffraction par le bord légèrement divergent rend compte de l'allure générale des franges de Fresnel observées en microscopie

  8. Production of spin-3 mesons in diffractive DIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Caporale; I. P. Ivanov

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the amplitudes of J^{PC}=3^{--} meson production in diffractive DIS within the k_t-factorization approach, with a particular attention paid to the rho_3(1690) meson. We find that at all Q^2 the rho_3(1690) production cross section is 2-5 times smaller than the rho(1700) production cross section, which is assumed to be a pure D-wave state. Studying sigma_L and sigma_T separately, we observe domination of rho_3 in sigma_L and domination of rho(1700) in sigma_T and offer an explanation of this behavior in simple terms. We also find very strong contributions -- sometimes even domination -- of the s-channel helicity violating amplitudes. The typical color dipole sizes probed in rho_3 production are shown to be larger than those in the ground state rho production, and the energy dependence of rho_3 cross section turns out to be much flatter than the rho production cross section. All the conclusions about the relative behavior of rho_3(1690) and rho(1700) mesons are numerically stable against variations of input parameters.

  9. The PICASSO digital detector for Diffraction Enhanced Imaging at ELETTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arfelli, F.; Longo, R.; Castelli, E. [Physics Department, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Astolfo, A. [Physics Department, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Menk, R.-H. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Rigon, L.; Vallazza, E. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Zanconati, F.; De Pellegrin, A. [Department of Pathologic Anatomy, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume 449, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Chen, R. C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Dreossi, D. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)

    2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A clinical mammography program is in progress at the medical beamline SYRMEP of the Italian synchrotron radiation laboratory ELETTRA in Trieste. A conventional screen-film system is utilized as detector for the examinations on patients. For the next experimental step a digital detector has been designed taking into account the essential requirements for mammography such as high spatial and contrast resolution, high efficiency for low dose examinations and high speed for short acquisition time. A double-layer prototype has already been tested in the frame of the PICASSO project. In addition, an analyzer crystal set-up for Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (DEI) has been available for many years at the SYRMEP beamline. Applying the DEI technique several successful experiments have been carried out in biomedical imaging and in particular in-vitro breast imaging utilizing commercially available detectors. Recently a system upgrade yielded a double-crystal analyzer set-up with improved stability and higher angular resolution. In this study the PICASSO detector has been utilized in combination with the new analyzer set-up for imaging in-vitro breast tissue samples. In order to test the potential of the combined system planar and tomographic images have been acquired and the first results are here presented.

  10. Density functional and neutron diffraction studies of lithium polymer electrolytes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baboul, A. G.

    1998-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of PEO doped with lithium perchlorate has been determined using neutron diffraction on protonated and deuterated samples. The experiments were done in the liquid state. Preliminary analysis indicates the Li-O distance is about 2.0 {angstrom}. The geometries of a series of gas phase lithium salts [LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, Li(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N, Li(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}CH, LiClO{sub 4}, LiPF{sub 6}, LiAsF{sub 6}] used in polymer electrolytes have been optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional level of theory. All local minima have been identified. For the triflate, imide, methanide, and perchlorate anions, the lithium cation is coordinated to two oxygens and have binding energies of ca 141 kcal/mol at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p)/B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. For the hexafluoroarsenate and hexafluorophosphate the lithium cation is coordinated to three oxygens and have binding energies of ca. 136 kcal/mol.

  11. Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction From Two-Dimensional Protein Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, Matthias; Carlson, David B.; Hunter, Mark; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Barty, Anton; Benner, Henry; Chu, Kaiqin; Graf, Alexander; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Kirian, Rick; Padeste, Celestino; Pardini, Tommaso; Pedrini, Bill; Segelke, Brent; Seibert, M. M.; Spence , John C.; Tsai, Ching-Ju; Lane, Steve M.; Li, Xiao-Dan; Schertler, Gebhard; Boutet, Sebastien; Coleman, Matthew A.; Evans, James E.

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we present femtosecond x-ray diffraction patterns from two-dimensional (2-D) protein crystals using an x-ray free electron laser (XFEL). To date it has not been possible to acquire x-ray diffraction from individual 2-D protein crystals due to radiation damage. However, the intense and ultrafast pulses generated by an XFEL permits a new method of collecting diffraction data before the sample is destroyed. Utilizing a diffract-before-destroy methodology at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we observed Bragg diffraction to better than 8.5 Å resolution for two different 2-D protein crystal samples that were maintained at room temperature. These proof-of-principle results show promise for structural analysis of both soluble and membrane proteins arranged as 2-D crystals without requiring cryogenic conditions or the formation of three-dimensional crystals.

  12. Anomalous zones in Gulf Coast Salt domes with special reference to Big Hill, TX, and Weeks Island, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States); Thoms, R.L. [AGM, Inc., College Station, TX (United States); Autin, W.J.; McCulloh, R.P. [Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Denzler, S.; Byrne, K.O. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous features in Gulf Coast Salt domes exhibit deviations from normally pure salt and vary widely in form from one dome to the next, ranging considerably in length and width. They have affected both conventional and solution mining in several ways. Gas outbursts, insolubles, and potash (especially carnallite) have led to the breakage of tubing in a number of caverns, and caused irregular shapes of many caverns through preferential leaching. Such anomalous features essentially have limited the lateral extent of conventional mining at several salt mines, and led to accidents and even the closing of several other mines. Such anomalous features, are often aligned in anomalous zones, and appear to be related to diapiric processes of salt dome development. Evidence indicates that anomalous zones are found between salt spines, where the differential salt intrusion accumulates other materials: Anhydrite bands which are relatively strong, and other, weaker impurities. Shear zones and fault displacement detected at Big Hill and Weeks Island domes have not yet had any known adverse impacts on SPR oil storage, but new caverns at these sites conceivably may encounter some potentially adverse conditions. Seismic reflection profiles at Big Hill dome have shown numerous fractures and faults in the caprock, and verified the earlier recognition of a major shear zone transecting the entire salt stock and forming a graben in the overlying caprock. Casing that is placed in such zones can be at risk. Knowledge of these zones should create awareness of possible effects rather than preclude the future emplacement of caverns. To the extent possible, major anomalous zones and salt stock boundaries should be avoided. Shear zones along overhangs may be particularly hazardous, and otherwise unknown valleys in the top of salt may occur along shear zones. These zones often can be mapped geophysically, especially with high-resolution seismic techniques.

  13. Strange and charm quark contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bipasha Chakraborty; C. T. H. Davies; G. C. Donald; R. J. Dowdall; J. Koponen; G. P. Lepage; T. Teubner

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a new technique to determine the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon coming from the hadronic vacuum polarization using lattice QCD. Our method reconstructs the Adler function, using Pad\\'{e} approximants, from its derivatives at $q^2=0$ obtained simply and accurately from time-moments of the vector current-current correlator at zero spatial momentum. We test the method using strange quark correlators on large-volume gluon field configurations that include the effect of up and down (at physical masses), strange and charm quarks in the sea at multiple values of the lattice spacing and multiple volumes and show that 1% accuracy is achievable. For the charm quark contributions we use our previously determined moments with up, down and strange quarks in the sea on very fine lattices. We find the (connected) contribution to the anomalous moment from the strange quark vacuum polarization to be $a_\\mu^s = 53.41(59) \\times 10^{-10}$, and from charm to be $a_\\mu^c = 14.42(39)\\times 10^{-10}$. These are in good agreement with flavour-separated results from non-lattice methods, given caveats about the comparison. The extension of our method to the light quark contribution and to that from the quark-line disconnected diagram is straightforward.

  14. Anomalous Flyby in the Non-Prefered Reference Frame of the Rotating Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter Petry

    2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Several spacecrafts show an anomalous flyby. In a previous paper a non-prefered reference frame is studied moving uniformly relative to the prefered one. In this article the Doppler frequency residual is derived. The prefered reference frame is given by the isotropy of the CMB and the non-prefered one is the Earth. The resulting jump is much too small to explain the measured anomalous flybys of the different spacecrafts. Therefore, the transformations from the prefered frame to the non-prefered frame are replaced by the corresponding total differentials. A formula for the Doppler frequency residual is derived. It is applied to the prefered frame of the Earth and the non-prefered frame of the rotating Earth. The resulting Doppler residual depends on the direction of the velocity of the spacecraft and the position of the observer on the rotating Earth. It is similar to the experimental formula of Anderson et al. which is independent of the position of the observer.

  15. Magnetic reconnection with anomalous resistivity in two-and-a-half dimensions. I. Quasistationary case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malyshkin, Leonid M.; Linde, Timur; Kulsrud, Russell M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Chicago, Center for Magnetic Self-Organization (CMSO), Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Center for Magnetic Self-Organization (CMSO), Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper quasistationary, 'two-and-a-half-dimensional' magnetic reconnection is studied in the framework of incompressible resistive magnetohydrodynamics. A new theoretical approach for the calculation of the reconnection rate is presented. This approach is based on the local analytical derivations in a thin reconnection layer, and it is applicable to the case when resistivity is anomalous and is an arbitrary function of the electric current and the spatial coordinates. It is found that a quasistationary reconnection rate is fully determined by a particular functional form of the anomalous resistivity and by the local configuration of the magnetic field just outside the reconnection layer. It is also found that, in the special case of constant resistivity, reconnection is Sweet-Parker [Electromagnetic Phenomena, edited by B. Lehnert (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1958), p. 123; Astrophys. J., Suppl. 8, 177 (1963)] and not Petschek [AAS-NASA Symposium on Solar Flares NASA SP5 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1964), p. 425].

  16. Testing the role of metal hydrolysis in the anomalous electrodeposition of Ni-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, T.M.; St. Clair, J. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the objective of testing several models of the anomalous codeposition (ACD) encountered in the electrodeposition of nickel-iron alloys, the effects of bath pH and complexing agents on the composition of deposits were examined. When the pH of the base line bath was increased from 3.0 to 5.0, the Ni/Fe mass ratio of the deposit increased (i.e., the deposition became less anomalous). The presence of tartrate ion in the bath produced a slight decrease in the Ni/Fe of the deposit. This complexing agent complexes ferric ion and thus prevents its precipitation but has little interaction with ferrous ion or nickel ion under the electrodeposition conditions examined. The addition of ethylenediamine to the bath produced a significant increase in the Ni/Fe mass ratio. This complexing agent does not interact significantly with ferric ion or ferrous ion under the test conditions. None of these observations are consistent with the Dahms and Croll model of ACD. The effects of pH and tartaric acid on the deposit composition are consistent with the predictions of the Grande and Talbot model and the Matlosz model. The effect of ethylenediamine is not consistent with the Grande and Talbot model, but may be interpreted within the framework of the Matlosz model and the Hessami and Tobias model.

  17. Analysis of The Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes Observed in Spacecraft Flybys of Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roger Ellman

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 2008 anomalous behavior in spacecraft flybys of Earth was reported in Physical Review Letters, Volume 100, Issue 9, March 7, 2008, in an article entitled "Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes Observed during Spacecraft Flybys of Earth". The data indicate unaccounted for changes in spacecraft speed, both increases and decreases, for six different spacecraft involved in Earth flybys from December 8, 1990 to August 2, 2005. The article states that, "All ... potential sources of systematic error .... [have been] modeled. None can account for the observed anomalies.... Like the Pioneer anomaly ... the Earth flybys anomaly is a real effect .... Its source is unknown." In the present article it is shown that the Earth flybys anomaly would be caused by a very small acceleration [in addition to that of natural gravitation], centrally directed and independent of distance, the same effect as that which the Pioneer anomaly exhibits. How that effect operates to produce the observed results is analyzed. A cause of the centrally directed accelerations is presented.

  18. Anomalous photoresponse of GaN x-ray Schottky detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duboz, Jean-Yves [CRHEA, CNRS, rue Bernard Gregory, Sophia Antipolis, F-06560 Valbonne (France); Beaumont, Bernard [Lumilog Groupe Saint GOBAIN Crystals, 2720 Chemin de Saint Bernard, F-06220 Vallauris (France); Reverchon, Jean-Luc [THALES R and T, Campus Polytechnique, 1 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, F-91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Wieck, Andreas D. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Festkoerperphysik, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GaN based materials are believed to be very stable materials, in particular, under irradiation by high energy photons such as x rays. We have studied x-ray detectors based on GaN Schottky diodes. Vertical Schottky diodes were fabricated based on a 20 mum thick undoped GaN layer grown on a conductive GaN substrate. Their photoresponse to near UV light and to x rays was measured. While the response to near UV light was fast and linear as expected, anomalous behaviors were observed under x-ray illumination. The photocurrent increases as the third power of the incident x-ray flux. The photocurrent transient when the x rays is turned on are long and nonexponential (S shape) and strongly differs from the off transient which is fast and exponential. Also, a very strong quenching of the x-ray photoresponse is observed when the detector is simultaneously illuminated with visible light. All of these anomalous behaviors are explained in the frame of a complete model involving traps and tunnel currents. A reasonable quantitative agreement between the model and the experimental data is obtained.

  19. Implications of the anomalous top quark couplings in $B_s-\\bar{B}_s$ mixing, $B \\to X_s ?$ and top quark decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jong Phil Lee; Kang Young Lee

    2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined analysis of recent measured $\\bs$ mixing and $B \\to X_s \\gamma$ decays provides constraints on the anomalous $\\bar{t}sW$ couplings. We discuss the perspectives to examine the anomalous $\\bar{t}sW$ couplings through CKM-suppressed $ t \\to s W$ decays at the LHC.

  20. Intrinsic anomalous surface roughening of TiN films deposited by reactive sputtering M. A. Auger,1,5 L. Vzquez,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuerno, Rodolfo

    Intrinsic anomalous surface roughening of TiN films deposited by reactive sputtering M. A. Auger,1 manuscript received 1 December 2005; published 31 January 2006 We study surface kinetic roughening of TiN. The TiN films exhibit intrinsic anomalous scaling and multiscaling. The film kinetic roughening

  1. Single-particle structure determination by correlations of snapshot X-ray diffraction patterns (CXIDB ID 20)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Starodub, D.

    This deposition includes the diffraction images generated by the paired polystyrene spheres in random orientations. These images were used to determine and phase the single particle diffraction volume from their autocorrelation functions.

  2. Breaking the Diffraction Barrier in Fluorescence Microscopy by Optical Shelving Stefan Bretschneider, Christian Eggeling, and Stefan W. Hell*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Breaking the Diffraction Barrier in Fluorescence Microscopy by Optical Shelving Stefan the breaking of the diffraction resolution barrier in far-field fluorescence microscopy by transiently shelving barrier by shelving the fluorophore in a metastable dark state, thereby effectively depleting

  3. Investigation of Sludge Batch 3 (Macrobatch 4) Glass Sample Anomalous Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C. J.; Bibler, N. E.; Peeler, D. K.

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass samples from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) (Macrobatch 4) were received by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on February 23, 2005. One sample, S02244, was designated for the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and elemental and radionuclide analyses. The second sample, S02247, was designated for archival storage. The samples were pulled from the melter pour stream during the feeding of Melter Feed Tank (MFT) Batch 308 and therefore roughly correspond to feed from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Batches 306-308. During the course of preparing sample S02244 for PCT and other analyses two observations were made which were characterized as ''unusual'' or anomalous behavior relative to historical observations of glasses prepared for the PCT. These observations ultimately led to a series of scoping tests in order to determine more about the nature of the behavior and possible mechanisms. The first observation was the behavior of the ground glass fraction (-100 +200 mesh) for PCT analysis when contacted with deionized water during the washing phase of the PCT procedure. The behavior was analogous to that of an organic compound in the presence of water: clumping, floating on the water surface, and crawling up the beaker walls. In other words, the glass sample did not ''wet'' normally, displaying a hydrophobic behavior in water. This had never been seen before in 18 years SRNL PCT tests on either radioactive or non-radioactive glasses. Typical glass behavior is largely to settle to the bottom of the water filled beaker, though there may be suspended fines which result in some cloudiness to the wash water. The typical appearance is analogous to wetting sand. The second observation was the presence of faint black rings at the initial and final solution levels in the Teflon vessels used for the mixed acid digestion of S02244 glass conducted for compositional analysis. The digestion is composed of two stages, and at both the intermediate and the final content levels in the digestion vessel the rings were present. The rings had not been seen previously during glass digestions and were not present in the Analytical Reference Glass (ARG) standard samples digested, in separate vessels, along with the DWPF glass. What follows in this report are the results and analyses from various scoping experiments done in order to explain the anomalous behavior observed with DWPF glass S02244, along with a comparison with tests on sample S02247 where the anomalous wetting behavior was not observed.

