Sample records for multi-shot blast source

  1. The U.S. NHMFL 100 tesla multi-shot magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, C. N. (Curtt N.); Coe, H. (Hideyoshi); Ellis, G. G. (Gretchen G.); Lesch, B. L. (Bernard L.); Sims, J. R. (James R.); Schillig, J. B. (Josef B.); Swenson, C. A. (Charles A.); Bacon, J. L. (James L.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design, analysis and fabrication progress of the 100 T Multi-Shot Magnet is described. The description includes the structural analysis of the outer coil set, the fabrication of the 100 T prototype coil 1, the fabrication of a coil 1 test shell, and the analysis of the electrical busbar assembly. Fabrication issues and their solutions are presented. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the U.S. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  2. Blast from the Past: Melting Glaciers as a Relevant Source for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Blast from the Past: Melting Glaciers as a Relevant Source for Persistent Organic Pollutants C H R, 2009. Accepted August 31, 2009. In this study, the hypothesis that melting Alpine glaciers may organic chemicals from melting Alpine glaciers. Considering ongoing global warming and accelerated massive

  3. The design, implementation, and evaluation of mpiBLAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darling, A. E. (Aaron E.); Carey, L. (Lucas); Feng, W. C. (Wu-Chun)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mpiBLAST is an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speed-up by segmenting a BLAST database and then having each node in a computational cluster search a unique portion of the database. Database segmentation permits each node to search a smaller portion of the database, eliminating disk I/O and vastly improving BLAST performance. Because database segmentation does not create heavy communication demands, BLAST users can take advantage of low-cost and efficient Linux cluster architectures such as the bladed Beowulf. In addition to presenting the software architecture of mpiBLAST we present a detailed performance analysis of mpiBLAST to demonstrate its scalability.

  4. Centrifugal shot blast system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

  5. Blast furnace stove control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

  6. Directed Relativistic Blast Wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Gruzinov

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A spherically symmetrical ultra-relativistic blast wave is not an attractor of a generic asymmetric explosion. Spherical symmetry is reached only by the time the blast wave slows down to non-relativistic velocities, when the Sedov-Taylor-von Neumann attractor solution sets in. We show however, that a directed relativistic explosion, with the explosion momentum close to the explosion energy, produces a blast wave with a universal intermediate asymptotic -- a selfsimilar directed ultra-relativistic blast wave. This universality might be of interest for the astrophysics of gamma-ray burst afterglows.

  7. Effects of non-latching blast valves on the source term and consequences of the design-basis accidents in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, D.H.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of the Design-Basis Accidents (DBA) involving high explosives (HE) and Plutonium (Pu) in the assembly cell of the Device Assembly Facility (DAF), which was completed earlier, assumed latching blast valves in the ventilation system of the assembly cell. Latching valves effectively sealed a release path through the ventilation duct system. However, the blast valves in the assembly cell, as constructed are actually non-latching valves, and would reopen when the gas pressure drops to 0.5 psi above one atmosphere. Because the reopening of the blast valves provides an additional release path to the environment, and affects the material transport from the assembly cell to other DAF buildings, the DOE/NV DAF management has decided to support an additional analysis of the DAF`s DBA to account for the effects of non-latching valves. Three cases were considered in the DAF`s DBA, depending on the amount of HE and Pu involved, as follows: Case 1 -- 423 {number_sign}HE, 16 kg Pu; Case 2 -- 150 {number_sign}HE 10 kg Pu; Case 3 -- 55 {number_sign}HE 5 kg Pu. The results of the analysis with non-latching valves are summarized.

  8. Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

  9. NOvA First Blast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Blasting began at the future site of the NOvA detector facility near Ash River, Minnesota, on Monday, July 20.

  10. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana [University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  12. Modeling and Simulating Blast Effects on Electric Substations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F. Jeffers; Kent E. McGillivary; Tony D. Paul; Ryan Jacobson

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A software simulation tool was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to estimate the fragility of electric substation components subject to an explosive blast. Damage caused by explosively driven fragments on a generic electric substation was estimated by using a ray-tracing technique to track and tabulate fragment impacts and penetrations of substation components. This technique is based on methods used for assessing vulnerability of military aircraft and ground vehicles to explosive blasts. An open-source rendering and ray-trace engine was used for geometric modeling and interactions between fragments and substation components. Semi-empirical material interactions models were used to calculate blast parameters and simulate high-velocity material interactions between explosively driven fragments and substation components. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was added to model the random nature of fragment generation allowing a skilled analyst to predict failure probabilities of substation components.

  13. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  14. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

  15. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  16. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  17. Exercise 2: Pairwise Alignment and BLAST 1. Be familiar with BLAST @NCBI.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yanjun "Lisa"

    Exercise 2: Pairwise Alignment and BLAST 1. Be familiar with BLAST @NCBI. 2. Be familiar with BLAST polyprotein of 1014 amino acid residues (P10266). Use BLAST 2 Sequences to perform a pairwise alignment using, and BLOSUM80 scoring matrices. What is the effect of changing the search parameters? Then perform the same

  18. Exercise 2: Pairwise Alignment and BLAST 1. Be familiar with BLAST @NCBI.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yanjun "Lisa"

    Exercise 2: Pairwise Alignment and BLAST 1. Be familiar with BLAST @NCBI. 2. Be familiar with BLAST polyprotein of 1014 amino acid residues (P10266). Use BLAST 2 Sequences to perform a pairwise alignment using scoring matrices. What is the effect of changing the search parameters? Then perform the same pairwise

  19. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs cfdblastfurnace.pdf More...

  20. Microsoft Word - Blast Energy.112706.DOC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    partnership successfully tests new, less expensive drilling technology Casper, Wyo. - Nov. 28, 2006 - The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and its partner Blast...

  1. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  2. Rebuilding of Rautaruukki blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallo, S.; Pisilae, E.; Ojala, K. [Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (Finland)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel rebuilt its blast furnaces in 1995 (BF1) and 1996 (BF2) after 10 year campaigns and production of 9,747 THM/m{sup 3} (303 NTHM/ft{sup 3}) and 9,535 THM/m{sup 3} (297 NTHM/ft{sup 3}), respectively. At the end of the campaigns, damaged cooling system and shell cracks were increasingly disturbing the availability of furnaces. The goal for rebuilding was to improve the cooling systems and refractory quality in order to attain a 15 year campaign. The furnaces were slightly enlarged to meet the future production demand. The blast furnace control rooms and operations were centralized and the automation and instrumentation level was considerably improved in order to improve the operation efficiency and to reduce manpower requirements. Investments in direct slag granulation and improved casthouse dedusting improved environmental protection. The paper describes the rebuilding.

  3. SOURCE?

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), is an open-source code package designed to be a common, low-cost, standardized tool...

  4. Reactive Blast Waves from Composite Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigated here is the performance of composite explosives - measured in terms of the blast wave they drive into the surrounding environment. The composite charge configuration studied here was a spherical booster (1/3 charge mass), surrounded by aluminum (Al) powder (2/3 charge mass) at an initial density of {rho}{sub 0} = 0.604 g/cc. The Al powder acts as a fuel but does not detonate - thereby providing an extreme example of a 'non-ideal' explosive (where 2/3 of the charge does not detonate). Detonation of the booster charge creates a blast wave that disperses the Al powder and ignites the ensuing Al-air mixture - thereby forming a two-phase combustion cloud embedded in the explosion. Afterburning of the booster detonation products with air also enhances and promotes the Al-air combustion process. Pressure waves from such reactive blast waves have been measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Here we describe numerical simulations of those experiments. A Heterogeneous Continuum Model was used to model the dispersion and combustion of the Al particle cloud. It combines the gasdynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a dilute continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models of Khasainov. It incorporates a combustion model based on mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) was used to capture the energy-bearing scales of the turbulent flow on the computational grid, and to track/resolve reaction zones. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g and 10-kg composite charges were performed. Computed pressure histories (red curve) are compared with measured waveforms (black curves) in Fig. 1. Comparison of these results with a waveform for a non-combustion case in nitrogen (blue curve) demonstrates that a reactive blast wave was formed. Cross-sectional views of the temperature field at various times are presented in Fig. 2, which shows that the flow is turbulent. Initially, combustion occurs at the fuel-air interface, and the energy release rate is controlled by the rate of turbulent mixing. Eventually, oxidizer becomes distributed throughout the cloud via ballistic mixing of the particles with air; energy release then occurs in a distributed combustion mode, and Al particle kinetics controls the energy release rate. Details of the Heterogeneous Continuum Model and results of the numerical simulations of composite charge explosions will be described in the paper.

  5. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gao, Huizhen (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  6. BLASTING: STRICT TORT LIABILITY OR Timothy D. Stark1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © 2002 International Society of Explosives Engineers 2002G Volume 1 - Blasting: Strict Tort Liability

  7. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  8. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

    2002-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

  9. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  10. Blast furnace supervision and control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remorino, M.; Lingiardi, O.; Zecchi, M. [Siderar S.A.I.C./Ingdesi, San Nicolas (Argentina)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 1992, a group of companies headed by Techint, took over Somisa, the state-owned integrated steel plant located at San Nicolas, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, culminating an ambitious government privatization scheme. The blast furnace 2 went into a full reconstruction and relining in January 1995. After a 140 MU$ investment the new blast furnace 2 was started in September 1995. After more than one year of operation of the blast furnace the system has proven itself useful and reliable. The main reasons for the success of the system are: same use interface for all blast furnace areas -- operation, process, maintenance and management, (full horizontal and vertical integration); and full accessibility to all information and process tools though some restrictions apply to field commands (people empowerment). The paper describes the central system.

  11. Cumulative Probability of Blast Fragmentation Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Mazonka

    2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents formulae for calculation of cumulative probability of effect made by blast fragments. Analysis with Mott distribution, discrete fragment enumeration, spatial non-uniformity, numerical issues, and a generalisation for a set of effects are also discussed.

  12. Cumulative Probability of Blast Fragmentation Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazonka, Oleg

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents formulae for calculation of cumulative probability of effect made by blast fragments. Analysis with Mott distribution, discrete fragment enumeration, spatial non-uniformity, numerical issues, and a generalisation for a set of effects are also discussed.

  13. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  14. STANDARD OF CARE FOR BLASTING Timothy D. Stark1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Explosives Engineers 2003G Volume 1 - STANDARD OF CARE FOR BLASTING NEGLIGENCE 1 of 15 #12;Copyright © 2003 International Society of Explosives Engineers 2003G Volume 1 - STANDARD OF CARE FOR BLASTING NEGLIGENCE 2 of 15

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF MITIGATION MATERIALS FOR BLAST INDUCED TBI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Laurence Retman

    The objective of this experimental study is to compare the effects of various materials obstructing the flow of a blast wave and the ability of the given material to reduce the damage caused by the blast. Several methods ...

  16. Computational modeling of blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyein, Michelle K. (Michelle Kyaw)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast-induced TBI has gained prominence in recent years due to the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, yet little is known about the mechanical effects of blasts on the human head; no injury thresholds have been established ...

  17. Blast overpressure relief using air vacated buffer medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avasarala, Srikanti Rupa

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast waves generated by intense explosions cause damage to structures and human injury. In this thesis, a strategy is investigated for relief of blast overpressure resulting from explosions in air. The strategy is based ...

  18. AZIMUTHAL VARIATION OF RADIATION OF SEISMIC ENERGY FROM CAST BLASTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Blasting Research, International Society of Explosive Engineers, 2-5 Feb 97, Las Vegas, NV #12;AZIMUTHAL

  19. Blast wave attenuation by lightly destructable granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    bombings are a dismal reality nowadays. One of the most effective ways for protection against blast to investigate the behaviour of a covering of aluminum foam under the effect of a blast wave. In our study the decrease of the blast wave attenuation coefficient with effective distance and the dependence

  20. NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Crack Response to Weather Effects, Blasting, and Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Crack Response to Weather Effects, Blasting, and Construction Vibrations Acknowledgements iii Abstract iv List of Figures v List of Tables xi Chapter 1- Introduction 1 Chapter 2- Blast Vibration Response, Southbury, Connecticut 5 Structural Description Instrumentation Blast Response Crack

  1. An Efficient SquareRoot Algorithm for BLAST Babak Hassibi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassibi, Babak

    antennas, BLAST first decodes the ``strongest'' signal, then cancels the effect of this strongest transmitAn Efficient Square­Root Algorithm for BLAST Babak Hassibi Mathematics of Communications Research­Time (BLAST) is a scheme for transmitting information over a rich­scattering wireless environment using

  2. Computational Hydrocode Study of Target Damage due to Fragment-Blast Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatch-Aguilar, T; Najjar, F; Szymanski, E

    2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A target's terminal ballistic effects involving explosively generated fragments, along with the original blast, are of critical importance for many different security and safety related applications. Personnel safety and protective building design are but a few of the practical disciplines that can gain from improved understanding combined loading effects. Traditionally, any engineering level analysis or design effort involving explosions would divide the target damage analysis into two correspondingly critical areas: blast wave and fragment related impact effects. The hypothesis of this paper lies in the supposition that a linear combination of a blast-fragment loading, coupled with an accurate target response description, can lead to a non-linear target damage effect. This non-linear target response could then stand as the basis of defining what a synergistic or combined frag-blast loading might actually look like. The table below, taken from Walters, et. al. categorizes some of the critical parameters driving any combined target damage effect and drives the evaluation of results. Based on table 1 it becomes clear that any combined frag-blast analysis would need to account for the target response matching similar ranges for the mechanics described above. Of interest are the critical times upon which a blast event or fragment impact loading occurs relative to the target's modal response. A blast, for the purposes of this paper is defined as the sudden release of chemical energy from a given material (henceforth referred to as an energetic material) onto its surrounding medium. During the coupling mechanism a discrete or discontinuous shockwave is generated. This shockwave travels outward from the source transferring energy and momentum to any surrounding objects including personnel and engineering structures. From an engineering perspective blast effects are typically characterized by way of physical characteristics such as Peak Pressure (PP), Time of Arrival (TOA), Pressure-Impulse (PI) and Time of Duration (TD). Other peculiarities include the radial decrease in pressure from the source, any fireball size measurement, and subsequent increase in temperature from the passing of the shockwave through the surrounding medium. In light of all of these metrics, the loading any object receives from a blast event becomes intricately connected to the distance between itself and the source. Because of this, a clear distinction is made between close-in effects and those from a source far away from the object of interest. Explosively generated fragments on the other hand are characterized by means of their localized damage potential. Metrics such as whether the fragment penetrates or perforates a given object is quantified as well as other variables including fragment's residual velocity, % kinetic energy decrease, residual fragment mass and other exit criteria. A fragment launched under such violent conditions could easily be traveling at speeds in excess of 2500 ft/s. Given these speeds it is conceivable to imagine how any given fragment could deliver a concentrated load to a target and penetrates through walls, vehicles or even the protection systems of nearby personnel. This study will focus on the individual fragment-target impact event with the hopes of expanding it to eventually include statistical procedures. Since this is a modeling excursion into the combined frag-blast target damage effects the numerical methods used to frame this problem become important in-so-far as the simulations are done in a consistent manner. For this study a Finite-Element based Hydrocode solution called ALE3D (ALE=Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) was utilized. ALE3D is developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA), and as this paper will show, successfully implemented a converged ALE formulation including as many of the different aspects needed to query the synergistic damage on a given target. Further information on the modeling setup is included.

  3. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project public design report. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The public design report describes the Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection (BFGCI) project under construction at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. The project is the first installation in the United States for the British Steel technology using granular coal in blast furnaces. The objective is to demonstrate that granular coal is an economic and reliable fuel which can successfully be applied to large North American blast furnaces. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I-Design; Phase II-Procurement & Construction; and Phase III-Operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in April 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began August 1993. Construction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by a demonstration test program (Phase III).

  4. Shock Tube Design for High Intensity Blast Waves for Laboratory Testing of Armor and Combat Materiel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from ~1 MPa to ~5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods were investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral priming section which works by increasing the turbulent flow of the deflagration wave, thus increasing its speed and pressure. This approach increased the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (Friedlander waveform). The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increased the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. Using a 1...

  5. High productivity in Australian blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nightingale, R.J.; Mellor, D.G. [BHP Slab and Plate Products Div., Port Kembla, New South Wales (Australia); Jelenich, L. [BHP Rod and Bar Products Div., Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Ward, R.F. [BHP Long Products Div., Whyalla, South Australia (Australia)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the emergence of the Australian domestic economy from recession in 1992, the productivity of BHP`s blast furnace has increased significantly to meet the demands of both domestic and export markets. BHP Steel operates six blast furnaces at its three Australian integrated plants. These furnaces vary widely in their size, feed, technology and current campaign status. This paper reviews the principal issues associated with productivity improvements over recent years. These gains have been achieved through activities associated with a wide range of process, equipment and human resource based issues.

  6. Blast furnace control after the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gyllenram, R.; Wikstroem, J.O. [MEFOS, Luleaa (Sweden); Hallin, M. [SSAB Tunnplaat AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid technical development together with developments in work organization makes it important to investigate possible ways to achieve a cost efficient process control of different metallurgical processes. This paper describes a research project, and proposes a human oriented Information Technology Strategy, ITS, for control of the Blast Furnace process. The method used is that of deductive reasoning from a description of the prevailing technological level and experiences from various development activities. The paper is based on experiences from the No. 2 Blast Furnace at Luleaa Works but the conclusions do not at this stage necessarily reflect the opinion of the management and personnel or reflect their intentions for system development at SSAB.

  7. Process control techniques for the Sidmar blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenberghe, D.; Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. van [Sidmar N.V., Ghent (Belgium)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major challenge for modern blast furnace operation is the achievement of a very high productivity, excellent hot metal quality, low fuel consumption and longer blast furnace campaigns. The introduction of predictive models, decision supporting software and expert systems has reduced the standard deviation of the hot metal silicon content. The production loss due to the thermal state of the blast furnace has decreased three times since 1990. An appropriate control of the heat losses with high pulverized coal injection rates, is of the utmost importance for the life of the blast furnace. Different rules for the burden distribution of both blast furnaces are given. At blast furnace A, a peripheral gas flow is promoted, while at blast furnace B a more central gas flow is promoted.

  8. Speciation of Zn in Blast Furnace Sludge from Former Sedimentation Ponds Using Synchrotron Xray Diffraction, Fluorescence, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , University of Cologne, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, D-50923 Koln, Germany § Advanced Light Source, Lawrence *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Blast furnace sludge (BFS), an industrial waste generated in pig on a former BFS sedimentation pond site. Additionally, one fresh BFS was analyzed for comparison. We

  9. Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies that the headform locally experiences a nearly planar blast wave. Also, the positive phase durations and blast impulses are much larger than those of (1). Consequently, the blast model used in (1) is spatially and temporally very different from a military blast. It would be useful to repeat the calculations using military blast parameters. Finally, (1) overlooks a significant part of (5). On page 1 and on page 3, (1) states that (5) did not consider helmet pads. But pages pages 3 and 4 of (5) present simulations of blast wave propagation across an ACH helmeted head form with and without pads. (5) states that when the pads are present, the 'underwash' of air under the helmet is blocked when compared to the case without. (1) reaches this same conclusion, but reports it as a new result rather than a confirmation of that already found in (5).

  10. Maerz, N. H., and Palangio, T. C. WipFrag System II -Online fragmentation analysis. FRAGBLAST 6, Sixth International Symposium For Rock Fragmentation By Blasting, Johannesburg, South Africa,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maerz, Norbert H.

    , Sixth International Symposium For Rock Fragmentation By Blasting, Johannesburg, South Africa, Aug. 8 Professor, Rock Mechanics and Explosives Research Center, University of Missouri-Rolla, MO, USA, (573) 341 . By far the most significant source of error is sampling, whether the source is a result of: 1. Poor

  11. 6/2/12 NCBI Blast:Nucleotide Sequence (3118 letters) 1/7www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/Blast.cgi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    6/2/12 NCBI Blast:Nucleotide Sequence (3118 letters) 1/7www579S1013 Nucleotide Sequence (3118 letters) nr All GenBank+EMBL+DDBJ+PDB sequences (but no EST, STS for risk assessment #12;6/2/12 NCBI Blast:Nucleotide Sequence (3118 letters) 2/7www

  12. Testing and analysis of structural steel columns subjected to blast loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Lauren K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast Simulator Testing of Steel Columns and Components. ”Testing of Structural Steel Columns. ” 8 th Internationaland Analysis of Structural Steel Columns Subjected to Blast

  13. HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF FOUR CANDIDATE BLAST HIGH-MASS STARLESS CORES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmi, Luca; Poventud, Carlos M. [Physics Department, Rio Piedras Campus, University of Puerto Rico, Box 23343, UPR Station, San Juan, Puerto Rico (United States); Araya, Esteban D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Chapin, Edward L.; Gibb, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hofner, Peter [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Martin, Peter G., E-mail: olmi.luca@gmail.co, E-mail: olmi@arcetri.astro.i [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss high angular resolution observations of ammonia toward four candidate high-mass starless cores (HMSCs). The cores were identified by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) during its 2005 survey of the Vulpecula region where 60 compact sources were detected simultaneously at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m. Four of these cores, with no IRAS-PSC or MSX counterparts, were mapped with the NRAO Very Large Array and observed with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope in the NH{sub 3}(1,1) and (2,2) spectral lines. Our observations indicate that the four cores are cold (T {sub k} < 16 K) and show a filamentary and/or clumpy structure. They also show a significant velocity substructure within {approx}1 km s{sup -1}. The four BLAST cores appear to be colder and more quiescent than other previously observed HMSC candidates, suggesting an earlier stage of evolution.

  14. Blast damage mitigation of steel structures from near- contact charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfson, Janet Crumrine

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Blast Damage Mitigation of Steel35  Damage Levels Observed in LaboratoryFigure 3.34: Progression of damage for a Ballistic Loading

  15. Temperatures in the blast furnace refractory lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebel, R.; Streuber, C. [Didier-M and P Energietechnik GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany); Steiger, R. [Didier-M and P Engineering Services, Highland, IN (United States); Jeschar, R. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The campaign life duration of a blast furnace is mainly determined by the condition of the refractory lining in heavy-duty zones such as the hearth, bosh, belly and lower stack. To achieve a desired lifetime, the temperature of the lining in these areas thereby proved to be the decisive controllable parameter. Low operating temperatures result in prolonged service life and are attained through high cooling efficiency. Besides the refractory grade chosen, the wear profile is mainly determined by the type of cooling system applied and the cooling intensity. Therefore, an appropriate compromise between long service life and energy losses has to be found in each case. In order to predict the service life of a lining it is important to know the wear condition at all times during the campaign. The paper describes the approaches the authors have made so far on European blast furnaces, on a theoretical and practical basis, on how to analyze the lining wear.

  16. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  17. The Blast Energy Efficiency of GRBs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Eichler Daniel Jontof-Hutter

    2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Using data mostly assembled by previous authors, we consider the linear correlation between the apparent radiative efficiency $\\epsilon_{\\gamma}$ (defined as the ratio of isotropic equivalent radiative output to inferred isotropic equivalent kinetic energy of the blast) and $E_{peak}^{\\alpha}$ where $1.4efficiency is $\\sim 7$. We also find preliminary evidence (with a small sample) for a separate class of weak GRB afterglows.

  18. Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sparks, Michael H. (Frederick County, MD)

    2001-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

  19. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

  20. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  1. Spatial Sequence Estimation Based Decoding Algorithm for V-BLAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Ghadhban, Samir

    Spatial Sequence Estimation Based Decoding Algorithm for V-BLAST Maruf Mohammad, Samir Al degrades the performance. A detection algorithm for V-BLAST based on sequence estimation is proposed. The concept of maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) is applied to combat spatial interference. State

  2. A new approach to oxygen enriched high temperature blast generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Queille, P.H.; Macauley, D.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    When increasing fuel injection in a blast furnace in order to reduce coke consumption and/or to increase production, the blast furnace operator tries to keep similar raceway conditions, for instance, an equivalent flame temperature. To compensate for the cooling effect due to the higher injection rate, two solutions can be selected or combined: to raise the temperature of the blast and/or to increase the level of oxygen in the blast. Whatever the choice, the Blast Furnace manager will certainly try to reduce the resulting investment and operating costs to a minimum. Air Liquide and Kvaerner Davy are trying to provide a new way to address these needs by offering a new technology for blast heating. A higher blast temperature will not only allow a higher fuel injection at tuyere level, a lower coke consumption, but also a lower oxygen consumption. Air Liquide and Kvaerner Davy are now able to offer a new heat regenerator with major advantages over conventional stoves. This new device can be used as a permanent substitute for a stove, or as a temporary one during repair, or stove improvement. It can also be added to an existing set of stoves to increase the average blast temperature.

  3. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, C. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); May, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Compton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walton, O. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shingleton, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, J. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holtmeier, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Loey, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mirkarimi, P. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunlop, W. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Guyton, R. L. [National Security Technologies, Livermore, CA (United States); Huffman, E. [National Security Technologies, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  4. Pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and other new ironmaking processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Oshnock, T.W. [U.S. Steel, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirements for the physical, chemical and metallurgical properties of pellets have continued to become more stringent as blast-furnace productivity and coke rate have been rapidly improved during the last decade. In addition, the age and deterioration of the North American coke batteries, the lack of capital to sufficiently rebuild them, and the threat of increasingly more stringent environmental controls for the coke batteries has forced North American ironmakers to begin implementing pulverized coal injection to minimize the coke requirements for the blast furnace and to seriously investigate developing other ironmaking processes that use coal instead of coke. Therefore, the next major step in North American ironmaking has included injecting pulverized coal (PC) at 200 kilograms per ton of hot metal (kg/ton) [400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM)] or greater which will result in the coke rate decreasing to less than 300 kg/ton (600 lb/NTHM) or less. As a result, the pellets will spend more time in the furnace and will be required to support more total weight. Pellets can also be a major iron unit source for other cokeless ironmaking processes such as the COREX process or the AISI direct ironmaking process. This paper will explore the pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and cokeless ironmaking processes.

  5. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; May, M. J.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Shingleton, N.; Kane, J. O.; Holtmeier, G.; Loey, H.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Dunlop, W. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-481, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Guyton, R. L.; Huffman, E. [National Securities Technologies, Vasco Rd., Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  6. Analysis of seismic waves generated by surface blasting at Indiana coal mines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    Analysis of seismic waves generated by surface blasting at Indiana coal mines A project pursuant is to investigate the characteristics of mine blast seismic waves in southern Indiana. Coal mines are prevalent blasting) and coal mines (surface blasting) to gain new understanding of seismic wave propagation, ground

  7. Recent improvements in casthouse practices at the Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Y.S.; Han, K.W.; Kim, K.Y.; Cho, B.R.; Hur, N.S.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    POSCO`s Kwangyang blast furnaces have continuously carried out high production and low fuel operation under a high pulverized coal injection rate without complications since the Kwangyang No. 1 blast furnace was blown-in in 1987. The Kwangyang blast furnaces have focused on improving the work environment for the increase of competitive power in terms of increased production, cost savings, and management of optimum manpower through use of low cost fuel and raw material. At this time, the casthouse work lags behind most work in the blast furnace. Therefore, the Kwangyang blast furnaces have adopted a remote control system for the casthouse equipment to solve complications in the casthouse work due to high temperature and fumes. As the result, the casthouse workers can work in clean air and the number of workers has been reduced to 9.5 personnel per shift by reduction of the workload.

