Sample records for multiple energy carriers

  1. Comparison with Carrier Multiplication

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting theCommercialization and Innovation2010 2010

  2. Optimal Power Flow of Multiple Energy Carriers(Geidl and Andersson 2007) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpenNorthOlympia GreenThe community Energy

  3. Regulating energy transfer of excited carriers and the case for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulating energy transfer of excited carriers and the case for excitation-induced hydrogen dissociation on hydrogenated Regulating energy transfer of excited carriers and the case...

  4. High-efficiency carrier multiplication through direct photogeneration of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    principles for conversion of solar energy into electricity. One such approach involves the use of carrier in ref. 10 in similar studies of PbSe nanocrystals and nanocrystals of another lead salt compound, Pb salt nanocrystals11 . These experimental observations are difficult to reconcile in the traditional CM

  5. Chemical Energy Carriers (CEC) for the Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: Develop chemical energy carrier (CEC) systems to recover thermal energy from enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) in the form of chemical energy, in addition to sensible and latent energy.

  6. Renewable Energy Carriers Research Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /mass transfer phe- nomena and multi-phase reacting flows, with applications in solar power and fuels production, decarbonization and metallurgical processes, CO2 capture and recycling, ener- gy storage and sustainable energy the development of solar concentrating technologies for efficiently producing clean power, fuels, and materials

  7. New advances in symbol timing synchronization of single-carrier, multi-carrier and space-time multiple-antenna systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yik Chung

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -carrier transmissions with multiple antennas at both transmitter and receiver; and 3) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based IEEE 802.11a wireless local area networks (WLANs). For conventional single-carrier, single-antenna systems, a general...

  8. Alternative Carriers For Remote Renewable Energy Sources Using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Alternative Carriers For Remote Renewable Energy Sources Using Existing Cng Infrastructure...

  9. Synchronization in Cooperative Networks: Estimation of Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blostein, Steven D.

    and reliability when assuming perfect synchronization [2]. Moreover, even though many coop- erative space coding synchronization is key to future deployments of cooperative networks. Multiple-input-single-output (MISO) systems methods for MISO systems include [5]­[7]. In [5], a maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE) for CFO estimation

  10. Technical and Economic Assessment of Transition Strategies Toward Widespread Use of Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, Joan M; Yang, Christopher; Johnson, Nils; Ni, Jason; Lin, Zhenhong

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an energy carrier,” Hydrogen Energy Progress XI, Proceedingsof the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Stuttgart,Strategies For Developing Hydrogen Energy Systems With CO 2

  11. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF TRANSITION STRATEGIES TOWARD WIDESPREAD USE OF HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, J; Yang, Christopher; Johnson, Nils; Ni, Jason; Lin, Zhenhong

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an energy carrier,” Hydrogen Energy Progress XI, Proceedingsof the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Stuttgart,Strategies For Developing Hydrogen Energy Systems With CO 2

  12. Novel Hydrogen Carriers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  13. Novel Hydrogen Carriers | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartment ofDepartment640 Federal Register19, 2005 LisaHydrogen

  14. Sandia Energy - Research Challenge 4: Defect-Carrier Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear PressLaboratory FellowsPolariton4: Defect-Carrier

  15. Multiple reflection solar energy absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, W.L.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting solar energy into heat energy thereby generating power is described comprising the steps: (a) focusing said solar energy by means of a primary concentrator, (b) concentrating said solar energy from said primary concentrator by means of a secondary concentrator located at the focal point of said primary concentrator, (c) slowing the flux of said solar energy from said secondary concentrator by means of a multiple reflection chamber attached to the rear aperture of the secondary concentrator, (d) circulating a working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube into said secondary concentrator and said multiple reflection chamber, (e) absorbing said solar energy into said working fluid by means of an ultra high concentration of said solar energy in said multiple reflection chamber, (f) insulating said working fluid by means of a surrounding thermal barrier, (g) exhausting the heat working fluid by means as of a nozzle joined to said multiple reflection chamber, (h) replacing said working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube, thereby completing a cycle for generating power.

  16. Multi-Carrier Multiple Access is Sum-Rate Optimal for Block Transmissions over Circulant ISI Channels*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    Multi-Carrier Multiple Access is Sum-Rate Optimal for Block Transmissions over Circulant ISI to maximizing the sum-rate of circulant inter-symbol interference (ISI) channels, that are assumed available at the transmitter. Cir- culant ISI channels are ensured either with cyclic pre`xed block transmissions

  17. Transient grating measurements of ambipolar diffusion and carrier recombination in InGaP/InAlP multiple quantum wells and InGaP bulk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, M.; Martinez, O.E.; Menoni, C.S. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ambipolar diffusion coefficient and carrier recombination lifetime in InGaP/InAlP multiple quantum wells and InGaP epitaxial layers grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy have been determined by measuring the diffraction efficiency decay of transient gratings induced by picosecond laser pulses. The multiple quantum well room temperature ambipolar diffusion coefficient of carrier transport parallel to the growth plane was measured to be approximately half that of the bulk material. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  18. The Energy Harvesting Multiple Access Channel with Energy Storage Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    The Energy Harvesting Multiple Access Channel with Energy Storage Losses Kaya Tutuncuoglu and Aylin considers a Gaussian multiple access channel with two energy harvesting transmitters with lossy energy storage. The power allocation policy maximizing the average weighted sum rate given the energy harvesting

  19. Chemical Energy Carriers (CEC) for the Utilization of Geothermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    more EGS energy per unit mass of working fluid Deliver the captured energy to the power plant at higher average temperatures (higher exergy) Therefore, capturing the EGS...

  20. Project Profile: CSP Energy Storage Solutions - Multiple Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Storage Solutions - Multiple Technologies Compared Project Profile: CSP Energy Storage Solutions - Multiple Technologies Compared US Solar Holdings logo US Solar Holdings,...

  1. Sandia Energy - Research Challenge 4: Defect-Carrier Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    theoretical capabilities. We are using deep-level optical spectroscopy to quantify defect energy levels and densities. Advanced density functional theory is being used to predict...

  2. Alternative Carriers For Remote Renewable Energy Sources Using Existing Cng

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place: Wayne,EnergyInfrastructure | Open Energy Information

  3. Energy Carrier Transport In Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Yeontack

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    can be dramatically changed by the modification. This is ideal for developing high-performance materials for thermoelectric and photovoltaic energy conversion applications. In this research, decoration of various organic/inorganic nanomaterials...

  4. ARS 40 - Public Utilities and Carriers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1AMEE Jump to: navigation, search40 - Public Utilities and

  5. Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomass and BiofuelsOversight Board TheOverview of Data

  6. AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation of Well at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation...

  7. Charged-particle multiplicity at LHC energies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The talk presents the measurement of the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution with ALICE at the achieved LHC energies of 0.9 and 2.36 TeV.An overview about multiplicity measurements prior to LHC is given and the related theoretical concepts are briefly discussed.The analysis procedure is presented and the systematic uncertainties are detailed. The applied acceptance corrections and the treatment of diffraction are discussed.The results are compared with model predictions. The validity of KNO scaling in restricted phase space regions is revisited. 

  8. Multiple-Source and Multiple-Destination Charge Migration in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Multiple-Source and Multiple-Destination Charge Migration in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage massimo.poncino@polito.it Abstract-- Hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems consist of multiple banks of heterogeneous electrical energy storage (EES) elements that are connected to each other through

  9. Structuring Materials on Multiple Length Scales for Energy Application...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structuring Materials on Multiple Length Scales for Energy Applications October 25, 2012 at 3pm36-428 Adreas Stein Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota astein...

  10. Multiplicity Distributions in QCD at Very High Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Dremin

    1994-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results in QCD on multiplicity distributions are briefly reviewed. QCD is able to predict very tiny features of multiplicity distributions which demonstrate that the negative binomial distribution (and, more generally, any infinitely divisible distribution) is inappropriate for precise description of experimental data. New fits of high energy multiplicity distributions can be derived.

  11. ancient oxygen carrier: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    materials with drastically reduced carrier cooling rates and realization of selective energy contacts engineering to reduce carrier cooling rates. The physics of carrier...

  12. "System and Power Market Consequences of Implementing Hydrogen as Energy Carrier in the Nordic Energy System"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and heat market model "Balmorel"2 (Ravn 2004), we analyse the consequences of using hydrogen as an energy for the implementation of hydrogen in the Nordic system were set up, reaching from 6 to 19% of the Nordic end-use energy consumption in 2030. A partial optimisation model of a Nordic hydrogen energy system was used to describe

  13. Energy Forms or Energy Carriers(G, Herrmann et al. 1983) | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:Emminol Jump to:EnergEnergy 21Energy Financing Team

  14. Southern States Energy Compact (Multiple States)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Southern States Energy Compact provides for the proper employment and conservation of energy, and for the employment of energy-related facilities, materials, and products, within the context of...

  15. Midwest Renewable Energy Tracking System (Multiple States)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Midwest Renewable Energy Tracking System (M-RETS®) tracks renewable energy generation in participating States and Provinces and assists in verifying compliance with individual state/provincial...

  16. Quantum dynamics in condensed phases : charge carrier mobility, decoherence, and excitation energy transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Yuan-Chung, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we develop analytical models for quantum systems and perform theoretical investigations on several dynamical processes in condensed phases. First, we study charge-carrier mobilities in organic molecular ...

  17. Evaluating Energy Efficiency of Floating Point Matrix Multiplication on FPGAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasanna, Viktor K.

    Evaluating Energy Efficiency of Floating Point Matrix Multiplication on FPGAs Kiran Kumar Matam, prasanna}@usc.edu Abstract--Energy efficiency has emerged as one of the key performance metrics in scientific computing. In this work, we evaluate the energy efficiency of floating point matrix multipli

  18. Energy Efficient Datapath Scheduling using Multiple Voltages and Dynamic Clocking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    consumption of a device has to be minimum to increase battery life, the energy-delay- product hasEnergy Efficient Datapath Scheduling using Multiple Voltages and Dynamic Clocking Saraju P. Mohanty clocking in a co-ordinated manner in order to reduce energy consumption of datapath circuits. In dynamic

  19. Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250?nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehnke, Frank, E-mail: mehnke@physik.tu-berlin.de; Kuhn, Christian; Guttmann, Martin; Reich, Christoph; Kolbe, Tim; Rass, Jens; Wernicke, Tim [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kueller, Viola; Knauer, Arne; Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and Mg-doping profile of AlN/Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N electron blocking heterostructures (EBH) for AlGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting below 250?nm was investigated. By inserting an AlN electron blocking layer (EBL) into the EBH, we were able to increase the quantum well emission power and significantly reduce long wavelength parasitic luminescence. Furthermore, electron leakage was suppressed by optimizing the thickness of the AlN EBL while still maintaining sufficient hole injection. Ultraviolet (UV)-C LEDs with very low parasitic luminescence (7% of total emission power) and external quantum efficiencies of 0.19% at 246?nm have been realized. This concept was applied to AlGaN MQW LEDs emitting between 235?nm and 263?nm with external quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.002% to 0.93%. After processing, we were able to demonstrate an UV-C LED emitting at 234?nm with 14.5??W integrated optical output power and an external quantum efficiency of 0.012% at 18.2?A/cm{sup 2}.

  20. Optimal Power Flow of Multiple Energy Carriers(Geidl and Andersson...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    system planning The methods used in the paper are linear deterministic system without control signal, optimal power flow and economic dispatch The proposed method stabilized...

  1. MKV Carrier Vehicle Sensor Calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotnik, Aaron M.

    The Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV) system, which is being developed by the US Missile Defense Agency (MDA), is a midcourse payload that includes a carrier vehicle and a number of small kill vehicles. During the mission, the ...

  2. Energy Dependence of Multiplicity Fluctuations in Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lungwitz, B; Anticic, T; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Bia?kowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Flier, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Ga´zdzicki, M; Genchev, V; Georgopoulos, G; G?adysz, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kikola, D; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Laszlo, A; Lacey, R; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, Peter; Litov, L; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Mateev, M; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Nicolic, V; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Peryt, W; Pikna, M; Pluta, J; Prindle, D; Pühlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Szuba, M; Szymanski, P; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wetzler, A; W?odarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Yoo, I K; Zimányi, J; Lungwitz, Benjamin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy dependence of multiplicity fluctuations was studied for the most central $Pb+Pb$ collisions at $20A$, $30A$, $40A$, $80A$ and $158A$ GeV by the NA49 experiment at the CERN SPS. The multiplicity distribution for negatively and positively charged hadrons is significantly narrower than Poisson one for all energies. No significant structure in energy dependence of the scaled variance of multiplicity fluctuations is observed. The measured scaled variance is lower than the one predicted by the grand-canonical formulation of the hadron-resonance gas model. The results for scaled variance are in approximate agreement with the string-hadronic model UrQMD.

  3. Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier: Outlook for 2010, 2030, and 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, Joan M

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Stuttgart,Prospects for Building a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure,”Infrastructure for a Fossil Hydrogen Energy System with CO 2

  4. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF TRANSITION STRATEGIES TOWARD WIDESPREAD USE OF HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, J; Yang, Christopher; Johnson, Nils; Ni, Jason; Lin, Zhenhong

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strategies For Developing Hydrogen Energy Systems With CO 2International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 24, pp.Prospects for Building a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure,”

  5. Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier: Outlook for 2010, 2030, and 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, Joan M

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, v. 23, No. 6,of the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Stuttgart,Prospects for Building a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure,”

  6. Technical and Economic Assessment of Transition Strategies Toward Widespread Use of Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, Joan M; Yang, Christopher; Johnson, Nils; Ni, Jason; Lin, Zhenhong

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strategies For Developing Hydrogen Energy Systems With CO 2International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 24, pp.Prospects for Building a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure,”

  7. U-191: Oracle Java Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23,EnergyChicopeeTechnologyfactTuscarora PhaseArbitraryDrupalCodeMultiple

  8. Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review January 2001 163 Multiple Prefix Symbol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review January 2001 163 Unit Multiple Prefix feet (ft3 ) a Exact conversion. b Calculated by the Energy Information Administration. Source: U Prefixes Energy Source Original Unit multiplied by Conversion Factor equals Final Unit Petroleum barrels

  9. High-efficiency micro-energy generation based on free-carrier-modulated ZnO:N piezoelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eunju; Park, Jaedon; Yim, Munhyuk; Jeong, Sangbeom; Yoon, Giwan, E-mail: gwyoon@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The free-carrier-modulated ZnO:N thin film-based flexible nanogenerators (NZTF-FNGs) are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The suggested flexible nanogenerators (FNGs) are fabricated using N-doped ZnO thin films (NZTFs) as their piezoelectric active elements, which are deposited by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique with an N{sub 2}O reactive gas as an in situ dopant source. Considerable numbers of N atoms are uniformly incorporated into NZTFs overall during their growth, which would enable them to significantly compensate the unintentional background free electron carriers both in the bulk and at the surface of ZnO thin films (ZTFs). This N-doping approach is found to remarkably enhance the performance of NZTF-FNGs, which shows output voltages that are almost two orders of magnitude higher than those of the conventionally grown ZnO thin film-based FNGs. This is believed to be a result of both substantial screening effect suppression in the ZTF bulk and more reliable Schottky barrier formation at the ZTF interfaces, which is all mainly caused by the N-compensatory doping process. Furthermore, the NZTF-FNGs fabricated are verified via charging tests to be suitable for micro-energy harvesting devices.

  10. Net electron-phonon scattering rates in InN/GaN multiple quantum wells: The effects of an energy dependent acoustic deformation potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, H., E-mail: h.xia@unsw.edu.au; Patterson, R.; Feng, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Conibeer, G. [School of Photovoltaics and Renewable Energy Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The rates of charge carrier relaxation by phonon emission are of substantial importance in the field of hot carrier solar cell, primarily in investigation of mechanisms to slow down hot carrier cooling. In this work, energy and momentum resolved deformation potentials relevant to electron-phonon scattering are computed for wurtzite InN and GaN as well as an InN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) superlattice using ab-initio methods. These deformation potentials reveal important features such as discontinuities across the electronic bandgap of the materials and variations over tens of eV. The energy dependence of the deformation potential is found to be very similar for wurtzite nitrides despite differences between the In and Ga pseudopotentials and their corresponding electronic band structures. Charge carrier relaxation by this mechanism is expected to be minimal for electrons within a few eV of the conduction band edge. However, hole scattering at energies more accessible to excitation by solar radiation is possible between heavy and light hole states. Moderate reductions in overall scattering rates are observed in MQW relative to the bulk nitride materials.

  11. Smart Energy Management of Multiple Full Cell Powered Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOhammad S. Alam

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In this research project the University of South Alabama research team has been investigating smart energy management and control of multiple fuel cell power sources when subjected to varying demands of electrical and thermal loads together with demands of hydrogen production. This research has focused on finding the optimal schedule of the multiple fuel cell power plants in terms of electric, thermal and hydrogen energy. The optimal schedule is expected to yield the lowest operating cost. Our team is also investigating the possibility of generating hydrogen using photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells through finding materials for efficient light harvesting photoanodes. The goal is to develop an efficient and cost effective PEC solar cell system for direct electrolysis of water. In addition, models for hydrogen production, purification, and storage will be developed. The results obtained and the data collected will be then used to develop a smart energy management algorithm whose function is to maximize energy conservation within a managed set of appliances, thereby lowering O/M costs of the Fuel Cell power plant (FCPP), and allowing more hydrogen generation opportunities. The Smart Energy Management and Control (SEMaC) software, developed earlier, controls electrical loads in an individual home to achieve load management objectives such that the total power consumption of a typical residential home remains below the available power generated from a fuel cell. In this project, the research team will leverage the SEMaC algorithm developed earlier to create a neighborhood level control system.

  12. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices intrinsic carrier density, carrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Graphene, a material for high temperature devices ­ intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift 3.87 3 106 cm22 K22 ?T2 ), carrier drift velocity, and G mode phonon energy of graphene devices and their temperature dependencies up to 2400 K. Our results show intrinsic carrier density of graphene is an order

  13. FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen is an energy carrier, not an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as coal (preferentially with carbon sequestration), natural gas, and biomass or using nuclear energy, nuclear, coal with carbon sequestration, and natural gas. This diversity of sources makes hydrogen gas with carbon sequestration are preferred. Gasification Gasification is a process in which coal

  14. Minimizing Energy Dissipation of Matrix Multiplication Kernel on Virtex-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jang, Ju-Wook

    a uniprocessor architecture and a linear array architecture to develop energy-efficient designs energy-efficient designs for matrix multiplication. For example, for 6 Ã? 6 matrix multiplication, energy speciÃ?c modeling, energy efficient design, FPGAs. 1. INTRODUCTION With the advent of multi-million gate

  15. Carrier Density and Compensation in Semiconductors with Multi Dopants and Multi Transition Energy Levels: The Case of Cu Impurity in CdTe: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, S. H.; Ma, J.; Gessert, T. A.; Chin, K. K.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Doping is one of the most important issues in semiconductor physics. The charge carrier generated by doping can profoundly change the properties of semiconductors and their performance in optoelectronic device applications, such as solar cells. Using detailed balance theory and first-principles calculated defect formation energies and transition energy levels, we derive general formulae to calculate carrier density for semiconductors with multi dopants and multi transition energy levels. As an example, we studied CdTe doped with Cu, in which VCd, CuCd, and Cui are the dominant defects/impurities. We show that in this system, when Cu concentration increases, the doping properties of the system can change from a poor p-type, to a poorer p-type, to a better p-type, and then to a poor p-type again, in good agreement with experimental observation of CdTe-based solar cells.

  16. Carrier Density and Compensation in Semiconductors with Multi Dopants and Multi Transition Energy Levels: The Case of Cu Impurity in CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, S. H.; Ma, J.; Gessert, T. A.; Chin, K. K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Doping is one of the most important issues in semiconductor physics. The charge carrier generated by doping can profoundly change the properties of semiconductors and their performance in optoelectronic device applications, such as solar cells. Using detailed balance theory and first-principles calculated defect formation energies and transition energy levels, we derive general formulae to calculate carrier density for semiconductors with multi dopants and multi transition energy levels. As an example, we studied CdTe doped with Cu, in which V{sub Cd}, Cu{sub Cd}, and Cu{sub i} are the dominant defects/impurities. We show that in this system, when Cu concentration increases, the doping properties of the system can change from a poor p-type, to a poorer p-type, to a better p-type, and then to a poor p-type again, in good agreement with experimental observation of CdTe-based solar cells.

  17. An Adaptive Voltage Control Algorithm with Multiple Distributed Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huijuan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy resources (DE) with power electronics (PE) interfaces with the right control are capable of providing reactive power related ancillary services. Voltage regulation in particular has drawn much attention. In this paper the challenges to control multiple DEs to regulate the local voltage in distribution systems is addressed and a decentralized adaptive voltage control method is proposed. The simulation results in different system conditions show that this adaptive voltage control method is capable of satisfying the fast response speed requirement without causing oscillation or instability of the system. Since this method has high tolerance to the shortage of the system parameters and can be widely adaptive to the variable operation situations of the power systems, it is very suited for the utility application.

  18. A conservative Lagrangian scheme for solving compressible fluid flows with multiple internal energy equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, Chi-Wang

    A conservative Lagrangian scheme for solving compressible fluid flows with multiple internal energy. In some of these ap- plications, multiple internal energy equations such as those for electron, ion developed which are designed to solve the internal energy equation directly. These schemes can be easily

  19. Multiple Access and Two-way Channels with Energy Harvesting and Bi-directional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    Multiple Access and Two-way Channels with Energy Harvesting and Bi-directional Energy Cooperation@ee.psu.edu Abstract--This paper considers the multiple access and two- way channels with energy harvesting, and optimal policies were found using a two-dimensional water-filling algorithm. In this paper, the bi

  20. An Electricity Trade Model for Multiple Power Distribution Networks in Smart Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    . A microgrid is a small scale power network, which contains one or multiple types of renewable power generators complicated with the adoption of energy storage [5]. For a power network, the amount of energy generationAn Electricity Trade Model for Multiple Power Distribution Networks in Smart Energy Systems

  1. FORWARD ENERGY AND MULTIPLICITY IN AU-AU REACTIONS AT p

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    causes an increase in the neutron multiplicity. 1 The Experimental Setup The BRAHMS experiment consists multiple scattering of particles heading into the spectrometers. The multiplicity is measured by counting of this energy is from non interacting neutrons. They are used for #12;nding the interaction vertex

  2. Influence of temperature on the mechanism of carrier injection in light-emitting diodes based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prudaev, I. A., E-mail: jaia@pochta.ru; Golygin, I. Yu.; Shirapov, S. B.; Romanov, I. S.; Khludkov, S. S.; Tolbanov, O. P. [Tomsk State University (Russian Federation)] [Tomsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental current-voltage characteristics and dependences of the external quantum yield on the current density of light-emitting diodes based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells for the wide temperature range T = 10-400 K are presented. It is shown that, at low-temperatures T < 100 K, the injection of holes into the quantum wells occurs from localized acceptor states. The low-temperature injection of electrons into p-GaN occurs due to quasi-ballistic transport in the region of multiple quantum wells. An increase in temperature leads to an increase in the current which is governed by thermally activated hole and electron injection from the allowed bands of GaN.

  3. Orientation Estimation for Multiple Large Fractures by Scattering Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yang

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have done the numerical modeling of seismic response to multiple sets of vertical large fractures by using finite-difference method (FD), which can easily handle media with monoclinic anisotropy. We consider three types ...

  4. Temperature effects on the energy bandgap and conductivity effective masses of charge carriers in lead telluride from first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatapathi, S., E-mail: saran@vt.edu; Dong, B., E-mail: bind89@vt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Hin, C., E-mail: celhin@vt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We determined the temperature effects on the electronic properties of lead telluride (PbTe) such as the energy bandgap and the effective masses of charge carriers by incorporating the structural changes of the material with temperature using ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Though the first-principles DFT calculations are done at absolute zero temperatures, by incorporating the lattice thermal expansion and the distortion of Pb{sup 2+} ions from the equilibrium positions, we could determine the stable structural configuration of the PbTe system at different temperatures.

  5. Using Multiple Energy Gears in MPI Programs on a Power-Scalable Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, R. Michael

    -performance clusters, such as Green Destiny. The idea behind these clusters is to improve the energy efficiencyUsing Multiple Energy Gears in MPI Programs on a Power-Scalable Cluster Vincent W. Freeh Feng Pan to use high-performance cluster nodes that are frequency- and voltage-scalable; energy can than be saved

  6. PAN-on-Demand: Leveraging multiple radios to build self-organizing, energy-efficient PANs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flinn, Jason

    , it adapts the network struc- ture to minimize energy usage. Our results show that PAN-on- Demand reducesPAN-on-Demand: Leveraging multiple radios to build self-organizing, energy-efficient PANs Manish- area network (PAN) that balances performance and energy con- cerns by scaling the structure

  7. Entropy and multifractal analysis of multiplicity distributions from pp simulated events up to LHC energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. K. Suleymanov; M. Sumbera; I. Zborovsky

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Using three different Monte Carlo generators of high energy proton-proton collisions (HIJING, NEXUS, and PSM) we study the energy dependence of multiplicity distributions of charged particles including the LHC energy range. Results are used for calculation of the information entropy, Renyi's dimensions and other multifractal characteristics of particle production.

  8. Low temperature carrier redistribution dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badcock, T. J., E-mail: Thomas.badcock@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Dawson, P.; Davies, M. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Photon Science Institute, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Kappers, M. J.; Massabuau, F. C.-P.; Oehler, F.; Oliver, R. A.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the carrier recombination dynamics in an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure as a function of emission energy and excitation density between temperatures of 10?K and 100?K. Under relatively low levels of excitation, the photoluminescence (PL) intensity and decay time of emission on the high energy side of the luminescence spectrum decrease strongly between 10?K and 50?K. In contrast, for emission detected on the low energy side of the spectrum, the PL intensity and decay time increase over the same temperature range. These results are consistent with a thermally activated carrier redistribution process in which the (temperature dependent) average timescale for carrier transfer into or out of a localised state depends on the energy of the given state. Thus, the transfer time out of shallow, weakly localised states is considerably shorter than the arrival time into more deeply localised states. This picture is consistent with carriers hopping between localisation sites in an uncorrelated disorder potential where the density of localised states decreases with increasing localisation depth, e.g., a exponential or Gaussian distribution resulting from random alloy disorder. Under significantly higher levels of excitation, the increased occupation fraction of the localised states results in a greater average separation distance between unoccupied localised states, causing a suppression of the spectral and dynamic signatures of the hopping transfer of carriers.

  9. U-100: Google Chrome Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23,EnergyChicopeeTechnologyfactTuscarora Phase IIDOEArbitrary Code |Energy

  10. V-214: Mozilla Firefox Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartment of Energy Microsoft SecurityEnergy SEARCH-LAB has

  11. V-224: Google Chrome Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartment of Energy Microsoft SecurityEnergyDepartment ofSUSEMultiple

  12. V-051: Oracle Solaris Java Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartment of EnergyThe

  13. V-081: Wireshark Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartment of EnergyTheVulnerabilitiesDepartmentWireshark

  14. V-097: Google Chrome Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartment ofPrivileges | Department of Energy

  15. V-105: Google Chrome Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartment ofPrivileges | Department of EnergySUSEGoogle

  16. U-173: Symantec Web Gateway Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23,EnergyChicopeeTechnologyfactTuscarora PhaseArbitraryDrupalCode | Department

  17. U-179: IBM Java 7 Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23,EnergyChicopeeTechnologyfactTuscarora PhaseArbitraryDrupalCode | DepartmentIBM

  18. U-035: Adobe Flash Player Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergyTransportation WorkDecemberInjury at FY 20113: Debian

  19. U-162: Drupal Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergyTransportation WorkDecemberInjury at FY6: Adobe|2: Drupal

  20. V-208: Google Chrome Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartment of Energy Microsoft Security BulletinDepartment

  1. Nonadiabatic transition state theory and multiple potential energy surface molecular dynamics of infrequent events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    Nonadiabatic transition state theory and multiple potential energy surface molecular dynamics in the vicinity of the energy barrier, i.e., in the region of the transition state or bottleneck. In general, TST 07974 Received 7 July 1995; accepted 17 August 1995 Classical transition state theory TST provides

  2. V-083: Oracle Java Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartment of

  3. V-118: IBM Lotus Domino Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartment ofPrivileges | Department

  4. V-121: Google Chrome Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartment ofPrivileges | DepartmentDepartment of

  5. V-126: Mozilla Firefox Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartment ofPrivileges | DepartmentDepartmentAttacksMozilla

  6. T-657: Drupal Prepopulate - Multiple vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014,Zaleski -BlueprintThisVulnerabilities |Vulnerability |PROBLEM:

  7. Widget:HoverMultipleElements | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri GlobalJumpGoogleAreaMap Jump to: navigation, search

  8. U-198: IBM Lotus Expeditor Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCOSystems Analysis Success| Department ofServicesPointsInjection198: IBM Lotus

  9. Project Profile: CSP Energy Storage Solutions - Multiple Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  10. Refrigerator-Freezers (multiple defrost waiver) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010InJanuary 29, 2013RedbirdThisEvaluationsThe

  11. V-187: Mozilla Firefox Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005UNSDepartmentFebruaryPhase|PotomacDepartmentRemote

  12. Energy Efficiency of FPGAs and Programmable Processors for Matrix Multiplication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasanna, Viktor K.

    for computationally demanding applications such as those in signal processing. FPGAs, DSPs, and em- bedded RISC-efficient platform on which to base it. The designer can now choose between FPGAs, embedded processors, and DSPs. In this paper, we use high-level estimation to determine which of these platforms provides the most energy

  13. Multiple Motivations Institutional Change Principle | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProductsUptakeMultifamilyDepartment

  14. Detecting and Analyzing Multiple Moving Objects in a Crowd - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITIONPortalToDepthandCirrus-Overlapping-Waterand

  15. Accelerated Nuclear Energy Materials Development with Multiple Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fluss, M J; Bench, G

    2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental issue in nuclear energy is the changes in material properties as a consequence of time, temperature, and neutron fluence. Usually, candidate materials for nuclear energy applications are tested in nuclear reactors to understand and model the changes that arise from a combination of atomic displacements, helium and hydrogen production, and other nuclear transmutations (e.g. fission and the production of fission products). Experiments may be carried out under neutron irradiation conditions in existing nuclear materials test reactors (at rates of 10 to 20 displacements per atom (DPA) per year or burn-up rates of a few percent per year for fertile fuels), but such an approach takes much too long for many high neutron fluence scenarios (300 DPA for example) expected in reactors of the next generation. Indeed it is reasonable to say that there are no neutron sources available today to accomplish sufficiently rapid accelerated aging let alone also provide the temperature and spectral characteristics of future fast spectrum nuclear energy systems (fusion and fission both). Consequently, materials research and development progress continues to be severely limited by this bottleneck.

