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Sample records for multielement sorbent trap

  1. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    As a possible alternative to the EPA methods, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a novel multielement sorbent trap (MEST) method to be used to sample ...

  2. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coal-Fired Plant Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant Owners of ...

  3. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the ...

  4. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlish, John; Thompson, Jeffrey; Dunham, Grant

    2014-09-30

    Owners of fossil fuel-fired power plants face the challenge of measuring stack emissions of trace metals and acid gases at much lower levels than in the past as a result of increasingly stringent regulations. In the United States, the current reference methods for trace metals and halogens are wet-chemistry methods, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 29 and 26 or 26A, respectively. As a possible alternative to the EPA methods, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a novel multielement sorbent trap (MEST) method to be used to sample for trace elements and/or halogens. Sorbent traps offer a potentially advantageous alternative to the existing sampling methods, as they are simpler to use and do not require expensive, breakable glassware or handling and shipping of hazardous reagents. Field tests comparing two sorbent trap applications (MEST-H for hydrochloric acid and MEST-M for trace metals) with the reference methods were conducted at two power plant units fueled by Illinois Basin bituminous coal. For hydrochloric acid, MEST measured concentrations comparable to EPA Method 26A at two power plant units, one with and one without a wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber. MEST-H provided lower detection limits for hydrochloric acid than the reference method. Results from a dry stack unit had better comparability between methods than results from a wet stack unit. This result was attributed to the very low emissions in the latter unit, as well as the difficulty of sampling in a saturated flue gas. Based on these results, the MEST-H sorbent traps appear to be a good candidate to serve as an alternative to Method 26A (or 26). For metals, the MEST trap gave lower detection limits compared to EPA Method 29 and produced comparable data for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cobalt, manganese, selenium, and mercury for most test runs. However, the sorbent material produced elevated blanks for cadmium, nickel, lead, and chromium at levels

  5. Biogas Purifications for Fuel Cells: SulfaTrap Sorbents

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas Purifications for Fuel Cells SulfaTrap TM Sorbents Gökhan Alptekin, PhD Vice President, Technology Tel: 303 940 2349 galptekin@tda.com DOE Workshop on Gas Clean-up for Fuel Cell Applications Argonne National Laboratory March 7, 2014 TDA Research Inc. * Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 * www.tda.com Background - SulfaTrap TM Sorbents Bio-ethanol desulfurizer SulfaTrap TM sorbents for stationary/mobile fuel cell applications * Fundamental work started at TDA Research in 2002 * SulfaTrap LLC was

  6. SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Improving ...

  7. Sorbent selection and design considerations for uranium trapping. [H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, F-1 alumina, sodium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, R.M.; Hobbs, W.E.; Norton, J.L.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1981-07-01

    The efficient removal of UF/sub 6/ from effluent streams can be accomplished through the selection of the best solid sorbent and the implementation of good design principles. Pressure losses, sorbent capacity, reaction kinetics, sorbent regeneration/uranium recovery requirements and the effects of other system components are the performance factors which are summarized. The commonly used uranium trapping materials highlighted are sodium fluoride, H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, and F-1 alumina. Sorbent selection and trap design have to be made on a case-by-case basis but the theoretical modeling studies and the evaluation of the performance factors presented can be used as a guide for other chemical trap applications.

  8. Aerogel sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Begag, Redouane; Rhine, Wendell E; Dong, Wenting

    2016-04-05

    The current invention describes methods and compositions of various sorbents based on aerogels of various silanes and their use as sorbent for carbon dioxide. Methods further provide for optimizing the compositions to increase the stability of the sorbents for prolonged use as carbon dioxide capture matrices.

  9. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  10. Regenerable solid imine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Fauth, Daniel; Beckman, Eric

    2013-09-10

    Two new classes of amine-based sorbents are disclosed. The first class comprises new polymer-immobilized tertiary amine sorbents; the second class new polymer-bound amine sorbents. Both classes are tailored to facilitate removal of acid anhydrides, especially carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2), from effluent gases. The amines adsorb acid anhydrides in a 1:1 molar ratio. Both classes of amine sorbents adsorb in the temperature range from about 20.degree. C. upwards to 90.degree. C. and can be regenerated by heating upwards to 100.degree. C.

  11. Multi-element microelectropolishing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle.

  12. Multi-element microelectropolishing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, P.J.

    1994-10-11

    A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle. 10 figs.

  13. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant Pavlish, John ; Thompson, Jeffrey ; Dunham, Grant Owners of fossil ...

  15. Mercury removal sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  16. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  17. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  18. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  19. Inorganic ion sorbent method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, David M.; Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2007-07-17

    A process and medium for decontamination of water containing anionic species including arsenic and chromium, wherein compounds comprising divalent and trivalent metal oxides and sulfides are used to form surface complexes with contaminants under pH conditions within the range of potable water. In one embodiment natural and synthetic spinels and spinel-like materials are used as the sorbent substance.

  20. Inorganic ion sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, David M.; Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2006-10-17

    A process and medium for decontamination of water containing anionic species including arsenic and chromium, wherein compounds comprising divalent and trivalent metal oxides and sulfides are used to form surface complexes with contaminants under pH conditions within the range of potable water. In one embodiment natural and synthetic spinels and spinel-like materials are used as the sorbent substance.

  1. Sorbent Storage Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's sorbent storage materials research focuses on increasing the dihydrogen binding energies and improving the hydrogen volumetric capacity by optimizing the material's pore size, pore volume, and surface area, as well as investigating effects of material densification.

  2. Modified clay sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  3. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  4. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury A promoted activated carbon ... the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance andor mercury capture. ...

  5. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  6. solid-sorbent | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power ... design for the integration of the sorbent system into a coal-fired power plant. ...

  7. Multi-element Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff, Stephen Mitchell, Alexis Reed

    2009-09-11

    In the area of nuclear radiological emergency response and preparedness applications, interest in neutron detection stems from several factors. Unlike gamma rays, which are abundant in nature and present serious difficulties in differentiating a signal from a changing background, whose values are location specific, neutrons are rare and nearly homogenous in spatial distribution. Additionally, many special nuclear materials (SNM) emit neutrons either directly by spontaneous fission or produce neutrons indirectly through (α, n) reactions in nearby light elements. Also of importance in detection scenarios is the fact that neutrons are not easily attenuated. Typically neutron detection is done by simply counting the low energy thermal neutrons by employing pressurized helium tubes operated at high voltages. Not much emphasis is put on determining the energy of the incident neutrons. However, critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the detection of an SNM, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of paramount importance. We have modeled, designed, and prototyped multi-element neutron energy spectrometers that contain three to five pressurized helium tubes of dimensions 2" diam. x 10" in length. Each individual helium tube has a specific amount of high density plastic neutron moderators to slow down the incident energetic neutrons to an accurately estimated energy. A typical spectrometer is a set of moderator cylinders surrounding detectors that have high efficiency for detecting thermal neutrons. The larger the moderator, the higher the energy of incident neutrons for which the detector assembly has matched detection efficiency. If all the detectors are exposed to the same radiation field and the efficiency as a function of energy (response function) of each of the detectors is known, the neutron energy spectrum can be determined from the detector count rates. Monte Carlo simulation

  8. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  9. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  10. Photopatternable sorbent and functionalized films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W.; Nelson, David A.

    2006-01-31

    A composition containing a polymer, a crosslinker and a photo-activatable catalyst is placed on a substrate. The composition is exposed to a predetermined pattern of light, leaving an unexposed region. The light causes the polymer to become crosslinked by hydrosilylation. A solvent is used to remove the unexposed composition from the substrate, leaving the exposed pattern to become a sorbent polymer film that will absorb a predetermined chemical species when exposed to such chemical species.

  11. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant","Pavlish, John; Thompson, Jeffrey; Dunham, Grant","2014-09-30T04:00:00Z",1...

  12. Polyacrylonitrile-Chalcogel Hybrid Sorbents for Radioiodine Capture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polyacrylonitrile-Chalcogel Hybrid Sorbents for Radioiodine Capture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polyacrylonitrile-Chalcogel Hybrid Sorbents for Radioiodine Capture ...

  13. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures Title: Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation ...

  14. COLD TRAPS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  15. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John H.

    2008-10-14

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  16. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2014-09-02

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  17. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John H.

    2012-05-01

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  18. Continuous fluidized-bed contactor with recycle of sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Petersen, J.N.; Davison, B.H.

    1996-07-09

    A continuous fluidized-bed contactor containing sorbent particles is used to remove solutes from liquid solvents. As the sorbent particles, for example gel beads, sorb the solute, for example metal ion species, the sorbent particles tend to decrease in diameter. These smaller loaded sorbent particles rise to the top of the contactor, and larger sorbent particles remain at the bottom of the contactor as a result of normal hydraulic forces. The smaller loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor. Alternatively, the loaded sorbent particles may also slightly increase in diameter, or exhibit no change in diameter but an increase in density. As a result of normal hydraulic forces the larger loaded sorbent particles fall to the bottom of the contactor. The larger loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor. 8 figs.

  19. Continuous fluidized-bed contactor with recycle of sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D.; Petersen, James N.; Davison, Brian H.

    1996-01-01

    A continuous fluidized-bed contactor containing sorbent particles is used to remove solutes from liquid solvents. As the sorbent particles, for example gel beads, sorb the solute, for example metal ion species, the sorbent particles tend to decrease in diameter. These smaller loaded sorbent particles rise to the top of the contactor, as larger sorbent particles remain at the bottom of the contactor as a result of normal hydraulic forces. The smaller loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor. Alternatively, the loaded sorbent particles may also slightly increase in diameter, or exhibit no change in diameter but an increase in density. As a result of normal hydraulic forces the larger loaded sorbent particles fall to the bottom of the contactor. The larger loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor.

  20. Method of removing hydrogen sulfide from gases utilizing a zinc oxide sorbent and regenerating the sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, Vinod M.; Frost, David G.

    1984-01-01

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500.degree. C. to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent.

  1. Soil washing enhancement with solid sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Shoubary, Y.M.; Woodmansee, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Soil washing is a dynamic, physical process that remediates contaminated soil through two mechanisms: particle size separation and transfer of the contaminant into the (mostly) liquid stream. The performance of different sorbents and additives to remove motor oil from sea sand was tested. Hydrocyclone, attrition scrubber, and froth flotation equipment were used for the decontamination study. Sorbents and additives were mixed with soils in the attrition scrubber prior to flotation. Sorbents used were granular activated carbon, powder activated carbon, and rubber tires. Chemical additives used were calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, Alconox{reg_sign}, Triton{reg_sign} X-100 and Triton{reg_sign} X-114. When a froth flotation run was performed using no additive, washed soils {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained 4000 ppm of total oil and grease (TOG). However, when carbon or rubber (6% by weight) was added to the contaminated soils the washed soils {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained 4000 ppm of total oil and grease (TOG). The addition of sodium carbonate or calcium hydroxide (6% by weight) had same effects as sorbents. In both cases washed soil {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained total oil and grease of less than 1000 ppm. The use of these non-hazardous additives or sorbent can enhance the soil washing process and consequently saves on time (residence time in equipment design) required to achieve the target clean up levels. 18 refs., 12 figs.

  2. evaluation-dry-sorbent-urs | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0000465 Scanning Electron Microsopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Miscroscopy (TEM) images of a multi-functional sorbent synthesized by a novel method. Scanning Electron Microsopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Miscroscopy (TEM) images of a multi-functional sorbent synthesized by a novel method. URS and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign are investigating a dry sorbent process configured to

  3. Regenerable Sorbent Technique for Capturing CO2 Using Immobilized Amine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorbents - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Regenerable Sorbent Technique for Capturing CO2 Using Immobilized Amine Sorbents The BIAS (Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent) Process National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary This technology allows for optimal CO2 removal capacity for a given absorption and regeneration reactor

  4. Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smirniotis, Panagiotis G. (Cincinnati, OH); Lu, Hong (Urbana, IL)

    2012-02-14

    A sorbent for the capture of carbon dioxide from a gas stream is provided, the sorbent containing calcium oxide (CaO) and at least one refractory dopant having a Tammann temperature greater than about 530.degree. C., wherein the refractory dopant enhances resistance to sintering, thereby conserving performance of the sorbent at temperatures of at least about 530.degree. C. Also provided are doped CaO sorbents for the capture of carbon dioxide in the presence of SO.sub.2.

  5. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coon, Darryl D.; Elliott, John P.

    1990-01-02

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins porjecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array.

  6. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coon, D.D.; Elliott, J.P.

    1990-01-02

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins projecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array. 5 figs.

  7. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2004-11-02

    The disclosure is directed to sorbent compositions for removing reduced sulfur species (e.g., H.sub.2 S, COS and CS.sub.2) a feed stream. The sorbent is formed from a multi-phase composition including a zinc titanate phase and a zinc oxide-aluminate phase. The sorbent composition is substantially free of unreacted alumina.

  8. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  9. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  10. Sorbent for use in hot gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.; Atimtay, Aysel T.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about 1200.degree. to about 1600.degree. F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

  11. Topical Report 5: Sorbent Performance Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-05-31

    ADA-ES has completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649 with support from EPRI and industry cost-share participants. Tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas. The overall project objective is to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based postcombustion CO2 capture technology that can be retrofit to the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants. An important component of the viability assessment was to evaluate the state of development of sorbents and measure key performance characteristics under realistic operating conditions.

  12. Desulfurization Sorbents for Transport-Bed Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Vierheilig, Albert A.

    1997-07-01

    This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-{micro}m particle size range for transport reactor applications; (2) To transfer sorbent production technology to private sector; and (3) To provide technical support to Sierra Pacific Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and FETC's Hot-Gas Desulfurization Process Development Unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system.

  13. TRAP) K. S. Marble

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The trap's electric quadrupole field is provided by a SHIP TRAPS RF electronic circuit to the four segmented electrodes at the center of the trap while the trap's 7 Tesla magnetic ...

  14. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  15. VACUUM TRAP

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  16. COLD TRAP

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  17. Analysis with electron microscope of multielement samples using pure element standards

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, W.E.

    1986-01-06

    This disclosure describes a method and modified analytical electron microscope for determining the concentration of elements in a multielement sample by exposing samples with differing thicknesses for each element to a beam of electrons. Simultaneously the electron dosage and x-ray intensities are measured for each sample of element to determine a ''K/sub AB/'' value to be used in the equation (I/sub A/I/sub B/) = K/sub AB/ (C/sub A//C/sub B/), where I is intensity and C is concentration for elements A and B. The multielement sample is exposed to determine the concentrations of the elements in the sample.

  18. Analysis with electron microscope of multielement samples using pure element standards

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Wayne E.

    1987-01-01

    A method and modified analytical electron microscope for determining the concentration of elements in a multielement sample by exposing samples with differing thicknesses for each element to a beam of electrons, simultaneously measuring the electron dosage and x-ray intensities for each sample of element to determine a "K.sub.AB " value to be used in the equation ##EQU1## where I is intensity and C is concentration for elements A and B, and exposing the multielement sample to determine the concentrations of the elements in the sample.

  19. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-22

    The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on three coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices; tangential, wall, and cyclone fired. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace, at the superheater exit or into the ducting following the air heater. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates and sulfites, which are collected in the particulate control device.

  20. Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2010-08-03

    Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

  1. Utility flue gas mercury control via sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, R.; Carey, T.; Hargrove, B.

    1996-12-31

    The potential for power plant mercury control under Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments generated significant interest in assessing whether cost effective technologies are available for removing the mercury present in fossil-fired power plant flue gas. One promising approach is the direct injection of mercury sorbents such as activated carbon into flue gas. This approach has been shown to be effective for mercury control from municipal waste incinerators. However, tests conducted to date on utility fossil-fired boilers show that it is much more difficult to remove the trace species of mercury present in flue gas. EPRI is conducting research in sorbent mercury control including bench-scale evaluation of mercury sorbent activity and capacity with simulated flue gas, pilot testing under actual flue gas conditions, evaluation of sorbent regeneration and recycle options, and the development of novel sorbents. A theoretical model that predicts maximum mercury removals achievable with sorbent injection under different operating conditions is also being developed. This paper presents initial bench-scale and model results. The results to date show that very fine and large amounts of sorbents are needed for mercury control unless long residence times are available for sorbent-mercury contact. Also, sorbent activity and capacity are highly dependent on flue gas composition, temperature, mercury species, and sorbent properties. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  3. sorbent-innosepra | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bench-Scale Development & Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process Project No.: DE-FE0007948 InnoSepra, LLC is demonstrating the effectiveness of an innovative adsorption-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology utilizing a combination of novel microporous materials and process cycles. The process utilizes physical sorbents with much lower heats of adsorption compared to competing processes. Lab scale testing has produced greater than 99 percent CO2 purity and greater than 90 percent CO2

  4. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-09-30

    This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

  5. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E. AYALA; V.S. VENKATARAMANI

    1998-09-30

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.?s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost

  6. Regenerable sorbent technique for capturing CO.sub.2 using immobilized amine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W; Hoffman, James S; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Resnik, Kevin P

    2013-08-06

    The disclosure provides a CO.sub.2 absorption method using an amine-based solid sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from a gas stream. The method disclosed mitigates the impact of water loading on regeneration by utilizing a conditioner following the steam regeneration process, providing for a water loading on the amine-based solid sorbent following CO.sub.2 absorption substantially equivalent to the moisture loading of the regeneration process. This assists in optimizing the CO.sub.2 removal capacity of the amine-based solid sorbent for a given absorption and regeneration reactor size. Management of the water loading in this manner allows regeneration reactor operation with significant mitigation of energy losses incurred by the necessary desorption of adsorbed water.

  7. NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY Technology Transfer NETL Sorbent Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorbent Technologies Licensed for Use in Biomass-to- Biofuel Conversion Process with Carbon Capture and Storage Success Story The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has granted a license for two of its patented sorbent technologies: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) removal and water-gas shift (WGS) reaction enhancement to CogniTek Management Systems "CogniTek," a renewable energy systems developer. CogniTek plans to implement a regenerable magnesium sorbent,

  8. Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Applications* (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications* Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications* By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO2 sorbent candidates

  9. Approved Sorbents, Stabilizers, and Void Fillers - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorbents, Stabilizers, and Void Fillers About Us Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Program What's New Acceptance Criteria Acceptance Process Tools Approved High Integrity Containers Approved Sorbents, Stabilizers, and Void Fillers Disposal Information Points of Contact Approved Sorbents, Stabilizers, and Void Fillers Email Email Page | Print Print Page | Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size Approved list has been temporarily discontinued. Please contact your waste services POC.

  10. Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    were conducted at the laboratory scale to examine sorbents for their COsub 2 capacity, conversion of CO to COsub 2, and impacts of adsorption and regeneration conditions, and...

  11. Trace Metal Scavenging from Biomass Syngas Using Novel Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    This project is investigating the use of high-temperature powder sorbents for scavenging alkalis and heavy metals from biomass-derived syngas.

  12. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: * Decontamination ...

  13. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  14. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  15. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-03-06

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  16. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-08-19

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  17. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-05-18

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  18. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-08-28

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  19. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests Citation Details In-Document Search ... for lower iodine concentrations. * The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined ...

  20. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. ...

  1. regenerable-sorbent-tda | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0000469 TDA Research (TDA) is testing and validating the technical and economic potential of a regenerable physical sorbent for pre-combustion CO2 capture. TDA has developed a novel, low-cost regenerable sorbent to remove CO2 and has demonstrated its long-term stability through several thousand adsorption-desorption cycles. This new regenerable sorbent method for pre-combustion CO2 capture will remove

  2. sorbent-univerisity-north-dakota | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of CO2 Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents (CACHYS(tm)) Project No.: DE-FE0007603 The University of North Dakota (UND) is scaling up and demonstrating a solid sorbent technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas. The technology - Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS(tm)) - is a novel solid sorbent process based on the following

  3. Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents A sorbent for the capture of carbon dioxide from a gas stream is provided, the sorbent ...

  4. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1991-06-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems require the development of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gasifier down to very low levels. The objective of this investigation was to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc ferrite, a leading regenerable sorbent, for fluidized-bed applications. Fluidized sorbent beds offer significant potential in IGCC systems because of their ability to control the highly exothermic regeneration involved. However, fluidized beds require a durable, attrition-resistant sorbent in the 100--300 {mu}m size range. A bench-scale high-temperature, high- pressure (HTHP) fluidized-bed reactor (7.6-cm I.D.) system capable of operating up to 24 atm and 800{degree}C was designed, built and tested. A total of 175 sulfidation-regeneration cycles were carried out using KRW-type coal gas with various zinc ferrite formulations. A number of sorbent manufacturing techniques including spray drying, impregnation, crushing and screening, and granulation were investigated. While fluidizable sorbents prepared by crushing durable pellets and screening had acceptable sulfur capacity, they underwent excessive attrition during multicycle testing. The sorbent formulations prepared by a proprietary technique were found to have excellent attrition resistance and acceptable chemical reactivity during multicycle testing. However, zinc ferrite was found to be limited to 550{degree}C, beyond which excessive sorbent weakening due to chemical transformations, e.g., iron oxide reduction, was observed.

  5. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-10-27

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for improving the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hog coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. The reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. The durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain its reactivity and other important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Two base case sorbents, spherical pellets and cylindrical extrudes used in related METC sponsored projects, are being used to provide a basis for the comparison of physical characteristics and chemical reactivity.

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

  7. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  8. Metal-Organic Frameworks: Literature Survey and Recommendation of Potential Sorbent Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, T F

    2010-04-29

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a special type of porous material with a number of unique properties, including exceptionally high surface areas, large internal pore volumes (void space) and tunable pore sizes. These materials are prepared through the assembly of molecular building blocks into ordered three-dimensional structures. The bulk properties of the MOF are determined by the nature of the building blocks and, as such, these materials can be designed with special characteristics that cannot be realized in other sorbent materials, like activated carbons. For example, MOFs can be constructed with binding sites or pockets that can exhibit selectivity for specific analytes. Alternatively, the framework can be engineered to undergo reversible dimensional changes (or 'breathing') upon interaction with an analyte, effectively trapping the molecule of interest in the lattice structure. In this report, we have surveyed the 4000 different MOF structures reported in the open literature and provided recommendations for specific MOF materials that should be investigated as sorbents for this project.

  9. NETL Sorbents Licensed to Help Lower Power Draw of HVAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorbents Licensed To Help Lower Power Draw of HVAC Success Story NETL has licensed one of its patented CO 2 - removal sorbents to Boston-based technology company enVerid Systems. enVerid has adopted the sorbent for use in their proprietary Heat Load Reduction (HLR) module, a retrofit air-recirculation system it designed to increase the energy efficiency of commercial HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems. HVAC is one of the largest draws of electric power in the United

  10. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1995-01-01

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  11. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1995-06-27

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  12. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  13. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1996-12-17

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  14. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  15. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1995-05-09

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths. 3 figs.

  16. Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2010-04-20

    Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts are disclosed, including silver hollandite and cryptomelane. These materials can be used, for example, to catalyze the oxidation of CO.sub.x (e.g., CO), NO.sub.x (e.g., NO), hydrocarbons (e.g., C.sub.3H.sub.6) and/or sulfur-containing compounds. The disclosed materials also may be used to catalyze other reactions, such as the reduction of NO.sub.2. In some cases, the disclosed materials are capable of sorbing certain products from the reactions they catalyze. Silver hollandite, in particular, can be used to remove a substantial portion of certain sulfur-containing compounds from a gas or liquid by catalysis and/or sorption. The gas or liquid can be, for example, natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon.

  17. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2005-12-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

  18. Novel Sorbent to Clean Up Biogas for CHPs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, Gökhan O.; Jayataman, Ambalavanan; Schaefer, Matthew; Ware, Michael; Hunt, Jennifer; Dobek, Frank

    2015-05-30

    In this project, TDA Research Inc. (TDA) has developed low-cost (on a per unit volume of gas processed basis), high-capacity expendable sorbents that can remove both the H2S and organic sulfur species in biogas to the ppb levels. The proposed sorbents will operate downstream of a bulk desulfurization system as a polishing bed to provide an essentially sulfur-free gas to a fuel cell (or any other application that needs a completely sulfur-free feed). Our sorbents use a highly dispersed mixed metal oxides active phase with desired modifiers prepared over on a mesoporous support. The support structure allows the large organic sulfur compounds (such as the diethyl sulfide and dipropyl sulfide phases with a large kinetic diameter) to enter the sorbent pores so that they can be adsorbed and removed from the gas stream.

  19. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, Brian S.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    2001-01-01

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream.

  20. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1999-06-22

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

  1. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, Brian S.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    1999-01-01

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream.

  2. Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Carbon nanocomposite ...

  3. Nano-Composite Arsenic Sorbent - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Nano-Composite Arsenic Sorbent N-CAS: A low cost, ... Contact INL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Nano-Composite ...

  4. sorbent-univerisity-north-dakota | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The University of North Dakota (UND) is scaling up and demonstrating a solid sorbent technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue ...

  5. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Three tests performed this fiscal year on silver zeolite light phase (AgZ-LP) sorbent are reported here. Additional tests are still in progress and can be reported in a revision of ...

  6. Durable Zinc Oxide-Based Regenerable Sorbents for Desulfurization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in a Fixed-Bed Reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Durable Zinc Oxide-Based Regenerable Sorbents for Desulfurization of Syngas in a Fixed-Bed Reactor You are ...

  7. Spray-dried fluid-bed sorbents tests - CMP-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of manufacturing highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents by spray drying, suitable for bubbling (conventional) as well as transport-type fluidized-bed reactor systems.

  8. Process for preparing zinc oxide-based sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasad

    2011-06-07

    The disclosure relates to zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  9. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  10. Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation of ...

  11. sorbent-tda-research | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Low-Cost, High-Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for CO2 Capture From Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-FE0007580 TDA Research, Inc is developing a low cost, high...

  12. low-cost-sorbent | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO2 Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants ... Mass and energy balances for a commercial-scale, coal-fired power plant retrofit with ...

  13. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Detection of foreign body using fast thermoacoustic tomography with a multielement linear transducer array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie Liming; Xing Da; Yang Diwu; Zeng Lvming; Zhou Quan

    2007-04-23

    Current imaging modalities face challenges in clinical applications due to limitations in resolution or contrast. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging may provide a complementary modality for medical imaging, particularly for detecting foreign objects due to their different absorption of electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies. A thermoacoustic tomography system with a multielement linear transducer array was developed and used to detect foreign objects in tissue. Radiography and thermoacoustic images of objects with different electromagnetic properties, including glass, sand, and iron, were compared. The authors' results demonstrate that thermoacoustic imaging has the potential to become a fast method for surgical localization of occult foreign objects.

  15. Microfabricated ion trap array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  16. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 [mu]m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871[degrees]C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750[degrees]C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750[degrees]C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

  17. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 {mu}m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871{degrees}C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750{degrees}C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750{degrees}C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

  18. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  19. Chalcogen-Based Aerogels as Sorbents for Radionuclide Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Olszta, Matthew J.; Li, Xiaohong; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2013-06-13

    The efficient capture of radionuclides having long half-lives such as technetium-99 (99Tc), uranium-238 (238U), and iodine-129 (129I) is pivotal to prevent their transport into groundwater and/or release into the atmosphere. While different sorbents have been considered for capturing each of them, in the current work, a new nanostructured chalcogen-based aerogel, called a chalcogel, is shown to be very effective to capture ionic forms of 99Tc and 238U, as well as nonradioactive gaseous iodine (i.e., a surrogate for 129I), irrespective of the sorbent polarity. Some of the chalcogels performed better than others but the PtGeS sorbent performed the best with capture efficiencies of 98% and 99.4% for 99Tc and 238U, respectively. All sorbents showed >99% capture efficiency for iodine over the test duration. This unified sorbent would be an attractive option in environmental remediation for various radionuclides associated with legacy wastes from nuclear weapons production, wastes from nuclear power production, or potential future nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Douglas P. Harrison

    2003-08-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2003 and June 30, 2003 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for concentration of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Grade 1 sodium bicarbonate performed similarly to grade 5 sodium bicarbonate in fixed bed testing in that activity improved after the first carbonation cycle and did not decline over the course of 5 cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that sodium bicarbonate sorbents produced by calcination of sodium bicarbonate are superior to either soda ash or calcined trona. Energy requirements for regeneration of carbon dioxide sorbents (either wet or dry) is of primary importance in establishing the economic feasibility of carbon dioxide capture processes. Recent studies of liquid amine sorption processes were reviewed and found to incorporate conflicting assumptions of energy requirements. Dry sodium based processes have the potential to be less energy intensive and thus less expensive than oxygen inhibited amine based systems. For dry supported sorbents, maximizing the active fraction of the sorbent is of primary importance in developing an economically feasible process.

  1. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 TDA Research ...

  2. Sorbents and Carbon-Based Materials for Hydrogen Storage Research and Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's research and development on sorbents and carbon-based materials for hydrogen storage targets breakthrough concepts for storing hydrogen in high-surface-area sorbents...

  3. R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen Storage Technologies Workshops R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen ...

