Sample records for mtbe plants petrochemical

  1. Petrochem industry expands North American MTBE capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that petrochemical manufacturers continue to increase methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) capacity in North America. The action reflects refiners' reformulation of gasoline to help reduce auto emissions. Demand for gasoline blending oxygenates such as MTBE is expected to increase as U.S. refiners reconfigure processing trains to produce fuels meeting requirements of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. Recent progress includes plans to build an MTBE plant in Mexico and start-ups of plants on the U.S. Gulf Coast and in Canada.

  2. Canada could get three MTBE plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, E

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reports on the proposed development of three methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plants in Canada. MTBE is used as an oxygenated fuel additive. The author discusses how demand for MTBE is increasing due to the regulation of leaded gasoline by the U.S. and Canadian governments. The exportation of MTBE from Canada to the U.S. is highlighted.

  3. Ecofuel plans MTBE plant in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Ecofuel (Milan), an ENI company, is evaluating construction of a new methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant in Italy, but has shelved plans for a world-scale MTBE unit in Mexico. The Italian unit is tied to ethylene expansion now under way. Later this year EniChem (Milan), a sister company, is due to complete construction of a 360,000-m.t./year cracker at Brindisi. The C{sub 4} stream available there and from the existing cracker at Priolo in Sicily should provide enough feed for a unit of up to 100,000 m.t./year of MTBE capacity. Some of the feedstock could also come from the Ravenna cracker.

  4. Energy Productivity Improvement in Petrochemical Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, A. M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Management and Conservation have become mutually inclusive in operation of today's petrochemical plants. This presentation shows how the efficient conversion and distribution of energy and the efficient energy utilization by the various...

  5. Veba in MTBE project, cutting aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, I.; Roberts, M.

    1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The new owners of the refinery and petrochemical complex at Schwedt in eastern Germany-RWE-DEA (Hamburg), Veba Oel (Gelsenkirchen), Agip (Rome), Total (Paris), and Elf-Aquitaine (Paris)-plan to build a 60,000-m.t./year methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant at the site for 1994-1995 completion. The MTBE project forms part of the consortium`s announced DM1.5-billion ($500 million) investment program for the complex that aims to raise refinery throughput from 8 million m.t./year to 12 million m.t./year by 1994 and hike production of naphtha and benzene.

  6. MTBE movements between Texas Gulf Coast plants to be enhanced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Texas Eastern Products Pipeline Co. (Teppco), Houston, has begun construction of its shuttle pipeline, a 10-mile, 6 and 8-in. line to move methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) between producers and refiners along the Houston Ship Channel. Funding for the project has been approved, rights-of-way are secured, and procurement of materials is under way, according to Teppco. The line will flow from the western edge of Shell's refinery eastward to storage facilities of Teppco's Baytown terminal. The shuttle pipeline anticipates the US requirement for oxygenated gasolines that takes effect Nov. 1. Approximately 70% of the available US merchant capacity for MTBE is located along the shuttle's path, Teppco says.

  7. Energy Optimization Management in a Petrochemical Plant: A Self-Development Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magalhaes, E.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eduardo Magalhăes| may 21, 2014 Energy Optimization Management in a Petrochemical Plant: A Self-Development Case ESL-IE-14-05-26 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 EXTRACTION... Feedstocks 1ST GENERATION Basic Petrochemicals 2ND GENERATION Thermoplastic Resins 3RD GENERATION Plastics Manufacturers PE PP PVC COMPETITIVE INTEGRATION PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY 2 2 ETHYLENE PROPYLENE CHLORINE SODA ALKALI NAPHTHA NATURAL GAS ETHANOL SALT ESL...

  8. Developing and Integrating Sustainable Chemical Processes into Existing Petro-Chemical Plant Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Developing and Integrating Sustainable Chemical Processes into Existing Petro-Chemical Plant Complexes #12;Outline · Introduction to Sustainable Development · Research Vision · Biomass conversion of biotechnology in existing plant complex · Conclusions #12;Sustainability Sustainability refers to integrating

  9. Lyondell`s new isobutylene route could fuel an MTBE capacity boost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotman, D.; Wood, A.

    1992-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven by the hot growth prospects for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), Lyondell Petrochemical (Houston) has developed a route to isobutylene it claims can produce the MTBE feedstock at half the capital cost of alternative synthesis technology. If proved, the process will be used in a new 7500-10,000 bbl/day MTBE plant at Channelview, TX. Lyondell also hopes to license the technology. {open_quotes}With expanding MTBE capacity, we will have to have new routes to isobutylene,{close_quotes} says Bob G. Gower, president and CEO of Lyondell. {open_quotes}We think this is a good fit within Lyondell, but also that it is important technology.{close_quotes} Gower declines to detail its specifics, but says it is a one-step isomerization of n-butenes to isobutylene. The firm has tested the process at a pilot unit and plans a demonstration unit in 1992.

  10. New low energy process for MTBE and TAME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herwig, J.; Schleppinghoff, B.; Schulwitz, S.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considered as new bulk petrochemicals of limited feedstocks MTBE (methyltertbutylether) and TAME (tertamylmethylether) need cheap and simple, minimum-cost production processes. The problems in optimizing the etherification are set by specifications for ether products and hydrocarbon raffinates. Working up reaction products from etherification processes containing hydrocarbons, methanol and ether to secure the pure main and side products is difficult because of azeotrope formation of methanol with ethers or hydrocarbons. At EC Erdolchemie GmbH, Cologne, a semicommercial unit with a capacity of 2,500 metric t/y has now been successfully operated for nearly one year producing high purity MTBE (> 99 wt.%) and a raffinate II with methanol content of < 0.05 wt.%. The TAME process has successfully been tested in a 3,000 kg/y TAME pilot plant for almost two years. Based on the operating experience, EC has prepared the engineering for a commercial multiproduct plant, including the production of 30,000 metric t/y MTBE, 15,000 metric t/y TAME and 6,000 metric t/y methylbutenes (TAME cracking product) in the first stage. EC has made application to the authorities for a construction permit. The process for MTBE and TAME will be licensed by EC Erdolchemie GmbH, Postfach 75 20 02, 5000 Cologne 71, West Germany or by Lurgi Kohle und Mineraloltechnik GmbH, Postfach 11 12 31, 6000 Frankfurt Main 2, West Germany.

  11. MTBE -- A global perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludlow, W.I.; Miller, K.D. Jr.; Liew, R.E. van [DeWitt and Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a major and familiar component of Reformulated and Oxygenated gasoline in the US. As such, it is essential to the success of the Clean Air Act programs now reaching a crescendo in major urban areas. In less than ten years, US MTBE capacity has grown from about 4,000 B/D to more than 200,000 B/D. Outside of the USA, its role is less widely understood. Although MTBE markets elsewhere are much less driven by legislation, they have seen the same spectacular growth prospects. Overall, about as much MTBE is used today overseas as in the US. To date, this has to be one of the petrochemical industry`s major success stories. Yet today, the MTBE industry stands at a crossroads, with the direction of future development uncertain at best. DeWitt`s gasoline and oxygenates team has closely observed the ups and downs of this market during most of its turbulent history. In this paper, the authors shall try to set down the major developments and prospects, with the personal familiarity of having been there when things changed. The story begins with a brief historical sketch, leading up to the identification of four critical periods in which major changes took place. The causes of today`s uncertainty lie in all of these stages, and are in a very real sense an example of the ``Law of Unintended consequences.`` Having set the stage, a cautious set of predictions will be put forth. These are neither as promising as proponents would like, nor as unpromising as some would tend to believe.

  12. MTBE catalyst shows increased conversion in commercial unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Rising demand for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has spawned interest in finding a cost-effective means of increasing production from existing units. A commercial trial of an improved MTBE catalyst was conducted recently at Lyondell Petrochemical Co.'s Channelview, Tex., plant. The new catalyst called Amberlyst 35 Wet, enhanced oxygenate production in the Lyondell trial. The new catalyst changes the activity coefficients of at least one of the components of the MTBE reaction, resulting in higher equilibrium conversion relative to its first-generation counterpart. Key catalyst properties are: particle size, 0.4--1.25 mm; Apparent density, 0.82 g/ml; Surface area, 44 sq m/g; Moisture content, 56%; Concentration of acid sites, 1.9 meq/ml (5.4 meq/g); Porosity, 0.35 cc/g; and Average pore diameter, 300 [angstrom]. Suggested operating conditions are: maximum temperature, 284 F (140 C); minimum bed depth, 24 in. (0.61 m); and liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), 1--5 hr[sup [minus]1].

  13. Snamprogetti signs MTBE contracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Snamprogetti (Milan) will use a Russian-developed dehydrogenation process in a world-scale methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant it is to build at Arzew, Algeria for a previously announced joint venture of Sonatrach (Algiers), Total (Paris), and Ecofuel (Milan). The 600,000-m.t./year plant will be the first in the West to use the improved Snamprogetti-Yarsintez fluidized-bed dehydrogenation (FBD) technology proven on a demonstration plant at Yaroslavl, Russia. The process has also been selected for use in Oxyfuel Corp.`s 500,000-m.t./year MTBE plant near Beaumont, TX. Although the environmental permit is already in place, final agreement for this project has not yet been signed.

  14. Saudi MTBE project revived

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Alujain Corp., a member of the Xenel group of Saudi Arabia, is going ahead with plans to build an 800,000-m.t./year methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant. Bechtel has been appointed project manager for the plant, which will be owned by a new company, National Fuel Additives (Tahseen). Bechtel will help evaluate proposals already submitted for the lump sum turnkey job.

  15. Texas plant will use new process to coproduce propylene oxide, MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1993-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Texaco Chemical Co. is building a $400 + million facility to produce 1.2 billion lb/year (14,000 b/d) methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and 400 million lb/year (about 500 metric tons/day) propylene oxide (PO). The facility-under construction at Port Neches, Tex.-will utilize a newly developed Texaco process that coproduces the two chemicals. The process produces propylene oxide and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) from the reaction of isobutane with oxygen in one step, then in a second step with propylene. The TBA is then reacted with methanol in a one-step process that synthesizes MTBE. The paper describes the Port Neches facilities, construction schedule, feedstocks, product uses, and auxiliary equipment.

  16. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylene dichloride 1 MTBE 2 Vinylchloride 3 Ethylbenzene 1Methyl- Tertiary-Butyl-Ether (MTBE) or Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl-Styrene Vinylchloride MTBE Benzene, Toluene, Xylene Acetone

  17. Global developments in MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feller, L.W. [CMAI, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is intended to provide an overview of some of the recent developments in MTBE demand growth worldwide and the impact of these developments on MTBE demand in the future. It provides a perspective of the influence of developments in the US on the worldwide MTBE markets. The public`s outcry regarding oxygenates in gasoline, and specifically MTBE, that has been evolving in the US during the past several months is in response to a politically mandated requirement for a fuel that contains oxygen that is provided by MTBE or ethanol. This public unrest had negatively impacted the market price for MTBE at the time this paper was being prepared. However, the author believes that MTBE, because of its clean octane capabilities, will continue to be used as an octane blendstock for gasoline in increasing quantities worldwide as we move through lead phasedown in West Europe and other countries that are experiencing pollution problems relating to exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines. The objectives of this paper are as follows: review developments in MTBE demand 1990--2000; identify regions where MTBE demand growth will occur; review production growth for MTBE, both historical and forecast; examine world trade patterns during the period; assess methanol demand growth during the period; analyze MTBE`s regional price bias; and provide a forecast of future MTBE price trends.

  18. MTBE still in poor health, despite the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, A.

    1994-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    After the second winter oxygenated fuels program of the 1990 Clean Air Act, producers of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are still feeling the chill of poor profitability. Despite the strong demand growth for MTBE to meet oxygen requirements in reformulated gasoline (RFG), oversupply still dogs the market. That, combined with a run-up in feedstock prices, has seen margins for MTBE markers all but evaporate. And it seems matters are likely to get worse before they get better. This week, Belvieu Environmental Fuels (BEF; Houston) expects to startup its 15,000-bbl/day MTBE plant at Mont Belvieu, TX. In late July, Texaco will start up its 15,000-bbl/day MTBE/propylene oxide (PO) plant at Port Neches, TX. In addition, a rash of refinery-based MTBE and tert-amyl methyl ether projects are nearing completion. {open_quotes}Profitability in MTBE has been extremely poor,{close_quotes} says Marvin O. Schlanger, president of Arco Chemical Americas, the largest MTBE producer. There has, however, been some recent recovery on the spot market, with MTBE moving from less than 60 cts/gal to near cash-cost levels of 70 cts/gal. But contract prices remain depressed, and strength in butane and methanol pricing have all buy wiped out any gains in MTBE.

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industry Series, Petrochemical Manufacturing: 2002. U.SProcess blocks for the production of petrochemical buildingCO 2 reduction for petrochemical products, 12/13 December,

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Processing (2005a). Petrochemical processes 2005. More info:in boilers and petrochemical process units have shownalmost every process in the petrochemical industry, whereas

  1. MTBE: Capacity boosts on hold amid demand concerns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainty reigns in the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. {open_quotes}We have no choice but to put our expansion plans on the back burner,{close_quotes} says one producer. {open_quotes}Because of government actions, there are no MTBE plants being built or expanded.{close_quotes} Spot MTBE prices have risen ti 82 cts- 83 cts/gal from 76 cts-78 cts/gal earlier this month as the demand for octane enhancement increases for the summer driving season. Some observers say EPA may relax different oxygen requirements for gasoline in different seasons. That would simplify production and supply for MTBE makers.

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  3. Race to license new MTBE and TAME routes heats up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotman, D.