  16. Sandia Energy - Caterpillar, Sandia CRADA Opens Door to Multiple Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's Sequim BayCapture Home CarbonProjects

  17. Multiple Layer Graphene Optical Modulator - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA /Ml'.SolarUSAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find

  18. High Efficiency Multiple-Junction Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanfordDepartmentInnovation Portal 130221326|

  19. Integrated Inverter Control for Multiple Electric Machines - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other NewsSpin andInterim Data Changes inInnovation

  20. Structuring Materials on Multiple Length Scales for Energy Applications |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solid ... Strengthening aStructure ofof

  1. Determination of energy thresholds on an artificial retina using a multiple-pulsed laser 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephenson, Albert David

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is focused on determining single and multiple pulse ED?? for laser pulses of 200 ns duration. Energy thresholds in this experiment were determined on an artificial retina, for a variety of pulse widths and spot sizes. Due to numerous...

  2. A novel metric for measuring multiple antennas system capacity over energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs) [5] and peer to peer systems (P2P) which could be limited in energy. Nevertheless, it should be men- tioned that even the use of multiple antennas significantly improves system model where a set of NT transmit sensor nodes communicate with NR receive sensor nodes. We

  3. DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201000854 Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    *[a] 1. Introduction The dye-sensitized mesoscopic solar cell (DSC) has been inten- sively investigated for ERDs to be used in state-of-the-art dye-sensitized solar cells, they must be able to strongly absorb multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400­590 nm

  4. Determination of energy thresholds on an artificial retina using a multiple-pulsed laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephenson, Albert David

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is focused on determining single and multiple pulse ED?? for laser pulses of 200 ns duration. Energy thresholds in this experiment were determined on an artificial retina, for a variety of pulse widths and spot sizes. Due to numerous...

  5. Pipeline Carriers (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pipeline carriers transporting crude petroleum, coal, the products of crude petroleum or coal, or carbon dioxide produced in the combustion or gasification of fossil fuels are required to abide by...

  6. Energy Consumption and Jet Multiplicity from the Leading Log BFKL Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Andersen; W. J. Stirling

    2003-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the associated jet multiplicity arising from t-channel BFKL gluon evolution in forward dijet production at hadron colliders. Previous results have shown that the effect of conserving overall energy and momentum is to introduce a pdf suppression that completely compensates the predicted exponential BFKL rise with rapidity difference between the leading dijets. However, we show that there is still expected to be a significant amount of BFKL radiation, especially in the central region, and we give predictions for the multiplicity of the resulting mini-jets at the LHC.

  7. Model-based simultaneous optimization of multiple design parameters for lithium-ion batteries for maximization of energy density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    of energy density. optimization of design parameters. such as implantable cardiovascular defibrillators (ICDs) to high power/high energy applications such as hybrid carsModel-based simultaneous optimization of multiple design parameters for lithium-ion batteries

  8. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  9. Charged Particle and Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahoo, Raghunath; Behera, Nirbhay K; Nandi, Basanta K

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the charged particle and photon multiplicity, and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like...

  10. Scale-estimation of quantum coherent energy transport in multiple-minima systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tristan Farrow; Vlatko Vedral

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A generic and intuitive model for coherent energy transport in multiple minima systems coupled to a quantum mechanical bath is shown. Using a simple spin-boson system, we illustrate how a generic donor-acceptor system can be brought into resonance using a narrow band of vibrational modes, such that the transfer efficiency of an electron-hole pair (exciton) is made arbitrarily high. Coherent transport phenomena in nature are of renewed interest since the discovery that a photon captured by the light-harvesting complex (LHC) in photosynthetic organisms can be conveyed to a chemical reaction centre with near-perfect efficiency. Classical explanations of the transfer use stochastic diffusion to model the hopping motion of a photo-excited exciton. This accounts inadequately for the speed and efficiency of the energy transfer measured in a series of recent landmark experiments. Taking a quantum mechanical perspective can help capture the salient features of the efficient part of that transfer. To show the versatility of the model, we extend it to a multiple minima system comprising seven-sites, reminiscent of the widely studied Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex. We show that an idealised transport model for multiple minima coupled to a narrow-band phonon can transport energy with arbitrarily high efficiency.

  11. Energy Simulation of Integrated Multiple-Zone Variable Refrigerant Flow System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a detailed steady-state system model, to simulate the performance of an integrated five-zone variable refrigerant flow (VRF)heat pump system. The system is multi-functional, capable of space cooling, space heating, combined space cooling and water heating, and dedicated water heating. Methods were developed to map the VRF performance in each mode, based on the abundant data produced by the equipment system model. The performance maps were used in TRNSYS annual energy simulations. Using TRNSYS, we have successfully setup and run cases for a multiple-split, VRF heat pump and dehumidifier combination in 5-zone houses in 5 climates that control indoor dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity. We compared the calculated energy consumptions for the VRF heat pump against that of a baseline central air source heat pump, coupled with electric water heating and the standalone dehumidifiers. In addition, we investigated multiple control scenarios for the VRF heat pump, i.e. on/off control, variable indoor air flow rate, and using different zone temperature setting schedules, etc. The energy savings for the multiple scenarios were assessed.

  12. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava (Fremont, CA)

    2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  13. Forward Energy and Multiplicity in Au-Au reactions at sqrt{S}=130GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Murray; BRAHMS Collaboration

    2001-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For relativistic heavy ion collisions the energy flow in the collision reveals information on the equation of state of matter at high density. The BRAHMS experiment has studied the relation between multipliciity in the sidewards direction and zero degree energy using our Tile Multiplicity Array and Zero Degree Calorimeters. To understand this spectrum requires a knowledge of the coalesence of nucleons that are close in phase space. We have also studied electromagnetic collisions and compared our results to lower energy data. As the center of mass energy increases, each nucleus sees a stronger electromagnetic field resulting in more energy being absorbed. This in turn causes an increase in the neutron multiplicity.

  14. Charged Particle and Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghunath Sahoo; Aditya Nath Mishra; Nirbhay K. Behera; Basanta K. Nandi

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the charged particle and photon multiplicity, and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like charged particles, photons and the transverse energy measurement.

  15. Higher moments of the net-charge multiplicity distributions at RHIC energies in STAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nihar Ranjan Sahoo; for the STAR Collaboration

    2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the higher order moments of the net-charge multiplicity distributions for the Au+Au collisions at \\sNN = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV in the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The energy and centrality dependence of higher moments and their products (such as $\\sigma^2/M$, $S\\sigma$ and $\\kappa\\sigma^{2}$) are presented. The data are also compared to Poisson expectations and Hadron Resonance Gas model calculations.

  16. Geometrical Scaling and the Dependence of the Average Transverse Momentum on the Multiplicity and Energy for the ALICE Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larry McLerran; Michal Praszalowicz

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the recent ALICE data on charged particle multiplicity in p-p collisions, and show that it exhibits Geometrical Scaling (GS) with energy dependence given with characteristic exponent $\\lambda=0.22$. Next, starting from the GS hypothesis and using results of the Color Glass Condensate effective theory, we calculate $$ as a function $N_{\\rm ch}$ including dependence on the scattering energy $W$. We show that $$ both in p-p and p-Pb collisions scales in terms of scaling variable $(W/W_{0})^{\\lambda/(2+\\lambda)}% \\sqrt{N_{\\mathrm{ch}}/S_{\\bot}}$ where $S_{\\bot}$ is multiplicity dependent interaction area in the transverse plane. Furthermore, we discuss how the behavior of the interaction radius $R$ at large multiplicities affects the mean $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ dependence on $N_{\\rm ch}$, and make a prediction that $$ at high multiplicity should reach an energy independent limit.

  17. A Monte Carlo Study of Multiplicity Fluctuations in Pb-Pb Collisions at LHC Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramni Gupta

    2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With large volumes of data available from LHC, it has become possible to study the multiplicity distributions for the various possible behaviours of the multiparticle production in collisions of relativistic heavy ion collisions, where a system of dense and hot partons has been created. In this context it is important and interesting as well to check how well the Monte Carlo generators can describe the properties or the behaviour of multiparticle production processes. One such possible behaviour is the self-similarity in the particle production, which can be studied with the intermittency studies and further with chaoticity/erraticity, in the heavy ion collisions. We analyse the behaviour of erraticity index in central Pb-Pb collisions at centre of mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon using the AMPT monte carlo event generator, following the recent proposal by R.C. Hwa and C.B. Yang, concerning the local multiplicity fluctuation study as a signature of critical hadronization in heavy-ion collisions. We report the values of erraticity index for the two versions of the model with default settings and their dependence on the size of the phase space region. Results presented here may serve as a reference sample for the experimental data from heavy ion collisions at these energies.

  18. Department of Energy, Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity, Multiple Award, Energy Savings Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E L D * A L ALGALImplementationIncrease|2

  19. The impact of energy conservation in transport models on the $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ multiplicity ratio in heavy-ion collisions and the symmetry energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cozma, M D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The charged pion multiplicity ratio in intermediate energy central heavy-ion collisions has been proposed as a suitable observable to constrain the high density dependence of the isovector part of the equation of state, with contradicting results. Using an upgraded version of the T\\"ubingen QMD transport model, which allows the conservation of energy at a local or global level by accounting for the potential energy of hadrons in two-body collisions and leading thus to particle production threshold shifts, we demonstrate that compatible constraints for the symmetry energy stiffness can be extracted from pion multiplicity and elliptic flow observables. Nevertheless, pion multiplicities are proven to be highly sensitive to the yet unknown isovector part of the in-medium $\\Delta$(1232) potential which hinders presently the extraction of meaningful information on the high density dependence of the symmetry energy. A solution to this problem together with the inclusion of contributions presently neglected, such as ...

  20. Experiment and Simulation of Dynamic Voltage Regulation in Multiple Distributed Energy Resources Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yan [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy (DE) resources are power sources located near load centers and equipped with power electronics converters to interface with the grid, therefore it is feasible for DE to provide reactive power (along with active power) locally for dynamic voltage regulation. In this paper, a synchronous condenser and a microturbine with an inverter interface are implemented in parallel in a distribution system to regulate the local voltage. Developed voltage control schemes for the inverter and the synchronous condenser are presented. Experimental results show that both the inverter and the synchronous condenser can regulate the local voltage instantaneously although the dynamic response of the inverter is much faster than the synchronous condenser. In a system with multiple DEs performing local voltage regulation, the interaction between the DEs is studied. The simulation results show the relationship between the voltages in the system and the reactive power required for the voltage regulation. Also, integrated voltage regulation (multiple DEs performing voltage regulation) can increase the voltage regulation capability of DEs and reduce the capital and operating costs.

  1. Monitoring method and apparatus using high-frequency carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for monitoring an electrical-motor-driven device by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto the power line current. The method is accomplished by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto an AC power line current. The AC power line current supplies the electrical-motor-driven device with electrical energy. As a result, electrical and mechanical characteristics of the electrical-motor-driven device modulate the high frequency carrier signal and the AC power line current. The high frequency carrier signal is then monitored, conditioned and demodulated. Finally, the modulated high frequency carrier signal is analyzed to ascertain the operating condition of the electrical-motor-driven device.

  2. Monitoring method and apparatus using high-frequency carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, H.D.

    1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for monitoring an electrical-motor-driven device by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto the power line current. The method is accomplished by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto an AC power line current. The AC power line current supplies the electrical-motor-driven device with electrical energy. As a result, electrical and mechanical characteristics of the electrical-motor-driven device modulate the high frequency carrier signal and the AC power line current. The high frequency carrier signal is then monitored, conditioned and demodulated. Finally, the modulated high frequency carrier signal is analyzed to ascertain the operating condition of the electrical-motor-driven device. 6 figs.

  3. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as clean coal technologies · Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells

  4. Comparison of proton and neutron carrier removal rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pease, R.L.; Enlow, E.W.; Dinger, G.L.; Marshall, P.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Displacement damage induced carrier removal rates for proton irradiations in the energy range 10-175 MeV were compared to 1 MeV equivalent neutrons using power MOSFETs as a test vehicle. The results showed that, within experimental error, the degradation mechanisms were qualitatively similar and the ratio of proton to neutron carrier removal rates as a function of proton energy correlate with a calculation based on nonionization energy loss in silicon. For exposures under junction bias, p-type silicon was found to have a smaller carrier removal rate for both proton and neutron irradiations, whereas, for n-type silicon, junction bias had little effect on the carrier removal rate.

  5. On Deployment of Multiple Base Stations for Energy-Efficient Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Yunyue; Wu, Qishi; Cai, Xiaoshan; Du, Xiaojiang; Kwon, Ki-Hyeon

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data transmission from sensor nodes to a base station or a sink node often incurs significant energy consumption, which critically affects network lifetime. We generalize and solve the problem of deploying multiple base stations to maximize network lifetime in terms of two different metrics under one-hop and multihop communication models. In the one-hop communication model, the sensors far away from base stations always deplete their energy much faster than others. We propose an optimal solution and a heuristic approach based on the minimal enclosing circle algorithm to deploy a base station at the geometric center of each cluster. In themore »multihop communication model, both base station location and data routing mechanism need to be considered in maximizing network lifetime. We propose an iterative algorithm based on rigorous mathematical derivations and use linear programming to compute the optimal routing paths for data transmission. Simulation results show the distinguished performance of the proposed deployment algorithms in maximizing network lifetime.« less

  6. Multiple jet production at low transverse energies in pp-bar collisions at s?=1.8TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Coppage, Don; Hebert, C.

    2003-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present data on multiple production of jets with transverse energies near 20 GeV in pp-bar collisions at s?=1.8TeV. QCD calculations in the parton-shower approximation of PYTHIA and HERWIG and the next-to-leading order approximation of JETRAD...

  7. 336 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 20, NO. 2, JUNE 2005 Multiple Signature Processing-Based Fault Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Mo-Yuen

    336 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 20, NO. 2, JUNE 2005 Multiple Signature Processing-specific frequencies are settled around the fundamental stator current frequency and are termed lower and upper-input processing capabilities. The focus of this paper is to provide a new fault detection methodology for broken

  8. Large elliptic flow in low multiplicity pp collisions at LHC energy $\\sqrt{s}$=14 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2010-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the possibility of observing elliptic flow in low multiplicity events in central pp collisions at LHC energy, $\\sqrt{s}$=14 TeV. It is assumed that the initial interactions produces a number of hot spots. Hydrodynamical evolution of two or more hot spots can generate sufficiently large elliptic flow to be accessible experimentally in 4-th order cumulant analysis.

  9. DOE Guidance on the Statutory Definition of Energy/Water Conservation Measures (ECMs), and Determining Life-Cycle Cost-Effectiveness for ESPCs with Multiple or Single ECMs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document provides guidance on the statutory definition of "energy conservation measure" (ECM) for the purpose of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC), including clarification that multiple ECMs under the same ESPC may be "bundled" when evaluating life-cycle cost-effectiveness. It also clarifies that an ESPC may include, or be limited to, a single ECM applied across multiple federal buildings and facilities.

  10. Hot carrier diffusion in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruzicka, Brian Andrew; Wang, Shuai; Werake, Lalani Kumari; Weintrub, Ben; Loh, Kian Ping; Zhao, Hui

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an optical study of charge transport in graphene. Diffusion of hot carriers in epitaxial graphene and reduced graphene oxide samples are studied using an ultrafast pump-probe technique with a high spatial resolution. Spatiotemporal...

  11. Stable wafer-carrier system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T; Beese, Steven C

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a wafer-carrier system used in a deposition chamber for carrying wafers. The wafer-carrier system includes a base susceptor and a top susceptor nested inside the base susceptor with its wafer-mounting side facing the base susceptor's wafer-mounting side, thereby forming a substantially enclosed narrow channel. The base susceptor provides an upward support to the top susceptor.

  12. GUI Application for ATCA-based LLRF Carrier Board Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wychowaniak, Jan; Predki, Pawel; Napieralski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard describes an efficient and powerful platform, implementation of which was adopted to be used as a base for control systems in high energy physics. The ATCA platform is considered to be applied for the X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL), being built at Deutsches Electronen- Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany. The Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control system is composed of a few ATCA Carrier Boards. Carrier Board hosts Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC), which is developed in compliance with the PICMG specifications. IPMC is responsible for management and monitoring of sub-modules installed on Carrier Boards and pluggable Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) modules. The ATCA Shelf Manager is the main control unit of a single ATCA crate, responsible for all power and fan modules and Carrier Boards installed in ATCA shelf. The device provides a system administrator with a set of control and diagnostic capabilities regarding the ...

  13. Application of Multiple-Speed and Special Motors for Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pastor, E.; Kuznetsov, S. B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past several years substantial use has been made of a class of motors developed for application in driving loads which operate at multiple speed points to gain efficiency. While adjustable frequency power supplies may be more attractive...

  14. Energy Efficient Control of a Boosting System with Multiple Variable-Speed Pumps in Parallel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenyu

    changes of (system head) set-points and operating conditions. After a number of static models- mization of multiple pumps, and proposed a Mixer Integer NonLinear Programming (MINLP) solution

  15. The impact of energy conservation in transport models on the $?^-/?^+$ multiplicity ratio in heavy-ion collisions and the symmetry energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. D. Cozma

    2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The charged pion multiplicity ratio in intermediate energy central heavy-ion collisions has been proposed as a suitable observable to constrain the high density dependence of the isovector part of the equation of state, with contradicting results. Using an upgraded version of the T\\"ubingen QMD transport model, which allows the conservation of energy at a local or global level by accounting for the potential energy of hadrons in two-body collisions and leading thus to particle production threshold shifts, we demonstrate that compatible constraints for the symmetry energy stiffness can be extracted from pion multiplicity and elliptic flow observables. Nevertheless, pion multiplicities are proven to be highly sensitive to the yet unknown isovector part of the in-medium $\\Delta$(1232) potential which hinders presently the extraction of meaningful information on the high density dependence of the symmetry energy. A solution to this problem together with the inclusion of contributions presently neglected, such as in-medium pion potentials and retardation effects, are needed for a final verdict on this topic.

  16. Fiber Bulk Gaseous Carriers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy June 6-7, 2013 Meeting Federal RegisterCoal1IntoFermiDon Baldwin,

  17. Systematics of the mean energy and the mean multiplicity of prompt neutrons originating from {sup 232}Th fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svirin, M. I., E-mail: svirin@ippe.ru [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The cross section for the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th target nuclei, {sigma}{sub f} (E{sub n}), was described within statistical theory. The spectra of the mean multiplicity, v-bar (E{sub n}), and the mean energy, E-bar(E{sub n}), of secondary neutrons accompanying {sup 232}Th fission induced by neutrons of energy extending up to E{sub n} = 20 MeV were analyzed on the basis of the chance structure of the cross section.

  18. Energy and centrality dependence of particle multiplicity in heavy ion collisions from $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 20 to 2760 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leo Zhou; George S. F. Stephans

    2014-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The centrality dependence of midrapidity charged-particle multiplicities at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV from CMS are compared to PHOBOS data at 200 and 19.6 GeV. The results are first fitted with a two-component model which parameterizes the separate contributions of nucleon participants and nucleon-nucleon collisions. A more direct comparison involves ratios of multiplicity densities per participant pair between the different collision energies. The results support and extend earlier indications that the influences of centrality and collision energy on midrapidity charged-particle multiplicities are to a large degree independent.

  19. A parameterisation of the flux and energy spectrum of single and multiple muons in deep water/ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Bazzotti; S. Biagi; G. Carminati; S. Cecchini; T. Chiarusi; G. Giacomelli; A. Margiotta; M. Sioli; M. Spurio

    2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper parametric formulas are presented to evaluate the flux of atmospheric muons in the range of vertical depth between 1.5 to 5 km of water equivalent (km w.e.) and up to 85^o for the zenith angle. We take into account their arrival in bundles with different muon multiplicities. The energy of muons inside bundles is then computed considering the muon distance from the bundle axis. This parameterisation relies on a full Monte Carlo simulation of primary Cosmic Ray (CR) interactions, shower propagation in the atmosphere and muon transport in deep water [1]. The primary CR flux and interaction models, in the range in which they can produce muons which may reach 1.5 km w.e., suffer from large experimental uncertainties. We used a primary CR flux and an interaction model able to correctly reproduce the flux, the multiplicity distribution, the spatial distance between muons as measured by the underground MACRO experiment.

  20. Ocean Heat Transport, Sea Ice, and Multiple Climate States: Insights from Energy Balance Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Brian Edward James

    Several extensions of energy balance models (EBMs) are explored in which (i) sea ice acts to insulate the

  1. Can Impact Excitation Explain Efficient Carrier Multiplication in Carbon Nanotube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabani, Eran

    ramifications for solar cells and other light-harvesting technologies.2 For example, it is expected that if more a schematic mechanism by which charges are accelerated by the internal diode field gaining energ

  2. Photo-excitation Cascade and Multiple Carrier Generation in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tielrooij, K. J.

    The conversion of light into free electron–hole pairs constitutes the key process in the fields of photodetection and photovoltaics. The efficiency of this process depends on the competition of different relaxation pathways ...

  3. Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers in electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vukmirovic, Nenad

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers inand the e?ect of carrier heating in disordered conjugatedinto the e?ect of carrier heating in conjugated polymers –

  4. Carrier-envelope phase dynamics of octave-spanning titanium:sapphire lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sander, Michelle Yen-Ling

    The carrier-envelope phase dynamics of octave-spanning Ti:sapphire lasers are analyzed based on a one-dimensional laser. It is found that self-steepening is the major contributor to the energy dependent carrier-envelope ...

  5. Energy Minimization Using Multiple Supply Voltages Jui-Ming Chang and Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    to each operation in a data ow graph so as to minimize the average energy consumption for given com more transistors on a single chip. Unless power consumption is dramatically reduced, the resulting heat operation in a data ow graph (DFG) and schedule various operations so as to minimize the energy consumption

  6. Public views on multiple dimensions of security : nuclear waepons, terrorism, energy, and the environment : 2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  7. Evaluation of excitation energy and spin from light charged particles multiplicities in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steckmeyer, J C; Grotowski, K; Pawowski, P; Aiello, S; Anzalone, A; Bini, M; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Cardella, G; Casini, G; Cavallaro, S; Charvet, J L; Dayras, R; De Filippo, E; Durand, D; Femin, S; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Geraci, M; Giustolisi, F; Guazzoni, P; Iacono-Manno, M; Lanzalone, G; Lanzan, G; Le Neindre, N; Lo Nigro, S; Lo Piano, F; Olmi, A; Pagano, A; Papa, M; Pârlog, M; Pasquali, G; Piantelli, S; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Porto, F; Rivet, M F; Rizzo, F; Rosato, E; Roy, R; Sambataro, S; Sperduto, M L; Stefanini, A A; Sutera, C; Tamain, B; Vient, E; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P; Zetta, L

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple procedure for evaluating the excitation energy and the spin transfer in heavy-ion dissipative collisions is proposed. It is based on a prediction of the GEMINI evaporation code : for a nucleus with a given excitation energy, the average number of emitted protons decreases with increasing spin, whereas the average number of alpha particles increases. Using that procedure for the reaction 107Ag+58Ni at 52 MeV/nucleon, the excitation energy and spin of quasi-projectiles have been evaluated. The results obtained in this way have been compared with the predictions of a model describing the primary dynamic stage of heavy-ion collisions.

  8. V-080: Apple iOS Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartment of EnergyTheVulnerabilitiesDepartment

  9. U-022: Apple QuickTime Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23,EnergyChicopeeTechnologyfactTuscarora Phase IIDOE O 484.1Department

  10. U-042: Mac RealPlayer Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergyTransportation WorkDecemberInjury at FY 20113: Debian42: Mac

  11. U-146: Adobe Reader/Acrobat Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergyTransportation WorkDecemberInjury at FY6: Adobe

  12. Multiple metrics for quantifying the intensity of water consumption of energy production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spang, E S

    Discussion of the environmental implications of worldwide energy demand is currently dominated by the effects of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) emissions on global climate. At the regional scale, however, water resource ...

  13. V-211: IBM iNotes Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCOSystems Analysis Success|SustainableDepartmentregulations.gov

  14. Analysis of savings due to multiple energy retrofits in a large office building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLain, H.A.; Leigh, S.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this analysis was to characterize the benefits of the individual energy conservation measures that were applied to an existing large office building. The measures included those for lighting; those for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; and an energy management and control system (EMCS). The purpose was to improve our understanding of the impacts of the individual measures in contrast to the entire group of measures that were installed during a building improvement project. The scope of the study was primarily analytical; it used an hourly building simulation model to estimate the benefits. Input parameters for this model were adjusted so that the calculated results matched closely with the available monthly electrical billing data. Supplemental building energy use data were collected and used to improve the adjustment of these parameters. The benefits of the individual measures were then calculated using the matched model.

  15. Energy dependence of hadron spectra and multiplicities in p+p interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pu?awski, Szymon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS aims to discover the critical point of strongly interacting matter and study the properties of the onset of deconfinement. In order to reach these goals measurements of hadron production properties are performed in nucleus-nucleus, proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions as a function of collision energy and size of the colliding nuclei. Inclusive spectra of identified hadrons in p+p interactions at the SPS energies are presented as a function of transverse momentum, transverse mass and rapidity. The results are compared with the world data and theoretical models.

  16. File:BOEMRE atlantic.OCS.multiple.use.map.2003.pdf | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation,Size of this preview: 463Map.pdf Jump to:Information

  17. T-597: WordPress Multiple Security Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014,Zaleski -BlueprintThisVulnerabilities | DepartmentDepartment ofWordPress

  18. V-041: Red Hat CloudForms Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCOSystems Analysis Success|SustainableDepartmentregulations.gov to1: Red Hat

  19. V-191: Apple Mac OS X Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005UNSDepartmentFebruaryPhase|PotomacDepartmentRemoteVulnerabilityApple has

  20. V-041: Red Hat CloudForms Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUE 08:59Capability for PHEVs |

  1. V-191: Apple Mac OS X Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUE 08:59Capability for2:ofDepartment|Attacks |1: Apple

  2. V-211: IBM iNotes Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUE 08:59CapabilityVulnerabilities | Department1: IBM

  3. Improved Performance of Energy Window Ratio Criteria Obtained Using Multiple Windows at Radiation Portal Monitoring Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weier, Dennis R.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Ely, James H.; Bates, Derrick J.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors are being used to detect radioactive target materials in vehicles transporting cargo. As vehicles pass through the portal monitors, they generate count profiles over time that can be compared to the average panel background counts obtained just prior to the time the vehicle entered the area of the monitors. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in support of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and U.S. Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), has accumulated considerable data regarding such background radiation and vehicle profiles from portal installations. Energy window criteria have been shown to increase sensitivity to certain types of target radioactive sources while also controlling to a manageable level the rate of false or nuisance alarms. First generation equipment had only two-window capability, and while energy windowing for such systems was shown to be useful for detecting certain types of sources, it was subsequently found that improved performance could be obtained with more windows. Second generation equipment instead has more windows and can thus support additional energy window criteria which can be shown to be sensitive to a wider set of target sources. Detection likelihoods are generated for various sources and energy window criteria, as well as for gross count decision criteria, based on computer simulated injections of sources into archived vehicle profiles. (PIET-43741-TM-534)

  4. Performance-Energy Tradeoffs for Matrix Multiplication on FPGA-Based Mixed-Mode Chip Multiprocessors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziavras, Sotirios G.

    presents our performance and energy study on an in-house developed FPGA- based mixed-mode chip-7]. There are two practical computing paradigms in parallel processing, namely SIMD and MIMD. SIMD's superior ability for data parallelism, often enhanced with low inter-PE communication and synchronization overheads

  5. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Gassman, Richard A. (Greensboro, NC); Chu, Dahwey (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  6. How can we tell whether dark energy is composed by multiple fields?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vardanyan, Valeri

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dark energy is often assumed to be composed by a single scalar field. The background cosmic expansion is not sufficient to determine whether this is true or not. We study multi-field scalar-tensor models with a general dark matter source and write the observable modified gravity parameters (effective gravitational constant and anisotropic stress) in the form of a ratio of polynomials in the Fourier wavenumber k of order 2N, where N is the number of scalar fields. By comparing these observables to real data it is in principle possible to determine the number of dark energy scalar fields coupled to gravity. We also show that there are no realistic non-trivial cases in which the order of the polynomials is reduced.