  8. Studies of laser-driven radiative blast waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, M J; Hansen, J; Edens, A; Ditmire, T; Adams, R; Rambo, P; Ruggles, L; Smith, I; Porter, J

    2004-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed two sets of experiments looking at laser-driven radiating blast waves. In one set of experiments the effect of a drive laser's passage through a background gas on the hydrodynamical evolution of blast waves was examined. It was found that the laser's passage heats a channel in the gas, creating a region where a portion of the blast wave front had an increased velocity, leading to the formation of a bump-like protrusion on the blast wave. The second set of experiments involved the use of regularly spaced wire arrays to induce perturbations on a blast wave surface. The decay of these perturbations as a function of time was measured for various wave number perturbations and found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  9. February 2014 News Blast | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers New Training on Energy ManagementAugustin2012)4 News Blast February 2014 News

  10. Blast Effects Suppression System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find FindRewind Generator Rewind Denison PowerhouseBlast

  11. LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  12. Hot blast stove process model and model-based controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computational Science Methods Group; Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed and verified using plant data. This model is used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The model is also used to predict maximum and minimum temperature constraint violations within the stove so that the controller can take corrective actions while still achieving the required stove performance.

  13. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael F. Riley

    2002-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

  14. LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The LTC coating removal system consists of several hand tools such as a Roto Peen scaler and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The PTC-6 is a vacuum system designed to be used with surface decontamination equipment. Dust and debris are captured by a high efficiency particulate filter (HEPA) vacuum system that deposits the waste directly into an on-board 23-gallon waste drum. The PTC-6 utilizes compressed air delivered from a source via an air hose connected to the air inlet to drive the hand held power tools. The control panel regulated the air pressure delivered to the tool. A separate compressed air flow powers the vacuum generator. The vacuum hoses connect the power tools to the dust chamber, returning paint chips and dust from the surface. A third compressed air flow is used to clean filters by pulsing air through a pipe with slots. The blasts of air shake dust and debris from the filter fabric.

  15. NREL: Energy Storage - BLAST for Behind-the-Meter Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lite (BLAST-BTM Lite) provides a quick, user-friendly tool to size behind-the-meter energy storage devices used on site by utility customers for facility demand charge...

  16. APPLICATION OF STRICT LIABILTY AND NEGLIGENCE TO BLASTING CLAIMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Explosives Engineers 2004G Volume 1 - Application of Strict Liability and Negligence to Blasting Claims 1-7394; tstark@uiuc.edu Copyright © 2004 International Society of Explosives Engineers 2004G Volume 1

  17. Analysis of blast mitigation strategies exploiting fluid-structure interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambouchev, Nayden Dimitrov, 1980-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast attacks have become the most pervasive threat in both civil and military contexts. However, there is currently a limited understanding of the mechanisms of loading, damage and failure of structures, and injury to ...

  18. air blast freezing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reexamined Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: An alternative, to the commonly used blast-wave, model describing the freeze-out hypersurface is applied to fit the pT-spectra of...

  19. Blast Load Response of Steel Sandwich Panels with Liquid Encasement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale Karr; Marc Perlin; Benjamin Langhorst; Henry Chu

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an experimental investigation of the response of hybrid blast panels for protection from explosive and impact forces. The fundamental notion is to dissipate, absorb, and redirect energy through plastic collapse, viscous dissipation, and inter-particle forces of liquid placed in sub-structural compartments. The panels are designed to absorb energy from an impact or air blast by elastic-plastic collapse of the panel substructure that includes fluid-filled cavities. The fluid contributes to blast effects mitigation by providing increased initial mass and resistance, by dissipation of energy through viscosity and fluid flow, and by redirecting the momentum that is imparted to the system from the impact and blast impulse pressures. Failure and deformation mechanisms of the panels are described.

  20. Characterising the acceleration phase of blast wave formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, T. E., E-mail: tef503@york.ac.uk; Pasley, J. [York Plasma Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Intensely heated, localised regions in uniform fluids will rapidly expand and generate an outwardly propagating blast wave. The Sedov-Taylor self-similar solution for such blast waves has long been studied and applied to a variety of scenarios. A characteristic time for their formation has also long been identified using dimensional analysis, which by its very nature, can offer several interpretations. We propose that, rather than simply being a characteristic time, it may be interpreted as the definitive time taken for a blast wave resulting from an intense explosion in a uniform media to contain its maximum kinetic energy. A scaling relation for this measure of the acceleration phase, preceding the establishment of the blast wave, is presented and confirmed using a 1D planar hydrodynamic model.

  1. Concrete Masonry Wall Retrofit Systems for Blast Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Carol Faye

    2013-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    unit (CMU) infill walls, commonly used in reinforced concrete or steel framed structures, are particularly vulnerable to blast loads. Facilities that incorporate CMU walls must either be hardened or retrofitted for explosive events. Conventional...

  2. autologous leukemia blasts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can be described by a similarity solution, that is used for theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts. We consider the linear stability of such a relativistic blast wave propagating...

  3. asymmetric blast wave: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can be described by a similarity solution, that is used for theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts. We consider the linear stability of such a relativistic blast wave propagating...

  4. Investigation of Ultrafast Laser-Driven Radiative Blast Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, M. J.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Zweiback, J.; Shigemori, K.; Ryutov, D.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Keilty, K. A.; Liang, E.; Remington, B. A.; Ditmire, T.

    2001-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We have examined the evolution of cylindrically symmetric blast waves produced by the deposition of femtosecond laser pulses in gas jets. In high-Z gases radiative effects become important. We observe the production of an ionization precursor ahead of the shock front and deceleration parameters below the adiabatic value of 1/2 (for a cylinder), an effect expected when the blast wave loses energy by radiative cooling. Despite significant radiative cooling, the blast waves do not appear to develop thin shell instabilities expected for strongly radiative waves. This is believed to be due to the stabilizing effect of a relatively thick blast wave shell resulting in part from electron thermal conduction effects.

  5. Dynamic response of containment vessels to blast loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpp, R.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Neal, T.R.; Warnes, R.H.; Thompson, J.D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamic response of steel, spherical containment vessels loaded by internal explosive blast was studied by experiments, computations, and analysis. Instrumentation used in the experiments consisted of strain and pressure gauges and a velocity interferometer. Data were used to rank the blast wave mitigating properties of several filler materials and to develop a scaling law relating strain, filler material, and explosive energy or explosive mass.

  6. Conserving Energy in Blast Freezers Using Variable Frequency Drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolbe, E.; Ling, Q.; Wheeler, G.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University Portland Greg Wheeler Director Industrial Assessment Center ABSTRACT A stationary blast freezer processing 22 -lb cartons of sardines in 19,000 pound lots was modified to improve efficiency and to conserve energy. Baffles... of Portland showed readings to agree within 1%. The procedure for measuring velocity profiles was to position the operator in the blast-cell with doors closed, downstream of the pack, prior to opening the refrigeration valve. We thus assumed...

  7. LTC 1073 vacuum blasting (concrete) human factors assessment -- Baseline (summary)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high capacity, direct pressure blasting system incorporating a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast head. A vacuum system removes dust and debris from the surfaces as it is blasted. After cleaning the surface, the abrasive, together with the rust or coating that was removed from the surface, is vacuumed into the machine through the suction hose. The dust separator contains angled steel collision pads, working with the force of gravity, to allow any reusable abrasive to fall back into the pressure vessel. The filters are manually back flushed to prevent clogging. After back flushing, dust is dumped from the dust chamber into the dust collection bag or drum by operation of the bellows valve. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on dust and noise exposure. Dust exposure was found to be minimal, but noise exposure was potentially significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may cause the results to be inapplicable to indoor settings. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  8. Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Kurashiki (Japan)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

  9. Use of sinter in Taranto blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palchetti, M.; Palomba, R.; Tolino, E. [CSM Taranto (Italy); Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILP Taranto Works (Italy)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lowering the production cost of the crude steel is the ultimate aim when planning operations in an integrated steelworks. Designing the Blast Furnace burden is a crucial point in this context, for which account must be taken not only of the raw materials cost but also of other important aims such as maximum plants productivity, minimum possible energy consumption, a proper product quality at the various production stages. This paper describes the criteria used in Ilva Laminati Piani (ILP) Taranto Works to design the BF burden, based on sinter, using the results of extensive research activity carried out by Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), the Research Center with major involvement with the R and D of the Italian Steel Industry. Great attention is paid at ILP to the sinter quality in order to obtain the optimum performance of the BFs, which are operating at high productivity, high pulverized coal rate and low fuel consumption.

  10. Blast mitigation capabilities of aqueous foam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, William Franklin; Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Boughton, Bruce A.

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of tests involving detonation of high explosive blanketed by aqueous foam (conducted from 1982 to 1984) are described in primarily terms of recorded peak pressure, positive phase specific impulse, and time of arrival. The investigation showed that optimal blast mitigation occurs for foams with an expansion ratio of about 60:1. Simple analyses representing the foam as a shocked single phase mixture are presented and shown inadequate. The experimental data demonstrate that foam slows down and broadens the propagated pressure disturbance relative to a shock in air. Shaped charges and flyer plates were evaluated for operation in foam and appreciable degradation was observed for the flyer plates due to drag created by the foam.

  11. Blasting detonators incorporating semiconductor bridge technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enormity of the coal mine and extraction industries in Russia and the obvious need in both Russia and the US for cost savings and enhanced safety in those industries suggests that joint studies and research would be of mutual benefit. The author suggests that mine sites and well platforms in Russia offer an excellent opportunity for the testing of Sandia`s precise time-delay semiconductor bridge detonators, with the potential for commercialization of the detonators for Russian and other world markets by both US and Russian companies. Sandia`s semiconductor bridge is generating interest among the blasting, mining and perforation industries. The semiconductor bridge is approximately 100 microns long, 380 microns wide and 2 microns thick. The input energy required for semiconductor bridge ignition is one-tenth the energy required for conventional bridgewire devices. Because semiconductor bridge processing is compatible with other microcircuit processing, timing and logic circuits can be incorporated onto the chip with the bridge. These circuits can provide for the precise timing demanded for cast effecting blasting. Indeed tests by Martin Marietta and computer studies by Sandia have shown that such precise timing provides for more uniform rock fragmentation, less fly rock, reduce4d ground shock, fewer ground contaminants and less dust. Cost studies have revealed that the use of precisely timed semiconductor bridges can provide a savings of $200,000 per site per year. In addition to Russia`s vast mineral resources, the Russian Mining Institute outside Moscow has had significant programs in rock fragmentation for many years. He anticipated that collaborative studies by the Institute and Sandia`s modellers would be a valuable resource for field studies.

  12. Design of a composite combat helmet liner for prevention of blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vechart, Andrew (Andrew Peter)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air blast-induced traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) represent a significant percentage of military personnel injuries observed in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Prevalence of blast-induced ...

  13. STUDIES OF LASER-DRIVEN RADIATIVE BLAST WAVES A.D. EDENS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ditmire, Todd

    -driven radiating blast waves. In the first set of experiments the effect of a drive laser's passage throughSTUDIES OF LASER-DRIVEN RADIATIVE BLAST WAVES A.D. EDENS1 , T. DITMIRE1 , J.F. HANSEN2 , M a background gas on the hydrodynamical evolution of blast waves was examined. The laser's passage heated

  14. Effect of Blast Design on Crack Response C.H. Dowding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effect of Blast Design on Crack Response C.H. Dowding Professor of Civil & Environmental to assess the effect of changes in blast design on the house response. Velocity response was measured some 11 velocity transducers and 3 crack sensors measured excitation and response for each blast

  15. Micro-meter Crack Response to Rock Blast Vibrations, Wind Gusts & Weather Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micro-meter Crack Response to Rock Blast Vibrations, Wind Gusts & Weather Effects C. H. Dowding,1 effects. These measurements substantiate the conservancy of the 12.5 mm/s (0.5 in./s) blasting vibration blasting. Measurements in this case study now extend weather effects to include wind. While it has been

  16. USE OF FIBER-REINFORCED SOIL FOR BLAST PROTECTION Jorge G. Zornberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA ABSTRACT Soil berms have been used to resist the blast effect The various branches of the armed services often require structures designed to resist the blast effects from conventional weapons. Such structures include bunkers, aircraft shelters, and weapon facilities. Blast effects

  17. Numerical study of the effect of polyurea on the performance of steel plates under blast loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    Numerical study of the effect of polyurea on the performance of steel plates under blast loads to blast-like loads. Different thicknesses of the polyurea are considered and the effect of polyurea history: Received 28 February 2013 Available online 13 May 2013 Keywords: Polyurea DH-36 steel Blast

  18. Effectiveness of advanced coating systems for mitigating blast effects on steel components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effectiveness of advanced coating systems for mitigating blast effects on steel components C. Chen1 of this work is to study the effectiveness of an advanced coating material, polyurea, as a blast mitigation. Effects of thicknesses and locations of the polyurea on the blast mitigation are also studied

  19. Weak-Axis Behavior of Wide Flange Columns Subjected to Blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    the effect of blast loading on wide flange columns loaded perpendicular to the weak axis of bending field detonations. Furthermore, past studies investigating the effect of blast load- ing on wide flangeWeak-Axis Behavior of Wide Flange Columns Subjected to Blast Nagarjun Krishnappa1 ; Michel Bruneau

  20. EXIT Chart Analysis of Turbo-BLAST Receivers in Rayleigh Fading Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Huaiyu

    EXIT Chart Analysis of Turbo-BLAST Receivers in Rayleigh Fading Channels Wenjun Li and Huaiyu Dai: Wli5@ncsu.edu, Huaiyu Dai@ncsu.edu Abstract-- Turbo-BLAST is an advanced space-time layered with Turbo-BLAST to combat the co-channel interference (CCI) and significantly improve the performance

  1. No. 5 blast furnace 1995 reline and upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakascik, T.F. Jr.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1995 reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is an undertaking which has never been approached in previous relines of any blast furnace in the history of Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The scope of the project is such that it represents a radical departure from W.P.S.C.`s traditional methods of ironmaking. The reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is one of the largest capital improvements performed at W.P.S.C. Blast Furnaces. The improvements made at one single time are taking a furnace from 1960`s technology into the 21st century. With this in mind, employee training was one of the largest parts of the project. Training for the automated stockhouse, castfloor, new skip drive, new instrumentation, new castfloor equipment, hydraulics and overall furnace operation were an absolute necessity. The reline has laid the ground work to give the Corporation an efficient, higher productive, modern Blast Furnace which will place W.P.S.C. in the world class category in ironmaking well into the 21st century.

  2. Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School for Material Science and Engineering

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

  3. Blasting the way to synchronous communications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charbonnet, P. Jr.; Smith, G.

    1984-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Minicomputer and microcomputer users now have several new options in data communications software. Most of these packages fall into the rapidly growing category of file-transfer utilities-that is, programs that exchange computers. The key factor in the development of these products is that most micros and minis have only asynchronous communications capability. They cannot use mainframe data communications protocols. All of the asynchronous protocols that have emerged use the standard synchronous technique for error detection: the data stream is divided into blocks, and the integrity of each block is monitored by appending a check-sum that is recomputed and compared with the original check-sum when the block is received. Full-duplex protocols such as blocked asynchronous transmission (blast) transmit a continuous stream of data blocks while using the other half of the communications channel to receive block acknowledgements simultaneously. This structure is combined with the use of sliding window or pipelining techniques as employed by sophisticated synchronous protocols such as SNA/SDLC and x.25/HDLC. The end result is that full-duplex asynchronous protocols can endure significant propagation delay without losing efficiency. They are suitable for use in a variety of communications environments.

  4. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States). Ironmaking Dept.)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

  5. Improvement of tap holes at Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, M.; Kashiwada, M.; Shibuta, H. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Steel Works

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The service life of blast furnaces, as the result of various improvement measures, has been extended from the conventional 5 to 7 years to 15 to 20 years. Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace adopted SiC bricks. Though SiC brick excelled in strength and durability, it has raised problems such as tap hole inside temperature lowering attributable to its high thermal conductivity, insufficient mud burning and gas blow-out. Nevertheless, various countermeasures described within have been taken against such problems, and as the result it has now become possible to maintain tap holes in stable conditions.

  6. Temperature Profiles and the Effect of AGN on Submillimeter Emission from BLAST Observations of Resolved Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiebe, Donald V; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the course of two flights, the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) made resolved maps of seven nearby (BLAST05), BLAST observed a single nearby galaxy, NGC 4565. During the December 2006 flight from Antarctica (BLAST06), BLAST observed the nearby galaxies NGC 1097, NGC 1291, NGC 1365, NGC 1512, NGC 1566, and NGC 1808. We fit physical dust models to a combination of BLAST observations and other available data for the the galaxies with Spitzer data. We fit a modified blackbody to the remaining galaxies to obtain total dust mass and mean dust temperature. For the four galaxies with Spitzer data, we also produce maps and radial profiles of dust column density and temperature. We measure the fraction of BLAST detected flux originating from the central cores of these galaxies and use this to calculate a "core fraction", an upper limit on the "AGN fraction" of submillimeter detected galaxies. Fin...

  7. Hot repair of ceramic burner on hot blast stoves at USS/Kobe`s {number_sign}3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernarding, T.F.; Chemorov, M.; Shimono, S.; Phillips, G.R.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During the 1992 reline of the No. 3 blast furnace, three new stoves were constructed. The design of the stoves, equipped with internal ceramic burners, was for providing a hot blast temperature of 2,000 F at a wind rate of 140,000 SCFM. After 3 years the performance had deteriorated so the burners were cleaned. When a second cleaning did not improve the performance of No. 3 blast furnace, it was decided to repair the refractory while still hot. The paper describes the hot repair procedures, taking a stove off for repairs, maintenance heat up during repairs, two stove operation, stove commissioning, repair of a ceramic burner, and wet gas prevention.

  8. The May 22, 1915, explosive eruption of Lassen Peak, California, blasted rock fragments and pumice high into the air and rained fine volcanic ash as far away as Winnemucca, Nevada, 200 miles to the east. In this photograph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The May 22, 1915, explosive eruption of Lassen Peak, California, blasted rock fragments and pumice of volcanic rock, called lava domes, were created by eruptions of lava too viscous to flow readily away from its source. Eruptions about 27,000 years ago formed Lassen Peak, probably in only a few years

  9. Design and development of a multi-shot foam projectile toy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skaggs, Alan M. (Alan Michael)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research was to design and develop a working prototype of a new toy for Hasbro®'s Nerfe line of foam projectile toys. Several years ago, Hasbro approached the MIT CADlab about developing a new method for ...

  10. Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, Sarah Jill

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

  11. Time series of a CME blasting out from the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Eric

    #12;Time series of a CME blasting out from the Sun Composite image of the Sun in UV light with the naked eye, the Sun seems static, placid, constant. From the ground, the only notice- able variations in the Sun are its location (where will it rise and set today?) and its color (will clouds cover

  12. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  13. SCHOLARLY PAPERS Is Construction Blasting Still Abnormally Dangerous?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCHOLARLY PAPERS Is Construction Blasting Still Abnormally Dangerous? Timothy D. Stark, Ph.D., P an abnormally dangerous activity using the six factors presented in Section 520 of the Second Restatement to determine whether or not an activity is abnormally dangerous. DOI: 10.1061/ ASCE LA.1943-4170.0000037 CE

  14. Dynamics and stability of relativistic GRB blast waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meliani, Z

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In gamma-ray-bursts (GRB), ultra-relativistic blast waves are ejected into the circumburst medium. We analyse in unprecedented detail the deceleration of a self-similar Blandford-McKee blast wave from a Lorentz factor 25 to the nonrelativistic Sedov phase. Our goal is to determine the stability properties of its frontal shock. We carried out a grid-adaptive relativistic 2D hydro-simulation at extreme resolving power, following the GRB jet during the entire afterglow phase. We investigate the effect of the finite initial jet opening angle on the deceleration of the blast wave, and identify the growth of various instabilities throughout the coasting shock front. We find that during the relativistic phase, the blast wave is subject to pressure-ram pressure instabilities that ripple and fragment the frontal shock. These instabilities manifest themselves in the ultra-relativistic phase alone, remain in full agreement with causality arguments, and decay slowly to finally disappear in the near-Newtonian phase as the...

  15. Processing automotive shredder fluff for a blast furnace injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    led to an optimized iron recovery of 78.5 % corresponding to an elemental iron content of 51 %, close to the ore grade required in a blast furnace. At the global scale of ELV recycling, these results entail an increase by 4 % of the fluff recycling rate, thus helping to meet the European requirements for 2015

  16. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal with particular reference to the coals from the Illinois Basin. Although this research is not yet completed the results to date support the following conclusions: (1) based on the results of computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in their injection properties with a variety of other bituminous coals, although the replacement ratio improves with increasing rank; (2) based on the results of petrographic analysis of material collected from an active blast furnace, it is clear the coal derived char is entering into the raceway of the blast furnace; (3) the results of reactivity experiments on a variety of coal chars at a variety of reaction temperatures show that lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois basin, yield chars with significantly higher reactivities in both air and CO{sub 2} than chars from higher rank Appalachian coals and blast furnace coke. These results indicate that the chars from the lower rank coals should have a superior burnout rate in the tuyere and should survive in the raceway environment for a shorter time. These coals, therefore, will have important advantages at high rates of injection that may overcome their slightly lower replacement rates.

  17. ANNUAL HEATING AND COOLING REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN DAY PERFORMANCE FOR A RESIDENTIAL MODEL IN SIX CLIMATES: A COMPARISON OF NBSLD, BLAST 2, AND DOE-2.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, William L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comparison of NBSLD, BLAST 2. and Effect of Selected Changessignificant effect on annual heating loads, BLAST 2 predictsComparison of NBSLD, BLAST 2, and DOE~2.1 Effect of Climate

  18. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  19. Evaluation of heat flux through blast furnace shell with attached sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.W. [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon, Kyonggi (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Lee, J.H.; Suh, Y.K. [POSCO, Kwangyang, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant trials to evaluate heat fluxes through a lining/cooling system of a blast furnace were conducted in order to realize the cooling efficiency of the blast furnace under operation. For this purpose, several experiments to measure the in-furnace gas temperatures were cautiously made, and numerical simulations for the temperature distributions over the blast furnace shell and cooling/lining systems were also carried out.

  20. Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. (Center de Recherches Metallurgiques, Liege (Belgium))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

  1. Hot metal Si control at Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, N.S.; Cho, B.R.; Kim, G.Y.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, B.H. [POSCO, Cheollanamdo (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of Si transfer in blast furnaces have shown that the Si level in pig iron is influenced more by the reaction of silicon oxide gas generation in the raceway than the chemical reaction between hot metal and slag at the drop zone. Specifications require a Si content of pig iron below 0.15% at the Kwangyang Works, but the use of soft coking coal in the blend for coke ovens, high pulverized coal injection rate into the blast furnace, and the application of lower grade iron ore has resulted in the need to develop methods to control Si in hot metal. In this paper, the results of in furnace Si control and the desiliconization skills at the casthouse floor are described.

  2. Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.

  3. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast, October 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWindConversionResults in FirstBiomass ProgramBlast,

  4. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWindConversionResults in FirstBiomassBlast: May Biomass

  5. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: November | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWindConversionResults in FirstBiomassBlast: May

  6. Biomass Program News Blast: September | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  7. Biomass Program September 2012 News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWindConversionResults in FirstBiomassBlast:Peer

  8. August 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWind Siting ArticlesAugust 2014 Monthly News Blast

  9. BETO Monthly News Blast, June 2013 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWind Siting ArticlesAugustBETO Monthly News Blast, June

  10. Effect of N level on rice yield, nitrogen accumulation and rice blast occurrence under rice intercropping system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Li; Lu, Guoli; Cu, Yiou; Zhang, Chaochun; Zhang, Fusuo; Zheng, Yi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Effects of nitrogen levels on incidence of leaf blast andal. Effects of nitrogen and silicon nutrition on rice blastsame column. Effect of high N rate on rice blast High N rate

  11. Raceway behaviors in blast furnace with pulverized coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, J.K.; Han, J.W.; Cho, B.R. [POSCO, Cheollanamdo (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blast furnace raceway shows different characteristics with PCR (pulverized coal injection rate). It was found in this study that with the increase of PCR the raceway depth decreases, and the size of birds nest and sometimes with liquid holdup, increases. Oxygen enrichment with co-axial lances was known to be very effective on the extension of raceway depth and size reduction of birds nest. It was also found that there are various factors which affect the coke properties at tuyere level of the blast furnace. Coke traveling time was calculated to be extended with PCR and it had a close relationship with the coke size in bosh. Coke mean size decreased with the increase of coke traveling time, that is, with the increase of PCR. Both DI (the strength of coke in cold) and CSR (the strength of coke after reaction) were also decreased with PCR. RAFT (Raceway Adiabatic Flame Temperature) had a tendency to be decreased with the increase of PCR, which is obtained by the estimation of coke temperature via XRD analysis. From the analysis of alkali contents in coke sampled along the radius of the blast furnace, it was understood that no difference in alkali contents between fine and lump coke represents that coke fines generated from upper burden might appear at tuyere level.

  12. Quantification of Liquid Holdup in the Dropping Zone of a Blast Furnace--A Cold Model Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. GUPTA and K. NAVEEN A two-dimensional cold model study, replicating an ironmaking blast furnace dropping

  13. BLAST2SRS, a web server for flexible retrieval of related protein sequences in the SWISS-PROT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BLAST2SRS, a web server for flexible retrieval of related protein sequences in the SWISS similarity, with many public web servers available. However, with the increasingly large datasets available, BLAST2SRS (http://blast2srs.embl.de/) aims to meet this need. This server therefore combines the two

  14. Journal of Modern Mathematics Frontier Vol. 1 Iss. 4, November 2012 Computational Investigation of Blast-wave-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    obtained clearly revealed that significant blast-mitigation effects can be achieved through the use of the air-vacated buffer concept and that the extent of the blast-mitigation effect is a sensitive function of Blast-wave- mitigation via the Use of Air-vacated Buffers M. Grujicic, J. S. Snipes, N. Chandrasekharan

  15. A discrete particle approach to simulate the combined effect of blast and sand impact loading of steel plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    A discrete particle approach to simulate the combined effect of blast and sand impact loading March 2011 Keywords: Blast loads Experimental tests Sand ejecta Discrete particles Numerical simulations a b s t r a c t The structural response of a stainless steel plate subjected to the combined blast

  16. Advanced Materials and Processes, 2010, 168(3):32-33 Blast protection materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    32 Advanced Materials and Processes, 2010, 168(3):32-33 Blast protection materials Nikhil Gupta1 and Kyu Cho2 1 Composite Materials and Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 Ballistic, blast

  17. Performance Analysis of Coded V-BLAST with Optimum Power and Rate Allocation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loyka, Sergey

    propagation effect, a number of efforts have been reported to improve the perfor- mance of the uncoded V-BLASTPerformance Analysis of Coded V-BLAST with Optimum Power and Rate Allocation Victoria Kostina in the coded V-BLAST are studied analytically. Outage probabilities and system capacities of these strategies

  18. THE BLAST VIEW OF THE STAR-FORMING REGION IN AQUILA (l = 45{sup 0}, b = 0{sup 0})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivera-Ingraham, Alana; Martin, Peter G.; Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, James J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Carol Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Olmi, Luca [University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Physics Department, Box 23343, UPR Station, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Patanchon, Guillaume [Laboratoire APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris (France)

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have carried out the first general submillimeter analysis of the field toward GRSMC 45.46+0.05, a massive star-forming region in Aquila. The deconvolved 6 deg{sup 2} (3{sup 0} x 2{sup 0}) maps provided by BLAST in 2005 at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m were used to perform a preliminary characterization of the clump population previously investigated in the infrared, radio, and molecular maps. Interferometric CORNISH data at 4.8 GHz have also been used to characterize the Ultracompact H II regions (UCHIIRs) within the main clumps. By means of the BLAST maps, we have produced an initial census of the submillimeter structures that will be observed by Herschel, several of which are known Infrared Dark Clouds. Our spectral energy distributions of the main clumps in the field, located at {approx}7 kpc, reveal an active population with temperatures of T{approx} 35-40 K and masses of {approx}10{sup 3} M{sub sun} for a dust emissivity index {beta} = 1.5. The clump evolutionary stages range from evolved sources, with extended H II regions and prominent IR stellar population, to massive young stellar objects, prior to the formation of an UCHIIR. The CORNISH data have revealed the details of the stellar content and structure of the UCHIIRs. In most cases, the ionizing stars corresponding to the brightest radio detections are capable of accounting for the clump bolometric luminosity, in most cases powered by embedded OB stellar clusters.