    1993-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    With refineries and petrochemical manufacturers continuing to gear up production of oxygenates for use in reformulated fuels, new routes to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are clearly hot items in the licensing market. And probably nowhere has the competition become as intense as in offerings for skeletal isomerization technologies to boost ethers production from fluid catalytic cracking and steam cracking.

  4. Multivariable controller increased MTBE complex capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, D.; Peterson, T.J.; O`Connor, D. [DMC Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Payne, D.; Adams, V. [Valero Refining Co., Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacity increased by more than 4.6% when one dynamic matrix multivariable controller began operating in Valero Refining Company`s MTBE production complex in Corpus Christi, Texas. This was on a plant that was already running well above design capacity due to previously made process changes. A single controller was developed to cover an isobutane dehydrogenation (ID) unit and an MTBE reaction and fractionation plant with the intermediate isobutylene surge drum. The overall benefit is realized by a comprehensive constrained multivariable predictive controller that properly handles all sets of limits experienced by the complex, whether limited by the front-end ID or back-end MTBE units. The controller has 20 manipulated, 6 disturbance and 44 controlled variables, and covers widely varying dynamics with settling times ranging from twenty minutes to six hours. The controller executes each minute with a six hour time horizon. A unique achievement is intelligent surge drum level handling by the controller for higher average daily complex capacity as a whole. The ID unit often operates at simultaneous limits on reactor effluent compressor capacity, cold box temperature and hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio, and the MTBE unit at impurity in butene column overhead as well as impurity in MTBE product. The paper discusses ether production, isobutane dehydrogenation, maximizing production, controller design, and controller performance.

  5. Energy Philosophy in Prospective Petrochemical Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallsgrove, C.

    with establishing an energy philosophy for major petrochemical projects. This philosophy subsequently directs many aspects of the fundamental process design of these plants. For illustrative example ethylene plants are considered. Ethylene is the major building...

  6. Methanex considers methanol, MTBE in Qatar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    CW has learned that Methanex Corp. is considering entering one of two methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects in Qatar. Executive v.p. Michael Wilson says that part of the company`s New Zealand plant could be moved to a site in Qatar, which would lower capital costs for the possible project by $75 million-$100 million. Both Qatar General Petroleum Corp. and Qatar Fuel Additives are developing methanol and MTBE projects at Umm Said, Qatar. Methanex says its goal is to ensure low-cost feedstocks.

  7. Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

  8. Korean oxygenates rule sparks MTBE capacity plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin

    1994-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Korean government`s strict standard for gasoline sold domestically is expected to have a significant impact on the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. The mandate-requiring gasoline oxygen content of 0.5% this year, 0.75% by 1996, and 1.0% by 1998-has sparked a rush by Korean refineries to build new MTBE plants. If expansion plans are carried out, Korea`s MTBE capacity will increase from 280,000 m.t./year to 650,000 m.t./year by 1996, far surpassing predicted demand. Honam Oil, part of the Lucky Group, plans startup of a 100,000-m.t./year unit at Yeochon by early 1996. In addition, by the end of 1996 Ssangyong Oil will bring a 100,000-m.t./year unit onstream.

  9. Evaluating nonmetallic materials` compatibility with MTBE and MTBE + gasoline service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hotaling, A.C.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) has become the leading oxygenate in use in the petroleum industry. Since its introduction several years ago there has been premature deterioration of nonmetallic materials in both neat MTBE and MTBE + gasoline. This degradation is costly in several ways: maintenance, replacement, environmental, and product-loss. Identifying nonmetallic materials compatible with MTBE and MTBE + gasoline is important to the petroleum industry -- all the way from the refinery to the retail sale. Exposure tests have been conducted with different types of nonmetallics in neat MTBE, neat MTBE vapor, and 5% MTBE + 95% gasoline. As in previously reported tests, Teflon{reg_sign} laminates were the top performers, experiencing very little change in any of the properties tested. An ester and ether-based urethane laminate also exhibited only small property changes. Most materials displayed significant deterioration of one or more of the measured properties, even in MTBE condensing vapor and the 5% MTBE + 95% gasoline. The specific effects on each material need to be individually evaluated to determine the effect on service life.

  10. INEOS Scholarship Opportunity 2013 INEOS is a young and vibrant leading petrochemical company which has grown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    INEOS Scholarship Opportunity 2013 INEOS is a young and vibrant leading petrochemical company which employees in the company success. The Grangemouth refinery and petrochemicals facility is the largest INEOS and the petrochemical plants. Located 20 miles west of Edinburgh on a 1700-acre site, the petrochemicals facility

  11. Energy Philosophy in Prospective Petrochemical Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallsgrove, C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process design of large, highly integrated and energy-efficient petrochemical plants will depend significantly on the local energy market. The pricing, availability and possible offtakers for steam, power and fuel consumed and produced...

  12. MTBE, methanol prices rise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, G.D.L.; Cornitius, T.

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    After several months of drifting lower in line with declining autumn gasoline prices, tabs for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have turned around. There has been no big demand surge, but consumers and traders are beginning to build up inventories in advance of a series of midwinter shutdowns and turnarounds by producers. Spot prices, which dropped as low as 75 cts/gal, have rebounded to 90 cts/gal fob. Eager for a positive glimmer, methanol producers posted a 3-cts/gal increase in contract prices this month. It marks the first upward idea since February. In that time contract prices have dropped 75% from $1.55/gal to 39 cts/gal. A hard winter has hit early in much of the US sending natural gas prices up sharply. At the same time, formaldehyde and acetic acid markets remain firm, and with MTBE rebounding, methanol producers feel entitled to a piece of the action. {open_quotes}I don`t buy into this claim that MTBE demand is up and I don`t think producers can justify even a 3-cts/gal increase,{close_quotes} says one. {open_quotes}There is nothing in the economy to warrant a run-up. Housing starts are weaker, and demand is down at least 80,000 bbl/day with the MTBE shutdown.{close_quotes}

  13. Drinking Water Problems: MTBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a gasoline additive commonly known as MTBE, can contaminate ground water and cause health problems for those exposed to it for a long time. However, filtering devices can remove this and other additives from well water...

  14. Integration of Biomass processes in an existing Petrochemical ComplexPetrochemical Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Integration of Biomass processes in an existing Petrochemical ComplexPetrochemical Complex Debalina · Biomass conversion processes · Integration in existing plant complex l i· Conclusions #12;Sustainability;Overview · Biomass based processes integrated into a chemical production complex. Utili b di id f i th l

  15. Meeting the challenge of MTBE biodegradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eweis, J.B.; Chang, D.P.Y.; Schroeder, E.D.; Scow, K.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Morton, R.L.; Caballero, R.C. [Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts, Carson, CA (United States). Joint Water Pollution Control Plant

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygenated and reformulated gasolines have been developed in response to air pollution control regulations targeted at reducing carbon monoxide emissions and photochemical air pollution. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required the addition of fuel oxygenates to gasoline in areas where the level of carbon monoxide exceeded national ambient air quality standards. In the South Coast Air Basin gasoline containing oxygenated compounds has been in use since the late 1980`s. One oxygenated fuel additive most often selected by producers to meet the requirements is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). However, large production numbers associated with MTBE production, combined with the compound`s high water solubility, chemical stability, and toxicity, make it a potentially important groundwater pollutant. The County Sanitation District of Los Angeles, Joint Water Pollution Control Plant in Carson, California is one of the few wastewater treatment plants in the nation that receives refinery wastewater discharge. It has operated several pilot-scale compost-based biofilters for control of various volatile organic contaminants throughout the plant since a 1991 joint study with the University of California, Davis. After one year of operation, one of the biofilters spontaneously developed the ability to degrade MTBE. The paper describes the collaborative efforts to determine the feasibility of transferring the degrading microbial population from the solid to liquid phase, without loss of activity, and to determine some of the environmental requirements necessary for survival of the microbial culture.

  16. MTBE Production Economics

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14Biomass feedstocks and0216,JulyMTBE

  17. Economics of new MTBE design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Jarallah, A.M.; Lee, A.K.K.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) is produced industrially by catalytic reaction between methanol and isobutene. The catalyst that is widely used is an acidic ion exchange resin. This article explores design and economics when sulfuric acid is the catalyst. The profitability of MTBE production depends mainly on the cost of butenes and methhanol. Thus, the example shows MTBE made with a catalyst of sulfuric acid was profitable at a Saudi Arabian location, even though it was not profitable at a U.S. Gulf Coast location.

  18. Statoil outlines MTBE development program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Norway's state oil company Den Norkse state Oljeselskap AS has outlined plans to become one of the major European producers of methyl tertiary butyl ether in the 1990s. Statoil predicts European demand for MTBE will jump to 4.5 million metric tons/year by 2000 from 2.5 million tons in 1990. Europe currently is a net importer of MTBE, with a productive capacity of 2.2 million tons/year.

  19. The current status of the U.S. MTBE industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, G.M. [Global Octanes Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the status of the MTBE industry from its beginnings as a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments and the need for the use of oxygenates in non-attainment areas. During 1990--93 three world scale merchant plants were constructed and in 1994 two more were brought on stream. The paper tabulates reasons why MTBE gained the lion`s share of the oxygenates market. Finally the paper discusses the problems that now plague the industry and their causes.

  20. Effect of lower feedstock prices on economics of MTBE complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, F.; Hamid, S.H.; Ali, M.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic evaluation of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) complex was carried out starting from n-butane and by captive production of methanol from natural gas. The processing steps consist of isomerization of n-butane to isobutane, dehydrogenation of isobutane to make isobutene, and finally, the reaction of isobutene with methanol to produce MTBE. Two different plant sizes were considered, and the effect of 30% lower feedback prices on profitability was studied. It was found that the raw materials cost is a dominant component, composing about 55% of the total production cost. An internal rate of return of 19% could be realized for 500,000 tons per annum MTBE complex based on economic data in mid-1993. The payback period estimated at this capacity was 3.8 years, and the break-even capacity was 36.6%.

  1. A review of treatment technologies for MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, D. [Groundwater Technology, Inc., Norwood, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Available treatment technologies for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) contamination in soil, groundwater, and recovered groundwater are reviewed and assessed. MTBE contamination is becoming an important issue due to the increasing prevalence and regulation of this gasoline additive. In addition, MTBE is more soluble and more mobile in groundwater than most hydrocarbons, so it is usually the first gasoline constituent to reach sensitive receptors. Treatment of MTBE is complicated by its Henry`s constant, which is lower than most other gasoline constituents. Furthermore, evidence of biodegradability of MTBE is mixed, and MTBE does not degrade rapidly abiotically. Groundwater pumping is usually employed to contain and collect MTBE-contaminated groundwater, often successfully because of its high aqueous solubility. Air sparging/soil vapor extraction is also successfully employed to treat MTBE, but its effectiveness is reduced by the low Henry`s constant of MTBE. Sparging and other aerobic bioremediation approaches are hampered by the poor biodegradability of MTBE. Oxidation technologies, such as ozone injection, hold promise for rapid in situ remediation of MTBE. Treatment of recovered groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also problematic. MTBE adsorbs poorly to granular activated carbon; advanced oxidation processes are effective on MTBE, but entail high capital and operating costs; bioreactors are of questionable effectiveness on MTBE. Air stripping is usually the most cost-effective treatment technology for MTBE so long as the off gas from the air stripper can be discharged without treatment. However, off gas treatment is expensive, so groundwater is sometimes heated to reduce the requirement for stripping air.

  2. EPA proposal sets MTBE back

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, A.

    1995-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) producers were looking for a boost from the official New Year`s start of EPA`s reformulated gasoline (RFG) program. But that prospect has been dimmed by an EPA-proposal-in reaction to concerns about RFG prices-to allow states to withdraw from the program. The states that have opted to out make up 5%-6% of the total RFG pool says Arthur Zadronzy, director/government outreach for MTBE producer Arco Chemical. {open_quotes}This is not a major hit, but it is one we have felt,{close_quotes} he says. Despite the state and EPA actions, MTBE producers are not worried about long-term consequences.

  3. Economics of Energy Conservation in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nachod, J. E. Jr.

    ECONOMIC. OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN THE CHEMICAL AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES by J. Ernest Nachod, Jr., Consultant, Houston, TX ABSTRACT Capital allocated to energy savings projects competes with that for new or revised plants. Thus, it must... show the same or better rate of return. Usually the risk factor in energy savings projects is less than allocations for other uses. The categories of energy consumption on a chemical or petrochemical plant are defined. Distillation is often...

  4. Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at MTBE-Contaminated Sites J U A N tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) added to gasoline. Frequent observations of high TBA, and especially rising TBA/MTBE of MTBE to TBA. Typically overlooked is the role of volatilization in the attenuation of these chemicals

  5. MTBE will be a boon to U. S. gas processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.W. (Purvin and Gertz, Inc. Dallas, TX (United States))

    1993-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that the advent of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the primary oxygenate blending component for oxygenated and reformulated motor fuels promises significant benefits for the U.S. gas-processing industry. Increased demand for isobutane as MTBE-plant feedstock will buoy both normal butane and isobutane pricing in U.S. gulf Coast during the 1990s. Elimination of the need to crack normal butane in U.S. olefin plants will also strengthen competitive feedstocks somewhat, including ethane and propane. And increased use of normal butane as isomerization feedstock will result in wider recognition of the premium quality of gas plant normal butane production compared to most refinery C[sub 4] production.

  6. The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    349 The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California REFERENCESD.E. Rolston. “Impacts of MTBE on California Groundwater. ”Environmental Assessment of MTBE, Vol. 4. A. Keller et al. ,

  7. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation in batchCometabolic degradation of MTBE by a cyclohexane-oxidizingof 49 Biological Treatment of MTBE Fortin, N. Y. , and M. A.