  7. Noise-induced quantum coherence in photosynthetic complexes with multiple energy transfer pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri V. Voronine; Konstantin E. Dorfman; Bin Cao; Amitabh Joshi

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically investigate exciton relaxation dynamics in molecular aggregates based on model photosynthetic complexes under various conditions of incoherent excitation. We show that noise-induced quantum coherence is generated between spatially-separated exciton states which belong to the same or different energy transfer pathways, coupled via real and virtual transfer processes. Such quantum coherence effects may be used to improve light-harvesting efficiency and to reveal quantum phenomena in biology.

  8. Event simulations in a transport model for intermediate energy heavy ion collisions: Applications to multiplicity distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallik, S; Chaudhuri, G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform transport model calculations for central collisions of mass 120 on mass 120 at laboratory beam energy in the range 20 MeV/nucleon to 200 MeV/nucleon. A simplified yet accurate method allows calculation of fluctuations in systems much larger than what was considered feasible in a well-known and already existing model. The calculations produce clusters. The distribution of clusters is remarkably similar to that obtained in equilibrium statistical model.

  9. Event simulations in a transport model for intermediate energy heavy ion collisions: Applications to multiplicity distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Mallik; S. Das Gupta; G. Chaudhuri

    2015-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform transport model calculations for central collisions of mass 120 on mass 120 at laboratory beam energy in the range 20 MeV/nucleon to 200 MeV/nucleon. A simplified yet accurate method allows calculation of fluctuations in systems much larger than what was considered feasible in a well-known and already existing model. The calculations produce clusters. The distribution of clusters is remarkably similar to that obtained in equilibrium statistical model.

  10. Nonlinear absorption and carrier dynamics in slab-coupled optical waveguide amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ippen, Erich P.

    Limitations imposed on the saturation energy of high-power slab-coupled optical waveguide amplifiers were studied for pulsed signal transmission. Loss due to the two-photon absorption and free-carrier absorption processes ...

  11. Sandia Energy - Sandia Maps Multiple Paths to Cleaner, Low-Temp Diesels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution GridDocuments HomeDatabase on Engine Fuel

  12. AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation of Well at

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s Reply Comments AT&T,FACT S HEETand Inspection ReportAlmo:

  13. Analysis of carrier transport and carrier trapping in organic diodes with polyimide-6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene double-layer by charge modulation spectroscopy and optical second harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Eunju, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Nanosensor and Biotechnology, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Taguchi, Dai, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the carrier transport and carrier trapping in indium tin oxide/polyimide (PI)/6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene)/Au diodes by using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS) and time-resolved electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (TR-EFISHG) measurements. TR-EFISHG directly probes the spatial carrier behaviors in the diodes, and CMS is useful in explaining the carrier motion with respect to energy. The results clearly indicate that the injected carriers move across TIPS-pentacene thorough the molecular energy states of TIPS-pentacene and accumulate at the PI/TIPS-pentacene interface. However, some carriers are trapped in the PI layers. These findings take into account the capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the diodes.

  14. CARRIER/CASK HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives casks on railcars and legal-weight trucks (LWTs) (transporters) that transport loaded casks and empty overpacks to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) from the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Casks that come to the MGR on heavy-haul trucks (HHTs) are transferred onto railcars before being brought into the Carrier/Cask Handling System. The system is the interfacing system between the railcars and LWTs and the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) and Canister Transfer System (CTS). The Carrier/Cask Handling System removes loaded casks from the cask transporters and transfers the casks to a transfer cart for either the ATS or CTS, as appropriate, based on cask contents. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives the returned empty casks from the ATS and CTS and mounts the casks back onto the transporters for reshipment. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount loaded casks back onto the transporters and remove empty casks from the transporters. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives overpacks from the ATS loaded with canisters that have been cut open and emptied and mounts the overpacks back onto the transporters for disposal. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount empty overpacks back onto the transporters and remove loaded overpacks from them. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is located within the Carrier Bay of the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of cranes, hoists, manipulators, and supporting equipment. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is designed with the tooling and fixtures necessary for handling a variety of casks. The Carrier/Cask Handling System performance and reliability are sufficient to support the shipping and emplacement schedules for the MGR. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Transport System, ATS, and CTS as noted above. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for building structures and space allocations. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical System for electrical power.

  15. Experimental demonstration of hot-carrier photo-current in an InGaAs quantum well solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, L. C.; Walters, R. J. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Führer, M. F.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J. [Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An unambiguous observation of hot-carrier photocurrent from an InGaAs single quantum well solar cell is reported. Simultaneous photo-current and photoluminescence measurements were performed for incident power density 0.04–3?kW cm{sup ?2}, lattice temperature 10?K, and forward bias 1.2?V. An order of magnitude photocurrent increase was observed for non-equilibrium hot-carrier temperatures >35?K. This photocurrent activation temperature is consistent with that of equilibrium carriers in a lattice at elevated temperature. The observed hot-carrier photo-current is extracted from the well over an energy selective GaAs barrier, thus integrating two essential components of a hot-carrier solar cell: a hot-carrier absorber and an energy selective contact.

  16. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  17. Clean Energy and the Electric System: Assessing the Many Benefits of State and Local Clean Energy Initiatives Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Reducing energy demand and/ or increasing renewable energy generation from state and local clean energy initiatives—such as goals, standards, codes, funds and programs—can generate many benefits including: • Security, diversity, and overall reliability improvements for the electric system. ••Improved environmental quality, human health, and quality of life. ••Positive economic gains through energy costs saved, avoided medical costs, higher disposable incomes, increased labor productivity, and more jobs. This brochure is part of a series and focuses on electric system benefits. What’s Inside: • Why assess electric system benefits? • How can state and local governments estimate potential electric system benefits? • Quantitative examples of how clean energy initiatives result in direct energy benefits. • How to find more information. What are clean energy initiatives? Clean energy initiatives are policies and programs that state and local governments are using to save energy, improve air quality, reduce carbon emissions, support electric system reliability and security, and improve economic development. Examples include: Energy efficiency policies that reduce demand for energy, such as: Building codes for energy efficiency in both commercial and residential buildings; energy efficiency portfolio standards; public benefit funds for energy efficiency; and appliance efficiency standards. Energy supply policies that increase the use of renewables and clean sources, such as: Clean distributed generation and net metering interconnection standards; output-based environmental regulations; public benefit funds for clean energy supply; combined heat and power; and renewable portfolio standards. Clean energy initiatives reduce demand for fossil-fuel powered electricity and increase electricity generated with clean, renewable energy, contributing to a less polluting, more reliable and affordable electric system. Specifically, energy efficiency and/or renewable energy are resources that can: Avoid costs typically associated with conventional generation, including: Fuel, variable operation, and maintenance costs; emissions allowances; costs of emission Greenhouse gas (GHG) related policies that measure or limit emissions, such as: GHG registries, mandatory GHG reporting; CO offset requirements;

  18. Air, Health, Clean Energy, and Related Economic Impacts: Assessing the Many Benefits of State and Local Clean Energy Initiatives Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Reducing energy demand and/or increasing renewable energy generation from state and local clean energy initiatives—such as goals, standards, codes, funds, and programs—can generate many benefits, including: ••Security, diversity, and overall reliability improvements for the electric system. ••Improved environmental quality, human health, and quality of life. ••Positive economic gains through energy costs saved, avoided medical costs, higher disposable incomes, increased labor productivity, and more jobs. This brief is part of a series and focuses on environmental and human health benefits. State and local governments can analyze their clean energy initiatives using methods and tools described in EPA’s Assessing the

  19. Economy: Clean Energy and the Assessing the Many Benefits of State and Local Clean Energy Initiatives Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Reducing energy demand and increasing renewable energy generation from state and local clean energy initiatives—such as goals, standards, codes, funds, and programs—generate many benefits including: ••Security, diversity, and overall reliability improvements for the electric system. ••Improved environmental quality, human health, and quality of life. ••Increased economic prosperity. This brochure is part of a series and focuses on economic benefits. What are the economic benefits of clean energy? Clean energy initiatives, including those that advance energy efficiency, renewable energy and clean distributed generation can: ?Lower ? energy costs. ?Increase ? personal disposable income. ?Increase ? revenue for businesses. ?Increase ? income, employment, and output. ?Reduce ? fuel costs and new electric power plant construction costs. ?Reduce ? health care costs as a result of better air quality and public health. How do clean energy initiatives benefit the economy? ?Direct ? Economic Benefits: Companies that provide the equipment, technologies, and services needed to implement an initiative benefit from increased demand, which increases their revenue and their ability to hire more people. In the case of energy efficiency, consumers and companies both benefit by spending less money on electricity. ?Indirect ? Economic Benefits: Suppliers to clean energy equipment and service providers benefit as demand for their inputs and revenues increase. With higher demand, these suppliers may also hire more workers. ?Induced ? Economic Benefits: Income generated from the direct and indirect effects is spent in the regional economy, such as when employees use their paychecks to buy groceries, eat out, and entertain themselves, all of which support jobs in those sectors. What’s Inside: • Why assess the economic benefits of clean energy? • How can policy makers estimate the macroeconomic benefits of clean energy? • A Benefits Flash with quantitative examples of how clean energy initiatives result in economic, air quality, and public health benefits. • Where to go for more information. Direct economic benefits of a wind initiative could increase: • Sales of wind turbines. • Revenue of local turbine manufacturers.

  20. R.H. Williams, Decarbonized fossil energy carriers and their energy technological competitors, prepared for the IPCC Workshop on Carbon Capture and Storage, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, 18-21 November 2002 (1/22/03).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    atmospheric CO2 in the range 450-550 ppmv requires deep reductions in CO2 emissions for both electricity from water using carbon-free (renewable or nuclear) electricity or heat sources. Although CO2 capture and economic growth. Achieving such a goal would require reducing CO2 emissions from the energy system relative

  1. Simplified 2DEG carrier concentration model for composite barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Palash, E-mail: d.palash@gmail.com; Biswas, Dhrubes, E-mail: d.palash@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur - 721302, West Bengal (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The self consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations is used along with the total charge depletion model and applied with a novel approach of composite AlGaN barrier based HEMT heterostructure. The solution leaded to a completely new analytical model for Fermi energy level vs. 2DEG carrier concentration. This was eventually used to demonstrate a new analytical model for the temperature dependent 2DEG carrier concentration in AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

  2. aircraft carrier program: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Consumption of an Aircraft Carrier . Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Speed and propulsion fuel consumption characteristics of United States aircraft carriers are...

  3. Carrier Density Modulation in Ge Heterostructure by Ferroelectric Switching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponath, Patrick [University of Texas at Austin; Fredrickson, Kurt [University of Texas at Austin; Posadas, Agham B. [University of Texas at Austin; Ren, Yuan [University of Texas at Austin; Vasudevan, Rama K [ORNL; Okatan, Mahmut Baris [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Aoki, Toshihiro [Arizona State University; McCartney, Martha [Arizona State University; Smith, David J [Arizona State University; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Lai, Keji [University of Texas at Austin; Demkov, Alexander A. [University of Texas at Austin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of nonvolatile logic through direct coupling of spontaneous ferroelectric polarization with semiconductor charge carriers is nontrivial, with many issues, including epitaxial ferroelectric growth, demonstration of ferroelectric switching, and measurable semiconductor modulation. Here we report a true ferroelectric field effect carrier density modulation in an underlying Ge(001) substrate by switching of the ferroelectric polarization in the epitaxial c-axis-oriented BaTiO3 (BTO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Ge. Using density functional theory, we demonstrate that switching of BTO polarization results in a large electric potential change in Ge. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy confirms the interface sharpness, and BTO tetragonality. Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) indicates the absence of any low permittivity interlayer at the interface with Ge. Using piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM), we confirm the presence of fully switchable, stable ferroelectric polarization in BTO that appears to be single domain. Using microwave impedance microscopy (MIM), we clearly demonstrate a ferroelectric field effect.

  4. Metal Organic Heat Carriers for Enhanced Geothermal Systems | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMayEnergy Metal Organic Heat Carriers for

  5. MULTIPLE WELL VARIABLE RATE WELL TEST ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM THE AUBURN UNIVERSITY THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doughty, Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    experimental Thermal energy storage in confined aquifers. ©lAUBURN UNIVERSITY THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE PROGRM1 Christineseries of aquifer thermal energy storage field experiments.

  6. Optical Nonlinearities and Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimov, V.; McBranch, D.; Schwarz, C.

    1998-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-dimensional semiconductors have attracted great interest due to the potential for tailoring their linear and nonlinear optical properties over a wide-range. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC's) represent a class of quasi-zero-dimensional objects or quantum dots. Due to quantum cordhement and a large surface-to-volume ratio, the linear and nonlinear optical properties, and the carrier dynamics in NC's are significantly different horn those in bulk materials. napping at surface states can lead to a fast depopulation of quantized states, accompanied by charge separation and generation of local fields which significantly modifies the nonlinear optical response in NC's. 3D carrier confinement also has a drastic effect on the energy relaxation dynamics. In strongly confined NC's, the energy-level spacing can greatly exceed typical phonon energies. This has been expected to significantly inhibit phonon-related mechanisms for energy losses, an effect referred to as a phonon bottleneck. It has been suggested recently that the phonon bottleneck in 3D-confined systems can be removed due to enhanced role of Auger-type interactions. In this paper we report femtosecond (fs) studies of ultrafast optical nonlinearities, and energy relaxation and trap ping dynamics in three types of quantum-dot systems: semiconductor NC/glass composites made by high temperature precipitation, ion-implanted NC's, and colloidal NC'S. Comparison of ultrafast data for different samples allows us to separate effects being intrinsic to quantum dots from those related to lattice imperfections and interface properties.

  7. Atmospheric multiple scattering of fluorescence light from extensive air showers and effect of the aerosol size on the reconstruction of energy and depth of maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Louedec; J. Colombi

    2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The reconstruction of the energy and the depth of maximum $X_{\\rm max}$ of an extensive air shower depends on the multiple scattering of fluorescence photons in the atmosphere. In this work, we explain how atmospheric aerosols, and especially their size, scatter the fluorescence photons during their propagation. Using a Monte Carlo simulation for the scattering of light, the dependence on the aerosol conditions of the multiple scattered light contribution to the recorded signal is fully parameterised. A clear dependence on the aerosol size is proposed for the first time. Finally, using this new parameterisation, the effect of atmospheric aerosols on the energy and on the $X_{\\rm max}$ reconstructions is presented for a vertical extensive air shower observed by a ground-based detector at $30~$km: for typical aerosol conditions, multiple scattering leads to a systematic over-estimation of $5\\pm1.5\\%$ for the energy and $4.0\\pm 1.5~$g/cm$^2$ for the $X_{\\rm max}$, where the uncertainties refer to a variation of the aerosol size.

  8. Beam energy and centrality dependence of the statistical moments of the net-charge and net-kaon multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at STAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel McDonald; for the STAR Collaboration

    2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In part to search for a possible critical point (CP) in the phase diagram of hot nuclear matter, a Beam Energy Scan was performed at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The STAR experiment collected significant Au+Au data sets at beam energies, $\\sqrt{{\\rm s}_{\\rm NN}}$, of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV. Lattice and phenomenological calculations suggest that the presence of a CP might result in divergences of the thermodynamic susceptibilities and correlation length. The statistical moments of the multiplicity distributions of particles reflecting conserved quantities, such as net-charge and net-strangeness, are expected to depend sensitively on these correlation lengths, making them attractive tools in the search for a possible critical point. The centrality and beam-energy dependence of the statistical moments of the net-charge multiplicity distributions will be discussed. The observables studied include the lowest four statistical moments (mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis) and the products of these moments. The measured moments of the net-kaon multiplicity distributions will also be presented. These will be compared to the predictions from approaches lacking critical behavior, such as the Hadron Resonance Gas model and Poisson statistics.

  9. Potential Carriers andPotential Carriers and Approaches for HydrogenApproaches for Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Refueling Type On-Board Storage Type Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen · Pipeline · Low-P Tube Trailer · HighPotential Carriers andPotential Carriers and Approaches for HydrogenApproaches for Hydrogen © 2007 TIAX LLC Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Meeting May 8-9, 2007 Columbia, Maryland Matthew Hooks Stefan

  10. SLS complementary logic devices with increase carrier mobility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaffin, R.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1991-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In an electronic device comprising a semiconductor material and having at least one performance characteristic which is limited by the mobility of holes in the semiconductor material, said mobility being limited because of a valence band degeneracy among high-mobility and low-mobility energy levels accessible to said holes at the energy-momentum space maximum, an improvement is provided wherein the semiconductor material is a strained layer superlattice (SLS) whose layer compositions and layer thicknesses are selected so that the strain on the layers predominantly containing said at least one carrier type splits said degeneracy and modifies said energy levels around said energy-momentum space maximum in a manner whereby said limitation on the mobility of said holes is alleviated. 5 figures.

  11. Carrier redistribution between different potential sites in semipolar (202{sup ¯}1) InGaN quantum wells studied by near-field photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcinkevi?ius, S. [Department of Materials and Nano Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 16440 Kista (Sweden); Gelžinyt?, K. [Department of Materials and Nano Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 16440 Kista (Sweden); Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Saul?tekio 9-3, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Zhao, Y.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning near-field photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at different excitation powers was applied to study nanoscale properties of carrier localization and recombination in semipolar (202{sup ¯}1) InGaN quantum wells (QWs) emitting in violet, blue, and green-yellow spectral regions. With increased excitation power, an untypical PL peak energy shift to lower energies was observed. The shift was attributed to carrier density dependent carrier redistribution between nm-scale sites of different potentials. Near-field PL scans showed that in (202{sup ¯}1) QWs the in-plane carrier diffusion is modest, and the recombination properties are uniform, which is advantageous for photonic applications.

  12. Leveraging Multiple Heterogeneous Radios for Energy-efficient Routing Mehedi Bakht, Riccardo Crepaldi, Albert F. Harris III, and Robin Kravets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kravets, Robin

    Levels 1400 1600 Power(mW) Transmit Communication Energy Consumption 3000 3500 Energypertransmittedbit(nJ) Goals Increase sensor network lifetime Reduce overall energy consumption 200 400 600 800 Power(mW) 400 overall energy consumption Challenges Evaluate energy/performance trade-offs for available radios 0 200

  13. 456 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 46, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 The Effect of Carrier Phase Jitter on the Performance of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steendam, Heidi

    Jitter on the Performance of Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple-Access Systems Heidi Steendam, Marc phase jitter of an orthogonal frequency-division multiple-access (OFDMA) system. When all OFDMA carriers have the same power level and jitter spectrum, the degradation caused by the jitter is shown

  14. Evaluation of low volatile carriers for herbicides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helpert, Charles William

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -D) and 2, 4, 5-T in several carriers on greenhouse grown brush species was also studied. Llhen sprayed to simulate aerial applications, paraffin oil and jelled kerosene increased the deposit oI' 2, 4, 5-T both under the boom and at 0. 6 m and 1.... 2 m downwind. No carrier significantly affected the de- posits of the herbicide at 15. 2 m and 30. 5 m downwind from the boom. Paraffin oil, diesel oil, cottonseed oil, and their cil:water (1:3 v:v) emulsions with 2, 4?D o" 2, 4, 5-T showed...

  15. Multiple-Filled Skutterudites: High Thermoelectric Figure of Merit through Separately Optimizing Electrical and Thermal Transports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Weiqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yang, Jiong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yang, Jihui [General Motors Corporation; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Salvador, James R. [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Shi, Xun [General Motors Corporation-R& D; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Cho, Jung Y [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Skutterudites CoSb{sub 3} with multiple cofillers Ba, La, and Yb were synthesized and very high thermoelectric figure of merit ZT = 1.7 at 850 K was realized. X-ray diffraction of the densified multiple-filled bulk samples reveals all samples are phase pure. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirm that multiple guest fillers occupy the nanoscale-cages in the skutterudites. The fillers are further shown to be uniformly distributed and the Co-Sb skutterudite framework is virtually unperturbed from atomic scale to a few micrometers. Our results firmly show that high power factors can be realized by adjusting the total filling fraction of fillers with different charge states to reach the optimum carrier density, at the same time, lattice thermal conductivity can also be significantly reduced, to values near the glass limit of these materials, through combining filler species of different rattling frequencies to achieve broad-frequency phonon scattering. Therefore, partially filled skutterudites with multiple fillers of different chemical nature render unique structural characteristics for optimizing electrical and thermal transports in a relatively independent way, leading to continually enhanced ZT values from single- to double-, and finally to multiple-filled skutterudites. The idea of combining multiple fillers with different charge states and rattling frequencies for performance optimization is also expected to be valid for other caged TE compounds.

  16. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen carriers in the system by using the high-sulfur-laden asphalt fuels. In all, the scaled-up test in 10 kW CLC facility demonstrated that the preparation method of copper-based oxygen carrier not only help to maintain its good reactivity, also largely minimize its agglomeration tendency.

  17. Forward energy flow, central charged-particle multiplicities, and pseudorapidity gaps in W and Z boson events from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}= 7$ TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of forward energy flow and central charged-particle multiplicity in events with W and Z bosons decaying into leptons is presented. The analysis uses a sample of 7 TeV pp collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The observed forward energy depositions, their correlations, and the central charged-particle multiplicities are not well described by the available non-diffractive soft-hadron production models. A study of about 300 events with no significant energy deposited in one of the forward calorimeters, corresponding to a pseudorapidity gap of at least 1.9 units, is also presented. An indication for a diffractive component in these events comes from the observation that the majority of the charged leptons from the (W/Z) decays are found in the hemisphere opposite to the gap. When fitting the signed lepton pseudorapidity distribution of these events with predicted distributions from an admixture of diffractive (POMPYT) and non-diffractive (PYTHIA) Monte Carlo simulations, the diffractive component is determined to be (50.0 +/- 9.3 (stat.) +/- 5.2 (syst.))%.

  18. Predictions of monthly energy consumption and annual patterns of energy usage for convenience stores by using multiple and nonlinear regression models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muendej, Krisanee

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thirty convenience stores in College Station, Texas, have been selected as the samples for an energy consumption prediction. The predicted models assist facility energy managers for making decisions of energy demand/supply plans. The models...

  19. Predictions of monthly energy consumption and annual patterns of energy usage for convenience stores by using multiple and nonlinear regression models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muendej, Krisanee

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thirty convenience stores in College Station, Texas, have been selected as the samples for an energy consumption prediction. The predicted models assist facility energy managers for making decisions of energy demand/supply ...

  20. Strong carrier localization and diminished quantum-confined Stark effect in ultra-thin high-indium-content InGaN quantum wells with violet light emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Suk-Min; Kwack, Ho-Sang; Park, Chunghyun; Yoo, Yang-Seok; Cho, Yong-Hoon, E-mail: yhc@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and KI for the NanoCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics and KI for the NanoCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon-Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Jin Kim, Hee; Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Si Dang, Le [Nanophysics and Semiconductors, CEA-CNRS-UJF Group, Institut Néel, CNRS Grenoble, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Nanophysics and Semiconductors, CEA-CNRS-UJF Group, Institut Néel, CNRS Grenoble, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we report on the optical and structural characteristics of violet-light-emitting, ultra-thin, high-Indium-content (UTHI) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), and of conventional low-In-content MQWs, which both emit at similar emission energies though having different well thicknesses and In compositions. The spatial inhomogeneity of In content, and the potential fluctuation in high-efficiency UTHI MQWs were compared to those in the conventional low-In-content MQWs. We conclude that the UTHI InGaN MQWs are a promising structure for achieving better quantum efficiency in the visible and near-ultraviolet spectral range, owing to their strong carrier localization and reduced quantum-confined Stark effect.

  1. Direct kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in Co2+ : ZnO. Direct kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in Co2+ : ZnO. Abstract: We report the use of controlled...

  2. Electrical system for pulse-width modulated control of a power inverter using phase-shifted carrier signals and related operating methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welchko, Brian A. (Torrance, CA)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are provided for pulse-width modulated control of power inverter using phase-shifted carrier signals. An electrical system comprises an energy source and a motor. The motor has a first set of windings and a second set of windings, which are electrically isolated from each other. An inverter module is coupled between the energy source and the motor and comprises a first set of phase legs coupled to the first set of windings and a second set of phase legs coupled to the second set of windings. A controller is coupled to the inverter module and is configured to achieve a desired power flow between the energy source and the motor by modulating the first set of phase legs using a first carrier signal and modulating the second set of phase legs using a second carrier signal. The second carrier signal is phase-shifted relative to the first carrier signal.

  3. Measurement of Charge Multiplicity Asymmetry Correlations in High Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at 200 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STAR Collaboration; L. Adamczyk; J. K. Adkins; G. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; A. V. Alakhverdyants; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; C. D. Anson; D. Arkhipkin; E. Aschenauer; G. S. Averichev; J. Balewski; A. Banerjee; Z. Barnovska; D. R. Beavis; R. Bellwied; M. J. Betancourt; R. R. Betts; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; L. C. Bland; I. G. Bordyuzhin; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; A. V. Brandin; S. G. Brovko; E. Bruna; S. Bültmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; J. Butterworth; X. Z. Cai; H. Caines; M. Calderón de la Barca Sánchez; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; P. Chaloupka; Z. Chang; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; J. Y. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; W. Christie; P. Chung; J. Chwastowski; M. J. M. Codrington; R. Corliss; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; X. Cui; S. Das; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; J. Deng; R. Derradi de Souza; S. Dhamija; L. Didenko; F. Ding; A. Dion; P. Djawotho; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; C. M. Du; L. E. Dunkelberger; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; M. Elnimr; J. Engelage; G. Eppley; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; R. Fatemi; S. Fazio; J. Fedorisin; R. G. Fersch; P. Filip; E. Finch; Y. Fisyak; E. Flores; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; D. Garand; F. Geurts; A. Gibson; S. Gliske; Y. N. Gorbunov; O. G. Grebenyuk; D. Grosnick; A. Gupta; S. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; O. Hajkova; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; J. W. Harris; J. P. Hays-Wehle; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; S. Horvat; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; P. Huck; T. J. Humanic; G. Igo; W. W. Jacobs; C. Jena; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; K. Kang; J. Kapitan; K. Kauder; H. W. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; A. Kesich; D. P. Kikola; J. Kiryluk; I. Kisel; A. Kisiel; V. Kizka; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; L. Koroleva; W. Korsch; L. Kotchenda; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; I. Kulakov; L. Kumar; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; K. D. Landry; S. LaPointe; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; W. Leight; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; L. M. Lima; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; R. S. Longacre; Y. Lu; X. Luo; A. Luszczak; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. M. M. D. Madagodagettige Don; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; S. Mioduszewski; M. K. Mitrovski; Y. Mohammed; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; B. Morozov; M. G. Munhoz; M. K. Mustafa; M. Naglis; B. K. Nandi; Md. Nasim; T. K. Nayak; J. M. Nelson; L. V. Nogach; J. Novak; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; R. A. N. Oliveira; D. Olson; P. Ostrowski; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Y. X. Pan; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; B. Pawlik; H. Pei; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; P. Pile; M. Planinic; J. Pluta; N. Poljak; J. Porter; C. B. Powell; N. K. Pruthi; M. Przybycien; P. R. Pujahari; J. Putschke; H. Qiu; S. Ramachandran; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; R. Redwine; C. K. Riley; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; J. F. Ross; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; N. R. Sahoo; P. K. Sahu; I. Sakrejda; S. Salur; A. Sandacz; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; B. Schmidke; N. Schmitz; T. R. Schuster; J. Seele; J. Seger; I. Selyuzhenkov; P. Seyboth; N. Shah; E. Shahaliev; M. Shao; B. Sharma; M. Sharma; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; D. Smirnov; N. Smirnov; D. Solanki; P. Sorensen; U. G. deSouza; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; S. G. Steadman; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; A. A. P. Suaide; M. C. Suarez; M. Sumbera; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; A. Szanto de Toledo; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; L. H. Tarini; T. Tarnowsky; J. H. Thomas; J. Tian; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; B. A. Trzeciak; O. D. Tsai; J. Turnau; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; J. A. Vanfossen, Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; F. Videbæk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; A. Vossen; M. Wada; F. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; C. Whitten Jr.; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; K. Xin; H. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; W. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; L. Xue; Y. Yang; Y. Yang; P. Yepes; L. Yi; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; M. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; F. Zhao; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; Y. Zoulkarneeva; M. Zyzak

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A study is reported of the same- and opposite-sign charge-dependent azimuthal correlations with respect to the event plane in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. The charge multiplicity asymmetries between the up/down and left/right hemispheres relative to the event plane are utilized. The contributions from statistical fluctuations and detector effects were subtracted from the (co-)variance of the observed charge multiplicity asymmetries. In the mid- to most-central collisions, the same- (opposite-) sign pairs are preferentially emitted in back-to-back (aligned on the same-side) directions. The charge separation across the event plane, measured by the difference, $\\Delta$, between the like- and unlike-sign up/down $-$ left/right correlations, is largest near the event plane. The difference is found to be proportional to the event-by-event final-state particle ellipticity (via the observed second-order harmonic $v^{\\rm obs}_{2}$), where $\\Delta=(1.3\\pm1.4({\\rm stat})^{+4.0}_{-1.0}({\\rm syst}))\\times10^{-5}+(3.2\\pm0.2({\\rm stat})^{+0.4}_{-0.3}({\\rm syst}))\\times10^{-3}v^{\\rm obs}_{2}$ for 20-40% Au+Au collisions. The implications for the proposed chiral magnetic effect are discussed.