  19. Blasting technology for modified in-situ oil shale retorts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Occidental Oil Shale, Inc., an equal partner with Tenneco Shale Oil Company in the Cathedral Bluffs Shale Oil Company, has spent since 1972 developing and demonstrating its modified in situ oil shale process at its Logan Wash mine near Debeque, Colorado. The Occidental modified in situ process consists of first mining out a limited amount of rock from within an underground retort volume to allow the explosive expansion of the surrounding rock into the mined void volumes. The explosive expansion forms a large underground rubble bed contained within a retort chamber which must contain a fairly uniform particle size distribution and void redistribution to provide reasonable oil recovery during subsequent in situ processing operations. The processing involves first igniting the top of the rubble pile and then injecting air into the top of the retort to drive the combustion front downward through the entire rubblized volume. The oil is continuously collected at the bottom of the retort during the processing. Two side-by-side commercial-sized retorts, Retorts 7 and 8, have recently been constructed at the Logan Wash mine using newly developed horizontal free-face blasting technology. Retorts 7 and 8 were blasted in February and April of 1981, respectively, each using nearly 550,000 lbs. of explosives in ANFO equivalent loaded within nearly 550 blastholes for each retort. The resulting rubble beds were about 230-ft high with cross-sections of approximately 27,225 ft/sup 2/. The blasting principles used to construct these commercial-sized retorts and the rubblization results are described in detail in this paper.

  20. The limitation of hearth sidewall wear at Redcar blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parratt, J.E.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Redcar blast furnace with 14m hearth diameter was blown-in for its second campaign in August 1996. It is currently in its 10th year of operation and to date has produced just over 30 million tonnes. Current plans are to continue the second campaign to the year 2000 and beyond, producing over 40 million tonnes. In order to achieve this objective, any further wear on the lining, and in particular the hearth sidewall, needs to be minimized. This paper describes the present hearth design, the monitoring of hearth wear, the predicted wear profile, and the protection measures that have been taken or are being considered.

  1. A system for interpretation of blast furnace stockrod measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinnelae, J.; Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for intelligent monitoring and interpretation of signals from blast furnace stockrods is presented. The system visualizes the measurements and estimates the local burden layer thickness (under the rods) after every dump. Furthermore, it analyzes the burden descent rate to distinguish between slips, hangings, normal descent and peaks, etc., and also combines the stockrod information with findings of temperature measurements from an above-burden probe. The preprocessing of the signals and some features of the system, which is under development, are treated in this paper.

  2. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: July | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWindConversionResults in FirstBiomass ProgramBlast,July

  3. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: October | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWindConversionResults in FirstBiomassBlast: MayOctober

  4. Monthly News Blast: February 2013 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement of the NationalPennsylvania |February 2013 Monthly News Blast:

  5. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment ofOil'sEnergy8 * October 2006Optimizing Blast

  6. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s ReplyApplicationCommittee |FY14 BudgetDepartment09EnergyBlastMonthly

  7. BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource1-01 Audit LetterYearAvi ShultzMonthly News Blast,

  8. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, P.W. [British Steel Technical, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom). Teesside Labs.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  9. Single taphole blast furnace casthouse performance optimizing cost and availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowles, R.D.; Searls, J.B.; Peay, W.R. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States); Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The No. 2 blast furnace is a single taphole furnace with a convection air-cooled iron trough. The iron runner system is designed to fill four 90 ton open-top ladles per cast, which are transported by locomotive to the steel shop. The slag runner system is capable of filling three 800 ft{sup 3} slag pots per cast. The No. 2 blast furnace was blown in from mini-reline with this new casthouse configuration in early December 1991. It was operated for nearly three years until it was banked for planned stove repairs and a trough rebuild in late September 1994. During this period, the furnace produced just over 2.5 million tons of hot metal across the original trough refractory lining system, with 13 intermediate hot patch castable repairs. The entire casthouse refractory usage (main trough, runner systems, and covers) during this campaign was 1.06 pounds per net ton of hot metal. Investigation of the lining during demolition indicated that the trough lining campaign could have been extended to at least 3.0 million tons. This paper will discuss how operating practices, mechanical design, refractory design, maintenance philosophy, and attention to detail synergistically contributed to the long campaign life and low refractory consumption rate.

  10. Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

  11. Model of the radial distribution of gas in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an on-line model for estimating the radial gas distribution in blast furnaces. The model is based on molar and energy flow balances for the blast furnace throat region, and utilizes the top gas temperature and gas temperature measurements from a fixed above-burden probe. The distribution of the gas flux is estimated by a Kalman filter. The method is illustrated to capture short-term dynamics and to detect sudden major changes in the gas distribution in Finnish blast furnace.

  12. THE BLAST SURVEY OF THE VELA MOLECULAR CLOUD: DYNAMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE DENSE CORES IN VELA-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmi, Luca [Physics Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Box 23343, UPR station, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Angles-Alcazar, Daniel [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, 1118 E. Fourth Street, P.O. Box 210081, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); De Luca, Massimo [LERMA-LRA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC and UCP, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Elia, Davide [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario-INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Giannini, Teresa; Lorenzetti, Dario [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma-INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Massi, Fabrizio [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri-INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Martin, Peter G. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Strafella, Francesco, E-mail: olmi.luca@gmail.co, E-mail: olmi@arcetri.astro.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento, CP 193, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Vela-D region, according to the nomenclature given by Murphy and May, of the star-forming complex known as the Vela molecular ridge (VMR), has recently been analyzed in detail by Olmi, who studied the physical properties of 141 pre- and proto-stellar cold dust cores, detected by the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) during a much larger (55 deg{sup 2}) Galactic plane survey encompassing the whole VMR. This survey's primary goal was to identify the coldest dense dust cores possibly associated with the earliest phases of star formation. In this work, the dynamical state of the Vela-D cores is analyzed. Comparison to dynamical masses of a sub-sample of the Vela-D cores estimated from the {sup 13}CO survey of Elia is complicated by the fact that the {sup 13}CO linewidths are likely to trace the lower density intercore material, in addition to the dense gas associated with the compact cores observed by BLAST. In fact, the total internal pressure of these cores, if estimated using the {sup 13}CO linewidths, appears to be higher than the cloud ambient pressure. If this were the case, then self-gravity and surface pressure would be insufficient to bind these cores and an additional source of external confinement (e.g., magnetic field pressure) would be required. However, if one attempts to scale down the {sup 13}CO linewidths, according to the observations of high-density tracers in a small sample of sources, then most proto-stellar cores would be effectively gravitationally bound.

  13. Search for pre-existing Delta states at BLAST from ²H(e,e'[Delta]??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greene Chana M. (Chana Michelle)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center a comprehensive study of low-Q2 spin-dependent electron scattering from deuterium has been carried out using the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST). This experiment ...

  14. Titanium addition practice, and maintenance for the hearths in AHMSA`s blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, A.G.; Jimenez, G.; Castillo, J. [Altos Hornos de Mexico, Monclova (Mexico)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is a steel company located in Northern Mexico, in the state of Coahuila. Currently there are three blast furnaces in operation and one more about to finish its general repair. This last one is to remain as a back-up unit. Because of blast furnace hearth wear outs AHMSA has developed some maintenance procedures. These procedures are based on titanium ore additions and hearth thermic control monitoring. There are also some other maintenance practices adopted to the working operations to assure that such operations detect and avoid in time hearth wear outs that place personnel and/or the unit in danger (due to hearth leaks). This paper describes titanium ore addition to No. 2 blast furnace during the final campaign and it also illustrates maintenance practices and continuous monitoring of temperature trends both of which were implemented at AHMSA`s No. 5 blast furnace.

  15. Optimization of ferrous burden high temperature properties to meet blast furnace requirements in British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergstrand, R.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The high temperature properties of ferrous burden materials have long been an important consideration in the operation of British Steel blast furnaces. Previous research presented at this conference has shown that the behavior of materials in the lower stack and bosh can have a significant effect on furnace permeability and stability of operation. However, with increasing levels of hydrocarbon injection via the tuyeres, the reduction conditions inside British Steel blast furnaces have significantly altered over recent years. This paper focuses on the further work that has been undertaken to study the effect on ferrous burden high temperatures properties of the widely differing reduction regimes which can be experienced in today`s blast furnaces. The implications of the findings, and how they have been used in optimizing blast furnace operation and burden quality, are discussed.

  16. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  17. Fluid-filled helmet liner concept for protection against blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yost, Allison L. (Allison Lynne)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to changes in modem warfare threats, as well as advances in body armor, soldier survivability in combat has increased, but blast-induced Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has become a prevalent injury in the battlefield. ...

  18. The design and retrofit of buildings for resistance to blast-induced progressive collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbott Galvão Sobreira Lopes, Isabel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, concern has risen drastically regarding the suitability of structural design for blast resistance. Historic events have proven that buildings that are designed in compliance with conventional building codes ...

  19. Hearth monitoring experiences at Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stothart, D.W.; Chaykowski, R.D.; Donaldson, R.J.; Pomeroy, D.H.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of a 1994 taphole breakout at Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace, extensive effort has gone into monitoring, understanding and controlling hearth wear. This paper reviews the hearth monitoring system developed and the various hearth operating and maintenance techniques used to ensure No. 4 Blast Furnace safely reaches its 1998 reline date. The impact of changes in coke quality, productivity, casting practice and leaking cooling members on hearth refractory temperature fluctuations will also be examined.

  20. Close-in blasting at the TRI-MET light rail tunnels in Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revey, G.F.; Painter, D.Z.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Frontier/Traylor Joint Venture is presently constructing a section of the Tri-County Metropolitan Transit District of Oregon`s (TRI-MET) Westside Light Rail System. This new section will extend Portland`s existing transit system to the western suburbs of Beaverton and Hillsboro. The drill-blast excavations at this project include 10,000 feet of 20 foot tunnel, 18 cross passages, three shafts, an underground railway station, and a U-wall open cut. From a blast designer`s perspective, this job has been extremely challenging. Blast vibration is limited to 0.5 ips at 200 feet or at the nearest structure, and airblast is limited to 129 dB--linear peak and 96 dB--C scale. The tunnels pass under heavily built up areas and have top of tunnel to surface cover distances as low as 70 feet. Surface blasting in the 26,000 cubic yard U-wall excavation was limited to five short nighttime periods due to its proximity to the very busy highway 26. This paper describes the techniques that were used to develop safe blasting designs for the TRI-MET Surface blasts and tunnel rounds. It also discusses the measures that were necessary to mitigate noise, vibration, and flyrock.

  1. Oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes for studying blast wave effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtney, Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Instrumentation is needed to produce realistic blast waves in a laboratory setting. This paper describes the development and characterization of oxy-acetylene driven, laboratory scale shock tubes for use in studying blast injury, candidate armor materials, and material properties at blast loading rates. The pressure-time profiles show a true shock front and exponential decay characteristic of blast waves and have relevant durations. The modular design includes shock tube diameters of 27 mm and 41 mm, and a selection of peak pressures from 204 kPa to 920 kPa can be produced by selection of the driver section diameter and placement of the test sample. Characterization studies of several driver/driven section combinations showed consistent results, with peak pressures having 0.8 - 6.9 percent uncertainty in the mean. This shock tube design provides a more realistic blast profile than current air-driven shock tubes. In addition, operation does not require specialized personnel or facilities like most blast-driven...

  2. Low frequency long duration blast vibrations and their effect on residential structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, M.P.; Sirveiya, A.K.; Singh, P.K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Dept.

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was conducted at a coal mine in India which produces 10 million tonne of coal and 27 million cubic meter of overburden per annum. Detonation of 100 tonnes of explosives in a blasting round is a common practice of the mine. These large sized blasts often led to complaints from the nearby inhabitants regarding ground vibrations and their affects on their houses. Eighteen dragline blasts were conducted and their impacts on nearby structures were investigated. Extended seismic arrays were used to identify the vibration characteristics within a few tens of meters of the blasts and also as modified by the media at distances over 5 km. 10 to 12 seismographs were deployed in an array to gather the time histories of vibrations. A signature blast was conducted to know the fundamental frequency of the particular transmitting media between the blast face and the structures. The faster decay of high frequency components was observed. It was also observed that at distances of 5 km, the persistence of vibrations in the structures was substantially increased by more than 10 seconds. The proximity of the frequency of the ground vibration to the structure's fundamental frequencies produced the resonance in the structures. On the basis of the fundamental frequency of the structures, the delay interval was optimized, which resulted in lower amplitude and reduced persistence of vibration in the structures. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Operational considerations for high level blast furnace fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poveromo, J.J. [Quebec Cartier Mining Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection levels of over 400 lbs/NTHM for coal, over 250 lbs/NTHM for natural gas and over 200 lbs/NTHM for oil have been achieved. Such high levels of fuel injection has a major impact on many aspects of blast furnace operation. In this paper the author begins by reviewing the fundamentals of fuel injection with emphasis on raceway thermochemical phenomena. The operational impacts which are generic to high level injection of any injectant are then outlined. The author will then focus on the particular characteristics of each injectant, with major emphasis on coal and natural gas. Operational considerations for coping with these changes and methods of maximizing the benefits of fuel injection will be reviewed.

  4. Radiative precursors driven by converging blast waves in noble gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Swadling, G. F.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Hall, G. N.; Khoory, E.; Pickworth, L.; Bland, S. N.; Grouchy, P. de; Skidmore, J.; Suttle, L.; Bennett, M.; Niasse, N. P. L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Williams, R. J. R. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)] [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Blesener, K.; Atoyan, L.; Cahill, A.; Hoyt, C.; Potter, W. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); and others

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed study of the radiative precursor that develops ahead of converging blast waves in gas-filled cylindrical liner z-pinch experiments is presented. The experiment is capable of magnetically driving 20?km s{sup ?1} blast waves through gases of densities of the order 10{sup ?5} g cm{sup ?3} (see Burdiak et al. [High Energy Density Phys. 9(1), 52–62 (2013)] for a thorough description). Data were collected for Ne, Ar, and Xe gas-fills. The geometry of the setup allows a determination of the plasma parameters both in the precursor and across the shock, along a nominally uniform line of sight that is perpendicular to the propagation of the shock waves. Radiation from the shock was able to excite NeI, ArII, and XeII/XeIII precursor spectral features. It is shown that the combination of interferometry and optical spectroscopy data is inconsistent with upstream plasmas being in LTE. Specifically, electron density gradients do not correspond to any apparent temperature change in the emission spectra. Experimental data are compared to 1D radiation hydrodynamics HELIOS-CR simulations and to PrismSPECT atomic physics calculations to assist in a physical interpretation of the observations. We show that upstream plasma is likely in the process of being radiatively heated and that the emission from a small percentage of ionised atoms within a cool background plasma dominates the emission spectra. Experiments were carried out on the MAGPIE and COBRA pulsed-power facilities at Imperial College London and Cornell University, respectively.

  5. On the conversion of blast wave energy into radiation in active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Pohl; Reinhard Schlickeiser

    1999-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested that relativistic blast waves may power the jets of AGN and gamma-ray bursts (GRB). We address the important issue how the kinetic energy of collimated blast waves is converted into radiation. It is shown that swept-up ambient matter is quickly isotropised in the blast wave frame by a relativistic two-stream instability, which provides relativistic particles in the jet without invoking any acceleration process. The fate of the blast wave and the spectral evolution of the emission of the energetic particles is therefore solely determined by the initial conditions. We compare our model with existing multiwavelength data of AGN and find remarkable agreement.

  6. Quantification of explosion source characteristics from near-source, regional and teleseismic distances. Final report, 23 February 1987-31 July 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stump, B.; Reamer, S.; Anderson, D.; Olsen, K.; Reinke, R.

    1989-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Work over the contract period is summarized in four papers: (1) Source Parameter Estimation for Large, Bermed, Surface Chemical Explosions; (2) Seismic Wave Generation by Mine Blasts; (3) Pomona Quarry Seismic Experiment, Near-Source Data; and (4) MISTY ECHO, The Seismic Source Physics Experiment. The first paper attempts to qualify source differences between large surface chemical explosions ranging in yields from 0.075 to 1.65 kilotons. The second paper documents millisecond delay blasting practices in the mining industry and illustrates the effects of these practices on near-source seismic observations. The effects of scatter in design blasting times is illustrated. A set of experiments designed to begin the comparison between single and production mining explosions are described in the third paper. The multiple explosion production shot was documented with high speed photography so that the design and actual firing times of the individual explosions could be compared. The final paper is a preliminary data report describing the first of a series of free field and free surface seismic experiments designed to document the effects of the free surface on seismic radiation from underground nuclear explosions. The particular experiment, MISTY ECHO, was detonated in Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site.

  7. ANNUAL HEATING AND COOLING REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN DAY PERFORMANCE FOR A RESIDENTIAL MODEL IN SIX CLIMATES: A COMPARISON OF NBSLD, BLAST 2, AND DOE-2.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, William L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPARISON - HOURLY INTERNAL LOAD PROFILES LightingA Comparison of NBSLD, BLAST 2. and DOE-2.1 (b) Lighting:

  8. Safer blasting agents and procedures for blasting in gassy non-coal mines. [Quarterly] technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, E.S.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Bureau of Mines` research program is focused on developing procedures and guidelines for acceptable underground oil shale blasting that fulfill the operational requirements for efficiency while maintaining a high level of safety when operating under gassy mine conditions. This work is aimed at providing new information, alternate methods, and innovation in underground blasting procedures. The results from this research will have direct impact on regulatory standards for blasting under gassy mine conditions. Based on the low incendivity data from the Cannon Gallery and several months of recent testing in their mine, Kennecott`s Greens Creek base metal mine in Alaska had decided to exclusively use a low incendive bulk emulsion product in place of the low incendive water gel prod ct for all blasting operations. As was the case with the low incendive water gel product, the use of this bulk product resulted in: no dust ignitions and related injuries and/or production/equipment losses; the elimination if preblasting measures of using stemming and water sprays, and the improvement of roadways due to the reduction of water.

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2008 1 On Outage and Error Rate Analysis of the Ordered V-BLAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loyka, Sergey

    is a manifestation of the space-time autocoding effect in the V-BLAST. While the sub-optimal ordering (based evaluated. Index Terms-- Multi-antenna (MIMO) system, V-BLAST, per- formance analysis, autocoding effect I Rate Analysis of the Ordered V-BLAST Sergey Loyka, Senior Member, IEEE, and Francois Gagnon, Senior

  10. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  11. Process control techniques at the blast furnaces of Thyssen Stahl AG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, W.; Bachhofen, H.J.; Beppler, E.; Kreibich, K.; Muelheims, K.; Peters, M.; Wieters, C.U. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process improvements, capacity increases and the use of modern measuring and process control techniques have helped to ensure that the blast furnace will remain an indispensable means of supplying steelworks with hot metal until well into the next century. The survival of a future-oriented company such as Thyssen Stahl AG depends on long-term improvements in economic viability. Today, Thyssen Stahl AG operates two blast furnace plants comprising a total of five blast furnaces with hearth diameters ranging from 9.3 to 14.9m. This choice of furnaces permits flexible adjustment to changing workload situations and enables about ten million tons of hot metal to be produced each year. The wide range of measuring devices specially fitted on Schwelgern blast furnace No. 1 made a vital contribution to the development of blast furnace models. The purpose of these models was to make a general assessment of the state of the furnace and so create an objective basis for furnace operation. The paper describes the development of these measuring techniques and process model and the application of the model.

  12. Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E. (Jason E.)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.

  13. A Blast Wave from the 1843 Eruption of Eta Carinae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Very massive stars shed much of their mass in violent precursor eruptions as luminous blue variables (LBVs) before reaching their most likely end as supernovae, but the cause of LBV eruptions is unknown. The 19th century eruption of Eta Carinae, the prototype of these events, ejected about 12 solar masses at speeds of 650 km/s, with a kinetic energy of almost 10^50 ergs. Some faster material with speeds up to 1000-2000 km/s had previously been reported but its full distribution was unknown. Here I report observations of much faster material with speeds up to 3500-6000 km/s, reaching farther from the star than the fastest material in earlier reports. This fast material roughly doubles the kinetic energy of the 19th century event, and suggests that it released a blast wave now propagating ahead of the massive ejecta. Thus, Eta Car's outer shell now mimics a low-energy supernova remnant. The eruption has usually been discussed in terms of an extreme wind driven by the star's luminosity, but fast material reported here suggests that it was powered by a deep-seated explosion rivalling a supernova, perhaps triggered by the pulsational pair instability. This may alter interpretations of similar events seen in other galaxies.

  14. Skull flexure from blast waves: a mechanism for brain injury with implications for helmet design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts. The debilitating effects of TBI are long-lasting and costly. Although the mechanisms by which impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. Various possibilities have been investigated, but blast-induced deformation of the skull has been neglected. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that nonlethal blasts can induce sufficient flexure of the skull to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even if no impact occurs. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for the diagnosis of soldiers and the design of protective equipment such as helmets.

  15. Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts, with debilitating, costly, and long-lasting effects. Although mechanisms by which head impacts cause TBI have been well-researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient skull flexure to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even without a head impact. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for injury diagnosis and armor design.

  16. Altos Hornos de Mexico blast furnace No. 5 certification in ISO-9002 standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamez, O.; Liceaga, F.; Arredondo, J. [Altos Hornos de Mexico, Monclova (Mexico)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Altos Hornos de Mexico`s Blast Furnace No. 5, as a means to improve its product quality, sought and obtained the certification of its quality system based on the international standard ISO-9002. The certification was obtained under this quality standard in Dec. 1995 and has successfully been maintained after two continuance audits. For blast furnace No. 5 (BF5) the benefits are reflected by a reduction in the hot metal silicon content variability, a decrease in fuel consumption and a higher productivity. Benefits were also obtained in the working environment where the personnel became more highly motivated, procedures were carried out to completion and the quality records were filled correctly.

  17. Planar blast scaling with condensed-phase explosives in a shock tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Scott L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast waves are strong shock waves that result from large power density deposition into a fluid. The rapid energy release of high-explosive (HE) detonation provides sufficiently high power density for blast wave generation. Often it is desirable to quantify the energy released by such an event and to determine that energy relative to other reference explosives to derive an explosive-equivalence value. In this study, we use condensed-phase explosives to drive a blast wave in a shock tube. The explosive material and quantity were varied to produce blast waves of differing strengths. Pressure transducers at varying lengths measured the post-shock pressure, shock-wave arrival time and sidewall impulse associated with each test. Blast-scaling concepts in a one-dimensional geometry were then used to both determine the energy release associated with each test and to verify the scaling of the shock position versus time, overpressure versus distance, and impulse. Most blast scaling measurements to-date have been performed in a three-dimensional geometry such as a blast arena. Testing in a three-dimensional geometry can be challenging, however, as spherical shock-wave symmetry is required for good measurements. Additionally, the spherical wave strength decays rapidly with distance and it can be necessary to utilize larger (several kg) quantities of explosive to prevent significant decay from occurring before an idealized blast wave has formed. Such a mode of testing can be expensive, require large quantities of explosive, and be limited by both atmospheric conditions (such as rain) and by noise complaints from the population density near the test arena. Testing is possible in more compact geometries, however. Non-planar blast waves can be formed into a quasi-planar shape by confining the shock diffraction with the walls of a shock tube. Regardless of the initial form, the wave shape will begin to approximate a planar front after successive wave reflections from the tube walls. Such a technique has previously been used to obtain blast scaling measurements in the planar geometry with gaseous explosives and the condensed-phase explosive nitroguanidine. Recently, there has been much interest in the blast characterization of various non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) materials. With non-ideals, the detonation reaction zone is significantly larger (up to several cm for ANFO) than more ideal explosives. Wave curvature, induced by charge-geometry, can significantly affect the energy release associated with NIHEs. To measure maximum NIHE energy release accurately, it is desirable to minimize any such curvature and, if possible, to overdrive the detonation shock to ensure completion of chemical reactions ahead of the sonic locus associated with the reaction zone. This is achieved in the current study through use of a powerful booster HE and a charge geometry consisting of short cylindrical lengths of NIHE initiated along the charge centerline.

  18. AN IMPROVED SOFT FEEDBACK V-BLAST DETECTION TECHNIQUE FOR TURBO-MIMO SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Andrew C

    AN IMPROVED SOFT FEEDBACK V-BLAST DETECTION TECHNIQUE FOR TURBO-MIMO SYSTEMS Jun Won Choi*, Andrew-demapper) and the channel decoder exchange soft (extrinsic) information to iteratively improve system perfor- mance. Hence In this paper, an improved minimum mean square error (MMSE) soft feedback detector, called the soft input, soft

  19. Message found in a gravity wave A blast from the past.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    FUTURES Message found in a gravity wave A blast from the past. 664 nature physics | VOL 4 | AUGUST to smack into us very soon -- which is why I'm out here in Maw's pasture spelling out my message with rocks than ever before. I'm taking apart a whole stone wall to write this message, this very narrative

  20. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILVA, Taranto (Italy); Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  1. Development and application of new techniques for blast furnace process control at SSAB Tunnplaat, Luleaa Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braemming, M.; Hallin, M. [SSAB Tunnplaat AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Zuo, G. [Luleaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Process Metallurgy

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SSAB Tunnplaat AB operates two blast furnaces (M1 and M2) in Luleaa. In recent years research efforts have to a great extent been aimed at the development of new techniques for blast furnace process control. An example is the installation of a burden profile measurement system, which was useful in the development of a new burden distribution praxis on the big furnace (M2), equipped with a bell-less-top. Hearth level detection and continuous measurement of the hot metal temperature in the runner are under evaluation. The purpose of these techniques is to give earlier information concerning the state of the blast furnace process. Parallel to this work, models for prediction of silicon in hot metal, the position and shape of the cohesive zone and slip-warning are being developed and tested off-line. These new models and information from new measuring techniques will be integrated into a new Operating Guidance System, hopefully resulting in a powerful tool in the efforts to stabilize blast furnace operations.

  2. Studies of charging stream trajectories and burden distribution in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M.J.; Mayfield, P.L.; Zulli, P.; Rex, A.J.; Tanzil, W.B.U.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work discusses the sensitivity of key blast furnace performance parameters to different gas flow distributions achieved by altering the burden distribution. The changes in burden distribution are brought about by different charging stream trajectories, and methods developed and evaluated for measuring the trajectories both on and off line are described.