  4. CX-010178: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (ME-ST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Full Scale Test Site CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 04/26/2013 Location(s): Illinois Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  5. CX-010177: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (ME-ST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Full Scale Test Site CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 04/26/2013 Location(s): North Dakota Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  7. Chalcogenide aerogels as sorbents for radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subrahmanyam, Kota S.; Sarma, Debajit; Malliakas, Christos; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-04-14

    Iodine (129I) is one of the radionuclides released in nuclear fuel reprocessing and poses risk to public safety due to its involvement in human metabolic processes. In order to prevent the leaching of hazardous radioactive iodine into the environment, its effective capture and sequestration is pivotal. In the context of finding a suitable matrix for capturing radioactive iodine the chalcogels, NiMoS4, CoMoS4, Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx (x = 4-5) were explored as iodine sorbents. All the chalcogels showed high uptake, reaching up to 225 mass% (2.25 g/g) of the final mass owing to strong chemical and physical iodine-chalcogen interactions. Analysis of the iodine-loaded specimens revealed that the iodine chemically reacted with Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx to form metal complexes SbI3, SnI4, and, KI respectively. The NiMoS4 and CoMoS4 chalcogels did not appear to undergo a chemical reaction with iodine since iodide complexes were not observed with these samples. Once heated, the iodine-loaded chalcogels released iodine in the temperature range of 75 °C to 220 °C, depending on the nature of iodine speciation. In the case of Sb4Sn4S12 and Zn2Sn2S6 iodine release was observed around 150 °C in the form of SnI4 and SbI3, respectively. The NiMoS4, CoMoS4, and CoSx released iodine at ~75 °C, which is consistent with physisorbed iodine. Preliminary investigations on consolidation of iodine-loaded Zn2Sn2S6 with Sb2S3 as a glass forming additive showed the content of iodine in consolidated glass ingots at around 25 mass%.

  8. Simplifying steam trap selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debat, R.J. )

    1994-01-01

    In the current economic world order, there is an obligation to eliminate waste and conserve economic and natural resources. One trap blowing 100-lb of steam through a 1/4-in. orifice can cost more than $12,000 a year in wasted energy. Richard J. Debat of Armstrong International, Inc. explains the operating principles of the four basic types of steam traps as the first step in simplifying the selection process so the right trap can be specified for a given application.

  9. Greenpower Trap Mufflerl System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water GREENPOWER TRAP-MUFFLER(tm) System (US Patent 6892531, 5085049, PCT, others pending) www.dieselnet.comdr.rim CatalystDPF EGR Accumulator Air Intake Filter Turbo Charger ...

  10. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  11. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  12. Inorganic ion sorbents and methods for using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, David M.; Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2006-07-11

    A process and medium for decontamination of water containing anionic species including arsenic and chromium, wherein compounds comprising divalent and trivalent metal oxides and sulfides are used to form surface complexes with contaminants under pH conditions within the range of potable water. In one embodiment natural and synthetic spinels and spinel-like materials are used as the sorbent substance.

  13. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  14. Sorbent preparation/modification/additives. Final report, September 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prudich, M.E.; Venkataramakrishnan, R.

    1994-02-01

    Sorbent preparation techniques used today have generally been adapted from techniques traditionally used by the lime industry. Traditional dry hydration and slaking processes have been optimized to produce materials intended for use in the building industry. These preparation techniques should be examined with an eye to optimization of properties important to the SO{sub 2} capture process. The study of calcium-based sorbents for sulfur dioxide capture is complicated by two factors: (1) little is known about the chemical mechanisms by which the standard sorbent preparation and enhancement techniques work, and (2) a sorbent preparation technique that produces a calcium-based sorbent that enjoys enhanced calcium utilization in one regime of operation [flame zone (>2400 F), in-furnace (1600--2400 F), economizer (800--1100 F), after air preheater (<350 F)] may not produce a sorbent that enjoys enhanced calcium utilization in the other reaction zones. Again, an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of sorbent enhancement is necessary if a systematic approach to sorbent development is to be used. As a long-term goal, an experimental program is being carried out for the purpose of (1) defining the effects of slaking conditions on the properties of calcium-based sorbents, (2) determining how the parent limestone properties of calcium-based sorbents, and (3) elucidating the mechanism(s) relating to the activity of various dry sorbent additives. An appendix contains a one-dimensional duct injection model with modifications to handle the sodium additives.

  15. Sorbent-Based Gas Phase Air Cleaning for VOCs in CommercialBuildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides a review of current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The fundamental principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, novel sorbent technologies are described, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  16. Ca(OH)[sub 2]/fly ash sorbents for SO[sub 2] removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C.S.; Shih, S.M. )

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, the reactivity of Ca(OH)[sub 2]/fly ash sorbent with SO[sub 2] is studied by using a fixed-bed differential reactor under the conditions simulating the bag filters of the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization. The source of fly ash and the sorbent preparation conditions affect the reactivity of the sorbent. The reactivity of the sorbent was found to be closely related to the content of the calcium silicate hydrate formed in the sorbent preparation. The sorbent has a much higher utilization of Ca(OH)[sub 2] than that of pure Ca(OH)[sub 2] sorbent, and in some range of Ca(OH)[sub 2] content the sorbent also has a higher SO[sub 2] capture capacity per unit weight of sorbent than that of pure lime. The fly ash from the Shin-Da plant of the Taiwan Power Company produced the best sorbent of all fly ashes in this study. The higher ratio of fly ash/Ca(OH)[sub 2], the higher slurrying temperature, the longer slurrying time, and the smaller particles of fly ash enhance the utilization of Ca(OH)[sub 2], but the water/solid ratio has an optimal value. The relative humidity in the reactor has a significant effect on the reactivity of Ca(PH)[sub 2]/fly ash sorbents, but the effect of the sulfation temperature is subtle.

  17. Solid sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams at low temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sirwardane, Ranjani V.

    2005-06-21

    New low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35.degree. C.

  18. Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirwardane, Ranjani V.

    2005-06-21

    New low-cost CO2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35 degrees C.

  19. Recovery of Rare Earths, Precious Metals and Other Critical Materials from Geothermal Waters with Advanced Sorbent Structures

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Pamela M. Kinsey

    2015-09-30

    The work evaluates, develops and demonstrates flexible, scalable mineral extraction technology for geothermal brines based upon solid phase sorbent materials with a specific focus upon rare earth elements (REEs). The selected organic and inorganic sorbent materials demonstrated high performance for collection of trace REEs, precious and valuable metals. The nanostructured materials typically performed better than commercially available sorbents. Data contains organic and inorganic sorbent removal efficiency, Sharkey Hot Springs (Idaho) water chemsitry analysis, and rare earth removal efficiency from select sorbents.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co

  1. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H.

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  2. CAN SORBENT-BASED GAS PHASE AIR CLEANING FOR VOCS SUBSTITUTE FOR VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Fisk, William J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings, as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  3. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, S.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Follansbee, J.C.

    1997-12-02

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs.

  4. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Alexander, Michael L.; Follansbee, James C.

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  5. Method for removing metal ions from solution with titanate sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, S.H.; White, L.R.

    1999-11-23

    A method for removing metal ions from solution comprises the steps of providing titanate particles by spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising sorbent titanates having a particle size up to 20 micrometers, optionally in the presence of polymer free of cellulose functionality as binder. The sorbent is active towards heavy metals from Periodic Table (CAS version) Groups IA, IIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, and VIII, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70% of theoretical yield which have a particle size distribution in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers. The particles can be used free flowing in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove metal ions from aqueous or organic liquid.

  6. Method for removing metal ions from solution with titanate sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lundquist, Susan H.; White, Lloyd R.

    1999-01-01

    A method for removing metal ions from solution comprises the steps of providing titanate particles by spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising sorbent titanates having a particle size up to 20 micrometers, optionally in the presence of polymer free of cellulose functionality as binder, said sorbent being active towards heavy metals from Periodic Table (CAS version) Groups IA, IIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, and VIII, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70 percent of theoretical yield and having a particle size distribution in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers. The particles can be used free flowing in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove metal ions from aqueous or organic liquid.

  7. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  8. Amine enriched solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan L.; Soong, Yee; Champagne, Kenneth J.

    2003-04-15

    A new method for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The new method entails treating a solid substrate with acid or base and simultaneous or subsequent treatment with a substituted amine salt. The method eliminates the need for organic solvents and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  9. Ionic Liquid Sorbents for Carbon Capture - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Ionic Liquid Sorbents for Carbon Capture Ionic liquids for carbon capture and gas separation National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Ionic liquids Ionic liquids Technology Marketing Summary Research is active on technologies for application of ionic liquids to carbon capture or other separation processes in energy systems. The technologies consist of materials and methods that promise to

  10. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  11. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  12. Capacitively readout multi-element sensor array with common-mode cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Warmack, Robert J.; Bryan, William L.; Jones, Robert L.; Oden, Patrick Ian; Thundat, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    An improved multi-element apparatus for detecting the presence of at least one chemical, biological or physical component in a monitored area comprising an array or single set of the following elements: a capacitive transducer having at least one cantilever spring element secured thereto, the cantilever element having an area thereof coated with a chemical having an affinity for the component to be detected; a pick-up plate positioned adjacent to the cantilever element at a distance such that a capacitance between the cantilever element and the pick-up plate changes as the distance between the cantilever element and the pick-up plate varies, the change in capacitance being a measurable variation; a detection means for measuring the measurable variation in the capacitance between the cantilever element and the pick-up plate that forms a measurement channel signal; and at least one feedback cantilever spring element positioned apart from the coated cantilever element, the cantilever element substantially unaffected by the component being monitored and providing a reference channel signal to the detection means that achieves a common mode cancellation between the measurement channel signal and reference channel signal.

  13. NETL Patented CO2-Removal Sorbents Promise Power and Cost Savings |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Patented CO2-Removal Sorbents Promise Power and Cost Savings NETL Patented CO2-Removal Sorbents Promise Power and Cost Savings May 30, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Carbon dioxide removal sorbents developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) could result in power and cost savings for users of some heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems under a recently signed license agreement. NETL, the

  14. Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperatures - Energy Innovation Portal Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication S-126827 (Organoclay Sorbent).pdf (292 KB) Technology Marketing Summary By incorporating amines inside clay containing quaternary ammonium salts (organoclay) minerals, this invention has created a way to prepare sorbents that capture carbon dioxide (CO2)

  15. Kinetics and structural evolution of sorbents at high temperatures. Final report, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Liang-Shih; Ghosh-Dastidar, A.; Mahuli, S.; Agnihotri, R.

    1996-03-01

    The focus of this project is on furnace sorbent injection technology using dry calcium-based sorbents for the flue gas desulfurization. The goal is to provide fundamental research kinetics and effects of sorbent properties, aimed at improving SO{sub 2} removal and increasing sorbent utilization in a cost-effective manner. The fifth year project work has been carried out in two phases: (1) modified sorbent studies to understand the influence of sorbent modifications (both physical and chemical) on reaction mechanisms, and (2) development of a comprehensive sulfation model to interpret and predict short-time simultaneous calcination, sulfation and sintering processes. This report discusses these two phases of research.

  16. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  17. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjostrom, Sharon

    2015-09-30

    ADA completed a DOE-sponsored program titled Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture under program DE-FE0004343. During this program, sorbents were analyzed for use in a post-combustion CO2 capture process. A supported amine sorbent was selected based upon superior performance to adsorb a greater amount of CO2 than the activated carbon sorbents tested. When the most ideal sorbent at the time was selected, it was characterized and used to create a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA). A preliminary 550 MW coal-fired power plant using Illinois #6 bituminous coal was designed with a solid sorbent CO2 capture system using the selected supported amine sorbent to both facilitate the TEA and to create the necessary framework to scale down the design to a 1 MWe equivalent slipstream pilot facility. The preliminary techno-economic analysis showed promising results and potential for improved performance for CO2 capture compared to conventional MEA systems. As a result, a 1 MWe equivalent solid sorbent system was designed, constructed, and then installed at a coal-fired power plant in Alabama. The pilot was designed to capture 90% of the CO2 from the incoming flue gas at 1 MWe net electrical generating equivalent. Testing was not possible at the design conditions due to changes in sorbent handling characteristics at post-regenerator temperatures that were not properly incorporated into the pilot design. Thus, severe pluggage occurred at nominally 60% of the design sorbent circulation rate with heated sorbent, although no handling issues were noted when the system was operated prior to bringing the regenerator to operating temperature. Testing within the constraints of the pilot plant resulted in 90% capture of the incoming CO2 at a flow rate equivalent of 0.2 to 0.25 MWe net electrical generating equivalent. The reduction in equivalent flow rate at 90% capture was primarily the result of sorbent circulation limitations at operating

  18. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power- Fact Sheet, 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Factsheet describing project objective to develop a new, high-capacity, expendable sorbent to remove sulfur species from anaerobic digester gas

  19. A fine-fiber filled polymer as an effective sorbent of acid vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samsonov, D.P.; Golovkin, A.V.; Gordeev, Y.M.

    1985-11-01

    This paper studies a polymeric ultrafine-fiber material with fibers filled with an inorganic hydroxide capable of binding acid vapors. This material can be an efficient sorbent if the polymer matrix does not exhibit significant diffusion resistance when the reagents enter the volume of the fiber. The sorbent efficiently works in conditions of low moisture. The capacity of the sorbent with respect to HC1 is greater than 30 wt. %. Efficient purification of gases can be conducted on thin beds of the sorbent, and the length of the working bed does not exceed 0.1-0.3 cm.

  20. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh; Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy

    1999-01-01

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or "passivating" the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  1. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, S.; Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-07-27

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption process, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gases from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or passivating the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  2. Sodium-based dry regenerable sorbent for carbon dioxide capture from power plant flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.B.; Ryu, C.K.; Baek, J.I.; Lee, J.H.; Eom, T.H.; Kim, S.H.

    2008-07-15

    Dry regenerable sorbent technology is one of the emerging technologies as a cost-effective and energy-efficient technology for CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas. Six sodium-based dry regenerable sorbents were prepared by spray-drying techniques. Their physical properties and reactivities were tested to evaluate their applicability to a fluidized-bed or fast transport-bed CO{sub 2} capture process. Each sorbents contained 20-50 wt% of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} or NaHCO{sub 3}. All sorbents except for Sorb NX30 were insufficient with either attrition resistance or reactivity, or both properties. Sorb NX30 sorbent satisfied most of the physical requirements for a commercial fluidized-bed reactor process along with good chemical reactivity. Sorb NX30 sorbent had a spherical shape, an average size of 89 {mu}m, a size distribution of 38-250 {mu}m, and a bulk density of approximately 0.87 g/mL. The attrition index (AI) of Sorb NX30 reached below 5% compared to about 20% for commercial fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts. CO{sub 2} sorption capacity of Sorb NX30 was approximately 10 wt% (>80% sorbent utilization) in the simulated flue gas condition compared with 6 of 30 wt% MEA solution (33% sorbent utilization). All sorbents showed almost-complete regeneration at temperatures less than 120{sup o}C.

  3. Regeneration and Durability of Advanced Zinc Ferrite Sorbent for Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirai, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Nunokawa, M.; Noda, N.

    2002-09-19

    In this study, we investigate the regeneration characteristics, desulfurization performance after regeneration and the durability of zinc ferrite sorbent in the desulfurization/regeneration cycles.

  4. Radial cold trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grundy, Brian R.

    1981-01-01

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume.

  5. Radial cold trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grundy, B.R.

    1981-09-29

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume. 2 figs.

  6. Filter vapor trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guon, Jerold

    1976-04-13

    A sintered filter trap is adapted for insertion in a gas stream of sodium vapor to condense and deposit sodium thereon. The filter is heated and operated above the melting temperature of sodium, resulting in a more efficient means to remove sodium particulates from the effluent inert gas emanating from the surface of a liquid sodium pool. Preferably the filter leaves are precoated with a natrophobic coating such as tetracosane.

  7. THE SAP3 COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR QUANTITATIVE MULTIELEMENT ANALYSIS BY ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, K. K.; Sanders, R. W.

    1982-04-01

    SAP3 is a dual-function FORTRAN computer program which performs peak analysis of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectra and then quantitatively interprets the results of the multielement analysis. It was written for mono- or bi-chromatic excitation as from an isotopic or secondary excitation source, and uses the separate incoherent and coherent backscatter intensities to define the bulk sample matrix composition. This composition is used in performing fundamental-parameter matrix corrections for self-absorption, enhancement, and particle-size effects, obviating the need for specific calibrations for a given sample matrix. The generalized calibration is based on a set of thin-film sensitivities, which are stored in a library disk file and used for all sample matrices and thicknesses. Peak overlap factors are also determined from the thin-film standards, and are stored in the library for calculating peak overlap corrections. A detailed description is given of the algorithms and program logic, and the program listing and flow charts are also provided. An auxiliary program, SPCAL, is also given for use in calibrating the backscatter intensities. SAP3 provides numerous analysis options via seventeen control switches which give flexibility in performing the calculations best suited to the sample and the user needs. User input may be limited to the name of the library, the analysis livetime, and the spectrum filename and location. Output includes all peak analysis information, matrix correction factors, and element concentrations, uncertainties and detection limits. Twenty-four elements are typically determined from a 1024-channel spectrum in one-to-two minutes using a PDP-11/34 computer operating under RSX-11M.

  8. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  9. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2005-07-01

    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including

  10. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  11. Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2004-06-01

    A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

  12. Method for reducing sulfate formation during regeneration of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV); Rockey, John M. (Westover, WV)

    1994-01-01

    The regeneration of sulfur sorbents having sulfate forming tendencies and used for desulfurizing hot product gas streams such as provided by coal gasification is provided by employing a two-stage regeneration method. Air containing a sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen is used in the first stage for substantially fully regenerating the sorbent without sulfate formation and then regeneration of the resulting partially regenerated sorbent is completed in the second stage with air containing a quantity of oxygen slightly greater than the stoichiometric amount adequate to essentially fully regenerate the sorbent. Sulfate formation occurs in only the second stage with the extent of sulfate formation being limited only to the portion of the sulfur species contained by the sorbent after substantially all of the sulfur species have been removed therefrom in the first stage.

  13. Two-stage regeneration of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-06-28

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in the potential of using a two-step process for regenerating the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. In the first regeneration step, a gas mixture consisting of 12 percent SO{sub 2}, 2 percent O{sub 2}, and 86 percent N{sub 2} is used to convert zinc and iron sulfides to their sulfate forms using a sorbent bed inlet temperature of about 850{degrees}F (454{degrees}C). For the second step, the temperature is raised to about 1400{degrees}F (760{degrees}C), and the sulfates are decomposed to oxides with the concurrent release of sulfur dioxide. The same gas composition used for first step is also used for the second step. The proposed technique would require no steam and also has the advantage of producing a regeneration gas rich in sulfur dioxide. In a commercial operation, recirculating regeneration gas would be supplemented with air as required to supply the necessary oxygen. A bleed stream from regeneration (concentrated SO{sub 2} gas in nitrogen) would constitute feed to sulfur recovery.

  14. Chitosan sorbents for platinum sorption from dilute solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guibal, E.; Larkin, A.; Vincent, T.; Tobin, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    Chitosan has proved efficient at removing platinum in dilute effluents. The maximum uptake capacity reaches 300 mg/g (almost 1.5 mmol/g). The optimum pH for sorption is pH 2. A glutaraldehyde cross-linking pretreatment is necessary to stabilize the biopolymer in acidic solutions. Sorption isotherms have been studied as a function of pH, sorbent particle size, and the cross-linking ratio. Surprisingly, the extent of the cross-linking (determined by the concentration of the cross-linking agent in the treatment bath) has no significant influence on uptake capacity. Competitor anions such as chloride or nitrate induce a large decrease in the sorption efficiency. Sorption kinetics show also that uptake rate is not significantly changed by increasing either the cross-linking ratio or the particle size of the sorbent. Mass transfer rates are significantly affected by the initial platinum concentration and by the conditioning of the biopolymer. Gel-bead conditioning appears to reduce the sorption rate. While for molybdate and vanadate ions, mass transfer was governed by intraparticle mass transfer, for platinum, both external and intraparticle diffusion control the uptake rate. In contrast with the former ions, platinum does not form polynuclear hydrolyzed species, which are responsible for steric hindrance of diffusion into the polymer network.

  15. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  16. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally...

  17. Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Sidney

    2011-02-15

    Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

  18. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x

  19. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the

  20. Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2}

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Capture (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture This document summarizes the work performed on Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0000465, "Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture," during the period of performance of January 1, 2010 through September

  1. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  2. KINETICS OF Mn-BASED SORBENTS FOR HOT COAL GAS DESULFURIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A. SADECKI; M.T. HEPWORTH

    1997-06-15

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H2S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In previous reports, the sulfidation and regeneration results from cyclic testing done at 550 and 600 °C were presented. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H2S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent at 600 °C. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be essentially completely regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750 °C with minimal sulfate formation. In this report, the performance of the leading formulation (designated C6-2) was investigated for high temperature removal of H2S from simulated coal-derived fuel gas under varying sorbent induration temperature, reaction temperature, and superficial gas velocity. Sulfidation experiments were performed in an ambient pressure fixed-bed reactor between 500 °C and 600 °C. Four tests were conducted with each test consisting of four cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Results showed that the induration temperature of the sorbent and the reaction temperature greatly affected the H2S removal capacity of the sorbent while the superficial gas velocity between 1090 and 1635 cm/min had minimal affect on the sorbent's breakthrough capacity. Sorbent also showed 30 to 53% loss of its strength over four cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. The former being sorbent indurated at 1115 °C and the prior being sorbent indurated at 1100 °C.

  3. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  4. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, John E.; Jalan, Vinod M.

    1984-01-01

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  5. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

  6. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J. )

    1992-10-01

    This report stems from a program supported by the Ohio Coal Development Office, that is part of a multi-task, multi-university effort concerned with developing and enhancing the efficiency of dry'' high-sulfur flue gas scrubbing processes using calcium based sorbents. The application of spray-drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to sources burning Ohio coal will depend on many factors, two of which are process simplicity and flexibility, and overall cost. The ability of the system to be able to handle variations in volumetric flow SO[sub 2] concentration, and even perhaps, new regulatory requirements imposed in the future are very important In addition, the amount and characteristics of the waste produced will be a major component in the operating costs of these systems. Spray-drying FGD has been shown to have a capital, cost advantage over conventional wet scrubbing, and the method has been proven to be comparatively simple and flexible. The major disadvantage is the inability of these systems to obtain high (> 90%) S0[sub 2] removal efficiencies on flue gas from high sulfur coal sources. This is the result of chemical mass transfer and thermal limitations imposed on these systems using calcium hydroxide in a slurry as the scrubbing agent. The project 1.5 has investigated a number of novel methods to improve the performance of these systems in a mini-pilot plant spray dryer facility. The objectives of project 1.5 were the following: Perform baseline parametric testing, study the effect of additives on reactivity, and perform sorbent recycle tests.

  7. CNEEC - Nanophotonic Light Trapping Tutorial by Shanhui Fan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanophotonic Light Trapping for Solar Cells

  8. Geochemical and Mineralogical Investigation of Uranium in Multielement Contaminated, Organicrich Subsurface Sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Gartman, Brandy N.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Arey, Bruce W.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Mouser, Paula J.; Heald, Steve M.; Bargar, John R.; Janot, Noemie; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Long, Philip E.

    2014-03-02

    Alluvial sediments characterized by an abundance of refractory or lignitic organic carbon compounds and reduced Fe and S bearing mineral phases have been identified through drilling activities at the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site at Rifle, CO. Regions of the subsurface from which such sediments are derived are referred to as Naturally Reduced Zones (NRZ). We conducted a study with NRZ sediments with the objective to: i.) Characterize solid phase contamination of U and other co-contaminants; ii.) Document the occurrence of potential U host minerals; iii.) Determine U valence state and micron scale spatial association with co-contaminants. Macroscopic (wet chemical batch extractions and a column experiment), microscopic (SEM-EDS), and spectroscopic (Mssbauer, -XRF and XANES) techniques were employed. Results showed that sediments solid phase had significant concentrations of U, S, As, Zn, V, Cr, Cu and Se, and a remarkable assortment of potential U hosts (sorbents and/or electron donors), such as Fe oxides (hematite, magnetite, Al-substituted goethite), siderite, reduced Fe(II) bearing clays, sulfides of different types, Zn sulfide framboids and multi element sulfides. Multi-contaminants, micron size (ca. 5 to 30 m) areas of mainly U(IV) and some U(VI), and/or other electron scavengers or donors such as Se, As, Cr, and V were discovered in the sediments, suggesting complex micron-scale system responses to transient redox conditions, and different extent and rates of competing U redox reactions than those of single contaminant systems. Collectively, the results improve our understanding and ability to predict U and NRZs complex behavior and will delineate future research directions to further study both the natural attenuation and persistence of contaminant plumes and their contribution to groundwater contamination.

  9. Thermostatic steam trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.H.; Mac Nicol, A.E.

    1987-03-03

    A thermostatic trap is described for a heating system having a feed pipe connected to a source of steam and a discharge pipe for discharge of condensate and comprising: housing means defining a volume and comprising a bowl shaped body, a removable cover therefor, a housing inlet pipe portion projecting from a side wall portion of the body and adapted for connection to the discharge pipe. A housing outlet pipe portion projects from a bottom wall portion of the body, and an outlet orifice defined by the bottom wall portion and extends between the volume and the outlet pipe portion; a valve body means retained within the volume and comprising an end wall, a side wall and a retaining ring portion that together define a valve chamber. The end wall defines a valve inlet opening communicating with the chamber and an annular valve seat within the chamber and encircling the valve inlet opening. The valve body means comprises a valve outlet pipe that defines a valve outlet opening axially aligned with the valve inlet opening and communicating with the chamber, the outlet pipe being fixed in the outlet orifice; a resilient, annular seal means disposed within the valve chamber and encircling the valve inlet opening; and a bi-metallic disc disposed within the valve chamber between the annular seal means and the outlet opening and having an outer peripheral portion retained by the retaining ring portion of the valve body means.

  10. Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    C. Also provided are doped CaO sorbents for the capture of carbon dioxide in the presence of SO.sub.2. Authors: Smirniotis, Panagiotis G. 1 ; Lu, Hong 2 + Show Author ...

  11. Zinc oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasad

    2005-10-04

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided, wherein the sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents contain an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2 O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, containing a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  12. Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The successful bench-scale test of a novel carbon dioxide capturing sorbent promises to further advance the process as a possible technological option for reducing CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants.

  13. Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasael

    2010-03-23

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  14. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trap and Remove Sediment Protection 2: Trap and Remove Sediment The 3 Protections Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated...

  15. Fundamental Electroweak Studies using Trapped Ions & Atoms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    collaboration performs fundamental electroweak studies on trapped ions & atoms. We use neutral atom and ion trapping techniques at radioactive ion beam facilities here and...

  16. Ranking low cost sorbents for mercury capture from simulated flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Revata Seneviratne; Cedric Charpenteau; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    Coal fired utility boilers are the largest anthropogenic source of mercury release to the atmosphere, and mercury abatement legislation is already in place in the USA. The present study aimed to rank low cost mercury sorbents (char and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber and two coal fly ashes from UK power plants) against Norit Darco HgTM for mercury retention by using a novel bench-scale reactor. In this scheme, a fixed sorbent bed was tested for mercury capture efficiency from a simulated flue gas stream. Experiments with a gas stream of only mercury and nitrogen showed that while the coal ashes were the most effective in mercury capture, char from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber was as effective as the commercial sorbent Norit Darco HgTM. Tests conducted at 150{sup o}C, with a simulated flue gas mix that included N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and HCl, showed that all the sorbents captured approximately 100% of the mercury in the gas stream. The introduction of NO and NO{sub 2} was found to significantly improve the mercury capture, possibly by reactions between NOx and the mercury. Since the sorbents' efficiency decreased with increasing test temperature, physical sorption could be the initial step in the mercury capture process. As the sorbents were only exposed to 64 ng of mercury in the gas stream, the mercury loadings on the samples were significantly less than their equilibrium capacities. The larger capacities of the activated carbons due to their more microporous structure were therefore not utilized. Although the sorbents have been characterized by BET surface area analysis and XRD analysis, further analysis is needed in order to obtain a more conclusive correlation of how the characteristics of the different sorbents correlate with the observed variations in mercury capture ability. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Preparation, characterization, and application of modified chitosan sorbents for elemental mercury removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, A.C.; Xiang, J.; Sun, L.S.; Hu, S.; Li, P.S.; Shi, J.M.; Fu, P.; Su, S.