  4. Quantitative mobility spectrum analysis of carriers in GaSb/InAs/GaSb superlattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishna, Sanjay

    of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia J. B. Rodriguez, E. Plis, and S. Krishna Center for High, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia Received 25 October 2007; accepted 7 January temperature studies in the range 50­300 K show that the carrier is associated with an activation energy of 0

  5. Nonradiative coherent carrier captures and defect reaction at deep-level defects via phonon-kick mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakita, Masaki; Suzuki, Kei; Shinozuka, Yuzo [Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakaedani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We simulated the time evolution of electron-lattice coupling mode, and a series of nonradiative carrier captures by a deep-level defect in a semiconductor. For lattice relaxation energy of the order of the band gap, a series of coherent (athermal) electron and hole captures by a defect is possible for high carrier densities, which results in an inflation in the induced lattice vibration, which in turn enhances a defect reaction.

  6. Breach and safety analysis of spills over water from large liquefied natural gas carriers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, Marion Michael; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2004, at the request of the Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) prepared a report, ''Guidance on the Risk and Safety Analysis of Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spills Over Water''. That report provided framework for assessing hazards and identifying approaches to minimize the consequences to people and property from an LNG spill over water. The report also presented the general scale of possible hazards from a spill from 125,000 m3 o 150,000 m3 class LNG carriers, at the time the most common LNG carrier capacity.

  7. Superconductivity: coherent "tunnelling" by a dielectric array of charge-carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan F. Prins

    2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconduction manifests when a steady-state current flows through a material without an electric field being present. It is argued here that the absence of scattering of the charge-carriers, although absolutely necessary, is not sufficient to explain why an electric field is zero when a current flows between two contacts to a superconducting material. It is concluded that an electric field, and thus a resistance, must manifest unless (i) the charge-carriers form part of an array of dielectric charge centres, and (ii) the charge-carriers can increase their velocities without increasing their kinetic energies. A model is propoased which allows these requirements to manifest. The model is fitted to selected experimental results which have been published for low temperature metals, YBCO, and highly-doped p-type diamond. In each case a satisfactory description of the experimental results is demonstrated.

  8. Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized Cu–Fe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

  9. Gas energy meter for inferential determination of thermophysical properties of a gas mixture at multiple states of the gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Kelner, Eric (San Antonio, TX); Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX)

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas energy meter that acquires the data and performs the processing for an inferential determination of one or more gas properties, such as heating value, molecular weight, or density. The meter has a sensor module that acquires temperature, pressure, CO2, and speed of sound data. Data is acquired at two different states of the gas, which eliminates the need to determine the concentration of nitrogen in the gas. A processing module receives this data and uses it to perform a "two-state" inferential algorithm.

  10. A Self-Sequestered Calmodulin-like Ca2+ of Mitochondrial SCaMC Carrier and Its Implication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, James

    .10.018 SUMMARY The mitochondrial carriers play essential roles in energy metabolism. The short Ca2+ -binding mito house essential components of energy metabolism in cell. Since the matrices are closed compartments activities are driven by substrate concen- tration gradient and membrane potential across the inner mem

  11. Experimental Study in Energy Performance of Temperature and Humidity Independent Control System with Multiple Split Air-Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawano,M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to realizing Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB). 61% ?F ?F The amount of solar power Performance improvement of a building ? 30% reduction Efficiency of the air conditioning system ? 60? reduction 60% over reduction E le ct ri c P o w e r C o n su m p ti o n (K W h...-09-16 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 80 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1? 4? 1? 11 ? 1? 16 ? 1? 17 ? 1? 18 ? 1? 21 ? 1? 22 ? 1? 30 ? 1? 31 ? 2? 1? 2? 4? 2? 5? 2? 6? 2? 7? 2? 8? 2? 12...

  12. artificial oxygen carriers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    show Carrier Envelope Phase (CEP) and pulse bandwidth sensitivity in the single-cycle regime. The flexible dispersion management offered by PSSD enables us to...

  13. artificial oxygen carrier: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    show Carrier Envelope Phase (CEP) and pulse bandwidth sensitivity in the single-cycle regime. The flexible dispersion management offered by PSSD enables us to...

  14. atca carrier board: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    architecture. For that reason PCIExpress was used as communication interface for data transmission between ATCA carrier boards and AMC modules for the new control system for...

  15. Non-contact Nondestructive Probing of Charge Carrier Conductivity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transport processes at interfaces is one of the most important subjects in organic electronics. Charge carriers are injected or extracted through metalsemiconductor...

  16. ambipolar charge carrier: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a charge carrier transfer under an action of a constant electric field in a complex medium. Generalizing previous theoretical approaches, we model the dynamical environment...

  17. accelerated charge carriers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a charge carrier transfer under an action of a constant electric field in a complex medium. Generalizing previous theoretical approaches, we model the dynamical environment...

  18. Structure of a Specialized Acyl Carrier Protein Essential for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fatty Acids in Open and Abstract: The solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures and backbone (15)N dynamics of the specialized acyl carrier protein (ACP),...

  19. Carrier dynamics in Beryllium doped low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Globisch, B., E-mail: Bjoern.Globisch@hhi.fraunhofer.de; Dietz, R. J. B.; Stanze, D.; Göbel, T.; Schell, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications, Heinrich Hertz Institute, Einsteinufer 37, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron and hole dynamics in low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well structures are studied by optical pump-probe transmission measurements for Beryllium (Be) doping levels between 3?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} and 4?×?10{sup 18}?cm{sup ?3}. We investigate electron dynamics in the limit cases of unsaturated and completely saturated electron trapping. By expanding a rate equation model in these limits, the details of carrier dynamics are revealed. Electrons are trapped by ionized arsenic antisites, whereas recombination occurs between trapped electrons and holes trapped by negatively charged Be dopants.

  20. Effects of BRCA2 cis-regulation in normal breast and cancer risk amongst BRCA2 mutation carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maia, Ana-Teresa; Antoniou, Antonis C; O'Reilly, Martin; Samarajiwa, Shamith; Dunning, Mark; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Chin, Suet-Feung; Curtis, Christina N; McGuffog, Lesley; Domchek, Susan M; Embrace, Embrace; Easton, Douglas F; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Eccles, Diana; Gemo, Gemo; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Faivre, Laurence; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Delnatte, Capucine; Nevanlinna, Heli; Couch, Fergus J; Godwin, Andrew K; Caligo, Maria-Adelaide; Swe-brca, Swe-brca; Barkardottir, Rosa B; kConFab, kConFab; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Caldas, Carlos; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Ponder, Bruce AJ

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    -ratio (multiplicative model) or as separate HRs for heterozygotes and homozygotes, and these were estimated on the log scale. Analyses were carried out with the pedigree-analysis software MENDEL (34). Heterogeneity between studies was tested by comparing the models... for BRCA2 #1;(35). We used a robust variance-estimation approach to allow for the non-independence among related mutation carriers (36). Disease associations for the five common expression haplotypes were also explored using the software HAPSTAT (37), under...

  1. CARRIER PREPARATION BUILDING MATERIALS HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Carrier Preparation Building Materials Handling System receives rail and truck shipping casks from the Carrier/Cask Transport System, and inspects and prepares the shipping casks for return to the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Carrier preparation operations for carriers/casks received at the surface repository include performing a radiation survey of the carrier and cask, removing/retracting the personnel barrier, measuring the cask temperature, removing/retracting the impact limiters, removing the cask tie-downs (if any), and installing the cask trunnions (if any). The shipping operations for carriers/casks leaving the surface repository include removing the cask trunnions (if any), installing the cask tie-downs (if any), installing the impact limiters, performing a radiation survey of the cask, and installing the personnel barrier. There are four parallel carrier/cask preparation lines installed in the Carrier Preparation Building with two preparation bays in each line, each of which can accommodate carrier/cask shipping and receiving. The lines are operated concurrently to handle the waste shipping throughputs and to allow system maintenance operations. One remotely operated overhead bridge crane and one remotely operated manipulator is provided for each pair of carrier/cask preparation lines servicing four preparation bays. Remotely operated support equipment includes a manipulator and tooling and fixtures for removing and installing personnel barriers, impact limiters, cask trunnions, and cask tie-downs. Remote handling equipment is designed to facilitate maintenance, dose reduction, and replacement of interchangeable components where appropriate. Semi-automatic, manual, and backup control methods support normal, abnormal, and recovery operations. Laydown areas and equipment are included as required for transportation system components (e.g., personnel barriers and impact limiters), fixtures, and tooling to support abnormal and recovery operations. The Carrier Preparation Building Materials Handling System interfaces with the Cask/Carrier Transport System to move the carriers to and from the system. The Carrier Preparation Building System houses the equipment and provides the facility, utility, safety, communications, and auxiliary systems supporting operations and protecting personnel.

  2. Quantum efficiency affected by localized carrier distribution near the V-defect in GaN based quantum well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Yong-Hee, E-mail: yonghee2.cho@samsung.com; Shim, Mun-Bo; Hwang, Sangheum; Kim, Sungjin [Computational Science Group, CAS Center, SAIT, Samsung Electronics, Nongsuh-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Kyeonggi-do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)] [Computational Science Group, CAS Center, SAIT, Samsung Electronics, Nongsuh-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Kyeonggi-do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun-Youn; Kim, Jaekyun; Park, Young-Soo [GaN Device Group, Advanced Device Lab, SAIT, Samsung Electronics, Nongsuh-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Kyeonggi-do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)] [GaN Device Group, Advanced Device Lab, SAIT, Samsung Electronics, Nongsuh-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Kyeonggi-do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seoung-Hwan [Department of Physics and Semiconductor Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang, Kyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics and Semiconductor Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang, Kyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that due to the formation of in-plane local energy barrier, V-defects can screen the carriers which non-radiatively recombine in threading dislocations (TDs) and hence, enhance the internal quantum efficiency in GaN based light-emitting diodes. By a theoretical modeling capable of describing the inhomogeneous carrier distribution near the V-defect in GaN based quantum wells, we show that the efficient suppression of non-radiative (NR) recombination via TD requires the local energy barrier height of V-defect larger than ?80?meV. The NR process in TD combined with V-defect influences the quantum efficiency mainly in the low injection current density regime suitably described by the linear dependence of carrier density. We provide a simple phenomenological expression for the NR recombination rate based on the model result.

  3. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

    1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  4. Method for sintering fuel cell electrodes using a carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

    1995-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a carbon-based paint, the carbon-based paint comprising an organic binder. The carbon-based paint may be an alcohol or a solvent-based paint or a water-based paint.

  5. Tailoring the spin polarization in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorgioni, Anna; Pezzoli, Fabio; Gatti, Eleonora; Grilli, Emanuele; Guzzi, Mario [LNESS-Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Bottegoni, Federico; Cecchi, Stefano; Ciccacci, Franco; Isella, Giovanni [LNESS-Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Trivedi, Dhara; Song, Yang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester (United States); Li, Pengki [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester (United States); Dery, Hanan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester (United States)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed spin-resolved photoluminescence measurements on Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with different well thickness and using different exciting power densities. The polarization of the direct emission strongly depends on the relative weight of electrons photoexcited from the light and the heavy hole subbands. The study of the polarization as a function of the exciting power highlights the role of the carrier-carrier interactions in determining spin depolarization.

  6. Cardiovascular Fitness is Associated with Altered Cortical Glucose Metabolism During Working Memory in ?4 Carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the ?4 non-carriers, using the linear regression plottedlinear regression lines plotted for the carriers and non-Linear regression trend lines were plotted for the Carriers (solid red line) and Non-

  7. Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Nune, Satish K.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Dang, Liem X.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluids, dispersions of metal or oxide nanoparticles in a base working fluid, are being intensively studied due to improvements they offer in thermal properties of the working fluid. However, these benefits have been erratically demonstrated and proven impacts on thermal conductivity are modest and well described from long-established effective medium theory. In this paper, we describe a new class of metal-organic heat carrier (MOHC) nanofluid that offers potential for a larger performance boost in thermal vapor-liquid compression cycles. MOHCs are nanophase porous coordination solids designed to reversibly uptake the working fluid molecules in which the MOHCs are suspended. Additional heat can be extracted in a heat exchanger or solar collector from the endothermic enthalpy of desorption, which is then released as the nanofluid transits through a power generating device such as a turboexpander. Calculations for an R123 MOHC nanofluid indicated potential for up to 15% increase in power output. Capillary tube experiments show that liquid-vapor transitions occur without nanoparticle deposition on the tube walls provided entrance Reynolds number exceeds approximately 100.

  8. Energy Carrier Transport In Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Yeontack

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    on carbon nanotubes was employed to enhance their electrical conductivity, to improve thermoelectric power factor by modulating their electrical conductance and thermopower, or to obtain n-type converted carbon nanotube. The electrical conductivity of double...

  9. Infrared-Active Heterostructured Nanocrystals with Ultralong Carrier Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Doh C.; Robel, Istvan; Pietryga, Jeffrey M.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the synthesis of composite PbSe/CdSe/CdS nanocrystals with two distinct geometries: core/shell/shell structures and tetrapods. These novel nanostructures exhibit extremely long carrier decay times up to 20 ?s that are combined with high emission efficiencies in the infrared. The increase in carrier lifetimes is attributed to the reduction of the electron?hole overlap as a result of delocalization of the electron wave function into the outer CdS shell or arms. The ultralong carrier lifetimes and controlled geometry render these nanocrystals attractive for a variety of applications from lasing to photocatalysis and photovoltaics.

  10. Carrier transport properties of nanocrystalline Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yong, E-mail: sun@ele.kyutech.ac.jp; Maeda, Yuki; Sezaimaru, Hiroki; Sakaino, Masamichi [Department of Applied Science for Integrated System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Senshuimachi, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Kirimoto, Kenta [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitakyushu National College of Technology, 5-20-1 shii, Kokuraminami, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical transport properties of the nanocrystalline Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80} with fcc crystal structure were characterized by measuring both temperature-dependent d.c. conductance and a.c. impedance. The results showed that the Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80} sample has characteristics of n-type semiconductor and an electron affinity larger than work function of gold metal. The Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80}/Au interface has an ohmic contact behavior and the contact resistance was very small as compared with bulk resistance of the Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80} sample. The charge carriers in the sample were thermally excited from various trapped levels and both acoustic phonon and ionic scatterings become a dominant process in different temperature regions, respectively. At temperatures below 250?K, the activation energy of the trapped carrier was estimated to be 35.5?meV, and the ionic scattering was a dominant mechanism. On the other hand, at temperatures above 350?K, the activation energy was reduced to 15.9?meV, and the acoustic phonon scattering was a dominant mechanism. In addition, a polarization effect from the charge carrier was observed at low frequencies below 2.0 MHz, and the relative intrinsic permittivity of the Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80} nanocrystalline lattice was estimated to be 4.6 at frequency of 5.0 MHz.

  11. Excess carrier generation in femtosecond-laser processed sulfur doped silicon by means of sub-bandgap illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, Kay-Michael, E-mail: kay-michael.guenther@efzn.de [Clausthal University of Technology, EFZN, Am Stollen 19B, 38640 Goslar (Germany); Gimpel, Thomas; Ruibys, Augustinas; Kontermann, Stefan [Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Am Stollen 19B, 38640 Goslar (Germany); Tomm, Jens W. [Max Born Institut, Max-Born-Straße 2A, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Winter, Stefan [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Schade, Wolfgang [Clausthal University of Technology, EFZN, Am Stollen 19B, 38640 Goslar (Germany); Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Am Stollen 19B, 38640 Goslar (Germany)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    With Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy and spectral response measurements, we show that silicon doped with sulfur by femtosecond laser irradiation generates excess carriers, when illuminated with infrared light above 1100?nm. Three distinct sub-bandgap photocurrent features are observed. Their onset energies are in good agreement with the known sulfur levels S{sup +}, S{sup 0}, and S{sub 2}{sup 0}. The excess carriers are separated by a pn-junction to form a significant photocurrent. Therefore, this material likely demonstrates the impurity band photovoltaic effect.

  12. Effect of temperature on carrier formation efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritomo, Yutaka, E-mail: moritomo.yutaka.gf@u.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yonezawa, Kouhei [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Photovoltaic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The internal quantum efficiency (?{sub IQ}) of an organic photovoltaic cell is governed by plural processes. Here, we propose that ?{sub IQ} can be experimentally decomposed into carrier formation (?{sub CF}) and carrier transfer (?{sub CT}) efficiencies. By combining femtosecond time-resolved and electrochemical spectroscopy, we clarified the effect of temperature on ?{sub CF} in a regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blend film. We found that ?{sub CF}?(=0.55) at 80?K is the same as that (=0.55) at 300?K. The temperature insensitivity of ?{sub CF} indicates that the electron-hole pairs at the D/A interface are seldom subjected to coulombic binding energy.

  13. Ge doped GaN with controllable high carrier concentration for plasmonic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Sachet, Edward; Bobea, Milena; Bryan, Zachary; Bryan, Isaac; Maria, Jon-Paul; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States); Nenstiel, Christian; Hoffmann, Axel [Institut f?r Festkörperphsyik, TU-Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)] [Institut f?r Festkörperphsyik, TU-Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Controllable Ge doping in GaN is demonstrated for carrier concentrations of up to 2.4?×?10{sup 20} cm{sup ?3}. Low temperature luminescence spectra from the highly doped samples reveal band gap renormalization and band filling (Burstein-Moss shift) in addition to a sharp transition. Infrared ellipsometry spectra demonstrate the existence of electron plasma with an energy around 3500?cm{sup ?1} and a surface plasma with an energy around 2000?cm{sup ?1}. These findings open possibilities for the application of highly doped GaN for plasmonic devices.

  14. Potential Carriers and Approaches for Hydrogen Delivery

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    density (60%) which reduces volumetric energy density Pros: Potential for reversible hydrogen storage using waste heat to liberate hydrogen Operates in a reasonable T-P space (2...

  15. Surface-Plasmon Assisted Exciton and Charge Carrier Transport...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface-Plasmon Assisted Exciton and Charge Carrier Transport in One Dimensional Nanostructures February 21, 2013 at 3pm36-428 Andrei Piryatinski Physics of Condensed Matter and...

  16. Right-of-Way for Carrier Facilities (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes right-of-way for carrier pipelines, as well as restrictions on the width of lands used for pipeline facilities. This legislation also applies to electricity...

  17. John Papanikolas: Visualizing Charge Carrier Motion in Nanowires...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    John Papanikolas: Visualizing Charge Carrier Motion in Nanowires Using Femtosecond Pump-Probe Microscopy Apr 17, 2014 | 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM John Papanikolas Professor of Chemistry &...

  18. Shipping exchange analysis of outsourced parcel shipping to LTL carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curran, Jamie K

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a large and intricate network of trucks, warehouses, stores, and companies that support the transportation and logistics industries in the United States. Different categories of carriers transport shipments of all ...

  19. Structural and economic analysis of capesize bulk carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadjiyiannis, Nicholas

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural failures of bulk carriers continue to account for the loss of many lives every year. Capes are particularly vulnerable to cracking because of their large length, their trade in high density cargos, and the high ...

  20. Test probe for surface mounted leadless chip carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Kerry L. (Raytown, MO); Topolewski, John (Lenexa, KS)

    1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A test probe for a surface mounted leadless chip carrier is disclosed. The probed includes specially designed connector pins which allow size reductions in the probe. A thermoplastic housing provides spring action to ensure good mechanical and electrical contact between the pins and the contact strips of a leadless chip carrier. Other features include flexible wires molded into the housing and two different types of pins alternately placed in the housing. These features allow fabrication of a smaller and simpler test probe.

  1. Ocean thermal plantships for production of ammonia as the hydrogen carrier.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Pandolfini, P. P.; Kumm, W. H.; Energy Systems; Johns Hopkins Univ.; Arctic Energies, Ltd.

    2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional petroleum, natural gas, and coal are the primary sources of energy that have underpinned modern civilization. Their continued availability in the projected quantities required and the impacts of emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the environment are issues at the forefront of world concerns. New primary sources of energy are being sought that would significantly reduce the emissions of GHGs. One such primary source that can help supply energy, water, and fertilizer without GHG emissions is available in the heretofore unexploited thermal gradients of the tropical oceans. The world's oceans are the largest natural collector and reservoir of solar energy. The potential of ocean energy is limitless for producing base-load electric power or ammonia as the hydrogen carrier and fresh water from seawater. However, until now, ocean energy has been virtually untapped. The general perception is that ocean thermal energy is limited to tropical countries. Therefore, the full potential of at-sea production of (1) ammonia as a hydrogen carrier and (2) desalinated water has not been adequately evaluated. Using ocean thermal plantships for the at-sea co-production of ammonia as a hydrogen carrier and desalinated water offer potential energy, environmental, and economic benefits that support the development of the technology. The introduction of a new widespread solution to our projected energy supply requires lead times of a decade or more. Although continuation of the ocean thermal program from the 1970s would likely have put us in a mitigating position in the early 2000s, we still have a window of opportunity to dedicate some of our conventional energy sources to the development of this renewable energy by the time new sources would be critically needed. The primary objective of this project is to evaluate the technical and economic viability of ocean thermal plantships for the production of ammonia as the hydrogen carrier. This objective is achieved by completing project tasks that consist of updating the John Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) pilot plantship design and extrapolating it to commercial plantships, evaluating a new energy-efficient ammonia synthesis process, evaluating the co-production of desalinated water on plantships, and developing a conceptual design of a satellite plantships system for commercial-scale ammonia production. In addition, an industrial workshop was organized to present the results and develop future goals for commercialization of ocean thermal plantships by 2015. The following goals, arranged in chronological order, were examined at the workshop: (1) Global displacement of petroleum-fuel-based (diesel, fuel oil, naphtha) power generation for freeing up these fuels for transportation, chemical feedstock, and other high-valued uses; (2) At-sea production of desalinated water for regions of critical water shortages; (3) Displacement of carbon-based feed stocks and energy for production of ammonia fertilizers; (4) Development of hydrogen supply to allow economic processing of heavy crude oils and upgrading oil sands; (5) Development of ammonia-fueled distributed energy to displace natural-gas fueled power generation to free up natural gas for higher-value uses and the mitigation of issues associated with imported liquefied natural gas (LNG); and (6) Use of ammonia as a hydrogen carrier for transportation.

  2. Investigation of the {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O, f) fission reaction: Mass-energy distributions of fission fragments and their correlation with the gamma-ray multiplicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rusanov, A. Ya., E-mail: rusanov@inp.k [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Itkis, M. G.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Pashkevich, V. V.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Salamatin, V. S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Chubarian, G. G. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute (United States)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The mass-energy distributions of fragments originating from the fission of the compound nucleus {sup 226}Th and their correlations with the multiplicity of gamma rays emitted from these fragments are measured and analyzed in {sup 18}O + {sup 208}Pb interaction induced by projectile oxygen ions of energy in the range E{sub lab} = 78-198.5 MeV. Manifestations of an asymmetric fission mode, which is damped exponentially with increasing E{sub lab}, are demonstrated. Theoretical calculations of fission valleys reveal that only two independent valleys, symmetric and asymmetric, exist in the vicinity of the scission point. The dependence of the multiplicity of gamma rays emitted from both fission fragments on their mass, M{sub {gamma}}(M), has a complicated structure and is highly sensitive to shell effects in both primary and final fragments. A two-component analysis of the dependence M{sub {gamma}}(M) shows that the asymmetric mode survives in fission only at low partial-wave orbital angular momenta of compound nuclei. It is found that, for all E{sub lab}, the gamma-ray multiplicity M{sub {gamma}}as a function of the total kinetic energy (TKE) of fragments, M{sub {gamma}}(TKE), decreases linearly with increasing TKE. An analysis of the energy balance in the fission process at the laboratory energy of E{sub lab} = 78 MeV revealed the region of cold fission of fragments whose total kinetic energy is TKE {approx}Q{sub max}.

  3. Energy and Development: Is Energy a Basic Human Right?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy and Development: Is Energy a Basic Human Right? Skype/Video presentation for senior pupils national Laboratory/DTU Denmark #12;Is energy a basic human right? · What is energy? ­ the ability to make something happen · Different kinds of energy ­ or energy carriers - fuels · What do we use energy for

  4. Carriers-mediated ferromagnetic enhancement in Al-doped ZnMnO dilute magnetic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleem, Murtaza [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Siddiqi, Saadat A. [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Defence Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Atiq, Shahid, E-mail: shahidatiqpasrur@yahoo.com [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Anwar, M. Sabieh; Hussain, Irshad [School of Science and Engineering (SSE), Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Opposite Sector U, D.H.A. Lahore Cantt-54792 (Pakistan); Alam, Shahzad [Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Laboratories Complex, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-crystalline Zn{sub 0.95-x}Mn{sub 0.05}Al{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10) dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) were synthesized by sol-gel derived auto-combustion. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the samples have pure wurtzite structure typical of ZnO without the formation of secondary phases or impurity. Crystallite sizes were approximated by Scherrer formula while surface morphology and grain sizes were measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Incorporation of Mn and Al into the ZnO structure was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurements showed a decreasing trend with the doping of Al in ZnMnO, which is attributable to the enhancement of free carriers. Vibrating sample magnetometer studies confirmed the presence of ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The results indicate that Al doping results in significant variation in the concentration of free carriers and correspondingly the carrier-mediated magnetization and room temperature ferromagnetic behavior, showing promise for practical applications. We attribute the enhanced saturation magnetization and electrical conductivity to the exchange interaction mediated by free electrons.

  5. Multiple stage railgun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Scudder, Jonathan K. (Pleasanton, CA); Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  6. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, AlgeriaQ1A MonthDependentEnergyA

  7. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, AlgeriaQ1A MonthDependentEnergyAA

  8. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, AlgeriaQ1A MonthDependentEnergyAAA

  9. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, AlgeriaQ1A MonthDependentEnergyAAAA

  10. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, AlgeriaQ1A MonthDependentEnergyAAAAA

  11. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, AlgeriaQ1A MonthDependentEnergyAAAAAA

  12. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >InternshipDepartmentNeutrino-Induced Charged-CurrentN N U AA Route toA

  13. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >InternshipDepartmentNeutrino-Induced Charged-CurrentN N U AA Route toAA

  14. Near-infrared free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker-Finch, Simeon C., E-mail: simeon.bakerfinch@gmail.com [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); PV Lighthouse, Coledale, NSW 2515 (Australia); McIntosh, Keith R. [PV Lighthouse, Coledale, NSW 2515 (Australia); Yan, Di; Fong, Kean Chern; Kho, Teng C. [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon can have a significant impact on devices operating in the infrared. In the near infrared, the free carrier absorption process can compete with band to band absorption processes, thereby reducing the number of available photons to optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this work, we fabricate 18 heavily doped regions by phosphorus and boron diffusion into planar polished silicon wafers; the simple sample structure facilitates accurate and precise measurement of the free carrier absorptance. We measure and model reflectance and transmittance dispersion to arrive at a parameterisation for the free carrier absorption coefficient that applies in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1500?nm, and the range of dopant densities between ?10{sup 18} and 3?×?10{sup 20}?cm{sup ?3}. Our measurements indicate that previously published parameterisations underestimate the free carrier absorptance in phosphorus diffusions. On the other hand, published parameterisations are generally consistent with our measurements and model for boron diffusions. Our new model is the first to be assigned uncertainty and is well-suited to routine device analysis.

  15. Effect of carrier recombination on ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin films of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glinka, Yuri D., E-mail: ydglinka@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient reflectivity (TR) from thin films (6–40?nm thick) of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} revealed ultrafast carrier dynamics, which suggest the existence of both radiative and non-radiative recombination between electrons residing in the upper cone of initially unoccupied high energy Dirac surface states (SS) and holes residing in the lower cone of occupied low energy Dirac SS. The modeling of measured TR traces allowed us to conclude that recombination is induced by the depletion of bulk electrons in films below ?20?nm thick due to the charge captured on the surface defects. We predict that such recombination processes can be observed using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques.

  16. Grain boundary enhanced carrier collection in CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chen [ORNL] [ORNL; Wu, Yelong [University of Toledo] [University of Toledo; Poplawsky, Jonathan D [ORNL] [ORNL; Paudel, Naba [University of Toledo] [University of Toledo; Yin, Wanjian [University of Toledo] [University of Toledo; Pennycook, Timothy [University of Oxford] [University of Oxford; Haigh, Sarah [University of Manchester, UK] [University of Manchester, UK; Oxley, Mark P [ORNL] [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL] [ORNL; Al-jassim, Mowafak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Yan, Yanfa [University of Toledo] [University of Toledo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atomic structure and composition of grain boundaries in CdCl2 treated CdTe solar cells have been determined with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. A high fraction of Te in the grain boundary regions has been substituted by Cl. Density functional calculations reveal the origin of such segregation levels, and further indicate the GBs are likely inverted to n-type, establishing local P-N junctions, which help to separate electron-hole carriers. The results are in good agreement with electron beam induced current observations of high collection efficiency at grain boundaries.