  3. Development of quick repairing technique for ceramic burner in hot stove of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Atsushi; Doura, Kouji; Nakamura, Hirofumi [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Steel Works

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Refractories of ceramic burner in hot stoves at Wakayama No. 4 blast furnace were damaged. There are only three hot stoves, so repairing must be done in a short. Therefore, a quick repairing technique for ceramic burners has been developed, and two ceramic burners were repaired in just 48 hours.

  4. Gas-powder flow in blast furnace with different shapes of cohesive zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, X.F.; Pinson, D.; Zhang, S.J.; Yu, A.B.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With high PCI rate operations, a large quantity of unburned coal/char fines will flow together with the gas into the blast furnace. Under some operating conditions, the holdup of fines results in deterioration of furnace permeability and lower production efficiency. Therefore, it is important to understand the behaviour of powder (unburnt coal/char) inside the blast furnace when operating with different cohesive zone (CZ) shapes. This work is mainly concerned with the effect of cohesive zone shape on the powder flow and accumulation in a blast furnace. A model is presented which is capable of simulating a clear and stable accumulation region in the lower central region of the furnace. The results indicate that powder is likely to accumulate at the lower part of W-shaped CZs and the upper part of V- and inverse V-shaped CZs. For the same CZ shape, a thick cohesive layer can result in a large pressure drop while the resistance of narrow cohesive layers to gas-powder flow is found to be relatively small. Implications of the findings to blast furnace operation are also discussed.

  5. Turbo-BLAST with Semi-Blind Co-Channel Interference Cancellation in Multicell MIMO Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Huaiyu

    Turbo-BLAST with Semi-Blind Co-Channel Interference Cancellation in Multicell MIMO Systems Vivek to obtain in practice. In this paper we first exploit the turbo principle to enhance an effective blind detection method based on multiuser kurtosis (MUK) maximization, thus coined as turbo-MUK. In turbo

  6. Educational Innovation at UW-Madison The EI Blast: Opportunities and Guides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    Educational Innovation at UW-Madison The EI Blast: Opportunities and Guides February 18, 2013 www campus EI strategy. Members of the EI Core Team have been meeting with campus governance units including-Madison's portfolio of EI initiatives. Learn more about MOOCs. EI Advisory Committee ­ The EI Advisory Committee

  7. BLAST, FASTA, ClustalW, HMM and PHYLIP --these bioinformatics algorithms are now a part of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majoros, Bill

    BLAST, FASTA, ClustalW, HMM and PHYLIP -- these bioinformatics algorithms are now a part of every molecular biologist's toolkit. DNA sequencing and data mining have become almost as central to biology Genome,a CORPUS of this size can be explored and managed only by computational means

  8. Diffusion of Cosmic Rays in a Multiphase Interstellar Medium Swept-Up by a Supernova Remnant Blast Wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roh, Soonyoung; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are one of the most energetic astrophysical events and are thought to be the dominant source of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs). A recent report on observations from the Fermi satellite has shown a signature of pion decay in the gamma-ray spectra of SNRs. This provides strong evidence that high-energy protons are accelerated in SNRs. The actual gamma-ray emission from pion decay should depend on the diffusion of CRs in the interstellar medium. In order to quantitatively analyse the diffusion of high-energy CRs from acceleration sites, we have performed test particle numerical simulations of CR protons using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of an interstellar medium swept-up by a blast wave. We analyse the diffusion of CRs at a length scale of order a few pc in our simulated SNR, and find the diffusion of CRs is precisely described by a Bohm diffusion, which is required for efficient acceleration at least for particles with energies above 30 TeV for a realistic int...

  9. Observation and modeling of mixing-layer development in high-energy-density, blast-wave-driven shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Stefano, C. A., E-mail: carlosds@umich.edu; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Malamud, G. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States) [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center-Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Henry de Frahan, M. T.; Johnsen, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center-Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel) [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center-Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Smalyuk, V. A.; Martinez, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we examine the hydrodynamics of high-energy-density (HED) shear flows. Experiments, consisting of two materials of differing density, use the OMEGA-60 laser to drive a blast wave at a pressure of ?50 Mbar into one of the media, creating a shear flow in the resulting shocked system. The interface between the two materials is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, and a mixing layer of growing width develops due to the shear. To theoretically analyze the instability's behavior, we rely on two sources of information. First, the interface spectrum is well-characterized, which allows us to identify how the shock front and the subsequent shear in the post-shock flow interact with the interface. These observations provide direct evidence that vortex merger dominates the evolution of the interface structure. Second, simulations calibrated to the experiment allow us to estimate the time-dependent evolution of the deposition of vorticity at the interface. The overall result is that we are able to choose a hydrodynamic model for the system, and consequently examine how well the flow in this HED system corresponds to a classical hydrodynamic description.

  10. Spin-Dependent Electron Scattering from Polarized Protons and Deuterons with the BLAST Experiment at MIT-Bates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasell, Douglas K.

    The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The experiment was designed to exploit the power of a polarized electron beam ...

  11. Investigation of sonic/subsonic air-blast atomization using Rayleigh- and Mie-scattering visualization techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Tae-Kyun

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To examine the jet mixing in air-blast twin fluid atomization, the sonic and supersonic air jet developments have been exclusively visualized using the Rayleigh scattering principle and the development of liquid spray has been separately visualized...

  12. Blast Wave Formation by Laser-Sustained Nonequilibrium Plasma in the Laser-Driven In-Tube Accelerator Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogino, Yousuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Sawada, Keisuke [Department of Aeronautics and Space Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sasoh, Akihiro [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the dynamics of laser-produced plasma is essentially important for increasing available thrust force in a gas-driven laser propulsion system such as laser-driven in-tube accelerator. A computer code is developed to explore the formation of expanding nonequilibrium plasma produced by laser irradiation. Various properties of the blast wave driven by the nonequilibrium plasma are examined. It is found that the blast wave propagation is substantially affected by radiative cooling effect for lower density case.

  13. Placement of the dam for the no. 2 kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: some observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S. [JSC 'SPII Gidroproekt' (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of complex instrument observations of large-scale blasting during construction of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Republic of Kirgizia are analyzed. The purpose of these observations was: to determine the actual parameters of the seismic process, evaluate the effect of air and acoustic shock waves, and investigate the kinematics of the surface formed by the blast in its core region within the mass of fractured rocks.

  14. Dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves encountering a density bump or void

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: uhm@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves that encounter various density structures (such as bumps, voids, or steps) in the surrounding ambient medium. We present and explain the characteristic response features that each type of density structure in the medium leaves on the forward shock (FS) and reverse shock (RS) dynamics for blast waves with either a long-lived or short-lived RS. We show that when the ambient medium density drops, the blast waves exhibit in some cases a period of an actual acceleration (even during their deceleration stage) due to adiabatic cooling of blast waves. Comparing numerical examples that have different shapes of bumps or voids, we propose a number of consistency tests that must be satisfied by correct modeling of blast waves. Our model results successfully pass these tests. Employing a Lagrangian description of blast waves, we perform a sophisticated calculation of afterglow emission. We show that as a response to density structures in the ambient medium, the RS light curves produce more significant variations than the FS light curves. Some observed features (such as rebrightenings, dips, or slow wiggles) can be more easily explained within the RS model. We also discuss the origin of these different features imprinted on the FS and RS light curves.

  15. Blast-furnace ironmaking -- Existing capital and continued improvements are a winning formula for a bright future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshnock, T.W.; Colinear, J.A. [U.S. Steel, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout the years the blast-furnace process has been improved upon significantly. Increases to the hot-blast temperature, improvements to the physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties of coke and burden materials, the use of more fuel injectants, and improvements to the design of the furnace facilities have led to significant decreases in furnace coke rate, increases in productivity, and increases in furnace campaign life. As a result, many of the alternative cokeless reduction processes have not replaced blast-furnace hot-metal production in North America. In the future, these continued blast-furnace improvements will potentially result in coke rates decreasing to 400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM) as more pulverized coal is injected. These improvements, coupled with the fact that existing blast furnaces and coke plants can be refurbished for approximately $110 per annual ton of hot metal [$100 per annual net ton of hot metal (NTHM)], will result in extending the life of the North American blast furnaces well into the twenty-first century.

  16. The formation of an ore free blast furnace center by bell charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exter, P. den; Steeghs, A.G.S.; Godijn, R.; Chaigneau, R.; Timmer, R.M.C. [Hoogovens Research and Development, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Toxopeus, H.L.; Vliet, C. van der [Hoogovens Staal Primary Products, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A research program has been started to clarify and support the central gas flow control philosophy of Hoogovens` bell-charged No. 7 blast furnace. Small scale burdening experiments and sampling of the stock surface during shut-downs suggest that a sufficiently high central gas flow is an important condition for maintenance of an ore free, highly permeable furnace center and that fluidization of coke plays a part in its formation. On the basis of these experiments a hypothesis was formulated regarding the formation of an ore free blast furnace center, but could not be confirmed satisfactorily. Forthcoming full-scale burdening experiments will provide a better insight in the burden distribution and its control.

  17. Determination of the fundamental softening and melting characteristics of blast furnace burden materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakker, T.; Heerema, R.H. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental technique to investigate the fundamental mechanisms taking place on a microscale in the softening and melting zone in the blast furnace, is presented. In the present paper, attention is focused on determination of the softening viscosity of porous wustite. The technique may be potentially useful to investigate more complex samples of ironbearing material, as occurring in the blast furnace. In comparison with the results obtained by other researchers the viscosity of porous wustite found in the present work is substantially higher than reported elsewhere for sinter and pellets. This may be an indication that softening is not merely a reflection of the solid state deformation under load of wustite. An important factor may be local melting of some of the phases present within the sinter and pellet structures.

  18. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  19. Kinematics of ICMEs/shocks: blast wave reconstruction using type II emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corona-Romero, P; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E; de-la-Luz, V; Mejia-Ambriz, J C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a physical methodology to reconstruct the trajectory of interplanetary shocks using type II radio emission data. This technique calculates the shock trajectory assuming that the disturbance propagates as a blast wave in the interplanetary medium. We applied this Blast Wave Reconstruction (BWR) technique to analyze eight fast Earth-directed ICMEs/shocks associated with type II emissions. The technique deduces a shock trajectory that reproduces the type II frequency drifts, and calculates shock onset speed, shock transit time and shock speed at 1~AU. There were good agreements comparing the BWR results with the type II spectra, with data from coronagraph images, {\\it in situ} measurements, and interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations. Perturbations on the type II data affect the accuracy of the BWR technique. This methodology could be applied to track interplanetary shocks causing TII emissions in real-time, to predict the shock arrival time and shock speed at 1~AU.

  20. Incineration of Residue from Paint Stripping Operations Using Plastic Media Blasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helt, J. E.; Mallya, N.

    i INCINERATION OF RESIDUE FROH PAINT STRIPPING OPERATIONS USING PLASTIC MEDIA BLASTING J. E. HELT N. MALLYA Group Leader Chemist Chemical Technology Division Chemical Technology Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National... potentially be classified as a hazardous waste. One possible alternative to depositing the waste residue directly into a hazardous waste landfill is inciner ation. Incineration would provide desirable volume reduction. However. the fate of heavy metals...

  1. Interaction of supernova blast waves with wind-driven shells: formation of "jets", "bullets", "ears", etc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Gvaramadze

    1999-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of middle-aged supernova remnants (SNRs) have a distorted and complicated appearance which cannot be explained in the framework of the Sedov-Taylor model. We consider three typical examples of such SNRs (Vela SNR, MSH 15-52, G 309.2-00.6) and show that their structure could be explained as a result of interaction of a supernova (SN) blast wave with the ambient medium preprocessed by the action of the SN progenitor's wind and ionized emission.

  2. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  3. CORRELATIONS IN THE (SUB)MILLIMETER BACKGROUND FROM ACT Multiplication-Sign BLAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajian, Amir; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Viero, Marco P.; Bock, James J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Addison, Graeme [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Aguirre, Paula [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Appel, John William; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew [Laboratoire APC, Universite Paris Diderot, 75205 Paris (France); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); and others

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency correlation power spectra of the cosmic (sub)millimeter background at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations made with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST); and at 1380 and 2030 {mu}m (218 and 148 GHz) from observations made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The overlapping observations cover 8.6 deg{sup 2} in an area relatively free of Galactic dust near the south ecliptic pole. The ACT bands are sensitive to radiation from the cosmic microwave background, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), while the dominant contribution to the BLAST bands is from DSFGs. We confirm and extend the BLAST analysis of clustering with an independent pipeline and also detect correlations between the ACT and BLAST maps at over 25{sigma} significance, which we interpret as a detection of the DSFGs in the ACT maps. In addition to a Poisson component in the cross-frequency power spectra, we detect a clustered signal at 4{sigma}, and using a model for the DSFG evolution and number counts, we successfully fit all of our spectra with a linear clustering model and a bias that depends only on redshift and not on scale. Finally, the data are compared to, and generally agree with, phenomenological models for the DSFG population. This study demonstrates the constraining power of the cross-frequency correlation technique to constrain models for the DSFGs. Similar analyses with more data will impose tight constraints on future models.

  4. NO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW BLAST WAVES ENCOUNTERING SUDDEN CIRCUMBURST DENSITY CHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gat, Ilana; Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are observed to produce light curves with the flux following power-law evolution in time. However, recent observations reveal bright flares at times on the order of minutes to days. One proposed explanation for these flares is the interaction of a relativistic blast wave with a circumburst density transition. In this paper, we model this type of interaction computationally in one and two dimensions, using a relativistic hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement called RAM, and analytically in one dimension. We simulate a blast wave traveling in a stellar wind environment that encounters a sudden change in density, followed by a homogeneous medium, and compute the observed radiation using a synchrotron model. We show that flares are not observable for an encounter with a sudden density increase, such as a wind termination shock, nor for an encounter with a sudden density decrease. Furthermore, by extending our analysis to two dimensions, we are able to resolve the spreading, collimation, and edge effects of the blast wave as it encounters the change in circumburst medium. In all cases considered in this paper, we find that a flare will not be observed for any of the density changes studied.

  5. Pulverized coal injection (PCI) at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.L.; Greenawald, P.B.; Ranade, M.G.; Ricketts, J.A.; Zuke, D.A. [Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel injection at the tuyeres has always been part of normal operating practice on this blast furnace. It has been used as much because of the beneficial effects on furnace operation as for the replacement of some of the coke that would otherwise be consumed. Fuel oil was used at first, but since the early 1980s it was more economical to inject natural gas. Studies in 1990 indicated that natural gas could be increased to 75 kg/tHM on No. 7 Furnace, and this would result in a coke rate of approximately 360 kg/tHM. It was apparent that coal injection offered significantly more opportunity for coke savings. Coke rate could be lowered to 300 kg/tHM with coal injected at 175 kg/tHM. Some combustion limitations were expected at that level. A coke rate of 270 kg/tHM with coal at 200 kg/tHM may be possible once these limitations are overcome. Furnace permeability was expected to limit the ability to reduce coke rate any further. In addition, the relative cost of coal would be significantly lower than the cost of coke it replaced. This lead to the decision late in 1991 to install pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment for all of Inland`s blast furnaces. This paper will deal with PCI experience at No. 7 Blast Furnace.

  6. Bringing large-scale multiple genome analysis one step closer: ScalaBLAST and beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oehmen, Christopher S.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Baxter, Douglas; Szeto, Ernest; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Straatsma, Tjerk P.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Genome sequence comparisons of exponentially growing data sets form the foundation for the comparative analysis tools provided by community biological data resources such as the Integrated Microbial Genome (IMG) system at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI). We present an example of how ScalaBLAST, a high-throughput sequence analysis program harnesses increasingly critical high-performance computing to perform sequence analysis which is a critical component of maintaining a state-of-the-art sequence data repository. The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system1 is a data management and analysis platform for microbial genomes hosted at the JGI. IMG contains both draft and complete JGI genomes integrated with other publicly available microbial genomes of all three domains of life. IMG provides tools and viewers for interactive analysis of genomes, genes and functions, individually or in a comparative context. Most of these tools are based on pre-computed pairwise sequence similarities involving millions of genes. These computations are becoming prohibitively time consuming with the rapid increase in the number of newly sequenced genomes incorporated into IMG and the need to refresh regularly the content of IMG in order to reflect changes in the annotations of existing genomes. Thus, building IMG 2.0 (released on December 1st 2006) entailed reloading from NCBI's RefSeq all the genomes in the previous version of IMG (IMG 1.6, as of September 1st, 2006) together with 1,541 new public microbial,viral and eukaryal genomes, bringing the total of IMG genomes to 2,301. A critical part of building IMG 2.0 involved using PNNL ScalaBLAST software for computing pairwise similarities for over 2.2 million genes in under 26 hours on 1,000 processors, thus illustrating the impact that new generation bioinformatics tools are poised to make in biology. The BLAST algorithm2, 3 is a familiar bioinformatics application for computing sequence similarity, and has become a workhorse in large-scale genomics projects. The rapid growth of genome resources such as IMG cannot be sustained without more powerful tools such as ScalaBLAST that use more effectively large scale computing resources to perform the core BLAST calculations. ScalaBLAST is a high performance computing algorithm designed to give high throughput BLAST results on high-end supercomputers. Other parallel sequence comparison applications have been developed4-6. However problems with scaling generally prevent these applications from being used for very large searches. ScalaBLAST7 is the first BLAST application to be both highly scaleable against the size of the database as well as the number of computer processors on high-end hardware and on commodity clusters. ScalaBLAST achieves high throughput by parsing a large collection of query sequences into independent subgroups. These smaller tasks are assigned to independent process groups. Efficient scaling is achieved by (transparently to the user) sharing only one copy of the target database across all processors using the Global Array toolkit 8, 9, which provides software implementation of shared memory interface. ScalaBLAST was initially deployed on the 1,960 processor MPP2 cluster in the Wiliam R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and has since been ported to a variety of linux-based clusters and shared memory architectures, including SGI Altix, AMD opteron, and Intel Xeon-based clusters. Future targets include IBM BlueGene, Cray, and SGI Altix XE architectures. The importance of performing high-throughput calculations rapidly lies in the rate of growth of sequence data. For a genome sequencing center to provide multiple-genome comparison capabilities, it must keep pace with exponentially growing collection of protein data, both from its own genomes, and from the public genome information as well. As sequence data continues to grow exponentially, this challenge will only increase with time. Solving the BLAST throughput challenge for centralized data resources like IMG has the poten

  7. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Using coal-dust fuel in Ukrainian and Russian blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.A. Minaev; A.N. Ryzhenkov; Y.G. Banninkov; S.L. Yaroshevskii; Y.V. Konovalov; A.V. Kuzin [Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ukrainian and Russian blast-furnace production falls short of the best global practices. It is no secret that, having switched to oxygen and natural gas in the 1960s, the blast-furnace industries have improved the batch and technological conditions and have attained a productivity of 2.5 and even 3 t/(m{sup 3} day), but have not been able to reduce coke consumption below 400 kg/t, which was the industry standard 40 years ago. The situation is particularly bad in Ukraine: in 2007, furnace productivity was 1.5-2 t/m{sup 3}, with a coke consumption of 432-530 kg/t. Theoretical considerations and industrial experience over the last 20 years show that the large-scale introduction of pulverized fuel, with simultaneous improvement in coke quality and in batch and technological conditions, is the only immediately available means of reducing coke consumption considerably (by 20-40%). By this means, natural-gas consumption is reduced or eliminated, and the efficiency of blast-furnace production and ferrous metallurgy as a whole is increased.

  9. Modeling and simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Taylor, Paul Allen

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm{sup 3} voxels), 5 material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female dataset. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior and lateral directions. Three dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric (shear) stress within the first 2 milliseconds of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 msec time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI.

  10. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  11. BLAST OBSERVATIONS OF RESOLVED GALAXIES: TEMPERATURE PROFILES AND THE EFFECT OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI ON FIR TO SUBMILLIMETER EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiebe, Donald V.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Pascale, Enzo [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, James J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de AstrofIsica Optica y Electronica, Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Martin, Peter G. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Olmi, Luca [Istituto di Radioastronomia, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Patanchon, Guillaume [Laboratoire APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet 75205 Paris (France)

    2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the course of two flights, the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) made resolved maps of seven nearby (<25 Mpc) galaxies at 250, 350, and 500 mum. During its 2005 June flight from Sweden, BLAST observed a single nearby galaxy, NGC 4565. During the 2006 December flight from Antarctica, BLAST observed the nearby galaxies NGC 1097, NGC 1291, NGC 1365, NGC 1512, NGC 1566, and NGC 1808. We fit physical dust models to a combination of BLAST observations and other available data for the galaxies observed by Spitzer. We fit a modified blackbody to the remaining galaxies to obtain total dust mass and mean dust temperature. For the four galaxies with Spitzer data, we also produce maps and radial profiles of dust column density and temperature. We measure the fraction of BLAST detected flux originating from the central cores of these galaxies and use this to calculate a 'core fraction', an upper limit on the 'active galactic nucleus fraction' of these galaxies. We also find our resolved observations of these galaxies give a dust mass estimate 5-19 times larger than an unresolved observation would predict. Finally, we are able to use these data to derive a value for the dust mass absorption coefficient of kappa = 0.29 +- 0.03 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} at 250 mum. This study is an introduction to future higher-resolution and higher-sensitivity studies to be conducted by Herschel and SCUBA-2.

  12. Burden distribution control for maintaining the central gas flow at No. 1 blast furnace in Pohang Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, S.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Suh, Y.K.; Ahn, T.J.; Kim, S.M. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The causes for temperature lowering at the upper shaft center in Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were investigated. The test operation with charging notch change in the actual blast furnace and with a 1/12 scale model to Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were carried out in order to improve central gas flow in the shaft. Finally, rebuilding of the lower bunker interior was performed using the results of model experiments. It was confirmed that the main reason for the gas temperature lowering at the upper shaft center was the smaller particle size at center than the wall according to the discharging characteristics of center feed bunker with stone box. The central gas flow could be secured through modifying the stone box in the bunker.

  13. A new direct steel making process based upon the blast furnace (Including scrap processing with recovery of tramp elements)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabi, G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel is produced from raw materials containing iron and alloying elements with direct elimination of oxygen and impurities in the blast furnace process. The blast furnace shaft is modified to take off load from the liquid bath and carbon is prevented from going into the liquid steel. In the gas purification system sulphur and CO{sub 2} removal facilities are included and purified reducing gases so obtained are combusted in the hearth with oxygen to produce heat for smelting. Scrap can be charged as raw material with the recovery of tramp elements with continuous production of liquid steel.

  14. The Blast-Wave-Driven Instability as a Vehicle for Understanding Supernova Explosion Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, A R

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast-wave-driven instabilities play a rich and varied role throughout the evolution of supernovae from explosion to remnant, but interpreting their role is difficult due to the enormous complexity of the stellar systems. We consider the simpler and fundamental hydrodynamic instability problem of a material interface between two constant-density fluids perturbed from spherical and driven by a divergent central Taylor-Sedov blast wave. The existence of unified solutions at high Mach number and small density ratio suggests that general conclusions can be drawn about the likely asymptotic structure of the mixing zone. To this end we apply buoyancy-drag and bubble merger models modified to include the effects of divergence and radial velocity gradients. In general, these effects preclude the true self-similar evolution of classical Raleigh-Taylor, but can be incorporated into a quasi-self-similar growth picture. Loss of memory of initial conditions can occur in the quasi-self-similar model, but requires initial mode numbers higher than those predicted for pre-explosion interfaces in Type II SNe, suggesting that their late-time structure is likely strongly influenced by details of the initial perturbations. Where low-modes are dominant, as in the Type Ia Tycho remnant, they result from initial perturbations rather than generation from smaller scales. Therefore, structure observed now contains direct information about the explosion process. When large-amplitude modes are present in the initial conditions, the contribution to the perturbation growth from the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is significant or dominant compared to Rayleigh-Taylor. Such Richtmyer-Meshkov growth can yield proximity of the forward shock to the growing spikes and structure that strongly resembles that observed in the Tycho. Laser-driven high-energy-density laboratory experiments offer a promising avenue for testing model and simulation descriptions of blast-wave-driven instabilities and making connections to their astrophysical counterparts.

  15. Monitoring lining and hearth conditions at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quisenberry, P.; Grant, M.; Carter, W.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes: furnace statistics; mini-reline undertaken in November, 1993; the stack condition; throat gunning; stabilizing the graphite bricks; the hearth condition; reactions to temperature excursions; future instrumentation; and hot blast system areas of concern. The present data from monitoring systems and inspections indicate that the furnace should be able to operate well beyond the expectation for the 1993 mini-reline (3--5 years) with: (1) consistent, high quality raw materials; (2) instrumentation, diagnostic, remedial, and preventative techniques developed; and (3) stopping quickly any water leaks into the furnace. The longevity of this campaign has undoubtedly been a result of this monitoring program.

  16. Continuous measurement of blast furnace burden profile at SSAB Tunnplat AB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virtala, J.; Edberg, N.; Hallin, M. (SSAB Tunnplat AB, Lulea (Sweden). Ironmaking Division)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique profile meter system is installed on Blast Furnace No. 2 in SSAB - Swedish Steel AB, Lulea, Sweden. This system measures the charge material burden profile across the furnace top diameter before and after each charge. The system generates real-time data, which is graphically presented by the system on a monitor and includes burden descent speed, layer thickness of the coke and ore (corrected for descent), ore to coke ratio, and burden skewing. The system is described along with operational results.

  17. Bosh repairs No. 3 blast furnace, Edgar Thomson Plant Mon Valley Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoupis, M.G.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes in detail the steps taken from quenching to dry out of the furnace to repair the bosh area of the No.3 blast furnace. Inspection of the area revealed that there was no brick anywhere in the bosh. Brick in the tuyere breast area had been peeled back to reveal the steel plate, and descaling revealed 14 pipes fully exposed. None were leaking, but one seemed badly deteriorated. Conventional repairs could not take place before the scheduled blow-in. Installation of coolers were instead tried.

  18. A method for burden distribution estimation from probe data in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H.; Bulsari, A. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel approach for estimation of burden distribution in the blast furnace is presented. The proposed model makes use of only temperature measurements from an above-burden probe, and interprets the changes in temperature at charging in terms of burden distribution. In this study it is demonstrated that the temperature changes can be predicted quite accurately for all dumps in a charging sequence using neural networks., The basic structures of both an on-line and an off-line model are presented.

  19. Suppressor for reducing the muzzle blast and flash of a firearm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klett, James W

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are several examples of apparatuses for suppressing the blast and flash produced as a projectile is expelled by gases from a firearm. In some examples, gases are diverted away from the central chamber to an expansion chamber by baffles. The gases are absorbed by the expansion chamber and desorbed slowly, thus decreasing pressure and increasing residence time of the gases. In other examples, the gases impinge against a plurality of rods before expanding through passages between the rods to decrease the pressure and increase the residence time of the gases.

  20. Computational and in vitro studies of blast-induced blood-brain barrier disruption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Razo, Mauricio J; Meabon, James S; Huber, B Russell; Peskind, Elaine R; Banks, William A; Mourad, Pierre D; Leveque, Randall J; Cook, David G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing concern that blast-exposed individuals are at risk of developing neurological disorders later in life. Therefore, it is important to understand the dynamic properties of blast forces on brain cells, including the endothelial cells that maintain the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which regulates the passage of nutrients into the brain and protects it from toxins in the blood. To better understand the effect of shock waves on the BBB we have investigated an {\\em in vitro} model in which BBB endothelial cells are grown in transwell vessels and exposed in a shock tube, confirming that BBB integrity is directly related to shock wave intensity. It is difficult to directly measure the forces acting on these cells in the transwell container during the experiments, and so a computational tool has been developed and presented in this paper. Two-dimensional axisymmetric Euler equations with the Tammann equation of state were used to model the transwell materials, and a high-resolution finite volume method b...