    2009-05-15

    A series of raw, iodine (bromide) or/and sulfuric acid-modified chitosan sorbents were synthesized and comprehensively characterized by N{sub 2} isotherm adsorption/desorption method, TGA, FTIR, XRD, and XPS et al. Adsorption experiments of vapor-phase elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) were studied using the sorbents in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. The results revealed that porosities and specific surface areas of the sorbents decreased after modification. The sorbents operated stably at flue-gas temperature below 140{sup o}C. The chemical reactions of iodine and sulfate ion with the amide of chitosan occurred, and the I{sub 2} was found in the sorbents due to the presence of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Fixed-bed adsorber tests showed that compared to raw chitosan, the bromide or iodine-modified chitosan could promote the efficiency of Hg{sub 0} capture more or less. Mercury removal efficiency could be significantly promoted when an appropriate content of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was added, and the iodine and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} modified sorbents almost had a mercury removal efficiency of 100% for 3 h. The presence of moisture can increase the sorbent's capacity for mercury uptake due to the existence of active sites, such as sulfonate and amino group. The mercury breakthrough of modified chitosan sorbents decreased with increasing temperature. A reaction scheme that could explain the experimental results was presumed based on the characterizations and adsorption study.

  18. Spray-dryer spent-sorbent hazardous-waste fixating and cementitious properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, T.D.; Berger, R.L.; Fishbein, K.

    1989-03-01

    The primary purpose of the project was to develop a use for the spent sorbent from a spray dryer flue gas desulfurization system. In addition to spent sorbent, fly ash was included in the utilization schemes because it is a byproduct of coal combustion and because it is a pozzolan. It would be helpful to find uses for these two substances and thus decrease the amount of land needed for their disposal and help offset the costs of flue gas desulfurization.

  19. Durable zinc oxide containing sorbents for moving bed and fluid-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1998-12-31

    A series of novel regenerable desulfurization sorbents operational at a wide range of temperatures (260--600 C) has been developed by the in-house research staff at the US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center. The sorbent, identified as METC10, has demonstrated very high attrition resistance as well as very high and stable reactivity conducted under numerous testing regimes under both simulated and actual fuel gas conditions. The METC10 sorbent suitable for moving bed reactor applications is the only sorbent which has exceeded all the criteria required for use in the Tampa Electric Company (TECO) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) demonstration project. The required criteria for the TECO project included, a sulfur loading of 6.7 lb/ft{sup 3} while maintaining the outlet H{sub 2}S level < 20 ppmv, attrition of < 5 wt% after 25 cycle test and regeneration under the very drastic conditions of 10% SO{sub 2} at 510 C under 5--7 atmospheres. In addition, the sorbent was also tested at temperatures ranging from 370 C to 260 C with simulated coal gas. At this low temperature, it was possible to achieve a sulfur loading > 6 lb/ft{sup 3}, indicating that the sorbent is suitable for applications over a wide range of temperatures. It was also possible to prepare METC10 sorbent suitable for fluidized/transport reactor bed applications utilizing spray drying technique. These sorbents had both high attrition resistance (> 95%) and high sulfur capacity (> 14 wt%), and showed stable reactivity during multi-cycle testing.

  20. Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan; Luebke David; Pennline, Henry

    2012-05-02

    We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promising CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

  1. Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Y; Sorescu, D C; Luebke, D; Li, B Y; Zhang, K; King, D

    2013-05-16

    We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; A further objective is to explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

  2. Enhancement of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent for the dry-desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitsuo Yamamoto; Satoshi Komaki; Daichi Nakajima; Norihiko Matsushima; Dan Liu; Masateru Nishioka; Masayoshi Sadakata

    2006-10-15

    Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent has been studied as an effective method for SO{sub 2} removal. The effect of iron and other species for enhancing the ability of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent was investigated in this study. At first, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} was added in the preparation of the sorbent, and TG analysis was carried out. The Ca utilization rate over a period of 90 min was about 10% greater than that for Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent. However, it was found that iron is not effective for enhancing the ability of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent but that NO{sub 3}{sup -} was the most effective factor to enhance it. The mechanism of enhancing the Ca utilization rate was also investigated, and it was found that Ca(NO{sub 3})2 was produced in the sorbent and reacted with SO{sub 2}, so that the reaction Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + SO{sub 2} {yields} CaSO{sub 4} + 2NO + O{sub 2} proceeded. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1999-03-09

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector. 5 figs.

  4. Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.

    2003-12-09

    Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping carried out by introducing a side stream into the main stream to squeeze the fluid containing particles close to the electrodes producing the dielelectrophoretic forces. The region of most effective or the strongest forces in the manipulating fields of the electrodes producing the dielectrophoretic forces is close to the electrodes, within 100 .mu.m from the electrodes. The particle trapping arrangement uses a series of electrodes with an AC field placed between pairs of electrodes, which causes trapping of particles along the edges of the electrodes. By forcing an incoming flow stream containing cells and DNA, for example, close to the electrodes using another flow stream improves the efficiency of the DNA trapping.

  5. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  6. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  7. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  8. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can become temporarily trapped by the molecule before ultimately escaping,

  9. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can become temporarily trapped by the molecule before ultimately escaping,

  10. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can become temporarily trapped by the molecule before ultimately escaping,

  11. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can become temporarily trapped by the molecule before ultimately escaping,

  12. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print Wednesday, 27 April 2005 00:00 In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can

  13. Novel Sorbent-Based Process for High Temperature Trace Metal Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokhan Alptekin

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the efficacy of a novel sorbent can effectively remove trace metal contaminants (Hg, As, Se and Cd) from actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams at high temperature (above the dew point of the gas). The performance of TDA's sorbent has been evaluated in several field demonstrations using synthesis gas generated by laboratory and pilot-scale coal gasifiers in a state-of-the-art test skid that houses the absorbent and all auxiliary equipment for monitoring and data logging of critical operating parameters. The test skid was originally designed to treat 10,000 SCFH gas at 250 psig and 350 C, however, because of the limited gas handling capabilities of the test sites, the capacity was downsized to 500 SCFH gas flow. As part of the test program, we carried out four demonstrations at two different sites using the synthesis gas generated by the gasification of various lignites and a bituminous coal. Two of these tests were conducted at the Power Systems Demonstration Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama; a Falkirk (North Dakota) lignite and a high sodium lignite (the PSDF operator Southern Company did not disclose the source of this lignite) were used as the feedstock. We also carried out two other demonstrations in collaboration with the University of North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) using synthesis gas slipstreams generated by the gasification of Sufco (Utah) bituminous coal and Oak Hills (Texas) lignite. In the PSDF tests, we showed successful operation of the test system at the conditions of interest and showed the efficacy of sorbent in removing the mercury from synthesis gas. In Test Campaign No.1, TDA sorbent reduced Hg concentration of the synthesis gas to less than 5 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and achieved over 99% Hg removal efficiency for the entire test duration. Unfortunately, due to the relatively low concentration of the trace metals in the lignite feed and as a result of the

  14. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi

  16. Development of a Catalyst/Sorbent for Methane Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.H. Shans; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus Satrio; Karl Albrecht; Tanya Harris Janine Keeley; Ben Silva; Aaron Shell; Molly Lohry; Zachary Beversdorf

    2008-12-31

    This project led to the further development of a combined catalyst and sorbent for improving the process technology required for converting CH{sub 4} and/or CO into H{sub 2} while simultaneously separating the CO{sub 2} byproduct all in a single step. The new material is in the form of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consists of a CaO core surrounded by an alumina-based shell capable of supporting a Ni catalyst. The Ni is capable of catalyzing the reactions of steam with CH{sub 4} or CO to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, whereas the CaO is capable of absorbing the CO{sub 2} as it is produced. The absorption of CO{sub 2} eliminates the reaction inhibiting effects of CO{sub 2} and provides a means for recovering the CO{sub 2} in a useful form. The present work showed that the lifecycle performance of the sorbent can be improved either by incorporating a specific amount of MgO in the material or by calcining CaO derived from limestone at 1100 C for an extended period. It also showed how to prepare a strong shell material with a large surface area required for supporting an active Ni catalyst. The method combines graded particles of {alpha}-alumina with noncrystalline alumina having a large specific surface area together with a strength promoting additive followed by controlled calcination. Two different additives produced good results: 3 {micro}m limestone and lanthanum nitrate which were converted to their respective oxides upon calcination. The oxides partially reacted with the alumina to form aluminates which probably accounted for the strength enhancing properties of the additives. The use of lanthanum made it possible to calcine the shell material at a lower temperature, which was less detrimental to the surface area, but still capable of producing a strong shell. Core-in-shell pellets made with the improved shell materials and impregnated with a Ni catalyst were used for steam reforming CH{sub 4} at different temperatures and pressures. Under all

  17. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture From Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel; Browers, Bruce

    2014-12-31

    A novel hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO₂ capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas was evaluated. The technology – Capture of CO₂ by Hybrid Sorption (CACHYS™) – is a solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: 1) reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, 2) utilization of novel process chemistry, 3) contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO₂ heat of reaction and promote fast CO₂ capture, and 4) low-cost method of heat management. This report provides key information developed during the course of the project that includes sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYS™ system. Seven sorbent formulations were prepared and evaluated at the lab-scale for energy requirements and CO₂ capture performance. Sorbent heat of regeneration ranged from 30-80 kJ/mol CO₂ and was found to be dependent on process conditions. Two sorbent formulations (designated HCK-4 & HCK-7) were down-selected for additional fixed-bed testing. Additional testing involved subjecting the sorbents to 100 continuous cycles in the fixed-bed reactor to determine performance as a function of time. The working capacity achieved for HCK-4 sorbent ranged from 5.5-8.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent, while the HCK-7 typically ranged from 8.0-10.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent. Overall, there was no deterioration in capacity with continuous cycling for either sorbent. The CACHYS™ bench-scale testing system designed and fabricated under this award consists of a dual circulating fluidized-bed adsorber and a moving-bed regenerator. The system takes a flue gas slipstream from the University of North Dakota’s coal-fired steam plant. Prior to being sent to the adsorber, the flue gas is scrubbed to remove SO₂ and particulate. During parametric testing of the adsorber, CO₂ capture achieved using

  18. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

    2014-01-08

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be

  19. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Goeringer, Douglas E.; Glish, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  20. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Glish, G.L.

    1993-04-27

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  1. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 8, July--September 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  2. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 9, October--December 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-03-06

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  3. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April--June 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-08-28

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  4. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 2, January--March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-05-18

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  5. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  6. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 7, April--June 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-08-19

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  7. Polyacrylonitrile-Chalcogel Hybrid Sorbents for Radioiodine Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun; Matyas, Josef; Lepry, William C.; Garn, Troy; Law, Jack; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2014-04-16

    Powders of a Sn2S3 chalcogen-based aerogel (chalcogel) were combined with powdered polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in different mass ratios (SnS33, SnS50, and SnS70 in mass% of chalcogel), dissolved into dimethyl sulfoxide, and dropped into deionized water to form pellets of a porous PAN-chalcogel hybrid material. Pellets of these hybrid sorbents, along with pure powdered (SnSp) and granular (SnSg) forms of the chalcogel, were then used to adsorb iodine gas under both concentrated and dilute conditions. Both the SnSp and SnSg chalcogels showed very high maximum iodine loadings at 67.2 and 68.3 mass%. The maximum iodine loadings in the SnS33 and SnS50 were high at 32.8 and 53.5 mass%. In all cases, X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of Sn-I phases of SnI4 and SnI4(S8)2 revealing that the iodine binding in these materials is mainly due to a chemisorption process although some evidence also exists that supports a physisorption process.

  8. Polyacrylonitrile-Chalcogel Hybrid Sorbents for Radioiodine Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian J. Riley; David A. Pierce; Jaehun Chun; Josef Matyas; William C. Lepry; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law; Mercouri G. Kanatzidis

    2014-04-01

    Powders of a Sn2S3 chalcogen-based aerogel (chalcogel) were combined with powdered polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in different mass ratios (SnS33, SnS50, and SnS70; # = mass% of chalcogel), dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, and added dropwise to deionized water to form pellets of a porous PAN-chalcogel hybrid material. These pellets, along with pure powdered (SnSp) and granular (SnSg) forms of the chalcogel, were then used to capture iodine gas under both dynamic (dilute) and static (concentrated) conditions. Both SnSp and SnSg chalcogels showed very high iodine loadings at 67.2 and 68.3 mass%, respectively. The SnS50 hybrid sorbent demonstrated a high, although slightly reduced, maximum iodine loading (53.5 mass%) with greatly improved mechanical rigidity. In all cases, X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of crystalline SnI4 and SnI4(S8)2, revealing that the iodine binding in these materials is mainly due to a chemisorption process, although a small amount of physisorption was observed.

  9. Screening of low cost sorbents for arsenic and mercury capture in gasification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cedric Charpenteau; Revata Seneviratne; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-09-15

    A novel laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor has been developed to investigate trace metal capture on selected sorbents for cleaning the hot raw gas in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants. The new reactor design is presented, together with initial results for mercury and arsenic capture on five sorbents. It was expected that the capture efficiency of sorbents would decrease with increasing temperature. However, a commercial activated carbon, Norit Darco 'Hg', and a pyrolysis char prepared from scrap tire rubber exhibit similar efficiencies for arsenic at 200 and at 400{sup o}C (70% and 50%, respectively). Meta-kaolinite and fly ash both exhibit an efficiency of around 50% at 200{sup o}C, which then dropped as the test temperature was increased to 400{sup o}C. Activated scrap tire char performed better at 200{sup o}C than the pyrolysis char showing an arsenic capture capacity similar to that of commercial Norit Darco 'Hg'; however, efficiency dropped to below 40% at 400{sup o}C. These results suggest that the capture mechanism of arsenic (As4) is more complex than purely physical adsorption onto the sorbents. Certain elements within the sorbents may have significant importance for chemical adsorption, in addition to the effect of surface area, as determined by the BET method. This was indeed the case for the mercury capture efficiency for all four sorbents tested. Three of the sorbents tested retained 90% of the mercury when operated at 100{sup o}C. As the temperature increased, the efficiency of activated carbon and pyrolysis char reduced significantly. Curiously, despite having the smallest Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area, a pf-combustion ash was the most effective in capturing mercury over the temperature range studied. These observations suggest that the observed mercury capture was not purely physical adsorption but a combination of physical and chemical processes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Experimental study of toxic metal-sorbent reactions in a bench scale combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, T.M.; Biswas, P.

    1996-11-01

    Toxic metals may enter a combustion chamber in many physical or chemical forms, for example, as a constituent of a hazardous or municipal solid waste to be incinerated or as a trace quantity in coal. Control of toxic metal emissions from combustors is currently being stipulated by the US EPA in the form of maximum achievable control technologies (MACT) for 11 metals and their compounds under Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Amendments. Several researchers have proposed using bulk solid sorbents in several geometries (packed bed, fluidized bed, and dry sorbent injection) and have demonstrated the potential to effectively remove metals form an air stream by means of chemisorption. In this paper the authors compare the use of a vapor phase silica precursor with a calcium precursor for lead capture in a high temperature flow reactor. The use of vapor phase sorbent precursors has the potential for more effective sorbent utilization. In a real system, the vapor phase sorbent precursors would be injected into the combustor where the precursor would first decompose, then be oxidized to form an aerosol in the high temperature environment, and provide a surface onto which metal compound vapors condense. Calcium-based sorbents are used in capturing sulfur compounds from coal combustion effluent gases but their effectiveness in chemisorbing toxic metals has not been studied extensively. The objective of this work is to show how the sorbent precursor addition affects the outlet metal aerosol`s chemical composition and size distribution. Specifically, the reactions and interactions that result when a vapor phase silica precursor, hexamethyl disiloxane, or a calcium precursor, calcium acetate, is inlet into a high temperature flow reactor along with an organic lead compound are investigated.

  11. SO2-Resistant Immobilized Amine Sorbents for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluri, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The solid amine sorbent for CO2 capture process has advantages of simplicity and low operating cost compared to the MEA (monoethanolamine) process. Solid amine sorbents reported so far suffered from either low CO2 capture capacity or low stability in the flue gas environment. This project is aimed at developing a SO2-resistant solid amine sorbent for capturing CO2 from coal–fired power plants with SCR/FGD which emits SO2ranging from 15 to 30 ppm and NO ranging from 5 to 10 ppm. The amine sorbent we developed in a previous project degraded rapidly with 65% decrease in the initial capture capacity in presence of 1% SO2. This amine sorbent was further modified by coating with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) to increase the SO2-resistance. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was found to decrease the SO2-amine interaction, resulting in the decrease in the maximum SO desorption temperature (Tmax ) of amine sorbent. The PEG-coated amine sorbent exhibited higher stability with only 40% decrease in the initial capture capacity compared to un-coated amine sorbents. The cost of the solid amine sorbent developed in this project is estimated to be less than $7.00/lb; the sorbent exhibited CO2 capture capacity more than 2.3 mmol/g. The results of this study provided the scientific basis for further development of SO2-resistant sorbents.

  12. Manganese Doping of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tailoring Surface Reactivity for a Regenerable Heavy Metal Sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Cynthia L.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Mackie, Katherine E.; Neiner, Doinita; Saraf, Laxmikant; Droubay, Timothy C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2012-02-28

    A method for tuning the analyte affinity of magnetic, inorganic nanostructured sorbents for heavy metal contaminants is described. The manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle sorbents have a remarkably high affinity compared to the precursor material. Sorbent affinity can be tuned toward an analyte of interest simply by adjustment of the dopant quantity. The results show that following the Mn doping process there is a large increase in affinity and capacity for heavy metals (i.e., Co, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Tl). Capacity measurements were carried out for the removal of cadmium from river water and showed significantly higher loading than the relevant commercial sorbents tested for comparison. The reduction in Cd concentration from 100 ppb spiked river water to 1 ppb (less than the EPA drinking water limit of 5 ppb for Cd) was achieved following treatment with the Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were able to load 1 ppm of Cd followed by complete stripping and recovery of the Cd with a mild acid wash. The Cd loading and stripping is shown to be consistent through multiple cycles with no loss of sorbent performance.

  13. Kinetics of MN based sorbents for hot coal gas. Quarterly report, September--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases prior to its use in combined cycle turbines. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H{sub 2}S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In a previous report, the sulfidation results were presented. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent. In this report, the regeneration results will be presented. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be fully regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750{degrees}C with minimal sulfate formation. 16 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Screening of zinc-based sorbents for hot-gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joong B. Lee; Chong K. Ryu; Chang K. Yi; Sung H. Jo; Sung H. Kim

    2008-03-15

    Highly reactive and attrition-resistant ZnO-based sorbents that are suitable for bubbling fluidized-bed reactors can be produced using the spray-drying method. Most of the ZnO-based sorbents prepared here (ZAC-X, X = 18N-25N) satisfy the physical and chemical criteria for bubbling fluidized-bed application (spherical shape, average particle size, 90-110 {mu}m; size distribution, 40-230 {mu}m; bulk density, 0.9-1.0 g/mL; attrition index (AI), 40-80%; sulfur sorption capacity, 14-17 wt %; sorbent use, 70-80%). The performance test of the ZAC-C sorbent at Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) with a bubbling fluidized-bed for 70 h also demonstrated that it had good sulfidation and regeneration performance (11 wt % sorption capacity and 52% sorbent use) as well as reasonable attrition resistance (1.1% attrition loss for 70 h). 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Carl; Steen, William; Triana, Eugenio; Machalek, Thomas; Davila, Jenny; Schmit, Claire; Wang, Andrew; Temple, Brian; Lu, Yongqi; Lu, Hong; Zhang, Luzheng; Ruhter, David; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud; Sayyah, Maryam; Ito, Brandon; Suslick, Kenneth

    2013-09-30

    This document summarizes the work performed on Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0000465, “Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture,” during the period of performance of January 1, 2010 through September 30, 2013. This project involves the development of a novel technology that combines a dry sorbent-based carbon capture process with the water-gas-shift reaction for separating CO{sub 2} from syngas. The project objectives were to model, develop, synthesize and screen sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture from gasified coal streams. The project was funded by the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory with URS as the prime contractor. Illinois Clean Coal Institute and The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign were project co-funders. The objectives of this project were to identify and evaluate sorbent materials and concepts that were suitable for capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from warm/hot water-gas-shift (WGS) systems under conditions that minimize energy penalties and provide continuous gas flow to advanced synthesis gas combustion and processing systems. Objectives included identifying and evaluating sorbents that efficiently capture CO{sub 2} from a gas stream containing CO{sub 2}, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at temperatures as high as 650 °C and pressures of 400-600 psi. After capturing the CO{sub 2}, the sorbents would ideally be regenerated using steam, or other condensable purge vapors. Results from the adsorption and regeneration testing were used to determine an optimal design scheme for a sorbent enhanced water gas shift (SEWGS) process and evaluate the technical and economic viability of the dry sorbent approach for CO{sub 2} capture. Project work included computational modeling, which was performed to identify key sorbent properties for the SEWGS process. Thermodynamic modeling was used to identify optimal physical properties for sorbents and helped down-select from the universe of possible sorbent

  16. Trace-Metal Scavenging from Biomass Syngas with Novel High-Temperature Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gale, Thomas K.; Walsh, Pete M.

    2007-03-21

    Effective syngas cleanup is one of the remaining major technical challenges yet to be resolved and one that will provide the most benefit to the suite of bio-thermochemical process technologies. Beyond tars and acid gases, which are themselves a significant detriment to reforming catalysts and associated equipment, semi-volatile metals can also damage cleanup systems, catalysts, and contaminate the fungible products. Metals are a difficult challenge to deal with whether using hot-gas filtration or low-temperature processing. Even though most of the metal tends to condense before the barrier filter of hot-gas cleanup systems, some small percentage of the metal (large enough to damage syngas-reforming catalysts, the candle filters themselves, and gas turbine blades) does pass through these barrier filters along with the clean syngas. Low-temperature processing requires expensive measures to remove metals from the process stream. Significant costs are required to remove these metals and if they are not removed before contacting the catalyst, they will significantly reduce the life of the catalyst. One approach to solving the metals problem is to use high-temperature sorbents to capture all of the semi-volatile metals upstream of the barrier filter, which would prevent even small amounts of metal from passing through the filter with the clean syngas. High Temperature sorbents have already been developed that have been shown to be effective at capturing semi-volatile metals from vitiated combustion effluent, i.e., high-temperature flue gas. The objective on this project was to evaluate these same sorbents for their ability to scavenge metals from inert, reducing, and real syngas environments. Subsequently, it was the objective of this project to develop designer sorbents and an injection technology that would optimize the effectiveness of these sorbents at capturing metals from syngas, protecting the barrier filters from damage, and protecting the catalysts and other

  17. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangan, Michael A.; Blain, Matthew G.; Tigges, Chris P.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  18. Ionic liquid-functionalized mesoporous sorbents and their use in the capture of polluting gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Suk; Koros, William J.; Bhuwania, Nitesh; Hillesheim, Patrick C.; Dai, Sheng

    2016-01-12

    A composite structure for capturing a gaseous electrophilic species, the composite structure comprising mesoporous refractory sorbent particles on which an ionic liquid is covalently attached, wherein said ionic liquid includes an accessible functional group that is capable of binding to said gaseous electrophilic species. In particular embodiments, the mesoporous sorbent particles are contained within refractory hollow fibers. Also described is a method for capturing a gaseous electrophilic species by use of the above-described composite structure, wherein the gaseous electrophilic species is contacted with the composite structure. In particular embodiments thereof, cooling water is passed through the refractory hollow fibers containing the IL-functionalized sorbent particles in order to facilitate capture of the gaseous electrophilic species, and then steam is passed through the refractory hollow fibers to facilitate release of the gaseous electrophilic species such that the composite structure can be re-used to capture additional gas.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

    1999-09-01

    Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at

  20. Using high temperature baghouses to enhance desulfurization following economizer sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, G.; Keener, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    In order to explore the potential of using high temperature baghouses to enhance SO{sub 2} removal following upstream sorbent injection, an integrated two-stage reactor system has been built. It consists of an injection stage and a filtration stage. Distinct from one-stage fixed-bed reactors, sorbent particles in this system are initially converted under controlled injection conditions before entering the filtration reactor chamber. By the aid of the system, several unique features regarding the gas-solid reactions in the baghouse after economizer zone sorbent injection have been revealed. Results have shown that the appropriate usage of a high temperature baghouse may substantially enhance the performance of the process. The further SO{sub 2} removal in the baghouse is comprehensively affected by both the conditions in the injection zone and those in the baghouse.

  1. VACUUM TRAP AND VALVE COMBINATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, N.; Levenson, L.

    1963-02-19

    This patent relates to a vacuum trap and valve combination suitable for use in large ultra-high vacuum systems. The vacuum trap is a chamber having an inlet and outlet opening which may be made to communicate with a chamber to be evacuated and a diffusion pump, respectively. A valve is designed to hermeticaliy seal with inlet opening and, when opened, block the line-of- sight'' between the inlet and outlet openings, while allowing a large flow path between the opened vaive and the side walls of the trap. The interior of the trap and the side of the valve facing the inlet opening are covered with an impurity absorbent, such as Zeolite or activated aluminum. Besides the advantage of combining two components of a vacuum system into one, the present invention removes the need for a baffle between the pump and the chamber to be evacuated. In one use of a specific embodiment of this invention, the transmission probability was 45 and the partial pressure of the pump fluid vapor in the vacuum chamber was at least 100 times lower than its vapor pressure. (AEC)

  2. Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S; Pavlish, John H

    2015-04-21

    The present invention relates to carbon nanocomposite sorbents. The present invention provides carbon nanocomposite sorbents, methods for making the same, and methods for separation of a pollutant from a gas that includes that pollutant. Various embodiments provide a method for reducing the mercury content of a mercury-containing gas.

  3. Highly Attrition Resistant Zinc Oxide-Based Sorbents for H2S Removal by Spray Drying Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, C.K.; Lee, J.B.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, J.J.; Yi, C.K.

    2002-09-19

    Primary issues for the fluidized-bed/transport reactor process are high attrition resistant sorbent, its high sorption capacity and regenerability, durability, and cost. The overall objective of this project is the development of a superior attrition resistant zinc oxide-based sorbent for hot gas cleanup in integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Sorbents applicable to a fluidized-bed hot gas desulfurization process must have a high attrition resistance to withstand the fast solid circulation between a desulfurizer and a regenerator, fast kinetic reactions, and high sulfur sorption capacity. The oxidative regeneration of zinc-based sorbent usually initiated at greater than 600 C with highly exothermic nature causing deactivation of sorbent as well as complication of sulfidation process by side reaction. Focusing on solving the sorbent attrition and regenerability of zinc oxide-based sorbent, we have adapted multi-binder matrices and direct incorporation of regeneration promoter. The sorbent forming was done with a spray drying technique that is easily scalable to commercial quantity.

  4. Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, G.O.; Copeland, R.; Dubovik, M.; Gershanovich, Y.

    2002-09-20

    Gasification technologies convert coal and other heavy feedstocks into synthesis gas feed streams that can be used in the production of a wide variety of chemicals, ranging from hydrogen through methanol, ammonia, acetic anhydride, dimethyl ether (DME), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), high molecular weight liquid hydrocarbons and waxes. Syngas can also be burned directly as a fuel in advanced power cycles to generate electricity with very high efficiency. However, the coal-derived synthesis gas contains a myriad of trace contaminants that may poison the catalysts that are used in the downstream manufacturing processes and may also be regulated in power plant emissions. Particularly, the catalysts used in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol and other liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids) have been found to be very sensitive to the low levels of poisons, especially arsenic, that are present in the synthesis gas from coal. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing an expendable high capacity, low-cost chemical absorbent to remove arsenic from coal-derived syngas. Unlike most of the commercially available sorbents that physically adsorb arsenic, TDA's sorbent operates at elevated temperatures and removes the arsenic through chemical reaction. The arsenic content in the coal gas stream is reduced to ppb levels with the sorbent by capturing and stabilizing the arsenic gas (As4) and arsenic hydrides (referred to as arsine, AsH3) in the solid state. To demonstrate the concept of high temperature arsenic removal from coal-derived syngas, we carried out bench-scale experiments to test the absorption capacity of a variety of sorbent formulations under representative conditions. Using on-line analysis techniques, we monitored the pre- and post-breakthrough arsine concentrations over different sorbent samples. Some of these samples exhibited pre-breakthrough arsine absorption capacity over 40% wt. (capacity is defined as lb of arsenic absorbed/lb of sorbent), while

  5. CO{sub 2} Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fillerup, Eric; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Wang, Dongxiang; Guo, Jiahua; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2012-08-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a new generation of solid, regenerable polymeric molecular basket sorbent (MBS) for more cost-efficient capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The primary goal is to develop a cost-effective MBS sorbent with better thermal stability. To improve the cost-effectiveness of MBS, we have explored commercially available and inexpensive support to replace the more expensive mesoporous molecular sieves like MCM-41 and SBA- 15. In addition, we have developed some advanced sorbent materials with 3D pore structure such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) to improve the CO{sub 2} working capacity of MBS, which can also reduce the cost for the whole CO{sub 2} capture process. During the project duration, the concern regarding the desorption rate of MBS sorbents has been raised, because lower desorption rate increases the desorption time for complete regeneration of the sorbent which in turn leads to a lower working capacity if the regeneration time is limited. Thus, the improvement in the thermal stability of MBS became a vital task for later part of this project. The improvement in the thermal stability was performed via increasing the polymer density either using higher molecular weight PEI or PEI cross-linking with an organic compound. Moreover, we have used the computational approach to estimate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with different MBSs for the fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption, which may benefit the development, design and modification of the sorbents and the process.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROGEN MORDENITE SORBENT FOR THE CAPTURE OF KRYPTON FROM USED NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING OFF-GAS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell Greenhalgh; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law

    2014-04-01

    A novel new sorbent for the separation of krypton from off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A hydrogen mordenite powder was successfully incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder and formed into spherical beads. The engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area and microporosity indicative of mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for krypton adsorption capacities utilizing thermal swing operations achieving capacities of 100 mmol of krypton per kilogram of sorbent at a temperature of 191 K. A krypton adsorption isotherm was also obtained at 191 K with varying krypton feed gas concentrations. Adsorption/desorption cycling effects were also evaluated with results indicating that the sorbent experienced no decrease in krypton capacity throughout testing.