  4. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Nelson, Johanna; Kirz, Janos; Lima, Enju; Marchesini, Stefano; Miao, Huijie; Neiman, Aaron; Shapiro, David; Steinbrener, Jan; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first image of an intact, frozen hydrated eukaryotic cell using x-ray diffraction microscopy, or coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. By plunge freezing the specimen in liquid ethane and maintaining it below -170 degrees C, artifacts due to dehydration, ice crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 eV x rays were recorded and reconstructed to reveal a budding yeast cell at a resolution better than 25 nm. This demonstration represents an important step towards high resolution imaging of cells in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics.

  5. Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R. [and others

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

  6. Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC).

  7. Spin Wave Diffraction Control and Read-out with a Quantum Memory for Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriel Hétet; David Guéry-Odelin

    2015-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A scheme for control and read-out of diffracted spins waves to propagating light fields is presented. Diffraction is obtained via sinusoidally varying lights shifts and ideal one-to-one mapping to light is realized using a gradient echo quantum memory. We also show that dynamical control of the diffracted spin waves spatial orders can be implemented to realize a quantum pulse sequencer for temporal modes that have high time-bandwidth products. Full numerical solutions suggest that both co-propagating and couterpropagating light shift geometries can be used, making the proposal applicable to hot and cold atomic vapours as well as solid state systems with two-level atoms.

  8. Anti-contamination device for cryogenic soft X-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Nelson, Johanna; Turner, Joshua; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic microscopy allows one to view frozen hydrated biological and soft matter specimens with good structural preservation and a high degree of stability against radiation damage. We describe a liquid nitrogen-cooled anti-contamination device for cryogenic X-ray diffraction microscopy. The anti-contaminator greatly reduces the buildup of ice layers on the specimen due to condensation of residual water vapor in the experimental vacuum chamber. We show by coherent X-ray diffraction measurements that this leads to fivefold reduction of background scattering, which is important for far-field X-ray diffraction microscopy of biological specimens.

  9. One dimensional surface profilometry by analyzing the Fresnel diffraction pattern from a step

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osanloo, Soghra

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a coherent quasi-monochromatic light is reflected from a step, a diffraction pattern is formed that can be described by Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral and visibility of the fringes depends on the height of the step. In this paper, it is shown that the Fresnel diffraction from a step can be described by an interference-like formula. A relationship is derived between the visibility of the diffraction pattern from 1D step and the step height. Finally, a novel method is presented for 1D surface testing. The theoretical and experimental results are presented.

  10. Low missing mass, single and double diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkovszky, L. L., E-mail: jenk@bitp.kiev.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Kuprash, O. E., E-mail: oleg.kuprash@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany); Orava, R., E-mail: risto.orava@cern.ch [University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Salii, A., E-mail: saliy.andriy@gmail.com [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The cross sections for single and double diffraction dissociation at low missing masses are calculated for the LHC energies on the basis of the dual (Regge) model under the assumption of a dominant contribution of the exchange of the Pomeron Regge pole. The model reproduces the rich resonance structure in the region of low missing masses M{sub x}. Diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory M{sub x} supplemented with the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing-mass dependence of the differential and integrated single and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  11. Experimental results on pp forward elastic scattering and the possibility of universal shrinkage of the hadronic diffraction cone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burq, J P; Chevallier, M; Denisov, A S; Ekelöf, T J C; Fay, F; Grafström, P; Gustafsson, L; Hagberg, E; Ille, B; Kashchuk, A P; Kulikov, A V; Lambert, M; Martin, J P; Maury, S; Querrou, M; Schegelsky, V A; Tkach, I I; Verbeken, M; Vorobyov, A A

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results on pp forward elastic scattering and the possibility of universal shrinkage of the hadronic diffraction cone

  12. The 2007 Bering Strait oceanic heat flux and anomalous Arctic sea-ice Rebecca A. Woodgate,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, Ron

    flowing PW weakens the ice-pack thereby promoting more sea-ice motion in response to wind, which in turnThe 2007 Bering Strait oceanic heat flux and anomalous Arctic sea-ice retreat Rebecca A. Woodgate,1 sea-ice retreat, we use observational data to estimate Bering Strait volume and heat transports from

  13. The 2007 Bering Strait Oceanic Heat Flux and anomalous Arctic Sea-ice Retreat Rebecca A. Woodgate*, Tom Weingartner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    where heat carried by northward flowing PW weakens the ice-pack thereby promoting more sea-ice motionThe 2007 Bering Strait Oceanic Heat Flux and anomalous Arctic Sea-ice Retreat Rebecca A. Woodgate Abstract: To illuminate the role of Pacific Waters in the 2007 Arctic sea-ice retreat, we use observational

  14. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) Characterization of Uranium and Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Rodney J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelly, Ann Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clarke, Amy J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Field, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wenk, H. R. [University of California, Berkeley

    2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to examine the microstructures of unalloyed uranium, U-6Nb, U-10Mo, and U-0.75Ti. For unalloyed uranium, we used EBSD to examine the effects of various processes on microstructures including casting, rolling and forming, recrystallization, welding, and quasi-static and shock deformation. For U-6Nb we used EBSD to examine the microstructural evolution during shape memory loading. EBSD was used to study chemical homogenization in U-10Mo, and for U-0.75Ti, we used EBSD to study the microstructure and texture evolution during thermal cycling and deformation. The studied uranium alloys have significant microstructural and chemical differences and each of these alloys presents unique preparation challenges. Each of the alloys is prepared by a sequence of mechanical grinding and polishing followed by electropolishing with subtle differences between the alloys. U-6Nb and U-0.75Ti both have martensitic microstructures and both require special care in order to avoid mechanical polishing artifacts. Unalloyed uranium has a tendency to rapidly oxidize when exposed to air and a two-step electropolish is employed, the first step to remove the damaged surface layer resulting from the mechanical preparation and the second step to passivate the surface. All of the alloying additions provide a level of surface passivation and different one and two step electropolishes are employed to create good EBSD surfaces. Because of its low symmetry crystal structure, uranium exhibits complex deformation behavior including operation of multiple deformation twinning modes. EBSD was used to observe and quantify twinning contributions to deformation and to examine the fracture behavior. Figure 1 shows a cross section of two mating fracture surfaces in cast uranium showing the propensity of deformation twinning and intergranular fracture largely between dissimilarly oriented grains. Deformation of U-6Nb in the shape memory regime occurs by the motion of twin boundaries formed during the martensitic transformation. Deformation actually results in a coarsening of the microstructure making EBSD more practical following a limited amount of strain. Figure 2 shows the microstructure resulting from 6% compression. Casting of U-10Mo results in considerable chemical segregation as is apparent in Figure 2a. The segregation subsists through rolling and heat treatment processes as shown in Figure 2b. EBSD was used to study the effects of homogenization time and temperature on chemical heterogeneity. It was found that times and temperatures that result in a chemically homogeneous microstructure also result in a significant increase in grain size. U-0.75Ti forms an acicular martinsite as shown in Figure 4. This microstructure prevails through cycling into the higher temperature solid uranium phases.

  15. Dynamical Bragg diffraction of optical pulses in photonic crystals in the Laue geometry: Diffraction-induced splitting, selective compression, and focusing of pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skorynin, A. A., E-mail: skoraleks@ya.ru; Bushuev, V. A.; Mantsyzov, B. I., E-mail: mantsyzov@phys.msu.ru [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A theory for the dynamical Bragg diffraction of a spatially confined laser pulse in a linear photonic crystal with a significant modulation of the refractive index in the Laue geometry has been developed. The diffraction-induced splitting of a spatially confined pulse into the Borrmann and anti-Borrmann pulses localized in different regions of the photonic crystal and characterized by different dispersion laws is predicted. The selective compression or focusing of one of these pulses with the simultaneous broadening or defocusing of the other pulse is shown to be possible.

  16. An image sensor with on-die diffractive optics in 0.18m bulk Christopher Thomas, Richard Hornsey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hornsey, Richard

    An image sensor with on-die diffractive optics in 0.18µm bulk CMOS Christopher Thomas, Richard of reducing package size for imaging and non-imaging optical sensors. While systems incorporating on image sensors, microlenses, diffraction gratings, micro-optics, diffractive optics 1. INTRODUCTION

  17. 1050 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS, FERROELECTRICS, AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, VOL. 42, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 1995 Bowtie Limited Diffraction Beams for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Jian-yu

    , NOVEMBER 1995 Bowtie Limited Diffraction Beams for Low-Sidelobe and Large Depth of Field Imaging Jian-yu Lu is developed. These beams are termed bowtie limited diffraction beams because they have bowtie shapes of field, a bowtie limited diffraction beam is used in transmission and its 90 rotated response (around

  18. Anomalous skin effects in relativistic parallel propagating weakly magnetized electron plasma waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, Gohar; Bashir, M. F. [Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, G. C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fully relativistic analysis of anomalous skin effects for parallel propagating waves in a weakly magnetized electron plasma is presented and general expressions for longitudinal and transverse permittivites are derived. It is found that the penetration depth for R- and L-waves increases as we move from non-relativistic to highly relativistic regime. The ambient magnetic field reduces/enhances the skin effects for R-wave/L-wave as the strength of the field is increased. In general, the weak magnetic field effects are pronounced for the weakly relativistic regime as compared with other relativistic cases. The results are also graphically illustrated. On switching off the magnetic field, previous results for field free case are retrieved [A. F. Alexandrov, A. S. Bogdankevich, and A. A. Rukhadze, Priniples of Plasma Electrodynamics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1984), Vol. 9, p. 106].

  19. Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons by an electron beam interacting with a nonuniform plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sydorenko, D; Chen, L; Ventzek, P L G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons was observed in simulation of a high- voltage dc discharge with electron emission from the cathode. An electron beam produced by the emission interacts with the nonuniform plasma in the discharge via a two-stream instability. Efficient energy transfer from the beam to the plasma electrons is ensured by the plasma nonuniformity. The electron beam excites plasma waves whose wavelength and phase speed gradually decrease towards anode. The short waves near the anode accelerate plasma bulk electrons to suprathermal energies. The sheath near the anode reflects some of the accelerated electrons back into the plasma. These electrons travel through the plasma, reflect near the cathode, and enter the accelerating area again but with a higher energy than before. Such particles are accelerated to energies much higher than after the first acceleration. This mechanism plays a role in explaining earlier experimental observations of energetic suprathermal electrons i...

  20. A Case Against Spinning PAHs as the Source of the Anomalous Microwave Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensley, Brandon S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ the all-sky map of the anomalous microwave emission (AME) produced by component separation of the microwave sky to study correlations between the AME and Galactic dust properties. We find that while the AME is highly correlated with all tracers of dust emission, fluctuations in the AME intensity per dust optical depth are uncorrelated with fluctuations in the emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), casting doubt on the association between AME and PAHs. Further, we find that the best predictor of the AME strength is the dust radiance and that the AME intensity increases with increasing radiation field strength, at variance with predictions from the spinning dust hypothesis. A reconsideration of other emission mechanisms, such as magnetic dipole emission, is warranted.

  1. Anomalous Brownian motion of colloidal particle in a nematic environment: effect of the director fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Turiv; A. Brodin; V. Nazarenko

    2015-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    As recently reported [Turiv T. et al., Science, 2013, Vol. 342, 1351], fluctuations in the orientation of the liquid crystal (LC) director can transfer momentum from the LC to a colloid, such that the diffusion of the colloid becomes anomalous on a short time scale. Using video microscopy and single particle tracking, we investigate random thermal motion of colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal for the time scales shorter than the expected time of director fluctuations. At long times, compared to the characteristic time of the nematic director relaxation we observe typical anisotropic Brownian motion with the mean square displacement (MSD) linear in time $\\tau$ and inversly proportional to the effective viscosity of the nematic medium. At shorter times, however, the dynamics is markedly nonlinear with MSD growing more slowly (subdiffusion) or faster (superdiffusion) than $\\tau$. These results are discussed in the context of coupling of colloidal particle's dynamics to the director fluctuation dynamics.

  2. Anomalous Lattice Dynamics and Thermal Properties of Supported Size- and Shape-selected Pt Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B Roldan Cuenya; A Frenkel; S Mostafa; F Behafarid; J Croy; L Ono; Q Wang

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous lattice dynamics and thermal behavior have been observed for ligand-free, size-, and shape-selected Pt nanoparticles (NPs) supported on nanocrystalline {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy. Several major differences were observed for the NPs with respect to bulk Pt: (i) a contraction in the interatomic distances, (ii) a reduction in the dynamic (temperature-dependent) bond-length disorder and associated increase in the Debye temperature ({Theta}{sub D}), and (iii) an overall decrease in the bond-length expansion coefficient coupled with NP stiffening. The increase in the Debye temperature is explained in terms of the NP size, shape, support interactions, and adsorbate effects. For a similar average size, we observe a striking correlation between the shapes of the NPs and their {Theta}{sub D} values.

  3. Anomalous Viscosity, Resistivity, and Thermal Diffusivity of the Solar Wind Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahendra K. Verma

    1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we have estimated typical anomalous viscosity, resistivity, and thermal difffusivity of the solar wind plasma. Since the solar wind is collsionless plasma, we have assumed that the dissipation in the solar wind occurs at proton gyro radius through wave-particle interactions. Using this dissipation length-scale and the dissipation rates calculated using MHD turbulence phenomenology [{\\it Verma et al.}, 1995a], we estimate the viscosity and proton thermal diffusivity. The resistivity and electron's thermal diffusivity have also been estimated. We find that all our transport quantities are several orders of magnitude higher than those calculated earlier using classical transport theories of {\\it Braginskii}. In this paper we have also estimated the eddy turbulent viscosity.

  4. Topological insulators in silicene: Quantum hall, quantum spin hall and quantum anomalous hall effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ezawa, Motohiko [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicene is a monolayer of silicon atoms forming a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, which shares almost every remarkable property with graphene. The low energy dynamics is described by Dirac electrons, but they are massive due to relatively large spin-orbit interactions. I will explain the following properties of silicene: 1) The band structure is controllable by applying an electric field. 2) Silicene undergoes a phase transition from a topological insulator to a band insulator by applying external electric field. 3) The topological phase transition can be detected experimentally by way of diamagnetism. 4) There is a novel valley-spin selection rules revealed by way of photon absorption. 5) Silicene yields a remarkably many phases such as quantum anomalous Hall phase and valley polarized metal when the exchange field is additionally introduced. 6) A silicon nanotubes can be used to convey spin currents under an electric field.