  17. Method and apparatus for controlling carrier envelope phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Zenghu (Manhattan, KS); Li, Chengquan (Sunnyvale, CA); Moon, Eric (Manhattan, KS)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A chirped pulse amplification laser system. The system generally comprises a laser source, a pulse modification apparatus including first and second pulse modification elements separated by a separation distance, a positioning element, a measurement device, and a feedback controller. The laser source is operable to generate a laser pulse and the pulse modification apparatus operable to modify at least a portion of the laser pulse. The positioning element is operable to reposition at least a portion of the pulse modification apparatus to vary the separation distance. The measurement device is operable to measure the carrier envelope phase of the generated laser pulse and the feedback controller is operable to control the positioning element based on the measured carrier envelope phase to vary the separation distance of the pulse modification elements and control the carrier envelope phase of laser pulses generated by the laser source.

  18. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  19. No-carrier-added [1.sup.11 c]putrescine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPherson, Daniel W. (Baltimore, MD); Fowler, Joanna S. (Bellport, NY); Wolf, Alfred P. (Setauket, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a new radiolabeled imaging agent, no-carrier-added [1-.sup.11 C]putrescine, and to the use of this very pure material as a radiotracer with positron emission tomography for imaging brain tumors. The invention further relates to the synthesis of no-carrier-added [1-.sup.11 C]putrescine based on the Michael addition of potassium .sup.11 C-labeled cyanide to acrylonitrile followed by reduction of the .sup.11 C-labeled dinitrile. The new method is rapid and efficient and provides radiotracer with a specific activity greater than 1.4 curies per millimol and in a purity greater than 95%.

  20. Test probe for surface mounted leadless chip carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, K.L.; Topolewski, J.

    1987-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A test probe for a surface mounted leadless chip carrier is disclosed. The probe includes specially designed connector pins which allow size reductions in the probe. A thermoplastic housing provides spring action to ensure good mechanical and electrical contact between the pins and the contact strips of a leadless chip carrier. Other features include flexible wires molded into the housing and two different types of pins alternately placed in the housing. These features allow fabrication of a smaller and simpler test probe. 1 fig.

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATTION (VLSI) SYSTEMS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, DECEMBER 1997 1 Energy Minimization Using Multiple Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    dependencies, and the energy cost of level shifters. Experimental results show that using three supply voltage energy dissipation and higher rout- ing cost. The remaining issues (that is, level shifter cost and lack levels on a number of standard benchmarks, an average energy saving of 40.19% (with a computation time

  2. Hot-carrier solar cells using low-dimensional quantum structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, Daiki; Kasamatsu, Naofumi; Harada, Yukihiro; Kita, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a high-conversion-efficiency solar cell (SC) utilizing the hot carrier (HC) population in an intermediate-band (IB) of a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL) structure. The bandgap of the host semiconductor in this device plays an important role as an energy-selective barrier for HCs in the QDSLs. According to theoretical calculation using the detailed balance model with an air mass 1.5 spectrum, the optimum IB energy is determined by a trade-off relation between the number of HCs with energy exceeding the conduction-band edge and the number of photons absorbed by the valence band?IB transition. Utilizing experimental data of HC temperature in InAs/GaAs QDSLs, the maximum conversion efficiency under maximum concentration (45?900 suns) has been demonstrated to increase by 12.6% as compared with that for a single-junction GaAs SC.

  3. Selective Monosaccharide Transport through Lipid Bilayers Using Boronic Acid Carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Bradley D.

    Selective Monosaccharide Transport through Lipid Bilayers Using Boronic Acid Carriers Pamela R-one boronic acids were studied for their ability to transport saccharides in and out of liposomes. The rates transport. The order of transport selectivity was sorbitol > fructose > glucose. The disaccharides maltose

  4. Catalyse et Rayonnement Synchrotron Xavier Carrier, Juliette Blanchard, Catherine Louis,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marceau et Pascale Massiani UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie & CNRS Laboratoire de Réactivité de.LaFontaine(SAMBA) FrançoisBaudelet(ODE) PascaleMassiani EricMarceau XavierCarrier EdmondPayen SylvainCristol Elise Comprendre et maîtriser les étapes de synthèse des particules de Co0 Eric Marceau et coll. #12;Prépara

  5. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  6. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology called cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB). Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq) + 7 H2O (l) 12 H2 (g) + 6 CO2 (g) (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456). Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from PEM fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  7. Biomass energy in China and its potential Li Jingjing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carriers, including coal briquettes, LPG, and electricity (Table 3). While pri- mary energy use is shifting pollution and associated adverse health impacts. In addition, the time spent collecting biomass fuels to the user, not the primary energy source. If clean, convenient energy carriers (e.g., electricity and liq

  8. Ris Energy Report 3 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    problems related to security of supply, climate change and environmental degradation, but hydrogen energy4 Risø Energy Report 3 Introduction Hydrogen used as an energy carrier may not solve all our energy in combination with fuel cells may fit well into a future energy system based on renewables. If Denmark

  9. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashburn, Douglas N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.

  10. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  11. activates multiple metabolic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for nearly all of the carbohydrate catabolized. The combination of energy utilization Bennett, Albert F. 3 Multiple-instance active learning CiteSeer Summary: We present a...

  12. Excited Carrier Dynamics of ?-Cr2O3/?-Fe2O3 Core...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Excited Carrier Dynamics of ?-Cr2O3?-Fe2O3 Core-Shell Nanostructures. Excited Carrier Dynamics of ?-Cr2O3?-Fe2O3 Core-Shell Nanostructures. Abstract: In...

  13. Carrier Dynamics in a-Fe2O3 (0001) Thin Films and Single Crystals...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carrier Dynamics in a-Fe2O3 (0001) Thin Films and Single Crystals Probed by Femtosecond Transient Absorption and Reflectivity. Carrier Dynamics in a-Fe2O3 (0001) Thin Films and...

  14. United States navy fleet problems and the development of carrier aviation, 1929-1933

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadle, Ryan David

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the carrier tonnage limit to 135,000 tons. All three of the major naval powers could convert two battlecruisers slated for scrapping into aircraft carriers, with the two American conversions eventually materializing as the Lexington and Saratoga. Although...

  15. Synthesis and Photoexcited Charge Carrier Dynamics of beta-FeOOH...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photoexcited Charge Carrier Dynamics of beta-FeOOH Nanorods. Synthesis and Photoexcited Charge Carrier Dynamics of beta-FeOOH Nanorods. Abstract: Akaganeite(B-FeOOH) nanorods of...

  16. Direct measurement of the carrier leakage in an InGaAsP/InP laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, T.R.; Margalit, S.; Koren, U.; Yu, K.L.; Chiu, L.C.; Hasson, A.; Yariv, A.

    1983-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Carrier leakage over the heterobarrier in an InGaAsP/InP laser is measured directly in a laser-bipolar-transistor structure. Experimental results indicate a significant amount of carrier leakage under normal laser operating conditions.

  17. Freight Distribution Tours in Congested Urban Areas: Characteristics and Implications for Carriers' Operations and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    trip generation, distribution, or network assignment are scant or nonexistent [1]. ConfidentialityFreight Distribution Tours in Congested Urban Areas: Characteristics and Implications for Carriers;FREIGHT DISTRIBUTION TOURS IN CONGESTED URBAN AREAS: CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CARRIERS

  18. Analysis and forecast of the capesize bulk carriers shipping market using Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voudris, Athanasios V

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investing in the bulk carrier market constitutes a rather risky investment due to the volatility of the bulk carrier freight rates. In this study it is attempted to uncover the benefits of using Artificial Neural Networks ...

  19. Aalborg Universitet Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC Microgrids Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC Microgrids Clusters Shafiee, Qobad Control for Multiple DC Microgrids Clusters. I E E E Transactions on Energy Conversion. General rights, J. C. Vasquez, and J. M. Guerrero, "Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC-Microgrids Clusters," IEEE

  20. A Comparison of EnergyPlus to DOE-2.1E: Multiple Cases Ranging from a Sealed Box to a Residential Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andolsun, S.; Culp, C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EnergyPlus (EPlus) is becoming widely used for building simulation. Previous studies have compared the performance of EPlus with other simulation programs including DOE-2 for a variety of cases. These studies identified the different results...

  1. A Comparison of EnergyPlus to DOE-2.1E: Multiple Cases Ranging from a Sealed Box to a Residential Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andolsun, S.; Culp, C.

    EnergyPlus (EPlus) is becoming widely used for building simulation. Previous studies have compared the performance of EPlus with other simulation programs including DOE-2 for a variety of cases. These studies identified the different results...

  2. Suppression of thermal carrier escape and efficient photo-carrier generation by two-step photon absorption in InAs quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells using a dot-in-well structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asahi, S.; Teranishi, H.; Kasamatsu, N.; Kada, T.; Kaizu, T.; Kita, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the effects of an increase in the barrier height on the enhancement of the efficiency of two-step photo-excitation in InAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells with a dot-in-well structure. Thermal carrier escape of electrons pumped in QD states was drastically reduced by sandwiching InAs/GaAs QDs with a high potential barrier of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As. The thermal activation energy increased with the introduction of the barrier. The high potential barrier caused suppression of thermal carrier escape and helped realize a high electron density in the QD states. We observed efficient two-step photon absorption as a result of the high occupancy of the QD states at room temperature.

  3. DOE Accepted Carriers Date: April 8, 2008 POC: Dave Lopez, MA-30

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Airline 24 Air Arabia United Arab Emirates ICAO Designated Cat 1 Carrier 25 Air Astana Kazakhstan IATA Inc United States DoD-Accepted Air Carrier 36 Air Charters Inc United States DOE-Accepted Charter 37 with United Airlines & IATA Member 39 Air Creebec, Inc. Canada ICAO Designated Cat 1 Carrier 40 Air Deccan

  4. Method and apparatus for conserving waste energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldifrawi, A.A.

    1981-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conserving waste energy by transferring waste heat from an internal combustion engine, solar energy or from any other source of waste heat energy of a temperature of 200/sup 0/F or above, to a carrier liquid includes conveying the heated carrier liquid to a heat exchanger, pressurizing a refrigerant by heating the refrigerant with heat energy extracted from the heated carrier liquid and performing work with the pressurized refrigerant. The preferred embodiments include a modified Rankine-Sterling cycle engine and a dual absorption generator system.

  5. BALLISTIC CARRIER TRANSPORT IN SEMICONDUCTORS STUDIED BY ULTRAFAST LASER TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werake, Lalani Kumari

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ., Loh, K. and Zhao, H. (2010) “Hot carrier diffusion in graphene” Phys. Rev. B 82 195414 [6] Ruzicka, B., Werake, L. and Zhao, H. (2010) “Femtosecond pump-probe studies of reduced graphene oxide thin films” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96 173106 [7] Loren, E.... (Tsukagoshi 1999, Zhao 2002, Sahoo 2005, Nagabhirava 2006, Man 2006; Jensen 2005; Hueso 2007) More recently, spin transport was detected in graphene using electrical methods. Clear bipolar spin signals were observed in ferromagnetic contacts on top...

  6. Investigation of the basic physics of high efficiency semiconductor hot carrier solar cell. Annual status report, 31 May 1994-30 May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfano, R.R.; Wang, W.B.; Mohaidat, J.M.; Cavicchia, M.A.; Raisky, O.Y.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this research program is to investigate potential semiconductor materials and their multi-band-gap MQW (multiple quantum wells) structures for high efficiency solar cells for aerospace and commercial applications. The absorption and PL (photoluminescence) spectra, the carrier dynamics, and band structures have been investigated for semiconductors of InP, GaP, GaInP, and InGaAsP/InP MQW structures, and for semiconductors of GaAs and AlGaAs by previous measurements. The barrier potential design criteria for achieving maximum energy conversion efficiency, and the resonant tunneling time as a function of barrier width in high efficiency MQW solar cell structures have also been investigated in the first two years. Based on previous carrier dynamics measurements and the time-dependent short circuit current density calculations, an InAs/InGaAs - InGaAs/GaAs - GaAs/AlGaAs MQW solar cell structure with 15 bandgaps has been designed. The absorption and PL spectra in InGaAsP/InP bulk and MQW structures were measured at room temperature and 77 K with different pump wavelength and intensity, to search for resonant states that may affect the solar cell activities. Time-resolved IR absorption for InGaAsP/InP bulk and MQW structures has been measured by femtosecond visible-pump and IR-probe absorption spectroscopy. This, with the absorption and PL measurements, will be helpful to understand the basic physics and device performance in multi-bandgap InAs/InGaAs - InGaAs/InP - InP/InGaP MQW solar cells. In particular, the lifetime of the photoexcited hot electrons is an important parameter for the device operation of InGaAsP/InP MQW solar cells working in the resonant tunneling conditions. Lastly, time evolution of the hot electron relaxation in GaAs has been measured in the temperature range of 4 K through 288 K using femtosecond pump-IR-probe absorption technique.

  7. Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers in electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric field dependence of charge carrier transport and the effect of carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers were investigated. A parameter-free multiscale methodology consisting of classical molecular dynamics simulation for the generation of the atomic structure, large system electronic structure and electron-phonon coupling constants calculations and the procedure for extracting the bulk polymer mobility, was used. The results suggested that the mobility of a fully disordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer increases with electric field which is consistent with the experimental results on samples of regiorandom P3HT and different from the results on more ordered regioregular P3HT polymers, where the opposite trend is often observed at low electric fields. We calculated the electric field dependence of the effective carrier temperature and showed however that the effective temperature cannot be used to replace the joint effect of temperature and electric field, in contrast to previous theoretical results from phenomenological models. Such a difference was traced to originate from the use of simplified Miller-Abrahams hopping rates in phenomenological models in contrast to our considerations that explicitly take into account the electronic state wave functions and the interaction with all phonon modes.

  8. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample. 17 figs.

  9. Near-Infrared Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances Arising from Free Carriers in Doped Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Prashant K.; Luther, Joey; Ewers, Trevor; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum confinement of electronic wavefunctions in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) yields discrete atom-like and tunable electronic levels, thereby allowing the engineering of excitation and emission spectra. Metal nanoparticles, on the other hand, display strong resonant interactions with light from localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) oscillations of free carriers, resulting in enhanced and geometrically tunable absorption and scattering resonances. The complementary attributes of these nanostructures lends strong interest toward integration into hybrid nanostructures to explore enhanced properties or the emergence of unique attributes arising from their interaction. However, the physicochemical interface between the two components can be limiting for energy transfer and synergistic coupling within such a hybrid nanostructure. Therefore, it is advantageous to realize both attributes, i.e., LSPRs and quantum confinement within the same nanostructure. Here, we describe well-defined LSPRs arising from p-type carriers in vacancy-doped semiconductor quantum dots. This opens up possibilities for light harvesting, non-linear optics, optical sensing and manipulation of solid-state processes in single nanocrystals.

  10. Multiple mass solvers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jegerlehner

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general method to construct multiple mass solvers from standard algorithms. As an example, the BiCGstab-M algorithm is derived.

  11. Multiple System Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process Federal Register Notice Withdrawing Rate Proposal (PDF) Formal Process Extension Federal Register Notice (PDF) Customer Savisngs Under...

  12. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  13. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  14. Quantum-mechanical calculation of carrier distribution in MOS accumulation and strong inversion layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chien-Wei; Hwu, Jenn-Gwo [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering/ Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)] [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering/ Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a statistical physics model of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and propose an accurate approximation method for calculating the quantum-mechanical effects of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure in accumulation and strong inversion regions. We use an exponential surface potential approximation in solving the quantization energy levels and derive the function of density of states in 2D to 3D transition region by applying uncertainty principle and Schrödinger equation in k-space. The simulation results show that our approximation method and theory of density of states solve the two major problems of previous researches: the non-negligible error caused by the linear potential approximation and the inconsistency of density of states and carrier distribution in 2D to 3D transition region.

  15. Snapshots of the retarded interaction of charge carriers with ultrafast fluctuations in cuprates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conte, S Dal; Golež, D; Mierzejewski, M; Soavi, G; Peli, S; Banfi, F; Ferrini, G; Comin, R; Ludbrook, B M; Chauviere, L; Zhigadlo, N D; Eisaki, H; Greven, M; Lupi, S; Damascelli, A; Brida, D; Capone, M; Bon?a, J; Cerullo, G; Giannetti, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the pivotal questions in the physics of high-temperature superconductors is whether the low-energy dynamics of the charge carriers is mediated by bosons with a characteristic timescale. This issue has remained elusive since electronic correlations are expected to dramatically speed up the electron-boson scattering processes, confining them to the very femtosecond timescale that is hard to access even with state-of-the-art ultrafast techniques. Here we simultaneously push the time resolution and the frequency range of transient reflectivity measurements up to an unprecedented level that enables us to directly observe the 16 fs build-up of the effective electron-boson interaction in hole-doped copper oxides. This extremely fast timescale is in agreement with numerical calculations based on the t-J model and the repulsive Hubbard model, in which the relaxation of the photo-excited charges is achieved via inelastic scattering with short-range antiferromagnetic excitations.

  16. Evaluation of CuAl2O4 as an Oxygen Carrier in Chemical-Looping Mehdi Arjmand,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Al2O4) was assessed as a potential oxygen carrier using methane as fuel. The carrier particles were of the oxygen carrier is achieved. Thus, CuAl2O4 could be a potential oxygen carrier for chemical dioxide in the atmosphere. Among these, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered promising

  17. Commercial Mobile Alerting System (CMAS) CMAS is the system interface to the Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) service that wireless carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    is a partnership between FEMA, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and wireless carriers, to enhance

  18. A Multiple Procedure DDT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Thomas

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Memo. Describes a version of DDT used as the command level of the A.I. Group PDP-6 Time Sharing System (ITS). Special features include capability to handle multiple jobs, ability to stop open read or write references ...

  19. Carrier-Controlled Ferromagnetism in SrTiO3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moetakef, Pouya; Williams, James R.; Ouellette, Daniel G.; Kajdos, Adam P.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Allen, S. James; Stemmer, Susanne

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetotransport and superconducting properties are investigated for uniformly La-doped SrTiO3 films and GdTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures, respectively. GdTiO3/SrTiO3 interfaces exhibit a high-density 2D electron gas on the SrTiO3 side of the interface, while, for the SrTiO3 films, carriers are provided by the dopant atoms. Both types of samples exhibit ferromagnetism at low temperatures, as evidenced by a hysteresis in the magnetoresistance. For the uniformly doped SrTiO3 films, the Curie temperature is found to increase with doping and to coexist with superconductivity for carrier concentrations on the high-density side of the superconducting dome. The Curie temperature of the GdTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures scales with the thickness of the SrTiO3 quantum well. The results are used to construct a stability diagram for the ferromagnetic and superconducting phases of SrTiO3.

  20. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  1. Multiple jet interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hehr, Roger James

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MULTIPLE JET INTERACTIONS A Thesis by ROGER JAMES HEHR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering... MULTIPLE JET INTERACTIONS A Thesis by ROGER JAMES HEHR Approved as to style and content by: David . Norton (Chairman of Committee) raid L. orrison (Mem er) Leland A. Carlson (Member) Er est . Cross, r. (Head of Department) August 1983 ABSTRACT...

  2. Proton-proton multiplicity distributions at LHC and the Pomeron intercept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Capella; E. G. Ferreiro

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the proton-proton multiplicity distributions at LHC energies in the framework of a multiple scattering model assuming a Poisson distribution for each inelastic collision. Multiple scattering is essential to broaden the multiplicity distribution. We obtain approximate KNO scaling for small pseudo-rapidity intervals ($|\\eta | < 0.5$) and sizable KNO scaling violations for larger ones, in agreement with experiment.

  3. FOURIER TRANSFORM MULTIPLE QUANTUM NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drobny, G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of transition observed in Fourier transform multiple quantumDecember 18-19, 1979 FOURIER TRANSFORM MULTIPLE QUANTUM NMRof London, December 1978. FOURIER TRANSFO~~ MULTIPLE QUANTUM

  4. Production of carrier-peptide conjugates using chemically reactive unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Travis; Schultz, Peter G

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided are methods of making carrier polypeptide that include incorporating a first unnatural amino acid into a carrier polypeptide variant, incorporating a second unnatural amino acid into a target polypeptide variant, and reacting the first and second unnatural amino acids to produce the conjugate. Conjugates produced using the provided methods are also provided. In addition, orthogonal translation systems in methylotrophic yeast and methods of using these systems to produce carrier and target polypeptide variants comprising unnatural amino acids are provided.

  5. Production of carrier-peptide conjugates using chemically reactive unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Travis; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided are methods of making carrier polypeptide that include incorporating a first unnatural amino acid into a carrier polypeptide variant, incorporating a second unnatural amino acid into a target polypeptide variant, and reacting the first and second unnatural amino acids to produce the conjugate. Conjugates produced using the provided methods are also provided. In addition, orthogonal translation systems in methylotrophic yeast and methods of using these systems to produce carrier and target polypeptide variants comprising unnatural amino acids are provided.

  6. Ultrafast Control of Magnetism in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors via Photoexcited Transient Carriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotoros, Ingrid A.

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of spintronics offers perspectives for seamless integration of coupled and inter-tunable electrical and magnetic properties in a single device. For integration of the spin degree of freedom with current electronic technology, new semiconductors are needed that show electrically-tunable magnetic properties at room temperature and above. Dilute magnetic semiconductors derived from III-V compounds, like GaMnAs and InMnAs, show coupled and tunable magnetic, transport, and optical properties, due to the fact that their ferromagnetism is hole-mediated. These unconventional materials are ideal systems for manipulating the magnetic order by changing the carrier polarization, population density, and energy band distribution of the complementary subsystem of holes. This is the main theme we cover in this thesis. In particular, we develop a unique setup by use of ultraviolet pump, near-infrared probe femtosecond laser pulses, that allows for magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy experiments. We photo-excite transient carriers in our samples, and measure the induced transient magnetization dynamics. One set of experiments performed allowed us to observe for the first time enhancement of the ferromagnetic order in GaMnAs, on an ultrafast time scale of hundreds of picoseconds. The corresponding transient increase of Curie temperature (Tc, the temperature above which a ferromagnetic material loses its permanent magnetism) of about 1 K for our experimental conditions is a very promising result for potential spintronics applications, especially since it is seconded by observation of an ultrafast ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition above Tc. In a different set of experiments, we"write" the magnetization in a particular orientation in the sample plane. Using an ultrafast scheme, we alter the distribution of holes in the system and detect signatures of the particular memory state in the subsequent magnetization dynamics, with unprecedented hundreds of femtosecond detection speed. The femtosecond cooperative magnetic phenomena presented here further our understanding of Mn-hole correlations in III-V dilute magnetic semiconductors, and may well represent universal principles of a large class of carrier-mediated ferromagnetic materials. Thus they offer perspectives for future terahertz (1012 Hz) speed"spintronic" functional devices.

  7. Pressurized chemical-looping combustion of coal with an iron ore-based oxygen carrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Rui; Song, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Shen, Laihong [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Song, Qilei [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Lu, Zuoji [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); GCL Engineering Limited, Zhujiang No. 1, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. Most of the previous investigations on CLC of solid fuels were conducted under atmospheric pressure. A pressurized CLC combined cycle (PCLC-CC) system is proposed as a promising coal combustion technology with potential higher system efficiency, higher fuel conversion, and lower cost for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In this study pressurized CLC of coal with Companhia Valedo Rio Doce (CVRD) iron ore was investigated in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. CVRD iron ore particles were exposed alternately to reduction by 0.4 g of Chinese Xuzhou bituminous coal gasified with 87.2% steam/N{sub 2} mixture and oxidation with 5% O{sub 2} in N{sub 2} at 970 C. The operating pressure was varied between 0.1 MPa and 0.6 MPa. First, control experiments of steam coal gasification over quartz sand were performed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are the major components of the gasification products, and the operating pressure influences the gas composition. Higher concentrations of CO{sub 2} and lower fractions of CO, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} during the reduction process with CVRD iron ore was achieved under higher pressures. The effects of pressure on the coal gasification rate in the presence of the oxygen carrier were different for pyrolysis and char gasification. The pressurized condition suppresses the initial coal pyrolysis process while it also enhances coal char gasification and reduction with iron ore in steam, and thus improves the overall reaction rate of CLC. The oxidation rates and variation of oxygen carrier conversion are higher at elevated pressures reflecting higher reduction level in the previous reduction period. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses show that particles become porous after experiments but maintain structure and size after several cycles. Agglomeration was not observed in this study. An EDX analysis demonstrates that there is very little coal ash deposited on the oxygen carrier particles but no appreciable crystalline phases change as verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Overall, the limited pressurized CLC experiments carried out in the present work suggest that PCLC of coal is promising and further investigations are necessary. (author)

  8. No-carrier-added (NCA) aryl ([sup 18]F) fluorides via the nucleophilic aromatic substitution of electron rich aromatic rings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yushin Ding; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1993-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for synthesizing no-carrier-added (NCA) aryl [.sup.18 F] fluoride substituted aromatic aldehyde compositions bearing an electron donating group is described. The method of the present invention includes the step of reacting aromatic nitro aldehydes having a suitably protected hydroxyl substitutent on an electron rich ring. The reaction is The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016, between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities Inc.

  9. Project Profile: Thermally-Stable Ionic Liquid Carriers forNanopartic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carriers for Nanoparticle-Based Heat Transfer in CSP Applications SRNL logo Savannah River National Laboratory, under an ARRA CSP Award, is performing research to better...

  10. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bjorkman, H.K. Jr.

    1983-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means for separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means. 7 figs.

  11. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K. (Birmingham, MI)

    1983-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means or separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means.

  12. Computer Simulations Reveal Multiple Functions for Aromatic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computer Simulations Reveal Multiple Functions for Aromatic Residues in Cellulase Enzymes NREL researchers use high-performance computing to demonstrate fundamental roles of aromatic residues in cellulase enzyme tunnels. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) computer simulations of a key indus- trial

  13. Charged-Particle Multiplicity in Proton-Proton Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Fiete Grosse-Oetringhaus; Klaus Reygers

    2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This article summarizes and critically reviews measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and pseudorapidity densities in p+p(pbar) collisions between sqrt(s) = 23.6 GeV and sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV. Related theoretical concepts are briefly introduced. Moments of multiplicity distributions are presented as a function of sqrt(s). Feynman scaling, KNO scaling, as well as the description of multiplicity distributions with a single negative binomial distribution and with combinations of two or more negative binomial distributions are discussed. Moreover, similarities between the energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in p+p(pbar) and e+e- collisions are studied. Finally, various predictions for pseudorapidity densities, average multiplicities in full phase space, and multiplicity distributions of charged particles in p+p(pbar) collisions at the LHC energies of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, 10 TeV, and 14 TeV are summarized and compared.

  14. No-carrier-added (/sup 18/F)-N-methylspiroperidol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiue, C.Y.; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1985-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to the synthesis of a radioligand, labeled with a positron emitting radionuclide which is suitable for dynamic studies in humans using positron emission transaxial tomography. No-carrier-added (NCA) (/sup 18/F)-N-methylspiroperiodl is prepared from four different sustrates: p-nitrobenzonitrile, cyclopropyl p-nitrophenyl ketone, p-cyclopropanoyl-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium iodide and p-cyclopropanoyl-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium perchlorate. The process for the production of NCA (/sup 18/F)-N-methylspiroperidol is a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Furthermore, the compound of this invention is shown to be effective as a new drug of choice for in vivo examination of dopamine binding sites in a human brain. In particular, this drug is primarily useful in the noninvasive technique of positron emission transaxial tomography (PETT).

  15. Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, R., E-mail: richard.geiger@psi.ch, E-mail: hans.sigg@psi.ch; Sigg, H., E-mail: richard.geiger@psi.ch, E-mail: hans.sigg@psi.ch [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Frigerio, J.; Chrastina, D.; Isella, G. [L-NESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Süess, M. J. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials Science, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Scientific Center for Optical and Electron Microscopy (SCOPEM), ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Spolenak, R. [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials Science, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Faist, J. [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The excess charge carrier lifetimes in Ge layers grown on Si or germanium-on-insulator are measured by synchrotron based pump-probe transmission spectroscopy. We observe that the lifetimes do not strongly depend on growth parameters and annealing procedure, but on the doping profile. The defect layer at the Ge/Si interface is found to be the main non-radiative recombination channel. Therefore, the longest lifetimes in Ge/Si (2.6?ns) are achieved in sufficiently thick Ge layers with a built-in field, which repels electrons from the Ge/Si interface. Longer lifetimes (5.3?ns) are obtained in overgrown germanium-on-insulator due to the absence of the defective interface.

  16. Carrier Transport in PbS Nanocrystal Conducting Polymer Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Watt; Troy Eichman; Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop; Paul Meredith

    2004-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report the first measurements of carrier mobilities in an inorganic nanocrystal: conducting polymer composite. The composite material in question (lead sulphide nanocrystals in the conducting polymer MEH-PPV was made using a new single-pot, surfactant-free synthesis. Mobilties were measured using time of flight (ToF) and steady-state techniques. We have found that the inclusion of PbS nanocrystals in MEH-PPV both balances and markedly increases the hole and electron mobilities - the hole mobility is increased by a factor of ~105 and the electron mobility increased by ~107 under an applied bias of 5kVcm-1. These results explain why dramatic improvements in electrical conductivity and photovoltaic performance are seen in devices fabricated from these composites.