  8. MTBE demand as a oxygenated fuel additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MTBE markets are in the state of flux. In the U.S. the demand has reached a plateau while in other parts of the world, it is increasing. The various factors why MTBE is experiencing a global shift will be examined and future volumes projected.

  9. MTBE/methanol supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, R.E.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. methanol production has become economically competitive with imports due to de-escalation of natural gas price from $3.07 mm Btu in January 1985 to $2.07 mm Btu by December 1985. This has reversed the earlier supply outlook when it appeared that additional methanol plants would shutdown due to low cost imports. Current gas cost in conjunction with projections for continued excess supply prompted DuPont to restart their 250 mm gpy plant at Beaumont, Texas. Other former producers are contemplating restarting idle units.

  10. The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Condensed version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Focus: Phasing Out MTBE in Gasoline," Annual Energyand P. J. Bartholomae, "MTBE and Benzene Plume Behavior: ASoil Sediment & Groundwater MTBE Special Issue, March, 43-

  11. One multivariable controller increased capacity of an Oleflex{trademark}/MTBE complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, D.; Peterson, T.J.; O`Connor, D. [Dynamic Matrix Control Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Adams, V.; Payne, D. [Valero Refining Co., Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacity increased by more than 4.6% when one dynamic matrix controller began operating in Valero Refining Company`s MTBE production complex in Corpus Christi, Texas. This was on a plant that was already running well above design capacity due to process changes previously made on the plant. A single controller was developed to cover an Oleflex{trademark} isobutane dehydrogenation unit and an MTBe reaction and fractionation plant with the intermediate isobutylene surge drum. The overall benefit is realized by a comprehensive constrained multivariable predictive controller which properly handles all sets of limits experienced by the complex, whether limited by the front-end Oleflex{trademark} or back-end MTBE unit. The controller has 20 manipulated, 6 disturbance and 44 controlled variables, and covers widely varying dynamics with settling times ranging from twenty minutes to six hours. The controller executes each minute with a six hour time horizon. A unique achievement is intelligent handling of the surge drum level by the controller for higher average daily capacity of the complex as a whole. The Oleflex{trademark} often operates at simultaneous limits on reactor effluent compressor capacity, cold box temperature and hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio and the MTBE at impurity in butene column overhead as well as impurity in MTBE product.

  12. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  13. MTBE: Wild card in groundwater cleanup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenigsberg, S. [Regenesis Bioremediation Products, San Juan Capistrano, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface releases of the gasoline oxygenate, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) seriously compromise the remediation and closure of properties that have ground water contaminated with BTEX and other conventional fuel hydrocarbon components. Although a manageable protocal for BTEX remediation is being set up, the MTBE problem continues to be difficult. This article discusses a new magnesium peroxide compound which could be part of the solution. Covered topics include oxygen release compound (ORC) enhance bioremediation and the role of oxygen and ORC in MTBE remediation. 1 fig.

  14. MTBE: The headache of cleaner air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneiss, J.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been sold in the United States since 1979, when it was added to fuels as an octane enhancer after lead was phased out of motor fuels. Recently it has been introduced as a means of reducing carbon monoxide emissions during the winter months in targeted US cities. However, there is concern over health complaints including headaches, dizziness and nausea from residents of some areas. These reports have launched an era of assidious research by scientists and public health officials across the country to learn more about MTBE`s short-term and long-term, and possibly carcinogenic, health effects. New research should help weigh the risk of MTBE as a possible carcinogen and the effectiveness of MTBE-blended fuels in reducing carbon monoxide levels. The question is whether, in minimizing one risk, is another risk - however small - being introduced?

  15. Evaluation and Optimization of MTBE Biodegradation in Aquifers, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legler, T; Balser, L; Koester, C; Wilson, W

    2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was focused on meeting the following objectives concerning the process of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation, with the goal of optimizing this process in situ: 1. Assess whether intrinsic bioattenuation of MTBE is feasible under aerobic conditions across several contaminated sites. 2. Determine the effect of co-contaminants, specifically water-soluble gasoline components (most notably benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes [BTEX]) on MTBE biodegradation. 3. Determine whether microbial and/or chemical factors contribute to different MTBE degradative activities. 4. Isolate and characterize MTBE-degrading microorganisms from sediments in which MTBE biodegradation was observed.

  16. Falling MTBE demand bursts the methanol bubble

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiesmann, G.; Cornitius, T.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol spot markets in Europe and the US have been hit hard by weakening demand from methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) producers. In Europe, spot prices for domestic T2 product have dropped to DM620-DM630/m.t. fob from early-January prices above DM800/m.t. and US spot prices have slipped to $1.05/gal fob from $1.35/gal. While chemical applications for methanol show sustained demand, sharp methanol hikes during 1994 have priced MTBE out of the gasoline-additive market. {open_quotes}We`ve learned an important lesson. We killed [MTBE] applications in the rest of the world,{close_quotes} says one European methanol producer. Even with methanol currently at DM620/m.t., another manufacturer points out, MTBE production costs still total $300/m.t., $30/m.t. more than MTBE spot prices. Since late 1994, Europe`s 3.3-million m.t./year MTBE production has been cut back 30%.

  17. Add MTBE unit ahead of alkylation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masters, K.R.; Prohaska, E.A.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately three years ago, the people at Diamond Shamrock's Sunray, Texas, refinery recognized a growing demand for high octane super premium unleaded gasoline in their regional marketing area. It was apparent that they would need to change their processing scheme to meet this growing demand. After investigating several options, they decided to install an MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) unit upstream of their existing sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) aklylation unit. The new unit would process olefin feed before it entered the alkylation unit. The MTBE unit was expected to improve Diamond Shamrock's gasoline pool in two ways. First, the MTBE would be an additional high octane blending stock for the gasoline pool. Second, the MTBE unit would improve the quality of the olefin stream going to the alkylation unit. Diamond Shamrock brought their MTBE unit onstream in December, 1985. The results of the combined operation exceeded expectations, producing alkylate in excess of 98 RON (Research octane number) and MTBE of 118 RON. These components significantly upgraded the refinery's capability to produce a super premium unleaded gasoline.

  18. The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    85 MTBE is more soluble in water than BTEX, which means thatlong as BTEX plumes; and California Regional Water QualityMTBE than BTEX dissolves in a given quantity of water. This

  19. Plantwide Energy Management for Hydrocarbon and Petrochemical Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, A.; Clinkscales, T.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the hydrocarbon and petrochemical industry the generation and utilization of various forms of energy is a highly complex and dynamic process. The process plant normally generates steam and fuel in the form of process off-gas. The same process...

  20. MTBE Production Economics (Released in the STEO April 2001)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the causes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) price increases in 2000.

  1. UMass builds bugs to eat MTBE ByAuriaCimino

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    UMass builds bugs to eat MTBE ByAuriaCimino STAfFWRITER An area university's process to destroy with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), which is found in gasoline. Once the first field trial is complete in particular has suffered from MTBE contamination because of the abundance of groundwater in the state, said

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    excess steam and power produced outside the olefin plant (Heat and Power (CHP) plants and other parts of the steamin combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Steam production in

  3. A Practical Approach to Energy Management in a Large Petrochemical Manufacturing Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackley, A.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant is a highly integrated petrochemical complex on over 1000 acres, which operates seven process units, one olefins unit, two alpha olefins units, one poly alpha olefins unit, and three polyethylene units as well as a central utilities unit...

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plant’s energy needs. Oil and gas journal, 10 February 1992.of distillation units. Oil and Gas Journal, 21 June, 1999.in Dutch). Oil and Gas Journal (2005). 2005 Worldwide

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Government. Glossary ASD CDA CHP CIPEC cfm CO 2 EIA ft 2 GBPCombined Heat and Power (CHP) plants and other parts of thein combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Steam production in

  6. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plant’s energy needs. Oil and gas journal, 10 February 1992.of distillation units. Oil and Gas Journal, 21 June, 1999.the Netherlands (in Dutch). Oil and Gas Journal (2005). 2005

  7. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  8. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. , 2000). Modern control systems are often not solelyto implement control systems and more modern systems entercontrol systems; many chemical plants may already have modern

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W.R. Grace: Plant Uses Six Sigma Methodology and Traditionalsystem such as ISO 14001 or Six Sigma can help companies tosuch as ISO 14001 and Six Sigma, can be used to complement

  10. MTBE from butadiene-rich C/sub 4/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ancillotti, F.; Pescarollo, E.; Szatmari, E.; Lazar, L.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), is made by reacting methanol with isobutylene. The preferred source of isobutylene is a steam cracker C/sub 4/ cut from which butadiene has been removed. However, moving the MTBE synthesis upstream of the butadiene extraction will improve the extraction step. The following is a review of conditions imposed on the MTBE unit's design and operation when placed in this new location.

  11. The MTBE solution: Octanes, technology, and refinery profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lander, E.P.; Hubbard, J.N.; Smith, L.A.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been developed to provide refiners with business decision insight regarding the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from refinery - (FCC) produced isobutylene. The driving forces making MTBE an attractive investment are examined with regard to the increasing demand for higher octane unleaded gasolines. The decision to proceed with MTBE production depends on the profitability of such an investment and the refiner's ability to meet market demands using available processing equipment, refinery produced streams and external feedstocks. The factors affecting this decision are analyzed in this paper and include: industry ability to meet rising octane demand; profit potential realized by diverting isobutylene to MTBE; availability of technology for producing MTBE; and investment and operating costs required to produce MTBE. Chemical Research and Licensing and NEOCHEM have developed a simple, low cost process to produce MTBE, reducing the excessive equipment and high operating costs that were associated with conventional MTBE designs. The economics and process benefits of installing a CRandL/NEOCHEM MTBE process are examined within the framework of a generalized medium-sized refinery configuration.

  12. MTBE, ethanol rules come under fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EPA is facing stiff challenges to the mandates for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol in its reformulated gasoline (RFG) program. Wisconsin officials are receiving hundreds of complaints about the alleged health effects and other problems with MTBE added to gasoline, and Gov. Tommy Thompson is demanding that EPA suspend the RFG program until April 1. Rep. James Sensenbrenner (R., WI) is threatening to introduce a bill to repeal the program in Wisconsin if EPA does not comply. However, EPA administrator Carol Browner says the agency will {open_quotes}defer any decision{close_quotes} on the request. EPA has sent technical experts to Milwaukee to respond to and monitor citizens` complaints.

  13. Recovery of methanol in an MTBE process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whisenhunt, D.E.; Byers, G.L.; Hattiangadi, U.S.

    1988-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for the manufacture of methyltertiarybutylether (MTBE) in which methanol and a mixture of C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons containing isobutylene are contacted in a reaction zone containing an ion-exchange resin catalyst under suitable conditions to effect the reaction of methanol and isobutylene to produce a reaction product containing MTBE, unreacted methanol, unreacted isobutylene and other C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, the reaction product is introduced to a fractionation zone wherein it is separated into a bottoms product comprising essentially MTBE and an overhead product containing unreacted methanol, unreacted isobutylene, and other C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, and the overhead product is introduced to an absorption zone wherein the methanol is absorbed; the improvement is described which comprises utilizing silica gel as adsorbent and regenerating the silica gel adsorbent in a closed loop by contacting the silica gel absorbent with a desorption gas stream at an elevated temperature for a sufficient period of time to remove absorbed methanol, cooling the effluent from the adsorption zone to condense desorbed methanol removing desorbed methanol from the system and recycling the desorption gas to the adsorption zone.

  14. MTBE still facing pressure from ethanol under latest fuel proposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, A.

    1994-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The US EPA's finalized reformulated gasoline rule, part of Phase II of the 1990 Clean Air Act, signals a possible turnaround for the sluggish methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. But if a 30% renewable fuels proposal favoring ethanol passes, pressure could continue for MTBE.

  15. Ecological hazards of MTBE exposure: A research agenda

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsen, T.; Hall, L.; Rice, D.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel oxygenates are used in metropolitan areas across the United States in order to reduce the amount of carbon monoxide released into the atmosphere during the winter. The most commonly used fuel oxygenate is Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Its widespread use has resulted in releases into the environment. To date there has been only minimal effort to investigate ecological impacts caused by exposure to concentrations of MTBE typically found in environmental media. Research into the potential for MTBE to adversely affect ecological receptors is essential. Acquisition of such baselines data is especially critical in light of continuing inputs and potential accumulation of MTBE in environmental media. A research Agenda is included in this report and addresses: Assessing Ecological Impacts, Potential Ecological Impacts of MTBE (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms), Potential Ecological Endpoints, and A Summary of Research Needs.

  16. Measurement of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) in raw drinking water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M L; Koester, C J; Moran, J E

    1999-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to assess the pathways for human exposure to methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) and to understand the extent of MTBE contamination in watersheds, a purge and trap gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method to measure part-per-trillion (ppt) concentrations of MTBE in environmental waters was developed. A variety of California's raw drinking waters were analyzed. No detectable MTBE was found in deep groundwater (>1000 feet). However shallow groundwater ({approx}250 feet) contained MTBE concentrations of non-detect to 1300 ppt. MTBE concentrations measured in rivers and lakes ranged from non-detect to 3500 ppt. East (San Francisco) Bay area rain water contained approximately 80 ppt MTBE.