  7. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 4, July--September 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-10-27

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for improving the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hog coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. The reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. The durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain its reactivity and other important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Two base case sorbents, spherical pellets and cylindrical extrudes used in related METC sponsored projects, are being used to provide a basis for the comparison of physical characteristics and chemical reactivity.

  8. Process for the manufacture of an attrition resistant sorbent used for gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkataramani, Venkat S.; Ayala, Raul E.

    2003-09-16

    This process produces a sorbent for use in desulfurization of coal gas. A zinc titanate compound and a metal oxide are mixed by milling the compounds in an aqueous medium, the resulting mixture is dried and then calcined, crushed, sleved and formed into pellets for use in a moving-bed reactor. Metal oxides suitable for use as an additive in this process include: magnesium oxide, magnesium oxide plus molybdenum oxide, calcium oxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, cupric oxide, and tin oxide. The resulting sorbent has a percentage of the original zinc or titanium ions substituted for the oxide metal of the chosen additive.

  9. Regenerable sorbents for CO.sub.2 capture from moderate and high temperature gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    2008-01-01

    A process for making a granular sorbent to capture carbon dioxide from gas streams comprising homogeneously mixing an alkali metal oxide, alkali metal hydroxide, alkaline earth metal oxide, alkaline earth metal hydroxide, alkali titanate, alkali zirconate, alkali silicate and combinations thereof with a binder selected from the group consisting of sodium ortho silicate, calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO.sub.4.2H.sub.2O), alkali silicates, calcium aluminate, bentonite, inorganic clays and organic clays and combinations thereof and water; drying the mixture and placing the sorbent in a container permeable to a gas stream.

  10. Ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with strong trapped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    driven turbulence with strong trapped ion resonance is presented. The role of trapped ion granulations, clusters of trapped ions correlated by precession resonance, is the focus. ...

  11. High-Performance Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholl, David; Jones, Christopher

    2013-03-13

    This project has focused on capture of CO{sub 2} from ambient air (“air capture”). If this process is technically and economically feasible, it could potentially contribute to net reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in ways that are complementary to better developed techniques for CO{sub 2} from concentrated point sources. We focused on cyclic adsorption processes for CO{sub 2} capture from air in which the entire cycle is performed at moderate temperatures. The project involved both experimental studies of sorbent materials and process level modeling of cyclic air capture processes. In our experimental work, a series of amine-functionalized silica adsorbents were prepared and characterized to determine the impact of molecular architecture on CO{sub 2} capture. Some key findings were: • Amine functionalized silicas can be prepared with high enough CO{sub 2} capacities under ambient conditions to merit consideration for use in air capture processes. • Primary amines are better candidates for CO{sub 2} capture than secondary or tertiary amines, both in terms of amine efficiency for CO{sub 2} adsorption and enhanced water affinity. • Mechanistic understanding of degradation of these materials can enable control of molecular architecture to significantly improve material stability. Our process modeling work provided the first publically available cost and energy estimates for cyclic adsorption processes for air capture of CO{sub 2}. Some key findings were: • Cycles based on diurnal ambient heating and cooling cannot yield useful purities or amounts of captured CO{sub 2}. • Cycles based on steam desorption at 110 oC can yield CO{sub 2} purities of ~88%. • The energy requirements for cycles using steam desorption are dominated by needs for thermal input, which results in lower costs than energy input in the form of electricity. Cyclic processes with operational costs of less than $100 tCO{sub 2}-net were described, and these results point to process and

  12. Guide to Orifice Plate Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, C.B.

    2001-01-11

    This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their capabilities and limitations. Finally, recommendations for using orifice plate steam traps are presented, and possible applications are identified.

  13. Durable Zinc Oxide-Based Regenerable Sorbents for Desulfurization of Syngas in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Cicero, Daniel C. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown); Stiegel, Gary J.; Gupta, Raghubir P. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh); Turk, Brian S. (Research Triangle Institute)

    2001-11-06

    A fixed-bed regenerable desulfurization sorbent, identified as RVS-land developed by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, was awarded the R&D 100 award in 2000 and is currently offered as a commercial product by Sued-Chemie Inc. An extensive testing program for this sorbent was undertaken which included tests at a wide range of temperatures, pressures and gas compositions both simulated and generated in an actual gasifier for sulfidation and regeneration. This testing has demonstrated that during these desulfurization tests, the RVS-1 sorbent maintained an effluent H2S concentration of <5 ppmv at temperatures from 260 to 600 C (500-1100 F) and pressures of 203-2026 kPa(2 to 20 atm) with a feed containing 1.2 vol% H{sub 2}S. The types of syngas tested ranged from an oxygen-blown Texaco gasifier to biomass-generated syngas. The RVS-1 sorbent has high crush strength and attrition resistance, which, unlike past sorbent formulations, does not decrease with extended testing at actual at operating conditions. The sulfur capacity of the sorbent is roughly 17 to 20 wt.% and also remains constant during extended testing (>25 cycles). In addition to H{sub 2}S, the RVS-1 sorbent has also demonstrated the ability to remove dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from syngas. During regeneration, the RVS-1 sorbent has been regenerated with dilute oxygen streams (1 to 7 vol% O{sub 2}) at temperatures as low as 370 C (700 F) and pressures of 304-709 kPa(3 to 7 atm). Although regeneration can be initiated at 370 C (700 F), regeneration temperatures in excess of 538 C (1000 F) were found to be optimal. The presence of steam, carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide (up to 6 vol%) did not have any visible effect on regeneration or sorbent performance during either sulfidation or regeneration. A number of commercial tests involving RVS-1 have been either conducted or are planned in the near future. The RVS-1 sorbent has been tested by Epyx, Aspen

  14. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Witten, William B.; Kornienko, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  15. Enhanced durability for high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications -- Option 3 program: Development and testing of additional zinc titanate sorbents. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, R.E.; Chuck, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.`s Polk Power Station. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The objective of this contract is to identify and test sorbent fabrication methods and chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc titanate and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. A parametric study on the use of calcium sulfate additives to zinc titanate was conducted for zinc titanates having a 2:1 and 1.5:1 zinc-to-titanium molar ratio, and they showed a beneficial effect on crush strength of fresh 2:1 zinc titanate sorbents. In addition, a test procedure was developed to screen sorbent formulations based on resistance to spalling and pellet breakage induced by zinc sulfate formation in the presence of sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen conditions.

  16. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    TDA Research Inc., in collaboration with FuelCell Energy, will develop a new, high-capacity sorbent to remove sulfur from anaerobic digester gas. This technology will enable the production of a nearly sulfur-free biogas to replace natural gas in fuel cell power plants while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels.

  17. Technical task plan for testing filter box sorbent-paint filter test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilpatrick, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    At the Savannah River Plant, High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) asked Interim Waste Technology (IWT) to choose and test a sorbent to add to the ITP filter box that meets the EPA requirement for land disposal of containerized liquid hazardous wastes per Paint Filter Liquids (PFL) test method 9095. This report outlines the process to be used in accomplishing this task.

  18. Licensing Agreement Moves Two NETL-Patented Carbon Capture Sorbents Closer to Commercialization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Two new patented sorbents used for carbon dioxide capture from coal-based power plants have moved closer to commercialization as a result of a licensing agreement between the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory and ADA Environmental Solutions.

  19. Bench-Scale Development of Fluidized-Bed Spray-Dried Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Turk, B.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    Successful development of regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents for removal of reduced sulfur species (such as H{sub 2}S and COS) from coal-derived fuel gas streams at high=temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) conditions is a key to commercialization of the integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Among the various available coal-to-electricity pathways, IGCC power plants have the most potential with high thermal efficiency, simple system configuration, low emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and other contaminants, modular design, and low capital cost. Due to these advantages, the power plants of the 21st century are projected to utilize IGCC technology worldwide. Sorbents developed for sulfur removal are primarily zinc oxide-based inorganic materials, because of their ability to reduce fuel gas sulfur level to a few parts-per-million (ppm). This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. Specific objectives are to develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-{mu}m particle size range for transport reactor applications using semicommercial- to full commercial-scale spray dryers, to transfer sorbent production technology to private sector, and to provide technical support for Sierra Pacific`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and METC`s hot-gas desulfurization process development unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system.

  20. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D

    2015-03-31

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  1. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.

    2013-03-12

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  2. Development and evaluation of a silver mordenite composite sorbent for the partitioning of xenon from krypton in gas compositions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Law, Jack D.

    2015-12-22

    A new engineered form composite sorbent for the selective separation of xenon from krypton in simulant composition off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A sodium mordenite powder was incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder, formed into spherical beads and successfully converted to a 9 wt.% silver form composite sorbent. The final engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area indicative of sodium mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for xenon adsorption potential with capacities measured as high as 30 millimoles of xenon per kilogram of sorbent achieved at ambient temperature andmore » 460 millimoles of xenon per kilogram sorbent at 220 K. Xenon/krypton selectivity was calculated to be 22.4 with a 1020 µL/L xenon, 150 µL/L krypton in a balance of air feed gas at 220 K. Furthermore, adsorption/desorption thermal cycling effects were evaluated with results indicating sorbent performance was not significantly impacted while undergoing numerous adsorption/desorption thermal cycles.« less

  3. Development and evaluation of a silver mordenite composite sorbent for the partitioning of xenon from krypton in gas compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Law, Jack D.

    2015-12-22

    A new engineered form composite sorbent for the selective separation of xenon from krypton in simulant composition off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A sodium mordenite powder was incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder, formed into spherical beads and successfully converted to a 9 wt.% silver form composite sorbent. The final engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area indicative of sodium mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for xenon adsorption potential with capacities measured as high as 30 millimoles of xenon per kilogram of sorbent achieved at ambient temperature and 460 millimoles of xenon per kilogram sorbent at 220 K. Xenon/krypton selectivity was calculated to be 22.4 with a 1020 µL/L xenon, 150 µL/L krypton in a balance of air feed gas at 220 K. Furthermore, adsorption/desorption thermal cycling effects were evaluated with results indicating sorbent performance was not significantly impacted while undergoing numerous adsorption/desorption thermal cycles.

  4. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J.; Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M. Chiaverini, J.

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  5. Electrostatic particle trap for ion beam sputter deposition ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The electrostatic particle trap consists of an array of electrode surfaces, each ... particle; trap; consists; array; electrode; surfaces; maintained; electrostatic; ...

  6. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  7. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate

  8. Interactions between trace metals, sodium and sorbents in combustion. Quarterly report No. 3, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.

    1995-09-06

    The proposed research is directed at an understanding of how to exploit interactions between sodium, toxic metals and sorbents, in order to optimize sorbents injection procedures, which can be used to capture and transform these metals into environmentally benign forms. The research will use a 17kW downflow, laboratory combustor, to yield data that can be interpreted in terms of fundamental kinetic mechanisms. Metals to be considered are lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Sorbents will be kaolinite, bauxite, and limestone. The role of sulfur will also be determined.

  9. Trapping of intense light in hollow shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Shixia; Yu, Wei; Yu, M. Y.; Weng, Suming; Wang, Jingwei; Xu, Han; Zhuo, Hongbin; Wong, A. Y.

    2015-09-15

    A small hollow shell for trapping laser light is proposed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation shows that under appropriate laser and plasma conditions a part of the radiation fields of an intense short laser pulse can enter the cavity of a small shell through an over-critical density plasma in an adjacent guide channel and become trapped. The trapped light evolves into a circulating radial wave pattern until its energy is dissipated.

  10. Regeneration of carboxylic acid-laden basic sorbents by leaching with a volatile base in an organic solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson; Husson, Scott M.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with an organic solution of alkylamine thus forming an alkylamine/carboxylic acid complex which is decomposed with improved efficiency to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. Carbon dioxide addition can be used to improve the adsorption or the carboxylic acids by the solid phase sorbent.

  11. Measurements of PM Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurements of PM Traps 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentantion: West Virginia University PDF icon 2004deerclark.pdf More Documents & Publications ...

  12. Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary ... Fossil Energy Research Benefits FE's early investments in shale research in the 1970s ...

  13. Cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Vivie-Riedle, Regina de [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Morigi, Giovanna [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Theoretische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Pinkse, Pepijn W. H. [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    The efficiency of cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules is theoretically investigated for the case in which the infrared transition between two rovibrational states is used as a cycling transition. The molecules are assumed to be trapped either by a radiofrequency or optical trapping potential, depending on whether they are charged or neutral, and confined inside a high-finesse optical resonator that enhances radiative emission into the cavity mode. Using realistic experimental parameters and COS as a representative molecular example, we show that in this setup, cooling to the trap ground state is feasible.

  14. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  15. Imprint-coating synthesis of selective functionalized ordered mesoporous sorbents for separation and sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Burleigh, Mark C.; Shin, Yongsoon

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to mesoporous sorbent materials having high capacity, high selectivity, fast kinetics, and molecular recognition capability. The invention also relates to a process for preparing these mesoporous substrates through molecular imprinting techniques which differ from convention techniques in that a template molecule is bound to one end of bifunctional ligands to form a complex prior to binding of the bifunctional ligands to the substrate. The present invention also relates to methods of using the mesoporous sorbent materials, for example, in the separation of toxic metals from process effluents, paints, and other samples; detection of target molecules, such as amino acids, drugs, herbicides, fertilizers, and TNT, in samples; separation and/or detection of substances using chromatography; imaging agents; sensors; coatings; and composites.

  16. CO.sub.2 removal sorbent composition with high chemical stability during multiple cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Rosencwaig, Shira

    2015-09-22

    Disclosed herein is a clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent composition prepared by integrating a clay substrate, basic alkali salt, and amine liquid. The basic alkali salt is present relative to the clay substrate in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 50 parts per 100 parts of the clay substrate. The amine liquid is present relative to a clay-alkali combination in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 10 parts per 10 parts of the clay-alkali combination. The clay-alkali-amine C02 sorbent is particularly advantageous for low temperature CO.sub.2 removal cycles in a gas stream having a C02 concentration less than around 2000 ppm and an oxygen concentration around 21%, such as air.

  17. ZnO-based regenerable sulfur sorbents for fluid-bed/transport reactor applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slimane, Rachid B.; Abbasian, Javad; Williams, Brett E.

    2004-09-21

    A method for producing regenerable sulfur sorbents in which a support material precursor is mixed with isopropanol and a first portion of deionized water at an elevated temperature to form a sol mixture. A metal oxide precursor comprising a metal suitable for use as a sulfur sorbent is dissolved in a second portion of deionized water, forming a metal salt solution. The metal salt solution and the sol mixture are mixed with a sol peptizing agent while heating and stirring, resulting in formation of a peptized sol mixture. The metal oxide precursor is dispersed substantially throughout the peptized sol mixture, which is then dried, forming a dry peptized sol mixture. The dry peptized sol mixture is then calcined and the resulting calcined material is then converted to particles.

  18. Heat recovery from sorbent-based CO.sub.2 capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jamal, Aqil; Gupta, Raghubir P

    2015-03-10

    The present invention provides a method of increasing the efficiency of exothermic CO.sub.2 capture processes. The method relates to withdrawing heat generated during the exothermic capture of CO.sub.2 with various sorbents via heat exchange with a working fluid. The working fluid is provided at a temperature and pressure such that it is in the liquid state, and has a vaporization temperature in a range such that the heat arising from the reaction of the CO.sub.2 and the sorbent causes a phase change from liquid to vapor state in whole or in part and transfers heat from to the working fluid. The resulting heated working fluid may subsequently be used to generate power.

  19. Immobilizing tyrosinase within chitosan gels: A combination catalyst and sorbent for phenol removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Wei-Qiang; Payne, G.F.

    1995-12-01

    Phenols are common contaminants in chemical process effluents. To remove we developed a two step bioremediation approach in which an these contaminants, we developed a two step bioremediation approach in which an enzymatic reaction was coupled with absorption. In the first step, weakly adsorbable phenols are converted to reactive o-quinones by the enzyme tyrosinase. The quinones are then strongly adsorbed onto the surface of a chitosan sorbent in the second steel. Our results show that this two step approach can selectively and efficiently remove phenols from solution. To reduce this approach into practice, we immobilized the tyrosinase within a chitosan gel yielding a combined catalyst-sorbent film. Using this tyrosinase-containing chitosan gel, phenols (i.e. phenol, cresol and catechol) can be completely removed from solution.

  20. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Annual report, September 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Annual Topical Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/ alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. It includes the prior Quarterly Technical Reports which indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  1. Sorbent Assisted Catalyst for the One-Pot Sequestration and Conversion of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Feedstocks into Fuels - Energy Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Sorbent Assisted Catalyst for the One-Pot Sequestration and Conversion of Renewable Feedstocks into Fuels Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a technology that provides a simplified and economical production of hydrocarbon fuel from renewable resources with higher energy

  2. Process for CO.sub.2 capture using a regenerable magnesium hydroxide sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Stevens, Jr., Robert W

    2013-06-25

    A process for CO.sub.2 separation using a regenerable Mg(OH).sub.2 sorbent. The process absorbs CO.sub.2 through the formation of MgCO.sub.3 and releases water product H.sub.2O. The MgCO.sub.3 is partially regenerated through direct contact with steam, which acts to heat the magnesium carbonate to a higher temperature, provide heat duty required to decompose the magnesium carbonate to yield MgO and CO.sub.2, provide an H.sub.2O environment over the magnesium carbonate thereby shifting the equilibrium and increasing the potential for CO.sub.2 desorption, and supply H.sub.2O for rehydroxylation of a portion of the MgO. The mixture is polished in the absence of CO.sub.2 using water product H.sub.2O produced during the CO.sub.2 absorption to maintain sorbent capture capacity. The sorbent now comprised substantially of Mg(OH).sub.2 is then available for further CO.sub.2 absorption duty in a cyclic process.

  3. Experiments Performed in Substantiation of the Conditioning of BN-350 Spent Cesium Traps Using Lead or Lead-Bismuth Alloy Filling Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O. Romanenko; I. Tazhibaeva; I. Yakovlev; A. Ivanov; D. Wells; A. Herrick; J. Michelbacher; S. Shiganakov

    2009-05-01

    The technology of cleaning cesium radionuclides from sodium coolant at the BN-350 fast reactor was realized in the form of cesium traps of two types: stationary devices connected to the circuit that was to be cleaned and in-core devices installed into the core of reactor when it was not under operation. Carbon-graphite materials were used as sorbents to collect and concentrate radioactive cesium, accumulated in the BN-350 reactor circuits over the decades of their operation, in relatively small volume traps which provided effective radiation-safe conditions for personnel working in proximity to the coolant and equipment of the primary circuit during BN-350 decommissioning. Spent cesium traps, as products unfit for further use, represent solid radioactive wastes. The presence of chemically active sodium, potassium and cesium that are able to react violently with water results in series of problems related to their disposal in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Considering the technology of filling spent cesium traps with lead/lead-bismuth alloy as a priority one for their conditioning, evaluations for safety substantiation were implemented. A set of experiments was implemented aimed at verification of calculations performed in substantiation of the proposed technology: filling a full scale cesium trap mock-up with sodium followed by its draining to determine the optimal regimes of draining; filling bench scale cesium trap mock-ups with sodium and cesium followed by sodium draining and filling with lead or lead-bismuth alloy at different temperatures and filling rates to chose the optimal regimes for filling spent cesium traps; implementation of leachability tests to determine the rate of cesium release from the filling materials into water. This paper provides a description of the experimental program carried out and the main results obtained.

  4. Investigation of combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal by ceria sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, [April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. Recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CuO. The present study aims to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent and to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeO{sub 2} sorbents. In this quarter runs for methane regeneration were completed. The data obtained were evaluated and interpreted. When the sulfated sorbent was regenerated with methane coke formation on the sorbent was observed. Treatment of fresh sorbent with methane also resulted in coking. Coke formed on the sorbent disappeared very rapidly after the methane flow was replaced with nitrogen. The order of the regeneration reaction with respect to methane was estimated as 0:76 and the activation energy of the reaction was estimated as 130 kJ/mol. During repeated sulfation-regeneration cycles the decrease in the sulfur capacity after the first cycle was slightly more when regeneration was done with methane compared to that observed with hydrogen regeneration. In the subsequent 4 cycles, the ceria sorbent preserved its sulfur capacity. The regenerated sorbent was able to capture 1.5 sulfur atoms per cerium atom in less than an hour of sulfation, compared to S/Ce of 2.5 for fresh sorbents and 2 for sorbents regenerated with hydrogen.

  5. Enahancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit W, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. At each site where the techno!o@es were to

  6. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where the technologies were

  7. Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Ruhl; Justin Smith; Sharon Sjostrom; Sheila Haythorthwaite; Terry Hunt

    1997-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) a cost sharing contract to evaluate carbon-based sorbents for mercury control on a 600 acfm laboratory-scale particulate control module (PCM). The PCM can be configured as simulate an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet fabric filter, or a reverse-gas fabric filter and is installed on an operating coal-fired power plant. Three different dry carbon-based sorbents were tested this quarter to determine their mercury removal capability in the different configurations. The project is currently in the seventh quarter of an eight-quarter Phase I project. Testing in all configurations is nearly complete. Original plans included the use of an on-line mercury analyzer to collect test data. However, due to very low baseline mercury concentration, on-line measurement did not provide accurate data. The project used a modified MESA method grab sample technique to determine inlet and outlet mercury concentrations. A major concern during sorbent evaluations was the natural ability of the flyash at the test site to remove mercury. This often made determination of sorbent only mercury removal difficult. The PCM was configured as a reverse-gas baghouse and brought online with "clean" flue gas on March 10* at an A/C of 2.0 ft/min. The dustcake forms the filtering media in a reverse gas baghouse. In the absence of flyash, the bags were precoated with a commercially available alumina silicate material to form an inert dustcake. Some baseline tests were completed with clean gas for comparison to clean gas pulse jet tests. The PCM was reconfigured as a TOXECON unit in April 1997 with testing completed in May 1997. TOXECON, an EPIU patented technology, is a pulse-jet baghouse operating at a high A/C ratio downstream of a primary particulate colIector with sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for air toxics removal. Mercury removals of O to 97o/0 were obtained depending on test conditions.

  8. Multi-component testing using HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN Sorbents for OSPREY Model validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Lyon, Kevin L.; Law, Jack D.

    2015-04-01

    In efforts to further develop the capability of the Off-gas SeParation and RecoverY (OSPREY) model, multi-component tests were completed using both HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN sorbents. The primary purpose of this effort was to obtain multi-component xenon and krypton capacities for comparison to future OSPREY predicted multi-component capacities using previously acquired Langmuir equilibrium parameters determined from single component isotherms. Experimental capacities were determined for each sorbent using two feed gas compositions of 1000 ppmv xenon and 150 ppmv krypton in either a helium or air balance. Test temperatures were consistently held at 220 K and the gas flowrate was 50 sccm. Capacities were calculated from breakthrough curves using TableCurve 2D software by Jandel Scientific. The HZ-PAN sorbent was tested in the custom designed cryostat while the AgZ-PAN was tested in a newly installed cooling apparatus. Previous modeling validation efforts indicated the OSPREY model can be used to effectively predict single component xenon and krypton capacities for both engineered form sorbents. Results indicated good agreement with the experimental and predicted capacity values for both krypton and xenon on the sorbents. Overall, the model predicted slightly elevated capacities for both gases which can be partially attributed to the estimation of the parameters and the uncertainty associated with the experimental measurements. Currently, OSPREY is configured such that one species adsorbs and one does not (i.e. krypton in helium). Modification of OSPREY code is currently being performed to incorporate multiple adsorbing species and non-ideal interactions of gas phase species with the sorbent and adsorbed phases. Once these modifications are complete, the sorbent capacities determined in the present work will be used to validate OSPREY multicomponent adsorption predictions.

  9. The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory doesn't trap people named...

  10. Development of Novel Carbon Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Gopala; Hornbostel, Marc; Bao, Jianer; Perez, Jordi; Nagar, Anoop; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2013-11-30

    An innovative, low-cost, and low-energy-consuming carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technology was developed, based on CO{sub 2}adsorption on a high-capacity and durable carbon sorbent. This report describes the (1) performance of the concept on a bench-scale system; (2) results of parametric tests to determine the optimum operating conditions; (3) results of the testing with a flue gas from coal-fired boilers; and (4) evaluation of the technical and economic viability of the technology. The process uses a falling bed of carbon sorbent microbeads to separate the flue gas into two streams: a CO{sub 2} -lean flue gas stream from which > 90% of the CP{sub 2} is removed and a pure stream of CO{sub 2} that is ready for compression and sequestration. The carbo sorbent microbeads have several unique properties such as high CO{sub 2} capacity, low heat of adsorption and desorption (25 to 28 kJ/mole), mechanically robust, and rapid adsorption and desorption rates. The capture of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas is performed at near ambient temperatures in whic the sorbent microbeads flow down by gravity counter-current with the up-flow of the flue gas. The adsorbed CO{sub 2} is stripped by heating the CO{sub 2}-loaded sorbent to - 100°C, in contact with low-pressure (- 5 psig) steam in a section at the bottom of the adsorber. The regenerated sorben is dehydrated of adsorbed moisture, cooled, and lifted back to the adsorber. The CO{sub 2} from the desorber is essentially pure and can be dehydrated, compressed, and transported to a sequestration site. Bench-scale tests using a simulated flue gas showed that the integrated system can be operated to provide > 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a 15% CO{sub 2} stream in the adsorber and produce > 98% CO{sub 2} at the outlet of the stripper. Long-term tests ( 1,000 cycles) showed that the system can be operated reliably without sorbent agglomeration or attrition. The bench-scale reactor was also operated using a flue gas stream from a coal

  11. Production and Trapping of Ultracold Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, DeMille

    2015-04-21

    We report a set of experiments aimed at the production and trapping of ultracold polar molecules. We begin with samples of laser-cooled and trapped Rb and Cs atoms, and bind them together to form polar RbCs molecules. The binding is accomplished via photoassociation, which uses a laser to catalyze the sticking process. We report results from investigation of a new pathway for photoassociation that can produce molecules in their absolute ground state of vibrational and rotational motion. We also report preliminary observations of collisions between these ground-state molecules and co-trapped atoms.

  12. NAC 503 - Hunting, Fishing and Trapping | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fishing and TrappingLegal Abstract These code sections outline the protective measures and restrictions on hunting, fishing, and trapping in the state of Nevada. Published...

  13. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization 2005 Diesel Engine ...

  14. Bear Trap Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trap Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bear Trap Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Bear...

  15. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... There are four basic ways to test steam traps: temperature, sound, visual, and electronic. Recommended Steam Trap Testing Intervals * High-Pressure (150 psig and above): Weekly to ...

  16. Kinetics of MN-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Semiannual report, December 15, 1996--March 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1997-03-01

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases prior to its use in combined cycle turbines. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H{sub 2}S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In previous reports, the sulfidation and regeneration results from cyclic testing done at 600{degrees}C were presented. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios >1:1 Mn:substrate were effective in reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be fully regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750{degrees}C with minimal sulfate formation. In this report, the results from the cyclic crush strength tests, sulfur profile test, and cyclic testing done after 5 cycles showed decreases in strength from 12.6% to 57.9%. Cyclic testing at 550{degrees}C showed pre-breakthrough concentrations as low as 10 ppmv. Cyclic testing done at 2 L/min and 3 L/min did not show any significant difference in pre-breakthrough concentrations or capacity.

  17. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly report, September 15 - December 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1996-12-31

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases prior to its use in combined cycle turbines. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H{sub 2}S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In a previous report, the sulfidation results were presented. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent. In this report, the regeneration results will be presented. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be fully regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750{degrees}C with minimal sulfate formation. 16 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Trapped Ion Optical Clocks at NPL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margolis, H. S.; Barwood, G. P.; Hosaka, K.; Klein, H. A.; Lea, S. N.; Walton, B. R.; Webster, S. A.; Gill, P.; Huang, G.; Stannard, A.

    2006-11-07

    Forbidden transitions in single laser-cooled trapped ions provide highly stable and accurate references for optical frequency standards. This paper describes recent progress on strontium and ytterbium ion optical frequency standards under development at NPL.