  17. Electron density and carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Gnacinski; J. K. Sikorski; G. A. Galazutdinov

    2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the ionisation equilibrium equation to derive the electron density in interstellar clouds in the direction to 13 stars. A linear relation was found, that allows the determination of the electron density from the Mg I and Mg II column densities in diffuse clouds. The comparison of normalised equivalent width of 12 DIBs with the electron density shows that the DIBs equivalent width do not change with electron density varying in the range ne=0.01-2.5 cm^-3. Therefore the DIBs carriers (1) can be observed only in one ionisation stage, or (2) the DIBs are arising in cloud regions (eg. cores or cloud coronas) for which we can not determine the electron density.

  18. Organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers is provided. Each emissive layer may define an exciton formation region, allowing exciton formation to occur across the entire emissive region. By aligning the energy levels of each emissive layer with the adjacent emissive layers, exciton formation in each layer may be improved. Devices incorporating multiple emissive layers with multiple exciton formation regions may exhibit improved performance, including internal quantum efficiencies of up to 100%.

  19. Vilnius Energy Secretary Conference 2007: Responsible Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    that we will support you in that endeavor. Finally, the advantages of competition, fair pricing, and multiple supply options to transport that energy cannot be overstated. Future...

  20. Blind Timing and Carrier Synchronization in Decode and Forward Cooperative Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durrani, Salman

    Blind Timing and Carrier Synchronization in Decode and Forward Cooperative Systems Ali A. Nasir for blind channel, timing and carrier offset estimation in a DF cooperative system with one source, M relays and one destination equipped with N antennas. In particular, we exploit blind source separation

  1. Formation of Sets and Subsets of Informative Features of Information Carriers with Magnetic Hard Disks*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borissova, Daniela

    . Regardless of the type of the information carrier with hard magnetic disks, the main and most important137 Formation of Sets and Subsets of Informative Features of Information Carriers with Magnetic magnetic disk, new informative features are presented, which form a substantial subset of the informative

  2. United States navy fleet problems and the development of carrier aviation, 1929-1933 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadle, Ryan David

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Navy first took official notice of aviation in 1910, but its development of carrier aviation lagged behind Great Britain??s until the 1920s. The first American aircraft carrier, the Langley, commissioned in 1919, provided the Navy with a...

  3. The Potential Economic Impact of the National Broadband Plan on the New Mexico Exchange Carriers Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    The Potential Economic Impact of the National Broadband Plan on the New Mexico Exchange Carriers Center New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico #12;Arrowhead Center New Mexico Exchange List of Maps ii Executive Summary iii Introduction 1 New Mexico Exchange Carriers Group 1 New Mexico

  4. Dynamical Handling of Straddle Carriers Activities on a Container Terminal in Uncertain Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Dynamical Handling of Straddle Carriers Activities on a Container Terminal in Uncertain precisely straddle carriers in a container terminal. The information given by such a tool makes an optimization possible. In fact, a box terminal is an open system subject to dynamics, in which many events can

  5. Minority-Carrier Thermoelectric Devices Kevin P. Pipe and Rajeev J. Ram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minority-Carrier Thermoelectric Devices Kevin P. Pipe and Rajeev J. Ram Research Laboratory the thermoelectric performance of the electronic devices themselves. Recognizing that minority carriers play for thermoelectric effects in a p-n diode (a prototypical electronic and optoelectronic component) where diffusion

  6. Thermoelectric figure of merit as a function of carrier propagation angle in semiconducting superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Erica

    Thermoelectric figure of merit as a function of carrier propagation angle in semiconducting;Thermoelectric figure of merit as a function of carrier propagation angle in semiconducting superlattices Shuo a fruitful approach for enhancing the figure of merit, ZT, of thermoelectric materials. Generally

  7. Power Line Carrier (PLC) Signal Analysis of Smart Meters for Outlier Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akella, Srinivas

    Power Line Carrier (PLC) Signal Analysis of Smart Meters for Outlier Detection Rakesh Rao Dept-- A method for identifying outliers among a set of smart meters by using the power line carrier (PLC) signal strength is presented in this paper. The broad goal is to use the PLC signal as a predictor of transmission

  8. Telecommunications Policy 28 (2004) 559578 Can broadband over powerline carrier (PLC) compete?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Telecommunications Policy 28 (2004) 559­578 Can broadband over powerline carrier (PLC) compete Abstract Powerline carrier (PLC) communications have been heralded by the FCC as the ``3rd wire'' to every on the United States). Results indicate that PLC does not appear to represent a major disruptive technology

  9. The effectiveness and stability of impurity/defect interactions and their impact on minority carrier lifetime. Annual subcontract report, 1 August 1990--31 July 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozgonyi, G.A.; Shimura, F.; Buczkowski, A.; Zhon, T.Q. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the investigation and understanding of electrical activity of ``clean`` and metallic impurity decorated defects. A heterostructure containing a controlled number of deliberately introduced misfit dislocations is used as a model system to simulate a variety of defect/impurity interactions in photovoltaic materials. In addition, a noncontact laser/microwave deep-level transient spectroscopy technique is applied to characterize the minority carrier lifetime and determine the energy levels of defects. 59 refs.

  10. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  11. Polycrystal Plasticity -Multiple Slip"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollett, Anthony D.

    Polycrystal Plasticity - Multiple Slip" 27-750 Texture, Microstructure & Anisotropy A.D. Rollett;2 Objective" The objective of this lecture is to show how plastic deformation in polycrystals requires of Los Alamos polycrystal plasticity, LApp; also the Viscoplastic Selfconsistent code, VPSC; also

  12. Thermal influence on charge carrier transport in solar cells based on GaAs PN junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osses-Márquez, Juan; Calderón-Muñoz, Williams R., E-mail: wicalder@ing.uchile.cl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron and hole one-dimensional transport in a solar cell based on a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) PN junction and its dependency with electron and lattice temperatures are studied here. Electrons and heat transport are treated on an equal footing, and a cell operating at high temperatures using concentrators is considered. The equations of a two-temperature hydrodynamic model are written in terms of asymptotic expansions for the dependent variables with the electron Reynolds number as a perturbation parameter. The dependency of the electron and hole densities through the junction with the temperature is analyzed solving the steady-state model at low Reynolds numbers. Lattice temperature distribution throughout the device is obtained considering the change of kinetic energy of electrons due to interactions with the lattice and heat absorbed from sunlight. In terms of performance, higher values of power output are obtained with low lattice temperature and hot energy carriers. This modeling contributes to improve the design of heat exchange devices and thermal management strategies in photovoltaic technologies.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of chemical looping combustion process with calcium sulphate oxygen carrier - article no. A19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baosheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Zhongyi Deng; Qilei Song [Southeast University (China). Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To concentrate CO{sub 2} in combustion processes by efficient and energy-saving ways is a first and very important step for its sequestration. Chemical looping combustion (CLC) could easily achieve this goal. A chemical-looping combustion system consists of a fuel reactor and an air reactor. Two reactors in the form of interconnected fluidized beds are used in the process: (1) a fuel reactor where the oxygen carrier is reduced by reaction with the fuel, and (2) an air reactor where the reduced oxygen carrier from the fuel reactor is oxidized with air. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, while the outlet gas stream from the air reactor contains only N{sub 2} and some unused O{sub 2}. The water in combustion products can be easily removed by condensation and pure carbon dioxide is obtained without any loss of energy for separation. Until now, there is little literature about mathematical modeling of chemical-looping combustion using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. In this work, the reaction kinetic model of the fuel reactor (CaSO{sub 4}+ H{sub 2}) is developed by means of the commercial code FLUENT and the effects of partial pressure of H{sub 2} (concentration of H{sub 2}) on chemical looping combustion performance are also studied. The results show that the concentration of H{sub 2} could enhance the CLC performance.

  14. Renewable Energy Training and Education | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewable Energy Training and Education Renewable Energy Training and Education October 16, 2013 - 5:17pm Addthis Multiple resources exist to train Federal agency personnel to...

  15. NorthWestern Energy- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NorthWestern Energy offers multiple rebate programs for commercial and industrial customers to make energy efficient improvements to their businesses. The E+ Commercial Natural Gas Savings Program...

  16. Multiple protocol fluorometer and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew S. (Shoreham, NY); Falkowski, Paul G. (Stony Brook, NY)

    2000-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple protocol fluorometer measures photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton and higher plants using actively stimulated fluorescence protocols. The measured parameters include spectrally-resolved functional and optical absorption cross sections of PSII, extent of energy transfer between reaction centers of PSII, F.sub.0 (minimal), F.sub.m (maximal) and F.sub.v (variable) components of PSII fluorescence, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, size of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool, and the kinetics of electron transport between Q.sub.a and PQ pool and between PQ pool and PSI. The multiple protocol fluorometer, in one embodiment, is equipped with an excitation source having a controlled spectral output range between 420 nm and 555 nm and capable of generating flashlets having a duration of 0.125-32 .mu.s, an interval between 0.5 .mu.s and 2 seconds, and peak optical power of up to 2 W/cm.sup.2. The excitation source is also capable of generating, simultaneous with the flashlets, a controlled continuous, background illumination.

  17. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of charge carriers is known to evolve as the carrier concentration increases, due to the presence of intrinsic disorder in organic semiconductors. Thus, a complementary question is: how does the nature of charge transport change as a function of carrier concentration?

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs The Ames Electric Department provides free energy audits and multiple energy efficiency rebates for commercial and industrial...

  19. US Flag Air Carriers In order for a flight to be in compliance with the fly America Act, the code of a U.S. flag air carrier must be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    US Flag Air Carriers In order for a flight to be in compliance with the fly America Act, the code of a U.S. flag air carrier must be noted as part of the flight number on the airline ticket, flight or not the flight is on a US Flag air carrier. A detailed list of U.S. flag air carriers is below: · Airtran Airways

  20. Production Scheduling with Energy Efficiency Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, J.; Kozman, T. A.; Wang, X.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is motivated by a real world production scheduling problem in a continuous manufacturing system involving multiple objectives, multiple products and multiple processing lines with various inventory, production and energy efficiency...

  1. Standard test method for determination of total hydrogen content of uranium oxide powders and pellets by carrier gas extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard test method for determination of total hydrogen content of uranium oxide powders and pellets by carrier gas extraction

  2. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContractElectron-StateEnergy /newsroom/_assets/images/energy-icon.png Energy

  3. Opportunistic Power Control for Multi-Carrier Interference Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javan, Mohammad R

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new method for opportunistic power control in multi-carrier interference channels for delay-tolerant data services. In doing so, we utilize a game theoretic framework with novel constraints, where each user tries to maximize its utility in a distributed and opportunistic manner, while satisfying the game's constraints by adapting its transmit power to its channel. In this scheme, users transmit with more power on good sub-channels and do the opposite on bad sub-channels. In this way, in addition to the allocated power on each sub-channel, the total power of all users also depends on channel conditions. Since each user's power level depends on power levels of other users, the game belongs to the \\emph{generalized} Nash equilibrium (GNE) problems, which in general, is hard to analyze. We show that the proposed game has a GNE, and derive the sufficient conditions for its uniqueness. Besides, we propose a new pricing scheme for maximizing each user's throughput in an opportunistic manner under its to...

  4. The Photophysics of the Carrier of Extended Red Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy L. Smith; Adolf N. Witt

    2001-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Interstellar dust contains a component which reveals its presence by emitting a broad, unstructured band of light in the 540 to 950 nm wavelength range, referred to as Extended Red Emission (ERE). The presence of interstellar dust and ultraviolet photons are two necessary conditions for ERE to occur. This is the basis for suggestions which attribute ERE to an interstellar dust component capable of photoluminescence. In this study, we have collected all published ERE observations with absolute-calibrated spectra for interstellar environments, where the density of ultraviolet photons can be estimated reliably. In each case, we determined the band-integrated ERE intensity, the wavelength of peak emission in the ERE band, and the efficiency with which absorbed ultraviolet photons are contributing to the ERE. The data show that radiation is not only driving the ERE, as expected for a photoluminescence process, but is modifying the ERE carrier as manifested by a systematic increase in the ERE band's peak wavelength and a general decrease in the photon conversion efficiency with increasing densities of the prevailing exciting radiation. The overall spectral characteristics of the ERE and the observed high quantum efficiency of the ERE process are currently best matched by the recently proposed silicon nanoparticle (SNP) model. Using the experimentally established fact that ionization of semiconductor nanoparticles quenches their photoluminescence, we proceeded to test the SNP model by developing a quantitative model for the excitation and ionization equilibrium of SNPs under interstellar conditions for a wide range of radiation field densities.

  5. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    George Crabtree

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  6. Cleaning Glass Slides and Coverslips The following carriers can be purchased from the Fluoroware division of Entegris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    Cleaning Glass Slides and Coverslips Materials The following carriers can be purchased from coverslips. - Handle for LCD Carrier (Polypropylene) / Catalog # A45-03-0603 For 3" glass slides. - Carrier and seal with cover. The glass is now ready for storage. Before Use - Before using a slide or coverslip

  7. Studies of multiplicity in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. B. Back

    2004-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk I'll review the present status of charged particle multiplicity measurements from heavy-ion collisions. The characteristic features of multiplicity distributions obtained in Au+Au collisions will be discussed in terms of collision centrality and energy and compared to those of p+p collisions. Multiplicity measurements of d+Au collisions at 200 GeV nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy will also be discussed. The results will be compared to various theoretical models and simple scaling properties of the data will be identified.

  8. High Multiplicity Searches at the LHC Using Jet Masses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hook, Anson; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Izaguirre, Eder; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Lisanti, Mariangela; /Princeton U.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This article introduces a new class of searches for physics beyond the Standard Model that improves the sensitivity to signals with high jet multiplicity. The proposed searches gain access to high multiplicity signals by reclustering events into large-radius, or 'fat', jets and by requiring that each event has multiple massive jets. This technique is applied to supersymmetric scenarios in which gluinos are pair-produced and then subsequently decay to final states with either moderate quantities of missing energy or final states without missing energy. In each of these scenarios, the use of jet mass improves the estimated reach in gluino mass by 20% to 50% over current LHC searches.

  9. Michigan | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and bring new opportunities to the city. SmartBuildings Detroit offers multiple models of incentives for business energy upgrades, including combinations of loans and...

  10. In situ monitoring of stacking fault formation and its carrier lifetime mediation in p-type 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bin, E-mail: chenbinmse@gmail.com; Chen, Jun; Yao, Yuanzhao; Sekiguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Matsuhata, Hirofumi; Okumura, Hajime [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the fine control of an electron beam (e-beam) in scanning electron microscopy with the capabilities of both electrical and optical imaging, the stacking fault (SF) formation together with its tuning of carrier lifetime was in situ monitored and investigated in p-type 4H-SiC homoepitaxial films. The SFs were formed through engineering basal plane dislocations with the energy supplied by the e-beam. The e-beam intensity required for the SF formation in the p-type films was ?100 times higher than that in the n-type ones. The SFs reduced the minority-carrier lifetime in the p-type films, which was opposite to that observed in the n-type case. The reason for the peculiar SF behavior in the p-type 4H-SiC is discussed with the cathodoluminescence results.

  11. The Relativistic Dynamics of Photon Gas Two dynamic equations are established in photon gas, which is just the carrier or medium of electromagnetic waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jikang Chen

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The carrier or medium of electromagnetic waves has been vainly searched for many years, and now it has been caught after the establishment of the dynamic equations in photon gas. The photon's rest mass has been estimated from the cosmic background temperature in space where the photon gas is at an open state of thermal equilibrium, and the photon's proper magnetic moment is calculated from the dynamic equations of photon gas too. As the carrier of electromagnetic waves, the photon gas is a discrete medium at very high frequency, and then the Bohr's electron is hardly to emit energy in wave form and can be stably rounding the nuclei in discrete orbits at lower temperature.

  12. A comparison of physiological strain of carriers in underground manual coal mines in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, R.; Dey, N.C.; Samanta, A.; Biswas, R. [University College of Medical Science, Lumbini (Nepal). Dept. of Physics

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thirty nine healthy carriers (23-57 years of age) were investigated in underground manual coal mines in West Bengal, India during two different work spells of a single work shift. We compared physiological strain of workers <40 and {ge} 40 years of age. For both groups, mean heart rate was 124-133 beats/min, with a mean corresponding relative cardiac cost of 50-66%. Maximum aerobic capacities were estimated indirectly, following a standard step test protocol. Average oxygen consumption was 1.07-1.1 l/min, with an energy expenditure of 5.35-5.5 kcal/min among both age groups. Acceptable levels of physiological strain were well encroached, and older workers faced the maximum burden. The tasks studied were heavy to very heavy in nature. The weight of load carriage at a spontaneously chosen speed and the prevailing environmental conditions merit serious attention. There is extreme need of ergonomic interventions in reducing the postural load and musculoskeletal discomforts in this population.

  13. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasRelease Date:researchEmerging ThreatsEmployment Openings

  14. Multiple solutions in supersymmetry and the Higgs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allanach, Ben C.

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Meeting Issue ‘Before, behind and beyond the discovery of the Higgs boson’. Subject Areas: particle physics, high energy physics Keywords: minimal supersymmetric standard model, technical hierarchy problem, constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model... been. We shall review the multiple solutions and illustrate their existence in a universal model of supersymmetry breaking. 1. Introduction to supersymmetry The recent discovery of the Higgs boson of mass 125–126 GeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC...

  15. Project Profile: Thermally-Stable Ionic Liquid Carriers for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010 |of Energy TEES logoSolarEnergy

  16. Carrier transfer from InAs quantum dots to ErAs metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haughn, C. R.; Chen, E. Y.; Zide, J. M. O.; Doty, M. F., E-mail: doty@udel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Steenbergen, E. H.; Bissell, L. J.; Eyink, K. G. [AFRL/RXAN, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Erbium arsenide (ErAs) is a semi-metallic material that self-assembles into nanoparticles when grown in GaAs via molecular beam epitaxy. We use steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence to examine the mechanism of carrier transfer between indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots and ErAs nanoparticles in a GaAs host. We probe the electronic structure of the ErAs metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and the optoelectronic properties of the nanocomposite and show that the carrier transfer rates are independent of pump intensity. This result suggests that the ErAs MNPs have a continuous density of states and effectively act as traps. The absence of a temperature dependence tells us that carrier transfer from the InAs quantum dots to ErAs MNPs is not phonon assisted. We show that the measured photoluminescence decay rates are consistent with a carrier tunneling model.

  17. The Amphiphilic Self-Assembling Peptide EAK16-I as a Potential Hydrophobic Drug Carrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jing

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is crucial for hydrophobic drugs to be dissolved and stabilized by carriers in aqueous systems and then to be delivered into target cells. An amphiphilic self-assembling peptide EAK16-I (Ac-AEAKAEAKAEAKAEAK-NH2) is ...

  18. Carrier envelope phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser and iodine spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Feng

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The carrier envelope (CE) phase of a femtosecond laser was stabilized. The laser produces an ultra stable comb of frequency spanning the visible region and basically is an optical frequency synthesizer and ready for the frequency domain applications...

  19. Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    In 2007-2009, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted a technical assessment of organic liquid carrier based hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications, consistent with the Program’s Multiyear Re

  20. Cooperative mission planning for a class of carrier-vehicle systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garone, Emanuele

    In this work we focus on mission planning problems in scenarios in which a carrier vehicle, typically slow but with virtually infinite range, and a carried vehicle, which on the contrary is typically fast but has a shorter ...

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Fluorescent Injectable Micro-Carriers for Tissue Regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arora, Akshi

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Specific problem: Our previous study showed that the nanofibrous poly-l-lactic acid (NF-PLLA) microspheres are excellent cell carriers for tissue regeneration. However, these injectable microspheres are not fluorescent biomaterials. Incorporation...

  2. A solution to the inherent list on Nimitz class aircraft carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfson, Dianna

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nimitz class aircraft carriers possess an inherent list to starboard that their list control systems (LCS) are typically unable to correct while under Combat Load Conditions. As a result, it has become necessary to use ...

  3. Floating LNG terminal and LNG carrier interaction analysis for side-by-side offloading operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuriakose, Vinu P.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Floating LNG terminals are a relatively new concept with the first such terminal in the world installed this year. The hydrodynamic interaction effects between the terminal and a LNG carrier in a side-by-side offloading arrangement is investigated...

  4. Effects of truckload freight assignment methods on carrier capacity and pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kafarski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis is based on one year of transactional data from a major beverage company and interviews with asset based and non-asset based truckload carriers. Throughout our research we investigate the use of asset based ...

  5. InGaAs Quantum Dots Coupled to a Reservoir of Nonequilibrium Free Carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laemmlin, Matthias

    We discuss the impact of a 2D-charged carrier reservoir for high-speed optical amplification and modulated lasing in quantum dot (QD)-based devices by testing the amplification of short trains of high power, femtosecond ...

  6. Carrier-lifetime-controlled selective etching process for semiconductors using photochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The minority carrier lifetime is significantly much shorter in semiconductor materials with very high impurity concentrations than it is in semiconductor materials with lower impurity concentration levels. This phenomenon of reduced minority carrier lifetime in semiconductor materials having high impurity concentration is utilized to advantage for permitting highly selective semiconductor material etching to be achieved using a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction. Various means may be employed for increasing the local impurity concentration level in specific near-surface regions of a semiconductor prior to subjecting the semiconductor material to a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction. The regions having the localized increased impurity concentration form a self-aligned mask inhibiting photochemical etching at such localized regions while the adjacent regions not having increased impurity concentrations are selectively photochemically etched. Liquid- or gas-phase etching may be performed.

  7. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  8. Laser control of free-carrier density in solids through field-enhanced multiphonon tunneling recombination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheltikov, A. M.; Voronin, A. A. [Department of Physics, International Laser Center, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Shneider, M. N.; Miles, R. B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5263 (United States)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancement of multiphonon tunneling recombination of free carriers in strong laser fields is shown to offer a mechanism whereby ultrafast carrier-density dynamics in a semiconductor can be controlled by properly shaped laser pulses. This regime of laser-solid interaction enables an ultrafast switching of optical and electric properties of semiconductor materials, suggesting new strategies for laser micromachining and nanomachining, optical data processing, and ultrafast plasmonics.

  9. Carrier-frequency synchronization system for improved amplitude modulation and television broadcast reception

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F.; Moore, James A.

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for carrier-frequency synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a reference signal receiver; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  10. The effects of LNG-sloshing on the global responses of LNG-carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Jae

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTS OF LNG-SLOSHING ON THE GLOBAL RESPONSES OF LNG-CARRIERS A Dissertation by SEUNG JAE LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major Subject: Ocean Engineering THE EFFECTS OF LNG-SLOSHING ON THE GLOBAL RESPONSES OF LNG-CARRIERS A Dissertation by SEUNG JAE LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  11. Tuning carrier density across Dirac point in epitaxial graphene on SiC by corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lartsev, Arseniy; Yager, Tom; Lara-Avila, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.lara@chalmers.se; Kubatkin, Sergey [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Bergsten, Tobias [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, S-50115 Borås (Sweden); Tzalenchuk, Alexander [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW110LW (United Kingdom); Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Janssen, T. J. B. M [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW110LW (United Kingdom); Yakimova, Rositza [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate reversible carrier density control across the Dirac point (?n???10{sup 13?}cm{sup ?2}) in epitaxial graphene on SiC (SiC/G) via high electrostatic potential gating with ions produced by corona discharge. The method is attractive for applications where graphene with a fixed carrier density is needed, such as quantum metrology, and more generally as a simple method of gating 2DEGs formed at semiconductor interfaces and in topological insulators.

  12. Synchronizing carrier frequencies of co-channel amplitude-modulated broadcast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F. (London, TN); Moore, James A. (Powell, TN)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for carrier-frequency synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a reference signal receiver; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  13. Theoretical simulation of carrier capture and relaxation rates in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yunhu [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Physics, Kashi Normal College, Kashi 844006 (China); Zhang, Guoping, E-mail: gpzhang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Guo, Ling; Qi, Guoqun [Department of Physics, Kashi Normal College, Kashi 844006 (China); Li, Xiaoming [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on Auger scattering mechanism, carrier-carrier scattering dynamics between the two-dimensional carrier reservoir (also called wetting layer, i.e., WL) and the confined quantum dot ground and first excited state in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers (QD-SOAs) are investigated theoretically in this paper. The scattering rates for independent electron and hole densities are calculated. The results show an ultra-fast carrier capture (relaxation) rate up to 1 ps{sup ?1}, and there is a complex dependence of the Coulomb scattering rates on the WL electron and hole densities. In addition, due to the different effective mass and the level distribution, the scattering rates for electron and hole are very different. Finally, in order to provide a direction to control (increase or decrease) the input current in realistic QD-SOA systems, a simple method is proposed to determine the trends of the carrier recovery rates with the WL carrier densities in the vicinity of the steady-state.

  14. Energy

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling CorpNew 1325.8.Enaineer;/:4,4 (; ...) "..

  15. Hydrogen Production R&D Activities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Hydrogen Production R&D Activities Hydrogen Production R&D Activities An important advantage to using hydrogen as an energy carrier is that it can be produced from a...

  16. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrell, James J. (Livingston Manor, NY); Donohoe, Anthony J. (Ovid, NY)

    1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  17. On Multiple Einstein Rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. Werner; J. An; N. W. Evans

    2008-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of recent surveys for gravitational lenses have found examples of double Einstein rings. Here, we investigate analytically the occurrence of multiple Einstein rings. We prove, under very general assumptions, that at most one Einstein ring can arise from a mass distribution in a single plane lensing a single background source. Two or more Einstein rings can therefore only occur in multi-plane lensing. Surprisingly, we show that it is possible for a single source to produce more than one Einstein ring. If two point masses (or two isothermal spheres) in different planes are aligned with observer and source on the optical axis, we show that there are up to three Einstein rings. We also discuss the image morphologies for these two models if axisymmetry is broken, and give the first instances of magnification invariants in the case of two lens planes.

  18. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  19. AM with Multiple Merlins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott Aaronson; Russell Impagliazzo; Dana Moshkovitz

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce and study a new model of interactive proofs: AM(k), or Arthur-Merlin with k non-communicating Merlins. Unlike with the better-known MIP, here the assumption is that each Merlin receives an independent random challenge from Arthur. One motivation for this model (which we explore in detail) comes from the close analogies between it and the quantum complexity class QMA(k), but the AM(k) model is also natural in its own right. We illustrate the power of multiple Merlins by giving an AM(2) protocol for 3SAT, in which the Merlins' challenges and responses consist of only n^{1/2+o(1)} bits each. Our protocol has the consequence that, assuming the Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH), any algorithm for approximating a dense CSP with a polynomial-size alphabet must take n^{(log n)^{1-o(1)}} time. Algorithms nearly matching this lower bound are known, but their running times had never been previously explained. Brandao and Harrow have also recently used our 3SAT protocol to show quasipolynomial hardness for approximating the values of certain entangled games. In the other direction, we give a simple quasipolynomial-time approximation algorithm for free games, and use it to prove that, assuming the ETH, our 3SAT protocol is essentially optimal. More generally, we show that multiple Merlins never provide more than a polynomial advantage over one: that is, AM(k)=AM for all k=poly(n). The key to this result is a subsampling theorem for free games, which follows from powerful results by Alon et al. and Barak et al. on subsampling dense CSPs, and which says that the value of any free game can be closely approximated by the value of a logarithmic-sized random subgame.

  20. Electron Localization in Molecular Fragmentation of H{sub 2} by Carrier-Envelope Phase Stabilized Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kremer, Manuel; Fischer, Bettina; Feuerstein, Bernold; Sharma, Vandana; Hofrichter, Christian; Schroeter, Claus Dieter; Moshammer, Robert; Ullrich, Joachim [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Jesus, Vitor L. B. de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil); Rudenko, Artem [Max-Planck Advanced Study Group at CFEL, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Thumm, Uwe [James R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2606 (United States)

    2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Fully differential data for H{sub 2} dissociation in ultrashort (6 fs, 760 nm), linearly polarized, intense (0.44 PW/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses with a stabilized carrier-envelope phase (CEP) were recorded with a reaction microscope. Depending on the CEP, the molecular orientation, and the kinetic energy release (KER), we find asymmetric proton emission at low KERs (0-3 eV), basically predicted by Roudnev and Esry, and much stronger than reported by Kling et al. Wave packet propagation calculations reproduce the salient features and discard, together with the observed KER-independent electron asymmetry, the first ionization step to be the reason for the asymmetric proton emission.

  1. Interband electronic transitions and scattering of excess free carriers from a surface in nonlinear spectroscopy of ultrathin metal films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobyrev, Yu V; Petnikova, V M; Rudenko, K V; Shuvalov, Vladimir V [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on degenerate four-photon spectroscopy of ultrathin (10 - 20-nm thick) Ni, Au, and Pt films, a conclusion is made about a dominating role of interband electronic transitions in the formation of a nonlinear response of the metals in the visible spectral range. It is shown that an excited electron subsystem in films of thickness less than the mean free path is thermalized and cooled due to rapid inelastic scattering of excess free carriers on the film surface. The estimates performed for the Ni film showed that up to 10% of 20-ps pump-pulse energy could be scattered in this way producing the surface deformation. Upon spatially nonuniform excitation, the efficient 'direct' generation of surface acoustic waves is possible. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  2. Mean carrier transport properties and charge collection dynamics of single-crystal, natural type IIa diamonds from ion-induced conductivity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, S.S.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion-induced conductivity has been used to investigate the detector characteristics of diamond detectors. Both integrated-charge, and time-resolved current measurements were performed to examine the mean carrier transport properties of diamond and the dynamics of charge collection under highly-localized and high-density excitation conditions. The integrated-charge measurements were conducted with a standard pulse-counting system with {sup 241}Am radioactivity as the excitation source for the detectors. The time-resolved current measurements were performed using a 70 GHz random sampling oscilloscope with the detectors incorporated into high-speed microstrip transmission lines and the excitation source for these measurements was an ion beam of either 5-MeV He{sup +} or 10-MeV Si{sup 3+}. The detectors used in both experiments can be described as metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) devices where a volume of the detector material is sandwiched between two metal plates. A charge collection model was developed to interpret the integrated-charge measurements which enabled estimation of the energy required to produce an electron-hole pair ({epsilon}{sub di}) and the mean carrier transport properties in diamond, such as carrier mobility and lifetime, and the behavior of the electrical contacts to diamond.