  17. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  18. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdo Abou Jaoude; Seifedine Kadry; Khaled El-Tawil; Hassan Noura; Mustapha Ouladsine

    2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  19. Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, R.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

  20. Health studies indicate MTBE is safe gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, E.V.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Implementation of the oxygenated fuels program by EPA in 39 metropolitan areas, including Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in the winter of 1992, encountered some unexpected difficulties. Complaints of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritated eyes started in Fairbanks, jumped to Anchorage, and popped up in various locations in the lower 48 states. The suspected culprit behind these complaints was the main additive for oxygenation of gasoline is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A test program, hastily organized in response to these complaints, has indicated that MTBE is a safe gasoline additive. However, official certification of the safety of MTBE is still awaited.

  1. MTBE growth limited despite lead phasedown in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storck, W.

    1985-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This month's legislated reduction of the allowable amount of lead additives in gasoline will increase demand strongly for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as an octane enhancer, but the economics of the refinery business and the likelihood of rapidly increasing high-octane gasoline imports probably will limit the size of the business in coming years. MTBE will be used to fill the octane gap now, but economics and imports of gasoline later on could hold down demand. The limited growth in sales of MTBE is discussed.

  2. Remediation of overlapping benzene/MTBE and MTBE-only plumes: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, P.L. [TolTest, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Vinch, C.A. [Ryder Transportation Services, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two overlapping dissolved hydrocarbon plumes were identified in the shallow water-bearing zone at a commercial vehicle service and fueling facility. Plume 1 originated from a pre-1993 gasoline product line/dispenser leak. This plume contained a relatively common mix of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE); benzene and MTBE were identified as the Plume 1 contaminants of concern based on their detection at approximately 200 {mu}g/l each, which exceeded regulatory guidance. Plume 2, which was detected in the tank cavity during UST removal, resulted from gasoline line leaks/underground storage tank overfills. Although the majority of impacted soils in both the dispenser and tank cavity areas were removed during UST excavation, rainfall during impacted soil removal mobilized the MTBE contained in the soils to groundwater. As a result, Plume 2 contained approximately 900 {mu}g/l MTBE while BTEX compounds were non-detect. Although the impacted zone sustained an approximate yield of only 0.3 gallon per minute, Pennsylvania regulations dictate that this zone must be treated as an aquifer. The failure of remediating gasoline plumes using pump-and-treat has been predominantly due to BTEX`s tendency to adsorb onto soil, creating a residual-phase product layer which acts as a continuing source of dissolved-phase BTEX. Based on this experience, most groundwater and remediation professionals reject pump-and-treat as a viable remedial option, except in situations where controlling groundwater movement is the predominant goal.

  3. Feasibility of using bioaugmentation with bacterial strain PM1 for bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated vadose and groundwater environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, Kate M; Hristova, Krassimira

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2000. "In Situ Treatment of MTBE by Biostimulation of NativeAmerican Petroleum Institute MTBE Biodegradation Workshop,Detection and Quantification of MTBE-degrading Strain PM1 by

  4. Feasibility of using bioaugmentation with bacterial strain PM1 for bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated vadose and groundwater environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, Kate M; Hristova, Krassimira

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tahoe City, CA. 9/18/00. Bioremediation of MTBE-Contaminated2000, DC Davis, CA Bioremediation of MTBE at Port HeuenemeRiverside. 5/31101 Bioremediation of MTBE through

  5. The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Gasoline. ” Annual Energy Outlook 2000. DOE/EIA-0383,in Gaso- line. ” Annual Energy Outlook 2000. DOE/EIA-0383,MTBE in Gasoline,” Annual Energy Outlook 2000, 2001a. Mazur,

  6. Modeling the atmospheric inputs of MTBE to groundwater systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pankow, J.F.; Johnson, R.L. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical transport model was used to calculate the movement of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) and several other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the atmosphere downward through the unsaturated zone and into shallow groundwater. Simulations were carried out for periods as long as 10 years to investigate whether a gaseous atmospheric MTBE source at typical ambient concentrations could account for the presence of MTBE in shallow groundwater at the types of low ug/L levels that have been found during the National Water Quality Assessment Program currently being conducted by the US Geological Survey. The simulations indicate that downward movement of MTBE to shallow groundwater will be very slow when there is no net downward movement of water through the vadose zone. For example, for a vadose zone composed of fine sand, and assuming tens of cm of infiltration, then only a few years will be required for water at a water table that is 5.0 m below ground surface to attain MTBE levels that correspond to saturation with respect to the atmospheric source gaseous concentration. An on/off atmospheric source, as might occur in the seasonal use of MTBE, will lead to concentrations in shallow groundwater that correspond to saturation with the time-averaging atmospheric source concentration.

  7. The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Long version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol, Non-oxy Case D'( p) MTBE Case D(p) U.S. Supply S(p)NO. 932 THE SOCIAL COSTS OF AN MTBE BAN IN CALIFORNIA (LONGMTBE .

  8. Author's personal copy Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Author's personal copy Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE to indoor benzene and MTBE concentrations appeared to have been dominated by car exhaust concentrations of other BTEX components and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have been reported [5,6]. Up until

  9. Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co November 2005 Key words: aerobic, biodegradation, BTEX, co-contaminant, MTBE, TBA Abstract Contamination of groundwater with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is often accompanied by many aromatic

  10. Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California Gunnar W. Schade,* Gabrielle B. Dreyfus, and Allen H. Goldstein ABSTRACT (CARB) measured MTBE in urban regions in 1995­ 1996, reporting a range of 0.4 to 13.2 ppbv in the LosMethyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE

  11. Atmosphere-Water Interaction of Chloroform, Toluene, and MTBE in Small Perennial Urban Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmosphere-Water Interaction of Chloroform, Toluene, and MTBE in Small Perennial Urban Streams-butyl ether (MTBE) are frequently detected VOCs in the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water in urban not be the predominant source of chloroform and toluene in the two urban streams. In contrast, MTBE may be coming from

  12. Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407±416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Summary The widespread use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE is often proposed as the most promising alter- native after treatment. However, MTBE biodegradation appears

  13. IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline. In 1998, 11.9 billion liters of MTBE were produced in the U.S. MTBE has been detected frequently

  14. US refiners choose variety of routes to MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1992-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that refiners and merchant manufacturers in the U.S. are gearing up to produce the large volumes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) needed to comply with oxygenated gasoline requirements. The 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments specify that, as of the first of this coming November, gasoline containing a minimum of 2.7 wt % oxygen must be sold in 39 CO-nonattainment cities. Refiners and others are scurrying to bring MTBE capacity on line in time to meet this requirement. Many U.S. refiners already have some operating MTBE capacity, but this will not be nearly enough to meet the looming increase in demand. As a result, additional capacity is being constructed worldwide.

  15. Determination of methyl tert. butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, J.; Orchin, M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A GLC-acid extraction method is described for the determination of MTBE in gasolines. The method consists of a programmed GLC analysis starting at about room temperature conducted before and after extraction with cold 85% phosphoric acid. This treatment results in the preferential solubility of ethers and other oxygenated compounds while minimizing the reaction of olefins and aromatics which may be present in the gasolines. Plotting various known concentrations of MTBE in gasolines against the concentrations determined in the same samples by the authors methodology results in a straight line relationship. The concentration of MTBE in any sample of gasoline may thus be determined using their GLC-extraction procedure and the calibration line. The analysis can accommodate a wide choice of standard GLC columns and programs. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  17. Synthesis of MTBE during CO hydrogenation: Reaction sites required

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazi, A.M.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.; Marcelin, G.; Oukaci, R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) during carbon monoxide (CO) hydrogenation has been studied with the following reaction schemes: (1) the addition of isobutylene during CO hydrogenation over metal catalysts active for methanol synthesis (Pd/SiO{sub 2} and Li-Pd/SiO{sub 2}) and (2) the addition of isobutylene during CO hydrogenation over a dual bed configuration consisting of Li-Pd/SiO{sub 2} and a zeolite (H-ZSM-5 or HY). The addition of isobutylene during methanol synthesis over the supported Pd catalysts indicated that MTBE cannot be formed on metal sites from a reaction of isobutylene with methanol precursors. However, addition of isobutylene to the syngas feed over a dual bed consisting of a methanol synthesis catalyst and an acid zeolite downstream of the methanol synthesis catalyst showed that MTBE can be synthesized during CO hydrogenation provided acid sites are available. In order to get higher conversions of methanol to MTBE, optimization of the acid catalyst and/or reaction conditions would be required to minimize formation of byproduct hydrocarbons.

  18. Reactant adsorption and its impact upon MTBE synthesis on zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogelbauer, A.; Nikolopoulos, A.A.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.; Marcelin, G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zeolites show interesting properties as catalysts for MTBE synthesis from methanol and isobutene such as a high selectivity to MTBE even at a low methanol/isobutene feed ratio. In order to explain this high selectivity, the adsorption behaviors of HY and HZSM-5 zeolites and their impact on activity and selectivity for MTBE synthesis were studied. Adsorption experiments, carried out under conditions similar to those used for reaction, showed that ca. 2.5 molecules of methanol were adsorbed per acid site on HZSM-5 and HY zeolites, whereas isobutene was found to form a 1:1 adsorption complex. The excess methanol adsorbed was found to be only weakly bonded, probably via hydrogen bonds. On a commercially used resin catalyst (Amberlyst-15) equal amounts of methanol and isobutene were adsorbed. The higher methanol uptake of the zeolites was paralleled by a higher selectivity to MTBE as compared to the resin catalyst. The increased adsorption of methanol on the zeolites was concluded to play a key role in suppressing the formation of by-products due to isobutene dimerization or oligomerization by decreasing the adsorption of isobutene on the active sites and thereby keeping these sites available for reaction. 40 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. aerobic mtbe biodegradation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aerobic mtbe biodegradation First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Aerobic Biodegradation of...

  20. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater P.I. names,Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a contaminant of concernsubsurface environments. MTBE appears to be degraded readily

  1. OPERATOR INTERACTION WITH MODEL-BASED PREDICTIVE CONTROLLERS IN PETROCHEMICAL REFINING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia, University of

    OPERATOR INTERACTION WITH MODEL-BASED PREDICTIVE CONTROLLERS IN PETROCHEMICAL REFINING Greg A success in the petrochemical industry, they have introduced new challenges for the operators and engineers

  2. Remediation of MTBE in groundwater: A case where pump-and-treat works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, D.H.; Riley, B. [Groundwater Technology, Inc., Norwood, MA (United States); Farrell, T. [Groundwater Technology, Inc., Trenton, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two case studies are discussed in which groundwater pumping reduced levels of dissolved methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater by more than two orders of magnitude, in some cases to below detection limits. MTBE contamination in groundwater is becoming an important issue due to the increasing prevalence and regulation of this gasoline additive. In addition, MTBE is more mobile in groundwater than most hydrocarbons, so it is usually the first gasoline constituent to reach sensitive receptors. Since its Henry`s constant is low, in situ removal of MTBE from groundwater by air sparging is slow, and MTBE does not rapidly degrade, either biologically or abiotically. Therefore, groundwater pumping is usually employed to contain and collect MTBE-contaminated groundwater. Pumping groundwater can reduce MME levels to below detection limits within a few years, because MTBE in the subsurface is found mostly dissolved in groundwater. In contrast, the more hydrophobic gasoline hydrocarbons exist mostly in pockets of separate phase material and adsorbed to soil particles and dissolve slowly in groundwater. Hydrocarbon concentrations are rarely reduced to closure levels within a reasonable time frame by pumping. Sites in eastern Massachusetts and southern New Jersey, where groundwater was contaminated with MTBE due to releases of unleaded gasoline from underground storage tanks, are discussed. At these sites, average MTBE levels were reduced by two to three orders of magnitude, from several ppm or more to less than 10 ppb within three years by pumping groundwater at 10 to 30 gpm.

  3. The evolution of fuel: A dissertation on MTBE and elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.M. [General Valve Co., Brookshire, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper begins with a history of the development of the internal combustion engine and the need for a fuel octane booster that would also be non-polluting. The use of ethers as fuel additives cause a compatibility problem with valve sealing materials. The main purpose of this presentation is to address this compatibility problem. The paper makes specific recommendations for the author`s General Twin Seal, describing the seal components (slip seal, bonnet and lower plate O-rings, gland O-rings, bearing retainer O-rings, and pressure relief device seals) and which materials these components should be manufactured from to be compatible with the following fuel additives: toluene, MTBE, and various mixtures of toluene and MTBE.

  4. What can I do with this degree? PLANT BIOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    Industries including petrochemical, chemical, and lumber and paper Companiesincludingpharmaceutical computer skills. Joinrelatedprofessionalassociations. Learnfederalandstategovernmentjobapplication process agencies Applied Plant Science, Continued Learn federal, state and local government job application process

  5. Pilot-scale evaluation of chemical oxidation for MTBE-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, M.; Schupp, D.A.; Krishnan, E.R.; Tafuri, A.N.; Chen, C.T.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has tentatively classified MTBE as a possible human carcinogen, thus further emphasizing the importance for study of fate, transport, and environmental effects of MTBE. The treatment of subsurface contaminants (e.g., MTBE) from leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites presents many complex challenges. Many techniques have been employed for the remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater at LUST sites. Under sponsorship of US EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, IT Corporation has conducted evaluations of chemical oxidation of MTBE contaminated soil using Fenton's Reagent (hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous sulfate), simulating both ex-situ and in-situ soil remediation. Bench-scale ex-situ tests have shown up to 90% degradation of MTBE within 12 hours. Pilot-scale MTBE oxidation tests were conducted in a stainless paddle-type mixer with a 10 cubic foot mixing volume. The reactor was designed with a heavy duty mixer shaft assembly to homogenize soil and included provisions for contaminant and reagent addition, mixing, and sample acquisition. The tests were performed by placing 400 pounds of a synthetic soil matrix (consisting of a mixture of top soil, sand, gravel and clay) in the reactor, spiking with 20 ppm of MTBE, and mixing thoroughly. The variables evaluated in the pilot-scale tests included reaction time, amount of hydrogen peroxide, and amount of ferrous sulfate. After 8 hours of reaction, using 4 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide and a 10:1 hydrogen peroxide: ferrous iron weight ratio, approximately 60% MTBE degradation was observed. When 10 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide was used (with the same ratio of hydrogen peroxide to ferrous iron), 90% MTBE degradation was observed. When the same test was performed without any ferrous iron addition, 75% MTBE degradation was observed.