  1. Production and blast-furnace smelting of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.A. Akberdin; A.S. Kim [Abishev Chemicometallurgical Institute, Abishev (Kazakhstan)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial test data are presented regarding the production (at Sokolovsk-Sarbaisk mining and enrichment enterprise) and blast-furnace smelting (at Magnitogorsk metallurgical works) of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets (500000 t). It is shown that, thanks to the presence of boron, the compressive strength of the roasted pellets is increased by 18.5%, while the strength in reduction is doubled; the limestone consumption is reduced by 11%, the bentonite consumption is halved, and the dust content of the gases in the last section of the roasting machines is reduced by 20%. In blast-furnace smelting, the yield of low-sulfur (<0.02%) hot metal is increased from 65-70 to 85.1% and the furnace productivity from 2.17-2.20 to 2.27 t/(m{sup 3} day); coke consumption is reduced by 3-8 kg/t of hot metal. The plasticity and stamping properties of 08IO auto-industry steel are improved by microadditions of boron.

  2. Gary Works No. 13 blast furnace: A new removable trough design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; Pawlak, J.P. [U.S. Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States). Gary Works; Traina, L.; Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No. 13 Blast Furnace at US Steel`s Gary Works is a 35 tuyere furnace with a 36.5 ft. hearth capable of producing over 9,000 tons of hot metal per day. The current casthouse design was placed in service following the second reline in the fall of 1979. This design anticipated daily production rates averaging 7,500 tons of hot metal per day and provided for removable troughs at two of the three tapholes. At the time, the troughs were rammed with a high alumina/silicon carbide granular ramming material that provided the operators with trough campaign lives between 60,000--70,000 tons of hot metal produced. As refractory technology progressed, low cement/low moisture castables were introduced to the trough systems on No. 13 Blast Furnace. The immediate success of the castables was tempered by emergence of a new unexpected problem. That problem was the thermal expansion of the castable. The paper describes the problems that resulted in the need to modify the trough design, the new design of the trough, and its improvement in iron trough campaign life and reliability.

  3. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Air Blast Propagation from the Humble Redwood Chemical High Explosive Detonations Using GEODYN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chipman, V D

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.

  4. Energy-Dependent Gamma-Ray Burst Peak Durations and Blast-Wave Deceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Chiang

    1998-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Temporal analyses of the prompt gamma-ray and X-ray light curves of gamma-ray bursts reveal a tendency for the burst pulse time scales to increase with decreasing energy. For an ensemble of BATSE bursts, Fenimore et al. (1995) show that the energy dependence of burst peak durations can be represented by $\\Delta t \\propto E^{-\\gamma}$ with $\\gamma \\simeq 0.4$--0.45. This power-law dependence has led to the suggestion that this effect is due to radiative processes, most notably synchrotron cooling of the non-thermal particles which produce the radiation. Here we show that a similar power-law dependence occurs, under certain assumptions, in the context of the blast-wave model and is a consequence of the deceleration of the blast-wave. This effect will obtain whether or not synchrotron cooling is important, but different degrees of cooling will cause variations in the energy dependence of the peak durations.

  5. Lab 3. Using PSI-BLAST, the Taxonomy Report, the CDD analysis, and PFAM to look at proteins.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sjölander, Kimmen

    Lab 3. Using PSI-BLAST, the Taxonomy Report, the CDD analysis, and PFAM to look at proteins. Does this agree with PFAM? 4. Are there any PDB hits identified in the results? Use the taxonomy report) protein Now, use the taxonomy browser to look at hits in the different genomes. 7. How many hits in human

  6. Integrated use of burden profile probe and in-burden probe for gas flow control in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordemann, F.; Hartig, W.H. [AG der Dillinger Huettenweke, Dillingen (Germany); Grisse, H.J. [Dango and Dienenthal Siegen (Germany); Speranza, B.E. [Dango and Dienenthal, Inc., Highland, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas flow in the blast furnace is one of the most important factors in controlling a furnace. It not only determines the production but also the fuel consumption and the campaign life. At Nos. 4 and 5 blast furnaces of ROGESA, probes are installed for detection of the burden profiles and of the gas flow distribution. For an optimum use of these probes a program system has been developed by ROGESA and Dango and Dienenthal. With this program system it is possible to analyze the operating condition of a blast furnace by means of a fuzzy logic analysis. In case of deviations from the defined desired condition, recommendations for corrective measures for the material distribution are made. Both furnaces are equipped with a bell-less top, a coal injection system, high-temperature hot blast stoves with heat recovery and a top gas pressure recovery turbine. Most of the time it is impossible to control all the required parameters. For this reason it is meaningful to measure the actual material distribution at the furnace top by means of a burden profile probe which permits quick and repeated measurements without any retroactive effects. The paper describes the instrumentation of the furnace, correlation of measuring methods, and a program system for analysis of measuring data.

  7. Interfacing computer-assisted drafting and design with the building loads analysis and system thermodynamics (BLAST) program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morton, J.D.; Pyo, C.; Choi, B.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficient building design requires in-depth thermal analysis. Existing Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) software packages already enhance the productivity and quality of design. Thermal analysis tools use much the same information as that contained in CADD drawings to determine the most energy efficient design configuration during the design process. To use these analysis tools, data already contained in the CADD system must be re-keyed into the analysis packages. This project created an interface to automate the migration of data from CADD to the Building Loads Analysis System and Thermodynamics (BLAST) analysis program, which is an Army-standard system for evaluating building energy performance. Two interfaces were developed, one batch-oriented (IN2BLAS7) and one interactive (the Drawing Navigator). Lessons learned from the development of IN2BLAST were carried into the development of the Drawing Navigator, and the Drawing Navigator was field tested. Feedback indicated that useful automation of the data migration is possible, and that proper application of such automation can increase productivity.... Blast, CADD, Interface, IN2BLAST, Drawing navigator.

  8. Process Simulation and Control Optimization of a Blast Furnace Using Classical Thermodynamics Combined to a Direct Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Alain

    consisting mainly of N2, CO, CO2, H2, and H2O. This is a consequence of the reduction of the iron ore volume methods, data-mining models, heat and mass balance models, and classical thermodynamic simulations-tune the simulation of the blast furnace. Optimal operating conditions and predicted output stream properties

  9. Experimental characterization of energetic material dynamics for multiphase blast simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beresh, Steven Jay; Wagner, Justin L.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Wright, Elton K.; Baer, Melvin R.; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently there is a substantial lack of data for interactions of shock waves with particle fields having volume fractions residing between the dilute and granular regimes, which creates one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the simulation of energetic material detonation. To close this gap, a novel Multiphase Shock Tube has been constructed to drive a planar shock wave into a dense gas-solid field of particles. A nearly spatially isotropic field of particles is generated in the test section by a gravity-fed method that results in a spanwise curtain of spherical 100-micron particles having a volume fraction of about 19%. Interactions with incident shock Mach numbers of 1.66, 1.92, and 2.02 were achieved. High-speed schlieren imaging simultaneous with high-frequency wall pressure measurements are used to reveal the complex wave structure associated with the interaction. Following incident shock impingement, transmitted and reflected shocks are observed, which lead to differences in particle drag across the streamwise dimension of the curtain. Shortly thereafter, the particle field begins to propagate downstream and spread. For all three Mach numbers tested, the energy and momentum fluxes in the induced flow far downstream are reduced about 30-40% by the presence of the particle field. X-Ray diagnostics have been developed to penetrate the opacity of the flow, revealing the concentrations throughout the particle field as it expands and spreads downstream with time. Furthermore, an X-Ray particle tracking velocimetry diagnostic has been demonstrated to be feasible for this flow, which can be used to follow the trajectory of tracer particles seeded into the curtain. Additional experiments on single spherical particles accelerated behind an incident shock wave have shown that elevated particle drag coefficients can be attributed to increased compressibility rather than flow unsteadiness, clarifying confusing results from the historical database of shock tube experiments. The development of the Multiphase Shock Tube and associated diagnostic capabilities offers experimental capability to a previously inaccessible regime, which can provide unprecedented data concerning particle dynamics of dense gas-solid flows.

  10. Radiation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

  11. ANNUAL HEATING AND COOLING REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN DAY PERFORMANCE FOR A RESIDENTIAL MODEL IN SIX CLIMATES: A COMPARISON OF NBSLD, BLAST 2, AND DOE-2.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, William L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BLAST DOE-2 (SWF) Annual Cooling Requirements (10 6 Btu)Btu) I'" I NBSLD III DOE-2 (SW'F) DOE-2 (CW'F) DOE-2 (CWF)Heating (1 Annual Total Btu) City Jan HINNEAPOLIS NBSLD

  12. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Nuclear Blast Cavities of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moser, Duane; Russell, Chuck; Marshall, Matthew; Czerwinski, Ken; Daly, Michael J; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2008-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This exploratory research project is designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the possible existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations in Nevada Test Site (NTS) subsurface nuclear blast cavities. Although subsurface microbiological studies have been performed at the NTS in the past, radioactive zones have yet to be addressed. Nuclear blast zone microbiology is a completely new field and our team is well-positioned to collect and analyze samples that have never before been available to microbiologists. Relevant samples are now being obtained by incorporating microbiological collections into an ongoing annual hot well sampling program being conducted by other agencies. A combination of cultivation-based and molecular microbial detection protocols is being utilized at multiple locations to survey for uncultivable microorganisms and to develop a culture collection which will be characterized for radionuclide- and metal-reduction capabilities. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, a positive outcome from this work would have significant implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites. A primary objective of the project has been the establishment of the regulatory and technical framework necessary to enable our acquisition of samples. Thus, much of our activity in the first phase of this work has involved the development an approved Field Area Work Plan (FAWP), Radiological Work Permit (RWP), and other documentation required for radiological work at the NTS. We have also invested significant time into ensuring that all personnel possess the required training (e.g. Radworker II and 40 hr. HAZWOPER) for access to the hot well sampling sites. Laboratory facilities, required for field processing of radioactive samples as well as DNA extraction and other manipulations, have been secured both the NTS (Mercury, NV) and UNLV. Although our year-1 field work was delayed due to non-availability of samples, an aggressive sampling campaign is now underway and our first hot well samples were collected on Feb 5th, 2008. The unique nature of this site, coupled with the combined expertise of the collaborating laboratories (DRI, LLNL, PNNL, and the Harry Reid Center) makes the likelihood of our achieving discoveries of value to DOE, the individual researchers, and society high. As the selective pressures at atomic blast sites are probably different from those of production and disposal sites, these habitats may contain novel organisms of utility for bioremediation. Such organisms will have had to develop physiological mechanisms to survive high doses of ionizing radiation over the variety of rock types and hydrologic environments present at the NTS.

  13. Safer blasting agents and procedures for blasting in gassy non-coal mines. Final report, September 9, 1990--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hundreds of tests have been conducted in the Bureau`s Lake Lynn Laboratory Cannon Gallery to evaluate the incendivity characteristics of both commercially available and experimental explosive products. The cannon gallery test results have clearly identified several lower incendive explosives that can and have significantly reduced the gas and/or dust ignition hazards associated with blasting in non-coal mines. Several of the lower incendive explosive formulations have undergone full-scale field evaluations and, to date, had been very successful in preventing ignitions in base metal mines with high sulphur-bearing ore. Tests in the cannon gallery have shown that an inert gelled water material outperforms most other stemming agents in preventing the ignition of flammable gases and/or combustible dusts outside of the bore. A new water stemming plug was evaluated in the cannon gallery and shown to be a very effective stemming device. As a means to better evaluate explosive incendivity, the initial development of two instrument sensors are underway. A fiber optic rate probe has been redesigned to accurately measure the detonation velocity of explosives in the cannon bore. A photometric sensor is also under development to measure the peak temperatures of the detonation products exiting the bore. This report discusses the results of the research program including the test apparatus and procedures and summarizes the incendivity data obtained from the various explosives. Results from the full-scale field testing of the lower incendive products in an operating mine are then presented.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  15. The push for increased coal injection rates -- Blast furnace experience at AK Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dibert, W.A.; Duncan, J.H.; Keaton, D.E.; Smith, M.D. [AK Steel Corp., Middletown, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An effort has been undertaken to increase the coal injection rate on Amanda blast furnace at AK Steel Corporation`s Ashland Works in Ashland, Kentucky to decrease fuel costs and reduce coke demand. Operating practices have been implemented to achieve a sustained coal injection rate of 140 kg/MT, increased from 100--110 kg/MT. In order to operate successfully at the 140 kg/MT injection rate; changes were implemented to the furnace charging practice, coal rate control methodology, orientation of the injection point, and the manner of distribution of coal to the multiple injection points. Additionally, changes were implemented in the coal processing facility to accommodate the higher demand of pulverized coal; grinding 29 tonnes per hour, increased from 25 tonnes per hour. Further increases in injection rate will require a supplemental supply of fuel.

  16. Gary No. 13 blast furnace achieves 400 lbs/THM coal injection in 9 months

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, G.J.; Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.; O`Donnell, E.M. [U.S. Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Number 13 Blast Furnace at Gary began injecting Pulverized Coal in March 1993. The injection level was increased over the next nine months until a level off 409 lbs/THM was achieved for the month of December 1993. Several major areas were critical in achieving this high level of Pulverized coal injection (PCI) including furnace conditions, lance position, tuyere blockage, operating philosophy, and outages. The paper discusses the modifications made to achieve this level of injection. This injection level decreased charged dry coke rate from 750 lbs/THM to about 625 lbs/THM, while eliminating 150 lbs/THM of oil and 20 lbs/THM of natural gas. Assuming a 1.3 replacement ratio for an oil/natural gas mixture, overall coke replacement for the coal is about 0.87 lbs coke/lbs coal. Gary Works anticipates levels of 500 lbs/THM are conceivable.

  17. A study on the flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, Y.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Baik, C.Y. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace was investigated by using a water model test and a numerical simulation. The water model apparatus was set up in order to evaluate the effects of coke size, coke bed structure, drain rate, and coke free space on the fluidity of molten iron through measurement of residence time and visualization of flow pattern. In addition, the flow was calculated by solving momentum equation in porous media using finite element method. The residence time increased with the coke size decrease, but decreased with the drain rate increase. If small coke was placed in the center of deadman, peripheral flow was enhanced. The flow path was changed due to the coke free space.

  18. Hoogovens blast furnace No. 6 -- The first eleven years of a continuing campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tijhuis, G.; Toxopeus, H.; Berg, H. van den; Vliet, C. van der [Hoogovens Steel, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast furnace No. 6 of Hoogovens Steel has just completed its eleventh year of the fourth (running) campaign, with a total production of approx. 23 million metric tonnes of hot metal. During the last reline in 1985 the furnace was equipped with a third taphole and a bell-less top. The lining consists of graphite and semi-graphite and the cooling consists of a dense pattern of copper plate coolers. The current campaign is marked by several important operational events, in particular the high productivity and PCI rates, but also by the remarkable performance of the lining which has shown limited wear in the first four years of the campaign, and hardly any reduction of the lining thickness in the last seven years. This paper discusses the design of the furnace, and the history of the current campaign with respect to its productivity, PCI rates and lining wear.

  19. Finite element analysis of the Arquin-designed CMU wall under a dynamic (blast) load.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Carlos; Petti, Jason P.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arquin Corporation designed a CMU (concrete masonry unit) wall construction and reinforcement technique that includes steel wire and polymer spacers that is intended to facilitate a faster and stronger wall construction. Since the construction method for an Arquin-designed wall is different from current wall construction practices, finite element computer analyses were performed to estimate the ability of the wall to withstand a hypothetical dynamic load, similar to that of a blast from a nearby explosion. The response of the Arquin wall was compared to the response of an idealized standard masonry wall exposed to the same dynamic load. Results from the simulations show that the Arquin wall deformed less than the idealized standard wall under such loading conditions. As part of a different effort, Sandia National Laboratories also looked at the relative static response of the Arquin wall, results that are summarized in a separate SAND Report.

  20. Study of radiative blast waves generated on the Z-beamlet laser.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edens, Aaron D.; Schwarz, Jens

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the original goals of the project to study the Vishniac Overstability on blast waves produced using the Z-Beamlet laser facility as well as the actual results. The proposed work was to build on earlier work on the facility and result in the best characterized set of data for such phenomena in the laboratory. To accomplish the goals it was necessary to modify the existing probe laser at the facility so that it could take multiple images over the course of 1-2 microseconds. Troubles with modifying the probe laser are detailed as well as the work that went into said modifications. The probe laser modification ended up taking the entire length of the project and were the major accomplishment of the research.

  1. Assessing the Vulnerability of Large Critical Infrastructure Using Fully-Coupled Blast Effects Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMichael, L D; Noble, C R; Margraf, J D; Glascoe, L G

    2009-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural failures, such as the MacArthur Maze I-880 overpass in Oakland, California and the I-35 bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, are recent examples of our national infrastructure's fragility and serve as an important reminder of such infrastructure in our everyday lives. These two failures, as well as the World Trade Center's collapse and the levee failures in New Orleans, highlight the national importance of protecting our infrastructure as much as possible against acts of terrorism and natural hazards. This paper describes a process for evaluating the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to large blast loads using a fully-coupled finite element approach. A description of the finite element software and modeling technique is discussed along with the experimental validation of the numerical tools. We discuss how such an approach can be used for specific problems such as modeling the progressive collapse of a building.

  2. ON THE AMPLIFICATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD BY A SUPERNOVA BLAST SHOCK WAVE IN A TURBULENT MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Fan; Li Shengtai; Li Hui; Li, David [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Giacalone, Joe; Jokipii, J. R. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed extensive two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to study the amplification of magnetic fields when a supernova blast wave propagates into a turbulent interstellar plasma. The blast wave is driven by injecting high pressure in the simulation domain. The interstellar magnetic field can be amplified by two different processes, occurring in different regions. One is facilitated by the fluid vorticity generated by the 'rippled' shock front interacting with the background turbulence. The resulting turbulent flow keeps amplifying the magnetic field, consistent with earlier work. The other process is facilitated by the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the contact discontinuity between the ejecta and the shocked medium. This can efficiently amplify the magnetic field and tends to produce the highest magnetic field. We investigate the dependence of the amplification on numerical parameters such as grid-cell size and on various physical parameters. We show that the magnetic field has a characteristic radial profile such that the downstream magnetic field gets progressively stronger away from the shock. This is because the downstream magnetic field needs a finite time to reach the efficient amplification, and will get further amplified in the Rayleigh-Taylor region. In our simulation, we do not observe a systematic strong magnetic field within a small distance to the shock. This indicates that if the magnetic-field amplification in supernova remnants indeed occurs near the shock front, other processes such as three-dimensional instabilities, plasma kinetics, and/or cosmic ray effect may need to be considered to explain the strong magnetic field in supernova remnants.

  3. VOLUME 87, NUMBER 8 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 20 AUGUST 2001 Investigation of Ultrafast Laser-Driven Radiative Blast Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ditmire, Todd

    . This is believed to be due to the stabilizing effect of a relatively thick blast wave shell resulting in part from of Ultrafast Laser-Driven Radiative Blast Waves M.J. Edwards,1 A. J. MacKinnon,1 J. Zweiback,1 K. Shigemori,2 D blast waves produced by the deposition of femtosecond laser pulses in gas jets. In high-Z gases

  4. Regional Seismic Signals from Chemical Explosions, Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: Results from the Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, W R; Gok, R; Mayeda, K; Sicherman, A; Bonner, J; Leidig, M

    2005-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Routine industrial mining explosions play two important roles in seismic nuclear monitoring research: (1) they are a source of background events that need to be discriminated from potential nuclear explosions; (2) as some of the only explosions occurring in the current de facto global moratoria on nuclear testing, their signals should be exploited to improve the calibration of seismic m monitoring systems. A common issue monitoring arising in both of these roles is our limited physical understanding of the causes behind observed differences and similarities in the seismic signals produced by routine industrial mining blasts and small underground nuclear tests. In 2003 a consortium (Weston, SMU, LLNL, LANL and UTEP) carried out a Source Phenomenology Experiment (SPE), a series of dedicated explosions designed to improve this physical understanding, particularly as it relates to seismic methods of discriminating between signals from three different source types: earthquakes, industrial blasts, and nuclear tests. Here we very briefly review prior field experimental work that examined the seismic relationships between these source types.

  5. Compliance Monitoring of Underwater Blasting for Rock Removal at Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project, 2009/2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Skalski, J. R.; Seaburg, Adam

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) conducted the 20-year Columbia River Channel Improvement Project (CRCIP) to deepen the navigation channel between Portland, Oregon, and the Pacific Ocean to allow transit of fully loaded Panamax ships (100 ft wide, 600 to 700 ft long, and draft 45 to 50 ft). In the vicinity of Warrior Point, between river miles (RM) 87 and 88 near St. Helens, Oregon, the USACE conducted underwater blasting and dredging to remove 300,000 yd3 of a basalt rock formation to reach a depth of 44 ft in the Columbia River navigation channel. The purpose of this report is to document methods and results of the compliance monitoring study for the blasting project at Warrior Point in the Columbia River.

  6. Using X-ray observations to identify the particle acceleration mechanisms in VHE SNRs and "dark" VHE sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Pühlhofer

    2007-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations have proven to be very successful in localizing Galactic acceleration sites of VHE particles. Observations of shell-type supernova remnants have confirmed that particles are accelerated to VHE energies in supernova blast waves; the interpretation of the gamma-ray data in terms of hadronic or leptonic particle components in these objects relies nevertheless strongly on input from X-ray observations. The largest identified Galactic VHE source class consists of pulsar wind nebulae, as detected in X-rays. Many of the remaining VHE sources remain however unidentified until now. With X-ray observations of these enigmatic "dark" objects one hopes to solve the following questions: What is the astrophysical nature of these sources? Are they predominantly electron or hadron accelerators? And what is their contribution to the overall cosmic ray energy budget? The paper aims to provide an overview over the identification status of the Galactic VHE source population.

  7. PERFORMANCE OF RC AND FRC WALL PANELS REINFORCED WITH MILD STEEL AND GFRP COMPOSITES IN BLAST EVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Garfield; William D. Richins; Thomas K. Larson; Chris P. Pantelides; James E. Blakeley

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural integrity of reinforced concrete structures in blast events is important for critical facilities. This paper presents experimental data generated for calibrating detailed finite element models that predict the performance of reinforced concrete wall panels with a wide range of construction details under blast loading. The test specimens were 1.2 m square wall panels constructed using Normal Weight Concrete (NWC) or Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC). FRC consists of macro-synthetic fibers dispersed in NWC. Five types of panels were tested: NWC panels with steel bar reinforcement (Type A); FRC panels without additional reinforcement (Type B); FRC panels with steel bar reinforcement (Type C); NWC panels with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bar reinforcement (Type D); and NWC panels reinforced with steel bar reinforcement and external bidirectional GFRP overlays on both faces (Type E). An additional three Type C panels were used as control specimens (CON). Each panel type was constructed with three thicknesses: 152 mm, 254 mm, and 356 mm. The panels were instrumented with strain gauges, and accelerometers; in addition, pressure sensors and high speed videos were employed during the blast events. Panel types C and E had the best performance, whereas panel type B did not perform well. Preliminary dynamic simulations show crack patterns similar to the experimental results.

  8. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolytes are disclosed for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids. 7 figures.

  9. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan (Albuquerque, NM); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolytes for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids.

  10. An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL Sealed Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY Sealed Source Contamination Incident October 13, 2011 #12;2 Cesium (Cs-137) Source Failure On September 28th @ ~1600 contamination event discovered · Two Radiological Contamination was from a Cs-137 (265 micro-curie) "sealed source" used to test area radiation monitors. · Source

  12. Burden distribution tests of Siderar`s No. 2 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingiardi, O.; Partemio, C.; Burrai, O.; Etchevarne, P.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Siderar is a company which was created through the merger of Propulsora Siderurgica and the privatized Aceros Parana (the former Somisa, a state-owned steel company). This plant manufacturers flat steel products: hot and cold rolled coils, as well as tin plate coils. After the privatization of the former Somisa in 1992, the new owners decided to modernize the Blast Furnace 2. The relining involved the following: complete furnace with bell less top; cast house with dust collection; INBA granulation system; gas cleaning system; cooling system; modern control system; and revamping of the stock house and the stoves. Burden distribution tests allowed the staff to familiarize themselves with the operation of the top under the three operation modes (manual, semiautomatic and automatic), and also to make adjustments to the top control system. In addition, the tests allowed them to see how materials behave during discharge and building up of ore and coke layers. All this information, together with the available instrumentation, such as fixed probes and heat flux monitoring system, proved to be of use for the gas flow control.

  13. Trials with a 100% pellet burden in blast furnace No. 6 at Hoogovens IJmuiden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoone, E.; Toxopeus, H.; Vos, D. [Hoogovens IJmuiden (Netherlands). Ironmaking and Raw Materials Div.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The burden consists of 50% high basicity sinter and 50% home made olivine pellets. Two coke oven plants produce the required coke, about 340 kg/t (680 lb/NT). The average pulverized coal injection rate is 150 kg/t (300 lb/NT). To anticipate the aging coke oven plant No. 2 the coal injection capacity will e increased by 50% in 1996, by the installation of a third coal grinding line. In the Netherlands environmental issues have a high impact on further developments. In particular the environmental regulations require a significant decrease of dust, SO{sub 2} and dioxins emitted by the sinter plant. The appropriate measures must be concluded in the second part of this decade. To avoid costly conventional solutions Hoogovens has been testing since April, 1994 the Emission Optimized Sintering (EOS). In case of failure of EOS, the situation of a (partially) closed sinter plant was tested. Purchased pellets replaced sinter, leading to a 100% pellet and an 80% pellet/20% sinter trial. The trials were executed in the first half of 1994 at blast furnace No. 6, equipped with a PW-bell less top. Results are described.

  14. Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace hearth breakout, repair and rescue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, R.J.; Fischer, A.J.; Sharp, R.M.; Stothart, D.W. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On May 5, 1994, after producing 9.5 million metric tons of iron, Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace experienced a hearth breakout 250 millimeters below the west taphole. The hot metal spill caused a fire resulting in severe damage and 33 days of lost production. During a 26-day period, electrical wiring, water drainage systems and both tapholes were repaired. Recovery from an unprepared furnace stop of this length, with the deadman depleted is difficult. To aid with the rescue Hoogovens-designed oxygen/fuel lances were commissioned. The furnace recovery began with a lance in each taphole and all tuyeres plugged. Six days after startup the furnace was casting into torpedo cars, and after nine days operation had returned to normal. This incident prompted Dofasco to expand the hearth monitoring system to detect and prevent similar occurrences. During the repair, 203 new thermocouples were installed in the hearth, concentrating on the tapholes and elephant foot areas. These thermocouples were installed at various depths and locations to allow heat flux calculations. This hearth monitoring system has already identified other problem areas and provided valuable information about hearth drainage patterns. This information has allowed them to develop control strategies to manage localized problem areas.