  3. Integrating Multiple Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modules* Burak Ozpineci1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Integrating Multiple Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modules* Burak Ozpineci1 burak@ieee.org Zhong Du2 zdu1 of Energy's Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program [3] is targeting solid oxide fuel cell Laboratory P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 Abstract-According to SECA program guidelines, solid oxide

  4. Optimal sequencing of a cooling tower with multiple cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Liu, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper evaluates the energy savings potential of multi-cell cooling tower optimal sequencing control methods. Annual tower fan energy usage is calculated for a counter-flow tower with multiple variable-speed fans. Effectiveness-NTU tower model...

  5. Incoherence and multiple parton interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calucci, G.; Treleani, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica dell'Universita di Trieste and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, Miramare-Grignano, I-34151 Trieste (Italy)

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the LHC multiple parton interactions will represent an important feature of the minimum bias and of the underlying event, and will give important contributions in many channels of interest in the search for new physics. Different numbers of multiple collisions may contribute to the production of a given final state, and one should expect important interference effects in the regime where different contributions have similar rates. We show, on the contrary, that, once multiple parton interactions are identified by their different topologies, terms with different numbers of multiple parton interactions do not interfere in the final cross section.

  6. Carrier-envelope-phase stabilized terawatt class laser at 1 kHz with a wavelength tunable option

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Langdon, Benjamin; Garlick, Jonathan; Ren, Xiaoming; Wilson, Derrek J.; Summers, Adam M.; Zigo, Stefan; Kling, Matthias F.; Lei, Shuting; Elles, Christopher G.; Wells, Eric; et al

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a chirped-pulse-amplified Ti:Sapphire laser system operating at 1 kHz, with 20 mJ pulse energy, 26 femtosecond pulse duration (0.77 terawatt), and excellent long term carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) stability. A new vibrational damping technique is implemented to significantly reduce vibrational noise on both the laser stretcher and compressor, thus enabling a single-shot CEP noise value of 250 mrad RMS over 1 hour and 300 mrad RMS over 9 hours. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the best long term CEP noise ever reported for any terawatt class laser. This laser is also used to pump a white-light-seeded opticalmore »parametric amplifier, producing 6 mJ of total energy in the signal and idler with 18 mJ of pumping energy. Due to preservation of the CEP in the white-light generated signal and passive CEP stability in the idler, this laser system promises synthesized laser pulses spanning multi-octaves of bandwidth at an unprecedented energy scale.« less

  7. RADIO SEARCH FOR H{sub 2}CCC TOWARD HD 183143 AS A CANDIDATE FOR A DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BAND CARRIER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Yamabe, Hiromichi; Tsukiyama, Koichi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science Division I, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku 162-8601, Tokyo (Japan); Takano, Shuro [Nobeyama Radio Observatory and Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), 462-2 Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Kuze, Nobuhiko, E-mail: araki@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku 102-8554, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To clarify the authenticity of a recently proposed identification of H{sub 2}CCC (linear-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}) as a diffuse interstellar band (DIB) carrier, we searched for the rotational transition of H{sub 2}CCC at a frequency of 103 GHz toward HD 183143 using the 45 m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. Although rms noise levels of 32 mK in the antenna temperature were achieved, detection of H{sub 2}CCC was unsuccessful, producing a 3{sigma} upper limit corresponding to a column density of 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}. The upper limit indicates that the contribution of H{sub 2}CCC to the DIB at 5450 Angstrom-Sign is less than 1/25; thus, it is unlikely that the laboratory bands of the B{sup 1} B{sub 1}-X{sup 1} A{sub 1} transition of H{sub 2}CCC and the DIBs at 5450 Angstrom-Sign (and also 4881 Angstrom-Sign ) toward HD 183143 are related.

  8. Multiplicity features of adiabatic autothermal reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovo, M.; Balakotaiah, V. (Houston Univ., TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper singularity theory, large activation energy asymptotic, and numerical methods are used to present a comprehensive study of the steady-state multiplicity features of three classical adiabatic autothermal reactor models: tubular reactor with internal heat exchange, tubular reactor with external heat exchange, and the CSTR with external heat exchange. Specifically, the authors derive the exact uniqueness-multiplicity boundary, determine typical cross-sections of the bifurcation set, and classify the different types of bifurcation diagrams of conversion vs. residence time. Asymptotic (limiting) models are used to determine analytical expressions for the uniqueness boundary and the ignition and extinction points. The analytical results are used to present simple, explicit and accurate expressions defining the boundary of the region of autothermal operation in the physical parameter space.

  9. Motor Carrier Management Information System Crash File, Phase One

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronic Input Options Gary L. Hirsch SNL 2001a,Summary v Approved:the

  10. Motor Carrier Management Information System Crash File, Phase One

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronic Input Options Gary L. Hirsch SNL 2001a,Summary v

  11. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetime using liquid conductor -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta3 Tableimpurity ionAntonyaDEnergyEnergy

  12. Potential Carriers and Approaches for Hydrogen Delivery | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60 DATE:AnnualDepartment of Energy

  13. ENERGY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory Board Contributions EMEM RecoveryManagement'sJuneAprilEMS U.S.

  14. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseCElizabethTwoJaniceEnerG2Energetics of Hydrogen .M

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency. August. Carrier Aeroseal, LLC. (2002). Cases HVAC system (Carrier Aeroseal 2002). Discharge air

  16. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coon, Darryl D. (Pittsburgh, PA); Elliott, John P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1990-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins porjecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array.

  17. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coon, D.D.; Elliott, J.P.

    1990-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins projecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array. 5 figs.

  18. Integrated circuit with dissipative layer for photogenerated carriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myers, D.R.

    1989-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The sensitivity of an integrated circuit to single-event upsets is decreased by providing a dissi The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-ACO4-76DP00789 between the Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  19. Integrated circuit with dissipative layer for photogenerated carriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sensitivity of an integrated circuit to single-event upsets is decreased by providing a dissi The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-ACO4-76DP00789 between the Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  20. Renewable Energy Optimization (REopt) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REopt is an energy planning platform offering concurrent, multiple technology integration and optimization capabilities to help clients meet their cost savings and energy performance goals.

  1. Development and evaluation of a lignite-stillage carrier system for application and study of biological control agents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Richard Worth

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Head of Department) December 1983 ABSTRACT Development and Evaluation of a Lignite-Sti liege Carrier System for Application and Study of Biological Agents. (December 1983.... The carrier system consisted of lignite granules amended with thin liquid sti llage. This carrier system supported fungal propagule production as high as 2. 0 x 10g propagules/g carrier. Thin liquid sti llage supported the production of 4. 0-4. 5 mg of g...

  2. Apparatus and method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO); Johnston, Steven W. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearity for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  3. Time Reversal Symmetry and Energy Drift in Conservative Systems L. Brugnano and D. Trigiante

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brugnano, Luigi

    effects among multiple Savonius turbines J. Renewable Sustainable Energy 4, 053107 (2012) Suppressing on

  4. Relaxation of photoinduced spins and carriers in ferromagnetic InMnSb films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nontapot, K.; Kini, R. N.; Gifford, A.; Merritt, T. R.; Khodaparast, G. A.; Wojtowicz, T.; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. K. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2007-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report time resolved measurements and control of photoinduced spin and carrier relaxations in InMnSb ferromagnetic films with 2% Mn content (grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy) using femtosecond laser pulses, and compare them to analogous measurements on InBeSb and InSb films. In this work, magneto-optical Kerr effect and standard pump-probe techniques provided a direct measure of the photoexcited spin and carrier lifetimes, respectively. They observe decrease in relaxations times in the high laser fluence regime and an absence of temperature dependence of the relaxation times.

  5. Field and hot carrier enhanced leakage in InGaAsP/InP heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, L.C.; Yu, K.L.; Margalit, S.; Chen, T.R.; Koren, U.; Hasson, A.; Yariv, A.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations regarding the temperature sensitivity and power saturation of InGaAsP lasers and light emitting diodes (LED's) have led to extensive studies to find the responsible mechanisms. In the present investigation, attention is given to an electron leakage over the heterobarrier which incorporates the influence of both the electric field and carrier heating effect. A model calculation is conducted regarding the field and hot carrier enhanced electron leakage over the heterobarrier in InGaAsP/InP LED's and lasers. The obtained rsults show the importance of the doping level in the P-InP confining layer in determining the magnitude of the leakage current.

  6. Carrier phase synchronization system for improved amplitude modulation and television broadcast reception

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F. (Loudon, TN) [Loudon, TN; Moore, James A. (Powell, TN) [Powell, TN

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for carrier phase synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing the phase of a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with the phase of a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a receiver to detect the phase of a reference signal; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal-phase receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a phase-controlled radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  7. Carrier phase synchronization system for improved amplitude modulation and television broadcast reception

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F. (Loudon, TN); Moore, James A. (Powell, TN)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for carrier phase synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing the phase of a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with the phase of a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a receiver to detect the phase of a reference signal; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal-phase receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a phase-controlled radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  8. Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lisic, Edward C. (Cookeville, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Callahan, Alvin P. (Harriman, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generator system for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form.

  9. Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lisic, Edward C. (Cookeville, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Callahan, Alvin P. (Harriman, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generator system for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form.

  10. Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Lisic, E.C.; Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.

    1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A generator system for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form.

  11. Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Lisic, E.C.; Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.

    1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A generator system has been invented for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form. 1 figure.

  12. RM methods for multiple fare structure environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kayser, Matthew R. (Matthew Russell)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid growth of Low Cost Carriers (LCC) and their simplified fare structures has created "semi-restricted" fare structures where lower classes are undifferentiated except for price, while higher fare classes are still ...

  13. New energy carriers in vehicles and their impact on confined infrastructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on the pressure from different governments in particular in Europe, vehicles will not only use gasoline, diesel and terminals and their interactions help to find the optimum to improve the safety and security by design

  14. Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier: Outlook for 2010, 2030, and 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, Joan M

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    scale with nearly zero full fuel cycle emissions of GHG andthe electricity, the full fuel cycle carbon emissions fromuse have the same full fuel cycle emissions of greenhouse

  15. Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier: Outlook for 2010, 2030, and 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, Joan M

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    uses for low-cost biomass feedstocks in the electricityuses for low-cost biomass feedstocks in the electricity

  16. Multiple-scattering series for color transparency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, W.R.; Miller, G.A. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cold transparency (CT) depends on the formation of a wave packet of small spatial extent. It is useful to interpret experimental searches for CT with a multiple-scattering series based on wave-packet--nucleon scattering instead of the standard one using nucleon-nucleon scattering. We develop several new techniques which are valid for differing ranges of energy. These techniques are applied to verify some early approximations, study new forms of the wave-packet--nucleon interaction, examine effects of treating wave packets of nonzero size, and predict the production of [ital N][sup *]'s in electron scattering experiments.

  17. Black Hills Energy (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Energy offers multiple programs for Colorado commercial and industrial customers to save natural gas in eligible facilities. The commercial prescriptive rebate program provides...

  18. John Papanikolas: Visualizing Charge Carrier Motion in Nanowires Using

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron beam chargesJenniferJohannJohnJohn MoonFemtosecond

  19. Non-contact Nondestructive Probing of Charge Carrier Conductivity in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparencyDOE Project Taps HPCNew4Organic Materials and their

  20. Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic| Department ofGeneralWind » TaxDepartmentAutomotive

  1. NorthWestern Energy (Electric)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NorthWestern Energy offers multiple rebate programs for commercial and industrial customers to make energy efficient improvements to their businesses. This includes lighting, heating, irrigators,...

  2. Multiple hypothesis evaluation in auditing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Rajendra P.; Wright, Arnold; Mock, Theodore J.

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , unidentified causes may have led to the fluctuation. A widely accepted approach for modeling multiple hypotheses is to employ a probabilistic revision process (Winterfeldt and Edwards 1986; Winkler and Hays 1975; Luce and Raiffa, 1957). Probability theory...

  3. V-092: Pidgin Multiple Vulnerabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multiple vulnerabilities have been reported in Pidgin, which can be exploited by malicious people to manipulate certain data, cause a DoS (Denial of Service), and compromise a user's system.

  4. Multiple Motivations Institutional Change Principle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The multiple motivations principle suggests that a portfolio approach—rather than a single strategy—may be required to achieve change. Research demonstrates that people and institutions adopt new...

  5. Sequence labeling with multiple annotators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues, Filipe

    The increasingly popular use of Crowdsourcing as a resource to obtain labeled data has been contributing to the wide awareness of the machine learning community to the problem of supervised learning from multiple annotators. ...

  6. Alternatives for Helium-3 in Multiplicity Counters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternatives to helium-3 are being actively pursued due to the shortage and rising costs of helium-3. For safeguards applications, there are a number of ongoing investigations to find alternatives that provide the same capability in a cost-effective manner. One of the greatest challenges is to find a comparable alternative for multiplicity counters, since they require high efficiency and short collection or die-away times. Work has been progressing on investigating three commercially available alternatives for high efficiency multiplicity counters: boron trifluoride (BF3) filled proportional tubes, boron-lined proportional tubes, and lithium fluoride with zinc sulfide coated light guides. The baseline multiplicity counter used for the investigation is the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter with 121 helium-3 filled tubes at 10 atmosphere pressure, which is a significant capability to match. The primary tool for the investigation has been modeling and simulation using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) radiation transport program, with experiments to validate the models. To directly calculate the coincidence rates in boron-lined (and possibly other) detectors, the MCNPX code has been enhanced to allow the existing coincidence tally to be used with energy deposition rather than neutron capture reactions. This allows boron-lined detectors to be modeled more accurately. Variations of tube number and diameter along with variations in the amount of inter-tube moderator have been conducted for the BF3 and boron-lined cases. Tube pressure was investigated for BF3, up to two atmospheres, as well as optimal boron thickness in the boron-lined tubes. The lithium fluoride was modeled as sheets of material with light guides in between, and the number and thickness of the sheets investigated. The amount of light guide, which in this case doubles as a moderator, was also optimized. The results of these modeling and simulation optimization investigations are described and results presented.

  7. Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF) Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brian C.

    Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF) Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF R.Q.A. Santana Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF) #12;Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF) Sumário 1 Introdução Abordagens de múltiplos modelos Introdução ao Interacting

  8. Joint Carrier Frequency Offset and Fast Time-varying Channel Estimation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    environment. An L-path channel model with known path delays is considered to jointly estimate the multi1 Joint Carrier Frequency Offset and Fast Time-varying Channel Estimation for MIMO-OFDM Systems, a novel pilot-aided iterative algorithm is developed for MIMO-OFDM systems operating in fast time- varying

  9. Analysis of local carrier modulation in InAs semiconductor nanowire transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli

    , and drain compared with that of back gate. Com- pared to a surrounding-gate geometry, a top-gate structure as a function of probe tip position, at both high and low drain bias, reveal that carrier and current modulation is strongest when the probe tip is near the source and drain nanowire contacts, and decreases at greater tip

  10. Free Carrier Generation in Fullerene Acceptors and Its Effect on Polymer Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Free Carrier Generation in Fullerene Acceptors and Its Effect on Polymer Photovoltaics George F is this also true for many of the soluble fullerene derivatives commonly used in organic photovoltaics generated by numerous field- dependent techniques. INTRODUCTION In the organic photovoltaic (OPV) community

  11. Molecular Analysis of Drug Delivery Systems Controlled by Dissolution of the Polymer Carrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    of the polymer carrier controls the drug release) have similar characteristics to many biodegrad- able systems. As Lee4 pointed out in his pioneering work in 1980, phase erosion-based systems include those in which involved. The model of Lee and Peppas13 predicts that the gel layer thickness is directly proportional

  12. On Physical Carrier Sensing in Wireless Ad Hoc Xue Yang and Njtin Vaidya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yuanzhu Peter

    of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. and Coordinated Science. While channel utilization is determined by MAC overhead, physical carrier sense has been used suffer a significant loss. 1. INTRODUCTION Two fundamental aspects of wireless communication make

  13. SEVEN DESIRABLE PROPERTIES FOR ARTIFICIAL LEARNING SYSTEMS Christophe GiraudCarrier and Tony Martinez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Tony R.

    SEVEN DESIRABLE PROPERTIES FOR ARTIFICIAL LEARNING SYSTEMS Christophe Giraud­Carrier and Tony@axon.cs.byu.edu, martinez@cs.byu.edu Abstract We propose seven desirable properties for artificial learning systems, namely into the system after the fact. Much effort has been devoted to understanding learning and reasoning in artificial

  14. Synthesis of UV-absorbing carrier ampholytes for characterization of isoelectric membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Ann

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    of their pI values. Therefore, UV-absorbing carrier ampholyte mixtures (UVCAs) have been synthesized, analytically characterized, and utilized for the characterization of the pI value of a buffering membrane. To synthesize the UVCAs, addition of a UV...

  15. Molecular H2O as carrier for oxygen diffusion in hydrous silicate melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Youxue

    Molecular H2O as carrier for oxygen diffusion in hydrous silicate melts H. Behrens a,, Y. Zhang b water is known to dramatically enhance oxygen diffusion in silicate melts, glasses and minerals in the diffusion of water and oxygen in silicates, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 103 (1991) 228­240.]. Here we report

  16. Evaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    for copper-based materials, and at 950 °C for iron- and manganese-based materials. Methane or syngas (50% COEvaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg, Sweden

  17. Carrier recombination and generation rates for intravalley and intervalley phonon scattering in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afshari, Ehsan

    in graphene Farhan Rana,* Paul A. George, Jared H. Strait, Jahan Dawlaty, Shriram Shivaraman, Mvs and recombination rates for intravalley and intervalley phonon scattering in graphene are presented. The transverse carriers in graphene. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.115447 PACS number s : 73.63.Bd, 73.50.Gr, 72.10.Di, 73

  18. Examining the effect of sterol carrier protein-2 on phytanic acid toxicity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cynthia

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    acid. Phytanic acid accumulates to toxic levels in patients with defective or deficient numbers of peroxisomes, but little is known about how phytanic acid is taken up into the cell and incorporated into the peroxisome. Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2...

  19. Reducing the Fast Carrier-Envelope Phase Jitter of Amplified Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washburn, Brian

    Reducing the Fast Carrier-Envelope Phase Jitter of Amplified Femtosecond Laser Pulses E. Moon stabilization of a femtosecond laser oscillator reduced the fast phase jitter of the amplified pulses by ~40 jitter of the amplified pulses from 79 mrad to 48 mrad [2]. 2. Experiment and Discussion The experiments

  20. Carrier scattering, mobilities, and electrostatic potential in monolayer, bilayer, and trilayer graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perebeinos, Vasili

    graphene Wenjuan Zhu,* Vasili Perebeinos, Marcus Freitag, and Phaedon Avouris IBM Thomas J. Watson Research mobility in monolayer, bilayer, and trilayer graphene has been systematically studied. We found that as the carrier density increases, the mobility decreases for monolayer graphene, while it increases for bilayer

  1. Multi-carrier Signal Transmission through HVAC Ducts: Experimental Results for Channel Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Multi-carrier Signal Transmission through HVAC Ducts: Experimental Results for Channel Capacity, for the first time, experimental results on channel capacity of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC through a building HVAC duct system demonstrate the ability to transmit with a spectral efficiency of 3

  2. Layered Frequency-Domain Turbo Equalization for Single Carrier Broadband MIMO Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yahong Rosa

    Layered Frequency-Domain Turbo Equalization for Single Carrier Broadband MIMO Systems Jian Zhang 72701, USA Abstract-- A new layered frequency-domain turbo equalization (LFDTE) scheme is proposed the respective advantages of layered detection and turbo equalization to further lower the bit error rate (BER

  3. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with lateral carrier confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coldren, Larry A.

    - mixing (QWI) process to achieve lateral carrier confinement. Using a sacrificial silicon-doped InGaPAs layer for aluminum-free regrowth. A 300 nm sacrificial InGaP layer was then grown for intermixing not created, the intermixing process was suppressed. After RTA, the SiO2 and InGaP layers were stripped off

  4. Block Spreading for MUI/ISI-Resilient Generalized Multi-carrier CDMA with Multirate Capabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    1 of 5 Block Spreading for MUI/ISI-Resilient Generalized Multi-carrier CDMA with Multirate) and intersymbol interference (ISI) arising due to wireless multipath propagation, motivate well multirate wideband Quality of Service (QoS) and rate- scalability, have low complexity, and exhibit resilience to MUI and ISI

  5. Microscopic simulations of molecular cluster decay: Does the carrier gas affect evaporation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Ian

    the sys- tems in question. An example of a practical problem is the behavior of steam in turbines, whereMicroscopic simulations of molecular cluster decay: Does the carrier gas affect evaporation? Hoi Yu water droplets produced through condensation in the transition from dry to wet steam can lead

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 045413 (2012) Cooling of photoexcited carriers in graphene by internal and substrate phonons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perebeinos, Vasili

    for cooling of photoexcited carriers in graphene via the remote surface polar phonon modes (SPPPHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 045413 (2012) Cooling of photoexcited carriers in graphene by internal through coupling to both intrinsic and remote (substrate) surface polar phonons using the Boltzmann

  7. Energies 2009, 2, 839-850; doi:10.3390/en20400839 OPEN ACCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jánosi, Imre M.

    carriers like hydrogen or methanol, etc. There is a general belief in unbroken scientific developmentEnergies 2009, 2, 839-850; doi:10.3390/en20400839 OPEN ACCESS energies ISSN 1996-1073 www.mdpi.com/journal/energies reforms must clearly be made in our global energy system [1]. An increasing #12;Energies 2009, 2 840

  8. Development of a High Latent Effectiveness Energy Recovery Ventilator with Integration into Rooftop Package Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory M. Dobbs; Norberto O. Lemcoff; Frederick J. Cogswell; Jeffrey T. Benolt

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Final Report covers the Cooperative Program carried out to design and optimize an enhanced flat-plate energy recovery ventilator and integrate it into a packaged unitary (rooftop) air conditioning unit. The project objective was to optimize the design of a flat plate energy recovery ventilator (ERV) core that compares favorably to flat plate air-to-air heat exchanger cores on the market and to cost wise to small enthalpy wheel devices. The benefits of an integrated unit incorporating an enhanced ERV core and a downsized heating/cooling unit were characterized and the design of an integrated unit considering performance and cost was optimized. Phase I was to develop and optimize the design of a membrane based heat exchanger core. Phase II was the creation and observation of a system integrated demonstrator unit consisting of the Enhanced Energy Recovery Ventilator (EERV) developed in Phase I coupled to a standard Carrier 50HJ rooftop packaged unitary air conditioning unit. Phase III was the optimization of the system prior to commercialization based on the knowledge gained in Phase II. To assure that the designs chosen have the possibility of meeting cost objectives, a preliminary manufacturability and production cost study was performed by the Center for Automation Technologies at RPI. Phase I also included a preliminary design for the integrated unit to be further developed in Phase II. This was to assure that the physical design of the heat exchanger designed in Phase I would be acceptable for use in Phase II. An extensive modeling program was performed by the Center for Building Performance & Diagnostics of CMU. Using EnergyPlus as the software, a typical office building with multiple system configurations in multiple climatic zones in the US was simulated. The performance of energy recovery technologies in packaged rooftop HVAC equipment was evaluated. The experimental program carried out in Phases II and III consisted of fabricating and testing a demonstrator unit using Carrier Comfort Network (CCN) based controls. Augmenting the control signals, CCN was also used to monitor and record additional performance data that supported modeling and conceptual understanding. The result of the testing showed that the EERV core developed in Phase I recovered energy in the demonstrator unit at the expected levels based on projections. In fact, at near-ARI conditions the core recovered about one ton of cooling enthalpy when operating with a three-ton rooftop packaged unit.

  9. CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION Multiple Efforts to Secure...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION Multiple Efforts to Secure Control Systems Are Under Way, but Challenges Remain CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION Multiple Efforts to Secure...

  10. Energy Band Model Based on Effective Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viktor Ariel

    2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we demonstrate an alternative method of deriving an isotropic energy band model using a one-dimensional definition of the effective mass and experimentally observed dependence of mass on energy. We extend the effective mass definition to anti-particles and particles with zero rest mass. We assume an often observed linear dependence of mass on energy and derive a generalized non-parabolic energy-momentum relation. The resulting non-parabolicity leads to velocity saturation at high particle energies. We apply the energy band model to free relativistic particles and carriers in solid state materials and obtain commonly used dispersion relations and experimentally confirmed effective masses. We apply the model to zero rest mass particles in graphene and propose using the effective mass for photons. Therefore, it appears that the new energy band model based on the effective mass can be applied to relativistic particles and carriers in solid state materials.

  11. Nuclear carrier business volume projections, 1980-2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebo, R.G.; McKeown, M.S.; Rhyne, W.R.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The expected number of shipments of commodities in the nuclear fuel cycle are projected for the years 1980 thru 2000. Projections are made for: yellowcake (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/); natural, enriched and reprocessed uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/); uranium dioxide powder (UO/sub 2/); plutonium dioxide powder (PuO/sub 2/); fresh UO/sub 2/ and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel; spent UO/sub 2/ fuel; low-level waste (LLW); transuranic (TRU) waste; high-activity TRU waste; high-level waste (HLW), and cladding hulls. Projections are also made for non-fuel cycle commodities such as defense TRU wastes and institutional wastes, since they also are shipped by the commercial transportation industry. Projections of waste shipments from LWRs are based on the continuation of current volume reduction and solidification techniques now used by the utility industry. Projections are also made based on a 5% per year reduction in LWR waste volume shipped which is assumed to occur as a result of increased implementation of currently available volume reduction systems. This assumption results in a net 64% decrease in the total waste shipped by the year 2000. LWR waste shipment projections, and essentially all other projections for fuel cycle commodities covered in this report, are normalized to BWR and PWR generating capacity projections set forth by the Department of Energy (DOE) in their low-growth projection of April, 1979. Therefore these commodity shipment projections may be altered to comply with future changes in generating capacity projections. Projected shipments of waste from the reprocessing of spent UO/sub 2/ fuel are based on waste generation rates proposed by Nuclear Fuels Services, Allied-General Nuclear Services, Exxon Nuclear, and the DOE. Reprocessing is assumed to begin again in 1990, with mixed oxide fresh fuel available for shipment by 1991.

  12. hal00281082, VARIATIONAL CHARACTERIZATIONS OF THE EFFECTIVE MULTIPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in nuclear reactor theory. This work follows a very recent paper by M. Mokhtar­ Kharroubi [22] devoted FACTOR OF A NUCLEAR REACTOR CORE Bertrand LODS Université Blaise Pascal (Clermont II) Laboratoire de. KEYWORDS: effective multiplication factor, nuclear reactor, neutron transport equation, energy

  13. Degenerate band edges in optical fiber with multiple

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the forward energy fluxes S of the two media defines the coupling efficiency ¼ S2=S1. For PBG materialsDegenerate band edges in optical fiber with multiple grating: efficient coupling to slow light), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia 2 CUDOS, School

  14. Thematic note to substantiate Ris's strategy impact on society Impact on society: Sustainable energy supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as the energy carrier biomass can be converted into power, heating and biofuels, for example bioethanol of biomass conversion into biofuels (bioethanol, hydrogen and biogas). The primary objective is to develop

  15. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brizard, A.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model lies with the simple wave energy conservation law itthe recirculation of wave energy introduces interference e?particles, the tertiary-wave energy may be negative and thus

  16. Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V. [U.S. DOE; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging [URS

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic Fe–Cu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with Fe–Cu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported Fe–Cu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800–900 °C and might be successfully used up to 900 °C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

  17. Control of strain in GaN by a combination of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} carrier gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Kariya, Michihiko; Kosaki, Masayoshi; Yukawa, Yohei; Nitta, Shugo; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of a combination of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} carrier gases on the residual strain and crystalline properties of GaN, and we propose its application to the improvement of crystalline quality of GaN/Al{sub 0.17}Ga{sub 0.83}N multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. GaN was grown with H{sub 2} or N{sub 2} carrier gas (H{sub 2}{endash} or N{sub 2}{endash}GaN) on an AlN low-temperature-deposited buffer layer. A (0001) sapphire substrate was used. N{sub 2}{endash}GaN was grown on H{sub 2}{endash}GaN. The total thickness was set to be 1.5 {mu}m, and the ratio of N{sub 2}{endash}GaN thickness to the total thickness, x, ranged from 0 to 1. With increasing x, the tensile stress in GaN increased. Photoluminescence intensity at room temperature was much enhanced. Moreover, the crystalline quality of GaN/Al{sub 0.17}Ga{sub 0.83}N MQW was much higher when the MQW was grown with N{sub 2} on H{sub 2}{endash}GaN than when it was grown with H{sub 2} on H{sub 2}{endash}GaN. These results were due to the achievement of control of strain in GaN using a combination of N{sub 2}{endash}GaN and H{sub 2}{endash}GaN. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Dependence of the carrier concentration on the current in mid-infrared injection lasers with quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinnichenko, M. Ya., E-mail: mvin@spbstu.ru; Vorobjev, L. E.; Firsov, D. A.; Mashko, M. O.; Balagula, R. M. [Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation)] [Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Belenky, G.; Shterengas, L.; Kipshidze, G. [State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States)] [State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The current dependences of spontaneous luminescence in mid-IR injection lasers with InGaAsSb/InAlGaAsSb quantum wells are experimentally studied in the subthreshold and lasing modes. The current dependence of the carrier concentration is determined using the current dependence of the total spontaneous luminescence. A lack of carrier concentration saturation with current in the lasing mode was observed. It is shown that this can be due to carrier heating at low quantum-confinement levels and an increase in light absorption by free holes in the waveguide.