  6. Detections of MTBE in surficial and bedrock aquifers in New England

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grady, S.J. [Geological Survey, Hartford, CT (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was detected in 24% of water samples collected from surficial and bedrock aquifers in areas of New England. MTBE was the most frequently detected volatile organic compound among the 60 volatile chemicals analyzed and was present in 33 of 133 wells sampled from July 1993 through September 1995. The median MTBE concentration measured in ground-water samples was 0.45 microgram per liter and concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 5.8 microgram per liter. The network of wells sampled for MTBE consisted of 103 monitoring wells screened in surficial sand-and-gravel aquifers and 30 domestic-supply wells in fractured crystalline bedrock aquifers. Seventy-seven percent of all MTBE detections were from 26 shallow monitoring wells screened in surficial aquifers. MTBE was detected in42% of monitoring wells in urban areas. In agricultural areas, MTBE was detected i 8% (2 of 24) of wells and was not detected in undeveloped areas. Sixty-two percent of the MTBE detections in surficial aquifers were from wells within 0.25 mile of gasoline stations or underground gasoline storage tanks; all but one of these wells were in Connecticut and Massachusetts, where reformulated gasoline is used. MTBE was detected in 23% of deep domestic-supply wells that tapped fractured bedrock aquifers. MTBE was detected in bedrock wells only in Connecticut and Massachusetts; land use near the wells was suburban to rural, and none of the sampled bedrock wells were within 0.25 mile of a gasoline station.

  7. Gas Separation Membrane Use in the Refinery and Petrochemical Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vari, J.

    Membranes have gained commercial acceptance as proven methods to recover valuable gases from waste gas streams. This paper explores ways in which gas separation membranes are used in the refinery and petrochemical industries to recover and purify...

  8. Integration of Industrial Scale Processes using Biomass Feedstock in the Petrochemical Complex ofBiomass Feedstock in the Petrochemical Complex of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Integration of Industrial Scale Processes using Biomass Feedstock in the Petrochemical Complex ofBiomass Feedstock in the Petrochemical Complex of the Lower Mississippi River Corridor Debalina Sengupta1, Ralph W

  9. A near infrared regression model for octane measurements in gasolines which contain MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggard, S.M. (Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has emerged as a superior technique for the on-line determination of octane during the blending of gasoline. This results from the numerous advantages that NIR spectroscopy has over conventional on-line instrumentation. Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently the oxygenated blending component of choice. MTBE is advantageous because it has a high blending octane, a low Reid vapor pressure, is relatively cheap, and does not form peroxides (1). The goal of this project was to develop a NIR regression model that could be used to predict pump octanes regardless of whether they contained MTBE.

  10. New processes to recovery methanol and remove oxygenates from Valero MTBE unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillen, P.; Clemmons, J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The refiner today has to evaluate every available option to increase octane in the gasoline pool to make up for the loss in octane created by lead phase down. Production of MTBE is one of the most attractive options. MTBE is produced by selectivity reacting isobutylene with methanol. Valero Refining's refinery at Corpus Christie, Texas (formerly Saber Refining) is one of the most modern refineries built in the last decade to upgrade resids. As part of the gasoline upgrading Valero had built a Butamer Unit to convert normal butane to isobutane upstream of their HF Alkylation Unit. In 1984 as an ongoing optimization of its operations, Valero Refining evaluated various processes to enable it to increase the octane output, and decided to build an MTBE unit. Valero selected the MTBE process licensed by Arco Technology, Inc. and contracted with Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Houston, Texas to provide detailed engineering and procurement services.

  11. Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corsi, Dr. Richard [University of Texas, Austin; Morandi, Dr. Maria [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston; Siegel, Dr. Jeffrey [University of Texas, Austin; Hun, Diana E [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attached garages have been identified as important sources of indoor residential air pollution. However, the literature lacks information on how the proximity of cars to the living area affects indoor concentrations of gasoline-related compounds, and the origin of these pollutants. We analyzed data from the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study and evaluated 114 residences with cars in an attached garage, detached garage or carport, or without cars. Results indicate that homes with cars in attached garages were affected the most. Concentrations in homes with cars in detached garages and residences without cars were similar. The contribution from gasoline-related sources to indoor benzene and MTBE concentrations appeared to be dominated by car exhaust, or a combination of tailpipe and gasoline vapor emissions. Residing in a home with an attached garage could lead to benzene exposures ten times higher than exposures from commuting in heavy traffic.

  12. Traitement biologique in situ au sein d'un aquifre de polluants de type ETBE et MTBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Traitement biologique in situ au sein d'un aquifère de polluants de type ETBE et MTBE Yves Benoit Villeurbanne (6) CNRS, UMR5557, Ecologie Microbienne ­ 69100 Villeurbanne Résumé Le MtBE et l' EtBE sont des : Traçabilité, Innocuité, Efficacité: Application aux polluants pétroliers type MTBE, ETBE), financé par le pôle

  13. CO{sub 2} Reuse in Petrochemical Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Trembly; Brian Turk; Maruthi Pavani; Jon McCarty; Chris Boggs; Aqil Jamal; Raghubir Gupta

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To address public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from power plant and industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE/NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focused on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse to support the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} into valuable chemicals and fuels. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing an innovative beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse process for converting CO{sub 2} into substitute natural gas (SNG) by using by-product hydrogen (H{sub 2)-containing fuel gas from petrochemical facilities. This process leveraged commercial reactor technology currently used in fluid catalytic crackers in petroleum refining and a novel nickel (Ni)-based catalyst developed by RTI. The goal was to generate an SNG product that meets the pipeline specifications for natural gas, making the SNG product completely compatible with the existing natural gas infrastructure. RTI's technology development efforts focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of this novel CO{sub 2} reuse process and obtaining the necessary engineering information to design a pilot demonstration unit for converting about 4 tons per day (tons/day) of CO{sub 2} into SNG at a suitable host site. This final report describes the results of the Phase I catalyst and process development efforts. The methanation activity of several commercial fixed-bed catalysts was evaluated under fluidized-bed conditions in a bench-scale reactor to identify catalyst performance targets. RTI developed two fluidizable Ni-based catalyst formulations (Cat-1 and Cat-3) that demonstrated equal or better performance than that of commercial methanation catalysts. The Cat-1 and Cat-3 formulations were successfully scaled up using commercial manufacturing equipment at the Sud-Chemie Inc. pilot-plant facility in Louisville, KY. Pilot transport reactor testing with RTI's Cat-1 formulation at Kellog Brown & Root's Technology Center demonstrated the ability of the process to achieve high single-pass CO{sub 2} conversion. Using information acquired from bench- and pilot-scale testing, a basic engineering design package was prepared for a 4-ton/day CO{sub 2} pilot demonstration unit, including process and instrumentation diagrams, equipment list, control philosophy, and preliminary cost estimate.

  14. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly used today, the one used most commonly is MTBE. To meet the oxygen requirements of the CAA Amendments, gasoline

  15. Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis of their pyrolyses by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, Thomas Hellman

    Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis 1999; accepted 20 July 1999 Abstract The pyrolysis products of neutral methyl-d3 t-butyl ether (MTBE-d3 from thermal cracking patterns. MTBE and TOME both exhibit base peaks at m/z 73 (which shifts to m/z 76

  16. Biodegradation of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) using a granular activated carbon trickling filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Converse, B.M.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot scale trickling filter was constructed using granular activated carbon (GAC) as the packing medium and inoculated with a microbial culture known to degrade MTBE. The packing dimensions were 0.076 m in diameter and 0.22 m deep. The unit operated with recycling flow for two months before a biofilm was observed on the GAC. After two additional months the biofilm had visibly spread throughout the packing. A few pieces of GAC were placed in a sealed bottle with MTBE-contaminated water and nutrients. Headspace analysis performed over 14 days confirmed that MTBE degradation was occurring. The trickling filter was converted to continuous flow and operated for one month at a nominal flow rate of 0.1 L/min and a hydraulic loading rate of 32 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-d. Samples were collected for analysis at the spray nozzle and at the bottom of the trickling filter. Fractional removal varied with influent MTBE concentration, temperature and liquid flow rate. Percent MTBE removal was as high as 85%. A mechanical failure resulted in the trickling filter bed drying and percent removal dropping to less than 1 percent. However, the system recovered within five days.

  17. Relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzawa, Takumi; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kashiwabara, Kimito [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujisawa, Norihiro; Matsubara, Michiro

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between MBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100 C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio ({lambda}) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated. The results indicate that the new DI worsen when heavy reformate containing large amounts of aromatics or MTBE, an oxygen-containing compound, is used for the octane improver, leaving the balance of the volatility out of consideration.

  18. Acute toxicity of methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BenKinney, M.T.; Barbieri, J.F.; Gross, J.S.; Naro, P.A. [Stonybrook Labs. Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the recent amendment of the Clean Air Act, oxygenates are now being added to gasolines to boost octane and reduce air pollution from combustion in heavily populated areas. Oxygenates such as alcohols (i.e. methanol) and ethers (methyl-tertiary-butyl ether, MTBE) are commonly being used. A series of bioassay studies have been conducted with MTBE, one of the most commonly used octane-enhancing additives. Freshwater and marine studies were conducted with fish, invertebrates and algae to determine the impact of this material on the environment following accidental spills. Static-renewal studies were run to ensure maintenance of MTBE, a highly volatile material in the test containers. Chemical confirmation of exposure concentrations demonstrated the adequacy of the exposure system. Mysid shrimp were highly sensitive to MTBE, with significantly less effect observed with the other species evaluated. These data have implications for spill response, particularly since MTBE is slow to biodegrade and will rapidly move through groundwater. Comparative data for other oxygenates will also be discussed.

  19. An Energy Awareness Program at the Plant Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korich, R. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy awareness program was conceived and developed locally at the Union Carbide Seadrift, Texas petrochemical plant. It is a multi-element, sophisticated program to vigorously create and sustain energy awareness in the plant. It was designed...

  20. An Energy Awareness Program at the Plant Level 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korich, R. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy awareness program was conceived and developed locally at the Union Carbide Seadrift, Texas petrochemical plant. It is a multi-element, sophisticated program to vigorously create and sustain energy awareness in the plant. It was designed...

  1. Proceedings of the National Groundwater National Ground Water Association Southwest focused ground water conference: Discussing the issue of MTBE and perchlorate in the ground water, Anaheim, CA, June 3-4, pp:87-90.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ground water conference: Discussing the issue of MTBE and perchlorate in the ground water, Anaheim, CA

  2. Removal of MTBE and other organic contaminants from water by sorption to high silica zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, M.A.

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Select zeolites with high SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios were shown to effectively remove methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. In laboratory studies using batch sorption equilibria, high Si large-port mordenite and ZSM-5 (silicalite) were found to have sorption properties for MTBE and TCE superior to activated carbon. for example, at an equilibrium solution concentration of 100 {micro}g/L, high Si mordenite retained 8--12x more MTBE than either of two powdered activated carbons used as reference sorbents. Sorption results also highlight the importance of pore size and SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ration on contaminant removal efficiencies by zeolites.

  3. Aerobic mineralization of MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol by stream-bed sediment microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H. [Geological Survey, Columbia, SC (United States)] [Geological Survey, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline-contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-{sup 14}C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-{sup 14}C]-TBA were degraded to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.

  4. Advanced Petrochemical Process Heating with the Pyrocore Burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krill, W. V.; Minden, A. C.; Donaldson, L. W. Jr.

    natural gas or refinery process gas and designed to take full advantage of the Pyrocore burner's radiant heat transfer characteristics. This will result in a process heater with design and performance attributes that will be attractive to users...ADVANCED PETROCHEMICAL PROCESS HEATING WITH THE PYROCORE BURNER WAYNE V. KRILL ANDREW C. MINDEN LESLIE W. DONALDSON, JR. Vice President Project Engineer Manager, Process Systems Research Alzeta Corporation Alzeta Corporation Gas Research...

  5. Manipulation of the HIF–Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonventre, Josephine A., E-mail: josephine.bonventre@oregonstate.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 1011 Agricultural and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kung, Tiffany S., E-mail: tiffany.kung@rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); White, Lori A., E-mail: lawhite@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Cooper, Keith R., E-mail: cooper@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.00625–5 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIF–Vegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von Hippel–Lindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIF–Vegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: • Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. • Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • Inhibiting PHD or knocking down VHL rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • HIF1-Vegf driven angiogenesis is a target for MTBE vascular toxicity.