  15. An examination of blast and impulse effects from the metal loading of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, Victor E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zucker, Jonathan M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Afee, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tappan, Bryce C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Asay, Blaine W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Explosive compositions loaded with various metal particulates were produced and tested using a unique experimental configuration. The high explosive HMX was used as the standard and was tested over a range of mass loading fractions using tungsten and tantalum as metal additives. The diagnostics used in this set of experiments included free-field blast sensors, dynamic force sensors, time-of-arrival sensors, and a high-speed digital camera. The experimental arrangement allowed for concurrent spatial measurements of the static pressure from expanding gaseous detonation products, along with the total force from the combination of gaseous products and solid particles. The total pressure from the multi-phase products was calculated by measuring the total force applied to the surface of a newly developed force sensor. The results from the force sensor and other measurement techniques were validated against existing numerical methods. The relationship between static and dynamic pressures as a function of metal loading fraction was examined empirically at several distances from the charge for two distinct metal additives.

  16. Effect of blast furnace slag on self-healing of microcracks in cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Haoliang, E-mail: haoliang.huang@tudelft.nl [Microlab, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Ye, Guang [Microlab, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Department of Structural Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium); Damidot, Denis [Université Lille Nord de France (France); EM Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, Douai (France)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physico-chemical process of self-healing in blast furnace slag cement paste was investigated in this paper. With a high slag content i.e., 66% in cement paste and saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution as activator, it was found that the reaction products formed in cracks are composed of C-S-H, ettringite, hydrogarnet and OH–hydrotalcite. The fraction of C-S-H in the reaction products is much larger than the other minerals. Large amount of ettringite formed in cracks indicates the leaching of SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} ions from the bulk paste and consequently the recrystallization. Self-healing proceeds fast within 50 h and then slows down. According to thermodynamic modeling, when the newly formed reaction products are carbonated, the filling fraction of crack increases first and then decreases. Low soluble minerals such as silica gel, gibbsite and calcite are formed. Compared to Portland cement paste, the potential of self-healing in slag cement paste is higher when the percentage of slag is high. - Highlights: • Self-healing reaction products in slag cement paste were characterized. • Self-healing reaction products formed in time were quantified with image analysis. • Self-healing in slag cement paste was simulated with a reactive transport model. • Effect of carbonation on self-healing was investigated by thermodynamic modeling. • Effect of slag on self-healing was discussed based on experiments and simulation.

  17. Behavior of Concrete Panels Reinforced with Synthetic Fibers, Mild Steel, and GFRP Composites Subjected to Blasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. P. Pantelides; T. T. Garfield; W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson; J. E. Blakeley

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents experimental data generated for calibrating finite element models to predict the performance of reinforced concrete panels with a wide range of construction details under blast loading. The specimens were 1.2 m square panels constructed using Normal Weight Concrete (NWC) or Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC). FRC consisted of macro-synthetic fibers dispersed in NWC. Five types of panels were tested: NWC panels with steel bars; FRC panels without additional reinforcement; FRC panels with steel bars; NWC panels with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars; and NWC panels reinforced with steel bars and external GFRP laminates on both faces. Each panel type was constructed with three thicknesses: 152 mm, 254 mm, and 356 mm. FRC panels with steel bars had the best performance for new construction. NWC panels reinforced with steel bars and external GFRP laminates on both faces had the best performance for strengthening or rehabilitation of existing structures. The performance of NWC panels with GFRP bars was strongly influenced by the bar spacing. The behavior of the panels is classified in terms of damage using immediate occupancy, life safety, and near collapse performance levels. Preliminary dynamic simulations are compared to the experimental results.

  18. The Blast Wave Model for AGN Feedback: Effects on AGN Obscuration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Menci; F. Fiore; S. Puccetti; A. Cavaliere

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the effect of the galactic absorption on AGN emission in a cosmological context by including a physical model for AGN feeding and feedback in a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. This is based on galaxy interactions as triggers for AGN accretion, and on expanding blast waves as a mechanism to propagate outwards the AGN energy injected into the interstellar medium at the center of galaxies. We first test our model against the observed number density of AGNs with different intrinsic luminosity as a function of redshift. The model yields a ''downsizing'' behavior in close agreement with the observed one for z2 and L_X 10^{22} cm^{-2} decreases with luminosity for z<1; in addition, the total (integrated over luminosity) absorbed fraction increases with redshift up to z around 2, and saturates to the value around 0.8 at higher redshifts. Finally, we predict the luminosity dependence of the absorbed fraction of AGNs with L_X< 3 10^{44} erg/s to weaken with increasing redshift. We compare our results with recent observations, and discuss their implications in the context of cosmological models of galaxy formation.

  19. Operational results of shaft repair by installing stave type cooler at Kimitsu Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oda, Hiroshi; Amano, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Aiichiro; Anzai, Osamu [Nippon Steel Corp., Kimitsu, Chiba (Japan). Kimitsu Works; Nakagome, Michiru; Kuze, Toshisuke [Nippon Steel Corp., Futtsu, Chiba (Japan); Imuta, Akira [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Plant and Machinery Div.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces in Nippon Steel Corporation Kimitsu Works were both initially fitted with cooling plate systems. With the aging of each furnace, the damage to their respective inner-shaft profiles had become serious. Thus, in order to prevent operational change and prolong the furnace life, the inner-shaft profile of each furnace was repaired by replacing the former cooling plate system with the stave type cooler during the two-week-shutdowns. With this repair, stability of burden descent and gas flow near the wall part of the furnace have been achieved. Thus the prolongation of the furnace life is naturally expected.

  20. Record production on Gary No. 13 blast furnace with 450 lb./THM co-injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G. [US Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States). Gary Works

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal injection was initiated on No. 13 Blast Furnace in 1993 with 400 lb/THM achieved in 9 months. In early 1994, cold weather and coal preparation upsets led to the use of a second injectant, oil atomized by natural gas, to supplement the coal. Various combinations of coal and oil were investigated as total injection was increased to 450 lb/THM. Beginning in the last half of 1994, a continuing effort has been made to increase furnace production while maintaining this high co-injection level. Typical furnace production is now in excess of 10,000 THM/day compared with about 8500 THM/day in late 1993.

  1. Blast Wave Fits to Elliptic Flow Data at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} =$ 7.7--2760 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. Sun; H. Masui; A. M. Poskanzer; A. Schmah

    2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present blast wave fits to elliptic flow ($v_{2}(p_{\\rm T})$) data in minimum bias collisions from the $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} =$ 7.7--200 GeV at RHIC, and 2.76 TeV at LHC. The fits are performed separately for particles and corresponding anti-particles. The mean transverse velocity parameter $\\beta$ shows an energy dependent difference between particles and corresponding anti-particles, which increases as the beam energy decreases. Possible effects of feed down, baryon stopping, anti-particle absorption, and early production times for anti-particles are discussed.

  2. The Effect of Initial Conditions on the Nonlinear Evolution of Perturbed Interfaces Driven by Strong Blast Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, A

    2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In core-collapse supernovae, strong blast waves drive interfaces susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. In addition, perturbation growth can result from material expansion in large-scale velocity gradients behind the shock front. Laser-driven experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. In this dissertation, we present a computational study of unstable systems driven by high Mach number shock and blast waves. Using multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics codes and theoretical models, we consider the late nonlinear instability evolution of single mode, few mode, and multimode interfaces. We rely primarily on 2D calculations but present recent 3D results as well. For planar multimode systems, we show that compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions (IC's) by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. Aspects of the IC's are shown to have a strong effect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for establishment of the self-similar state, but achieving it requires very high initial characteristic mode number and high Mach number for the incident blast wave. We point to recent stellar calculations that predict IC's we find incompatible with self-similarity, and emphasize the consequent importance of developing a sound understanding of the initial modal structure in the supernova progenitor. For divergent and planar systems, the time-dependence of the drive is shown to impose an 'effective box size' on the systems that limits the inverse cascade to large-scales. Our model explains the weak IC-dependence of this scale observed in some supernova calculations.

  3. DC source assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  4. Energy deposition in the body from external sources to chemically trigger cellular responses in desired localized regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibsen, Stuart Duncan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    blast region was not centered at the smaller microbubble because only the effectthe blast region measures at 49 µm in diameter. The effectblast region and measures at 12 µm in diameter. Discussion The effect

  5. Type B Accident Investigation of the April 8, 2003, Electrical Arc Blast at the Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation TRU Waste Processing Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At approximately 0330 hours on April 8, 2003, a phase-to-phase arc blast occurred in the boiler electrical control panel at the Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Facility. The boiler was providing steam for the evaporator and was reportedly operating at about 10% of its capacity.

  6. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  7. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  8. Modeling & analysis of criticality-induced severe accidents during refueling for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Georgevich, V.; Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Jackson, S.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for evaluating the potential and resulting consequences of a hypothetical criticality accident during refueling of the 330-MW Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) research reactor. The development of an analytical capability is described. Modeling and problem formulation were conducted using concepts of reactor neutronic theory for determining power level escalation, coupled with ORIGEN and MELCOR code simulations for radionuclide buildup and containment transport Gaussian plume transport modeling was done for determining off-site radiological consequences. Nuances associated with modeling this blast-type scenario are described. Analysis results for ANS containment response under a variety of postulated scenarios and containment failure modes are presented. It is demonstrated that individuals at the reactor site boundary will not receive doses beyond regulatory limits for any of the containment configurations studied.

  9. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    on Energy and Water Development U.S. House of Representatives The Honorable Lamar Alexander Ranking Member SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  10. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on Energy and Water Development U.S. House of Representatives The Honorable Lamar Alexander SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (FAR)...

  11. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (FAR) 2.101 AND 3.104 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 (enter date here, centered revised template...

  12. Publications | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    research at the APS. It is the official source for listing APS-related journal articles, conference proceedings and papers, dissertations, books, book chapters, technical reports,...

  13. Modeling coupled blast/structure interaction with Zapotec, benchmark calculations for the Conventional Weapon Effects Backfill (CONWEB) tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bessette, Gregory Carl

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling the response of buried reinforced concrete structures subjected to close-in detonations of conventional high explosives poses a challenge for a number of reasons. Foremost, there is the potential for coupled interaction between the blast and structure. Coupling enters the problem whenever the structure deformation affects the stress state in the neighboring soil, which in turn, affects the loading on the structure. Additional challenges for numerical modeling include handling disparate degrees of material deformation encountered in the structure and surrounding soil, modeling the structure details (e.g., modeling the concrete with embedded reinforcement, jointed connections, etc.), providing adequate mesh resolution, and characterizing the soil response under blast loading. There are numerous numerical approaches for modeling this class of problem (e.g., coupled finite element/smooth particle hydrodynamics, arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian methods, etc.). The focus of this work will be the use of a coupled Euler-Lagrange (CEL) solution approach. In particular, the development and application of a CEL capability within the Zapotec code is described. Zapotec links two production codes, CTH and Pronto3D. CTH, an Eulerian shock physics code, performs the Eulerian portion of the calculation, while Pronto3D, an explicit finite element code, performs the Lagrangian portion. The two codes are run concurrently with the appropriate portions of a problem solved on their respective computational domains. Zapotec handles the coupling between the two domains. The application of the CEL methodology within Zapotec for modeling coupled blast/structure interaction will be investigated by a series of benchmark calculations. These benchmarks rely on data from the Conventional Weapons Effects Backfill (CONWEB) test series. In these tests, a 15.4-lb pipe-encased C-4 charge was detonated in soil at a 5-foot standoff from a buried test structure. The test structure was composed of a reinforced concrete slab bolted to a reaction structure. Both the slab thickness and soil media were varied in the test series. The wealth of data obtained from these tests along with the variations in experimental setups provide ample opportunity to assess the robustness of the Zapotec CEL methodology.

  14. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  15. Lithium ion sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir K.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HIFAN 1866 Lithium ion sources by Prabir K. Roy, Wayne G.No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Lithium ion sources Prabir K. RoyUSA Abstract A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion

  16. Neutron sources and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  17. Photonic crystal light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Bur, James A. (Corrales, NM)

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  18. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  19. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenly, John B. (Lansing, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved pulsed ion beam source having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center.

  20. Production of Kaon and $?$ in nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energy from a blast wave model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song Zhang; Yu-Gang Ma; Jin-Hui Chen; Chen Zhong

    2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The particle production of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ are studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energy based on a chemical equilibrium blast-wave model. The transverse momentum spectra of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ at the kinetic freeze-out stage from our model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The kinetic freeze-out parameters of temperature ($T_{kin}$) and radial flow parameter $\\rho_{0}$ are presented for the FOPI, RHIC and LHC energies. And the resonance decay effect is also discussed. The systematic study for beam energy dependence of the strangeness particle production will help us to better understand the properties of the matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the kinetic freeze-out stage.

  1. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  2. ION SOURCES FOR CYCLOTRONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These utilize lasers, plasma focus, sparks, and ex­ plodingextractor voltage A plasma focus device has been used byf n a s Fig. 22: The plasma focus high charge state source

  3. A surface ionization source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buzatu, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main part of the work described herein is the development and testing of a surface ionization source for use on a collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy apparatus. A description of the previously existing fast beam apparatus is given...

  4. A surface ionization source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buzatu, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main part of the work described herein is the development and testing of a surface ionization source for use on a collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy apparatus. A description of the previously existing fast beam apparatus is given...

  5. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  6. Galactic Superluminal Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. A. Harmon

    1998-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of X-ray sources was clearly established with the discovery of highly relativistic radio jets from the galactic sources GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40. Both of these objects have given us a broader view of black holes and the formation of jets, yet they also show the complexity of the accretion environment near relativistic objects. The fast apparent motion of the jets, their luminosity and variability, their high energy spectrum, and approximate scaling to the behavior of active galactic nuclei, certainly warrant the description "microquasar". I present a review of the observational data on these sources, and discuss where we stand on a physical picture of GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40 as taken from multi-wavelength studies. I also point out other galactic sources which share some of the properties of the microquasars, and what to look for as a high energy "signature" in future observations.

  7. Computerized Energy Information Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, D.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many computerized files of energy- and energy conservation-related information are currently available through commercial and governmental sources such as Lockheed Information Systems, System Development Corporation, and DOE/RECON. Private...

  8. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, WA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Grabner, R. Fred (Brentwood, CA); Ramsey, Philip B. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

  9. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

    1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

  10. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  11. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    BNL

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

  12. Creation of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: analysis of planning experience and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S. [JSC 'Gidrospetsproekt' (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of complex instrument observations and video taping during large-scale blasts detonated for creation of the dam at the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Kyrgyz Republic are analyzed. Tests of the energy effectiveness of the explosives are evaluated, characteristics of LSB manifestations in seismic and air waves are revealed, and the shaping and movement of the rock mass are examined. A methodological analysis of the planning and production of the LSB is given.

  13. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenly, J.B.

    1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

  14. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

  15. Tsunami Information Sources: Part 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiegel, Robert L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mofjeld, and A.J. Venturato, Puget Sound Tsunami Sources -Pub. Co. , 2006, pp 205-217 Puget Sound Tsunami Sources -Military Dept. , 2002, 25 pp Puget Sound Tsunami Sources -

  16. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  17. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

  18. OLED area illumination source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foust, Donald Franklin (Scotia, NY); Duggal, Anil Raj (Niskayuna, NY); Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY); Nealon, William Francis (Gloversville, NY); Bortscheller, Jacob Charles (Clifton Park, NY)

    2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  19. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1991-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) interim policy and to provide guidance for sealed radioactive source accountability. The directive does not cancel any directives. Extended by DOE N 5400.10 to 12-24-93 & Extended by DOE N 5400.12 to 12-24-94.

  20. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This Notice extends DOE N 5400.9, Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability, of 12-24-91, until 12-24-95, unless sooner superseded or rescinded. The contents of DOE N 5400.9 will be updated and incorporated in the revised DOE O 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.

  1. Funding Source Agricultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Funding Source General Research Agricultural Experiment Station Instruction Public Service,145,610$ 3,716,162DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE $ 1,799,873 $ 8,322,303 $ 30,128,910 $ 0$ 85,000$ 2,127 $ 0$ 4,920,977$ 0US DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE / HATCH $ 0 $ 0 $ 4,920,977 $ 15,348,823FOUNDATION

  2. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  3. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

  4. Detecting Illicit Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Coursey, Bert; Carter, Michael

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specialized instruments have been developed to detect the presence of illicit radioactive sources that may be used by terrorists in radiation dispersal devices, so-called ''dirty bombs'' or improvised nuclear devices. This article discusses developments in devices to detect and measure radiation.

  5. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  6. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  7. The Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, A.

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national user facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is a third-generation synchrotron light source designed to produce extremely bright beams of synchrotron radiation in the energy range from a few eV to 10 keV. The design is based on a 1--1.9-GeV electron storage ring (optimized at 1.5 GeV), and utilizes special magnets, known as undulators and wigglers (collectively referred to as insertion devices), to generate the radiation. The facility is scheduled to begin operating in April 1993. In this paper we describe the progress in the design, construction, and commissioning of the accelerator systems, insertion devices, and beamlines. Companion presentations at this conference give more detail of specific components in the ALS, and describe the activities towards establishing an exciting user program. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Evaluated teletherapy source library

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Schach Von Wittenau, Alexis E. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Evaluated Teletherapy Source Library (ETSL) is a system of hardware and software that provides for maintenance of a library of useful phase space descriptions (PSDs) of teletherapy sources used in radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The PSDs are designed to be used by PEREGRINE, the all-particle Monte Carlo dose calculation system. ETSL also stores other relevant information such as monitor unit factors (MUFs) for use with the PSDs, results of PEREGRINE calculations using the PSDs, clinical calibration measurements, and geometry descriptions sufficient for calculational purposes. Not all of this information is directly needed by PEREGRINE. It also is capable of acting as a repository for the Monte Carlo simulation history files from which the generic PSDs are derived.

  9. Spallation-neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michaudon, A.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Of particular interest for neutron-physics studies are spallation-neutron sources (SNSs) using intense proton beams with energies in the GeV range. Some SNSs already provide average fluxes of thermal and cold neutrons comparable with those of high-flux reactors. Most SNSs are pulsed with high peak fluxes that can be used with the powerful time-of-flight (TOF) method. Also, SNSs could be developed to much higher performance.

  10. High current ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  11. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

  12. Black Thunder Coal Mine and Los Alamos National Laboratory experimental study of seismic energy generated by large scale mine blasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.L.; Gross, D. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Anderson, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In an attempt to better understand the impact that large mining shots will have on verifying compliance with the international, worldwide, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT, no nuclear explosion tests), a series of seismic and videographic experiments has been conducted during the past two years at the Black Thunder Coal Mine. Personnel from the mine and Los Alamos National Laboratory have cooperated closely to design and perform experiments to produce results with mutual benefit to both organizations. This paper summarizes the activities, highlighting the unique results of each. Topics which were covered in these experiments include: (1) synthesis of seismic, videographic, acoustic, and computer modeling data to improve understanding of shot performance and phenomenology; (2) development of computer generated visualizations of observed blasting techniques; (3) documentation of azimuthal variations in radiation of seismic energy from overburden casting shots; (4) identification of, as yet unexplained, out of sequence, simultaneous detonation in some shots using seismic and videographic techniques; (5) comparison of local (0.1 to 15 kilometer range) and regional (100 to 2,000 kilometer range) seismic measurements leading to determine of the relationship between local and regional seismic amplitude to explosive yield for overburden cast, coal bulking and single fired explosions; and (6) determination of the types of mining shots triggering the prototype International Monitoring System for the CTBT.

  13. Capillary discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, III, Howard Albert

    2003-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Debris generation from an EUV electric discharge plasma source device can be significantly reduced or essentially eliminated by encasing the electrodes with dielectric or electrically insulating material so that the electrodes are shielded from the plasma, and additionally by providing a path for the radiation to exit wherein the electrodes are not exposed to the area where the radiation is collected. The device includes: (a) a body, which is made of an electrically insulating material, that defines a capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end and that defines at least one radiation exit; (b) a first electrode that defines a first channel that has a first inlet end that is connected to a source of gas and a first outlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore, wherein the first electrode is positioned at the distal end of the capillary bore; (c) a second electrode that defines a second channel that has a second inlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore and an outlet end, wherein the second electrode is positioned at the proximal end of the capillary bore; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the first and second electrodes, wherein radiation generated within the capillary bore is emitted through the at least one radiation exit and wherein the first electrode and second electrode are shielded from the emitted radiation.

  14. Open-Source GIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Burk, Thomas E [University of Minnesota; Lime, Steve [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The components making up an Open Source GIS are explained in this chapter. A map server (Sect. 30.1) can broadly be defined as a software platform for dynamically generating spatially referenced digital map products. The University of Minnesota MapServer (UMN Map Server) is one such system. Its basic features are visualization, overlay, and query. Section 30.2 names and explains many of the geospatial open source libraries, such as GDAL and OGR. The other libraries are FDO, JTS, GEOS, JCS, MetaCRS, and GPSBabel. The application examples include derived GIS-software and data format conversions. Quantum GIS, its origin and its applications explained in detail in Sect. 30.3. The features include a rich GUI, attribute tables, vector symbols, labeling, editing functions, projections, georeferencing, GPS support, analysis, and Web Map Server functionality. Future developments will address mobile applications, 3-D, and multithreading. The origins of PostgreSQL are outlined and PostGIS discussed in detail in Sect. 30.4. It extends PostgreSQL by implementing the Simple Feature standard. Section 30.5 details the most important open source licenses such as the GPL, the LGPL, the MIT License, and the BSD License, as well as the role of the Creative Commons.

  15. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

  16. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

    2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  17. Compact ion accelerator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  18. Sources Sought Announcement

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronic Input Options Gary L. Hirsch SNLMay 20102 | NationalThis SOURCES SOUGHT

  19. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996) A213-A225. Printed in the UK4Sources

  20. Source Selection Guide

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmartOverview - 2015 Source Selection

  1. Source Selection Guide

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmartOverview - 2015 Source Selection

  2. Source Selection Guide

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmartOverview - 2015 Source Selection32.1

  3. Source Selection Guide

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmartOverview - 2015 Source Selection32.1

  4. Source Selection Guide

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmartOverview - 2015 Source Selection32.150.1

  5. Source Selection Guide

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmartOverview - 2015 Source Selection32.150.1

  6. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding accessPeptoid NanosheetsStudying thePhotoinducedPhoton Source

  7. Energy Sources: Renewable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard |inHVAC | DepartmentSource |  Why Hydrogen? * Fossil

  8. Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mitchell, John; Gibson, Murray; Young, Linda; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by Department Of Energy. Read more: http://go.usa.gov/ivZ

  9. Blasting Rocks and Blasting Cars Applied Engineering

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    LBNL

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated ... June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated a program at Berkeley Lab funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, a collaboration between the federal government and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research. Nondestructive evaluation techniques to test a car's structural integrity are being developed for auto assembly lines.

  10. Simulation of blast-furnace tuyere and raceway conditions in a wire mesh reactor: extents of combustion and gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long Wu; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A wire mesh reactor has been modified to investigate reactions of coal particles in the tuyeres and raceways of blast furnaces. At temperatures above 1000{sup o}C, pyrolysis reactions are completed within 1 s. The release of organic volatiles is probably completed by 1500{sup o}C, but the volatile yield shows a small increase up to 2000{sup o}C. The additional weight loss at the higher temperature may be due to weight loss from inorganic material. The residence time in the raceway is typically 20 ms, so it is likely that pyrolysis of the coal will continue throughout the passage along the raceway and into the base of the furnace shaft. Combustion reactions were investigated using a trapped air injection system, which admitted a short pulse of air into the wire mesh reactor sweep gas stream. In these experiments, the temperature and partial pressure of O{sub 2} were limited by the oxidation of the molybdenum mesh. However, the tests have provided valid insight into the extent of this reaction at conditions close to those experienced in the raceway. Extents of combustion of the char were low (mostly, less than 5%, daf basis). The work indicates that the extent of this reaction is limited in the raceway by the low residence time and by the effect of released volatiles, which scavenge the O{sub 2} and prevent access to the char. CO{sub 2} gasification has also been studied and high conversions achieved within a residence time of 5-10 s. The latter residence time is far longer than that in the raceway and more typical of small particles travelling upward in the furnace shaft. The results indicate that this reaction is capable of destroying most of the char. However, the extent of the gasification reaction appears limited by the decrease in temperature as the material moves up through the furnace. 44 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. BLAST05: POWER SPECTRA OF BRIGHT GALACTIC CIRRUS AT SUBMILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Arabindo; Martin, Peter G.; Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, James J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Carol Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de AstrofIsica Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR8617, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405, Orsay (France); Olmi, Luca [Physics Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, P.O. Box 23343, UPR station, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Patanchon, Guillaume, E-mail: aroy@cita.utoronto.c [Laboratoire APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet 75205 Paris (France)

    2010-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report multi-wavelength power spectra of diffuse Galactic dust emission from Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope observations at 250, 350, and 500 mum in Galactic plane fields in Cygnus X and Aquila. These submillimeter power spectra statistically quantify the self-similar structure observable over a broad range of scales and can be used to assess the cirrus noise which limits the detection of faint point sources. The advent of submillimeter surveys with the Herschel Space Observatory makes the wavelength dependence a matter of interest. We show that the observed relative amplitudes of the power spectra can be related through a spectral energy distribution (SED). Fitting a simple modified black body to this SED, we find the dust temperature in Cygnus X to be 19.8 +- 1.5 K and in the Aquila region 16.8 +- 0.8 K. Our empirical estimates provide important new insight into the substantial cirrus noise that will be encountered in forthcoming observations.

  12. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  13. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  14. ANALYSIS OF MINING EXPLOSION PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stump, Brian W.

    Limitations of Video Data · Effect of Blast Design on Near-Source Seismograms · Different Types of Cast Blasts of Models in Visualization ß Two-Dimensional Blast Model ß Three-Dimensional Blast Models 3. Applications to Different Types of Mining Explosions · Single Shot · Cast Blast · Coal Fragmentation #12;Analysis of Mining

  15. In-Source Fragmentation and the Sources of Partially Tryptic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    using three biological samples, including a standard protein mixture, a mouse brain tissue homogenate, and a mouse plasma sample. Since the in-source fragments of a...

  16. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Dickinson, Michael (San Leandro, CA); Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Winnetka, IL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  17. Alternative Energy Sources – Myths and Realities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngquist, Walter

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative Energy Sources - Myths and Realities Walterneed to think about alternative energy sources; the worlddepletion of oil? Alternative energy sources can be divided

  18. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  19. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  20. Energy Sources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy, a growing source of clean, renewable American power. October 17, 2014 Passive solar design uses carefully designed overhangs and reflective coatings on windows, exterior...

  1. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  2. Video Library | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APS Brochure Annual Reports Posters Podcasts Image Gallery external site Video Library Syndicated Feeds (RSS) Now Playing: The Advanced Photon Source More videos: Building...

  3. Video Library | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APS Brochure Annual Reports Posters Podcasts Image Gallery external site Video Library Syndicated Feeds (RSS) Featured Videos: Introduction to the Advanced Photon Source...

  4. Video Library | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Video Library Related Links: APS Colloquium APS Podcasts APS Today More videos: Introduction to the APS Physics of the Blues Now Playing: Building the Advanced Photon Source This...

  5. Ion source choices - an h- source for the high intensity neutrino source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moehs, Douglas P.; /Fermilab; Welton, Robert F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge; Stockli, Martin P.; Peters, Jens; /DESY; Alessi, James; /Brookhaven

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) program at Fermilab (formerly the Proton Driver) aims to develop a multi-mission linear accelerator (LINAC) capable of accelerate H{sup -} ions to 8 GeV. This paper touches on the ion source requirements for the HINS and discusses long pulse length testing of three ion sources which appear to have the capability of meeting these requirements.