  19. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trap and Remove Sediment Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment The 3 Protections = Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated regularly. As of 2012, no sediment required disposal as hazardous or radioactive waste. Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated regularly. As of 2012, no sediment required disposal as hazardous or radioactive waste. The 3 Protections Protection #1: Remove the source of contamination Protection #2: Stabilize,

  20. Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Y [NETL; Sorescu, D C [NETL; Luebke, D [NETL; Morreale, B [NETL; Li, B Y; Zhang, B; Johnson, J K; Zhang, K; Li, X S; King, D

    2013-04-11

    By combining thermodynamic database searches with density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, a screening methodology was developed to identify promising solid sorbent candidates for CO{sub 2} capture. This methodology has been used to screen hundreds of solid compounds and some of the promising candidates to date have been reported in literature. This screening methodology is particularly relevant for the case of materials for which experimental thermodynamic data is not available. Such areas of interest are represented by the case of solid mixtures and doped materials, where thermodynamic data are generally not available but for which the crystallographic structure is known or can be easily determined.

  1. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  2. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  3. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, John P.; Granite, Evan J.; Rupp, Erik C.; Stanko, Dennis C.; Howard, Bret; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-05-01

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide, but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.

  4. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Rupp, E.C.; Stanko, D.C.; Howard, B.; Pennline, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide. but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.

  5. Manganese and Ceria Sorbents for High Temperature Sulfur Removal from Biomass-Derived Syngas -- The Impact of Steam on Capacity and Sorption Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheah, S.; Parent, Y. O.; Jablonski, W. S.; Vinzant, T.; Olstad, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    Syngas derived from biomass and coal gasification for fuel synthesis or electricity generation contains sulfur species that are detrimental to downstream catalysts or turbine operation. Sulfur removal in high temperature, high steam conditions has been known to be challenging, but experimental reports on methods to tackle the problem are not often reported. We have developed sorbents that can remove hydrogen sulfide from syngas at high temperature (700 C), both in dry and high steam conditions. The syngas composition chosen for our experiments is derived from statistical analysis of the gasification products of wood under a large variety of conditions. The two sorbents, Cu-ceria and manganese-based, were tested in a variety of conditions. In syngas containing steam, the capacity of the sorbents is much lower, and the impact of the sorbent in lowering H{sub 2}S levels is only evident in low space velocities. Spectroscopic characterization and thermodynamic consideration of the experimental results suggest that in syngas containing 45% steam, the removal of H{sub 2}S is primarily via surface chemisorptions. For the Cu-ceria sorbent, analysis of the amount of H{sub 2}S retained by the sorbent in dry syngas suggests both copper and ceria play a role in H{sub 2}S removal. For the manganese-based sorbent, in dry conditions, there is a solid state transformation of the sorbent, primarily into the sulfide form.

  6. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  7. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine and

  8. Antihydrogen Trapped in the ALPHA Experiment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    In 2010 the ALPHA collaboration succeeded in trapping antihydrogen atoms for the first time.[i]  Stored antihydrogen promises to be a unique tool for making high precision measurements of the structure of this first anti-atom. Achieving this milestone presented several substantial experimental challenges and this talk will describe how they were overcome.   The unique design features of the ALPHA apparatus will be explained.[ii]  These allow a high intensity positron source and an antiproton imaging detector similar to the one used in the ATHENA[iii] experiment to be combined with an innovative magnet design of the anti-atom trap. This seeks to minimise the perturbations to trapped charged particles which may cause particle loss and heating[iv].   The diagnostic techniques used to measure the diameter, number, density, and temperatures of both plasmas will be presented as will the methods developed to actively compress and cool of both plasma species to sizes and temperatures [v],[vi], [vii] where trapping attempts with a reasonable chance of success can be tried.   The results of the successful trapping experiments will be outlined as well as some subsequent experiments to improve the trapping rate and storage time. [i] 'Trapped antihydrogen' G.B. Andresen et al., Nature 468, 673 (2010) [ii]'A Magnetic Trap for Antihydrogen Confinement' W. Bertsche et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A566, 746 (2006) [iii] Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms M.Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). [iv]' Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Lett. B 685, 141 (2010) [v]' Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures',                                   G.B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 105, 013003 (2010) [vi]'Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping' G. B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 100, 203401 (2008) [vii]  'Autoresonant

  9. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents As A Retrofit Technology for CO{sub 2} Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process / equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines, 31 carbon based materials, 6 zeolites, 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding), 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  10. Surface characterizatin of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Stanko, D.; Hamilton, H.; Rowsell, L.; Poulston, S.; Smith, A.; Chu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Coal gasification with subsequent cleanup of the resulting fuel gas is a way to reduce the impact of mercury and arsenic in the environment during power generation and on downstream catalytic processes in chemical production, The interactions of mercury and arsenic with PdlAl2D3 model thin film sorbents and PdlAh03 powders have been studied to determine the relative affinities of palladium for mercury and arsenic, and how they are affected by temperature and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the fuel gas. The implications of the results on strategies for capturing the toxic metals using a sorbent bed are discussed.

  11. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Multi-phase CFD modeling of solid sorbent carbon capture system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, E. M.; DeCroix, D.; Breault, Ronald W.; Xu, W.; Huckaby, E. David

    2013-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to investigate a low temperature post-combustion carbon capture reactor. The CFD models are based on a small scale solid sorbent carbon capture reactor design from ADA-ES and Southern Company. The reactor is a fluidized bed design based on a silica-supported amine sorbent. CFD models using both Eulerian–Eulerian and Eulerian–Lagrangian multi-phase modeling methods are developed to investigate the hydrodynamics and adsorption of carbon dioxide in the reactor. Models developed in both FLUENT® and BARRACUDA are presented to explore the strengths and weaknesses of state of the art CFD codes for modeling multi-phase carbon capture reactors. The results of the simulations show that the FLUENT® Eulerian–Lagrangian simulations (DDPM) are unstable for the given reactor design; while the BARRACUDA Eulerian–Lagrangian model is able to simulate the system given appropriate simplifying assumptions. FLUENT® Eulerian–Eulerian simulations also provide a stable solution for the carbon capture reactor given the appropriate simplifying assumptions.

  13. Multi-Phase CFD Modeling of Solid Sorbent Carbon Capture System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Emily M.; DeCroix, David; Breault, Ronald W.; Xu, Wei; Huckaby, E. D.; Saha, Kringan; Darteville, Sebastien; Sun, Xin

    2013-07-30

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to investigate a low temperature post-combustion carbon capture reactor. The CFD models are based on a small scale solid sorbent carbon capture reactor design from ADA-ES and Southern Company. The reactor is a fluidized bed design based on a silica-supported amine sorbent. CFD models using both Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian multi-phase modeling methods are developed to investigate the hydrodynamics and adsorption of carbon dioxide in the reactor. Models developed in both FLUENT® and BARRACUDA are presented to explore the strengths and weaknesses of state of the art CFD codes for modeling multi-phase carbon capture reactors. The results of the simulations show that the FLUENT® Eulerian-Lagrangian simulations (DDPM) are unstable for the given reactor design; while the BARRACUDA Eulerian-Lagrangian model is able to simulate the system given appropriate simplifying assumptions. FLUENT® Eulerian-Eulerian simulations also provide a stable solution for the carbon capture reactor given the appropriate simplifying assumptions.

  14. Fly ash properties and mercury sorbent affect mercury release from curing concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danold W. Golightly; Chin-Min Cheng; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker; William E. Wolfe

    2009-04-15

    The release of mercury from concrete containing fly ashes from various generator boilers and powdered activated carbon sorbent used to capture mercury was measured in laboratory experiments. Release of gaseous mercury from these concretes was less than 0.31% of the total quantity of mercury present. The observed gaseous emissions of mercury during the curing process demonstrated a dependency on the organic carbon content of the fly ash, with mercury release decreasing with increasing carbon content. Further, lower gaseous emissions of mercury were observed for concretes incorporating ash containing activated carbon sorbent than would be expected based on the observed association with organic carbon, suggesting that the powdered activated carbon more tightly binds the mercury as compared to unburned carbon in the ash. Following the initial 28-day curing interval, mercury release diminished with time. In separate leaching experiments, average mercury concentrations leached from fly ash concretes were less than 4.1 ng/L after 18 h and 7 days, demonstrating that less than 0.02% of the mercury was released during leaching. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Removal of Mercury from Aqueous Streams of Fossil Fuel Power Plants Using Novel Functionalized Nanoporous Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Feng, X; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2006-01-11

    A new class of hybrid nanoporous materials has been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removing toxic heavy metals such as mercury from aqueous and nonaqueous waste streams. These novel materials consist of functional molecules capable of selectively binding mercury (thiol groups) covalently bound (as densely populated monolayers) to the synthetic nanoporous substrates. Tests indicated that this sorbent (Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Silica - SAMMS) can achieve mercury loading as high as {approx}635 mg/g. The high affinity for Hg adsorption by this material was reflected by Kd values as high as 3.5 x 108 ml/g. Data indicated that SAMMS can adsorb both inorganic and organic forms of mercury. Experimental data indicated that mercury adsorption performance of SAMMS was not significantly affected by pH, ionic strength, presence of other cations (Na, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and complexing anions (Cl, CN, CO3, SO4, and PO4) in solution. Adsorption kinetics studies indicated that SAMMS adsorbed mercury very rapidly (about 99.9% adsorption occurring within first five minutes). Tests conducted using samples of different aqueous and non-aqueous waste streams have confirmed the exemplary performance characteristics of SAMMS sorbents. Preliminary cost estimates indicated that using SAMMS would result in significant savings in mercury remediation costs as compared to the use of conventional adsorbents such as ion exchange resin and activated carbon.

  16. Molten iron oxysulfide as a superior sulfur sorbent. Final report, [September 1989--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-03-31

    The studies had as original objective the analysis of conditions for using liquid iron oxysulfide as a desulfuring agent during coal gasification. Ancillary was a comparison of iron oxysulfide with lime as sorbents under conditions where lime reacts with S-bearing gases to form Ca sulfate or sulfide. Primary thrust is to determine the thermodynamic requirements for desulfurization by iron additions (e.g., taconite concentrate) during combustion in gasifiers operating at high equivalence ratios. Thermodynamic analysis of lime-oxygen-sulfur system shows why lime is injected into burners under oxidizing conditions; reducing conditions forms CaS, requiring its removal, otherwise oxidation and release of S would occur. Iron as the oxysulfide liquid has a range of stability and can be used as a desulfurizing agent, if the burner/gasifier operates in a sufficiently reducing regime (high equivalence ratio); this operating range is given and is calculable for a coal composition, temperature, stoichiometry. High moisture or hydrogen contents of the coal yield a poorer degree of desulfurization. Kinetic tests on individual iron oxide particles on substrates or Pt cups with a TGA apparatus fail to predict reaction rates within a burner. Preliminary tests on the Dynamic Containment Burner with acetylene give some promise that this system can produce the proper conditions of coal gasification for use of added iron as a sulfur sorbent.

  17. Sorbent Material Property Requirements for On-Board Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J-K; Hua, T. Q.

    2015-05-25

    Material properties required for on-board hydrogen storage in cryogenic sorbents for use with automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are discussed. Models are formulated for physical, thermodynamic and transport properties, and for the dynamics of H-2 refueling and discharge from a sorbent bed. A conceptual storage configuration with in-bed heat exchanger tubes, a Type-3 containment vessel, vacuum insulation and requisite balance-of-plant components is developed to determine the peak excess sorption capacity and differential enthalpy of adsorption for 5.5 wt% system gravimetric capacity and 55% well-to-tank (WTT) efficiency. The analysis also determines the bulk density to which the material must be compacted for the storage system to reach 40 g.L-1 volumetric capacity. Thermal transport properties and heat transfer enhancement methods are analyzed to estimate the material thermal conductivity needed to achieve 1.5 kg.min(-1) H-2 refueling rate. Operating temperatures and pressures are determined for 55% WTT efficiency and 95% usable H-2. Needs for further improvements in material properties are analyzed that would allow reduction of storage pressure to 50 bar from 100 bar, elevation of storage temperature to 175-200 K from 150 K, and increase of WTT efficiency to 57.5% or higher.

  18. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their

  19. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  20. Signal enhancement using a switchable magnetic trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2012-05-29

    A system for analyzing a sample including providing a microchannel flow channel; associating the sample with magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads; moving the sample with said magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in the microchannel flow channel; holding the sample with the magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel; and analyzing the sample obtaining an enhanced analysis signal. An apparatus for analysis of a sample includes magnetic particles connected to the sample, a microchip, a flow channel in the microchip, a source of carrier fluid connected to the flow channel for moving the sample in the flow channel, an electromagnet trap connected to the flow line for selectively magnetically trapping the sample and the magnetic particles, and an analyzer for analyzing the sample.

  1. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature range during Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis Smirniotis

    2002-09-17

    A number basic sorbents based on CaO were synthesized, characterized with novel techniques and tested for sorption of CO{sub 2} and selected gas mixtures simulating flue gas from coal fired boilers. Our studies resulted in highly promising sorbents which demonstrated zero affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO very low affinity for water, ultrahigh CO{sub 2} sorption capacities, and rapid sorption characteristics, CO{sub 2} sorption at a very wide temperature range, durability, and low synthesis cost. One of the 'key' characteristics of the proposed materials is the fact that we can control very accurately their basicity (optimum number of basic sites of the appropriate strength) which allows for the selective chemisorption of CO{sub 2} at a wide range of temperatures. These unique characteristics of this family of sorbents offer high promise for development of advanced industrial sorbents for the effective CO{sub 2} removal.

  2. Method of preparation of a CO.sub.2 removal sorbent with high chemical stability during multiple cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Rosencwaig, Shira

    2015-07-14

    Method for the production of a clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent prepared by integrating a clay substrate, basic alkali salt, and amine liquid. The basic alkali salt is present relative to the clay substrate in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 50 parts per 100 parts of the clay substrate. The amine liquid is present relative to a clay-alkali combination in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 10 parts per 10 parts of the clay-alkali combination. The clay substrate and basic alkali salt may be combined in a solid-solid heterogeneous mixture and followed by introduction of the amine liquid. Alternatively, an alkaline solution may be blended with the amine solution prior to contacting the clay substrate. The clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent is particularly advantageous for low temperature CO.sub.2 removal cycles in a gas stream having a CO.sub.2 concentration less than around 2000 ppm and an oxygen concentration around 21%, such as air. Results are presented illustrating the performance of the clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent compared to a clay-amine sorbent lacking the alkali inclusion.

  3. Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO{sub 2} Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Jeannine

    2013-08-31

    TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO{sub 2} removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO{sub 2} capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO{sub 2} produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

  4. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO sub 2 and NO sub x control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This synopsis describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

  5. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford`s nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list.

  6. Entanglement generation in planar Penning traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martins, Ana M.; Mendonca, J. T.; Guerreiro, A.; Vieira, V. R.

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the generation of entanglement between the axial degrees of freedom of electrons confined in separated locations in planar Penning traps. We show that there are two different sources of entanglement: one is related with the mechanism of switching on and off the electrical coupling between the two electrons, and the other is due to the two-quanta-transition term of the coupling interaction. We show that the degree of entanglement can be controlled by adjusting the strength of the coupling between the traps and the time of interaction. We show that the coupled electrons behave as a temporal active interferometer.

  7. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry (Tracy, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself.

  8. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  9. Analysis of a magnetically trapped atom clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadio, D.; Band, Y. B.

    2006-11-15

    We consider optimization of a rubidium atom clock that uses magnetically trapped Bose condensed atoms in a highly elongated trap, and determine the optimal conditions for minimum Allan variance of the clock using microwave Ramsey fringe spectroscopy. Elimination of magnetic field shifts and collisional shifts are considered. The effects of spin-dipolar relaxation are addressed in the optimization of the clock. We find that for the interstate interaction strength equal to or larger than the intrastate interaction strengths, a modulational instability results in phase separation and symmetry breaking of the two-component condensate composed of the ground and excited hyperfine clock levels, and this mechanism limits the clock accuracy.

  10. Entanglement of trapped-ion clock states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haljan, P. C.; Lee, P. J.; Brickman, K-A.; Acton, M.; Deslauriers, L.; Monroe, C.

    2005-12-15

    A Moelmer-Soerensen entangling gate is realized for pairs of trapped {sup 111}Cd{sup +} ions using magnetic-field insensitive 'clock' states and an implementation offering reduced sensitivity to optical phase drifts. The gate is used to generate the complete set of four entangled states, which are reconstructed and evaluated with quantum-state tomography. An average target-state fidelity of 0.79 is achieved, limited by available laser power and technical noise. The tomographic reconstruction of entangled states demonstrates universal quantum control of two ion qubits, which through multiplexing can provide a route to scalable architectures for trapped-ion quantum computing.

  11. Ball-grid array architecture for microfabricated ion traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guise, Nicholas D. Fallek, Spencer D.; Stevens, Kelly E.; Brown, K. R.; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.; Amini, Jason M.; Higashi, Robert E.; Lu, Son Thai; Chanhvongsak, Helen M.; Nguyen, Thi A.; Marcus, Matthew S.; Ohnstein, Thomas R.; Youngner, Daniel W.

    2015-05-07

    State-of-the-art microfabricated ion traps for quantum information research are approaching nearly one hundred control electrodes. We report here on the development and testing of a new architecture for microfabricated ion traps, built around ball-grid array (BGA) connections, that is suitable for increasingly complex trap designs. In the BGA trap, through-substrate vias bring electrical signals from the back side of the trap die to the surface trap structure on the top side. Gold-ball bump bonds connect the back side of the trap die to an interposer for signal routing from the carrier. Trench capacitors fabricated into the trap die replace area-intensive surface or edge capacitors. Wirebonds in the BGA architecture are moved to the interposer. These last two features allow the trap die to be reduced to only the area required to produce trapping fields. The smaller trap dimensions allow tight focusing of an addressing laser beam for fast single-qubit rotations. Performance of the BGA trap as characterized with {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ions is comparable to previous surface-electrode traps in terms of ion heating rate, mode frequency stability, and storage lifetime. We demonstrate two-qubit entanglement operations with {sup 171}Yb{sup +} ions in a second BGA trap.

  12. Investigation and demonstration of dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control. Quarterly technical report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Sjostrom, S.; Smith, J.; Chang, R.

    1996-07-27

    The overall objective this two phase program is to investigate the use of dry carbon-based sorbents for mercury control. During Phase 1, a bench-scale field test device that can be configured as an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet baghouse, or a reverse-gas baghouse has been designed and will be integrated with an existing pilot-scale facility at PSCo`s Comanche Station. Up to three candidate sorbents will then be injected into the flue gas stream upstream of the test device to determine the mercury removal efficiency for each sorbent. During the Phase 11 effort, component integration for the most promising dry sorbent technology (technically and economically feasible) shall be tested at the 5000 acfm pilot-scale. An extensive work plan has been developed for the project. Three sorbents will be selected for evaluation at the facility through investigation, presentation, and discussion among team members: PSCO, EPRI, ADA, and DOE. The selected sorbents will be tested in the five primary bench-scale configurations: pulse `et baghouse, TOXECON, reverse-gas baghouse, electrostatic precipitator, and an ESP or fabric filter `with no Comanche ash in the flue gas stream. In the EPRI TOXECON system, mercury sorbents will be injected downstream of a primary particulate control device, and collected in a pulse-jet baghouse operated at air-to-cloth ratios of 12 to 16 ft/min, thus separating the mercury and sorbent from the captured flyash. In the no-ash configuration, an external flyash sample will be injected into a clean gas stream to investigate possible variations in sorbent effectiveness in the presence of different ashes. The use of an existing test facility, a versatile design for the test fixture, and installation of a continuous mercury analyzer will allow for the completion of this ambitious test plan. The primary activity during the quarter was to complete fabrication and installation of the facility.

  13. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly report, December 15, 1993--March 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1997-03-03

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases prior to its use in combined cycle turbines. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H{sub 2}S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In previous reports, the sulfidation and regeneration results from cyclic testing done at 600{degrees}C were presented. Manganese-based sorbents, with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be fully regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750{degrees}C with minimal sulfate formation. In this report, the results from cyclic crush strength tests, Sulfur profile tests and cyclic testing at 550{degrees}C and lower flowrate cyclic testing are presented. Crush strength testing done after 5 cycles showed decreases in strength from 12.6% to 57.9%. Cyclic testing at 550{degrees}C showed pre breakthrough concentrations as low as 10 ppmv. Cyclic testing done at 2 L/min and 3 L/min did not show any significant difference in pre breakthrough concentrations or capacity.

  14. Bucket-type steam traps removed in $82K retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplett, J.

    1985-08-19

    A retrofit of 481 mostly failed steam traps at Martin Marietta's Aerospace Division should reduce steam costs by $70,000 and require little or no maintenance. Payback should occur within 14 months. The new traps include orifice, bellow-type thermostatic, and float-type traps that have few or no moving parts. Lack of maintenance was responsible for the poor performance of the bucket traps that were replaced, although manufacturers of the bucket traps disagree that replacement of certain parts is necessary every six months. The author describes the design and operation of each type of trap.

  15. INVESTIGATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF DRY CARBON-BASED SORBENT INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Hunt; Mark Fox; Lillian Stan; Sheila Haythornthwaite; Justin Smith; Jason Ruhl

    1998-10-01

    This quarterly report describes the activities that have taken place during the first full quarter of the Phase II project ''Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control''. Modifications were completed and sampling began at the 600 acfm pilot-scale particulate control module (PCM) located at the Comanche Station in Pueblo, CO. The PCM was configured as an electrostatic precipitator for these tests. A Perkin-Elmer flue gas mercury analyzer was installed on-site and operated. Initial test results using both manual sampling methodology and the mercury analyzer are presented herein. Preparations were made during this period for full-scale mercury testing of several PSCo units. A site visit was made to Arapahoe and Cherokee Generating Stations to determine sample locations and to develop a test plan.

  16. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  17. Porous desulfurization sorbent pellets containing a reactive metal oxide and an inert zirconium compound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Todd H.; Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.

    1996-12-01

    Sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gas are prepared by combining a reactive oxide, in particular zinc oxide, with a zirconium compound such as an oxide, silicate, or aluminate of zirconium, and an inorganic binder and pelletizing and calcining the mixture. Alternately, the zinc oxide may be replaced by copper oxide or a combination of copper, molybdenum, and manganese oxides. The pellet components may be mixed in dry form, moistened to produce a paste, and converted to pellets by forming an aqueous slurry of the components and spray drying the slurry, or the reactive oxide may be formed on existing zirconium-containing catalyst-carrier pellets by infusing a solution of a salt of the active metal onto the existing pellets and firing at a high temperature to produce the oxide. Pellets made according to this invention show a high reactivity with hydrogen sulfide and durability such as to be useful over repeated cycles of sorption and regeneration.

  18. RYPOS Trap Field Demonstrations Part 1 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 RYPOS Trap Field Demonstrations Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: RYPOS Inc. 2002_deer_depetrillo1.pdf (812.87 KB) More Documents & Publications RYPOS Trap Field Demonstrations Part 2

  19. RYPOS Trap Field Demonstrations Part 2 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 RYPOS Trap Field Demonstrations Part 2 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: RYPOS Inc. 2002_deer_depetrillo2.pdf (1016 KB) More Documents & Publications RYPOS Trap Field Demonstrations Part 1

  20. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate...

  1. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

  2. Investigation and demonstration of dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control. Quarterly technical report, July 1, 1996--September 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Sjostrom, S.; Smith, J.

    1996-11-06

    The overall objective of this two phase program is to investigate the use of dry carbon-based sorbents for mercury control. This information is important to the utility industry in anticipation of pending regulations. During Phase I, a bench-scale field test device that can be configured as an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet baghouse, or a reverse-gas baghouse has been designed, built and integrated with an existing pilot-scale facility at PSCo`s Comanche Station. Up to three candidate sorbents will be injected into the flue gas stream upstream of the test device to and mercury concentration measurements will be made to determine the mercury removal efficiency for each sorbent. During the Phase II effort, component integration for the most promising dry sorbent technology shall be tested at the 5000 acfm pilot-scale.

  3. November 18, 2010: Antimatter Trapped and Stored | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8, 2010: Antimatter Trapped and Stored November 18, 2010: Antimatter Trapped and Stored November 18, 2010: Antimatter Trapped and Stored November 18, 2010 The Department's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) announces that atoms of antimatter have been trapped and stored for the first time in a magnetic bottle-like device by the ALPHA collaboration, an international team of scientists working at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research near Geneva, Switzerland. Scientists

  4. Trapping and Measuring Charged Particles in Liquids - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Trapping and Measuring Charged Particles in Liquids Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Printable fact sheet (552 KB) Planar aqueous Paul trap (PAPT) devices and experimental platform Planar aqueous Paul trap (PAPT) devices and experimental platform Technology Marketing SummaryA nanoscale version of the Paul ion trap was developed by

  5. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inspect and Repair Steam Traps Inspect and Repair Steam Traps This tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #1 Inspect and Repair Steam Traps (January 2012) (393.77 KB) More Documents & Publications Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors

  6. High voltage gas insulated transmission line with continuous particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

    1983-01-01

    This invention provides a novel high voltage gas insulated transmission line utilizing insulating supports spaced at intervals with snap-in means for supporting a continuous trapping apparatus and said trapping apparatus having perforations and cutouts to facilitate trapping of contaminating particles and system flexibility.

  7. Preliminary carbon dioxide capture technical and economic feasibility study evaluation of carbon dioxide capture from existing fired plants by hybrid sorption using solid sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Envergex, Srivats; Browers, Bruce; Thumbi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Barr Engineering Co. was retained by the Institute for Energy Studies (IES) at University of North Dakota (UND) to conduct a technical and economic feasibility analysis of an innovative hybrid sorbent technology (CACHYS™) for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion–derived flue gas. The project team for this effort consists of the University of North Dakota, Envergex LLC, Barr Engineering Co., and Solex Thermal Science, along with industrial support from Allete, BNI Coal, SaskPower, and the North Dakota Lignite Energy Council. An initial economic and feasibility study of the CACHYS™ concept, including definition of the process, development of process flow diagrams (PFDs), material and energy balances, equipment selection, sizing and costing, and estimation of overall capital and operating costs, is performed by Barr with information provided by UND and Envergex. The technology—Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS™)—is a novel solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, utilization of novel process chemistry, contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and a low-cost method of heat management. The technology’s other key component is the use of a low-cost sorbent.

  8. Highly attrition-resistant zinc oxide-based sorbents for H{sub 2}S removal by spray-drying technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.B.; Baek, J.I.; Ryu, C.K.; Yi, C.K.; Jo, S.H.; Kim, S.H.

    2008-07-15

    A ZnO-based sorbent, ZAC 32N, applicable to transport reactors was successfully prepared by the spray-drying technique. Another sorbent, ZAC 32SU, was prepared by scale-up preparation of ZAC 32N sorbent. The physical properties of the sorbents such as attrition resistance, specific surface area, pore volume, and particle size were extensively characterized and exhibited a good potential for use in transport applications. The chemical reactivity tested in the thermogravimetric analyzer and microreactor exhibited desirable characteristics for effective desulfurization of syngas streams in the range of 450-550{sup o}C. Bench-scale tests for the sorbent ZAC 32SU were performed for a continuous 160 h with a steady solid circulation of 54.6 kg/h. The results showed 99.5%+ desulfurization at 500-550{sup o}C and reasonable regenerability at 550-620{sup o}C. Test results on the physical properties and chemical reactivity indicated that the performance of developed sorbents proved to be outstanding.

  9. Non-vanishing ponderomotive AC electrophoretic effect for particle trapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Weihau; Park, Jae Hyun nmn; Krstic, Predrag S; Reed, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We present here a study on overlooked aspects of alternating current (AC) electrokinetics AC electrophoretic (ACEP) phenomena. The dynamics of a particle with both polarizability and net charges in a non-uniform AC electric trapping field is investigated. It is found that either electrophoretic (EP) or dielectrophoretic (DEP) effects can dominate the trapping dynamics, depending on experimental conditions. A dimensionless parameter gamma is developed to predict the relative strength of EP and DEP effects in a quadrupole AC field. An ACEP trap is feasible for charged particles in salt-free or low salt concentration solutions. In contrast to DEP traps, an ACEP trap favors the downscaling of the particle size.

  10. Development of a Dry Sorbent-based Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Technology for Retrofit in Existing Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Thomas; Coleman, Luke; Anderson, Matthew; Gupta, Raghubir; Herr, Joshua; Kalluri, Ranjeeth; Pavani, Maruthi

    2009-12-31

    The objective of this research and development (R&D) project was to further the development of a solid sorbent-based CO2 capture process based on sodium carbonate (i.e. the Dry Carbonate Process) that is capable of capturing>90% of the CO2 as a nearly pure stream from coal-fired power plant flue gas with <35% increase in the cost of electrictiy (ICOE).

  11. Novel sorbent development and evaluation for the capture of krypton and xenon from nuclear fuel reprocessing off-gas stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garn, T.G.; Greenhalgh, M.R.; Law, J.D.

    2013-07-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, Idaho National Laboratory sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up. (authors)

  12. Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2013-10-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

  13. Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2013-09-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

  14. Sorbent Testing for the Solidification of Unidentified Rocky Flats Laboratory Waste Stored at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, J.; Kimmitt, R.