  6. Effects of temperature and acidic pre-treatment on Fenton-driven oxidation of MTBE-spent granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kan, E.; Huling, S.G. [Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center, Ada, OK (United States)

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of temperature and acidic pretreatment on Fenton-driven chemical oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC, derived from bituminous coal) were investigated. Limiting factors in MTBE removal in GAC include the heterogeneous distribution of amended Fe, and slow intraparticle diffusive transport of MTBE and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) into the 'reactive zone'. Acid pretreatment of GAC before Fe amendment altered the surface chemistry of the GAC, lowered the pH point of zero charge, and resulted in greater penetration and more uniform distribution of Fe in GAC. This led to a condition where Fe, MTBE, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} coexisted over a larger volume of the GAC contributing to greater MTBE oxidation and removal. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction and MTBE removal in GAC increased with temperature. Modeling H{sub 2}O{sub 2} transport and reaction in GAC indicated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} penetration was inversely proportional with temperature and tortuosity, and occurred over a larger fraction of the total volume of small GAC particles (0.3 mm diameter) relative to large particles (1.2 mm diameter). Acidic pretreatment of GAC, Fe-amendment, elevated reaction temperature, and use of small GAC particles are operational parameters that improve Fenton-driven oxidation of MTBE in GAC. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. An Attempt To Use Aerial Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Results In Petrochemic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Results In Petrochemical Assessments Of The Volcanic And Plutonic Associations Of Central Anatolia (Turkey) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  8. Iron optimization for Fenton-driven oxidation of MTBE-spent granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott G. Huling; Patrick K. Jones; Tony R. Lee [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, OK (United States). Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fenton-driven chemical oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) was accomplished through the addition of iron (Fe) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) (15.9 g/L; pH 3). The GAC used was URV, a bituminous-coal based carbon. The Fe concentration in GAC was incrementally varied (1020-25 660 mg/kg) by the addition of increasing concentrations of Fe solution (FeSO4{center_dot}7H{sub 2}O). MTBE degradation in Fe-amended GAC increased by an order of magnitude over Fe-unamended GAC and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction was predominantly (99%) attributed to GAC-bound Fe within the porous structure of the GAC. Imaging and microanalysis of GAC particles indicated limited penetration of Fe into GAC. The optimal Fe concentration was 6710 mg/kg (1020 mg/kg background; 5690 mg/kg amended Fe) and resulted in the greatest MTBE removal and maximum Fe loading oxidation efficiency (MTBE oxidized (g)/Fe loaded to GAC(mg/Kg)). At lower Fe concentrations, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction was Fe limited. At higher Fe concentrations, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction was not entirely Fe limited, and reductions in GAC surface area, GAC pore volume, MTBE adsorption, and Fe loading oxidation efficiency were measured. Results are consistent with nonuniform distribution of Fe, pore blockage in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} transport, unavailable Fe, and limitations in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} diffusive transport, and emphasize the importance of optimal Fe loading. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) plumes in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Happel, A.M.; Rice, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Beckenbach, E. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Savalin, L.; Temko, H.; Rempel, R. [California State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento, CA (United States); Dooher, B. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandate the addition of oxygenates to gasoline products to abate air pollution. Currently, many areas of the country utilize oxygenated or reformulated fuel containing 15- percent and I I-percent MTBE by volume, respectively. This increased use of MTBE in gasoline products has resulted in accidental point source releases of MTBE containing gasoline products to ground water. Recent studies have shown MTBE to be frequently detected in samples of shallow ground water from urban areas throughout the United States (Squillace et al., 1995). Knowledge of the subsurface fate and transport of MTBE in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites and the spatial extent of MTBE plumes is needed to address these releases. The goal of this research is to utilize data from a large number of LUFT sites to gain insights into the fate, transport, and spatial extent of MTBE plumes. Specific goals include defining the spatial configuration of dissolved MTBE plumes, evaluating plume stability or degradation over time, evaluating the impact of point source releases of MTBE to ground water, and attempting to identify the controlling factors influencing the magnitude and extent of the MTBE plumes. We are examining the relationships between dissolved TPH, BTEX, and MTBE plumes at LUFT sites using parallel approaches of best professional judgment and a computer-aided plume model fitting procedure to determine plume parameters. Here we present our initial results comparing dissolved benzene and MTBE plumes lengths, the statistical significance of these results, and configuration of benzene and MTBE plumes at individual LUFT sites.

  10. Location of MTBE and toluene in the channel system of the zeolite mordenite: Adsorption and host-guest interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arletti, Rossella, E-mail: rossella.arletti@unito.it [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Torino Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125, Torino (Italy)] [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Torino Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125, Torino (Italy); Martucci, Annalisa; Alberti, Alberto [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44100, Ferrara (Italy)] [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44100, Ferrara (Italy); Pasti, Luisa; Nassi, Marianna [Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 26, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 26, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Bagatin, Roberto [Research Centre for Non-Conventional Energy-Istituto ENI Donegani, Environmental Technologies, Via Fauser 4, I-28100 Novara (Italy)] [Research Centre for Non-Conventional Energy-Istituto ENI Donegani, Environmental Technologies, Via Fauser 4, I-28100 Novara (Italy)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports a study of the location of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) and toluene molecules adsorbed in the pores of the organophylic zeolite mordenite from an aqueous solution. The presence of these organic molecules in the zeolite channels was revealed by structure refinement performed by the Rietveld method. About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the cavities of mordenite, representing 75% and 80% of the total absorption capacity of this zeolite. In both cases a water molecule was localized inside the side pocket of mordenite. The saturation capacity determined by the adsorption isotherms, obtained by batch experiments, and the weight loss given by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses were in very good agreement with these values. The interatomic distances obtained after the structural refinements suggest MTBE could be connected to the framework through a water molecule, while toluene could be bonded to framework oxygen atoms. The rapid and high adsorption of these hydrocarbons into the organophylic mordenite zeolite makes this cheap and environmental friendly material a suitable candidate for the removal of these pollutants from water. - graphical abstract: Location of MTBE (a) and toluene (b) in mordenite channels (projection along the [001] direction). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the MTBE and toluene adsorption process into an organophilic zeolite mordenite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of MTBE and toluene in mordenite was determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the zeolite cavities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MTBE is connected to the framework through a water molecule. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toluene is directly bonded to framework oxygen atoms.

  11. Interdisciplinary investigation of subsurface contaminant transport and fate at point-source releases of gasoline containing MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buxton, H.T.; Baehr, A.L. [Geological Survey, West Trenton, NJ (United States); Landmeyer, J.E. [Geological Survey, Columbia, SC (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly found at concentrations above the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency draft lifetime health advisory for drinking water (20 to 200 micrograms per liter) at many point-source gasoline release sites. MTBE is significantly more persistent than benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes (BTEX) in the subsurface. Therefore, evaluation of the implications of its presence in gasoline to monitored natural attenuation and engineered bioremediation alternatives is warranted. An interdisciplinary, field-based investigation of the subsurface transport and fate of MTBE and petroleum hydrocarbons is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Toxic Substances Hydrology Program at the site of an underground gasoline storage-tank release near Beaufort, South Carolina. The objective of the investigation is to provide a systematic evaluation of natural attenuation of MTBE compared to BTEX. Results of the field and laboratory studies at this site will be generalized to a broader range of hydrogeochemical conditions through experiments at other sites. Furthermore, newly developed methods of analysis can be applied to sites across the Nation. This investigation of MTBE at point-source release sites is coordinated with investigations of the occurrence of MTBE in shallow ground water, surface water, precipitation, and the atmosphere being conducted by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program.

  12. Review of potential technologies for the treatment of Methyl tertiary butyl Ether (MtBE) in drinking water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A.; Browne, T.E. [Komex H2O Science, Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Devinny, J.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At present, the state of knowledge on effective treatment technologies for MtBE in drinking water, and groundwater in general, is limited. Research by others is focusing on the remediation of MtBE close to the point of release. The City of Santa Monica, MWD, Komex and USC are currently conducting research into different technologies that could be used to remove MtBE from drinking water supplies. The objectives of the research are to evaluate different treatment technologies to identify cost-effective and technically feasible alternatives for the removal of MtBE from drinking water. The evaluation is considering moderate to high water flow rates (100 to 2,000+ gpm) and low to moderate MtBE concentrations (<2,000 {mu}g/l). The research program includes four phases: (1) Literature Review; (2) Bench Scale Study; (3) Field Scale Pre-pilot Study; and (4) Summary Evaluation. This paper presents some preliminary information and findings from the first phase of this research - the literature review. The review discusses the chemical properties of MtBE and how they affect remediation and thus, an evaluation of alternative treatment technologies. The review of available literature, and the applicability and limitations of the following technologies are presented in detail.

  13. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

  14. Gas phase synthesis of MTBE from methanol and isobutene over dealuminated zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collignon, F.; Mariani, M.; Moreno, S.; Remy, M.; Poncelet, G. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)] [Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas phase synthesis of MTBE from methanol and isobutene has been investigated over different zeolites. It is shown that bulk Si/Al ratio has a marked influence on the formation of MTBE. H-beta zeolite was found to be as active as acid Amberlyst-15 (reference catalyst), and noticeably superior to non- and dealuminated forms of H-Y, H-ZSM-5, zeolite omega, and H-mordenites. Screening test results obtained over other catalysts (SAPOs and pillared clays) are briefly commented. The contribution of the external surface of the zeolites to the reaction is discussed. In the case of H-Y zeolites, it is shown that extra framework Al species ({sup 27}Al NMR signal at 30 ppm) have a detrimental effect on the reaction. 64 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Gas phase synthesis of MTBE on triflic-acid-modified zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolopoulos, A.A.; Kogelbauer, A.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); and others

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas phase synthesis of MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) was studied using three series of triflic acid (TFA)-modified zeolites, the parent materials being HY, H-mordenite, and HZSM-5. Impregnation with TFA was found to enhance MTBE synthesis activity only for the large-pore zeolite Y and only up to a certain extent of modification. A high level of TFA modification caused a reduction in activity, apparently due to blockage of the active sites by TFA molecules and extra-lattice Al formed during the modification process. The mechanism of activity enhancement by TFA modification appears to be related to the formation of extra-lattice Al rather than the direct presence of TFA. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Rates and products of degradation for MTBE and other oxygenate fuel additives in the subsurface environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tratnyek, P.G.; Church, C.D.; Pankow, J.F. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent realization that oxygenated fuel additives such as MTBE are becoming widely distributed groundwater contaminants has created a sudden and pressing demand for data on the processes that control their environmental fate. Explaining and predicting the subsequent environmental fate of these compounds is going to require extrapolations over long time frames that will be very sensitive to the quality of input data on each compound. To provide such data, they have initiated a systematic study of the pathways and kinetics of fuel oxygenate degradation under subsurface conditions. Batch experiments in simplified model systems are being performed to isolate specific processes that may contribute to MTBE degradation. A variety of degradation pathways can be envisioned that lead to t-butyl alcohol (TBA) as the primary or secondary product. However, experiments to date with a facultative iron reducing bacteria showed no evidence for TBA formation. Continuing experiments include mixed cultures from a range of aquifer materials representative of NAWQA study sites.

  17. Two US markets, or one? How the MTBE-gasoline relationship is evolving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This issue of Energy Detente features the price sensitivity of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether. Data is presented for US wholesale gasoline prices vs. MTBE for the 20-month period beginning in June 1994 and ending in January 1996, and the data is discussed. Also contained in this issue is the refining netback data and the fuel price/tax data for the period ending January 5, 1996.

  18. Remediation of a fractured clay soil contaminated with gasoline containing MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.L.; Grady, D.E. [Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR (United States); Walden, T. [BP Oil Europe, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline and other light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) released into fractured clay soils initially move by advection of the LNAPL through the fractures. Once advective movement of the LNAPL ceases, dissolution of the gasoline components into the pore water and diffusion into the intact blocks of clay becomes an important transport process. The aqueous-phase flux of each compound in the mixture depends in large part upon its aqueous solubility. For example, a low-solubility compound like isooctane remains primarily in the fracture in the LNAPL. A high-solubility compound, like methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), dissolves readily and may move almost entirely into the clay matrix. The distribution of compounds between the matrix and the fractures will have an important impact on the rate at which the gasoline contaminated soil can be remediated. In this context, the presence of soluble additives like MTBE can significantly impact the risk and remediation time for the, soil. Beginning in 1993 a field study to examine the applicability of air flushing for remediation of low-permeability soils was sponsored by API. The study focused on a variety of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and in situ air sparging (IAS) approaches for mass removal and risk reduction. The source of gasoline contamination in this study was a release of 50 liters of a mixture containing 14 gasoline hydrocarbons ranging from pentane to naphthalene, and including MTBE. The mixture was released into the shallow subsurface and allowed to redistribute for 10 months prior to air flushing startup. Numerical modeling indicated that essentially all of the MTBE should have dissolved into the matrix. In contrast, essentially all of the isooctane should have remained in the LNAPL in the fractures.

  19. Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MtBE) contamination of the City of Santa Monica drinking water supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A.; Farrow, J.R.C. [Komex H2O Science, Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Rodriguez, R.A. [City of Santa Monica, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the summer of 1996, the City of Santa Monica ceased pumping groundwater from two Well Fields (Charnock and Arcadia) used for public drinking water supply due to persistent and increasing concentrations of MtBE in all seven municipal water supply wells. This lost production accounted for 50% of the City`s total drinking water supply. In late 1996, the City, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, initiated an investigation of MtBE contamination at the two well fields. The objectives of the investigation were as follows: (1) Review available data on the production, use, chemical characteristics, fate and transport, toxicology, and remediation of MtBE; (2) Identify locations of potential sources of MtBE groundwater contamination at the well fields; (3) Develop an understanding of the hydrologic pathways from the potential sources to the drinking water wells; and (4) Evaluate alternative treatment technologies for the removal of MtBE from drinking water. In addition to a review of available information about MtBE, the investigation included an extensive review of literature and available data relevant to the well fields, including well field production histories, site and regional hydrogeology, all well logs and production in the groundwater basins, general groundwater quality, and the record of MtBE detection. Based upon the review of background information, conceptual hydrogeologic models were developed. A detailed review of agency files for over 45 potential source sites was conducted. The information from this review was summarized, and source site screening and ranking criteria were developed. A field program was conducted at the major well field (Charnock), including soil gas surveys, CPTs, soil borings and well installations, geophysics, and aquifer testing. The field program provided site data which allowed the conceptual hydrogeologic model to be refitted to actual site conditions.