  19. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  20. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  1. Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about 725.degree. C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

  2. Phonon lifetime in SiSn and its suitability for hot-carrier solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levard, Hugo; Laribi, Sana; Guillemoles, Jean-François [Institute for Research and Development on Photovoltaic Energy (IRDEP), UMR 7174, EDF R and D/CNRS/Chimie ParisTech, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a phononic and electronic study of SiSn in the zinc-blende phase. A detailed description of the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon decay in a three-phonon process is presented together with the corresponding lifetime. The necessity to go beyond the zone center phonon approximation in this case is highlighted as it reveals a steep dependence of the lifetime on the initial phonon wavenumber, which differs from usual semiconductors. The electronic band structure is calculated within the GW formalism and shows a small direct band gap. It is shown that the LO-phonon resulting from electron cooling has a lifetime four to eight orders of magnitude above all the known value in semiconductors for this process. We finally show the suitability of SiSn for hot-carrier solar cells, as it is endowed with ultra-slow cooling of hot carriers.

  3. Influences of carrier diffusion and radial mode field pattern on high speed characteristics for microring lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Xiao-Meng; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn; Yang, Yue-De; Zou, Ling-Xiu; Long, Heng; Liu, Bo-Wen; Xiao, Jin-Long; Du, Yun [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High-speed directly modulated microlasers are potential light sources for on-chip optical interconnection and photonic integrated circuits. In this Letter, dynamic characteristics are studied for microring lasers by rate equation analysis considering radial carrier hole burning and diffusion and experimentally. The coupled modes with a wide radial field pattern and the injection current focused in the edge area of microring resonator can greatly improve the high speed response curve due to the less carrier hole burning. The small-signal response curves of a microring laser connected with an output waveguide exhibit a larger 3?dB bandwidth and smaller roll-off at low frequency than that of the microdisk laser with the same radius of 15??m, which accords with the simulation results.

  4. Comparison of spatially resolved carrier lifetimes in mc-Si with solar cell and material characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glunz, S.W.; Hebling, C.; Warta, W.; Wettling, W. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors introduce a novel application of modulated free carrier absorption (MFCA) for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in multicrystalline silicon with high spatial resolution. The improved lateral resolution compared to other contactless techniques allows the correlation between these lifetime maps and solar cell characteristics as well as microscopic properties, like dislocations, precipitates, oxygen concentration, etc. Comparisons of the lifetime maps measured on the starting material and light beam induced current (LBIC) maps exhibit a very good qualitative correlation of the structures observed in both cases. In addition, correlations to microscopic characteristics like high dislocation density in regions with low lifetimes are investigated and a comparison with spatially resolved FT-IR measurements of the interstitial oxygen concentration is performed.

  5. Power Utility Maximization for Multiple-Supply Systems by a Load-Matching Switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    Power Utility Maximization for Multiple-Supply Systems by a Load-Matching Switch Chulsung Park {chulsung,phchou}@uci.edu ABSTRACT For embedded systems that rely on multiple power sources (MPS), power systems General Terms Design, experimentation Keywords Solar energy, photovoltaics, power model, solar

  6. 6, 81258154, 2006 Multiple scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 8125­8154, 2006 Multiple scattering effects for Cloudsat A. Battaglia et al. Title Page A. Battaglia1 , M. O. Ajewole2 , and C. Simmer3 1 Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn: 28 August 2006 Correspondence to: A. Battaglia (batta@uni-bonn.de) 8125 #12;ACPD 6, 8125­8154, 2006

  7. Free carrier accumulation at cubic AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions Q. Y. Wei,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    As, Donat Josef

    ) substrate,7 with GaN and AlGaN layer thickness of 600 nm and 30 nm, respectively. The layer thicknessFree carrier accumulation at cubic AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions Q. Y. Wei,1 T. Li,1 J. Y. Huang,1 F. A (Received 24 February 2012; accepted 19 March 2012; published online 3 April 2012) Cubic Al0.3Ga0.7N/GaN

  8. Band gap tunning in BN-doped graphene systems with high carrier mobility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaloni, T. P.; Schwingenschlögl, U., E-mail: udo.schwingenschlogl@kaust.edu.sa [KAUST, PSE Division, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Joshi, R. P.; Adhikari, N. P. [Central Department of Physics, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Using density functional theory, we present a comparative study of the electronic properties of BN-doped graphene monolayer, bilayer, trilayer, and multilayer systems. In addition, we address a superlattice of pristine and BN-doped graphene. Five doping levels between 12.5% and 75% are considered, for which we obtain band gaps from 0.02?eV to 2.43?eV. We demonstrate a low effective mass of the charge carriers.

  9. Evidence for SMAD3 as a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Logan C; Fredericksen, Zachary S; Wang, Xianshu; Tarrell, Robert; Pankratz, Vernon Shane; Lindor, Noralane M; Beesley, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Chen, Xiaoqing; (kConFab), Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Tirapo, Carole; Giraud, Sophie; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Muller, Daniele; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Delnatte, Capucine; (gemo), Groupe Genetique et Cancer; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Schonbuchner, Ines; Deissler, Helmut; Meindl, Alfons; Hogervorst, Frans B; Verheus, Martijn; Hooning, Maartje J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Nelen, Marcel R; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Aalfs, Cora M; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Gerrits, Monique M; Waisfisz, Quinten; (hebon), Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Research Group Netherlands; Szabo, Csilla I; ModSQuaD, The; Easton, Douglas F; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T; Frost, Debra; Harrington, Patricia; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Rosalind; Izatt, Louise; Chu, Carol; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-Ren; Cook, Jackie; Embrace, The; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Singer, Christian F; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; Pfeiler, Georg; Godwin, Andrew K; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Nevanlinna, Heli; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Olsson, Hakan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Liljegren, Annelie; Arver, Brita; Karlsson, Per; Melin, Beatrice; (swe-brca), Swedish Breast Cancer Study; Sinilnikova, Olga M; McGuffog, Lesley; Antoniou, Antonis C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B; Couch, Fergus J

    2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Evidence for SMAD3 as a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers Logan C Walker1, Zachary S Fredericksen2, Xianshu Wang2, Robert Tarrell2, Vernon S Pankratz2, Noralane M Lindor2, Jonathan Beesley1, Sue... Service, Birmingham (Trevor Cole, Carole McKeown, Kai-Ren Ong, Laura Boyes); South West Regional Genetics Service, Bristol (Alan Donaldson); East Anglian Regional Genetics Service, Cambridge (Joan Paterson); Medical Genetics Services for Wales, Cardiff...

  10. Electricity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Different Angle Earlier this week, we told you about a new company that's developing battery technology that will allow energy storage for multiple hours on the power grid....

  11. Renewable Energy Economic Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Environmental Engineering/Design ENR Top 500 Design Firms Sourcebook, 2009 · 2009 Most Ethical Companies List of the large fabs in China · Solar Energy fast growth, strong cost focus multiple material platforms · HDD

  12. Optical generation of free charge carriers in thin films of tin oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhurbina, I. A., E-mail: zhurbina@vega.phys.msu.ru; Tsetlin, O. I.; Timoshenko, V. Yu. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods of infrared absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to study nanocrystalline SnO{sub x} films (1 {<=} x {<=} 2) prepared by thermal oxidation of metallic tin layers. A monotonic decrease in the transmittance of films in the infrared region has been observed as a result of exposure of the films to light with the wavelength of 380 nm at room temperature. The effect is at a maximum for the samples with x Almost-Equal-To 2 and is observed for {approx}10 min after switching off of illumination. The mentioned variations in optical properties, similarly to those observed in the case of heating of the samples in the dark, are accounted for by an increase in the concentration of free charge carriers (electrons) in nanocrystals of tin dioxide. The data of infrared spectroscopy and the Drude model are used to calculate the concentrations of photogenerated charge carriers ({approx}10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}); variations in these concentrations in the course of illumination and after switching off of illumination are determined. Mechanisms of observed photogeneration of charge carriers in SnO{sub x} films and possible applications of this effect to gas sensors are discussed.

  13. Carrier-phase Two-Way Satellite Frequency Transfer over a Very Long Baseline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujieda, M; Gotoh, T; Becker, J; Aida, M; Bauch, A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report that carrier-phase two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) was successfully demonstrated over a very long baseline of 9,000 km, established between the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). We verified that the carrier-phase TWSTFT (TWCP) result agreed with those obtained by conventional TWSTFT and GPS carrier-phase (GPSCP) techniques. Moreover, a much improved short-term instability for frequency transfer of $2\\times10^{-13}$ at 1 s was achieved, which is at the same level as previously confirmed over a shorter baseline within Japan. The precision achieved was so high that the effects of ionospheric delay became significant which are ignored in conventional TWSTFT even over a long link. We compensated for these effects using ionospheric delays computed from regional vertical total electron content maps. The agreement between the TWCP and GPSCP results was improved because of this compe...

  14. Estimate of air carrier and air taxi crash frequencies from high altitude en route flight operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanzo, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kimura, C.Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Prassinos, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In estimating the frequency of an aircraft crashing into a facility, it has been found convenient to break the problem down into two broad categories. One category estimates the aircraft crash frequency due to air traffic from nearby airports, the so-called near-airport environment. The other category estimates the aircraft crash frequency onto facilities due to air traffic from airways, jet routes, and other traffic flying outside the near-airport environment The total aircraft crash frequency is the summation of the crash frequencies from each airport near the facility under evaluation and from all airways, jet routes, and other traffic near the facility of interest. This paper will examine the problems associated with the determining the aircraft crash frequencies onto facilities outside the near-airport environment. This paper will further concentrate on the estimating the risk of aircraft crashes to ground facilities due to high altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic. High altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic will be defined as all air carrier and air taxi flights above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL).

  15. Resistive switching of a TaO{sub x}/TaON double layer via ionic control of carrier tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeon, Heeyoung; Park, Jingyu; Kim, Hyunjung [Department of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Woochool; Song, Hyoseok [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chunho [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); FAB Manufacturing Division, SK Hynix Inc., 2091, Gyeongchung-daero, Bubal-eub, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do 167-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyungtak, E-mail: hseo@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-739 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag, E-mail: hjeon@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Resistance random access memory (RRAM) is an attractive candidate for future non-volatile memory due to its superior features. As the oxide thickness is scaled down, the charge transport mechanism is also subject to the transition from hopping to tunneling dominant process, which is critically related to the interfacial electronic band structure. A TaO{sub x}/TaON double layer-based RRAM is fabricated and characterized in this work. Upon TaON insertion at the lower interface, the improved switching behavior is observed. The TaON at the bottom electrode interface blocks oxygen vacancy percolation due to strong N-O bonds and also modifies interfacial band alignment to lower the injected electron energy from bottom electrode due to higher tunneling barrier height than that of TaO{sub x}/Pt. This study suggested that a defect-minimized insertion layer like TaON with a proper interfacial band alignment is pivotal in RRAM for the effective ionic control of carrier tunneling resulting in non-linear I-V behavior with improved properties.

  16. Ames Electric Department- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ames Electric Department provides free energy audits and multiple energy efficiency rebates for commercial and industrial customers. The rebate programs available include: The Appliance Rebate...

  17. Nebraska Public Power District- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nebraska Public Power District offers multiple rebates for commercial and industrial customers to save energy in eligible facilities. Rebates are available for energy efficient lighting, HVAC...

  18. A MULTIPLE FOIL LUNAR ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSER (FLEA PACKAGE) FOR THE EVALUATION OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    -- A MULTIPLE FOIL LUNAR ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSER (FLEA PACKAGE) FOR THE EVALUATION OF: · Meteoroid Products. · Solar Wind Composition. · Medium Energy Solar Flare Composition. · Solar Wind Sputter Rate .. . . ... . .. .. . .. ...... ... ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY OF FLEA SYSTEM DATA EVALUATION ··········· SUPPORT DETAILS AND PERSONNEL

  19. Multiple Ruptures For Long Valley Microearthquakes- A Link To Volcanic

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose BendMiasoleTremor(Question) | Open Energy Information Multiple

  20. Multiple-beam laser–plasma interactions in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myatt, J. F., E-mail: jmya@lle.rochester.edu; Zhang, J.; Maximov, A. V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Short, R. W.; Seka, W.; Edgell, D. H.; Michel, D. T.; Igumenshchev, I. V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627-0171 (United States); Hinkel, D. E.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental evidence for multiple-beam laser-plasma instabilities of relevance to laser driven inertial confinement fusion at the ignition scale is reviewed, in both the indirect and direct-drive approaches. The instabilities described are cross-beam energy transfer (in both indirectly driven targets on the NIF and in direct-drive targets), multiple-beam stimulated Raman scattering (for indirect-drive), and multiple-beam two-plasmon decay instability (in direct drive). Advances in theoretical understanding and in the numerical modeling of these multiple beam instabilities are presented.

  1. Low-cost carriers in Japan : challenges and paths to success - using a corporate simulation model for empirical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiotani, Sayaka

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the causes behind the sluggishness of new airlines, low cost carriers (LCCs), in Japan. The object is to identify and to recommend innovative policy changes and ideas for the industry, by analyzing the ...

  2. LITERATURE SEARCH FOR METHODS FOR HAZARD ANALYSES OF AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARTINEZ - GURIDI,G.; SAMANTA,P.

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Representatives of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and several air carriers under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121 developed a system-engineering model of the functions of air-carrier operations. Their analyses form the foundation or basic architecture upon which other task areas are based: hazard analyses, performance measures, and risk indicator design. To carry out these other tasks, models may need to be developed using the basic architecture of the Air Carrier Operations System Model (ACOSM). Since ACOSM encompasses various areas of air-carrier operations and can be used to address different task areas with differing but interrelated objectives, the modeling needs are broad. A literature search was conducted to identify and analyze the existing models that may be applicable for pursuing the task areas in ACOSM. The intent of the literature search was not necessarily to identify a specific model that can be directly used, but rather to identify relevant ones that have similarities with the processes and activities defined within ACOSM. Such models may provide useful inputs and insights in structuring ACOSM models. ACOSM simulates processes and activities in air-carrier operation, but, in a general framework, it has similarities with other industries where attention also has been paid to hazard analyses, emphasizing risk management, and in designing risk indicators. To assure that efforts in other industries are adequately considered, the literature search includes publications from other industries, e.g., chemical, nuclear, and process industries. This report discusses the literature search, the relevant methods identified and provides a preliminary assessment of their use in developing the models needed for the ACOSM task areas. A detailed assessment of the models has not been made. Defining those applicable for ACOSM will need further analyses of both the models and tools identified. The report is organized in four chapters. Chapter 2 briefly describes ACOSM, and its structure, using the format of the Integrated Definition Function Model (IDEFO). A reader who is familiar with ACOSM may want to skip this chapter and continue with Chapter 3 that discusses the process we used for identifying applicable approaches for hazard analysis of air-carrier operations as modeled in ACOSM. It consisted of the following three main steps: (1) Search the literature containing articles related to hazard- or risk-analysis with potential applicability to air-carrier operations, (2) Review the selected publications and identify those with possible relevance to ACOSM, and (3) Group the selected publications or methods according to certain characteristics, such as their pertinence to specific areas of ACOSM. Chapter 4 discusses the applicability of the identified approaches to ACOSM, the areas of methods development, and comments related to methods development for ACOSM. The following areas were defined to identify the methods that may be applicable for ACOSM: (1) Identification of hazards associated with operations and activities; (2) Hazard-assessment techniques; (3) Modeling dependencies and interrelations leading to vulnerabilities; (4) Risk-management tools; (5) Data-assessment techniques; and (6) Risk-indicator identification. In addition, issues of human reliability and operational culture are relevant for all the above areas. They are expected to be addressed within each of them. We do not include in this report all the lists of publications that we obtained because they are voluminous. We keep them in our records which are available to the interested reader.

  3. Development and evaluation of a lignite-stillage carrier system for application and study of biological control agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Richard Worth

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    broth (38, 47, 60). New carrier component combina- tions need to be devised to provide an effective, low cost method of applying biocontro 1 agents to the soil. The purpose of this resear ch includes: ). ) determining the potential of lignite for use... means for reducing the carrier volumes needed by concentrating the nutrient substrate onto granules. Sporu 1ation was significantly greater on doubly amended lignite compared to singly amended lignite. Determinants of a successful two com onent...

  4. Possibility of n-type and p-type carrier coupling in the excitonic enhancement model of superconducting mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, K.W. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Ching, W.Y. (Missouri Univ., Kansas City, MO (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors discuss the possibility of both n-type and p-type carrier coupling in the excitonic enhancement model (EEM) for high temperature superconductivity. It is argued that p-type quasi-particles will generally lead to a higher T{sub c} than the n-type. The differences between EEM model and other exciton-related models are illuminated by the corresponding Feynman diagrams for the carrier coupling.

  5. Carrier Dynamics in InGaN/GaN SQW Structure Probed by the Transient Grating Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okamoto, Koichi

    Carrier Dynamics in InGaN/GaN SQW Structure Probed by the Transient Grating Method; 78.55.Cr; 78.67.De; S7.14 Carrier dynamics in GaN and InGaN/GaN SQW structures were observed by using inhomogeneity of In composition. Recently, InGaN/GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been commercialized

  6. Spatial Interference Mitigation for Multiple Input Multiple Output Ad Hoc Networks: MISO Gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Spatial Interference Mitigation for Multiple Input Multiple Output Ad Hoc Networks: MISO Gains beamforming for a multiple input single output (MISO) ad hoc network to increase the density of successful

  7. FORESTRY 347 MULTIPLE RESOURCE SILVICULTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    FORESTRY 347 MULTIPLE RESOURCE SILVICULTURE Autumn 2008 Instructor: John Goodburn Office: Rm. 409 Science Complex Telephone: 243-4295 Email: goodburn@forestry.umt.edu Office hours: Mon. 3:00 - 5:00 pm.m. Rm. 301 Forestry Bldg. Lab/Field Work Wed or Thur. 2:10 - 6:00 p.m. In Field or Rm. 106 (W) & 206(H

  8. On Multiple Gluon Exchange Webs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark Harley

    2015-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    I present an overview of the study of infrared singularities through the eikonal approximation and the concept of webs. Our work reveals the interesting structure of an infinite subclass of webs, Multiple Gluon Exchange Webs. We find that they can be expressed as sums of products of functions depending upon only a single cusp angle, spanned by a simple basis of functions, and conjecture that this structure will hold to all orders.

  9. Strain-induced enhancement of plasma dispersion effect and free-carrier absorption in SiGe optical modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Younghyun; Osada, Takenori; Hata, Masahiko; Takagi, Shinichi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plasma dispersion effect and free-carrier absorption are widely used for changing refractive index and absorption coefficient in Si-based optical modulators. However, these free-carrier effects in Si are not large enough for making the footprint of the Si modulators small. Here, we have theoretically and experimentally investigated the enhancement of the plasma dispersion effect and free-carrier absorption by strain-induced mass modulation in silicon-germanium (SiGe). The application of compressive strain to SiGe reduces the conductivity hole mass, resulting in the enhanced free-carrier effects. Thus, the strained SiGe-based optical modulator exhibits more than twice modulation efficiency as large as that of the Si modulator. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first demonstration of the enhanced free-carrier effects in strained SiGe at the near-infrared telecommunication wavelength. The strain-induced enhancement technology for the free-carrier effects is expected to boost the modulation efficiency o...

  10. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  11. V-094: IBM Multiple Products Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015 -Helicopter-Japan Joint NuclearDepartment ofEnergy 094: IBM

  12. Multiple sequence alignment Robert C Edgar1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batzoglou, Serafim

    Multiple sequence alignment Robert C Edgar1 and Serafim Batzoglou2 Multiple sequence alignments-9025, USA Corresponding author: Edgar, Robert C (bob@drive5.com) Current Opinion in Structural Biology 2006

  13. On the Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation for Frequency Hopping Burst Mode Mobile Radio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yýlmaz, �zgür

    for the transmission of one packet. Joint blind channel and CFO estimation over multiple frequency bursts is considered, achieves the joint CRB over multiple bursts. In the second part of the paper, some practical blind at each RFB and changes independently from block to block (block fading model [1]). Knowing

  14. Multiple Sequence Alignments BIOC 218 Final Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Sequence Alignments BIOC 218 Final Project Amy Zou Multiple sequence alignments (MSAs relationship between the different sequences, and can give information pertinent to phylogenetic analysis, it is inefficient to use to generate an alignment for multiple sequences. Because the computational complexity

  15. A Multiple-Channel Sub-Band Transient Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Smith

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a unique multiple-channel sub-band transient detection system to record transient electromagnetic signals in carrier-dominated radio environments; the system has been used to make unique observations of weak, transient HF signals. The detection system has made these observations possible through improved sensitivity compared to conventional broadband transient detection systems; the sensitivity improvement is estimated to be at least 20 dB. The increase in sensitivity has been achieved through subdivision of the band of interest (an 18 MHz tunable bandwidth) into eight sub-band independent detection channels, each with a 400 kHz bandwidth and its own criteria. The system generates a system trigger signal when a predetermined number of channels (typically five) trigger within a predetermined window of time (typically 100 ~s). Events are recorded with a broadband data acquisition system sampling at 50 or 100 Msample/s, so despite the fact that the detection system operates on portions of the signal confined to narrow bands, data acquisition is broadband. Between May and September of 1994, the system was used to detect and record over six thousand transient events in the frequency band from 3 to 30 MHz. Approximately 500 of the events have been characterized as paired bursts of radio noise with individual durations of 2 to 10 ps and separations between the bursts of 5 to 160 ps. The paired transients are typically 5 to 40 dB brighter than the background electromagnetic spectrum between carrier signals. We have termed these events SubIonospheric Pulse Pairs (SIPPS) and presently have no explanation as to their source. Our observations of SIPPS resemble observations of TransIonospheric Pulse Pairs (TIPPs) recorded by the Blackboard instrument on the ALEXIS satellite; the source of TIPP events is also unknown. Most of the recorded SIPP events do not exhibit frequency dispersion, implying propagation along a line-of-sight (groundwave) path; but seven of the pairs exhibit dispersion characteristic of skywave propagation via refraction from the ionosphere. The maximum line-of-sight observation range for radio propagation extends as far as 300 km for a source at an altitude of 5 km, and 520 km for a source at 15 km. Refraction from the ionosphere, however, may allow HF radiation to propagate around the globe. Information about the times and locations of sources, in conjunction with regional, weather maps and computer models of ionospheric propagation, suggest that some SIPP events originate in the vicinity of large-scale thunderstorm complexes.

  16. Femtosecond time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy for spatiotemporal imaging of photogenerated carrier dynamics in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukumoto, Keiki, E-mail: fukumoto.k.ab@m.titech.ac.jp; Yamada, Yuki; Matsuki, Takashi; Koshihara, Shin-ya [Department of Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Oookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency JST-CREST, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Onda, Ken [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency JST-PRESTO, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Mukuta, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Sei-ichi [Department of Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Oookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We constructed an instrument for time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy (TR-PEEM) utilizing femtosecond (fs) laser pulses to visualize the dynamics of photogenerated electrons in semiconductors on ultrasmall and ultrafast scales. The spatial distribution of the excited electrons and their relaxation and/or recombination processes were imaged by the proposed TR-PEEM method with a spatial resolution about 100 nm and an ultrafast temporal resolution defined by the cross-correlation of the fs laser pulses (240 fs). A direct observation of the dynamical behavior of electrons on higher resistivity samples, such as semiconductors, by TR-PEEM has still been facing difficulties because of space and/or sample charging effects originating from the high photon flux of the ultrashort pulsed laser utilized for the photoemission process. Here, a regenerative amplified fs laser with a widely tunable repetition rate has been utilized, and with careful optimization of laser parameters, such as fluence and repetition rate, and consideration for carrier lifetimes, the electron dynamics in semiconductors were visualized. For demonstrating our newly developed TR-PEEM method, the photogenerated carrier lifetimes around a nanoscale defect on a GaAs surface were observed. The obtained lifetimes were on a sub-picosecond time scale, which is much shorter than the lifetimes of carriers observed in the non-defective surrounding regions. Our findings are consistent with the fact that structural defects induce mid-gap states in the forbidden band, and that the electrons captured in these states promptly relax into the ground state.

  17. Coherent multiple-foil x-ray transition radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, M.J.; Chang, B.; Schneider, M.B.

    1993-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Intense x-ray transition radiation can be generated when relativistic electrons pass through a multiple-foil target. When the foil spacing is periodic, the transition radiation can be spatially coherent with respect to the target period. The spatial coherence can be evident in the spectra and angular distributions of transition radiation from such targets. A series of experiments has measured coherent transition radiation distributions from multiple-foil targets (up to six foils) with spacings of 50 {mu}m and 100 {mu}m. The electron energy was about 75 MeV and the photon energies were about 200 eV. Agreement between calculation and experimental data is excellent.

  18. Knowledge Framework Implementation with Multiple Architectures - 13090

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyay, H.; Lagos, L.; Quintero, W.; Shoffner, P. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)] [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); DeGregory, J. [Office of D and D and Facility Engineering, Environmental Management, Department of Energy (United States)] [Office of D and D and Facility Engineering, Environmental Management, Department of Energy (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple kinds of knowledge management systems are operational in public and private enterprises, large and small organizations with a variety of business models that make the design, implementation and operation of integrated knowledge systems very difficult. In recent days, there has been a sweeping advancement in the information technology area, leading to the development of sophisticated frameworks and architectures. These platforms need to be used for the development of integrated knowledge management systems which provides a common platform for sharing knowledge across the enterprise, thereby reducing the operational inefficiencies and delivering cost savings. This paper discusses the knowledge framework and architecture that can be used for the system development and its application to real life need of nuclear industry. A case study of deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) is discussed with the Knowledge Management Information Tool platform and framework. D and D work is a high priority activity across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Subject matter specialists (SMS) associated with DOE sites, the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG) and the D and D community have gained extensive knowledge and experience over the years in the cleanup of the legacy waste from the Manhattan Project. To prevent the D and D knowledge and expertise from being lost over time from the evolving and aging workforce, DOE and the Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) proposed to capture and maintain this valuable information in a universally available and easily usable system. (authors)

  19. Trade-off between morphology, extended defects, and compositional fluctuation induced carrier localization in high In-content InGaN films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, James; Loitsch, Bernhard; Stettner, Thomas; Schuster, Fabian; Stutzmann, Martin; Koblmüller, Gregor, E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universität München, Garching 85748 (Germany)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We elucidate the role of growth parameters (III/N flux ratio, temperature T{sub G}) on the morphological and structural properties, as well as compositional homogeneity and carrier localization effects of high In-content (x(In)?>?0.75) In–polar InGaN films grown by plasma–assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). Variations in III/N flux ratio evidence that higher excess of In yields higher threading dislocation densities as well as larger compositional inhomogeneity as measured by x-ray diffraction. Most interestingly, by variation of growth temperature T{sub G} we find a significant trade-off between improved morphological quality and compositional homogeneity at low–T{sub G} (?450–550?°C) versus improved threading dislocation densities at high–T{sub G} (?600–630?°C), as exemplified for InGaN films with x(In)?=?0.9. The enhanced compositional homogeneity mediated by low–T{sub G} growth is confirmed by systematic temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy data, such as lower PL peakwidths, >5× higher PL efficiency (less temperature-induced quenching) and a distinctly different temperature-dependent S-shape behavior of the PL peak energy. From these, we find that the carrier localization energy is as low as ?20?meV for low–T{sub G} grown films (T{sub G}?=?550?°C), while it rises to ?70?meV for high–T{sub G} grown films (T{sub G}?=?630?°C) right below the onset of In–N dissociation. These findings point out that for the kinetically limited metal-rich PAMBE growth of high In-content InGaN a III/N flux ratio of ?1 and low-to-intermediate T{sub G} are required to realize optically more efficient materials.

  20. Light trapping in a 30-nm organic photovoltaic cell for efficient carrier collection and light absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Banerjee, Ashish; Osgood, Richard M; Englund, Dirk

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe surface patterning strategies that permit high photon-collection efficiency together with high carrier-collection efficiency in an ultra-thin planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell. Optimized designs reach up to 50% photon collection efficiency in a P3HT layer of only 30 nm, representing a 3- to 5-fold improvement over an unpatterned cell of the same thickness. We compare the enhancement of light confinement in the active layer with an ITO top layer for TE and TM polarized light, and demonstrate that the light absorption can increase by a factor of 2 due to a gap-plasmon mode in the active layer.