  6. Summary of Blast Shield and Material Testing for Development of Solid Debris Collection at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaughnessy, D A; Gostic, J M; Moody, K J; Grant, P M; Lewis, L A; Hutcheon, I D

    2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to collect solid debris from the target chamber following a NIF shot has application for both capsule diagnostics, particularly for fuel-ablator mix, and measuring cross sections relevant to the Stockpile Stewardship program and nuclear astrophysics. Simulations have shown that doping the capsule with up to 10{sup 15} atoms of an impurity not otherwise found in the capsule does not affect its performance. The dopant is an element that will undergo nuclear activations during the NIF implosion, forming radioactive species that can be collected and measured after extraction from the target chamber. For diagnostics, deuteron or alpha induced reactions can be used to probe the fuel-ablator mix. For measuring neutron cross sections, the dopant should be something that is sensitive to the 14 MeV neutrons produced through the fusion of deuterium and tritium. Developing the collector is a challenge due to the extreme environment of the NIF chamber. The collector surface is exposed to a large photon flux from x-rays and unconverted laser light before it is exposed to a debris wind that is formed from vaporized material from the target chamber center. The photons will ablate the collector surface to some extent, possibly impeding the debris from reaching the collector and sticking. In addition, the collector itself must be mechanically strong enough to withstand the large amount of energy it will be exposed to, and it should be something that will be easy to count and chemically process. In order to select the best material for the collector, a variety of different metals have been tested in the NIF chamber. They were exposed to high-energy laser shots in order to evaluate their postshot surface characterization, morphology, degree of melt, and their ability to retain debris from the chamber center. The first set of samples consisted of 1 mm thick pieces of aluminum that had been fielded in the chamber as blast shields protecting the neutron activation diagnostic. Ten of these pieces were fielded at the equator and one was fielded on the pole. The shields were analyzed using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and chemical leaching followed by mass spectrometry. On each shield, gold debris originating from the gold hohlraum was observed, as well as large quantities of debris that were present in the center of the target chamber at the time of the shot (i.e., stainless steel, indium, copper, etc.) Debris was visible in the SEM as large blobs or splats of material that had encountered the surface of the aluminum and stuck. The aluminum itself had obviously melted and condensed, and some of the large debris splats arrived after the surface had already hardened. Melt depth was determined by cross sectioning the pieces and measuring the melted surface layers via SEM. After the SEM analysis was completed, the pieces were sent for NAA at the USGS reactor and were analyzed by U. Greife at the Colorado School of Mines. The NAA showed that the majority of gold mass present on the shields was not in the form of large blobs and splats, but was present as small particulates that had most likely formed as condensed vapor. Further analysis showed that the gold was entrained in the melted aluminum surface layers and did not extend down into the bulk of the aluminum. Once the gold mass was accounted for from the NAA, it was determined that the aluminum fielded at the equator was collecting a fraction of the total gold hohlraum mass equivalent to 120% {+-} 10% of the solid angle subtended by the shield. The attached presentation has more information on the results of the aluminum blast shield analysis. In addition to the information given in the presentation, the surfaces of the shields have been chemically leached and submitted for mass spectrometric analysis. The results from that analysis are expected to arrive after the due date of this report and will be written up at a later time. Based on the results of the aluminum b

  7. BSTBacterial Source Tracking Conference Proceedings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BSTBacterial Source Tracking Conference Proceedings 2012 Bacterial Source Tracking State Conference Conference Proceedings Prepared by: Lucas Gregory, Texas Water Resources Institute Courtney Smith of the Science Conference Texas Water Resources Institute TR-427 June 2012 #12;#12;Texas Water Resources

  8. Particle Acceleration in Astrophysical Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amato, Elena

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrophysical sources are extremely efficient accelerators. Some sources emit photons up to multi-TeV energies, a signature of the presence, within them, of particles with energies much higher than those achievable with the largest accelerators on Earth. Even more compelling evidence comes from the study of Cosmic Rays, charged relativistic particles that reach the Earth with incredibly high energies: at the highest energy end of their spectrum, these subatomic particles are carrying a macroscopic energy, up to a few Joules. Here I will address the best candidate sources and mechanisms as cosmic particle accelerators. I will mainly focus on Galactic sources such as Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae, which being close and bright, are the best studied among astrophysical accelerators. These sources are held responsible for most of the energy that is put in relativistic particles in the Universe, but they are not thought to accelerate particles up to the highest individual energies, $\\approx 10^{20}$ eV...

  9. Alternative Energy Sources -- An Interdisciplinary Module for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alternative Energy Sources -- An Interdisciplinary Module for Energy Education Alternative Energy Sources -- An Interdisciplinary Module for Energy Education Find activities...

  10. Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control Technologies Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control Technologies 2005 Diesel Engine...

  11. International Data on Radiological Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Finck; Margaret Goldberg

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The mission of radiological dispersal device (RDD) nuclear forensics is to identify the provenance of nuclear and radiological materials used in RDDs and to aid law enforcement in tracking nuclear materials and routes. The application of databases to radiological forensics is to match RDD source material to a source model in the database, provide guidance regarding a possible second device, and aid the FBI by providing a short list of manufacturers and distributors, and ultimately to the last legal owner of the source. The Argonne/Idaho National Laboratory RDD attribution database is a powerful technical tool in radiological forensics. The database (1267 unique vendors) includes all sealed sources and a device registered in the U.S., is complemented by data from the IAEA Catalogue, and is supported by rigorous in-lab characterization of selected sealed sources regarding physical form, radiochemical composition, and age-dating profiles. Close working relationships with global partners in the commercial sealed sources industry provide invaluable technical information and expertise in the development of signature profiles. These profiles are critical to the down-selection of potential candidates in either pre- or post- event RDD attribution. The down-selection process includes a match between an interdicted (or detonated) source and a model in the database linked to one or more manufacturers and distributors.

  12. A neural network model for predicting the silicon content of the hot metal at No. 2 blast furnace of SSAB Luleaa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo Guangqing; Ma Jitang; Bo, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Process Metallurgy

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To predict the silicon content of hot metal at No. 2 blast furnace, SSAB, Luleaa Works, a three-layer Back-Propagation network model has been established. The network consists of twenty-eight inputs, six middle nodes and one output and uses a generalized delta rule for training. Different network structures and different training strategies have been tested. A well-functioning network with dynamic updating has been designed. The off-line test and the on-line application results showed that more than 80% of the predictions can match the actual silicon content in hot metal in a normal operation, if the allowable prediction error was set to {+-}0.05% Si, while the actual fluctuation of the silicon content was larger than {+-}0.10% Si.

  13. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

    1983-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

  14. Radiation source with shaped emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing a source of radiation, such as an electric discharge source, that is equipped with a capillary region configured into some predetermined shape, such as an arc or slit, can significantly improve the amount of flux delivered to the lithographic wafers while maintaining high efficiency. The source is particularly suited for photolithography systems that employs a ringfield camera. The invention permits the condenser which delivers critical illumination to the reticle to be simplified from five or more reflective elements to a total of three or four reflective elements thereby increasing condenser efficiency. It maximizes the flux delivered and maintains a high coupling efficiency. This architecture couples EUV radiation from the discharge source into a ring field lithography camera.

  15. Next Generation Light Source Workshops

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Generation Light Source Workshops A series of workshops will be held in late August with the goal of refining the scientific drivers for the facility and translating the...

  16. THE ONLY SOURCE OF ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvin, Genevieve J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    past due that we use the sun's energy on a current basis andof photosynthesis of energy (the sun) still of mil Teniaenergy farm" with the sunshine as the source. The sugar cane captures the sun,

  17. Exceptions to ignition source controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHLOSSER, R.L.

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a basis for acceptance of risks associated with equipment that does not fully comply with the ignition source control requirements as they will be applied by the Technical Safety Requirements prepared to implement the documented safety analysis.

  18. Optical Continuum Sources in Gravitationally Lensed Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. J. Goicoechea; D. Alcalde; V. N. Shalyapin

    2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We review some techniques to study the nature and size of the optical continuum sources in multiple QSOs. We focus on the source originating the events with several months timescale (the rapid variability source) as well as the source that is responsible for the non-variable background component (the background source). The techniques are used to study both the rapid variability source in Q0957+561 and the main (compact) background source in Q2237+0305.

  19. Point X-ray sources in the SNR G 315.4-2.30 (MSH 14-63, RCW 86)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Gvaramadze; A. A. Vikhlinin

    2002-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of a search for a point X-ray source (stellar remnant) in the southwest protrusion of the supernova remnant G 315.4-2.30 (MSH 14-63, RCW 86) using the archival data of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The search was motivated by a hypothesis that G 315.4-2.30 is the result of an off-centered cavity supernova explosion of a moving massive star, which ended its evolution just near the edge of the main-sequence wind-driven bubble. This hypothesis implies that the southwest protrusion in G 315.4-2.30 is the remainder of a pre-existing bow shock-like structure created by the interaction of the supernova progenitor's wind with the interstellar medium and that the actual location of the supernova blast center is near the center of this hemispherical structure. We have discovered two point X-ray sources in the "proper" place. One of the sources has an optical counterpart with the photographic magnitude $13.38\\pm0.40$, while the spectrum of the source can be fitted with an optically thin plasma model. We interpret this source as a foreground active star of late spectral type. The second source has no optical counterpart to a limiting magnitude $\\sim 21$. The spectrum of this source can be fitted almost equally well with several simple models (power law: photon index $=1.87$; two-temperature blackbody: $kT_1 =0.11$ keV, $R_1 =2.34 $ km and $kT_2 =0.71$ keV, $R_2 =0.06$ km; blackbody plus power law: $kT =0.07$ keV, photon index $=2.3$). We interpret this source as a candidate stellar remnant (neutron star), while the photon index and non-thermal luminosity of the source (almost the same as those of the Vela pulsar and the recently discovered pulsar PSR J 0205+6449 in the supernova remnant 3C 58) suggest that it can be a young "ordinary" pulsar.

  20. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  1. September 2013 News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015ParentsMiddle|SecurityDepartment ofSeptember 2013 BETO Welcomes Dr.

  2. November 2013 News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREofNewsletterEnergySeptemberTechnologies8,

  3. October 2013 News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEWResponse to

  4. January 2014 News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas » Methane HydrateEnergyIs aProgram Management »January

  5. June 2014 News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas » MethaneJohnson ControlsJoyce Yang About1,MeetingJune

  6. February 2014 News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721Energy 3_adv_battery.pdf More Fact14, 2002: Yucca Mountain20,

  7. ThermonucleotideBLAST

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in theTheoretical StudyInnovationIndustrialStudy

  8. December News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube| Department ofDepartment9-92JanuaryProgramDecember 2014 NationalDecember 2013

  9. Monthly News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil &315_ArnibanPriorityof Energy PonemanandLoan Portfolio | YouTube

  10. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  11. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  12. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  13. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  14. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CoZZoque C7, suppZ6ment au n07, Tome 40, JuiZZet 1979, page C7-309 MEASUREMENTSAT CURRENT ZERO INA SF6 GAS BLAST BREAKER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MEASUREMENTSAT CURRENT ZERO INA SF6 GAS BLAST BREAKER R. Moll and E. Schade. Brawn Boveri, Research Center CH.v. breakers according t o the residual conductivity 1e.g. 1I . In the case of SF6 a x i a l l y blown a r c were obtained under various conditions 12,3,41. I t has even been s t a t e d t h a t SF6 post a r c

  15. 4th Generation ECR Ion Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyneis, Claude M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4th Generation ECR Ion Sources Claude M Lyneis, D. Leitner,to developing a 4 th generation ECR ion source with an RFover current 3 rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate

  16. A global sourcing strategy for durable tooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasovski, Steven

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Competitive pressures in manufacturing industries have led to an increased utilization of strategic sourcing initiatives: among them is low cost sourcing. While low cost sourcing has been used extensively for direct ...

  17. MODELING, SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING, SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By MUHAMMAD HAIDER KHAN AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved..................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Overview of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.............................................. 1 1

  18. Source selection of agricultural journalists in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banks, Penelope Jean

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journalists rely on sources in their daily routines, and the sources they choose affect news content over time. Agricultural journalists are no exception. Eleven agricultural journalists in Texas were studied to determine what types of sources...

  19. Major Source Permits (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The District reviews designs for new pollution sources and design modifications for existing sources. Permits are issued to allow sources to emit limited and specified amounts of pollution as...

  20. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamura Ed., Lori S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    upgrade on the Advanced Light Source," Nucl. Instrum. Meth.n photoemission at the Advanced Light Source," Radiât. Phys.high-pressure studies at the Advanced Light Source w i t h a

  1. Compact portable electric power sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Materials for spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sommer, W.F.; Daemen, L.L. [comps.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Workshop on Materials for Spallation Neutron Sources at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, February 6 to 10, 1995, gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss areas in which work is needed, successful designs and use of materials, and opportunities for further studies. During the first day of the workshop, speakers presented overviews of current spallation neutron sources. During the next 3 days, seven panels allowed speakers to present information on a variety of topics ranging from experimental and theoretical considerations on radiation damage to materials safety issues. An attempt was made to identify specific problems that require attention within the context of spallation neutron sources. This proceedings is a collection of summaries from the overview sessions and the panel presentations.

  3. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  4. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  5. SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning (David) Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

  6. Review: Semiconductor Quantum Light Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew J Shields

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Lasers and LEDs display a statistical distribution in the number of photons emitted in a given time interval. New applications exploiting the quantum properties of light require sources for which either individual photons, or pairs, are generated in a regulated stream. Here we review recent research on single-photon sources based on the emission of a single semiconductor quantum dot. In just a few years remarkable progress has been made in generating indistinguishable single-photons and entangled photon pairs using such structures. It suggests it may be possible to realise compact, robust, LED-like semiconductor devices for quantum light generation.

  7. RECENT PROGRESS IN HEAVY ION SOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of hydrogen into thermonuclear fusion reactors. A summary ofFusion Plasma Sources Other sources of high charge state ions include the dense plasma in magnetic confinement thermonuclear

  8. California Nonpoint Source Program Strategy and Implementation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: California Nonpoint Source Program Strategy and Implementation Plan, 1998-2013Legal Abstract California Nonpoint Source Program...

  9. Alternative Energy Sources - An Interdisciplinary Module for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sources - An Interdisciplinary Module for Energy Education Alternative Energy Sources - An Interdisciplinary Module for Energy Education Below is information about the...

  10. Good Sources of Nutrients: Iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Amanda; Replogle, Jacqueline

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    ENP-2881 08-08 Good Sources of Nutrients Iron Buenas fuentes de nutrientes Hierro La funci?n del hierro Transporta ox?geno en la sangre para que su ? cuerpo tenga energ?a Facilita crecimiento? Proporciona energ?a que ayuda a los ni?os a ? jugar y...

  11. Climate Change Major information sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://www.ipcc.ch/ Vital Climate Graphics, at http://www.grida.no/climate/vital/ Climate Change Impacts on US, at http://www.gcrio.org/NationalAssessment/ Greenhouse Warming Prediction #12;Energy Predictions 2 Sources: Energy Information Administration (EIA); International Energy Agency (IEA) 2% growth per year, or doubling in 35 years (shortcut: 70/%=doubling) Fossil

  12. EAT SMART Sources: Heart Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -1- EAT SMART Sources: Heart Health American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide and Promotion; Home and Garden Bulletin Number 252; August 1992. Heart Attach Signs, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: National Institutes of Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH Publication No. 01

  13. Incrementally Deployable Source Address Validity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    ID-SAVE: Incrementally Deployable Source Address Validity Enforcement Toby Ehrenkranz ://netsec.cs.uoregon.edu #12;Ehrenkranz WiP ID-SAVE What's The Problem? While routers know which direction a packet should are unreliable ID-SAVE attacks this root cause! 1 #12;Ehrenkranz WiP ID-SAVE ID-SAVE Basics Create and maintain

  14. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  15. Reporting of Radioactive Sealed Sources

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish U.S. Department of Energy requirements for inventory reporting, transaction reporting, verification of reporting, and assign responsibilities for reporting of radioactive sealed sources. DOE N 251.86 extends this notice until 5-6-11. No cancellations. Canceled by DOE O 231.1B

  16. EXCEPTIONS TO IGNITION SOURCE CONTROLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHLOSSER, R.L.

    2003-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a basis for acceptance of risks associated with equipment and materials that do not fully comply with the ignition source controls as they are applied by the Technical Safety Requirements prepared to implement the controls required by the documented safety analysis for tank farms facilities.

  17. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Steve Dierker

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  18. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  19. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.N. (eds.)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains abstracts from research conducted at the national synchrotron light source. (LSP)

  20. Best Management Practice #14: Alternative Water Sources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many federal facilities may have water uses that can be met with non-potable water from alternative water sources. Potentially available alternative water sources for Federal sources include municipal-supplied reclaimed water, treated gray water from on-site sanitary sources, and storm water.

  1. National Synchrotron Light Source Activity Report 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothman, Eva

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    National Synchrotron Light Source Activity Report for period October 1, 1997 through September 30, 1998

  2. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  3. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  4. Increased security through open source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaap-Henk Hoepman; Bart Jacobs

    2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss the impact of open source on both the security and transparency of a software system. We focus on the more technical aspects of this issue, combining and extending arguments developed over the years. We stress that our discussion of the problem only applies to software for general purpose computing systems. For embedded systems, where the software usually cannot easily be patched or upgraded, different considerations may apply.

  5. Far-infrared Point Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Guiderdoni

    1999-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of the submm anisotropies that will be mapped by the forthcoming MAP and PLANCK satellites requires careful foreground subtraction before measuring CMB fluctuations. Among these, the foreground due to IR/submm thermal radiation from dusty sources was poorly known until recent observational breakthroughs began unveiling the properties of these objects. We hereafter briefly review the observational evidence for a strong evolution of IR/submm sources with respect to the local universe explored by IRAS. We present the basic principles of a new modeling effort where consistent spectral energy distributions of galaxies are implemented into the paradigm of hierarchical clustering with the fashionable semi-analytic approach. This model provides us with specific predictions in IR/submm wavebands, that seem to reproduce the current status of the observations and help assessing the capabilities of forthcoming instruments to pursue the exploration of the deep universe at IR/submm wavelengths. Finally, the ability of the PLANCK High Frequency Instrument all-sky survey to produce a catalogue of dusty sources at submm wavelengths is briefly described.

  6. GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 35, SO. 1 (FEBRUARY 19iO), P. 33-44, i FIGS., j TABLES EXPLOSIVE SEISMIC SOURCES FOR THE MOON?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Sarah T.

    blast and the detona- tion products continuously expand outward and interact with the solid surface the plate velocity (-2.4 km/set) more closely matches the gas-blast velocity (-3.5 to 7.5 km/set) than in a vacuum. Large scale experiments were also performed in air to examine the effect of the detonation

  7. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

    2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  8. Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Min Sik; Jun, Yubin; Lee, Changha, E-mail: clee@unist.ac.kr; Oh, Jae Eun, E-mail: ohjaeeun@unist.ac.kr

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH){sub 2} and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH){sub 2} occurs only with the use of Ca(OH){sub 2}, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH){sub 2}. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH){sub 2} causes some degree of carbonation.

  9. Detecting fission from special nuclear material sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source. The system includes a graphing component that displays the plot of the neutron distribution from the unknown source over a Poisson distribution and a plot of neutrons due to background or environmental sources. The system further includes a known neutron source placed in proximity to the unknown source to actively interrogate the unknown source in order to accentuate differences in neutron emission from the unknown source from Poisson distributions and/or environmental sources.

  10. Multigamma-ray calibration sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, R.A.; Massey, T.N.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have calibrated a self-consistent set of multigamma-ray standards using the automated multi-spectrometry ..gamma..-ray counting facility at LLNL's Nuclear Chemistry Division. Pure sources of long-lived activity were produced by mass separation and/or chemical purification. The sources were counted individually and in combination on several different calibrated spectrometer systems. These systems utilize various detectors ranging from small (x-ray) detectors to large volume high-purity Ge detectors. This has allowed the use of the most ideal individual detector-efficiency characteristics for the determination of the relative ..gamma..-ray intensities. Precise energy measurements, reported earlier (Meyer, 1976) have been performed by an independent method. Both the energy and ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities determined compare well with independently established values such as the recent ICRM intercomparison of /sup 152/Eu. We discuss our investigations aimed at resolving the shape of the efficiency response function up to 10 MeV for large volume Ge(Li) and high-purity Ge detectors. Recent results on the ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities per decay for /sup 149/Gd and /sup 168/Tm multigamma-ray sources are discussed. For /sup 168/Tm, we deduce a 0.01% ..beta../sup -/ branch to the 87.73-keV level in /sup 168/Yb rather than the previous value which was a factor of 200 greater. In addition, we describe current cooperative efforts aimed at establishing a consistent set of data for short-lived fission products. Included are recent measurements on the bromine fission products with ..gamma.. rays up to 7 MeV.

  11. Advanced Light Source control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Cork, C.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Ritchie, A.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation 1--2 GeV synchrotron radiation source designed to provide ports for 60 beamlines. It uses a 50 MeV electron linac and 1.5 GeV, 1 Hz, booster synchrotron for injection into a 1--2 GeV storage ring. Interesting control problems are created because of the need for dynamic closed beam orbit control to eliminate interaction between the ring tuning requirements and to minimize orbit shifts due to ground vibrations. The extremely signal sensitive nature of the experiments requires special attention to the sources of electrical noise. These requirements have led to a control system design which emphasizes connectivity at the accelerator equipment end and a large I/O bandwidth for closed loop system response. Not overlooked are user friendliness, operator response time, modeling, and expert system provisions. Portable consoles are used for local operation of machine equipment. Our solution is a massively parallel system with >120 Mbits/sec I/O bandwidth and >1500 Mips computing power. At the equipment level connections are made using over 600 powerful Intelligent Local Controllers (ILC-s) mounted in 3U size Eurocard slots using fiber-optic cables between rack locations. In the control room, personal computers control and display all machine variables at a 10 Hz rate including the scope signals which are collected though the control system. Commercially available software and industry standards are used extensively. Particular attention is paid to reliability, maintainability and upgradeability. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Repatriation of US sources from Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompkins, Andrew J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IAEA's interest in excess and unwanted sealed sources extends back to when radium sources were a problem throughout the world. Sta11ing in 1994, world wide IAEA member states inventoried and consolidated radium (Ra)-226 sources. IAEA then trained Regional Teams in the conditioning of Ra-226 sealed sources for long term storage, which resulted in the Regional Teams conditioning about 14,000 radium sources. These sources remained in their respective IAEA member state locations. Regional teams were seen as a way to encourage member state (local) management of a world wide problem, as well as a more cost effective solution.

  13. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems.

  14. Gamma source for active interrogation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Barletta, William A.

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  15. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  16. CHINA SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE DESIGN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WEI,J.

    2007-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is an accelerator-based high-power project currently in preparation under the direction of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The complex is based on an H- linear accelerator, a rapid cycling proton synchrotron accelerating the beam to 1.6 GeV, a solid tungsten target station, and five initial instruments for spallation neutron applications. The facility will operate at 25 Hz repetition rate with a phase-I beam power of about 120 kW. The major challenge is to build a robust and reliable user's facility with upgrade potential at a fractional of ''world standard'' cost.

  17. Relating to monitoring ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus and method provide techniques for monitoring the position on alpha contamination in or on items or locations. The technique is particularly applicable to pipes, conduits and other locations to which access is difficult. The technique uses indirect monitoring of alpha emissions by detecting ions generated by the alpha emissions. The medium containing the ions is moved in a controlled manner frog in proximity with the item or location to the detecting unit and the signals achieved over time are used to generate alpha source position information.

  18. Gamma source for active interrogation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Lou, Tak Pui (Berkeley, CA); Barletta, William A. (Oakland, CA)

    2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  19. Ion Sources - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The Energy Materials Center atdiffusivities in mesoporesSources The

  20. ARM - Sources of Atmospheric Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP :ProductsVaisalaAlaskaInstruments NSA Related LinksHomeroomSiteSources

  1. Manhattan Project: Sources and Notes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy, science, and technology-- Energy,Science In the LaboratorySOURCES AND

  2. E Source | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open EnergyProjectDraper,NCNH)E ON Jump to:Source

  3. SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement. Existing methods have two deficiencies for applying to the open col- lections like the deep web. First query in the deep web, the agreements between theses an- swer sets are likely to be helpful in assessing

  4. SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement Tempe AZ USA 85287 rajub@asu.edu, rao@asu.edu ABSTRACT One immediate challenge in searching the deep web-similarity-based relevance assess- ment. When applied to the deep web these methods have two deficiencies. First

  5. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Howard A. (Ripon, CA)

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  6. Multi-source ion funnel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tang, Keqi; Belov, Mikhail B.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for introducing ions generated in a region of relatively high pressure into a region of relatively low pressure by providing at least two electrospray ion sources, providing at least two capillary inlets configured to direct ions generated by the electrospray sources into and through each of the capillary inlets, providing at least two sets of primary elements having apertures, each set of elements having a receiving end and an emitting end, the primary sets of elements configured to receive a ions from the capillary inlets at the receiving ends, and providing a secondary set of elements having apertures having a receiving end and an emitting end, the secondary set of elements configured to receive said ions from the emitting end of the primary sets of elements and emit said ions from said emitting end of the secondary set of elements. The method may further include the step of providing at least one jet disturber positioned within at least one of the sets of primary elements, providing a voltage, such as a dc voltage, in the jet disturber, thereby adjusting the transmission of ions through at least one of the sets of primary elements.

  7. Air Permitting for Stationary Sources (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The permitting system implements the permitting requirements of RSA 125-C and 125-I to regulate the operation and modification of new and existing stationary sources, area sources, and devices to...

  8. Problems with packaged sources in foreign countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeyta, Cristy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matzke, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zarling, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tompkin, J. Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP), which is administered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), removes excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential threat to national security, public health, and safety. In total, GTRI/OSRP has been able to recover more than 25,000 excess and unwanted sealed sources from over 825 sites. In addition to transuranic sources, the GTRI/OSRP mission now includes recovery of beta/gamma emitting sources, which are of concern to both the U.S. government and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper provides a synopsis of cooperative efforts in foreign countries to remove excess and unwanted sealed sources by discussing three topical areas: (1) The Regional Partnership with the International Atomic Energy Agency; (2) Challenges in repatriating sealed sources; and (3) Options for repatriating sealed sources.

  9. Science Highlights 2012 | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Argonne Advanced Photon Source and two other U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science synchrotron light sources. Their breakthrough results pave the way for development of...

  10. Science Highlights 2013 | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from experiments carried out using x-rays from two U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science light sources including the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory...

  11. Dairy Biomass as a Renewable Fuel Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Goodrich, Barry; Engler, Cady; Capareda, Sergio

    2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass. This publication explains the properties of dairy manure that could make it an excellent source of fuel....

  12. North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview: Installation of Ground Source Heat Pumps. Replacement of Aging Heat Pumps. Alignment with Furmans Sustainability Goals.

  13. Dairy Biomass as a Renewable Fuel Source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Goodrich, Barry; Engler, Cady; Capareda, Sergio

    2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass. This publication explains the properties of dairy manure that could make it an excellent source of fuel....