  20. HYDROCARBONS FROM PLANTS: ANALYTICAL METHODS AND OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvin, Melvin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    commercially by the petrochemical industry, plus manyfor materials for the petrochemical industry,· The methanol

  1. High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)); Westbrook, C.K. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added in amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures in shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenius parameters of E{sub a}{approximately}40 kcal/mol and log (A){approximately} 9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified.

  2. High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added to amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures to shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenium parameters of E{sub a}{sup {minus}}40 kcal/mol and log(A) {sup {minus}}9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added in amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures in shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenius parameters of E{sub a}{approximately}40 kcal/mol and log (A){approximately} 9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified.

  4. High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)); Westbrook, C.K. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added to amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures to shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenium parameters of E{sub a}{sup {minus}}40 kcal/mol and log(A) {sup {minus}}9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. A screening model for evaluating the degradation and transport of MTBE and other fuel oxygenates in the subsurface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Y; Lu, X

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has received high attention as it contributed to cleaner air and contaminated thousands of underground storage tank sites. Because MTBE is very water soluble, it is more difficult to remove from water by conventional remediation techniques. Therefore, biodegradation of MTBE has become a remediation alternative. In order to understand the transport and transformation processes, they present a closed form solution as a screening tool in this paper. The possible reaction pathways of first-order reactions are described as a reaction matrix. The singular value decomposition is conducted analytically to decouple the partial differential equations of the multi-species transport system coupled by the reaction matrix into multiple independent subsystems. Therefore, the complexity of mathematical description for the reactive transport system is significantly reduced and analytical solutions may be previously available or easily derived.

  6. Fast photoreactions of ethanol and MTBE on tropospheric metal oxide particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idriss, H.; Seebauer, E.G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol (EtOH) and tert-Butyl methyl ether (MTBE) are both finding increased use as oxygenated additives to fuels. However, the environmental fate in the troposphere of these species is unclear when they escape as fugitive emissions. In several locations there are reports of human illness in response to MTBE in particular. Volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) such as these are generally thought to react by a variety of homogeneous free-radical mechanisms, usually beginning with attack by OH radical. However, we show by laboratory kinetic studies that the heterogeneous photoreaction on solid suspended metal-oxide particulates such as fly ash proceeds with a comparable rate, especially in urban environments. EtOH reacts to form acetaldehyde, and EtOH forms isobutene, methanol, and formaldehyde. Our work appears to be the first-ever demonstration that VOC`s can react as fast by a heterogeneous mechanism as by a homogeneous one in the atmosphere. Experiments by various optical and kinetic techniques show that the active phases in fly ash are Fe oxides, which are fairly abundant in other atmospheric particulates as well.

  7. Intrinsic bioremediation of a BTEX and MTBE plume under mixed aerobic/denitrifying conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borden, R.C.; Daniel, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Civil Engineering Dept.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A shallow Coastal Plain aquifer in rural Sampson Country, North Carolina, has been contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon from a leaking underground storage tank containing gasoline.An extensive field characterization has been performed to define the horizontal and vertical distribution of soluble gasoline components and indicator parameters. A plume of dissolved methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers (BTEX) is present in the aquifer and has migrated over 600 ft from the source area. Background dissolved oxygen concentrations range from 7 to 8 mg/L, and nitrate concentrations range from 5 to 22 mg/L as N due to extensive fertilization of fields surrounding the spill. In the center of the BTEX plume, oxygen concentrations decline to less than 1 mg/L while nitrate concentrations remain high. The total mass flux of MTBE and all BTEX components decline with distance downgradient relative to a conservative tracer (chloride). At the source, the total BTEX concentration exceeds 75 mg/L while 130 ft downgradient, total BTEX concentrations are less than 4.9 mg/L, a 15-fold reduction. Toluene and ethylbenzene decline most rapidly followed by m-p-xylene, o-xylene and finally benzene. Biodegradation of TEX appears to be enhanced by the excess nitrate present in the aquifer while benzene biodegradation appears to be due to strictly aerobic processes.

  8. Heterogeneous models of tubular reactors packed with ion-exchange resins: Simulation of the MTBE synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinta Ferreira, R.M.; Almeida-Costa, C.A. [Univ. of Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Rodrigues, A.E. [Univ. of Porto (Portugal). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of behavior of fixed-bed reactors using ion-exchange resins as catalysts was carried out by making use of a complete bidimensional heterogeneous model for the reactor, which included the resistances inside the ion-exchange resin particles, considered with a macroreticular structure. The active sites were located inside the gel phase of the resin, represented by microspheres, and on the macropores walls. The overall efficiency of such heterogeneous catalyst particles was defined by the macroeffectiveness and microeffectiveness factors accounting for the process behavior on the macropores and inside the microspheres. The synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE, a liquid-phase reversible exothermic reaction between methanol and isobutene, was considered as a reference case. This system was studied in the temperature range of 313--338 K, and the effect of the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions was examined. The results predicted by the complete heterogeneous model were compared with those obtained with the simple pseudohomogeneous model, which revealed higher hot spots. Moreover, a comparison between bidimensional and unidimensional models was also performed. The orthogonal collocation method was used for the discretization of the differential equations inside the catalyst particles, which were reduced from three (corresponding to the three mass balances for the three compounds, isobutene, methanol, and MTBE) to only one differential equation, by using the concept of the generalized variable.

  9. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, A.B.; Pleil, J.D. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers` exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented `valveless` cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects` breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 155 {mu}g for the refueling subject while it was only 30 {mu}g for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. VOL. 32, No.4 UNL WATER CENTER AUGUST 2000 New Method For Detecting Trace Amounts of MTBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of MTBE and Ethanol at Heart ofUNL Contamination Research with ethanol, which also reduces harmful vehicle "Although ethanol is the same alcohol consumed in contaminate the water we drink. But they can be diffi have cern that ethanol could negatively impact the ability of developed a method for detecting minute

  11. Plantwide Energy Management for Hydrocarbon and Petrochemical Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, A.; Clinkscales, T.

    of electric or mechanical power,. As a result, the transformation and utilization of energy requires a critical balance of plantwide steam and power. The balance of power production with actual plant requirements depends largely upon the production rate... the utility services of the entire plant from fuel to electricity, and interfaces to the process plant and the related production schedule thru the balance of power and steam. The advantage of plantwide EMS is that energy savings are . maximized...

  12. Oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) by ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitner, N.K.V.; Papailhou, A.L.; Croue, J.P.; Dore, M. (Univ. de Poitiers (France)); Peyrot, J. (British Petroleum, Harfleur (France))

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work was to study the reaction of ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide on oxygenated additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) in dilute aqueous solution using controlled experimental conditions. Experiments conducted in a semi-continuous reactor with MTBE and ETBE in combination (initial concentration: 2 mmol/L of each) showed that ETBE was better eliminated than MTBE with both ozone and combined O[sub 3]/H[sub 2]O[sub 2]. batch experiments led to the determination of the ratio of the kinetic constants for the reaction of OH[degree]-radical with MTBE and ETBE (k[sub OH[degree]/ETBE]/k[sub OH[degree]//MTBE] = 1.7). Tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl acetate were identified as the ozonation byproducts of MTBE an ETBE, respectively, while tert-butyl alcohol was found to be produced during the ozonation of both compounds. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Petrochemical industry in the Middle East: current status, uncertainties, global impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The situation and perspective of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, IR Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, the UAE, SP Libyan AJ, Algeria, and Egypt are reviewed. Special attention is given to the budgetary constraints, foreign partners, the costs, the markets, and the impact of falling oil prices.

  14. Analysis of Effects on Port Operations from March 22 Incident in Houston Ship Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................................................................................ 6 Effect on Refineries and Petrochemical Plants

  15. Measurement and Treatment of Nuisance Odors at Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Samantha Margaret

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the presence of MTBE, ETBE and TAME. Chemosphere 85, 616-Xanthomonas sp. MTBE/ETBE/TAME a Acinetobacter calcoaceticusMTBE= Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, ETBE= Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether,

  16. Organic Rankine Cycles for the Petro-Chemical Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, R. K.; Colosimo, D. D.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and economically convert this type of heat flow into useful power. The system under development by MTI is one based on a conventional fluorocarbon refrigerant to generate a nominal 1000 kW from typical liquid and vapor streams in the process plant. The 220 F...

  17. {gamma}-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Zhang Yun [465 Hospital, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132001 (China); Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987 (United States); Luo Wenjing [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn; Chen Jingyuan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA{sub A} receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA{sub A} receptor {alpha}1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA{sub A} receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

  18. Cogeneration Design Considerations for a Major Petrochemical Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Good, R. L.

    generators. Each deaerator is a 100% spare for the other. The deaerators are piped so as to allow the needs of the cogeneration facility and the process plant to be serviced from either. The complete cogeneration facility will be monitored and controlled... TO CPL ~ _ A _/ 69 KV :::---- _ f!, r-/ ""- _ ~~ r-/ TO CPL SUBSTf\\ T I ON..-----.o ~ 0 ? 0 ~ O~ "'V 0 V-LJ--\\.J 0----------. SUBST AT ION TR--113J\\ AS 113A 6,? 6, . / AS 1138 45/60/67.2 MVA 45/60/67.2 MVA TR-1138 5S 113813.8 KV 13.8 KV Ij\\ 6 U if...

  19. Computer-Aided Design Reveals Potential of Gas Turbine Cogeneration in Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanny, M. D.; Koeroghlian, M. M.; Baker, W. J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas turbine cogeneration cycles provide a simple and economical solution to the problems created by rising fuel and electricity costs. These cycles can be designed to accommodate a wide range of electrical, steam, and process heating demands...

  20. Computer-Aided Design Reveals Potential of Gas Turbine Cogeneration in Chemical and Petrochemical Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanny, M. D.; Koeroghlian, M. M.; Baker, W. J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas turbine cogeneration cycles provide a simple and economical solution to the problems created by rising fuel and electricity costs. These cycles can be designed to accommodate a wide range of electrical, steam, and process heating demands...

  1. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  2. Health risks associated with exposure to gasoline additives-methyl tertiary butyl ether [MTBE]. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, Special Hearing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This hearing focuses on an Alaskan study by the Centers for Disease Control which examines possible health risks associated with exposure to gasoline additive know as MTBE. Testimony is given by Dr. William Roper, Director, CDC.

  3. The effect of mean cell residence time on the adsorbability of dissolved organic compounds found in petrochemical wastewaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Timothy Loring

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , each with a different mean cell residence time, biologically treated the waste- water. Follow1ng biolog1cal treatment, the wastewater was subjected to activated carbon adsorption treatment. The Freundlich isotherm, non-adsorbable organic compound... residence time on adsorbability is the same for petrochemical wastewater as it is for municipal wastewater. The purpose of this thesis is to determine if the mean cell residence time in a biological treatment process can af'feet the ad- sorbability...

  4. Lyondell develops one step isobutylene process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Houston, has developed a one step process to convert normal butylenes to isobutylene, a key component of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is expected to become the additive of choice among U.S. refiners to blend oxygenated gasolines required by 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Lyondell Pres. and Chief Executive Officer Bob Gower the the new process could help assure adequate supplies of MTBE to meet U.S. demand for cleaner burning fuels. Lyondell estimates the capital cost of building a grassroots plant to produce isobutylene with the new process would be less than half the cost of a grassroot plant to produce isobutylene with existing technology starting with normal butane.

  5. Section 3: Contested Landscapes--The Ecological Structure of City Regions -- Riciprocal and Recombinant Geometries of Ecological Democracy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hester, Randolph T

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for a proposed petrochemical plant near the winteringthe impact zone of the petrochemical facil- ity. 16 This ?similarly, the pro- posed petrochemical plant and associated

  6. Of Natmats, Terrorists, and Toxics: Regulatory Adaptation in a Changing World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malloy, Timothy F.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acci- dent Theory in Petrochemical Plants and Refineries, 10present in chemical and petrochemical production. Bhopal andlosses at refineries and petrochemical plants concluded that

  7. Carbide process picked for Chinese polyethylene plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Union Carbide (Danbury, CT) is set to sign up its eighth polyethylene (PE) license in China. The company has been selected to supply its Unipol technology to Jilin Chemical Industrial Corp. (JCIC) for a 100,000-m.t./year linear low-density PE (LLDPE) plant at Jilin. The plant will form part of a $2-billion petrochemical complex, based on a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene unit awarded to a consortium made up of Samsung Engineering (Seoul) and Linde. A 10,000-m.t./year butene-1 unit will also be built. Toyo Engineering, Snamprogetti, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Linde are competing for the contract to supply the LLDPE plant. The signing is expected this spring. Two contenders are vying to supply an 80,000-m.t./year phenol plant for JCIC. They are Mitsui Engineering, offering the Mitsui Petrochemical process, and Chisso, with UOP technology. Four Unipol process PE plants are under construction in China and three are in operation. At Guangzhou, Toyo Engineering is building a 100,000-m.t./year plant, due onstream in 1995, while Snamprogetti is to finish construction of two plants in the same year at Zhonguyan (120,000 m.t./year) and at Maoming (140,000 m.t./year). The Daquing Design Institute is responsible for the engineering of a 60,000-m.t./year Unipol process PE plant, expected onstream early in 1995. Existing Unipol process PE plants are located in Qilu (60,000 m.t./year LLDPE and 120,000 m.t./year HDPE) and at Taching (60,000 m.t./year HDPE).