  5. Entropy of the Nordic electricity market: anomalous scaling, spikes, and mean-reversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perello, J; Montero, M; Palatella, L; Simonsen, I; Masoliver, Jaume; Montero, Miquel; Palatella, Luigi; Perello, Josep; Simonsen, Ingve

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electricity market is a very peculiar market due to the large variety of phenomena that can affect the spot price. However, this market still shows many typical features of other speculative (commodity) markets like, for instance, data clustering and mean reversion. We apply the diffusion entropy analysis (DEA) to the Nordic spot electricity market (Nord Pool). We study the waiting time statistics between consecutive spot price spikes and find it to show anomalous scaling characterized by a decaying power-law. The exponent observed in data follows a quite robust relationship with the one implied by the DEA analysis. We also in terms of the DEA revisit topics like clustering, mean-reversion and periodicities. We finally propose a GARCH inspired model but for the price itself. Models in the context of stochastic volatility processes appear under this scope to have a feasible description.

  6. Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, Lucas R [ORNL; Broido, David [Boston College, Chestnut Hill; Carrete, Jesus [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Grenoble; Mingo, Natalio [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Grenoble; Reinecke, Tom [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lattice thermal conductivities ( ) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure, P, using a first-principles approach. Compound materials with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in with P, consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing with increasing P, a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of . This anomalous P dependence of arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with small mass ratios. This work demonstrates the power of first principles methods for thermal properties and advances the understanding of thermal transport in non-metals.

  7. Fractal Location and Anomalous Diffusion Dynamics for Oil Wells from the KY Geological Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Keith; Andrew, Kevin A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilizing data available from the Kentucky Geonet (KYGeonet.ky.gov) the fossil fuel mining locations created by the Kentucky Geological Survey geo-locating oil and gas wells are mapped using ESRI ArcGIS in Kentucky single plain 1602 ft projection. This data was then exported into a spreadsheet showing latitude and longitude for each point to be used for modeling at different scales to determine the fractal dimension of the set. Following the porosity and diffusivity studies of Tarafdar and Roy1 we extract fractal dimensions of the fossil fuel mining locations and search for evidence of scaling laws for the set of deposits. The Levy index is used to determine a match to a statistical mechanically motivated generalized probability function for the wells. This probability distribution corresponds to a solution of a dynamical anomalous diffusion equation of fractional order that describes the Levy paths which can be solved in the diffusion limit by the Fox H function ansatz.

  8. Strong coupling of an optomechanical system to an anomalously dispersive atomic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haibin Wu; Min Xiao

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate a hybrid optomechanical system in which a membrane oscillator is coupled to a collective spin of ground states of an intracavity $\\Lambda$-type three-level atomic medium. The cavity field response is greatly modified by atomic coherence and the anomalous dispersion generated by two Raman pumping beams near two-photon resonance. The optomechanical interaction, therefore radiation pressure force, is substantially enhanced due to superluminal propagation of photons in the cavity. Such improvement facilitates ground-state cooling of the mechanical oscillator with room temperature thermal environment. Moreover, it can greatly improve the sensitivity and bandwidth of displacement measurement. In such system, optically-controlled strong-coupling interaction between the mechanical oscillator and cavity field could be implemented on small intracavity photon number, even at the single quanta level, which is important for weak-light nonlinear photonics and the generation of nonclassical quantum states in the mechanical field.

  9. Four-flavour leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burger, Florian [Humboldt U. Berlin; Feng, Xu [KEK; Hotzel, Grit [Humboldt U. Berlin; Jansen, Karl [DESY, Cyprus; Petschlies, Marcus [The Cyprus Institute; Renner, Dru B. [JLAB

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a four-flavour lattice calculation of the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarisation contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, a?hvp, arising from quark-connected Feynman graphs. It is based on ensembles featuring Nf=2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). Several light quark masses are used in order to yield a controlled extrapolation to the physical pion mass. We employ three lattice spacings to examine lattice artefacts and several different volumes to check for finite-size effects. Including the complete first two generations of quarks allows for a direct comparison with phenomenological determinations of a ?hvp. Our final result involving an estimate of the systematic uncertainty a ?hvp=6.74 (21)(18) 10-8 shows a good overall agreement with these computations.

  10. Anomalous magnetic and electric moments of $?$ and lepton flavor mixing matrix in effective lagrangian approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Q. Zhang; X. C. Song; W. J. Huo; T. F. Feng

    2002-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effective lagrangian approach [EM97] to new physics, the authors in ref. [HL99] pushed tau anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments (AMDM and EDM) down to $10^{-11}$ and $10^{-25} e cm$ by using a Fritzsch-Xing lepton mass matrix ansatz. In this note, we find that, in this approach, there exists the connection between $\\tau$ AMDM and EDM and the lepton flavor mixing matrix. By using the current neutrino oscillation experimental results, we investigate the parameter space of lepton mixing angles to $\\tau$ AMDM and EDM. We can obtain the same or smaller bounds of $\\delta a_\\tau$ and $d_\\tau$ acquired in ref. [HL99] and constrain $\\theta_l$ (the mixing angle obtained by long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments) from $\\tau$ AMDM and EDM.

  11. Multipole Models of Four-Image Gravitational Lenses with Anomalous Flux Ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur B. Congdon; Charles R. Keeton

    2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous radio flux ratios in four-image gravitational lens systems can be explained by adding a clumpy cold dark matter (CDM) component to the potential of the lens galaxy. Evans & Witt (2003) recently suggested that smooth multipole perturbations can provide a reasonable alternative to CDM substructure in some but not all cases. We generalize their method in two ways so as to determine whether multipole models can explain highly anomalous systems. We carry the multipole expansion to higher order, and also include external tidal shear as a free parameter. Fitting for the shear proves crucial to finding a physical (positive-definite density) model. For B1422+231, working to order k = 5 (and including shear) yields a model that is physical but implausible. Going to higher order (k >~ 9) reduces global departures from ellipticity at the cost of introducing small scale wiggles near the bright images. These localized undulations are more pronounced in B2045+265, where k ~ 17 multipoles are required to smooth out large scale deviations from elliptical symmetry. Such modes surely cannot be taken at face value; they must indicate that the models are trying to reproduce some other sort of structure. Our formalism naturally finds models that fit the data exactly, but we use B0712+472 to show that measurement uncertainties have little effect on our results. Finally, we consider the system B1933+503, where two sources are lensed by the same foreground galaxy. The additional constraints provided by the images of the second source render the multipole model unphysical. We conclude that external shear must be taken into account to obtain plausible models, and that a purely smooth angular structure for the lens galaxy does not provide a viable alternative to the prevailing CDM clump hypothesis.

  12. Search of anomalous $Wtb$ couplins in single top quark prodution at D0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Jyoti; Beri, Suman; /Panjab U.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The large mass of the top quark, close to the electroweak symmetry-breaking scale, makes it a good candidate for probing physics beyond the Standard Model, including possible anomalous couplings. D0 has made measurements of single top quark production using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. We examine the data to study the Lorentz structure of the Wtb coupling. We find that the data prefer the left-handed vector coupling and set upper limits on the anomalous couplings. In 2009, the electroweak single top quark production was observed by the D0 and CDF collaborations. Electroweak production of top quarks at the Tevatron proceeds mainly via the decay of a time-like virtual W boson accompanied by a bottom quark in the s-channel (tb = t{bar b} + {bar t}b), or via the exchange of a space-like virtual W boson between a light quark and a bottom quark in the t-channel (tqb = tq{bar b} + {bar t}qb, where q refers to the light quark). For a top quark mass of 172.5 GeV, The Standard Model (SM) prediction of single top production rate at next-to-leading order with soft-gluon contributions at next-to-next-to-leading order are 1.04 {+-} 0.04 pb (s-channel) and 2.26 {+-} 0.12 pb (t-channel). The large mass of the top quark implies that it has large couplings to the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of the SM and may have non-standard interactions with the weak gauge bosons. Single top quark production provides a unique probe to study the interactions of the top quark with the W boson.

  13. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4441550.552290 m Left: 271445.053363 m Right: 359825.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  14. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359681.975000 m Bottom: 4447251.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  15. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  16. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144691.792023 m Left: 285531.662851 m Right: 348694.182686 m Bottom: 4097005.210304 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  17. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolored County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  18. An Instability of the Standard Model Creates the Anomalous Acceleration Without Dark Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joel Smoller; Blake Temple; Zeke Vogler

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new asymptotic ansatz for spherical perturbations of the Standard Model of Cosmology (SM) which applies during the $p=0$ epoch, and prove that these perturbations trigger instabilities in the SM on the scale of the supernova data. These instabilities create a large, central region of uniform under-density which expands faster than the SM, and this central region of accelerated uniform expansion introduces into the SM {\\it precisely} the same range of corrections to redshift vs luminosity as are produced by the cosmological constant in the theory of Dark Energy. A universal behavior is exhibited because all sufficiently small perturbations evolve to a single stable rest point. Moreover, we prove that these perturbations are consistent with, and the instability is triggered by, the one parameter family of self-similar waves which the authors previously proposed as possible time-asymptotic wave patterns for perturbations of the SM at the end of the radiation epoch. Using numerical simulations, we calculate the unique wave in the family that accounts for the same values of the Hubble constant and quadratic correction to redshift vs luminosity as in a universe with seventy percent Dark Energy, $\\Omega_{\\Lambda}\\approx.7$. A numerical simulation of the third order correction associated with that unique wave establishes a testable prediction that distinguishes this theory from the theory of Dark Energy. This explanation for the anomalous acceleration, based on instabilities in the SM together with simple wave perturbations from the radiation epoch that trigger them, provides perhaps the simplest mathematical explanation for the anomalous acceleration of the galaxies that does not invoke Dark Energy.

  19. Electron Pulse Compression with a Practical Reflectron Design for Ultrafast Electron Diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yihua

    Ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is a powerful method for studying time-resolved structural changes. Currently, space-charge-induced temporal broadening prevents obtaining high-brightness electron pulses with sub-100 ...

  20. Overcoming the Diffraction Limit Using Multiple Light Scattering in a Highly Disordered Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Youngwoon

    We report that disordered media made of randomly distributed nanoparticles can be used to overcome the diffraction limit of a conventional imaging system. By developing a method to extract the original image information ...

  1. Neutron Diffraction and Optics of a Noncentrosymmetric Crystal. New Feasibility of a Search for Neutron EDM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Fedorov; V. V. Voronin

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently strong electric fields (up to 10^9 V/cm) have been discovered, which affect the neutrons moving in noncentrosymmetric crystals. Such fields allow new polarization phenomena in neutron diffraction and optics and provide, for instance, a new feasibility of a search for the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM). A series of experiments was carried out in a few last years on study of the dynamical diffraction of polarized neutrons in thick (1-10 cm) quartz crystals, using the forward diffraction beam and Bragg angles close to 90^0. As well new neutron optics phenomena were investigated. The feasibility of experiment on a search for neutron EDM using Laue diffraction in crystals without a center of symmetry was tested at the reactors: WWR-M in Gatchina and HFR in Grenoble. It was shown that the sensitivity can reach (3 - 6)\\cdot 10^{-25}e cm per day for the available quartz crystal and cold neutron beam flux.

  2. Multilayer Phase-Only Diffraction Gratings: Fabrication and Application to EUV Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M.; Anderson, Erik H.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Application to Diffractive Optics,” J. Vac. Sci. & Technol.of advanced diffracitve optics,”J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. B,diffusers. ” Applied Optics, 43, 28, 1 (2004). Patrick P.

  3. SciTech Connect: Coulomb and diffraction dissociation of 16.2...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search Title: Coulomb and diffraction dissociation of 16.2 Bevc negative pions Nuclear emulsions exposed to a primary beam of 16.2 Bevc negative pions were examined along...

  4. System and technique for characterizing fluids using ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA)

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for determining property of multiphase fluids based on ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy includes a diffraction grating on a solid in contact with the fluid. An interrogation device delivers ultrasound through the solid and a captures a reflection spectrum from the diffraction grating. The reflection spectrum exhibits peaks whose relative size depends on the properties of the various phases of the multiphase fluid. For example, for particles in a liquid, the peaks exhibit dependence on the particle size and the particle volume fraction. Where the exact relationship is know know a priori, data from different peaks of the same reflection spectrum or data from the peaks of different spectra obtained from different diffraction gratings can be used to resolve the size and volume fraction.

  5. Sound level prediction in open-spaces: implementation of diffraction in RAYPLUS software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    sound levels in industrial premises. Diffraction was introduced into the model via the Uniform Theory, ventilation, computer equipment, etc.) are often very numerous but their levels are lower than the prescribed

  6. Rank-1 accelerated illumination recovery in scanning diffractive imaging by transparency estimation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Hau-Tieng

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Illumination retrieval in scanning diffractive imaging a.k.a. ptychography is challenging when the specimen is weakly scattering or surrounded by empty space. We describe a rank-1 acceleration method for weakly scattering or piecewise smooth specimens.

  7. Sodium sulfate heptahydrate: a synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction study of an elusive metastable hydrated salt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Andrea; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an unusual application of synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction with hard X-rays to obtain structural information on metastable sodium sulfate heptahydrate. This hydrate was often mentioned in nineteenth ...

  8. Data preparation and evaluation techniques for x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Marchesini, Stefano; Shapiro, David; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The post-experiment processing of X-ray Diffraction Microscopy data is often time-consuming and difficult. This is mostly due to the fact that even if a preliminary result has been reconstructed, there is no definitive answer as to whether or not a better result with more consistently retrieved phases can still be obtained. We show here that the first step in data analysis, the assembly of two-dimensional diffraction patterns from a large set of raw diffraction data, is crucial to obtaining reconstructions of highest possible consistency. We have developed software that automates this process and results in consistently accurate diffraction patterns. Wemore »have furthermore derived some criteria of validity for a tool commonly used to assess the consistency of reconstructions, the phase retrieval transfer function, and suggest a modified version that has improved utility for judging reconstruction quality.« less

  9. Estimate of the single diffractive heavy quark production in heavy ion collisions at the CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gay Ducati, M. B.; Machado, M. M. [High Energy Physics Phenomenology Group, GFPAE, IF-UFRGS, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Machado, M. V. T. [Universidade Federal do Pampa. Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas, Campus de Bage, Rua Carlos Barbosa. CEP 96400-970. Bage, RS (Brazil)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The single diffractive cross section for heavy quarks production is calculated at next-to-leading order (for nucleus-nucleus collisions. Such processes are expected to occur at the LHC, where the nuclei involved are lead at {radical}(s)=5.5 TeV and calcium at {radical}(s)=6.3 TeV. We start using the hard diffractive factorization formalism, taking into account a recent experimental parametrization for the Pomeron structure function (DPDF). Absorptive corrections are accounted for by the multiple Pomeron contributions considering a gap survival probability, where its theoretical uncertainty for nuclear collisions is discussed. We estimate the diffractive ratios for the single diffraction process in nuclear coherent/incoherent collisions at the LHC.

  10. Data preparation and evaluation techniques for x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Marchesini, Stefano; Shapiro, David; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The post-experiment processing of X-ray Diffraction Microscopy data is often time-consuming and difficult. This is mostly due to the fact that even if a preliminary result has been reconstructed, there is no definitive answer as to whether or not a better result with more consistently retrieved phases can still be obtained. We show here that the first step in data analysis, the assembly of two-dimensional diffraction patterns from a large set of raw diffraction data, is crucial to obtaining reconstructions of highest possible consistency. We have developed software that automates this process and results in consistently accurate diffraction patterns. We have furthermore derived some criteria of validity for a tool commonly used to assess the consistency of reconstructions, the phase retrieval transfer function, and suggest a modified version that has improved utility for judging reconstruction quality.

  11. Electron Backscatter Diffraction of a Ge Growth Tip from a Vertical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a Ge Growth Tip from a Vertical Gradient Freeze Furnace. Electron Backscatter Diffraction of a Ge Growth Tip from a Vertical Gradient Freeze Furnace. Abstract: The growth-tip...