    2007-07-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) evaluated various commercially available sorbents to solidify unidentified laboratory liquids from Rocky Flats that are stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The liquids are a collection of laboratory wastes that were generated from various experiments and routine analytical laboratory activities carried out at Rocky Flats. The liquids are in bottles discovered inside of buried waste drums being exhumed from the subsurface disposal area at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) by the contractor, CH2M Hill Washington International (CWI). Free liquids are unacceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), and some of these liquids cannot be returned to the retrieval pit. Stabilization of the liquids into a solid mass will allow these materials to be sent to an appropriate disposal location. The selected sorbent or sorbent combinations should produce a stabilized mass that is capable of withstanding conditions similar to those experienced during storage, shipping, and burial. The final wasteform should release less than 1% liquid by volume per the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The absence or presence of free liquid in the solidified waste-forms was detected when tested by SW-846, Method 9095B, Paint Filter Free Liquids, and the amount of liquid released from the wasteform was determined by SW-846, Method 9096, Liquid Release Test. Reactivity testing was also conducted on the solidified laboratory liquids. (authors)

  15. Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Landreth

    2008-06-30

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 16, 2005 through December 31, 2008 on the project entitled â??Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concreteâ?. The project covers testing at three host sites: Progress Energy H.F. Lee Station and the Midwest Generation Crawford and Will County Stations. At Progress Energy Lee 1, parametric tests were performed both with and without SO{sub 3} injection in order to determine the impact on the mercury sorbent performance. In addition, tests were performed on the hot-side of the air preheater, before the SO{sub 3} is injected, with H-PACâ?¢ sorbents designed for use at elevated temperatures. The BPACâ?¢ injection provided the expected mercury removal when the SO{sub 3} injection was off. A mercury removal rate due to sorbent of more than 80% was achieved at an injection rate of 8 lb/MMacf. The operation with SO{sub 3} injection greatly reduced the mercury sorbent performance. An important learning came from the injection of H-PACâ?¢ on the hot-side of the air preheater before the SO{sub 3} injection location. The H-PACâ?¢ injected in this manner appeared to be independent of the SO{sub 3} injection and provided better mercury removal than with injecting on the cold-side with SO{sub 3} injection. Consequently, one solution for plants like Lee, with SO{sub 3} injection, or plants with SO{sub 3} generated by the SCR catalyst, is to inject H-PACâ?¢ on the hot-side before the SO{sub 3} is in the flue gas. Even better performance is possible by injecting on the cold-side without the SO{sub 3}, however. During the parametric testing, it was discovered that the injection of B-PACâ?¢ (or H-PACâ?¢) was having a positive impact upon ESP performance. It was decided to perform a 3-day continuous injection run with B-PACâ?¢ in order to determine whether Lee 1 could operate without SO{sub 3} injection. If the test proved positive, the continuous injection

  16. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar; Okyay, Ali K.; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2013-11-15

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  17. Ab initio thermodynamic approach to identify mixed solid sorbents for CO2 capture technology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2015-10-15

    Because the current technologies for capturing CO2 are still too energy intensive, new materials must be developed that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. At a given CO2 pressure, the turnover temperature (Tt) of the reaction of an individual solid that can capture CO2 is fixed. Such Tt may be outside the operating temperature range (ΔTo) for a practical capture technology. To adjust Tt to fit the practical ΔTo, in this study, three scenarios of mixing schemes are explored by combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations. Our calculated resultsmore » demonstrate that by mixing different types of solids, it’s possible to shift Tt to the range of practical operating temperature conditions. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO2 capture reactions by the mixed solids of interest, we were able to identify the mixing ratios of two or more solids to form new sorbent materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions.« less

  18. Tyrosinase-containing chitosan gels: A combined catalyst and sorbent for selective phenol removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, W.Q.; Payne, G.F.

    1996-07-05

    There are a series of examples in which phenols appear as contaminants in process streams and their selective removal is required for waste minimization. For the selective removal of a phenol from a mixture, the authors are exploiting the substrate specificity of the enzyme tyrosinase to convert phenols into reactive o-quinones which are then adsorbed onto the amine-containing polymer chitosan. To effectively package the enzyme and sorbent, tyrosinase was immobilized between two chitosan gel films. The entrapment of tyrosinase between the films led to little loss of activity during immobilization, while tyrosinase leakage during incubation was limited. The chitosan gels rapidly adsorb the tyrosinase-generated product(s) of phenol oxidation while the capacity of the gels is substantially greater than the capacity of chitosan flakes. The performance of tyrosinase-containing chitosan gels significantly depends on the ratio of tyrosinase-to-chitosan. High tyrosinase-to-chitosan ratios result in less efficient use of tyrosinase, presumably due to suicide inactivation. However, the efficiency of chitosan use increases with increased tyrosinase-to-chitosan ratios.

  19. Design and Development of New Carbon-Based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-03

    This is a summary for work performed under cooperative agreement DE FC36 04GO14006 (Design and Development of New Carbon-based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen). The project was directed to discover new solid and liquid materials that use reversible catalytic hydrogenation as the mechanism for hydrogen capture and storage. After a short period of investigation of solid materials, the inherent advantages of storing and transporting hydrogen using liquid-phase materials focused our attention exclusively on organic liquid hydrogen carriers (liquid carriers). While liquid carriers such as decalin and methylcyclohexane were known in the literature, these carriers suffer from practical disadvantages such as the need for very high temperatures to release hydrogen from the carriers and difficult separation of the carriers from the hydrogen. In this project, we were successful in using the prediction of reaction thermodynamics to discover liquid carriers that operate at temperatures up to 150 C lower than the previously known carriers. The means for modifying the thermodynamics of liquid carriers involved the use of certain molecular structures and incorporation of elements other than carbon into the carrier structure. The temperature decrease due to the more favorable reaction thermodynamics results in less energy input to release hydrogen from the carriers. For the first time, the catalytic reaction required to release hydrogen from the carriers could be conducted with the carrier remaining in the liquid phase. This has the beneficial effect of providing a simple means to separate the hydrogen from the carrier.

  20. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system calcium-based dry sorbent injection. Test report, April 30--November 2, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiomoto, G.H.; Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J.; Hunt, T.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high-sulfur coal will also be investigated. This report documents the fifth phase of the test program, where the performance of the dry sorbent injection of calcium was evaluated as an SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection with humidification was performed downstream of the air heater (in-duct). Calcium injection before the economizer was also investigated. The in-duct calcium sorbent and humidification retrofit resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 28 to 40 percent, with a Ca/S of 2, and a 25 to 30{degrees}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature. The results of the economizer calcium injection tests were disappointing with less than 10 percent SO{sub 2} removal at a Ca/S of 2. Poor sorbent distribution due to limited access into the injection cavity was partially responsible for the low overall removals. However, even in areas of high sorbent concentration (local Ca/S ratios of approximately 6), SO{sub 2} removals were limited to 30 percent. It is suspected that other factors (sorbent properties and limited residence times) also contributed to the poor performance.

  1. Sales lag sparks steam trap diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, E.

    1980-03-03

    Competing manufacturers have broadened their product range and customer services in an effort to survive a tightened market and the introduction of unconventional devices. Users and vendors agree that rising energy costs now give inspection and maintenance of steam traps top priority. New products on the market are described. Competition has led to some questionable advertising and legal action. Fixed orifice and temperature-actuated valves are among the alternative products offered. Models of the major manufacturers are compared by type, pressure and condensate load range, primary use, and price.

  2. Gas turbine engines with particle traps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L.; Sumner, D. Warren; Sheoran, Yogendra; Judd, Z. Daniel

    1992-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) incorporates a particle trap (46) that forms an entrapment region (73) in a plenum (24) which extends from within the combustor (18) to the inlet (32) of a radial-inflow turbine (52, 54). The engine (10) is thereby adapted to entrap particles that originate downstream from the compressor (14) and are otherwise propelled by combustion gas (22) into the turbine (52, 54). Carbonaceous particles that are dislodged from the inner wall (50) of the combustor (18) are incinerated within the entrapment region (73) during operation of the engine (10).

  3. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  4. Mesoscopic supersolid of dipoles in a trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golomedov, A. E.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2011-09-15

    A mesoscopic system of dipolar bosons trapped by a harmonic potential is considered. The system has a number of physical realizations including dipole excitons, atoms with large dipolar moment, polar molecules, and Rydberg atoms in inhomogeneous electric field. We carry out a diffusion Monte Carlo simulation to define the quantum properties of a two-dimensional system of trapped dipoles at zero temperature. In dimensionless units the system is described by two control parameters, namely, the number of particles and the strength of the interparticle interaction. We have shown that when the interparticle interaction is strong enough a mesoscopic crystal is formed. As the strength of interactions is decreased a multistage melting takes place. Off-diagonal order in the system is tested using natural-orbitals analysis. We have found that the system might be Bose condensed even in the case of strong interparticle interactions. There is a set of parameters for which a spatially ordered structure is formed while simultaneously the fraction of Bose-condensed particles is nonzero. This might be considered as a realization of a mesoscopic supersolid.

  5. Identification of microscopic hole-trapping mechanisms in nitride semiconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    John L. Lyons; Krishnaswamy, Karthik; Luke Gordon; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Anderson, Janotti

    2015-12-17

    Hole trapping has been observed in nitride heterostructure devices, where the Fermi level is in the vicinity of the valence-band maximum. Using hybrid density functional calculations, we examine microscopic mechanisms for hole trapping in GaN and AlN. In a defect-free material, hole trapping does not spontaneously occur, but trapping can occur in the vicinity of impurities, such as C-a common unintentional impurity in nitrides. As a result, using Schrödinger-Poisson simulations, we assess the effects of C-derived hole traps on N-face high-electron mobility transistors, which we find to be more detrimental than the previously proposed interface traps.

  6. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimization | Department of Energy Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_harris.pdf (388.49 KB) More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Technology Review Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Diesel Particulate Filters: Market Introducution in Euro

  7. Gas insulated transmission line having tapered particle trapping ring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, insulating supports and an insulating gas. A particle-trapping ring is secured to each insulating support, and it is comprised of a central portion and two tapered end portions. The ends of the particle trapping ring have a smaller diameter than the central portion of the ring, so as to enable the use of the particle trapping ring in a curved transmission line.

  8. Steam trap maintenance management saves $180,000 annually

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franks, F.C.; Wickersham, C.

    1985-12-01

    The Reichhold Chemical plant is located in Elizabeth, NJ. At this location, the cost of steam had skyrocketed to $5.30 per million Btu. The plant has 600 steam traps manufactured by ten different companies. Some 17 different models of traps are used with 33 piping configurations. There are five different operating pressures throughout the plant ranging from 15-175 psig, including 30, 65, and 120 psig. Five different applications of steam usage can be broken down as follows: steam tracing (56%); drip (21%); comfort heating (18%); tank coil (4%); and process (1%). In the fall of 1983, the annual yearly inspection of steam traps was supplanted with an independent trap survey service, specializing in detecting the malfunctioning of various types of steam traps. The basic program included location and tagging of all steam traps; survey and inspection of steam trap population; development of a trap map; and full computer analysis of collected data. It was determined that approximately 3919 lb/hr of steam could be saved by repairing the failed open traps and implementing the report's recommendations. There were also benefits from fixing the failed closed traps which were out of service at the time of the survey. These traps do not allow the flow of steam or condensate to pass through the orifice. This condition causes condensate to back up and reduce efficiency. The maintenance management has been pleased with the results and recommendations of the program. It has provided them with a complete inventory and status report of the 600 traps plantwide. It saved $180,000 over the previous year in energy expenditures. This was the most important contribution in lowering the plant energy costs.

  9. Thermostatic/orifice trap reduces fuel, repair costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This article is an evaluation of a steam trap that combines the continuous drain oriface with a thermostatically controlled trap oriface to efficiently remove condensate from virtually any steam system within its operating limits. This trap effectively reduces fuel and repair costs and has a capacity of 6000 il/hr, handles various pressures up to 600 psig, and operates against back pressures up to 90% of inlet pressure.

  10. Evaluation of Ohio fly ash/hydrated lime slurries and Type 1 cement sorbent slurries in the U.C. Pilot spray dryer facility. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Meyers, G.R.

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of this year`s work included an evaluation of the performance of fly ash/hydrated lime as well as hydrated cement sorbents for spray drying adsorption (SDA) of SO{sub 2} from a simulated high-sulfur flue gas. These sorbents were evaluated for several different hydration methods, and under different SDA operating conditions. In addition, the physical properties of surface area and porosity of the sorbents was determined. The most reactive fly ash/hydrated lime sorbent studied was prepared at room temperature with milled fly ash. Milling fly ash prior to hydration with lime did have a beneficial effect on calcium utilization. No benefit in utilization was experienced either by hydrating the slurries at a temperature of 90{degrees}C as compared to hydration at room temperature, or by increasing hydration time. While the surface areas varied greatly from sorbent to sorbent, the pore size distributions indicated ``ink bottle`` pores with surface porosity on the order of 0.5 microns. No correlation could be drawn between the surface area of the sorbents and calcium utilization. These results suggest that the composition of the resulting sorbent might be more important than its surface area. The most effective sorbent studied this year was produced by hydrating cement for 3 days at room temperature. This sorbent provided a removal efficiency and a calcium utilization over 25 percent higher than baseline results at an approach to saturation temperature of 30{degrees}F and a stoichiometric ratio of 0.9. A maximum SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of about 90 percent was experienced with this sorbent at an approach to saturation temperature of 20{degrees}F.

  11. Particle trapping: A key requisite of structure formation and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Particle trapping is shown to control the existence of ... Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International ...

  12. Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KB) More Documents & Publications Low Temperature Emission Control Pre-Competitive Catalysis Research: Fundamental SulfationDesulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps Investigation ...

  13. Light Trapping, Absorption and Solar Energy Harvesting by Artificial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Harvesting by Artificial Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Light Trapping, Absorption and Solar Energy Harvesting by Artificial Materials We provide ...

  14. Ball-grid array architecture for microfabricated ion traps (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ball-grid array architecture for microfabricated ion traps Citation Details In-Document ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM ...

  15. On the Equivalence of Trapped Colloids, Pinned Vortices, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: On the Equivalence of Trapped Colloids, Pinned Vortices, and Spin Ice We investigate the recently reported analogies between pinned vortices in nano-structured ...

  16. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and Differences Between ... More Documents & Publications Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor ...

  17. Stable metal-organic frameworks containing single-molecule traps...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Stable metal-organic frameworks containing single-molecule traps for enzyme encapsulation Authors: Feng, Dawei ; Liu, Tian-Fu ; Su, Jie ; Bosch, Mathieu ; Wei, Zhangwen ; ...

  18. Wolf Trap, Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWolfTrap,Virginia&oldid253815" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  19. H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: ArvinMeritor 2003deercrane.pdf (630.37 KB) More Documents & Publications ...

  20. A Sub-Millimeter Solenoid Device for Trapping Paramagnetic Microbeads...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a paramagnetic microsphere trapping and separation device consisting of a copper solenoid ... to the design of magnetic-based separation devices because the ...

  1. Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adcock, James L.; Pace, Marshall O.; Christophorou, Loucas G.

    1984-01-01

    A contaminant trap for a gas-insulated electrical conductor is provided. A resinous dielectric body such as Kel-F wax, grease or other sticky polymeric or oligomeric compound is disposed on the inside wall of the outer housing for the conductor. The resinous body is sufficiently sticky at ambient temperatures to immobilize contaminant particles in the insulating gas on the exposed surfaces thereof. An electric resistance heating element is disposed in the resinous body to selectively raise the temperature of the resinous body to a molten state so that the contaminant particles collected on the surface of the body sink into the body so that the surface of the resinous body is renewed to a particle-less condition and, when cooled, returns to a sticky collecting surface.

  2. Production of Ultracold Trapped Molecular Hydrogen Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, P.; Roth, B.; Froehlich, U.; Wenz, H.; Schiller, S.

    2005-10-28

    We have cooled ensembles of the molecular hydrogen ions H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, and all their deuterated variants to temperatures of a few mK in a radio frequency trap, by sympathetic cooling with laser-cooled beryllium ions. The molecular ions are embedded in the central regions of Coulomb crystals. Mass spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations were used to accurately characterize the properties of the ultracold multispecies crystals. We demonstrate species-selective purification of multispecies ensembles. These molecules are of fundamental importance as the simplest of all molecules, and have the potential to be used for precision tests of molecular structure theory, tests of Lorentz invariance, and measurements of electron to nuclear mass ratios and their time variation.

  3. Debris trap in a turbine cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

  4. Penning trap mass measurements on nobelium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dworschak, M.; Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Vorobyev, G. K.; Audi, G.; Blaum, K.; Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Eliseev, S.; Ketter, J.; Fleckenstein, T.; Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Ketelaer, J.; Kluge, H.-J.

    2010-06-15

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt allows accurate mass measurements of radionuclides, produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and separated by the velocity filter SHIP from the primary beam. Recently, the masses of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No were determined. These are the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements, which provide new anchor points in this region. The heavy nuclides were produced in cold-fusion reactions by irradiating a PbS target with a {sup 48}Ca beam, resulting in production rates of the nuclei of interest of about one atom per second. In combination with data from decay spectroscopy our results are used to perform a new atomic-mass evaluation in this region.

  5. Gravimetric and volumetric approaches adapted for hydrogen sorption measurements with in situ conditioning on small sorbent samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, E.; Chahine, R.; Tessier, A.; Bose, T.K.

    2005-05-15

    We present high sensitivity (0 to 1 bar, 295 K) gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen sorption measurement systems adapted for in situ sample conditioning at high temperature and high vacuum. These systems are designed especially for experiments on sorbents available in small masses (mg) and requiring thorough degassing prior to sorption measurements. Uncertainty analysis from instrumental specifications and hydrogen absorption measurements on palladium are presented. The gravimetric and volumetric systems yield cross-checkable results within about 0.05 wt % on samples weighing from (3 to 25) mg. Hydrogen storage capacities of single-walled carbon nanotubes measured at 1 bar and 295 K with both systems are presented.

  6. Investigation and demonstration of dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control. Quarterly technical report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Sjostrom, S.; Ruhl, J.; Smith, J.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has issued Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) a cost sharing contract to evaluate carbon-based sorbents for mercury control on a 600 acfm laboratory scale particulate control module (PCM). The PCM can simulate an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet fabric filter, and a reverse air fabric filter and uses actual flue gas from an operating coal-fired power plant. Up to 3 different dry carbon-based sorbents will be tested to determine the mercury removal capability in the different configurations. The project is currently in the fifth quarter of an eight quarter Phase I project. The PCM has been fabricated and mercury removal testing with the ESP configuration has been completed. Original plans included the use on an on-line meercury analyzer to collect the test data. However, due to very low baseline mercury concentration, on-line measurement did not provide accurate data. The project has continued using a modified MESA method grab sample technique to determine inlet and outlet mercury concentrations. A major concern during sorbent evaluations has been the natural ability of the flyash at the test site to remove mercury. This has made determination of sorbent only mercury removal difficult. Overall vapor-phase mercury removals of 15 to 70% have been obtained but this includes mercury removals in the range of 30% by the flyash. It is believed that a maximum of approximately 40% removal due to the sorbent only has been obtained. A number of test and sampling modifications are in progress to increase the data confidence and many questions remain. Startup of the pulse jet configuration began in early November but results of this testing are not available at this time. The project team has decided to proceed with pulse jet testing using flue gas that does not contain significant flyash quantities to further investigate the sorbent only mercury removal.

  7. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  8. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency

  9. Quantum chaos of an ion trapped in a linear ion trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, Gennady P. [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); James, Daniel F. V. [Theoretical Division T-4, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division T-4, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kamenev, Dimitri I. [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States) [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Nizhny Novgorod State University, Nizhny Novgorod, 603600, Russia (Russian Federation)

    2000-06-01

    We describe the transition to quantum chaos of an ion trapped in a linear ion trap and interacting with two laser fields. Under the conditions of adiabatic illumination of the upper level of the ion, and when the frequencies of the two laser beams are slightly different, the system is reduced to a quantum linear oscillator interacting with a monochromatic wave. The property of localization over the quantum resonance cells is proposed to exploit in order to facilitate the process of measurement of the probability distribution of an ion on the vibrational levels. In the regime of strong chaos the time-averaged values of the energy and dispersion of energy are computed and compared with the corresponding classical quantities for different values of the perturbation amplitude. In the exact resonance case, the classical analog of the system possesses an infinite inhomogeneous stochastic web. We analyze the quantum dynamics inside the inhomogeneous web. It is shown that the quantum system mimics on average the dynamics of the corresponding classical system. Formation of the quantum resonance cells is illustrated in the case of a finite detuning from the exact resonance, and under increasing of the wave amplitude. The parameters of the model and the initial conditions are close to the real physical situation which can be realized in the system of cold trapped ion perturbed by two lasers fields with close frequencies. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Thomas; Kataria, Atish; Soukri, Mustapha; Farmer, Justin; Mobley, Paul; Tanthana, Jak; Wang, Dongxiang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  11. Electrostatic particle trap for ion beam sputter deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, Stephen P.; Burkhart, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particulate matter generated in ion beam sputter deposition. The apparatus involves an electrostatic particle trap which generates electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate on which target material is being deposited. The electrostatic particle trap consists of an array of electrode surfaces, each maintained at an electrostatic potential, and with their surfaces parallel or perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. The method involves interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particles achieved by generating electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate, and configuring the fields to force the charged particulate material away from the substrate. The electrostatic charged particle trap enables prevention of charged particles from being deposited on the substrate thereby enabling the deposition of extremely low defect density films, such as required for reflective masks of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system.

  12. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  13. Ionization-Induced Electron Trapping inUltrarelativistic Plasma Wakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oz, E.; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Barnes, C.D.; Blumenfeld, I.; Decker, F.J.; Emma, P.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Kirby, N.; Krejcik, P.; O'Connell, C.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Auerbach, D.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Johnson, D.K.; Joshi, C.; /UCLA

    2007-04-06

    The onset of trapping of electrons born inside a highly relativistic, 3D beam-driven plasma wake is investigated. Trapping occurs in the transition regions of a Li plasma confined by He gas. Li plasma electrons support the wake, and higher ionization potential He atoms are ionized as the beam is focused by Li ions and can be trapped. As the wake amplitude is increased, the onset of trapping is observed. Some electrons gain up to 7.6 GeV in a 30.5 cm plasma. The experimentally inferred trapping threshold is at a wake amplitude of 36 GV/m, in good agreement with an analytical model and PIC simulations.

  14. Optical trapping apparatus, methods and applications using photonic crystal resonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, David; Chen, Yih-Fan

    2015-06-16

    A plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses and a plurality optical trapping methods using the plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses include located and formed over a substrate a photonic waveguide that is coupled (i.e., either separately coupled or integrally coupled) with a photonic crystal resonator. In a particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a monocrystalline silicon (or other) photonic material absent any chemical functionalization. In another particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a silicon nitride material which when actuating the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus with a 1064 nanometer resonant photonic radiation wavelength (or other resonant photonic radiation wavelength in a range from about 700 to about 1200 nanometers) provides no appreciable heating of an aqueous sample fluid that is analyzed by the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus.

  15. Adsorption Isotherms for Xenon and Krypton using INL HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Veronica J. Rutledge; Jack D. Law

    2014-08-01

    The generation of adsorption isotherms compliments the scale-up of off-gas processes used to control the emission of encapsulated radioactive volatile fission and activation products released during Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) reprocessing activities. A series of experiments were conducted to obtain capacity results for varying Kr and Xe gas concentrations using HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN engineered form sorbents. Gas compositions for Kr ranged from 150-40,000 ppmv and 250-5020 ppmv for Xe in a helium balance. The experiments were all performed at 220 K at a flowrate of 50 sccm. Acquired capacities were then respectively fit to the Langmuir equation using the Langmuir linear regression method to obtain the equilibrium parameters Qmax and Keq. Generated experimental adsorption isotherms were then plotted with the Langmuir predicted isotherms to illustrate agreement between the two. The Langmuir parameters were provided for input into the OSPREY model to predict breakthrough of single component adsorption of Kr and Xe on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN sorbents at the experimental conditions tested. Kr and Xe capacities resulting from model breakthrough predictions were then compared to experimental capacities for model validation.

  16. Preparation of sorbent pellets with high integrity for sorption of CO.sub.2 from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    2016-05-10

    Method for the production of a CO.sub.2 sorbent prepared by integrating a clay substrate, basic alkali salt, amine liquid, hydraulic binder, and a liquid binder. The basic alkali salt is present relative to the clay substrate in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 50 parts per 100 parts of the clay substrate. The amine liquid is present relative to a clay-alkali combination in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 10 parts per 10 parts of the clay-alkali combination. The clay substrate and basic alkali salt may be combined in a solid-solid heterogeneous mixture and followed by introduction of the amine liquid. Alternatively, an alkaline solution may be blended with the amine solution prior to contacting the clay substrate. The clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent is particularly advantageous for low temperature CO.sub.2 removal cycles in a gas stream having a CO.sub.2 concentration less than around 2000 ppm and an oxygen concentration around 21%, such as air.

  17. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2004-08-03

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  18. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2006-05-30

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  19. Hydrogen isotope trapping in Al-Cu binary alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chao, Paul; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the trapping mechanisms for hydrogen isotopes in Al–X Cu (0.0 at. % < X < 3.5 at. %) alloys were investigated using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), electrical conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. Constant heating rate TDS was used to determine microstructural trap energies and occupancies. In addition to the trapping states in pure Al reported in the literature (interstitial lattice sites, dislocations, and vacancies), a trap site due to Al–Cu intermetallic precipitates is observed. The binding energy of this precipitate trap is (18 ± 3) kJ•mol–1 (0.19 ± 0.03 eV). Typical occupancy of this trap is high;more » for Al–2.6 at. % Cu (a Cu composition comparable to that in AA2219) charged at 200 °C with 130 MPa D2 for 68 days, there is ca. there is 3.15×10–7 mol D bound to the precipitate trap per mol of Al, accounting for a third of the D in the charged sample.« less

  20. Hydrogen isotope trapping in Al-Cu binary alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Paul; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the trapping mechanisms for hydrogen isotopes in Al–X Cu (0.0 at. % < X < 3.5 at. %) alloys were investigated using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), electrical conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. Constant heating rate TDS was used to determine microstructural trap energies and occupancies. In addition to the trapping states in pure Al reported in the literature (interstitial lattice sites, dislocations, and vacancies), a trap site due to Al–Cu intermetallic precipitates is observed. The binding energy of this precipitate trap is (18 ± 3) kJ•mol–1 (0.19 ± 0.03 eV). Typical occupancy of this trap is high; for Al–2.6 at. % Cu (a Cu composition comparable to that in AA2219) charged at 200 °C with 130 MPa D2 for 68 days, there is ca. there is 3.15×10–7 mol D bound to the precipitate trap per mol of Al, accounting for a third of the D in the charged sample.

  1. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  2. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and ? ????trap-shy?¢??? species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  3. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control. First quarterly technical progress report, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This synopsis describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

  4. Power-Amplified Predatory Strikes in Trap-Jaw Spiders

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power-Amplified Predatory Strikes in Trap-Jaw Spiders Power-Amplified Predatory Strikes in Trap-Jaw Spiders Print Friday, 10 June 2016 13:23 "Trap-jaw" spiders are tiny (about 2 mm), ground-dwelling spiders that rely on hunting rather than web-building to capture prey. Hannah Wood, curator of spiders at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, was curious as to why these spiders' carapaces (their front sections) seemed almost neck-like and their chelicerae (mandibles or

  5. Scalable error correction in distributed ion trap computers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oi, Daniel K. L.; Devitt, Simon J.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.

    2006-11-15

    A major challenge for quantum computation in ion trap systems is scalable integration of error correction and fault tolerance. We analyze a distributed architecture with rapid high-fidelity local control within nodes and entangled links between nodes alleviating long-distance transport. We demonstrate fault-tolerant operator measurements which are used for error correction and nonlocal gates. This scheme is readily applied to linear ion traps which cannot be scaled up beyond a few ions per individual trap but which have access to a probabilistic entanglement mechanism. A proof-of-concept system is presented which is within the reach of current experiment.

  6. Movement of particles using sequentially activated dielectrophoretic particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-02-03

    Manipulation of DNA and cells/spores using dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces to perform sample preparation protocols for polymerized chain reaction (PCR) based assays for various applications. This is accomplished by movement of particles using sequentially activated dielectrophoretic particle trapping. DEP forces induce a dipole in particles, and these particles can be trapped in non-uniform fields. The particles can be trapped in the high field strength region of one set of electrodes. By switching off this field and switching on an adjacent electrodes, particles can be moved down a channel with little or no flow.

  7. Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_larson.pdf (637.26 KB) More Documents & Publications Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model Pt/Rh/Ba NOx Traps for Design and Optimization Production, Storage, and FC Analysis

  8. Trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grondahl, Clayton M.; Germain, Malcolm R.

    1980-01-01

    An improved trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines is disclosed. The trap seal of the present invention includes an annular recess formed in the supply conduit of cooling channels formed in the airfoil of the turbine buckets. A cylindrical insert is located in the annular recesses and has a plurality of axial grooves formed along the outer periphery thereof and a central recess formed in one end thereof. The axial grooves and central recess formed in the cylindrical insert cooperate with the annular recess to define a plurality of S-shaped trap seals which permit the passage of liquid coolant but prohibit passage of gaseous coolant.