  14. Source integrals of asymptotic multipole moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norman Gürlebeck

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive source integrals for multipole moments that describe the behaviour of static and axially symmetric spacetimes close to spatial infinity. We assume isolated non-singular sources but will not restrict the matter content otherwise. Some future applications of these source integrals of the asymptotic multipole moments are outlined as well.

  15. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, J.P.; Burns, E.J.T.; Draper, C.H.

    1997-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures. 6 figs.

  16. Ion source based on the cathodic arc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, D.M.; Falabella, S.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated, is described. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles. 3 figures.

  17. Source depth for solar p-modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawan Kumar; Sarbani Basu

    2000-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretically calculated power spectra are compares with observed solar p-mode velocity power spectra over a range of mode degree and frequency. The depth for the sources responsible for exciting p-modes of frequency 2.0 mHz is determined from the asymmetry of their power spectra and found to be about 800 km below the photosphere for quadrupole sources and 150 km if sources are dipole. The source depth for high frequency oscillations of frequency greater than about 6 mHz is 180 (50) km for quadrupole (dipole) sources.

  18. International workshop on cold neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, G.J.; West, C.D. (comps.) (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)) [comps.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5--8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people from seven countries attended. Because the meeting was the first of its kind in over forty years, much time was spent acquainting participants with past and planned activities at reactor and spallation facilities worldwide. As a result, the meeting had more of a conference flavor than one of a workshop. The general topics covered at the workshop included: Criteria for cold source design; neutronic predictions and performance; energy deposition and removal; engineering design, fabrication, and operation; material properties; radiation damage; instrumentation; safety; existing cold sources; and future cold sources.

  19. Blind source separation in the presence of weak sources J.-P. Nadala

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aires, Filipe

    Blind source separation in the presence of weak sources J.-P. Nadala , E. Korutchevab,*, F. Airesa" as compared to the other ones, the "weak" sources. We find that it is preferable to perform blind source simulations. 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Independent component analysis; Blind

  20. Blind Source Separation 2 Understanding Two Simultaneous Speeches by Blind Source Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikeda, Shiro

    Blind Source Separation 2 Understanding Two Simultaneous Speeches by Blind Source Separation) to segregate speech streams from a mixture of sounds, while the other ex- ploits Blind Source Separation the performance of Blind Source Separation by using the same three benchmarks of 500 mix- ture of two speeches

  1. Source-to-Source Architecture Transformation for Performance Optimization in BIP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Source-to-Source Architecture Transformation for Performance Optimization in BIP Marius Bozga of composition operators: inter- actions and priorities. In this paper we present a method that transforms of the interconnection of components [14]. Source-to-source transformations have been considered as a powerful means

  2. High stability wavefront reference source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam is disclosed. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave. 7 figures.

  3. Ion sources for sealed neutron tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, E.J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Neutron Tube Dept.; Bischoff, G.C. [Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Largo, FL (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast and thermal neutron activation analysis with sealed neutron generators has been used to detect oil (oil logging), hazardous waste, fissile material, explosives, and contraband (drugs). Sealed neutron generators, used in the above applications, must be small and portable, have good electrical efficiency and long life. The ion sources used in the sealed neutron tubes require high gas utilization efficiencies or low pressure operation with high ionization efficiencies. In this paper, the authors compare a number of gas ion sources that can be used in sealed neutron tubes. The characteristics of the most popular ion source, the axial Penning discharge will be discussed as part of the zetatron neutron generator. Other sources to be discussed include the SAMIS source and RF ion source.

  4. Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Timothy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy sources of cooling supply water and an aggressiveas the primary source of cooling supply water. The analysisthermal mass to the cooling supply water source, nighttime

  5. HTGR Mechanistic Source Terms White Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Moe

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purposes of this white paper are: (1) to describe the proposed approach for developing event specific mechanistic source terms for HTGR design and licensing, (2) to describe the technology development programs required to validate the design methods used to predict these mechanistic source terms and (3) to obtain agreement from the NRC that, subject to appropriate validation through the technology development program, the approach for developing event specific mechanistic source terms is acceptable

  6. Building the World's Most Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    View this time-lapse video showing construction of the National Synchrotron Light Source II at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Construction is shown from 2009-2012.

  7. Sources: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sources: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report"; Form EIA-856, "Monthly Foreign Crude Oil Acquisition Report"; and Form EIA-14,...

  8. Engineered Quantum Dot Single Photon Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonia Buckley; Kelley Rivoire; Jelena Vuckovic

    2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast, high efficiency, and low error single photon sources are required for implementation of a number of quantum information processing applications. The fastest triggered single photon sources to date have been demonstrated using epitaxially grown semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), which can be conveniently integrated with optical microcavities. Recent advances in QD technology, including demonstrations of high temperature and telecommunications wavelength single photon emission, have made QD single photon sources more practical. Here we discuss the applications of single photon sources and their various requirements, before reviewing the progress made on a quantum dot platform in meeting these requirements.

  9. DOE & Strategic Sourcing "New Challenges, New Opportunities"

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    & Strategic Sourcing "New Challenges, New Opportunities" What is it? NNSA Model DOE Future Activities Bill Marks, Commodity Manager, NNSA Supply Chain Management Center Gary...

  10. Accelerator Operations and Physics - Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Accelerator Operations & Physics Advance Photon Source A U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences national...

  11. Carbothermic reduction with parallel heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Troup, Robert L. (Murrysville, PA); Stevenson, David T. (Washington Township, Washington County, PA)

    1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are apparatus and method of carbothermic direct reduction for producing an aluminum alloy from a raw material mix including aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and carbon wherein parallel heat sources are provided by a combustion heat source and by an electrical heat source at essentially the same position in the reactor, e.g., such as at the same horizontal level in the path of a gravity-fed moving bed in a vertical reactor. The present invention includes providing at least 79% of the heat energy required in the process by the electrical heat source.

  12. Controlling proton source speeds catalyst | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    speeds catalyst Controlling proton source speeds catalyst Released: April 29, 2013 Nickel-based catalyst three times faster with adjustments to key acid Research showing that...

  13. Radiation Sources and Radioactive Materials (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to persons who receive, transfer, possess, manufacture, use, store, handle, transport or dispose of radioactive materials and/or sources of ionizing radiation. Some...

  14. Science Highlights 2007 | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by researchers using the Argonne Advanced Photon Source. Tailoring the Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures Tailoring the Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures May 23, 2007...

  15. APS News 2009 | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studied at the APS June 24, 2009 Archaeologists studying trade artifacts from ancient Egypt at the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National...

  16. Alternative Energy Sources -- An Interdisciplinary Module for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sources - An Interdisciplinary Module for Energy Education Grades: 5-8 Topic: Energy Basics, Wind Energy, Solar Owner: Earth Science Department at the University of Northern...

  17. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    static pressures. Ultra-fast laser systems for intensetechniques, laser synchronization and ultra-stable timingand laser sources, and ultimately combining the THz with ultra-

  18. An ideal sealed source life-cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompkins, Joseph Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last 40 years, barriers to compliant and timely disposition of radioactive sealed sources have become apparent. The story starts with the explosive growth of nuclear gauging technologies in the 1960s. Dozens of companies in the US manufactured sources and many more created nuclear solutions to industrial gauging problems. Today they do not yet know how many Cat 1, 2, or 3 sources there are in the US. There are, at minimum, tens of thousands of sources, perhaps hundreds of thousands of sources. Affordable transportation solutions to consolidate all of these sources and disposition pathways for these sources do not exist. The root problem seems to be a lack of necessary regulatory framework that has allowed all of these problems to accumulate with no national plan for solving the problem. In the 1960s, Pu-238 displaced Pu-239 for most neutron and alpha source applications. In the 1970s, the availability of inexpensive Am-241 resulted in a proliferation of low energy gamma sources used in nuclear gauging, well logging, pacemakers, and X-ray fluorescence applications for example. In the 1980s, rapid expansion of worldwide petroleum exploration resulted in the expansion of Am-241 sources into international locations. Improvements of technology and regulation resulted in a change in isotopic distribution as Am-241 made Pu-239 and Pu-238 obsolete. Many early nuclear gauge technologies have been made obsolete as they were replaced by non-nuclear technoogies. With uncertainties in source end of life disposition and increased requirements for sealed source security, nuclear gauging technology is the last choice for modern process engineering gauging solutions. Over the same period, much was learned about licensing LLW disposition facilities as evident by the closure of early disposition facilities like Maxey Flats. The current difficulties in sealed source disposition start with adoption of the NLLW policy act of 1985, which created the state LLW compact system they we have today. This regulation created a new regulatory framework seen as promising at the time. However, now they recognize that, despite the good intentions, the NIJWP/85 has not solved any source disposition problems. The answer to these sealed source disposition problems is to adopt a philosophy to correct these regulatory issues, determine an interim solution, execute that solution until there is a minimal backlog of sources to deal with, and then let the mechanisms they have created solve this problem into the foreseeable future. The primary philosophical tenet of the ideal sealed source life cycle follows. You do not allow the creation (or importation) of any source whose use cannot be justified, which cannot be affordably shipped, or that does not have a well-delinated and affordable disposition pathway. The path forward dictates that we fix the problem by embracing the Ideal Source Life cycle. In figure 1, we can see some of the elements of the ideal source life cycle. The life cycle is broken down into four portions, manufacture, use, consolidation, and disposition. These four arbitrary elements allow them to focus on the ideal life cycle phases that every source should go through between manufacture and final disposition. As we examine the various phases of the sealed source life cycle, they pick specific examples and explore the adoption of the ideal life cycle model.

  19. Comparing and Contrasting Web Services and Open Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Jeremy Lee

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Software can either be developed in a way such that the source code is available to others, open source, or such that it is not, closed source. Open source software has a number of architectural advantages over traditionally ...

  20. Projet TESEER Thermoelectric micro Energy Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudoin, Geneviève

    Projet TESEER Thermoelectric micro Energy Source Enhanced by Electromagnetic Radiation Participants of silicon to be used as a hot-spot for a thermoelectric element. Applications also exists for PV cells) Thermoelectric micro Energy Source Enhanced by Electromagnetic Radiation Objectifs Le projet TESEER consiste

  1. BUILDING 96 RECOMMENDATION FOR SOURCE AREA REMEDIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OU III BUILDING 96 RECOMMENDATION FOR SOURCE AREA REMEDIATION FINAL Prepared by: Brookhaven FOR U.S. Department of Energy March 2009 #12;i OU III BUILDING 96 RECOMMENDATION FOR SOURCE AREA..................................................................................................................4 4.0 Building 96 ­ Operational Background

  2. Business Partnering with Open Source Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowston, Kevin

    Business Partnering with Open Source Communities: Opportunities, Perils and Pitfalls James Howison Syracuse University #12;James Howison: Open Source and Business Partnering Introductions ·Doctoral student researching FLOSS ·Online but also ApacheCon, O'Reilly OSCon, ODSC ·Developer on BibDesk, (small OS X

  3. Portable thermo-photovoltaic power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Krawetz, Barton (Idaho Falls, ID); Barklund, C. Rodger (Idaho Falls, ID); Seifert, Gary D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) device for generation of electrical power for use in portable electronic devices. A TPV power source is constructed to provide a heat source chemical reactor capable of using various fuels, such as liquid hydrocarbons, including but not limited to propane, LPG, butane, alcohols, oils and diesel fuels to generate a source of photons. A reflector dish guides misdirected photon energy from the photon source toward a photovoltaic array. A thin transparent protector sheet is disposed between the photon source and the array to reflect back thermal energy that cannot be converted to electricity, and protect the array from thermal damage. A microlens disposed between the protector sheet and the array further focuses the tailored band of photon energy from the photon source onto an array of photovoltaic cells, whereby the photon energy is converted to electrical power. A heat recuperator removes thermal energy from reactor chamber exhaust gases, preferably using mini- or micro-bellows to force air and fuel past the exhaust gases, and uses the energy to preheat the fuel and oxidant before it reaches the reactor, increasing system efficiency. Mini- or micro-bellows force ambient air through the system both to supply oxidant and to provide cooling. Finally, an insulator, which is preferably a super insulator, is disposed around the TPV power source to reduce fuel consumption, and to keep the TPV power source cool to the touch so it can be used in hand-held devices.

  4. Inductively generated streaming plasma ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.; Greenly, John B.

    2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel pulsed, neutralized ion beam source is provided. The source uses pulsed inductive breakdown of neutral gas, and magnetic acceleration and control of the resulting plasma, to form a beam. The beam supplies ions for applications requiring excellent control of ion species, low remittance, high current density, and spatial uniformity.

  5. Management of disused plutonium sealed sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitworth, Julia Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pearson, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abeyta, Cristy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources since 1999, including more than 2,400 Plutonium (Pu)-238 sealed sources and 653 Pu-239-bearing sources that represent more than 10% of the total sources recovered by GTRI/OSRP to date. These sources have been recovered from hundreds of sites within the United States (US) and around the world. OSRP grew out of early efforts at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program, a loan-lease program that serviced 31 countries, as well as domestic users. In the conduct of these recovery operations, GTRI/OSRP has been required to solve problems related to knowledge-of-inventory, packaging and transportation of fissile and heat-source materials, transfer of ownership, storage of special nuclear material (SNM) both at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and commercially, and disposal. Unique issues associated with repatriation from foreign countries, including end user agreements required by some European countries and denials of shipment, will also be discussed.

  6. Good Sources of Nutrients: Vitamin A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Amanda; Replogle, Jacqueline

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    ENP-2888 08-08 Good Sources of Nutrients Vitamin A Buenas fuentes de nutrientes Vitamina A Vitamin A at work Helps improve vision, especially at night? Helps babies grow and develop during ? pregnancy Protects you from infections? Is a source...

  7. FAINT RADIO SOURCES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waddington, Ian

    FAINT RADIO SOURCES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORY Deborah B. Haarsma 1 , R. Bruce Partridge 1 , Ian 85287­1504 USA Abstract. Faint extragalactic radio sources provide important information about the global history of star formation. Sensitive radio observations of the Hubble Deep Field and other fields

  8. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K. (Chicago, IL); Burra, Rajni K. (Chicago, IL); Acharya, Kaustuva (Chicago, IL)

    2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  9. Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Peters, J.; /DESY; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

  10. Beam current controller for laser ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the design and use of an ion source with a rapid beam current controller for experimental and medicinal purposes. More particularly, the present invention relates to the design and use of a laser ion source with a magnetic field applied to confine a plasma flux caused by laser ablation.

  11. Light Sources on the Nylon Vessels' Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 7 Light Sources on the Nylon Vessels' Surfaces The nylon vessels are justifiably the most the IV. A set of light diffusers has been placed on pre-defined points of both vessels. These are attached to the tip of an optical fiber that carries light from a source outside the WT (LED 184 #12

  12. Microwave-driven ultraviolet light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manos, Dennis M. (Williamsburg, VA); Diggs, Jessie (Norfolk, VA); Ametepe, Joseph D. (Roanoke, VA)

    2002-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave-driven ultraviolet (UV) light source is provided. The light source comprises an over-moded microwave cavity having at least one discharge bulb disposed within the microwave cavity. At least one magnetron probe is coupled directly to the microwave cavity.

  13. groundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    groundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation The Seymour Aquifer is a shallow aquifer, the Seymour Aquifer has the highest groundwater pollution potential of all the major aqui- fers in Texas drinking water standards. Potential sources of nitrate in groundwater include atmospheric deposi- tion

  14. Apparatus for safeguarding a radiological source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A tamper detector is provided for safeguarding a radiological source that is moved into and out of a storage location through an access porthole for storage and use. The radiological source is presumed to have an associated shipping container approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for transporting the radiological source. The tamper detector typically includes a network of sealed tubing that spans at least a portion of the access porthole. There is an opening in the network of sealed tubing that is large enough for passage therethrough of the radiological source and small enough to prevent passage therethrough of the associated shipping cask. Generally a gas source connector is provided for establishing a gas pressure in the network of sealed tubing, and a pressure drop sensor is provided for detecting a drop in the gas pressure below a preset value.

  15. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  16. Ion source with external RF antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

    2005-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.

  17. Linear source approximation in CASMO5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrer, R.; Rhodes, J. [Studsvik Scandpower, Inc., 504 Shoup Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Smith, K. [Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Linear Source (LS) approximation has been implemented in the two-dimensional Method of Characteristics (MOC) transport solver in a prototype version of CASMO5. The LS approximation, which relies on the computation of trajectory-based spatial moments over source regions to obtain the linear source expansion coefficients, improves the solution accuracy relative to the 'flat' or constant source approximation. In addition, the LS formulation is capable of treating arbitrarily-shaped source regions and is compatible with standard Coarse-Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration. Numerical tests presented in this paper for the C5G7 MOX benchmark show that, for comparable accuracy with respect to the reference solution, the LS approximation can reduce the run time by a factor of four and the memory requirements by a factor often relative to the FS scheme. (authors)

  18. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  19. OpenADR Open Source Toolkit: Developing Open Source Software for the Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McParland, Charles

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Status of NIST’s EISA Smart Grid Efforts,” Mar. 26, 2009,Open Source Software for the Smart Grid Charles McParlandOpen Source Software for the Smart Grid Charles McParland,

  20. TRIUMF Ultracold Neutron Source J.W. Martin (Spokesperson)1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeff

    .1). With the advent of superthermal sources of UCN, a new generation of UCN sources are under development at various

  1. Source storage and transfer cask: Users Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eccleston, G.W.; Speir, L.G.; Garcia, D.C.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The storage and shield cask for the dual californium source is designed to shield and transport up to 3.7 mg (2 Ci) of /sup 252/Cf. the cask meets Department of Transportation (DOT) license requirements for Type A materials (DOT-7A). The cask is designed to transfer sources to and from the Flourinel and Fuel Storage (FAST) facility delayed-neutron interrogator. Californium sources placed in the cask must be encapsulated in the SR-CF-100 package and attached to Teleflex cables. The cask contains two source locations. Each location contains a gear box that allows a Teleflex cable to be remotely moved by a hand crank into and out of the cask. This transfer procedure permits sources to be easily removed and inserted into the delayed-neutron interrogator and reduces personnel radiation exposure during transfer. The radiation dose rate with the maximum allowable quantity of californium (3.7 mg) in the cask is 30 mR/h at the surface and less than 2 mR/h 1 m from the cask surface. This manual contains information about the cask, californium sources, describes the method to ship the cask, and how to insert and remove sources from the cask. 28 figs.

  2. Galaxy Structural Parameters in Source Extractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. W. Holwerda

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last decade, the Concentration, Asymmetry and Smoothness (CAS), as well as the M20 and GINI parameters have become popular to automatically classify distant galaxies in images. Ellipticals, spirals and irregular galaxies all appear to occupy different regions of this parameter space. At the same time, the Source Extractor (SE) program has become the mainstay to produce ob ject catalogs from large image surveys. A logical next step would be to incorporate the structural parameters into the Source Extractor software. There are however several problems that arise: 1) the CAS parameters are fits to the images and Source Extractor eschews fits in the interest of speed, 2) the definition of the structural parameters changed over time. Now that there is a clear and agreed-upon definition of the structural parameters, I am incorporating computed versions in the Source Extractor code (v2.5). The fitted CAS parameters are available for the GOODS-N/S fields and I compare the computed structural parameters to those found by the previous fits. My goal is to expand the source structure information in Source Extractor catalogs in order to improve automatic identification of sources, specifically of distant galaxies. The computed parameters perform reasonably close to the fitted versions but noise appears in faint ob jects due to a lack of information. For a subset of objects, the asymmetry signal is outside the SE boundaries and Smoothness still fails to compute for many ob jects. Type classification based on the SE parameters still lacks resolving power.

  3. Characterization and modeling of the heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glickstein, S.S.; Friedman, E.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A description of the input energy source is basic to any numerical modeling formulation designed to predict the outcome of the welding process. The source is fundamental and unique to each joining process. The resultant output of any numerical model will be affected by the initial description of both the magnitude and distribution of the input energy of the heat source. Thus, calculated weld shape, residual stresses, weld distortion, cooling rates, metallurgical structure, material changes due to excessive temperatures and potential weld defects are all influenced by the initial characterization of the heat source. Understandings of both the physics and the mathematical formulation of these sources are essential for describing the input energy distribution. This section provides a brief review of the physical phenomena that influence the input energy distributions and discusses several different models of heat sources that have been used in simulating arc welding, high energy density welding and resistance welding processes. Both simplified and detailed models of the heat source are discussed.

  4. The M31 population of supersoft sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Kahabka

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1991 ROSAT PSPC M31 X-ray point source catalog has been screened in order to set up a sample of candidate supersoft sources in this galaxy, additional to the 16 supersoft sources of Supper et al. (1997). 26 candidates have been found. Absorbing hydrogen column densities, effective temperatures and white dwarf masses (assuming the sources are on the stability line of surface nuclear burning) are derived. An observed white dwarf mass distribution is derived which indicates that the masses are constrained to values above 0.90 solar masses. The entire population of supersoft sources in M31 is estimated taking a theoretical white dwarf mass distribution into account, assuming that the observationally derived sample is restricted to white dwarf masses above 0.90 solar, and taking into account that the gas and the source population have a different scale height. A total number of at least 200-500 and at most 6,000-15,000 sources is deduced depending on the used galaxy N_H model, making use of the population synthesis calculation of Yungelson (1996). The spatial distribution favors a disk (or spiral-arm) dominated young stellar population with a ratio of 1/(4-7) of bulge/disk systems. Assuming that all supersoft sources with masses in excess of 0.5 solar masses are progenitors of supernovae of type Ia, a SN Ia rate of (0.8-7) 10^-3 yr^-1 is derived for M31 based on these progenitors. Supersoft sources might account for 20-100% of the total SN Ia rate in a galaxy like M31.

  5. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  6. Directional measurements for sources of fission neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, R.C.; Auchampaugh, G.F.; Feldman, W.C.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although penetrating neutron and gamma-ray emissions arguably provide the most effective signals for locating sources of nuclear radiation, their relatively low fluxes make searching for radioactive materials a tedious process. Even assuming lightly shielded sources and detectors with large areas and high efficiencies, estimated counting times can exceed several minutes for source separations greater than ten meters. Because determining the source position requires measurements at several locations, each with its own background, the search procedure can be lengthy and difficult to automate. Although directional measurements can be helpful, conventional collimation reduces count rates and increases the detector size and weight prohibitively, especially for neutron instruments. We describe an alternative approach for locating radiation sources that is based on the concept of a polarized radiation field. In this model, the presence of a source adds a directional component to the randomly oriented background radiation. The net direction of the local field indicates the source angle, and the magnitude provides an estimate of the distance to the source. The search detector is therefore seen as a device that responds to this polarized radiation field. Our proposed instrument simply substitutes segmented detectors for conventional single-element ones, so it requires little or no collimating material or additional weight. Attenuation across the detector creates differences in the count rates for opposite segments, whose ratios can be used to calculate the orthogonal components of the polarization vector. Although this approach is applicable to different types of radiation and detectors, in this report we demonstrate its use for sources of fission neutrons by using a prototype fast-neutron detector, which also provides background-corrected energy spectra for the incident neutrons.

  7. The tokamak as a neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendel, H.W.; Jassby, D.L.

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the tokamak in its role as a neutron source, with emphasis on experimental results for D-D neutron production. The sections summarize tokamak operation, sources of fusion and non-fusion neutrons, principal neutron detection methods and their calibration, neutron energy spectra and fluxes outside the tokamak plasma chamber, history of neutron production in tokamaks, neutron emission and fusion power gain from JET and TFTR (the largest present-day tokamaks), and D-T neutron production from burnup of D-D tritons. This paper also discusses the prospects for future tokamak neutron production and potential applications of tokamak neutron sources. 100 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  9. Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gushenets V. I.; Hershcovitch A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

  10. Low temperature ion source for calutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veach, Allen M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bell, Jr., William A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Howell, Jr., George D. (Clinton, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new ion source assembly for calutrons has been provided for the efficient separation of elements having high vapor pressures. The strategic location of cooling pads and improved insulation permits operation of the source at lower temperatures. A vapor valve constructed of graphite and located in a constantly increasing temperature gradient provides reliable control of the vapor flow from the charge bottle to the arc chamber. A pronounced saving in calutron operating time and equipment maintenance has been achieved with the use of the present ion source.

  11. Source Coding with Mismatched Distortion Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niesen, Urs; Wornell, Gregory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the problem of lossy source coding with a mismatched distortion measure. That is, we investigate what distortion guarantees can be made with respect to distortion measure $\\tilde{\\rho}$, for a source code designed such that it achieves distortion less than $D$ with respect to distortion measure $\\rho$. We find a single-letter characterization of this mismatch distortion and study properties of this quantity. These results give insight into the robustness of lossy source coding with respect to modeling errors in the distortion measure. They also provide guidelines on how to choose a good tractable approximation of an intractable distortion measure.

  12. Mechanistic facility safety and source term analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A PC-based computer program was created for facility safety and source term analysis at Hanford The program has been successfully applied to mechanistic prediction of source terms from chemical reactions in underground storage tanks, hydrogen combustion in double contained receiver tanks, and proccss evaluation including the potential for runaway reactions in spent nuclear fuel processing. Model features include user-defined facility room, flow path geometry, and heat conductors, user-defined non-ideal vapor and aerosol species, pressure- and density-driven gas flows, aerosol transport and deposition, and structure to accommodate facility-specific source terms. Example applications are presented here.

  13. Anomaly metrics to differentiate threat sources from benign sources in primary vehicle screening.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Israel Dov; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discrimination of benign sources from threat sources at Port of Entries (POE) is of a great importance in efficient screening of cargo and vehicles using Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM). Currently RPM's ability to distinguish these radiological sources is seriously hampered by the energy resolution of the deployed RPMs. As naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are ubiquitous in commerce, false alarms are problematic as they require additional resources in secondary inspection in addition to impacts on commerce. To increase the sensitivity of such detection systems without increasing false alarm rates, alarm metrics need to incorporate the ability to distinguish benign and threat sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering technique were implemented in the present study. Such techniques were investigated for their potential to lower false alarm rates and/or increase sensitivity to weaker threat sources without loss of specificity. Results of the investigation demonstrated improved sensitivity and specificity in discriminating benign sources from threat sources.

  14. Good Sources of Nutrients: Vitamin B-12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Amanda; Replogle, Jacqueline

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    to retain vitamin B-12. It also lists foods that are good sources of vitamin B-12. (2 pp., 2 charts, 1 illustration). This publication is available to ALL AGENTS....

  15. Residential Air-Source Heat Pump Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Massachusetts offers rebates of up to $3,750 for the installation of high-efficiency, cold-climate air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) in residential buildings of one to four units. Heat pumps must be ...

  16. Tracing meteorite source regions through asteroid spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Cristina Ana

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By virtue of their landing on Earth, meteorites reside in near-Earth object (NEO) orbits prior to their arrival. Thus the population of observable NEOs, in principle, give the best representation of meteorite source bodies. ...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Advanced Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities Solar power and other sources of renewable energy can help combat global warming but they have a draw-back: they don't produce energy as predictably as generating...

  18. DSpace: An Open Source Dynamic Digital Repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, MacKenzie

    For the past two years the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Libraries and Hewlett-Packard Labs have been collaborating on the development of an open source system called DSpaceâ?¢ that functions as a repository ...

  19. Science Highlights 2008 | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source, have found a window into the process of water drop coalescence, employing ultrafast pulses of full-spectrum, high-intensity x-rays to capture with unprecedented...

  20. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the construction of LCLS, the first hard x-ray laser, towith storage-ring sources and LCLS will extend this down todown to sub-microseconds and LCLS will cover the range from