  12. Comparing ultrafast surface and bulk heating using time-resolved electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streubühr, C.; Kalus, A.; Zhou, P., E-mail: ping.zhou@uni-due.de; Kammler, M.; Linde, D. von der [Faculty of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg 47057 (Germany); Ligges, M.; Hanisch-Blicharski, A.; Bovensiepen, U.; Horn-von Hoegen, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg 47057 (Germany); CENIDE, Centre for Nano Integration Duisburg Essen, Duisburg 47057 (Germany)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    From measurements of the transient Debye-Waller effect in Bismuth, we determine the buildup time of the random atomic motion resulting from the electronic relaxation after short pulse laser excitation. The surface sensitive reflection high energy electron diffraction and transmission electron diffraction yield a time constant of about 12 ps and 3 ps, respectively. The different energy transfer rates indicate relatively weak coupling between bulk and surface vibrational modes.

  13. Experimental observation of acoustic sub-harmonic diffraction by a grating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jingfei, E-mail: benjamin.jf.liu@gatech.edu; Declercq, Nico F., E-mail: declercqdepatin@gatech.edu [Laboratory for Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation “LUNE,” Georgia Tech Lorraine, Georgia Tech-CNRS UMI2958, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2, rue Marconi, Metz 57070 (France)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A diffraction grating is a spatial filter causing sound waves or optical waves to reflect in directions determined by the frequency of the waves and the period of the grating. The classical grating equation is the governing principle that has successfully described the diffraction phenomena caused by gratings. However, in this work, we show experimental observation of the so-called sub-harmonic diffraction in acoustics that cannot be explained by the classical grating equation. Experiments indicate two physical phenomena causing the effect: internal scattering effects within the corrugation causing a phase shift and nonlinear acoustic effects generating new frequencies. This discovery expands our current understanding of the diffraction phenomenon, and it also makes it possible to better design spatial diffraction spectra, such as a rainbow effect in optics with a more complicated color spectrum than a traditional rainbow. The discovery reveals also a possibly new technique to study nonlinear acoustics by exploitation of the natural spatial filtering effect inherent to an acoustic diffraction grating.

  14. X-ray absorption and diffraction studies of the mixed-phase state of (Cr x V 1 ? x ) 2 O 3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pease, D. M.; Frenkel, A. I.; Krayzman, V.; Huang, T.; Shanthakumar, P.; Budnick, J. I.; Metcalf, P.; Chudnovsky, F. A.; Stern, E. A.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction and vanadium x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) data have been obtained for (V1-x)?O? samples containing several concentrations of Cr, crossing the metal-insulator transition boundary. For single-phase single-crystal samples our theoretical results are generally in good qualitative agreement with our experimental single-crystal XANES, for both crystal orientations relative to the incident-beam electric vector. However, an anomalous peak occurs for both orientations in the K pre-edge of the single-crystal sample containing 1.2% Cr, a paramagnetic insulator sample that is in the concentration regime corresponding to the room-temperature two-phase (coexistence) region of the phase diagram. Upon increasing the temperature of the 0.4% Cr powdered material to 400 K so that one enters the two-phase region of the phase diagram, a similar peak appears and then diminishes at 600 K. These results, as well as experiments done by others involving room-temperature and low-temperature XANES of a 1.1% Cr sample, suggest that this feature in the V pre-edge structure is associated with the appearance under some circumstances of a small amount of highly distorted VO? octahedra in the interface region between coexisting metal and insulating phases. Finally, we find that, for the two-phase regime, the concentration ratio of the metal-to-insulating phase varies between different regions from a sample batch of uniform composition made by the skull melting method.

  15. Search for anomalous production of prompt like-sign muon pairs and constraints on physics beyond the standard model with the ATLAS detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Frank E.

    An inclusive search for anomalous production of two prompt, isolated muons with the same electric charge is presented. The search is performed in a data sample corresponding to 1.6??fb[superscript -1] of integrated luminosity ...

  16. Diffractive dijet production in p?p collisions at ?s=1.96 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T.; Albrow, M.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; d’Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Dell’Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d’Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D’Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martínez, M.; Mastrandrea, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a study of diffractive dijet production in p?p collisions at s?=1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p?p collider. A data sample from 310 pb?¹ of integrated luminosity collected by triggering on a high transverse energy jet, EjetT, in coincidence with a recoil antiproton detected in a Roman pot spectrometer is used to measure the ratio of single-diffractive to inclusive-dijet event rates as a function of xp? of the interacting parton in the antiproton, the Bjorken-x, xp?Bj, and a Q²?(EjetT)² in the ranges 10?³p?Bjp?p?>-4 GeV². The tp? dependence is measured as a function of Q² and xp?Bj and compared with that of inclusive single diffraction dissociation. We find weak xp?Bj and Q² dependencies in the ratio of single diffractive to inclusive event rates, and no significant Q² dependence in the diffractive tp? distributions.

  17. Physisorbed films in periodic mesoporous silica studied by in situ synchrotron small-angle diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zickler, Gerald A.; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Paris, Oskar [Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, D-14424 Potsdam (Germany); Jaehnert, Susanne; Findenegg, Gerhard H. [Stranski Laboratory of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Technical University Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Funari, Sergio S. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB), Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption and capillary condensation of an organic fluid in a periodic mesoporous silica (SBA-15) are studied by in situ synchrotron diffraction. Powder diffraction patterns resulting from the two-dimensional hexagonal packing of the cylindrical pores of SBA-15 are collected as a function of vapor pressure during continuous adsorption and desorption of the fluid (perfluoropentane C{sub 5}F{sub 12}), using a specially designed sorption cell. Seven diffraction peaks with systematic changes of the intensity are resolved as the adsorbed film thickness increases along the adsorption isotherm. The integrated intensities of the diffraction peaks are analyzed with a structural model involving four levels of electron density (dense silica matrix, microporous corona around the pores, adsorbed film, and core space of the pores). The model provides quantitative information about the structure of the evacuated specimen, the filling of the corona, and the growing thickness of the liquid film with increasing pressure. A very good fit of the data by this model is found for relative pressures up to p/p{sub 0}{approx_equal}0.5, but the fit of the high-indexed diffraction peaks becomes poor close to the capillary condensation pressure (p/p{sub 0}{approx_equal}0.68). Tentatively, this fact may be attributed to a deviation of the liquid film structure from the simple flat geometry close to the phase transformation, presumably caused by density fluctuations.

  18. Diffractive dijet production in p?p collisions at ?s=1.96 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T.; Albrow, M.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; et al

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a study of diffractive dijet production in p?p collisions at s?=1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p?p collider. A data sample from 310 pb?¹ of integrated luminosity collected by triggering on a high transverse energy jet, EjetT, in coincidence with a recoil antiproton detected in a Roman pot spectrometer is used to measure the ratio of single-diffractive to inclusive-dijet event rates as a function of xp? of the interacting parton in the antiproton, the Bjorken-x, xp?Bj, and a Q²?(EjetT)² in the ranges 10?³p?Bjmore »region of p?-momentum-loss fraction 0.03p?p?>-4 GeV². The tp? dependence is measured as a function of Q² and xp?Bj and compared with that of inclusive single diffraction dissociation. We find weak xp?Bj and Q² dependencies in the ratio of single diffractive to inclusive event rates, and no significant Q² dependence in the diffractive tp? distributions.« less

  19. Effect of recording condition on the diffraction efficiency of magnetic hologram with magnetic garnet films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Yuichi, E-mail: nakamura@ee.tut.ac.jp; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Lim, Pang Boey; Inoue, Mitsuteru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A holographic memory has been attracting attention as recording media with high recording density and high data transfer rate. We have studied the magnetic garnets as a rewritable and long life media for magnetic holography. However, since the signal intensity of reconstructed image was relatively low, the effects of recording conditions on the diffraction efficiency of magnetic hologram were investigated with experiments and the numerical simulation using COMSOL multi-physics. The diffraction efficiency tends to decrease as increasing the spatial frequency, and the use of short pulse laser with the pulse width of 50 ps was found to be effective to achieve high diffraction efficiency. This suggests that the formation of clear magnetic fringe similar to interference pattern can be obtained by the use of short pulse laser since undesirable heat diffusion during radiation does not occur. On the other hand, the diffraction efficiency increased as increasing the film thickness up to 3.1??m but was saturated in the garnet film thicker than 3.1??m in the case of spatial frequency of 1500 line pair/mm. The numerical simulation showed that the effective depth of magnetic fringe was limited about 1.8??m irrespective of the garnet film thickness because the fringes were connected by thermal diffusion near the surface of the film, and the effective depth is limited due to this connection of the magnetic fringe. Avoiding this fringe connection, much higher diffraction efficiency will be achieved.

  20. On the Indication from Pioneer 10/11 Data of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. G. Yi

    2006-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Hubble's law, which states a linear increase in velocities with distances, can physically be understood in terms of an acceleration cH. This work proposes a connection between this "universal" acceleration seen in the solar system and the anomalous acceleration acting on the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft, in which the Hubble constant inferred from Pioneer 10/11 data is ~ 87 km/s/Mpc. Its physical implication is discussed in relation with Mach's principle.

  1. Large anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic insulator-topological insulator heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alegria, L. D.; Petta, J. R. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Ji, H.; Cava, R. J. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Yao, N. [Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Clarke, J. J. [Hitachi High Technologies America, Inc., Clarksburg, Maryland 20871 (United States)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the van der Waals epitaxy of the topological insulator compound Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on the ferromagnetic insulator Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. The layers are oriented with (001)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(001)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and (110)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(100)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy indicates the formation of a sharp interface. At low temperatures, bilayers consisting of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} exhibit a large anomalous Hall effect (AHE). Tilted field studies of the AHE indicate that the easy axis lies along the c-axis of the heterostructure, consistent with magnetization measurements in bulk Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. The 61?K Curie temperature of Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and the use of near-stoichiometric materials may lead to the development of spintronic devices based on the AHE.

  2. Astrophysics of the Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Thompson

    2000-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    I summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the Soft Gamma Repeaters: in particular their spin behavior, persistent emission and hyper-Eddington outbursts. The giant flares on 5 March 1979 and 27 August 1998 provide compelling physical evidence for magnetic fields stronger than 10 B_{QED} = 4.4 x 10^{14} G, consistent with the rapid spindown detected in two of these sources. The persistent X-ray emission and variable spindown of the 6-12 s Anomalous X-ray Pulsars are compared and contrasted with those of the SGRs, and the case made for a close connection between the two types of sources. Their collective properties point to the existence of {\\it magnetars}: neutron stars in which a decaying magnetic field (rather than accretion or rotation) is the dominant source of energy for radiative and particle emissions. Observational tests of the magnetar model are outlined, along with current ideas about the trigger of SGR outbursts, new evidence for the trapped fireball model, and the influence of QED processes on X-ray spectra and lightcurves. A critical examination is made of coherent radio emission from bursting strong-field neutron stars. I conclude with an overview of the genetic connection between neutron star magnetism and the violent fluid motions in a collapsing supernova core.

  3. Thermodynamically Anomalous Regions and Possible New Signals of Mixed Phase Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. A. Bugaev; A. I. Ivanytskyi; D. R. Oliinychenko; V. V. Sagun; I. N. Mishustin; D. H. Rischke; L. M. Satarov; G. M. Zinovjev

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using an advanced version of the hadron resonance gas model we have found remarkable irregularities of relativistic heavy-ion collisions at chemical freeze-out. They include an abrupt change of the effective number of degrees of freedom at laboratory energies 8.9-11.6 AGeV and plateaus in the collision-energy dependence of the entropy per baryon, total pion number per baryon, and thermal pion number per baryon at laboratory energies 6.9-11.6 AGeV. Also at chemical freeze-out we observe a sharp peak in the dimensionless trace anomaly at laboratory energy 11.6 AGeV. On the basis of the generalized shock-adiabat model we demonstrate that these observations give evidence for the anomalous thermodynamic properties of the mixed phase at its boundary to the quark-gluon plasma. We argue that the trace anomaly peak and the local minimum of the generalized specific volume observed at a laboratory energy of 11.6 AGeV provide a signal for the formation of a mixed phase between the quark-gluon plasma and the hadron phase.

  4. On anomalous temporal evolution of gas pressure in inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, B. H.; Chang, H. Y. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, S. J.; Kim, J. H.; Seong, D. J. [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The temporal measurement of gas pressure in inductive coupled plasma revealed that there is an interesting anomalous evolution of gas pressure in the early stage of plasma ignition and extinction: a sudden gas pressure change and its relaxation of which time scales are about a few seconds and a few tens of second, respectively, were observed after plasma ignition and extinction. This phenomenon can be understood as a combined result between the neutral heating effect induced by plasma and the pressure relaxation effect for new gas temperature. The temporal measurement of gas temperature by laser Rayleigh scattering and the time dependant calculations for the neutral heating and pressure relaxation are in good agreement with our experimental results. This result and physics behind are expected to provide a new operational perspective of the recent plasma processes of which time is very short, such as a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition/etching, a soft etch for disposal of residual by-products on wafer, and light oxidation process in semiconductor manufacturing.

  5. Resonant cavity mode dependence of anomalous and inverse spin Hall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sang-Il; Seo, Min-Su; Park, Seung-young, E-mail: parksy@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct current electric voltage induced by the Inverse Spin Hall Effect (ISHE) and Anomalous Hall Effect (AHE) was investigated in the TE{sub 011} and TE{sub 102} cavities. The ISHE and AHE components were distinguishable through the fitting of the voltage spectrum. The unwanted AHE was minimized by placing the DUT (Device Under Test) at the center of both the TE{sub 011} and TE{sub 102} cavities. The voltage of ISHE in the TE{sub 011} cavity was larger than that in the TE{sub 102} cavity due to the higher quality factor of the former. Despite optimized centering, AHE voltage from TE{sub 011} cavity was also higher. The reason was attributed to the E-field distribution inside the cavity. In the case of the TE{sub 011} cavity, the DUT was easily exposed to the E-field in all directions. Therefore, the parasitic AHE voltage in the TE{sub 102} cavity was less sensitive than that in the TE{sub 011} cavity to decentering problem.

  6. Note on Anomalous Higgs-Boson Couplings in Effective Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchalla, G; Celis, A; Krause, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a parametrization of anomalous Higgs-boson couplings that is both systematic and practical. It is based on the electroweak chiral Lagrangian, including a light Higgs boson, as the effective field theory (EFT) at the electroweak scale $v$. This is the appropriate framework for the case of sizeable deviations in the Higgs couplings of order $10\\%$ from the Standard Model, considered to be parametrically larger than new-physics effects in the sector of electroweak gauge interactions. The role of power counting in identifying the relevant parameters is emphasized. The three relevant scales, $v$, the scale of new Higgs dynamics $f$, and the cut-off $\\Lambda=4\\pi f$, admit expansions in $\\xi=v^2/f^2$ and $f^2/\\Lambda^2$. The former corresponds to an organization of operators by their canonical dimension, the latter by their loop order or chiral dimension. In full generality the EFT is thus organized as a double expansion. However, as long as $\\xi\\gg 1/16\\pi^2$ the EFT systematics is closer to the chiral ...

  7. On The Anomalous Fast Ion Energy Diffusion in Toroidal Plasmas Due to Cavity Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.N. Gorelenkov, N.J. Fisch and E. Fredrickson

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An enormous wave-particle diffusion coefficient along paths suitable for alpha channeling had been deduced in mode converted ion Bernstein wave experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) the only plausible explanation advanced for such a large diffusion coefficient was the excitation of internal cavity modes which induce particle diffusion along identical diffusion paths, but at much higher rates. Although such a mode was conjectured, it was never observed. However, recent detailed observations of high frequency compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAEs) on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) indirectly support the existence of the related conjectured modes on TFTR. The eigenmodes responsible for the high frequency magnetic activity can be identified as CAEs through the polarization of the observed magnetic field oscillations in NSTX and through a comparison with the theoretically derived freuency dispersion relation. Here, we show how these recent observations of high frequency CAEs lend support to this explanation of the long-standing puzzle of anomalous fast ion energy diffusion on TFTR. The support of the conjecure that these internal modes could have caused the remarkable ion energy diffusion on TFTR carries significant and favorable implications for the possibilities in achieving the alpha channeling effect with small injected power in a tokamak reactor.