  9. Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential ...

  10. Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating ...

  11. Removal of Particles and Acid Gases (SO2 or HCl) with a Ceramic Filter by Addition of Dry Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemmer, G.; Kasper, G.; Wang, J.; Schaub, G.

    2002-09-20

    The present investigation intends to add to the fundamental process design know-how for dry flue gas cleaning, especially with respect to process flexibility, in cases where variations in the type of fuel and thus in concentration of contaminants in the flue gas require optimization of operating conditions. In particular, temperature effects of the physical and chemical processes occurring simultaneously in the gas-particle dispersion and in the filter cake/filter medium are investigated in order to improve the predictive capabilities for identifying optimum operating conditions. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) are known as efficient sorbents for neutralizing acid flue gas components such as HCl, HF, and SO{sub 2}. According to their physical properties (e.g. porosity, pore size) and chemical behavior (e.g. thermal decomposition, reactivity for gas-solid reactions), optimum conditions for their application vary widely. The results presented concentrate on the development of quantitative data for filtration stability and overall removal efficiency as affected by operating temperature. Experiments were performed in a small pilot unit with a ceramic filter disk of the type Dia-Schumalith 10-20 (Fig. 1, described in more detail in Hemmer 2002 and Hemmer et al. 1999), using model flue gases containing SO{sub 2} and HCl, flyash from wood bark combustion, and NaHCO{sub 3} as well as Ca(OH){sub 2} as sorbent material (particle size d{sub 50}/d{sub 84} : 35/192 {micro}m, and 3.5/16, respectively). The pilot unit consists of an entrained flow reactor (gas duct) representing the raw gas volume of a filter house and the filter disk with a filter cake, operating continuously, simulating filter cake build-up and cleaning of the filter medium by jet pulse. Temperatures varied from 200 to 600 C, sorbent stoichiometric ratios from zero to 2, inlet concentrations were on the order of 500 to 700 mg/m{sup 3}, water vapor contents ranged from

  12. Fuel traps: mapping stability via water association.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempe, Susan L.; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Alam, Todd M; Leung, Kevin; Varma, Sameer; Sabo, Dubravko; Martin, Marcus Gary; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2007-03-01

    Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology required for attaining a hydrogen-based economy. Fundamental research can reveal the underlying principles controlling hydrogen uptake and release by storage materials, and also aid in characterizing and designing novel storage materials. New ideas for hydrogen storage materials come from exploiting the properties of hydrophobic hydration, which refers to water s ability to stabilize, by its mode of association, specific structures under specific conditions. Although hydrogen was always considered too small to support the formation of solid clathrate hydrate structures, exciting new experiments show that water traps hydrogen molecules at conditions of low temperatures and moderate pressures. Hydrogen release is accomplished by simple warming. While these experiments lend credibility to the idea that water could form an environmentally attractive alternative storage compound for hydrogen fuel, which would advance our nation s goals of attaining a hydrogen-based economy, much work is yet required to understand and realize the full potential of clathrate hydrates for hydrogen storage. Here we undertake theoretical studies of hydrogen in water to establish a firm foundation for predictive work on clathrate hydrate H{sub 2} storage capabilities. Using molecular simulation and statistical mechanical theories based in part on quantum mechanical descriptions of molecular interactions, we characterize the interactions between hydrogen and liquid water in terms of structural and thermodynamic properties. In the process we validate classical force field models of hydrogen in water and discover new features of hydrophobic hydration that impact problems in both energy technology and biology. Finally, we predict hydrogen occupancy in the small and large cages of hydrogen clathrate hydrates, a property unresolved by previous experimental and theoretical work.

  13. Light Trapping, Absorption and Solar Energy Harvesting by Artificial Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John, Sajeev

    2014-08-15

    We provide designs of thin-film solar cells utilizing optimized photonic-crystal light-trapping and numerical simulations of their solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiencies.

  14. Stories of Discovery & Innovation: Trapping the Light Fantastic...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Trapping the Light Fantastic Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers ... Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page New solar cell design uses advanced ...

  15. Laser-driven Sisyphus cooling in an optical dipole trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Vladyslav V.; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2011-12-15

    We propose a laser-driven Sisyphus-cooling scheme for atoms confined in a far-off resonance optical dipole trap. Utilizing the differential trap-induced ac Stark shift, two electronic levels of the atom are resonantly coupled by a cooling laser preferentially near the trap bottom. After absorption of a cooling photon, the atom loses energy by climbing the steeper potential, and then spontaneously decays preferentially away from the trap bottom. The proposed method is particularly suited to cooling alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms where two-level systems with narrow electronic transitions are present. Numerical simulations for the cases of {sup 88}Sr and {sup 174}Yb demonstrate the expected recoil and Doppler temperature limits. The method requires a relatively small number of scattered photons and can potentially lead to phase-space densities approaching quantum degeneracy in subsecond time scales.

  16. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- News & Views Accident Trap

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accident Traps Four Workers 1,800 Feet below Ground Photo - rescue from 1,800 feet below ... Thousands of workers have completed millions of accident-free hours at this heavy industry ...

  17. Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks Containing Single-Molecule Traps...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks Containing Single-Molecule Traps for Enzyme Encapsulation Previous Next List Dawei Feng, Tian-Fu Liu, Jie Su, Mathieu Bosch, Zhangwen Wei, Wei Wan,...

  18. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps - Steam Tip Sheet #1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  20. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  1. Catch and Release: Reaction Dynamics from a Freed "Tension Trapped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Catch and Release: Reaction Dynamics from a Freed "Tension Trapped Transition State" Authors: Wang, J ; Ong, M T ; Kouznetsova, T B ; Lenhardt, J M ; Martinez, T J ; Craig, ...

  2. Electrostatic ion beam trap for electron collision studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heber, O.; Witte, P.D.; Diner, A.; Bhushan, K.G.; Strasser, D.; Toker, Y.; Rappaport, M.L.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Altstein, N.; Schwalm, D.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a system combining an ion beam trap and a low energy electron target in which the interaction between electrons and vibrationally cold molecular ions and clusters can be studied. The entire system uses only electrostatic fields for both trapping and focusing, thus being able to store particles without a mass limit. Preliminary results for the electron impact neutralization of C{sub 2}{sup -} ions and aluminum clusters are presented.

  3. Grooved impactor and inertial trap for sampling inhalable particulate matter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial trap and grooved impactor for providing a sharp cutoff for particles over 15 microns from entering an inhalable particulate sampler. The impactor head has a tapered surface and is provided with V-shaped grooves. The tapered surface functions for reducing particle blow-off or reentrainment while the grooves prevent particle bounce. Water droplets and any resuspended material over the 15 micron size are collected by the inertial trap and deposited in a reservoir associated with the impactor.

  4. PowerTrap: Ultrafine PM Control without Performance Penalties | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy PowerTrap: Ultrafine PM Control without Performance Penalties PowerTrap: Ultrafine PM Control without Performance Penalties 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Per-Tec Ltd, University of Manchester 2003_deer_kukla.pdf (693.04 KB) More Documents & Publications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Review of Diesel Emission Control Technology Active Soot Filter Regeneration

  5. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer. Final report, August 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J.

    1992-10-01

    This report stems from a program supported by the Ohio Coal Development Office, that is part of a multi-task, multi-university effort concerned with developing and enhancing the efficiency of ``dry`` high-sulfur flue gas scrubbing processes using calcium based sorbents. The application of spray-drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to sources burning Ohio coal will depend on many factors, two of which are process simplicity and flexibility, and overall cost. The ability of the system to be able to handle variations in volumetric flow SO{sub 2} concentration, and even perhaps, new regulatory requirements imposed in the future are very important In addition, the amount and characteristics of the waste produced will be a major component in the operating costs of these systems. Spray-drying FGD has been shown to have a capital, cost advantage over conventional wet scrubbing, and the method has been proven to be comparatively simple and flexible. The major disadvantage is the inability of these systems to obtain high (> 90%) S0{sub 2} removal efficiencies on flue gas from high sulfur coal sources. This is the result of chemical mass transfer and thermal limitations imposed on these systems using calcium hydroxide in a slurry as the scrubbing agent. The project 1.5 has investigated a number of novel methods to improve the performance of these systems in a mini-pilot plant spray dryer facility. The objectives of project 1.5 were the following: Perform baseline parametric testing, study the effect of additives on reactivity, and perform sorbent recycle tests.

  6. System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

    2013-07-23

    A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

  7. System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

    2012-10-23

    A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

  8. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Task 2 -- Exploratory experimental studies: Single pellet tests; rate mechanism analysis. Quarterly report, December 15, 1995--March 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.; Berns, J.

    1996-03-15

    Currently, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is actively investigating alternative hot fuel gas desulfurization sorbents for application to the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC). A sorbent must be highly active towards sulfur at high temperatures and pressure`s, and under varying degrees of reducing atmospheres. Thus, high conversion of the metal oxide and low hydrogen sulfide exit partial pressures. Also, it must regenerate nearly ideally to maintain activity over numerous cycles. Furthermore, regeneration must yield a sulfur product which is economically recoverable directly or indirectly. This cyclic process requires a holistic approach as any one criteria may eliminate a candidate sorbent from further consideration. Over fifty induration campaigns have been conducted among the fifteens Mn-based sorbent formulations. All indurated sorbents has been tested for crush strength and chemical analysis. Also, fifteen sorbent formulations have been tested in a TGA for at least on e induration condition. Subsequently described are the three main groups of formulations tested. They are the MnCO{sub 3} supported with TiO{sub 2} (with or without bentonite), MnCO{sub 3} supported with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (with or without porosity enhancers), and MnO{sub 2} ore supported with alundum (with and without bentonite).

  9. Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na/sub 2/O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions.

  10. Recent progress in tailoring trap-based positron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natisin, M. R.; Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.

    2013-03-19

    Recent progress is described to implement two approaches to specially tailor trap-based positron beams. Experiments and simulations are presented to understand the limits on the energy spread and pulse duration of positron beams extracted from a Penning-Malmberg (PM) trap after the particles have been buffer-gas cooled (or heated) in the range of temperatures 1000 {>=} T {>=} 300 K. These simulations are also used to predict beam performance for cryogenically cooled positrons. Experiments and simulations are also presented to understand the properties of beams formed when plasmas are tailored in a PM trap in a 5 tesla magnetic field, then non-adiabatically extracted from the field using a specially designed high-permeability grid to create a new class of electrostatically guided beams.

  11. Optical lattice clock with atoms confined in a shallow trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemonde, Pierre; Wolf, Peter

    2005-09-15

    We study the trap depth requirement for the realization of an optical clock using atoms confined in a lattice. We show that site-to-site tunneling leads to a residual sensitivity to the atom dynamics hence requiring large depths [(50-100)E{sub r} for Sr] to avoid any frequency shift or line broadening of the atomic transition at the 10{sup -17}-10{sup -18} level. Such large depths and the corresponding laser power may, however, lead to difficulties (e.g., higher-order light shifts, two-photon ionization, technical difficulties) and therefore one would like to operate the clock in much shallower traps. To circumvent this problem we propose the use of an accelerated lattice. Acceleration lifts the degeneracy between adjacents potential wells which strongly inhibits tunneling. We show that using the Earth's gravity, much shallower traps (down to 5E{sub r} for Sr) can be used for the same accuracy goal.

  12. Three dimensional separation trap based on dielectrophoresis and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2004-05-04

    An apparatus is adapted to separate target materials from other materials in a flow containing the target materials and other materials. A dielectrophoretic trap is adapted to receive the target materials and the other materials. At least one electrode system is provided in the trap. The electrode system has a three-dimensional configuration. The electrode system includes a first electrode and a second electrode that are shaped and positioned relative to each such that application of an electrical voltage to the first electrode and the second electrode creates a dielectrophoretic force and said dielectrophoretic force does not reach zero between the first electrode and the second electrode.

  13. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Kapellenweg 2a, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Kester, Oliver [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  14. Partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal at a medium temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu

    2005-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the reactivity of partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal. Sulfation tests were performed at 550{sup o}C using a fixed bed reactor under conditions simulating economizer zone injection flue gas desulfurization. Activation experiments were conducted with water or steam using a range of temperatures between 100 and 550{sup o}C. The results showed that the reactivity of the sorbents was closely related to the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} formed in the activation process, which varied with the water or steam temperature. The sulfur dioxide capture capacity of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the sorbent is higher than that of CaO at a medium temperature. Water or steam temperatures in the range of 100-200{sup o}C are favorable to the formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} from CaO. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Theory of magic optical traps for Zeeman-insensitive clock transitions in alkali-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derevianko, Andrei

    2010-05-15

    Precision measurements and quantum-information processing with cold atoms may benefit from trapping atoms with specially engineered, 'magic' optical fields. At the magic trapping conditions, the relevant atomic properties remain immune to strong perturbations by the trapping fields. Here we develop a theoretical analysis of magic trapping for especially valuable Zeeman-insensitive clock transitions in alkali-metal atoms. The involved mechanism relies on applying a magic bias B field along a circularly polarized trapping laser field. We map out these B fields as a function of trapping laser wavelength for all commonly used alkalis. We also highlight a common error in evaluating Stark shifts of hyperfine manifolds.

  16. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  17. Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.

    2015-05-15

    An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Greens function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by Huang-Yang-Luttinger and Lee-Yang.

  18. An extension of the multiple-trapping model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkilev, V. P.

    2012-07-15

    The hopping charge transport in disordered semiconductors is considered. Using the concept of the transport energy level, macroscopic equations are derived that extend a multiple-trapping model to the case of semiconductors with both energy and spatial disorders. It is shown that, although both types of disorder can cause dispersive transport, the frequency dependence of conductivity is determined exclusively by the spatial disorder.

  19. Laboratory scale studies of Pd/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbents for the removal of trace contaminants from coal-derived fuel gas at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupp, Erik C.; Granite, Evan J.; Stanko, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is a promising technology for the use of coal in a clean and efficient manner. In order to maintain the overall efficiency of the IGCC process, it is necessary to clean the fuel gas of contaminants (sulfur, trace compounds) at warm (150–540 °C) to hot (>540 °C) temperatures. Current technologies for trace contaminant (such as mercury) removal, primarily activated carbon based sorbents, begin to lose effectiveness above 100 °C, creating the need to develop sorbents effective at elevated temperatures. As trace elements are of particular environmental concern, previous work by this group has focused on the development of a Pd/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent for Hg removal. This paper extends the research to Se (as hydrogen selenide, H{sub 2}Se), As (as arsine, AsH{sub 3}), and P (as phosphine, PH{sub 3}) which thermodynamic studies indicate are present as gaseous species under gasification conditions. Experiments performed under ambient conditions in He on 20 wt.% Pd/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} indicate the sorbent can remove the target contaminants. Further work is performed using a 5 wt.% Pd/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent in a simulated fuel gas (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) in both single and multiple contaminant atmospheres to gauge sorbent performance characteristics. The impact of H{sub 2}O, Hg and temperature on sorbent performance is explored.

  20. Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given ...

  1. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system sodium-based dry sorbent injection test report. Test period: August 4, 1993--July 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.A.; Shimoto, G.H.; Muzio, L.J.; Hunt, T.

    1997-04-01

    The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the sixth phase of the test program, where the performance of dry sorbent injection with sodium compounds was evaluated as a SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection was performed in-duct downstream of the air heater (ahead of the fabric filter), as well as at a higher temperature location between the economizer and air heater. Two sodium compounds were evaluated during this phase of testing: sodium sesquicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate. In-duct sodium injection with low levels of humidification was also investigated. This sixth test phase was primarily focused on a parametric investigation of sorbent type and feed rate, although boiler load and sorbent preparation parameters were also varied.

  2. Bose gas in a single-beam optical dipole trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, Lena; Strunz, Walter T.

    2010-06-15

    We study an ultracold Bose gas in an optical dipole trap consisting of one single focused laser beam. An analytical expression for the corresponding density of states beyond the usual harmonic approximation is obtained. We are thus able to discuss the existence of a critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation and find that the phase transition must be enabled by a cutoff near the threshold. Moreover, we study the dynamics of evaporative cooling and observe significant deviations from the findings for the well-established harmonic approximation. Furthermore, we investigate Bose-Einstein condensates in such a trap in Thomas-Fermi approximation and determine analytical expressions for chemical potential, internal energy, and Thomas-Fermi radii beyond the usual harmonic approximation.

  3. Real-time calibration of a feedback trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, Momčilo; Jun, Yonggun; Bechhoefer, John

    2014-09-15

    Feedback traps use closed-loop control to trap or manipulate small particles and molecules in solution. They have been applied to the measurement of physical and chemical properties of particles and to explore fundamental questions in the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of small systems. These applications have been hampered by drifts in the electric forces used to manipulate the particles. Although the drifts are small for measurements on the order of seconds, they dominate on time scales of minutes or slower. Here, we show that a recursive maximum likelihood (RML) algorithm can allow real-time measurement and control of electric and stochastic forces over time scales of hours. Simulations show that the RML algorithm recovers known parameters accurately. Experimental estimates of diffusion coefficients are also consistent with expected physical properties.

  4. Dipole Excitation With A Paul Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacAskill, J. A.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Chutjian, A.

    2011-06-01

    Preliminary results are presented for the use of an auxiliary radiofrequency (rf) excitation voltage in combination with a high purity, high voltage rf generator to perform dipole excitation within a high precision Paul ion trap. These results show the effects of the excitation frequency over a continuous frequency range on the resultant mass spectra from the Paul trap with particular emphasis on ion ejection times, ion signal intensity, and peak shapes. Ion ejection times are found to decrease continuously with variations in dipole frequency about several resonant values and show remarkable symmetries. Signal intensities vary in a complex fashion with numerous resonant features and are driven to zero at specific frequency values. Observed intensity variations depict dipole excitations that target ions of all masses as well as individual masses. Substantial increases in mass resolution are obtained with resolving powers for nitrogen increasing from 114 to 325.

  5. Constructive polarization modulation for coherent population trapping clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Peter Danet, Jean-Marie; Holleville, David; Clercq, Emeric de; Guérandel, Stéphane

    2014-12-08

    We propose a constructive polarization modulation scheme for atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT). In this scheme, the polarization of a bichromatic laser beam is modulated between two opposite circular polarizations to avoid trapping the atomic populations in the extreme Zeeman sublevels. We show that if an appropriate phase modulation between the two optical components of the bichromatic laser is applied synchronously, the two CPT dark states which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations add constructively. Measured CPT resonance contrasts up to 20% in one-pulse CPT and 12% in two-pulse Ramsey-CPT experiments are reported, demonstrating the potential of this scheme for applications to high performance atomic clocks.

  6. Trapping of dust and dust acoustic waves in laboratory plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhakara, H.R.; Tanna, V.L. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 424 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 424 (India)

    1996-08-01

    Trapping of negatively charged dust particles is observed in a hot cathode plasma discharge when a layer of dust is exposed to the plasma. The particles are visible in the scattered He{endash}Ne laser light. The trajectories of individual particles have been photographed. The dust particles are excluded from the sheath region of any object in the plasma. The intensity of scattered light as well as the potential on a floating Langmuir probe show coherent fluctuations in the frequency range 1{endash}15 Hz. After several hours of exposure to the plasma, the dust layer develops striations similar to those on sand dunes. Trapping of dust particles by the plasma and the possible identification of the observed low-frequency fluctuations with dust acoustic waves are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Hydrogen trapping, diffusion, and recombination in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langley, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Trapping, diffusion, and recombination of hydrogen in austenitic stainless steels are reviewed. It is suggested that since all of these processes are strongly interdependent and since the measured recombination rates are found to vary four orders of magnitude at any temperature, the data analysis techniques used to date are insufficient. A two-region diffusion model with surface recombination is proposed in which the surface layer is characterized by a smaller diffusion coefficient than the bulk.

  8. Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakubsk, Vt Krej?i?k, David

    2014-10-15

    We study the confinement of Dirac fermions in graphene and in carbon nanotubes by an external magnetic field, mechanical deformations or inhomogeneities in the substrate. By applying variational principles to the square of the Dirac operator, we obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for confinement of the quasi-particles. The rigorous theoretical results are illustrated on the realistic examples of the three classes of traps.

  9. Observation of cold Rb{sub 2} molecules trapped in an optical dipole trap using a laser-pulse-train technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menegatti, Carlos R.; Marangoni, Bruno S.; Marcassa, Luis G.

    2011-11-15

    In this work, we have developed and characterized a laser-pulse-train technique to observe cold Rb{sub 2} molecules trapped in an optical dipole trap. The molecules are produced in a magneto-optical trap, and then loaded into a crossed optical dipole trap. The time evolution of the molecular population is obtained by applying a laser pulse train, which photoionizes the ground-state molecules through intermediate molecular bands. Our results show that this technique allows us to obtain a faster data acquisition rate of the time evolution of the molecule population than other techniques.

  10. WATER TRAPPING ON TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS REQUIRES SPECIAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S.; Liu, Yonggang; Hu, Yongyun

    2014-12-01

    Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld, we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, nightside sea ice remains O(10m) thick and nightside water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets O(1000m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's would therefore experience a large decrease in sea level when plate tectonics drives their continents onto the night side, but would not experience complete dayside dessiccation. Only planets with a geothermal heat flux lower than Earth's, much of their surface covered by continents, and a surface water reservoir O(10%) of Earth's would be susceptible to complete water trapping.

  11. Single microbe trap and release in sub-microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.

    2013-05-08

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have substantially impacted the way life-sciences are explored; life on earth, however, comprises mostly of microbes, which due to their sub-micron dimensions and high mobility are more challenging to dynamically manipulate on-a-chip. To address this challenge, we developed a high resolution microfluidic system (submicrofluidics) fabricated by direct electron beam lithography that is capable of trapping single microbes and releasing them upon demand. The fabrication method enabled the integration of sub-micron indentations (400 nm) with millimetre-scale fluidic channels rapidly in a single processing step. The larger channels deliver the cell suspension and reagents, while the sub-micron indentations immobilize the cells by locally increasing the hydrodynamic resistance. By volume exclusion, single cell trapping was possible in this system without any surface treatment. By increasing the flow rate, the microbes overcome the trap barrier and pass through the narrow indentation without undergoing lysis with kinetics that depend on their size. The fabrication method and its performance are described, along with microbial characterisations using E. coli.

  12. Effects of O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} on the Capture Capacity of a Primary-Amine Based Polymeric CO{sub 2} Sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallenbeck, Alexander P; Kitchin, John R

    2013-08-01

    Post combustion CO{sub 2} capture is most commonly carried out using an amine solution that results in a high parasitic energy cost in the stripper unit due to the need to heat the water which comprises a majority of the amine solution. It is also well known that amine solvents suffer from stability issues due to amine leaching and poisoning by flue gas impurities. Solid sorbents provide an alternative to solvent systems that would potentially reduce the energy penalty of carbon capture. However, the cost of using a particular sorbent is greatly affected by the usable lifetime of the sorbent. This work investigated the stability of a primary amine-functionalized ion exchange resin in the presence of O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, both of which are constituents of flue gas that have been shown to cause degradation of various amines in solvent processes. The CO{sub 2} capture capacity was measured over multiple capture cycles under continuous exposure to two simulated flue gas streams, one containing 12 vol% CO{sub 2}, 4% O{sub 2}, 84% N{sub 2}, and the other containing 12.5 vol% CO{sub 2}, 4% O{sub 2}, 431 ppm SO{sub 2}, balance N{sub 2} using a custom-built packed bed reactor. The resin maintained its CO{sub 2} capture capacity of 1.31 mol/kg over 17 capture cycles in the presence of O{sub 2} without SO{sub 2}. However, the CO{sub 2} capture capacity of the resin decreased rapidly under exposure to SO{sub 2} by an amount of 1.3 mol/kg over 9 capture cycles. Elemental analysis revealed the resin adsorbed 1.0 mol/kg of SO{sub 2}. Thermal regeneration was determined to not be possible. The poisoned resin was, however, partially regenerated with exposure to 1.5M NaOH for 3 days resulting in a 43% removal of sulfur, determined through elemental analysis, and a 35% recovery of CO{sub 2} capture capacity. Evidence was also found for amine loss upon prolonged (7 days) continuous exposure to high temperatures (120 C) in air. It is concluded that desulfurization of the flue gas

  13. Ion Trap Array-Based Systems And Methods For Chemical Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitten, William B [Oak Ridge, TN; Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN

    2005-08-23

    An ion trap-based system for chemical analysis includes an ion trap array. The ion trap array includes a plurality of ion traps arranged in a 2-dimensional array for initially confining ions. Each of the ion traps comprise a central electrode having an aperture, a first and second insulator each having an aperture sandwiching the central electrode, and first and second end cap electrodes each having an aperture sandwiching the first and second insulator. A structure for simultaneously directing a plurality of different species of ions out from the ion traps is provided. A spectrometer including a detector receives and identifies the ions. The trap array can be used with spectrometers including time-of-flight mass spectrometers and ion mobility spectrometers.

  14. Cesium trapping characteristics on fly ash filter according to different carrier gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Jin-Myeong; Park, Jang-Jin; Song, Kee-Chan

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash, which is a kind of waste from a coal fired power plant, has been used as a trapping material because it contains silica and alumina suitable for forming pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}). Fly ash is sintered in order to fabricate it into a self-standing filter. The effect of a carrier gas on a cesium trapping quantity is investigated to analyze the cesium trapping characteristics by the fly ash filter in a lab-scale experimental apparatus. The chemical form of the cesium trapped on the filter after trapping cesium is identified to be a pollucite phase regardless of the type of carrier gas. The trapping efficiency of cesium by the fly ash filter under the air and NO{sub x}/air conditions is up to 99.0 %. However, the trapping efficiency of the cesium under the SO{sub x} condition was decreased to 80.0 %. (authors)

  15. Imaging electronic trap states in perovskite thin films with combined fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying -Zhong; Simpson, Mary Jane; Doughty, Benjamin; Yang, Bin

    2016-04-22

    Charge carrier trapping degrades the performance of organometallic halide perovskite solar cells. To characterize the locations of electronic trap states in a heterogeneous photoactive layer, a spatially resolved approach is essential. Here, we report a comparative study on methylammonium lead tri-iodide perovskite thin films subject to different thermal annealing times using a combined photoluminescence (PL) and femtosecond transient absorption microscopy (TAM) approach to spatially map trap states. This approach coregisters the initially populated electronic excited states with the regions that recombine radiatively. Although the TAM images are relatively homogeneous for both samples, the corresponding PL images are highly structured. Themore » remarkable variation in the PL intensities as compared to transient absorption signal amplitude suggests spatially dependent PL quantum efficiency, indicative of trapping events. Furthermore, detailed analysis enables identification of two trapping regimes: a densely packed trapping region and a sparse trapping area that appear as unique spatial features in scaled PL maps.« less

  16. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization: Task 2, Exploratory experimental studies: Single pellet tests; Rate mechanism analysis. Quarterly report, June 15, 1996--September 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1996-09-11

    Currently, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Department of Energy (DOE/METC) is actively investigating alternative hot fuel gas desulfurization sorbents for application to the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC). A sorbent must be highly active towards sulfur at high temperatures and pressures, and under varying degrees of reducing atmospheres. Also, it must regenerate nearly ideally to maintain activity over numerous cycles. Furthermore, regeneration must yield a sulfur product which is economically recoverable directly or indirectly. Several metal oxides have been investigated as regenerable sorbents for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot fuel gases. MnO was shown to have an intrinsic reaction rate approximately one order of magnitude greater than the rate or reaction with either CaO or ZnO and two orders of magnitude greater than the reaction rate with V{sub 2}0{sub 3}. Manganese also shows desulfurization potential in the temperature range of 600-700{degrees}C where metal oxides currently known to be reactive with H{sub 2}S are unsatisfactorily. In response to stability difficulties of single and binary metal oxide sorbents, increasing effort is being directed towards incorporation of an inert component into sorbent formulation as witnessed by the various Zn-titanates. Primarily, the inert component increases pore structure integrity while stabilizing the active metal oxide against reduction. This report will address testing of Mn-based sorbents in an ambient pressure fixed-bed reactor. Steady-state H{sub 2}S concentrations and breakthrough times will be presented.