  8. Optical properties of metals: Infrared emissivity in the anomalous skin effect spectral region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echániz, T. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Sarriena s/n, Leioa 48940 (Spain); Pérez-Sáez, R. B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.es; Tello, M. J. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Sarriena s/n, Leioa 48940 (Spain); Instituto de Síntesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    When the penetration depth of an electromagnetic wave in a metal is similar to the mean free path of the conduction electrons, the Drude classical theory is no longer satisfied and the skin effect becomes anomalous. Physical parameters of this theory for twelve metals were calculated and analyzed. The theory predicts an emissivity peak ?{sub peak} at room temperature in the mid-infrared for smooth surface metals that moves towards larger wavelengths as temperature decreases. Furthermore, the theory states that ?{sub peak} increases with the emission angle but its position, ?{sub peak}, is constant. Copper directional emissivity measurements as well as emissivity obtained using optical constants data confirm the predictions of the theory. Considering the relationship between the specularity parameter p and the sample roughness, it is concluded that p is not the simple parameter it is usually assumed to be. Quantitative comparison between experimental data and theoretical predictions shows that the specularity parameter can be equal to one for roughness values larger than those predicted. An exhaustive analysis of the experimental optical parameters shows signs of a reflectance broad peak in Cu, Al, Au, and Mo around the wavelength predicted by the theory for p?=?1.

  9. Anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma-ray repeaters - the connection with supernova remnants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan Gaensler

    2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the properties of anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are still a matter of much debate, as is the connection (if any) between these two groups of sources. In cases where we can identify the supernova remnant (SNR) associated with an AXP or SGR, the extra information thus obtained can provide important constraints as to the nature of these exotic objects. In this paper, I explain the criteria by which an association between a SNR and an AXP/SGR should be judged, review the set of associations which result, and discuss the implications provided by these associations for the ages, environments and evolutionary pathways of the AXPs and SGRs. There are several convincing associations between AXPs and SNRs, demonstrating that AXPs are young neutron stars with moderate space velocities. The lack of associations between SGRs and SNRs implies that the SGRs either represent an older population of neutron stars than do the AXPs, or originate from more massive progenitors.

  10. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beetz, T.; Howells, M. R.; Jacobsen, C.; Kao, C. -C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Mentes, T. O.; Miao, H.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Sayre, D.; et al

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of ± 80 ° degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done bymore »computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.« less

  11. Prediction of Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns in arbitrarily strained samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higginbotham, Andrew; McGonegle, David, E-mail: d.mcgonegle1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The prediction of Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from strained samples is typically conducted in the small strain limit. Although valid for small deviations from the hydrostat (such as the conditions of finite strength typically observed in diamond anvil cells) this assertion is likely to fail for the large strain anisotropies (often of order 10% in normal strain) found in uniaxially loaded dynamic compression experiments. In this paper, we derive a general form for the (?{sub B},?) dependence of the diffraction for an arbitrarily deformed polycrystalline sample in any geometry, and of any crystal symmetry. We show that this formula is consistent with ray traced diffraction for highly strained computationally generated polycrystals, and that the formula shows deviations from the widely used small strain solutions previously reported.

  12. Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Shapiro, David; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution imagesmore »using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.« less

  13. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore »freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  14. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in friction stir welding: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, Wan Chuck [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Wang, Xun-Li [ORNL; David, Stan A [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant amounts of residual stresses are often generated during welding and result in critical degradation of the structural integrity and performance of components. Neutron diffraction has become a well established technique for the determination of residual stresses in welds because of the unique deep penetration, three-dimensional mapping capability, and volume averaged bulk measurements characteristic of the scattering neutron beam. Friction stir welding has gained prominence in recent years. The authors reviewed a number of neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in friction stir welds and highlighted examples addressing how the microstructures and residual stresses are correlated with each other. An example of in situ neutron diffraction measurement result shows the evolution of the residual stresses during welding.

  15. The early development of neutron diffraction: Science in the wings of the Manhattan Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Thom [ORNL] [ORNL; Gawne, Timothy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Nagler, Stephen E [ORNL] [ORNL; Nestor, Margaret Boone {Bonnie} [ORNL; Carpenter, John M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although neutron diffraction was first observed using radioactive decay sources shortly after the discovery of the neutron, it was only with the availability of higher intensity neutron beams from the first nuclear reactors, constructed as part of the Manhattan project, that systematic investigation of Bragg scattering became possible. Remarkably, at a time when the war effort was singularly focused on the development of the atomic bomb, groups working at Oak Ridge and Chicago carried out key measurements and recognized the future utility of neutron diffraction quite independent of its contributions to the measurements of nuclear cross sections. Ernest O. Wollan, Lyle B. Borst, and Walter H. Zinn were all able to observe neutron diffraction in 1944 using the X-10 graphite reactor and the CP-3 heavy water reactor.

  16. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; et al

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore »resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  17. Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Shapiro, David; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution images using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.

  18. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Huang, Xiaojing [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Steinbrener, Jan [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shapiro, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Kirz, Janos [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Marchesini, Stephano [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Neiman, Aaron M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Turner, Joshua J. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Jacobsen, Chris [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  19. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering datamore »and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.« less

  20. Review of High Energy Diffraction in Real and Virtual Photon Proton scattering at HERA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Wolf

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron-proton collider HERA at DESY opened the door for the study of diffraction in real and virtual photon-proton scattering at center-of-mass energies W up to 250 GeV and for large negative mass squared -Q^2 of the virtual photon up to Q^2 = 1600 GeV^2. At W = 220 GeV and Q^2 = 4 GeV^2, diffraction accounts for about 15% of the total virtual photon proton cross section decreasing to ~5% at Q^2 = 200 GeV^2. An overview of the results obtained by the experiments H1 and ZEUS on the production of neutral vectormesons and on inclusive diffraction up to the year 2008 is presented.

  1. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beetz, T.; Howells, M.R.; Jacobsen, C.; Kao, C.-C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Mentes, T.O.; Miao, H.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Sayre, D.; Shapiro, D.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of +/- 80 degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done by computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.

  2. High-resolution ab initio Three-dimensional X-ray Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Cui, C; Howells, M R; Rosen, R; He, H; Spence, J H; Weierstall, U; Beetz, T; Jacobsen, C; Shapiro, D

    2005-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging non-periodic isolated objects at resolutions only limited, in principle, by the largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate X-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the 3D diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a non-periodic object. We also construct 2D images of thick objects with infinite depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution using X-ray undulator radiation, and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at X-ray free-electron laser sources.

  3. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beetz, T. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Howells, M. R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Jacobsen, C. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kao, C. -C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Kirz, J. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Lima, E. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Mentes, T. O. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); TASC-INFM National Lab, Trieste (Italy); Miao, H. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Sanchez-Hanke, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Sayre, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shapiro, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of ± 80 ° degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done by computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.

  4. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; Weierstall, Uwe; Beetz, Tobias; Jacobsen, Chris; Shapiro, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.

  5. Cryptotomography: reconstructing 3D Fourier intensities from randomly oriented single-shot diffraction patterns (CXIDB ID 9)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Loh, Ne-Te Duane

    These 2000 single-shot diffraction patterns include were either background-scattering only or hits (background-scattering plus diffraction signal from sub-micron ellipsoidal particles at random, undetermined orientations). Candidate hits were identified by eye, and the remainder were presumed as background. 54 usable, background-subtracted hits in this set (procedure in referenced article) were used to reconstruct the 3D diffraction intensities of the average ellipsoidal particle.

  6. Femtosecond diffraction dynamics of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoehm, S.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)] [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krueger, J.; Bonse, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und - pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)] [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und - pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration, 800 nm center wavelength) is studied experimentally using a transillumination femtosecond time-resolved (0.1 ps-1 ns) pump-probe diffraction approach. This allows to reveal the generation dynamics of near-wavelength-sized LIPSS showing a transient diffraction at specific spatial frequencies even before a corresponding permanent surface relief was observed. The results confirm that the ultrafast energy deposition to the materials surface plays a key role and triggers subsequent physical mechanisms such as carrier scattering into self-trapped excitons.

  7. Noninvasive measurement of micron electron beam size of high energy using diffraction radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Naumenko

    2004-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Treatments of the usage of optical diffraction radiation from the relativistic electrons moving though a conductive slit for the noninvasive transverse beam size measurement encounter hard limitation of the method sensitivity for the electron energy larger than 1 GeV. We consider in this article a possibility of application in a diffraction radiation technique the artificial phase shift, which can take place when transverse electron position varies. This allows us to realize the nonivasive measurements of transverse size of supper-relativistic electron beams with the small emittance.

  8. Liquid crystal devices especially for use in liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Kenneth L. (Rochester, NY)

    2009-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) systems that can provide real-time, phase-shifting interferograms that are useful in the characterization of static optical properties (wavefront aberrations, lensing, or wedge) in optical elements or dynamic, time-resolved events (temperature fluctuations and gradients, motion) in physical systems use improved LCPDI cells that employ a "structured" substrate or substrates in which the structural features are produced by thin film deposition or photo resist processing to provide a diffractive element that is an integral part of the cell substrate(s). The LC material used in the device may be doped with a "contrast-compensated" mixture of positive and negative dichroic dyes.

  9. Anomalous visualization of sub-2 THz photons on standard silicon CCD and COMS sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shalaby, Mostafa; Hauri, Christoph P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally show that indirect light-induced electron transitions could lead to THz detection on standard CCD and CMOS sensors, introducing this well-established technological concept to the THz range. Unlike its optical counterpart, we found that the THz sensitivity is nonlinear. We imaged 1-13 THz radiation with photon energy less than 2% of the well-established band gap energy threshold. The unprecedented small pitch and large number of pixels uniquely allowed us to visualize the complex propagation of THz radiation, as it focuses down to the physical diffraction limit. Broadband pulses were detectable at a single shot. This opens a whole new field of real time THz imaging at the frame rate of the sensor.

  10. Anomalous ion heating and superthermal electrons in the MST reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hokin, S.; Almagri, A.; Assadi, S.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.; Chartas, G.; Crocker, N.; Cudzinovic, M.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Dexter, R.; Fiksel, G.; Fonck, R.; Henry, J.; Holly, D.; Prager, S.; Rempel, T.; Sarff, J.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Sprott, C.; Stoneking, M.; Watts, C.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous ion heating and superthermal electron populations have been studied in the MST reversed-field pinch. The ion heating is much stronger than that given by classical electron-ion friction, and is particularly strong during dynamo bursts. The heating displays a marked density dependence: in a 350-kA discharge with a maximum {bar n} = 0.9 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus} 3}, T{sub i} rises sharply as {bar n} drops below 0.4 {times} 10{sub 13} cm{sup {minus}3} late in the discharge. Superthermal electrons are produced in the core, with temperatures of T{sub eh}, = 350--700 eV while the bulk core temperature is T{sub e}o = 130--230 eV. The fraction of superthermal electrons decreases with increasing density, from 40% at {bar n} = 0.5 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} to 8% at {bar n} = 1.9 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} at I = 350 kA. However, data with similar plasma parameters but higher oxygen impurity content had a lower T{sub eh} and higher hot fraction. The edge superthermal electron distribution is well fit by a drifted bi-Maxwellian distribution with T{sub {parallel}} {approximately} T{sub e0} and relative drift speed v{sub d}/v{sub th} = 0.4. With the assumption that the parallel heat flux measured with a pyroelectric probe is carried by superthermal electrons, the measured electron current is consistent with T{sub {perpendicular}} {approximately} T{sub ea} {approximately} T{sub e0}/3 and accounts for over half of the total edge parallel current measured with magnetic probes.

  11. Stationary table CT dosimetry and anomalous scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Robert L., E-mail: rdixon@wfubmc.edu [Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States); Boone, John M. [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)] [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Anomalous, scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol} for stationary phantom/table protocols (having elevated values of CTDI{sub vol} over 300% higher than the actual dose to the phantom) have been observed; which are well-beyond the typical accuracy expected of CTDI{sub vol} as a phantom dose. Recognition of these outliers as “bad data” is important to users of CT dose index tracking systems (e.g., ACR DIR), and a method for recognition and correction is provided. Methods: Rigorous methods and equations are presented which describe the dose distributions for stationary-table CT. A comparison with formulae for scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol} clearly identifies the source of these anomalies. Results: For the stationary table, use of the CTDI{sub 100} formula (applicable to a moving phantom only) overestimates the dose due to extra scatter and also includes an overbeaming correction, both of which are nonexistent when the phantom (or patient) is held stationary. The reported DLP remains robust for the stationary phantom. Conclusions: The CTDI-paradigm does not apply in the case of a stationary phantom and simpler nonintegral equations suffice. A method of correction of the currently reported CTDI{sub vol} using the approach-to-equilibrium formula H(a) and an overbeaming correction factor serves to scale the reported CTDI{sub vol} values to more accurate levels for stationary-table CT, as well as serving as an indicator in the detection of “bad data.”.

  12. Peccei-Quinn invariant singlet extended SUSY with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang Hui Im; Min-Seok Seo

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent discovery of the SM-like Higgs boson with $m_h\\simeq 125$ GeV motivates an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), which involves a singlet Higgs superfield with a sizable Yukawa coupling to the doublet Higgs superfields. We examine such singlet-extended SUSY models with a Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry that originates from an anomalous $U(1)_A$ gauge symmetry. We focus on the specific scheme that the PQ symmetry is spontaneously broken at an intermediate scale $v_{\\rm PQ}\\sim \\sqrt{m_{\\rm SUSY}M_{\\rm Pl}}$ by an interplay between Planck scale suppressed operators and tachyonic soft scalar mass $m_{\\rm SUSY}\\sim \\sqrt{D_A}$ induced dominantly by the $U(1)_A$ $D$-term, $D_A$. This scheme also results in spontaneous SUSY breaking in the PQ sector, generating the gaugino masses $M_{1/2}\\sim \\sqrt{D_A}$ when it is transmitted to the MSSM sector by the conventional gauge mediation mechanism. As a result, the MSSM soft parameters in this scheme are induced mostly by the $U(1)_A$ $D$-term and the gauge mediated SUSY breaking from the PQ sector, so that the sparticle masses can be near the present experimental bounds without causing the SUSY flavor problem. The scheme is severely constrained by the condition that a phenomenologically viable form of the low energy operators of the singlet and doublet Higgs superfields is generated by the PQ breaking sector in a way similar to the Kim-Nilles solution of the $\\mu$ problem, and the resulting Higgs mass parameters allow the electroweak symmetry breaking with small $\\tan\\beta$. We find two minimal models with two singlet Higgs superfields, satisfying this condition with a relatively simple form of the PQ breaking sector, and briefly discuss some phenomenological aspects of the model.

  13. Note on Anomalous Higgs-Boson Couplings in Effective Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Buchalla; O. Cata; A. Celis; C. Krause

    2015-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a parametrization of anomalous Higgs-boson couplings that is both systematic and practical. It is based on the electroweak chiral Lagrangian, including a light Higgs boson, as the effective field theory (EFT) at the electroweak scale $v$. This is the appropriate framework for the case of sizeable deviations in the Higgs couplings of order $10\\%$ from the Standard Model, considered to be parametrically larger than new-physics effects in the sector of electroweak gauge interactions. The role of power counting in identifying the relevant parameters is emphasized. The three relevant scales, $v$, the scale of new Higgs dynamics $f$, and the cut-off $\\Lambda=4\\pi f$, admit expansions in $\\xi=v^2/f^2$ and $f^2/\\Lambda^2$. The former corresponds to an organization of operators by their canonical dimension, the latter by their loop order or chiral dimension. In full generality the EFT is thus organized as a double expansion. However, as long as $\\xi\\gg 1/16\\pi^2$ the EFT systematics is closer to the chiral counting. The leading effects in the consistent approximation provided by the EFT, relevant for the presently most important processes of Higgs production and decay, are given by a few (typically six) couplings. These parameters allow us to describe the properties of the Higgs boson in a general and systematic way, and with a precision adequate for the measurements to be performed at the LHC. The framework can be systematically extended to include loop corrections and higher-order terms in the EFT.

  14. Anomalous critical behaviour in the polymer collapse transition of three-dimensional lattice trails

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Bedini; Aleksander L Owczarek; Thomas Prellberg

    2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Trails (bond-avoiding walks) provide an alternative lattice model of polymers to self-avoiding walks, and adding self-interaction at multiply visited sites gives a model of polymer collapse. Recently, a two-dimensional model (triangular lattice) where doubly and triply visited sites are given different weights was shown to display a rich phase diagram with first and second order collapse separated by a multi-critical point. A kinetic growth process of trails (KGT) was conjectured to map precisely to this multi-critical point. Two types of low temperature phases, globule and crystal-like, were encountered. Here, we investigate the collapse properties of a similar extended model of interacting lattice trails on the simple cubic lattice with separate weights for doubly and triply visited sites. Again we find first and second order collapse transitions dependent on the relative sizes of the doubly and triply visited energies. However we find no evidence of a low temperature crystal-like phase with only the globular phase in existence. Intriguingly, when the ratio of the energies is precisely that which separates the first order from the second-order regions anomalous finite-sized scaling appears. At the finite size location of the rounded transition clear evidence exists for a first order transition that persists in the thermodynamic limit. This location moves as the length increases, with its limit apparently at the point that maps to a KGT. However, if one fixes the temperature to sit at exactly this KGT point then only a critical point can be deduced from the data. The resolution of this apparent contradiction lies in the breaking of crossover scaling and the difference in the shift and transition width (crossover) exponents.

  15. Incident spectrum determination for time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, J. P.

    1998-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate characterization of the incident neutron spectrum is an important requirement for precise Rietveld analysis of time-of-flight powder neutron diffraction data. Without an accurate incident spectrum the calculated model for the measured relative intensities of individual Bragg reflections will possess systematic errors. We describe a method for obtaining an accurate numerical incident spectrum using data from a transmitted beam monitor.

  16. Temperature and TimeResolved XRay Powder Diffraction X14A EERE sponsored PRT beamline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    characterization of modified fluoritetype electrolytes for SOFC (NSLS/ORNL/NJIT) ·In situ synchrotron xray for safer battery materials (BNLChemistry/ORNL) ·XRD investigation of the crystal and defect chemistry rechargeable batteries (MIT/ORNL) · in situ hightemperature synchrotron diffraction studies

  17. POWDER DIFFRACTION BEAMLINE FOR IN SITU STUDIES OF STRUCTURAL AND CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS (IXD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    , the availability of techniques for the real time characterization of catalytic systems as they evolve in time community, such as the user groups conducting studies on batteries, fuel cells, catalysis, high growth and the evolution of stress. In Situ X-ray Powder Diffraction Studies on Li-ion Battery Materials

  18. Neutron powder diffraction of carbon-coated FeCo alloy nanoparticles John Henry J. Scotta)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael E.

    Neutron powder diffraction of carbon-coated FeCo alloy nanoparticles John Henry J. Scotta in carbon-coated FexCo1 x nanoparticles produced using a radio frequency plasma torch. The nanoparticles roll and machine. In this work, the order­disorder trans- formation in C-coated FeCo nanoparticles

  19. RECENT MAGNETIC STRUCTURE STUDIES BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTION(1) By C. G. SHULL,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    classification by neutron scattering include the determination of the magnitude and quality of an atom of this moment as represented in the form factor for neutron scattering. Within the second classification169 RECENT MAGNETIC STRUCTURE STUDIES BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTION(1) By C. G. SHULL, Massachusetts

  20. Diffraction-Based Density Restraints for Membrane and Membrane-Peptide Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    or neutron scattering-length density projected along the bilayer normal (5). These profiles represent, California; and z NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology. INTRODUCTION X-ray and neutron diffraction are commonly used for studying the structure of membrane systems (1

  1. A neutron diffraction study of macroscopically entangled proton states in the high temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be represented by a state vector. Raman spectroscopy and quasi-elastic neutron scattering suggest that the |C2/m with solid-state NMR and quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) [1]. Semiclassical protons are dimensionlessA neutron diffraction study of macroscopically entangled proton states in the high temperature

  2. 1526 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 21, No. 19 / October 1, 1996 Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey

    1526 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 21, No. 19 / October 1, 1996 Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer H. Medecki Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 K. A. Goldberg Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National

  3. Diffractive Nonlinear Geometrical Optics for Variational Wave Equations and the Einstein Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giuseppe Ali; John K. Hunter

    2005-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive an asymptotic solution of the vacuum Einstein equations that describes the propagation and diffraction of a localized, large-amplitude, rapidly-varying gravitational wave. We compare and contrast the resulting theory of strongly nonlinear geometrical optics for the Einstein equations with nonlinear geometrical optics theories for variational wave equations.

  4. Impulsive solvent heating probed by picosecond x-ray diffraction M. Cammarata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    Impulsive solvent heating probed by picosecond x-ray diffraction M. Cammarata European Synchrotron and J. H. Lee Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea Q. Y. Kong European Synchrotron

  5. Radial x-ray diffraction of tungsten tetraboride to 86 GPa under nonhydrostatic compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

    Radial x-ray diffraction of tungsten tetraboride to 86 GPa under nonhydrostatic compression Lun December 2012; published online 16 January 2013) Investigations of the equation of state of tungsten moduli and hardness exceed- ing or closing that of diamond. Tungsten tetraboride (WB4) is a candidate

  6. Neutron Diffraction and Neutron Vibrational Spectroscopy Studies of Hydrogen Adsorption in the Prussian Blue Analogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The transition to an energy infrastructure based upon hydrogen as an energy carrier is critically dependent uponNeutron Diffraction and Neutron Vibrational Spectroscopy Studies of Hydrogen Adsorption, Berkeley, California 94720-1460 ReceiVed April 13, 2006 The adsorption of molecular hydrogen

  7. Sensors and Actuators A xxx (2004) xxxxxx Micromachined silicon force sensor based on diffractive optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that is designed to only be sensitive to axial deflections of the probe. The optical-encoder force sensor exhibits­membrane interactions under various physiological conditions. The force sensor is an optical encoder based on transSensors and Actuators A xxx (2004) xxx­xxx Micromachined silicon force sensor based on diffractive

  8. A low diffraction laser beam as applied to polymer ablation Xuanhui Lu,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    2 laser, laser drilling I. INTRODUCTION Laser beam quality plays an important role in quality-established process and examples are found in Refs. 7 and 8. Factors of laser beams likely to affect drillingA low diffraction laser beam as applied to polymer ablation Xuanhui Lu,a) Y. Lawrence Yao

  9. In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries Johanna Information ABSTRACT: Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for high of these batteries for commercial use. The two primary obstacles are the solubility of long chain lithium

  10. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  11. Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate Thordis Vierke and Jurgen Jahns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate Thordis Vierke and J¨urgen Jahns on the classical Fresnel zone plate (FZP) [1]. A simple FZP consists of alternating opaque and transparent rings Fresnel zone plate but to add bridges that hold the zones in place [4], see Fig. 1 right. We refer

  12. Application of Volume diffraction grating for TeraHertz lasing in Volume FEL (VFEL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. G. Baryshevsky; K. G. Batrakov; V. I. Stolyarsky

    2002-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The generation of induced radiation in volume resonator formed by metal threads is considered. It is shown that using of such volume diffraction grating allows increasing of lasing efficiency in terahertz range. The requirements on beam and grating parameters are obtained.

  13. Characterization of multilayer coated concave diffraction gratings in the extreme ultraviolet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, J.; Barbee, T. Jr.; Dietrich, D.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe here our work to date on characterizing two multilayer coated concave diffraction gratings, one conventionally ruled, the other holographically ruled. We have obtained photographic spectra with both gratings which indicate good resolution properties and promising efficiencies. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Analysis of large reflector antennas using CSP fringe formulation and higher-order diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nehorai, Arye

    Analysis of large reflector antennas using CSP fringe formulation and higher-order diffraction- tric conductor (PEC) objects when illuminated by a Complex Source Points (CSP) beam expansion (S of a CSP-expansion illumination. In this work we discuss an application of the CSP fringe formulation

  15. Diffractive Z/gamma* --> mu+mu- boson production in proton - antiproton collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza Navas, Luis Miguel; /Andes U., Bogota

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the inclusive diffractive Z {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} cross section with gap requirement for M{sub {mu}}{sub {mu}} > 40 GeV at {radical} s = 1.96 TeV and fraction of Z bosons produced diffractively with gap requirement from Z inclusive production are presented. The measurements are performed using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 820 pb{sup -1}, collected with the D0 detector at the Tevatron, between 2002 to 2005. A total of 39945 di-muons events are selected and final results of: {sigma}{sub Diff}{sup gap} x Br(Z/{gamma}* {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) = 4.09 {+-} 0.64(stat.) {+-} 0.88(syst.) {+-} 0.27(lumi.) pb and, R{sub Diff}{sup gap} = 1.92 {+-} 0.30(stat.) {+-} 0.41(syst.) {+-} 0.12(lumi) % are obtained. In addition, d{sigma}/d{zeta} and d{sigma}/dy distributions are presented and they are compared with diffractive montecarlo (POMWIG). A reasonable agreement is obtained in this comparation. Finally, comparison of fraction of Z bosons produced diffractively with gap requirement (gap fraction) as measured with D0 during Run I of the Tevatron is compared. A good agreement is found for gap fraction results.

  16. Wire-grid diffraction gratings used as polarizing beam splitter for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wire-grid diffraction gratings used as polarizing beam splitter for visible light and applied of wire grid polarizers as efficient polarizing beam splitters for visible light is studied. The large of wire-grid polarizers in liquid crystal on silicon display systems is considered. © 2005 Optical Society

  17. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell Xiaojing Huang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohseni, Hooman

    crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 e of biological electron microscopy [1­3]. Radiation damage precludes repeated imaging of live specimens [4 in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103

  18. Beam Size Measurement by Optical Diffraction Radiation and Laser System for Compton Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuyu Liu

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Beam diagnostics is an essential constituent of any accelerator, so that it is named as "organs of sense" or "eyes of the accelerator." Beam diagnostics is a rich field. A great variety of physical effects or physical principles are made use of in this field. Some devices are based on electro-magnetic influence by moving charges, such as faraday cups, beam transformers, pick-ups; Some are related to Coulomb interaction of charged particles with matter, such as scintillators, viewing screens, ionization chambers; Nuclear or elementary particle physics interactions happen in some other devices, like beam loss monitors, polarimeters, luminosity monitors; Some measure photons emitted by moving charges, such as transition radiation, synchrotron radiation monitors and diffraction radiation-which is the topic of the first part of this thesis; Also, some make use of interaction of particles with photons, such as laser wire and Compton polarimeters-which is the second part of my thesis. Diagnostics let us perceive what properties a beam has and how it behaves in a machine, give us guideline for commissioning, controlling the machine and indispensable parameters vital to physics experiments. In the next two decades, the research highlight will be colliders (TESLA, CLIC, JLC) and fourth-generation light sources (TESLA FEL, LCLS, Spring 8 FEL) based on linear accelerator. These machines require a new generation of accelerator with smaller beam, better stability and greater efficiency. Compared with those existing linear accelerators, the performance of next generation linear accelerator will be doubled in all aspects, such as 10 times smaller horizontal beam size, more than 10 times smaller vertical beam size and a few or more times higher peak power. Furthermore, some special positions in the accelerator have even more stringent requirements, such as the interaction point of colliders and wigglor of free electron lasers. Higher performance of these accelerators increases the difficulty of diagnostics. For most cases, intercepting measurements are no longer acceptable, and nonintercepting method like synchrotron radiation monitor can not be applied to linear accelerators. The development of accelerator technology asks for simutanous diagnostics innovations, to expand the performance of diagnostic tools to meet the requirements of the next generation accelerators. Diffraction radiation and inverse Compton scattering are two of the most promising techniques, their nonintercepting nature avoids perturbance to the beam and damage to the instrumentation. This thesis is divided into two parts, beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation and Laser system for Compton polarimeter. Diffraction radiation, produced by the interaction between the electric field of charged particles and the target, is related to transition radiation. Even though the theory of diffraction radiation has been discussed since 1960s, there are only a few experimental studies in recent years. The successful beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation at CEBAF machine is a milestone: First of all, we have successfully demonstrated diffraction radiation as an effective nonintercepting diagnostics; Secondly, the simple linear relationship between the diffraction radiation image size and the actual beam size improves the reliability of ODR measurements; And, we measured the polarized components of diffraction radiation for the first time and I analyzed the contribution from edge radiation to diffraction radiation.

  19. Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new approach to the problem of rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp-->p + (gap) + H + (gap) + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions proceed over widely different time- and distance scales and are thus approximately independent. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons. Its amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the protons, which can be measured in J= production in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate in a model-independent way in terms of the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. A simple geometric picture of the interplay of hard and soft interactions in diffraction is obtained. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton, or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons (''diffraction pattern''). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the LHC.

  20. Repetitive petawatt-class laser with near-diffraction-limited focal spot and transform-limited pulse duration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald

    Repetitive petawatt-class laser with near-diffraction-limited focal spot and transform-loop feedback control systems in the temporal and spatial domains are used to yield Fourier-transform acceleration and x-ray generation. Keywords: petawatt, diffraction limited, transform limited, spatial

  1. Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne optical tweezers from a single laser beam using diffractive optical elements. As a demonstration of this technique, we have implemented a 4 \\Theta 4 square array of optical tweezers -- the hexadeca

  2. Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne)) We describe a simple method for creating multiple optical tweezers from a single laser beam using diffractive optical elements. As a demonstration of this technique, we have implemented a 4 × 4 square array

  3. X-ray diffraction study of the static strength of tungsten to 69 GPa Duanwei He* and Thomas S. Duffy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Thomas S.

    X-ray diffraction study of the static strength of tungsten to 69 GPa Duanwei He* and Thomas S of tungsten was determined under static high pressures to 69 GPa using x-ray diffraction techniques strength of tungsten increases with compression, reaching a value of 5.3 GPa at the highest pressure

  4. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS, FERROELECTRICS, AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, VOL. 43, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1996 893 Producing Bowtie Limited Diffraction Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Jian-yu

    1996 893 Producing Bowtie Limited Diffraction Beams with Synthetic Array Experiment Jian-yu Lu, Member, called bowtie limited diffraction beams, was developed. These beams can achieve both low sidelobes and a large depth of field in medical imaging. In this paper, the production of bowtie beams in water

  5. A BeppoSAX observation of Her X-1 during the first main-on after an anomalous low-state: evidence for rapid spin-down

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Oosterbroek; A. N. Parmar; M. Orlandini; A. Segreto; A. Santangelo; S. Del Sordo

    2001-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a BeppoSAX observation of Her X-1 in 2000 October during the first main-on state after the longest recorded anomalous low-state are presented. The 0.1-30 keV spectrum, light curve and pulse profile are all consistent with those measured during previous main on-states, indicating that Her X-1 has resumed its regular 35 day cycle with similar on-state properties as before. However, from a comparison of the measured pulse period with that obtained close to the start of the anomalous low-state, it is evident that Her X-1 continued to spin-down strongly during the anomalous low-state such that the pulse period has returned to a similar value as ~15 years ago. Additionally, the occurrence time of the main-on states after the end of the anomalous low-state indicate that a change in the length, or phasing, of the 35-day cycle occurred during the anomalous low-state.