  17. Influence of local capillary trapping on containment system effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, Steven

    2014-03-31

    Immobilization of CO2 injected into deep subsurface storage reservoirs is a critical component of risk assessment for geologic CO2 storage (GCS). Local capillary trapping (LCT) is a recently established mode of immobilization that arises when CO2 migrates due to buoyancy through heterogeneous storage reservoirs. This project sought to assess the amount and extent of LCT expected in storage formations under a range of injection conditions, and to confirm the persistence of LCT if the seal overlying the reservoir were to lose its integrity. Numerical simulation using commercial reservoir simulation software was conducted to assess the influence of injection. Laboratory experiments, modeling and numerical simulation were conducted to assess the effect of compromised seal integrity. Bench-scale (0.6 m by 0.6 m by 0.03 m) experiments with surrogate fluids provided the first empirical confirmation of the key concepts underlying LCT: accumulation of buoyant nonwetting phase at above residual saturations beneath capillary barriers in a variety of structures, which remains immobile under normal capillary pressure gradients. Immobilization of above-residual saturations is a critical distinction between LCT and the more familiar “residual saturation trapping.” To estimate the possible extent of LCT in a storage reservoir an algorithm was developed to identify all potential local traps, given the spatial distribution of capillary entry pressure in the reservoir. The algorithm assumes that the driving force for CO2 migration can be represented as a single value of “critical capillary entry pressure” Pc,entrycrit, such that cells with capillary entry pressure greater/less than Pc,entrycrit act as barriers/potential traps during CO2 migration. At intermediate values of Pc,entrycrit, the barrier regions become more laterally extensive in the reservoir

  18. Study of the Potential Impact of Gamma-Induced Radiolytic Gases on Loading of Cesium Onto Crystalline Silicotitanate Sorbent at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, A.J.

    2001-02-12

    The use of an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate as a potential sorbent for the removal and concentration of cesium from the high-level waste at the Savannah River Site was investigated. Results conclusively showed this sorbent to be unaffected by gamma-induced radiolytic gas formation during column loading. Closely controlled column-loading experiments were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in a gamma field with a conservative dose rate expected to exceed that in a full-scale column by a factor of nearly 16. Operation of column loading under expected nominal full-scale field conditions in the HFIR pool showed that radiolytic gases were formed at a previously calculated generation rate of 0.4 mL per liter of feed solution. When the resulting cesium-loading curve in the gamma field was compared with that of a control experiment in the absence of a gamma field, no discernable difference in the curves (within analytical error) was detected. Both curves were in good agreement with the VERSE computer-generated curve. Results conclusively indicate that the production of radiolytic gases within a full-scale column is not expected to result in reduced capacity or associated gas generation problems during operation at the Savannah River Site.

  19. Photovoltaic cell with light trapping for enhanced efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brener, Igal; Fofang, Nche Tumasang; Luk, Ting S.

    2015-11-19

    The efficiency of a photovoltaic cell is enhanced by light trapping using Mie-scattering nanostructures. In one embodiment, an array of nanocylinders is formed on the front surface of a silicon film to enhance forward scattering into the film, and an array of nanocylinders is formed on the back surface to enhance backscattering so that more light is absorbed within the silicon film. In an alternate embodiment, a mirror layer is formed on the back surface of the silicon film to reflect light within the film back toward the front-surface nanocylinder array.

  20. Nonideal fishbone instability excited by trapped energetic electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Tang, C. J.; Wang, Z. T.; Long, Y. X.; Dong, J. Q.

    2013-03-15

    It is shown that trapped energetic electrons can resonate with the collisionless m = 1 nonideal kink mode, therefore exciting the nonideal e-fishbone, which would often lead to a drop in soft x-ray emissivity and frequency chirping. The theory predictions agree well with the experimental observations of e-fishbone on HL-2A. It is also found that the effects of MHD energy of background plasma might be the reason for the observed phenomena: frequency chirping up and down, and V-font-style sweeping.

  1. Selective interactions in trapped ions: State reconstruction and quantum logic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solano, E.

    2005-01-01

    We propose the implementation of selective interactions of atom-motion subspaces in trapped ions. These interactions yield resonant exchange of population inside a selected subspace, leaving the others in a highly dispersive regime. Selectivity allows us to generate motional Fock (and other nonclassical) states with high purity out of a wide class of initial states, and becomes an unconventional cooling mechanism when the ground state is chosen. Individual population of number states can be distinctively measured, as well as the motional Wigner function. Furthermore, a protocol for implementing quantum logic through a suitable control of selective subspaces is presented.

  2. Selective control of the symmetric Dicke subspace in trapped ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, C. E.; Retamal, J. C.; Solano, E.

    2007-09-15

    We propose a method of manipulating selectively the symmetric Dicke subspace in the internal degrees of freedom of N trapped ions. We show that the direct access to ionic-motional subspaces, based on a suitable tuning of motion-dependent ac Stark shifts, induces a two-level dynamics involving previously selected ionic Dicke states. In this manner, it is possible to produce, sequentially and unitarily, ionic Dicke states with increasing excitation number. Moreover, we propose a probabilistic technique to produce directly any ionic Dicke state assuming suitable initial conditions.

  3. Rovibrational spectroscopy of trapped molecular hydrogen ions at millikelvin temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roth, B.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Daerr, H.; Schiller, S.

    2006-10-15

    We report a high-resolution spectroscopic study of molecular ions at millikelvin temperatures. We measured several rovibrational infrared transitions in HD{sup +} molecular ions, stored in a radio-frequency trap and sympathetically cooled to {approx_equal}20 mK by laser-cooled Be{sup +} ions. We observed hyperfine splitting of the lines, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The transitions were detected by monitoring the decrease in ion number after selective photodissociation of HD{sup +} ions in the upper vibrational state. The method described here is expected to be generally applicable.

  4. Confocal shift interferometry of coherent emission from trapped dipolar excitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repp, J.; Schinner, G. J.; Schubert, E.; Rai, A. K.; Wieck, A. D.; Reuter, D.; Wurstbauer, U.; Holleitner, A. W.; and others

    2014-12-15

    We introduce a confocal shift-interferometer based on optical fibers. The presented spectroscopy allows measuring coherence maps of luminescent samples with a high spatial resolution even at cryogenic temperatures. We apply the spectroscopy onto electrostatically trapped, dipolar excitons in a semiconductor double quantum well. We find that the measured spatial coherence length of the excitonic emission coincides with the point spread function of the confocal setup. The results are consistent with a temporal coherence of the excitonic emission down to temperatures of 250 mK.

  5. Atomic clock based on transient coherent population trapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Tao; Deng Ke; Chen Xuzong; Wang Zhong

    2009-04-13

    We proposed a scheme to implement coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clock based on the transient CPT phenomenon. We proved that the transient transmitted laser power in a typical {lambda} system near CPT resonance features as a damping oscillation. Also, the oscillating frequency is exactly equal to the frequency detuning from the atomic hyperfine splitting. Therefore, we can directly measure the frequency detuning and then compensated to the output frequency of microwave oscillator to get the standard frequency. By this method, we can further simplify the structure of CPT atomic clock, and make it easier to be digitized and miniaturized.

  6. Charge transfer fluorescence and 34 nm exciton diffusion length in polymers with electron acceptor end traps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zaikowski, Lori; Mauro, Gina; Bird, Matthew; Karten, Brianne; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Wu, Qin; Cook, Andrew R.; Miller, John R.

    2014-12-22

    Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are asmore » large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. As a result, the efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.« less

  7. Charge Transfer Fluorescence and 34 nm Exciton Diffusion Length in Polymers with Electron Acceptor End Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaikowski, L.; Mauro, G.; Bird, M.; Karten, B.; Asaoka, S.; Wu, Q.; Cook, A. R.; Miller, J.

    2014-12-22

    Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are as large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. The efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.

  8. Project Closeout Report Francium trapping facility at Triumf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orozco, Luis A

    2014-09-30

    This is a report of the construction of a Francium Trapping Facility (FTF) at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) of TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, where the Francium Parity Non Conservation (FrPNC) international collaboration has its home. This facility will be used to study fundamental symmetries with high-resolution atomic spectroscopy. The primary scientific objective of the program is a measurement of the anapole moment of francium in a chain of isotopes by observing the parity violation induced by the weak interaction. The anapole moment of francium and associated signal are expected to be ten times larger than in cesium, the only element in which an anapole moment has been observed. The measurement will provide crucial information for better understanding weak hadronic interactions in the context of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The methodology combines nuclear and particle physics techniques for the production of francium with precision measurements based on laser cooling and trapping and microwave spectroscopy. The program builds on an initial series of atomic spectroscopy measurements of the nuclear structure of francium, based on isotope shifts and hyperfine anomalies, before conducting the anapole moment measurements, these measurements performed during commissioning runs help understand the atomic and nuclear structure of Fr.

  9. Trapping ultracold gases near cryogenic materials with rapid reconfigurability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naides, Matthew A.; Turner, Richard W.; Lai, Ruby A.; DiSciacca, Jack M.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2013-12-16

    We demonstrate an atom chip trapping system that allows the placement and high-resolution imaging of ultracold atoms within microns from any ?100??m-thin, UHV-compatible material, while also allowing sample exchange with minimal experimental downtime. The sample is not connected to the atom chip, allowing rapid exchange without perturbing the atom chip or laser cooling apparatus. Exchange of the sample and retrapping of atoms has been performed within a week turnaround, limited only by chamber baking. Moreover, the decoupling of sample and atom chip provides the ability to independently tune the sample temperature and its position with respect to the trapped ultracold gas, which itself may remain in the focus of a high-resolution imaging system. As a first demonstration of this system, we have confined a 700-nK cloud of 8??10{sup 4} {sup 87}Rb atoms within 100??m of a gold-mirrored 100-?m-thick silicon substrate. The substrate was cooled to 35?K without use of a heat shield, while the atom chip, 120??m away, remained at room temperature. Atoms may be imaged and retrapped every 16?s, allowing rapid data collection.

  10. Have the best available trap on the job, check design, installation, and maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spires, F.; Toy, D.A.

    1986-12-01

    Industrial and commercial installations can have much more efficient steam systems with properly designed, installed, and maintained steam traps. Thirty years ago, steam trap maintenance did not have near the significance it does today; fuel costs have risen from about $0.30 per 1000 lb of steam to over 25 times that a few years ago to about 15 times that cost today. Worn or otherwise malfunctioning steam traps can take quite a toll on the energy bill, especially since most traps are designed to fail in the open position. Failure of just one steam trap with a 1/2'' diameter orifice in the open position can cost $45,090 a year. This article gives guidelines for the prevention of steam trap failures.

  11. Large Particle Titanate Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2015-10-08

    This research project was aimed at developing a synthesis technique for producing large particle size monosodium titanate (MST) to benefit high level waste (HLW) processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two applications were targeted, first increasing the size of the powdered MST used in batch contact processing to improve the filtration performance of the material, and second preparing a form of MST suitable for deployment in a column configuration. Increasing the particle size should lead to improvements in filtration flux, and decreased frequency of filter cleaning leading to improved throughput. Deployment of MST in a column configuration would allow for movement from a batch process to a more continuous process. Modifications to the typical MST synthesis led to an increase in the average particle size. Filtration testing on dead-end filters showed improved filtration rates with the larger particle material; however, no improvement in filtration rate was realized on a crossflow filter. In order to produce materials suitable for column deployment several approaches were examined. First, attempts were made to coat zirconium oxide microspheres (196 µm) with a layer of MST. This proved largely unsuccessful. An alternate approach was then taken synthesizing a porous monolith of MST which could be used as a column. Several parameters were tested, and conditions were found that were able to produce a continuous structure versus an agglomeration of particles. This monolith material showed Sr uptake comparable to that of previously evaluated samples of engineered MST in batch contact testing.

  12. Polarization-dependent atomic dipole traps behind a circular aperture for neutral-atom quantum computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillen-Christandl, Katharina; Copsey, Bert D.

    2011-02-15

    The neutral-atom quantum computing community has successfully implemented almost all necessary steps for constructing a neutral-atom quantum computer. We present computational results of a study aimed at solving the remaining problem of creating a quantum memory with individually addressable sites for quantum computing. The basis of this quantum memory is the diffraction pattern formed by laser light incident on a circular aperture. Very close to the aperture, the diffraction pattern has localized bright and dark spots that can serve as red-detuned or blue-detuned atomic dipole traps. These traps are suitable for quantum computing even for moderate laser powers. In particular, for moderate laser intensities ({approx}100 W/cm{sup 2}) and comparatively small detunings ({approx}1000-10 000 linewidths), trap depths of {approx}1 mK and trap frequencies of several to tens of kilohertz are achieved. Our results indicate that these dipole traps can be moved by tilting the incident laser beams without significantly changing the trap properties. We also explored the polarization dependence of these dipole traps. We developed a code that calculates the trapping potential energy for any magnetic substate of any hyperfine ground state of any alkali-metal atom for any laser detuning much smaller than the fine-structure splitting for any given electric field distribution. We describe details of our calculations and include a summary of different notations and conventions for the reduced matrix element and how to convert it to SI units. We applied this code to these traps and found a method for bringing two traps together and apart controllably without expelling the atoms from the trap and without significant tunneling probability between the traps. This approach can be scaled up to a two-dimensional array of many pinholes, forming a quantum memory with single-site addressability, in which pairs of atoms can be brought together and apart for two-qubit gates for quantum computing.

  13. DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER).

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER). The realization of a paradigm chaotic system, namely the harmonically driven oscillator, in the quantum domain using cold trapped ions driven by lasers is theoretically investigated. The simplest characteristics of regular and chaotic dynamics

  14. GreenPower Trap Water-Muffler System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GreenPower Trap Water-Muffler System GreenPower Trap Water-Muffler System This hydrated EGR system reduces NOx and enhances fuel efficiency, and the DPF is catalyzed by the fuel-borne catalyst generated by the oil-borne catalyst system deer09_rim.pdf (118.32 KB) More Documents & Publications DPF -"Hydrated EGR" Fuel Saver System GreenPowerTM Trap-Muffler

  15. Ionization of polarized 3He+ ions in EBIS trap with slanted electrostatic mirror.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikin,A.; Zelenski, A.; Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Prelee, K.; Raparia, D.

    2007-09-10

    Methods of producing the nuclear polarized {sup 3}He{sup +} ions and their ionization to {sup 3}H{sup ++} in ion trap of the electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) are discussed. Computer simulations show that injection and accumulation of {sup 3}He{sup +} ions in the EBIS trap with slanted electrostatic mirror can be very effective for injection times longer than the ion traversal time through the trap.

  16. Using impedance measurements for detecting pathogens trapped in an electric field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-07-20

    Impedance measurements between the electrodes in an electric field is utilized to detect the presence of pathogens trapped in the electric field. Since particles trapped in a field using the dielectiphoretic force changes the impedance between the electrodes by changing the dielectric material between the electrodes, the degree of particle trapping can be determined by measuring the impedance. This measurement is used to determine if sufficient pathogen have been collected to analyze further or potentially to identify the pathogen.

  17. Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder Regeneration Strategies Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference ...

  18. Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR System Synergies of ...

  19. Modeling Drift Loss Cone Effects on the Trapping of an Artificial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Modeling Drift Loss Cone Effects on the Trapping of an Artificial Radiation Belt Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling Drift Loss Cone Effects on the ...

  20. Charge trapping and de-trapping in isolated CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals under an external electric field: Indirect evidence for a permanent dipole moment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zang, Huidong; Cristea, Mihail; Shen, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhao; Camino, Fernando; Cotlet, Mircea

    2015-08-05

    Single nanoparticle studies of charge trapping and de-trapping in core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals incorporated into an insulating matrix and subjected to an external electric field demonstrate the ability to reversibly modulate the exciton dynamics and photoluminescence blinking while providing indirect evidence for the existence of a permanent ground state dipole moment in such nanocrystals. A model assuming the presence of energetically deep charge traps physically aligned along the direction of the permanent dipole is proposed in order to explain the dynamics of nanocrystal blinking in the presence of a permanent dipole moment.

  1. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J; Ponnusamy, Senthil; Ferguson, Harley Douglas; Williams, Aaron M; Tassitano, James B

    2007-09-01

    efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial

  2. Analysis of electron dynamics in non-ideal Penning traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppa, G.; Mulas, R.; D'Angola, A.

    2012-06-15

    Penning traps that are used for particular applications, such as in ion pump technology, Larmor, bouncing, and diocotron frequencies, can be of the same order of magnitude. The paper deals with the dynamics of electrons confined in such devices starting from the study of the properties of the trajectories. In cases of interest, in which electron-neutral collision frequency is much smaller with respect to the characteristic frequencies of the motion, suitable time averages of the trajectories are introduced in order to simplify the analysis of the problem. In the work, time averages have been calculated in a simple way by using an approximate r-z decoupling of the effective potential. Results obtained with the method are presented and discussed in both linear and nonlinear regimes.

  3. Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Novosselov, Igor V.; Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmller, Hans; Sorensen, Christopher M.; Stipe, Christopher B.

    2014-06-16

    We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (?g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in ?g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in ?g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ?10{sup 6}?s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

  4. Nonclassical imaging for a quantum search of trapped ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, G.S.; Ariunbold, G.O.; Zanthier, J. von; Walther, H.

    2004-12-01

    We discuss a simple search problem which can be pursued with different methods, either on a classical or on a quantum basis. The system is represented by a chain of trapped ions. The ion to be searched for is a member of that chain, consisting, however, of an isotopic species different from the others. It is shown that classical imaging may lead to the final result as fast as quantum imaging. However, for the discussed case the quantum method gives more flexibility and higher precision when the number of ions considered in the chain increases. In addition, interferences are observable even when the distances between the ions are smaller than half a wavelength of the incident light.

  5. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  6. Gas turbine engine combustor can with trapped vortex cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrus, David Louis; Joshi, Narendra Digamber; Haynes, Joel Meier; Feitelberg, Alan S.

    2005-10-04

    A gas turbine engine combustor can downstream of a pre-mixer has a pre-mixer flowpath therein and circumferentially spaced apart swirling vanes disposed across the pre-mixer flowpath. A primary fuel injector is positioned for injecting fuel into the pre-mixer flowpath. A combustion chamber surrounded by an annular combustor liner disposed in supply flow communication with the pre-mixer. An annular trapped dual vortex cavity located at an upstream end of the combustor liner is defined between an annular aft wall, an annular forward wall, and a circular radially outer wall formed therebetween. A cavity opening at a radially inner end of the cavity is spaced apart from the radially outer wall. Air injection first holes are disposed through the forward wall and air injection second holes are disposed through the aft wall. Fuel injection holes are disposed through at least one of the forward and aft walls.

  7. Feasibility study results for dry sorbent furnace injection for SO sub 2 control Prairie Creek No. 4 Iowa Electric Light and Power Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.V. ); Rehrauer, H.W. )

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the recent passage of new amendments to the Clean Air Act, many U.S. power plants will be required to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. Iowa Electric Light and Power (IELP) was interested in investigating a number of options that will allow Prairie Creek Unit 4 to operate in compliance with these new regulations. One of these options was Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI), a relatively simple and low cost retrofit technique, useful for controlling SO{sub 2} concentrations in coal combustion flue gas. The purpose of the program was to obtain operational data necessary to aid in the identification and assessment of DSI options that have a high potential for successful application. This paper contains a summary and analysis of the data obtained during the test effort. It also contains a discussion of the results of each of the major tasks undertaken to accomplish this feasibility study.

  8. Characterization of a state-insensitive dipole trap for cesium atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phoonthong, P.; Douglas, P.; Wickenbrock, A.; Renzoni, F.

    2010-07-15

    In this work we characterize a state-insensitive dipole trap for cold cesium atoms, as realized by tightly focusing a single running laser beam at the magic wavelength. The use of trapping light at the magic wavelength of 935.6 nm resulted in the same ac Stark shift for the {sup 6}S{sub 1/2} ground state and the {sup 6}P{sub 3/2} excited state. A complete characterization of the trap is given, which includes the dependence of the lifetime on the trap depth, an analysis of the important role played by a depumper beam, and a comparison with dipole trapping at different (nonmagic) wavelengths. In particular, we measured the differential light shift of the relevant optical transition as a function of the trapping light wavelength, and showed that it becomes zero at the magic wavelength. Our results are compared to previous realizations of state-insensitive dipole traps for cesium atoms. We also discuss the possible role of the state-insensitive trap, its limitations, and possible developments for the study of ground-state quantum coherence phenomena and related applications.

  9. Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: University of New Mexico 2004_deer_hammache.pdf (249.2 KB) More Documents & Publications CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System

  10. Scattering of a tightly focused beam by an optically trapped particle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lock, James A.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Weiland, Kenneth E

    2006-05-20

    Near-forward scattering of an optically trapped 5-{mu}m-radius polystyrene latex sphere by the trapping beam was examined both theoretically and experimentally. Since the trapping beam is tightly focused, the beam fields superpose and interfere with the scattered fields in the forward hemisphere. The observed light intensity consists of a series of concentric bright and dark fringes centered about the forward-scattering direction. Both the number of fringes and their contrast depend on the position of the trapping beam focal waist with respect to the sphere. The fringes are caused by diffraction that is due to the truncation of the tail of the trapping beam as the beam is transmitted through the sphere.

  11. Hydride vapor phase GaN films with reduced density of residual electrons and deep traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Yugova, T. G.; Cox, H.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Usikov, A. S.

    2014-05-14

    Electrical properties and deep electron and hole traps spectra are compared for undoped n-GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in the regular process (standard HVPE samples) and in HVPE process optimized for decreasing the concentration of residual donor impurities (improved HVPE samples). It is shown that the residual donor density can be reduced by optimization from ?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} to (25)??10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?3}. The density of deep hole traps and deep electron traps decreases with decreased donor density, so that the concentration of deep hole traps in the improved samples is reduced to ?5??10{sup 13}?cm{sup ?3} versus 2.9??10{sup 16}?cm{sup ?3} in the standard samples, with a similar decrease in the electron traps concentration.

  12. Simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of bosonic and fermionic chromium atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chicireanu, R.; Pouderous, A.; Barbe, R.; Laburthe-Tolra, B.; Marechal, E.; Vernac, L.; Keller, J.-C.; Gorceix, O.

    2006-05-15

    We report on magneto-optical trapping of fermionic {sup 53}Cr atoms. A Zeeman-slowed atomic beam provides loading rates up to 3x10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. We present systematic characterization of the magneto-optical trap (MOT). We obtain up to 5x10{sup 5} atoms in the steady-state MOT. The atoms radiatively decay from the excited P state into metastable D states, and, due to the large dipolar magnetic moment of chromium atoms in these states, they can remain magnetically trapped in the quadrupole field gradient of the MOT. We study the accumulation of metastable {sup 53}Cr atoms in this magnetic trap. We also report on the simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of bosonic {sup 52}Cr and fermionic {sup 53}Cr atoms. Finally, we characterize the light-assisted collision losses in this Bose-Fermi cold mixture.

  13. Adiabatic electron response and solitary wave generation by trapped particle nonlinearity in a hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandal, Debraj; Sharma, Devendra

    2014-10-15

    The finite amplitude ion acoustic waves that trap electrons modify the structure of the evolving nonlinear soliton solutions. In the numerical simulations, self-consistently generated solitary waves are studied that emerge as a result of a current driven microinstability growing the ion acoustic mode in a collisionless Vlasov plasma. The growth saturates as a result of nonlinear effects governed by a combination of nonlinearities originating from the hydrodynamic model and kinetic particle trapping effects. The resulting solitary waves also coexist with a finite current and an electron plasma wave capable of perturbing the trapping potential. The results of multiscale simulation are analyzed and characterized following the kinetic prescription of undamped trapped particle mode in the form of phase space vortex solutions that are generalized form of Sagdeev's solitons and obey the solutions of a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation, accounting for a stronger nonlinearity originating from the electron trapping.

  14. Hybrid particle traps and conditioning procedure for gas insulated transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J.; Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner condor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping ring is disposed within the outer sheath, and the trapping ring has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the trapping ring along an arc. A support sheet having an adhesive coating thereon is secured to the trapping ring and disposed on the outer sheath within the low field region formed between the trapping ring and the outer sheath. A conditioning method used to condition the transmission line prior to activation in service comprises applying an AC voltage to the inner conductor in a plurality of voltage-time steps, with the voltage-time steps increasing in voltage magnitude while decreasing in time duration.

  15. The Role of Electron Transport and Trapping in MOS Total-Dose Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Riewe, L.C.; Flament, O.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.L.

    1999-07-19

    Radiation-induced hole and electron transport and trapping are fundamental to MOS total-dose models. Here we separate the effects of electron-hole annihilation and electron trapping on the neutralization of radiation-induced charge during switched-bias irradiation for hard and soft oxides, via combined thermally stimulated current (TSC) and capacitance-voltage measurements. We also show that present total-dose models cannot account for the thermal stability of deeply trapped electrons near the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface, or the inability of electrons in deep or shallow traps to contribute to TSC at positive bias following (1) room-temperature, (2) high-temperature, or (3) switched-bias irradiation. These results require revisions of modeling parameters and boundary conditions for hole and electron transport in SiO{sub 2}. The nature of deep and shallow electron traps in the near-interfacial SiO{sub 2} is discussed.

  16. Infrared spectra of small molecular ions trapped in solid neon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacox, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-22

    The infrared spectrum of a molecular ion provides a unique signature for that species, gives information on its structure, and is amenable to remote sensing. It also serves as a comparison standard for refining ab initio calculations. Experiments in this laboratory trap molecular ions in dilute solid solution in neon at 4.2 K in sufficient concentration for observation of their infrared spectra between 450 and 4000 cm{sup !1}. Discharge-excited neon atoms produce cations by photoionization and/or Penning ionization of the parent molecule. The resulting electrons are captured by other molecules, yielding anions which provide for overall charge neutrality of the deposit. Recent observations of ions produced from C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and BF{sub 3} will be discussed. Because of their relatively large possibility of having low-lying excited electronic states, small, symmetric molecular cations are especially vulnerable to breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Some phenomena which can result from this breakdown will be discussed. Ion-molecule reaction rates are sufficiently high that in some systems absorptions of dimer cations and anions are also observed. When H{sub 2} is introduced into the system, the initially-formed ion may react with it. Among the species resulting from such ion-molecule reactions that have recently been studied are O{sub 4}{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, HOCO{sup +}, and HCO{sub 2}{sup !}.

  17. A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedrick, C.L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Sidikman, K.L.

    1995-09-01

    A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes is developed which focuses on an improved description of the ion dynamics. The model is simple enough to allow nonlinear calculations with many harmonics for the times necessary to reach saturation. The model is motivated by a discussion that starts with the gyro-kinetic equation and emphasizes the importance of simultaneously including particular features of magnetic drift resonance, shear, and Landau effects. To ensure that these features are simultaneously incorporated in a Landau fluid model with only two evolution equations, a new approach to determining the closure coefficients is employed. The effect of this technique is to reduce the matching of fluid and kinetic responses to a single variable, rather than two, and to allow focusing on essential features of the fluctuations in question, rather than features that are only important for other types of fluctuations. Radially resolved nonlinear calculations of this model, advanced in time to reach saturation, are presented to partially illustrate its intended use. These calculations have a large number of poloidal and toroidal harmonics to represent the nonlinear dynamics in a converged steady state which includes cascading of energy to both short and long wavelengths.

  18. Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1985-01-01

    A particle trap is provided for gas insulated transmission lines having a central high voltage conductor supported within an outer coaxial conductive sheath by a dielectric support member. A cavity between the inner conductor and outer sheath is filled with a dielectric insulating gas. A cone-like particle deflector, mounted to the inner conductor, deflects moving particles away from the support member, to radially outer portions of the cavity. A conductive shield is disposed adjacent the outer sheath to form a field-free region in radially outer portions of the cavity, between the shield and the sheath. Particles traveling along the cavity are deflected by the cone-like deflector into the field-free region where they are held immobile. In a vertical embodiment, particles enter the field-free region through an upper end of a gap formed between shield and sheath members. In a horizontal embodiment, the deflector cone has a base which is terminated radially internally of the shield. Apertures in the shield located adjacent the deflector allow passage of deflected particles into the field-free region. The dielectric support member is thereby protected from contaminating particles that may otherwise come to rest thereon.

  19. Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, A.H.

    1984-04-26

    A particle trap is provided for gas insulated transmission lines having a central high voltage conductor supported within an outer coaxial conductive sheath by a dielectric support member. A cavity between the inner conductor and outer sheath is filled with a dielectric insulating gas. A cone-like particle deflector, mounted to the inner conductor, deflects moving particles away from the support member, to radially outer portions of the cavity. A conductive shield is disposed adjacent the outer sheath to form a field-free region in radially outer portions of the cavity, between the shield and the sheath. Particles traveling along the cavity are deflected by the cone-like deflector into the field-free region where they are held immobile. In a vertical embodiment, particles enter the field-free region through an upper end of a gap formed between shield and sheath members. In a horizontal embodiment, the deflector cone has a base which is terminated radially internally of the shield. Apertures in the shield located adjacent the deflector allow passage of deflected particles into the field-free region. The dielectric support member is thereby protected from contaminating particles that may otherwise come to rest thereon.

  20. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-15

    We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. Safety and effectiveness are achieved if CO{sub 2} and displaced brine have no significant impact on humans, other living things, resources, or the environment. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO{sub 2} leakage risk which takes into account both the impact and probability of leakage. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) compartments to represent environmental resources that may be impacted by leakage, (3) CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in the compartments as proxies for impact to vulnerable entities, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated plume movements, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO{sub 2} plume with the conduits and compartments. We demonstrate the approach on a hypothetical GCS site in a Texas Gulf Coast saline formation. Through its generality and flexibility, the CF can contribute to the assessment of risk of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage as part of the certification process for licensing and permitting of GCS sites around the world regardless of the specific regulations in place in any given country.