  6. Critical Test of the Self-Similar Cosmological Paradigm: Anomalously Few Planets Orbiting Low-Mass Red Dwarf Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert L. Oldershaw

    2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The incidence of planetary systems orbiting red dwarf stars with masses less than 0.4 solar masses provides a crucial observational test for the Self-Similar Cosmological paradigm. The discrete self-similarity of the paradigm mandates the prediction of anomalously few planetary systems associated with these lowest mass red dwarf stars, in contrast to conventional astrophysical assumptions. Ongoing observational programs are rapidly collecting the data necessary for testing this prediction and preliminary results are highly encouraging. A definitive verdict on the prediction should be available in the near future.

  7. J. Opt. 15 (2013) 085101 (3pp) T Roy et al A meta-diffraction-grating for visible light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the far infrared [5] and near-infrared [7] region of the spectrum while flat lenses designed from optical attracted substantial attention [3-9]. In particular anomalous refraction and reflection has been observed [3-8] are concerned with the infrared part of the spectrum, whereas here we experimentally

  8. Anomalous small angle x-ray scattering studies of amorphous metal-germanium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, M.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation addresses the issue of composition modulation in sputtered amorphous metal-germanium thin films with the aim of understanding the intermediate range structure of these films as a function of composition. The investigative tool used in this work is anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS). The primary focus of this investigation is the amorphous iron-germanium (a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) system with particular emphasis on the semiconductor-rich regime. Brief excursions are made into the amorphous tungsten-germanium (a-W{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) and the amorphous molybdenum-germanium (a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) systems. All three systems exhibit an amorphous structure over a broad composition range extending from pure amorphous germanium to approximately 70 atomic percent metal when prepared as sputtered films. Across this composition range the structures change from the open, covalently bonded, tetrahedral network of pure a-Ge to densely packed metals. The structural changes are accompanied by a semiconductor-metal transition in all three systems as well as a ferromagnetic transition in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} system and a superconducting transition in the a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} system. A long standing question, particularly in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} and the a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} systems, has been whether the structural changes (and therefore the accompanying electrical and magnetic transitions) are accomplished by homogeneous alloy formation or phase separation. The application of ASAXS to this problem proves unambiguously that fine scale composition modulations, as distinct from the simple density fluctuations that arise from cracks and voids, are present in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}, a-W{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}, and a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} systems in the semiconductor-metal transition region. Furthermore, ASAXS shows that germanium is distributed uniformly throughout each sample in the x<25 regime of all three systems.

  9. Search for anomalous quartic WW?? couplings in dielectron and missing energy final states in pp? collisions at ?s=1.96 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Holzbauer, J.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kur?a, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J. M.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a search for anomalous components of the quartic gauge boson coupling WW?? in events with an electron, a positron and missing transverse energy. The analyzed data correspond to 9.7 fb?¹ of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 detector in pp? collisions at s?=1.96 TeV. The presence of anomalous quartic gauge couplings would manifest itself as an excess of boosted WW events. No such excess is found in the data, and we set the most stringent limits to date on the anomalous coupling parameters aW0 and aWC. When a form factor with ?cutoff=0.5 TeV is used, the observed upper limits at 95% C.L. are |aW0/?²|WC/?²|<0.0092 GeV?².

  10. Search for anomalous quartic WW?? couplings in dielectron and missing energy final states in pp? collisions at ?s=1.96 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; et al

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a search for anomalous components of the quartic gauge boson coupling WW?? in events with an electron, a positron and missing transverse energy. The analyzed data correspond to 9.7 fb?¹ of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 detector in pp? collisions at s?=1.96 TeV. The presence of anomalous quartic gauge couplings would manifest itself as an excess of boosted WW events. No such excess is found in the data, and we set the most stringent limits to date on the anomalous coupling parameters aW0 and aWC. When a form factor with ?cutoff=0.5 TeV is used, the observed uppermore »limits at 95% C.L. are |aW0/?²|WC/?²|« less

  11. Diffractive Dissociation of 190 GeV/c $?^-$ into $?^-?^+?^-$ Final States at COMPASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris Grube; for the COMPASS Collaboration

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from a Partial-Wave Analysis (PWA) of diffractive dissociation of 190 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ into $\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ final states on nuclear targets. A PWA of the data sample taken during a COMPASS pilot run in 2004 on a Pb target showed a significant spin-exotic $J^{PC} = 1^{-+}$ resonance consistent with the controversial $\\pi_1(1600)$, which is considered to be a candidate for a non-$q\\bar{q}$ mesonic state. In 2008 COMPASS collected a large diffractive $\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ data sample using a hydrogen target. A first comparison with the 2004 data shows a strong target dependence of the production strength of states with spin projections $M = 0$ and 1.

  12. Fast atom diffraction from a ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(100) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, M.; Meyer, E.; Winter, H. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Irmscher, K.; Galazka, Z. [Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung, Max-Born-Straße 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Gärtner, K. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast H, He atoms, and H{sub 2} molecules with projectile energies ranging from 200?eV up to 3?keV were scattered under a grazing angle of incidence from a clean and flat ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(100) surface. The bulk single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method and prepared via annealing under ultra-high vacuum conditions. For scattering along low-index directions, we observed defined diffraction patterns in the angular distributions for scattered projectiles. From the analysis of diffraction patterns, we derive the surface unit cell in good accord with the parameters b and c for the lattice of the bulk crystal and derive information on the termination of the surface.

  13. Method for improve x-ray diffraction determinations of residual stress in nickel-base alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Robert M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cohen, Isadore (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for improving the technique of measuring residual stress by x-ray diffraction in pieces of nickel-base alloys which comprises covering part of a predetermined area of the surface of a nickel-base alloy with a dispersion, exposing the covered and uncovered portions of the surface of the alloy to x-rays by way of an x-ray diffractometry apparatus, making x-ray diffraction determinations of the exposed surface, and measuring the residual stress in the alloy based on these determinations. The dispersion is opaque to x-rays and serves a dual purpose since it masks off unsatisfactory signals such that only a small portion of the surface is measured, and it supplies an internal standard by providing diffractogram peaks comparable to the peaks of the nickel alloy so that the alloy peaks can be very accurately located regardless of any sources of error external to the sample.

  14. Structural information extracted from the diffraction of XFEL fs-pulses in a crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonov, A; Benediktovitch, A; Feranchuk, I; Pietsch, U

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical justification for a method of extracting of supplementary information for the phase retrieval procedure taken from diffraction of fs-pulses from X-ray Free Electron Laser facilities. The approach is based on numerical simulation of the dynamics of the electron density in the crystal composed of different atoms in the unit cell, namely a bi-atomic crystal containing heavy and light atoms. It is shown that evaluation of diffraction intensities measured by means of different values of XFEL pulse parameters enables to find absolute values of structure factors for both types of atoms and their relative phase. The accuracy of structural information is discussed in terms of fluctuations of the evaluated atomic scattering factors. Our approach could be important for improvement of phase retrieval methods with respect to a more efficient determination of atomic positions within the unit cell of macromolecules.

  15. First results from a next-generation off-plane X-ray diffraction grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEntaffer, Randall; Schultz, Ted; Gantner, Brennan; Tutt, James; Holland, Andrew; O'Dell, Stephen; Gaskin, Jessica; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Zhang, William W; Chan, Kai-Wing; Biskach, Michael; McClelland, Ryan; Iazikov, Dmitri; Wang, Xinpeng; Koecher, Larry

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future NASA X-ray spectroscopy missions will require high throughput, high resolution grating spectrometers. Off-plane reflection gratings are capable of meeting the performance requirements needed to realize the scientific goals of these missions. We have identified a novel grating fabrication method that utilizes common lithographic and microfabrication techniques to produce the high fidelity groove profile necessary to achieve this performance. Application of this process has produced an initial pre-master that exhibits a radial (variable line spacing along the groove dimension), high density (>6000 grooves/mm), laminar profile. This pre-master has been tested for diffraction efficiency at the BESSY II synchrotron light facility and diffracts up to 55% of incident light into usable spectral orders. Furthermore, tests of spectral resolving power show that these gratings are capable of obtaining resolutions well above 1300 ($\\lambda/\\Delta\\lambda$) with limitations due to the test apparatus, not the gratings...

  16. Measurement of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering using VFPS at H1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomas Hreus

    2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Performances of the Very Forward Proton Spectrometer (VFPS) of the H1 detector at HERA using data collected during the 2006/2007 running period are discussed, including the description of acceptance, reconstruction of proton energy loss and estimation of the amount of the beam-gas background. The first physics result obtained with the VFPS detector - a preliminary measurement of the semi-inclusive reduced cross section is presented for the diffractive deep inelastic scattering process with the leading final state proton measured by the VFPS. Results of this measurement are found to be in agreement with other measurements by the H1 Collaboration and with a theoretical prediction based on a NLO DGLAP QCD fit. They provide a higher precision and therefore allow a deeper inside to the nature of diffraction.

  17. Method for characterizing mask defects using image reconstruction from X-ray diffraction patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hau-Riege, Stefan Peter (Fremont, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention applies techniques for image reconstruction from X-ray diffraction patterns on the three-dimensional imaging of defects in EUVL multilayer films. The reconstructed image gives information about the out-of-plane position and the diffraction strength of the defect. The positional information can be used to select the correct defect repair technique. This invention enables the fabrication of defect-free (since repaired) X-ray Mo--Si multilayer mirrors. Repairing Mo--Si multilayer-film defects on mask blanks is a key for the commercial success of EUVL. It is known that particles are added to the Mo--Si multilayer film during the fabrication process. There is a large effort to reduce this contamination, but results are not sufficient, and defects continue to be a major mask yield limiter. All suggested repair strategies need to know the out-of-plane position of the defects in the multilayer.

  18. Processing of Neutron Diffraction Data for Strain Measurement in Geological Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polsky, Yarom [ORNL] [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL] [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL] [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Dessieux Jr, Luc Lucius [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Conventional rock mechanics testing techniques typically involve the loading of samples and measurement of displacements or strains on the outer boundary of the specimen surface. Neutron diffraction based strain measurement techniques represent a unique and powerful tool for measuring the strain within geological materials under load. The structural variability and non-uniform crystallinity of geological materials, however, create many complexities in the intensity patterns that must be analyzed to quantify strains within the material. The attenuating and scattering properties of the pressure cell housing the sample further add difficulties to the data analysis. This paper describes the methods and processes used to process neutron scattering data for strain measurement in geological materials. It is intended to provide a primer for those in the rock mechanics community that are interested in utilizing this technique along with additional discussion of neutron diffraction experimental factors that may affect data quality.

  19. Simultaneous Exoplanet Characterization and deep wide-field imaging with a diffractive pupil telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyon, Olivier; Angel, Roger; Woolf, Neville J; Bendek, Eduardo A; Milster, Thomas D; Ammons, Stephen M; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie; Nemati, Bijan; Martinache, Frantz; Pitman, Joe; Woodruff, Robert A; Belikov, Ruslan; 10.1088/0004-637X/767/1/11

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-precision astrometry can identify exoplanets and measure their orbits and masses, while coronagraphic imaging enables detailed characterization of their physical properties and atmospheric compositions through spectroscopy. In a previous paper, we showed that a diffractive pupil telescope (DPT) in space can enable sub-microarcsecond accuracy astrometric measurements from wide-field images by creating faint but sharp diffraction spikes around the bright target star. The DPT allows simultaneous astrometric measurement and coronagraphic imaging, and we discuss and quantify in this paper the scientific benefits of this combination for exoplanet science investigations: identification of exoplanets with increased sensitivity and robustness, and ability to measure planetary masses to high accuracy. We show how using both measurements to identify planets and measure their masses offers greater sensitivity and provides more reliable measurements than possible with separate missions, and therefore results in a lar...

  20. High resolution coherent diffractive imaging with a table-top extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vu Le, Hoang, E-mail: vuhoangle@swin.edu.au; Ba Dinh, Khuong; Hannaford, Peter; Van Dao, Lap [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia)

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a resolution of 45?nm with a sample size down to 3??m × 3??m is achieved in a short exposure time of 2?s, from the diffraction pattern generated by a table-top high harmonic source at around 30?nm. By using a narrow-bandwidth focusing mirror, the diffraction pattern's quality is improved and the required exposure time is significantly reduced. In order to obtain a high quality of the reconstructed image, the ratio of the beam size to the sample size and the curvature of the focused beam need to be considered in the reconstruction process. This new experimental scheme is very promising for imaging sub-10?nm scale objects with a table-top source based on a small inexpensive femtosecond laser system.

  1. Discrete Symmetries on the Light Front and a General Relation connecting Nucleon Electric Dipole and Anomalous Magnetic Moments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Gardner, Susan; /Kentucky U.; Hwang, Dae Sung; /Sejong U.

    2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the electric dipole form factor, F{sub 3}(q{sup 2}), as well as the Dirac and Pauli form factors, F{sub 1}(q{sup 2}) and F{sub 2}(q{sup 2}), of the nucleon in the light-front formalism. We derive an exact formula for F{sub 3}(q{sup 2}) to complement those known for F{sub 1}(q{sup 2}) and F{sub 2}(q{sup 2}). We derive the light-front representation of the discrete symmetry transformations and show that time-reversal- and parity-odd effects are captured by phases in the light-front wave functions. We thus determine that the contributions to F{sub 2}(q{sup 2}) and F{sub 3}(q{sup 2}), Fock-state by Fock-state, are related, independent of the fundamental mechanism through which CP violation is generated. Our relation is not specific to the nucleon, but, rather, is true of spin-1/2 systems in general, be they lepton or baryon. The empirical values of the anomalous magnetic moments, in concert with empirical bounds on the associated electric dipole moments, can better constrain theories of CP violation. In particular, we find that the neutron and proton electric dipole moments echo the isospin structure of the anomalous magnetic moments, {kappa}{sup n} {approx} -{kappa}{sup p}.

  2. Discrete symmetries on the light front and a general relation connecting the nucleon electric dipole and anomalous magnetic moments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States); Gardner, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Hwang, Dae Sung [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the electric dipole form factor, F{sub 3}(q{sup 2}), as well as the Dirac and Pauli form factors, F{sub 1}(q{sup 2}) and F{sub 2}(q{sup 2}), of the nucleon in the light-front formalism. We derive an exact formula for F{sub 3}(q{sup 2}) to complement those known for F{sub 1}(q{sup 2}) and F{sub 2}(q{sup 2}). We derive the light-front representation of the discrete symmetry transformations and show that time-reversal- and parity-odd effects are captured by phases in the light-front wave functions. We thus determine that the contributions to F{sub 2}(q{sup 2}) and F{sub 3}(q{sup 2}), Fock state by Fock state, are related, independent of the fundamental mechanism through which CP violation is generated. Our relation is not specific to the nucleon, but, rather, is true of spin-1/2 systems in general, be they lepton or baryon. The empirical values of the anomalous magnetic moments, in concert with empirical bounds on the associated electric dipole moments, can better constrain theories of CP violation. In particular, we find that the neutron and proton electric dipole moments echo the isospin structure of the anomalous magnetic moments, {kappa}{sup n}{approx}-{kappa}{sup p}.

  3. Discrete Symmetries on the Light Front and a General Relation Connecting Nucleon Electric Dipole and Anomalous Magnetic Moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. Brodsky; S. Gardner; D. S. Hwang

    2006-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the electric dipole form factor, F_3(q^2), as well as the Dirac and Pauli form factors, F_1(q^2) and F_2(q^2), of the nucleon in the light-front formalism. We derive an exact formula for F_3(q^2) to complement those known for F_1(q^2) and F_2(q^2). We derive the light-front representation of the discrete symmetry transformations and show that time-reversal- and parity-odd effects are captured by phases in the light-front wave functions. We thus determine that the contributions to F_2(q^2) and F_3(q^2), Fock state by Fock state, are related, independent of the fundamental mechanism through which CP violation is generated. Our relation is not specific to the nucleon, but, rather, is true of spin-1/2 systems in general, be they lepton or baryon. The empirical values of the anomalous magnetic moments, in concert with empirical bounds on the associated electric dipole moments, can better constrain theories of CP violation. In particular, we find that the neutron and proton electric dipole moments echo the isospin structure of the anomalous magnetic moments, kappa^n ~ - kappa^p.

  4. Structural behavior and dynamics of an anomalous fluid between solvophilic and solvophobic walls: templating, molding and superdiffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabio Leoni; Giancarlo Franzese

    2014-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Confinement can modify the dynamics, the thermodynamics and the structural properties of liquid water, the prototypical anomalous liquid. By considering a general anomalous liquid, suitable for globular proteins, colloids or liquid metals, we study by molecular dynamics simulations the effect of a solvophilic structured and a solvophobic unstructured wall on the phases, the crystal nucleation and the dynamics of the fluid. We find that at low temperatures the large density of the solvophilic wall induces a high-density, high-energy structure in the first layer ("tempting" effect). In turn, the first layer induces a "molding" effect on the second layer determining a structure with reduced energy and density, closer to the average density of the system. This low-density, low-energy structure propagates further through the layers by templating effect and can involve all the existing layers at the lowest temperatures investigated. Therefore, although the high-density, high-energy structure does not self-reproduce further than the first layer, the structured wall can have a long-range effect thanks to a sequence of templating, molding and templating effects through the layers. We find dynamical slowing down of the solvent near the solvophilic wall but with largely heterogeneous dynamics near the wall due to superdiffusive liquid veins within a frozen matrix of solvent. Hence, the partial freezing of the first hydration layer does not correspond necessarily to an effective reduction of the channel section in terms of transport properties.

  5. Detection of Anomalous Reactor Activity Using Antineutrino Count Rate Evolution Over the Course of a Reactor Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vera Bulaevskaya; Adam Bernstein

    2010-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the sensitivity of antineutrino count rate measurements to changes in the fissile content of civil power reactors. Such measurements may be useful in IAEA reactor safeguards applications. We introduce a hypothesis testing procedure to identify statistically significant differences between the antineutrino count rate evolution of a standard 'baseline' fuel cycle and that of an anomalous cycle, in which plutonium is removed and replaced with an equivalent fissile worth of uranium. The test would allow an inspector to detect anomalous reactor activity, or to positively confirm that the reactor is operating in a manner consistent with its declared fuel inventory and power level. We show that with a reasonable choice of detector parameters, the test can detect replacement of 73 kg of plutonium in 90 days with 95% probability, while controlling the false positive rate at 5%. We show that some improvement on this level of sensitivity may be expected by various means, including use of the method in conjunction with existing reactor safeguards methods. We also identify a necessary and sufficient daily antineutrino count rate to achieve the quoted sensitivity, and list examples of detectors in which such rates have been attained.

  6. Characterization of Ni/Al multilayer on Si substrate by diffraction and reflectometry techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, Mitali; Basu, Saibal; Bhattacharya, Debarati; Gupta, Mukul [Solid State Physics Division Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India); UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion beam deposited multilayer film of nominal thickness [Ni(200 Angst )/Al(100 Angst )]x5 on Si substrate has been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction(XRD), X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) and Polarized neutron reflectivity(PNR). The present paper attempts to identify presence of any intermetallic compounds at the interfaces of the as-deposited sample. Structural parameters obtained from XRR and PNR are close to design values.

  7. Quantitative determination of mineral composition by powder x-ray diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1984-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An external standard intensity ratio method is used for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of samples by x-ray diffraction. The method uses ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from a single run. Constants are previously determined for each mineral which is to be quantitatively measured. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of a reference mineral contained in the sample are used to calculate sample composition.

  8. Cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics for protein crystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emamzadah, Soheila [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Geneva, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Biochemistry, University of Geneva, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Petty, Tom J. [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Geneva, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Biomedical Graduate Studies Genomics and Computational Biology Group, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); De Almeida, Victor [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Geneva, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Biochemistry, University of Geneva, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Nishimura, Taisuke [Department of Plant Biology, University of Geneva, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Joly, Jacques; Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Institut de Biologie Structurale J.-P. Ebel, CEA-CNRS-University J. Fourier, 38027 Grenoble CEDEX 1 (France); Halazonetis, Thanos D., E-mail: thanos.halazonetis@unige.ch [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Geneva, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Biochemistry, University of Geneva, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics system has been established for protein crystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction. Microfluidics is a promising technology for the rapid identification of protein crystallization conditions. However, most of the existing systems utilize silicone elastomers as the chip material which, despite its many benefits, is highly permeable to water vapour. This limits the time available for protein crystallization to less than a week. Here, the use of a cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics system for protein crystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction is described. Liquid handling in this system is performed in 2 mm thin transparent cards which contain 500 chambers, each with a volume of 320 nl. Microbatch, vapour-diffusion and free-interface diffusion protocols for protein crystallization were implemented and crystals were obtained of a number of proteins, including chicken lysozyme, bovine trypsin, a human p53 protein containing both the DNA-binding and oligomerization domains bound to DNA and a functionally important domain of Arabidopsis Morpheus’ molecule 1 (MOM1). The latter two polypeptides have not been crystallized previously. For X-ray diffraction analysis, either the cards were opened to allow mounting of the crystals on loops or the crystals were exposed to X-rays in situ. For lysozyme, an entire X-ray diffraction data set at 1.5 Å resolution was collected without removing the crystal from the card. Thus, cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics systems have the potential to further automate protein crystallization and structural genomics efforts.

  9. Phase-locked InGaAsP laser array with diffraction coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, T.R.; Yu, K.L.; Chang, B.; Hasson, A.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1983-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A phase-locked array of InGaAsP lasers has been fabricated for the first time. This 50-..mu..m-wide array utilized diffraction coupling between adjacent lasers to achieve phase locking. Threshold current as low as 200 mA is obtained for arrays with 250-..mu..m cavity length. Smooth single-lobe far-field patterns with beam divergence as narrow as 3/sup 0/ have been achieved.

  10. X-ray diffraction and EXAFS analysis of materials for lithium-based rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharkov, M. D., E-mail: mischar@mail.ioffe.ru; Boiko, M. E.; Bobyl, A. V.; Ershenko, E. M.; Terukov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Zubavichus, Y. V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium iron phosphate LiFePO{sub 4} (triphylite) and lithium titanate Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} are used as components of a number of active materials in modern rechargeable batteries. Samples of these materials are studied by X-ray diffraction and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Hypotheses about the phase composition of the analyzed samples are formulated.

  11. X-Ray Diffraction Study of Elemental Erbium to 65 GPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pravica, M.G.; Lipinska-Kalita, K.; Quine, Z.; Romano, E.; Nicol, M.F. (UNLV)

    2006-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated phase transitions in elemental erbium in a diamond anvil cell up to 65 GPa using x-ray powder diffraction methods. We present preliminary evidence of a series of phase transitions that appear to follow the expected hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} distorted fcc sequence. In particular, we believe that we have evidence for the predicted dhcp {yields} distorted fcc transition between 43 GPa and 65 GPa.

  12. Neutron diffraction studies of antiferromagnetism in manganous fluoride and some isomorphous compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, Richard Ames

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , iron, cobalt, nickel and occasionally copper together with either oxygen, sulfur, selen? ium, tellurium, fluorine, or chlorine. In these compounds the magnetic moments arise from the partially filled 3d orbitals of the transition ele? ments . Since.... cross section), diffracted by a sample located on the second spectrometer axis, and detected in a long (18 in.) counter filled with B^? enriched BF^ gas. The monochromatizing crystal, as shown in the inset of Fig. 4, con? sists of a 1 in. by 5 in...

  13. TESLA-FEL 2006-04 Far-Infrared Transition and Diffraction Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TESLA-FEL 2006-04 Far-Infrared Transition and Diffraction Radiation Part II: The THz Beamline at the VUV-FEL Linac Sara Casalbuoni1 , Bernhard Schmidt1 , Peter Schm¨user1,2 , Bernd Steffen1,2 1 Deutsches-Electron Laser (VUV-FEL) at DESY has recently been up- graded to a maximum electron energy of 700 MeV, allowing

  14. Accurate measurement of relative tilt and azimuth angles in electron tomography: A comparison of fiducial marker method with electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayashida, Misa [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Malac, Marek; Egerton, Ray F. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6H 2E1 (Canada); Bergen, Michael; Li, Peng [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron tomography is a method whereby a three-dimensional reconstruction of a nanoscale object is obtained from a series of projected images measured in a transmission electron microscope. We developed an electron-diffraction method to measure the tilt and azimuth angles, with Kikuchi lines used to align a series of diffraction patterns obtained with each image of the tilt series. Since it is based on electron diffraction, the method is not affected by sample drift and is not sensitive to sample thickness, whereas tilt angle measurement and alignment using fiducial-marker methods are affected by both sample drift and thickness. The accuracy of the diffraction method benefits reconstructions with a large number of voxels, where both high spatial resolution and a large field of view are desired. The diffraction method allows both the tilt and azimuth angle to be measured, while fiducial marker methods typically treat the tilt and azimuth angle as an unknown parameter. The diffraction method can be also used to estimate the accuracy of the fiducial marker method, and the sample-stage accuracy. A nano-dot fiducial marker measurement differs from a diffraction measurement by no more than ±1°.

  15. Method and apparatus for analyzing error conditions in a massively parallel computer system by identifying anomalous nodes within a communicator set

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gooding, Thomas Michael (Rochester, MN)

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical mechanism for a massively parallel computer system automatically analyzes data retrieved from the system, and identifies nodes which exhibit anomalous behavior in comparison to their immediate neighbors. Preferably, anomalous behavior is determined by comparing call-return stack tracebacks for each node, grouping like nodes together, and identifying neighboring nodes which do not themselves belong to the group. A node, not itself in the group, having a large number of neighbors in the group, is a likely locality of error. The analyzer preferably presents this information to the user by sorting the neighbors according to number of adjoining members of the group.

  16. Indexing amyloid peptide diffraction from serial femtosecond crystallography: New algorithms for sparse patterns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brewster, Aaron S.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Rodriguez, Jose; Hattne, Johan; Echols, Nathaniel; McFarlane, Heather T.; Cascio, Duilio; Adams, Paul D.; Eisenberg, David S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Still diffraction patterns from peptide nanocrystals with small unit cells are challenging to index using conventional methods owing to the limited number of spots and the lack of crystal orientation information for individual images. New indexing algorithms have been developed as part of theComputational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) to overcome these challenges. Accurate unit-cell information derived from an aggregate data set from thousands of diffraction patterns can be used to determine a crystal orientation matrix for individual images with as few as five reflections. These algorithms are potentially applicable not only to amyloid peptides but also to any set of diffraction patternsmore »with sparse properties, such as low-resolution virus structures or high-throughput screening of still images captured by raster-scanning at synchrotron sources. As a proof of concept for this technique, successful integration of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to 2.5 Å resolution for the amyloid segment GNNQQNY from the Sup35 yeast prion is presented.« less

  17. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugh, M. J., E-mail: haughmj@nv.doe.gov; Jacoby, K. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  18. A wavelet transform algorithm for peak detection and application to powder x-ray diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregoire, John M.; Dale, Darren; van Dover, R. Bruce

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peak detection is ubiquitous in the analysis of spectral data. While many noise-filtering algorithms and peak identification algorithms have been developed, recent work [P. Du, W. Kibbe, and S. Lin, Bioinformatics 22, 2059 (2006); A. Wee, D. Grayden, Y. Zhu, K. Petkovic-Duran, and D. Smith, Electrophoresis 29, 4215 (2008)] has demonstrated that both of these tasks are efficiently performed through analysis of the wavelet transform of the data. In this paper, we present a wavelet-based peak detection algorithm with user-defined parameters that can be readily applied to the application of any spectral data. Particular attention is given to the algorithm's resolution of overlapping peaks. The algorithm is implemented for the analysis of powder diffraction data, and successful detection of Bragg peaks is demonstrated for both low signal-to-noise data from theta–theta diffraction of nanoparticles and combinatorial x-ray diffraction data from a composition spread thin film. These datasets have different types of background signals which are effectively removed in the wavelet-based method, and the results demonstrate that the algorithm provides a robust method for automated peak detection.

  19. Feasibility of Diffraction Radiation for a Non-invasive Diagnostics of the SLAC Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naumenko, G.; Potylitsyn, A.; /Tomsk Polytechnic U.; Araki, S.; Aryshev, A.; Hayano, H.; Karataev, P.; Muto, T.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Ross, M.; /SLAC; Cline, D.; Fukui, Y.; /UCLA; Hamatsu, R.; /Tokyo Metropolitan U.

    2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of the non-invasive bunch size diagnostics based on the diffraction radiation is now in progress in frame of TPU-KEK-SLAC collaboration. The experimental test of a transverse beam size measurement was performed successful on the KEK-ATF extracted electron beam. However many difficulties emerge if we going from the one GeV electron energy to the several tenth GeV electron beams. The extremely high Lorenz-factor value gives rise to the some problems, such as large contribution of a radiation from an accelerator construction elements in submillimeter wavelength region, extremely pre-wave zone effect even in the optical range, exceeding of the electron beam divergence over the diffraction radiation cone, and so on. More over, the sensitivity of the method based on the optical diffraction radiation from flat slit target decrease catastrophic when an electron energy increase up to several tenth GeV. We suggest the new method based on the phase shift on the slit target, consisting on the two semi-planes which are turned at a some angle one to other (crossed target technique) and present here the results of experimental test of this technique. Also we discuss the origins of indicated difficulties and suggest the ways of these problems solution.

  20. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction techniques for bulk polycrystalline materials under dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, P. K.; Hustedt, C. J.; Zhao, M.; Ananiadis, A. G.; Hufnagel, T. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Vecchio, K. S. [Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Huskins, E. L. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland 21005 (United States); Casem, D. T. [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland 21005 (United States); Gruner, S. M. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Tate, M. W.; Philipp, H. T.; Purohit, P.; Weiss, J. T. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Woll, A. R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kannan, V.; Ramesh, K. T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Kenesei, P.; Okasinski, J. S.; Almer, J. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed two techniques for time-resolved x-ray diffraction from bulk polycrystalline materials during dynamic loading. In the first technique, we synchronize a fast detector with loading of samples at strain rates of ?10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} s{sup ?1} in a compression Kolsky bar (split Hopkinson pressure bar) apparatus to obtain in situ diffraction patterns with exposures as short as 70 ns. This approach employs moderate x-ray energies (10–20 keV) and is well suited to weakly absorbing materials such as magnesium alloys. The second technique is useful for more strongly absorbing materials, and uses high-energy x-rays (86 keV) and a fast shutter synchronized with the Kolsky bar to produce short (?40??s) pulses timed with the arrival of the strain pulse at the specimen, recording the diffraction pattern on a large-format amorphous silicon detector. For both techniques we present sample data demonstrating the ability of these techniques to characterize elastic strains and polycrystalline texture as a function of time during high-rate deformation.