  8. Re-Regulating the Mexican Gulf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zalik, Anna

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PEP), Pemex Gas, Pemex Petrochemical, and Pemex Refineries (toll from the presence of petrochemical plants. Agriculturalzone constitute the largest petrochemical complex in Latin

  9. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oil/1000 t-naut. mile Diesel Heavy Oil Oil use, state oceanPetrochemical Shengli Heavy Oil Plant Guangrao PetrochemicalPetrochemical Shengli Heavy Oil Plant Guangrao Petrochemical

  10. Mobil plans methanol plant in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobil Chemical (Houston) is in discussions with Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. (NNPC; Lagos) on a joint venture methanol plant at Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The U.S. firm has invited process owners to submit proposals for a 1-million m.t./year unit and hopes to select the technology by the end of this year. Three proposals have been submitted: Lurgi, offering its own low-pressure process; John Brown/Davy, with the ICI process; and M.W. Kellogg, proposing its own technology. Shareholding in the joint venture is yet to be decided, but it is likely to be a 50/50 tie-up. Marketing of Mobil's share or of the entire tonnage would be handled by Mobil Petrochemical International (Brussels). The plant could be onstream in late 1996.

  11. P1.29 CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF A POWER-PLANT PLUME Stephen R. Springston*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of pollutant sources related to transportation, industrial petrochemical processing and power generation

  12. Power Plant Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    Basin Center for Geothermal Energy at University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) 2 Nevada Geodetic LaboratoryStillwater Power Plant Wabuska Power Plant Casa Diablo Power Plant Glass Mountain Geothermal Area Lassen Geothermal Area Coso Hot Springs Power Plants Lake City Geothermal Area Thermo Geothermal Area

  13. Petrochemical and Mineralogical Constraints on the Source and Processes of Uranium Mineralisation in the Granitoids of Zing-Monkin Area, Adamawa Massif, NE Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haruna, I. V., E-mail: vela_hi@yahoo.co.uk [Federal University of Technology, Geology Department (Nigeria); Orazulike, D. M. [Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Geology Programme (Nigeria); Ofulume, A. B. [Federal University of Technology, Geosciences Department (Nigeria); Mamman, Y. D. [Federal University of Technology, Geology Department (Nigeria)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Zing-Monkin area, located in the northern part of Adamawa Massif, is underlain by extensive exposures of moderately radioactive granodiorites, anatectic migmatites, equigranular granites, porphyritic granites and highly radioactive fine-grained granites with minor pegmatites. Selected major and trace element petrochemical investigations of the rocks show that a progression from granodiorite through migmatite to granites is characterised by depletion of MgO, CaO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} Sr, Ba, and Zr, and enrichment of SiO{sub 2} and Rb. This trend is associated with uranium enrichment and shows a chemical gradation from the more primitive granodiorite to the more evolved granites. Electron microprobe analysis shows that the uranium is content in uranothorite and in accessories, such as monazite, titanite, apatite, epidote and zircon. Based on petrochemical and mineralogical data, the more differentiated granitoids (e.g., fine-grained granite) bordering the Benue Trough are the immediate source of the uranium prospect in Bima Sandstone within the Trough. Uranium was derived from the granitoids by weathering and erosion. Transportation and subsequent interaction with organic matter within the Bima Sandstone led to precipitation of insoluble secondary uranium minerals in the Benue Trough.

  14. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    V. (2001). Optimize energy efficiency of HRSG. Hydrocarbonper Year with Energy-Efficient Motors. Copper Developmentto Promote Energy-Efficient Motor Systems in North America’s

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    V. (2001). Optimize energy efficiency of HRSG. HydrocarbonCEC (2001). 2001 Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential2002. Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), 2007. Motor

  16. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    saves $200,000 per Year with Energy-Efficient Motors. Copper2000). Emerging Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies.Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC,

  17. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. , 2000). Modern control systems are often not solelymay already have modern process control systems in place togrowing rapidly. Modern process control systems exist for

  18. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005). Design of a heat-integrated distillation column baseddesign of the various unit operations (e.g. distillation columnsdistillation column can produce significant energy savings. Reflux optimization for new column designs

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7.1 summarizes the boiler efficiency measures, while Tablerule of thumb is that boiler efficiency can be increased by2001). Boilers and Heaters, Improving Energy Efficiency.

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Baltimore by using landfill gas (methane) to co-generateIt involves using landfill gas (methane) currently being

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nath (2000). Improve Steam Turbine Efficiency. HydrocarbonOIT (2000c). New steam turbine saves chemical manufacturer $demand. Back-pressure steam turbines which may be used to

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    V. (2001). Optimize energy efficiency of HRSG. HydrocarbonACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry, ACEEE,American Council for an Energy Efficiency Economy, Berkeley,

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    site energy monitoring and management systems can increaseenergy monitoring and process control systems can play an important role in energy management

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Programme (1994). Good Practice Guide 141: Waste heatProgramme (1998). Good Practice Guide 249: Energy Savings inProgramme (1999a). Good Practice Guide 225: Industrial

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lighting and heating, ventilation and air conditioning.lighting and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (Horsepower Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning

  6. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and T. Fukushima (1992). Gas turbine integration reducesfor gas crackers. • Use of gas turbine exhaust as furnacesystems • Addition of gas turbine/electric generator. •

  7. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    manufacturing Resin, synthetic rubber, and artificialwith the resin and synthetic rubber manufacturing industry.Others 3252 Resins, synthetic rubber 3256 Soaps, cleaning

  8. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    actions, develop an energy management plan for business; andProducts for Business Description: ENERGY STAR identifiesplan. The energy conservation leader sponsors business and

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Caffal, C. (1995). Energy Management in Industry. Centre forU.S. DOE-OIT (2003a). Energy Management Program Benefits.actions, develop an energy management plan for business; and

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consumption and the Potential for Electric Energy Savings in the Manufacturing Sector. ACEEE, Washington, DC, USA.

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam expansion turbines Steam Distribution Systems andNath (2000). Improve Steam Turbine Efficiency. HydrocarbonOIT (2000c). New steam turbine saves chemical manufacturer $

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Raising Awareness Awareness of energy efficiency createdExternal Recognition Awareness of energy efficiency createdimprove the awareness of personnel with regard to energy use

  13. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat from waste incineration. Hydrocarbon Processing. 74 9,the form of steam from incineration of waste products shouldreaction and of the incineration of waste products via

  14. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Netherlands. Carrier Aeroseal (2002). Case Studies: Wests HVAC system (Carrier Aeroseal 2002). Variable-air-volume

  15. Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a Petrochemical Plant; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Save Energy Now Case Study (Brochure)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T ADRAFTJanuaryDominionDow St. Charles Operations in

  16. Plants & Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants & Animals Plants & Animals Plant and animal monitoring is performed to determine whether Laboratory operations are impacting human health via the food chain. February 2,...

  17. Identification of statistical patterns in complex systems via symbolic time series analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    , petrochemical, and networked transportation. This paper presents an information-theoretic approach, and Automation Society. #12;electric power generation plants, petrochemical plants, and networked transportation

  18. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14Biomass feedstocks

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - Sandia CREW 2013 Wind Plant Reliability...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data privacy. 2 Results at a Glance 3 2013 Benchmark 2012 Benchmark Operational Availability 97.6% 97.0% Utilization 83.0% 82.7% Capacity Factor 36.1% 36.0% MTBE (hrs) 39 36...

  20. A resilience assessment framework for infrastructure and economic systems : quantitative and qualitative resilience analysis of petrochemical supply chains to a hurricane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Vugrin, Eric D.; Warren, Drake E.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the nation has recognized that critical infrastructure protection should consider not only the prevention of disruptive events, but also the processes that infrastructure systems undergo to maintain functionality following disruptions. This more comprehensive approach has been termed critical infrastructure resilience (CIR). Given the occurrence of a particular disruptive event, the resilience of a system to that event is the system's ability to efficiently reduce both the magnitude and duration of the deviation from targeted system performance levels. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has developed a comprehensive resilience assessment framework for evaluating the resilience of infrastructure and economic systems. The framework includes a quantitative methodology that measures resilience costs that result from a disruption to infrastructure function. The framework also includes a qualitative analysis methodology that assesses system characteristics that affect resilience in order to provide insight and direction for potential improvements to resilience. This paper describes the resilience assessment framework. This paper further demonstrates the utility of the assessment framework through application to a hypothetical scenario involving the disruption of a petrochemical supply chain by a hurricane.

  1. BNL-73886-2005-IR Informal Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ., 2003]. Petrochemical plants responsible for the very high light olefin emissions contain large NOx

  2. Primitive Land Plants 37 PRIMITIVE LAND PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koptur, Suzanne

    Primitive Land Plants 37 PRIMITIVE LAND PLANTS These are the plants that were present soon after land was colonized, over 400 mil- lion years ago. A few plants living today are closely related to those ancient plants, and we often call them "living fossils". Two major lineages of plants evolved

  3. Physical Plant Power Plant - 32 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ) for producing single-node cuttings. Regardless of reapplication stages, nutrient termination on 1 Oct. caused taller plants with more nodes, more leaves, more flowering nodes, more total flowers, and fewer aborted flowers than those being terminated earlier...

  4. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity Use as an Indicator of U.S. Economic Activity1

  5. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400,Information Administration22)May 28, 1996September

  6. Plant Operational Status - Pantex Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear AstrophysicsPayroll,Physics Physics An errorPlant

  7. Enzyme Detectives Uncover New Reactions, Products

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    John Shanklin

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Brookhaven biochemist John Shanklin discusses the engineering of biofuels and plant-derived replacements for petro-chemicals.

  8. Waste Treatment Plant Overview

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    contracted Bechtel National, Inc., to design and build the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant. The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), also known as the...

  9. Genetic Engineering of Plants to Improve Phytoremediation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strand, Stuart E.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. Mechanism of halogenated hydrocarbon oxidation We are using poplar culture cells to determine the pathway of TCE metabolism. In our earlier work, we found that trichloroethanol (TCEOH) is a major early intermediate. Our studies this year have focused on the steps that follow this toxic intermediate. We did several experiments to track the disappearance of TCEOH after the cells were removed from TCE. We could conclude that TCEOH is not an end-product but is rapidly degraded. Six flasks of poplar liquid suspension cells were exposed to a level of 50 {micro}g/ml TCE for three days. Three of the cultures were subjected to MTBE extractions to quantify the levels of TCEOH produced. The cells of the remaining three cultures were then pelleted and resuspended in fresh medium. After three more days, these were also subjected to MTBE extractions. The samples were analyzed by GC-ECD. After the three days of further metabolism, an average of 91% of the trichloroethanol was gone. When similar experiments were done with intact plants and both free and conjugated TCEOH were quantified, a similar rapid decline in both forms was seen (Shang, 2001). Therefore, it seems probable that similar mechanisms are taking place in both poplar suspension cells and whole poplar plants, so we continued to do our studies with the suspension cells. Metabolism of trichloroethanol may go through trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) prior to dehalogenation. To test this possibility, we exposed cells to TCE and analyzed for TCAA over time. The cultures were analyzed after 4, 5, 6, and 14 days from TCE exposure. We did not detect any significant amount of TCAA above the background in undosed cells. To determine if trichloroethanol itself is directly dehalogenated, we analyzed TCE-exposed cells for the presence of dichloroethanol. Undosed cells did not have any of the DCEOH peak but TCE-dosed cells that produced the highest levels of trichloroethanol did have a small DCEOH peak. Cultures that did not produce high levels of TCEOH did not have the DCEOH peak. This result repeated in two independent experiments. We decided to expose cells directly to TCEOH and look for DCEOH in the cell extracts. After one week of exposure, the culture cells produced consistent levels of DCEOH of approximately 0.02% of the TCEOH dose. However, when we did a control reaction with no cells, DCEOH was present, indicating that the TCEOH degrades in the absence of cells. We are currently conducting the same experiments with newly-purchased chemicals and in darkness (by wrapping the culture flasks in foil). We have had success using tribromoethanol as a surrogate for trichloroethanol in studying the dehalogenation reaction in poplar cells. We had previously shown that tribromoethanol is steadily metabolized over time in poplar culture cells, producing free bromide ion. TBEOH-dosed dead cells and no cell controls did not have any bromide ion production. We are currently using this system to test P450 inhibitors to determine if dehalogenation of TBEOH is through this mechanism. We have recently purchased tribromoethylene as a more easily monitored surrogate for TCE. We will conduct mass balance experiments to determine what percentage of the bromide is released from tribromoethylene.

  10. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srienc, Friedrich (Lake Elmo, MN); Somers, David A. (Roseville, MN); Hahn, J. J. (New Brighton, MN); Eschenlauer, Arthur C. (Circle Pines, MN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel transgenic plants and plant cells are capable of biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Heterologous enzymes involved in PHA biosynthesis, particularly PHA polymerase, are targeted to the peroxisome of a transgenic plant. Transgenic plant materials that biosynthesize short chain length monomer PHAs in the absence of heterologous .beta.-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase are also disclosed.

  11. Ethylene insensitive plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Joseph R. (Carlsbad, CA); Nehring, Ramlah (La Jolla, CA); McGrath, Robert B. (Philadelphia, PA)

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  12. NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: neutron flux, cur- rent noise, vibration diagnostics: Swedish Nuclear Powe

  13. BNL-73106-2004-IR Research by BNL investigators was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS Gunnar I. Senum and Russell N (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive emissions of alkenes have been

  14. Reflections of Art E. Favre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    a refinery or petrochemical plant looked like, let alone ever dreamed I would be involved in building,000 involved in construction, maintenance, and pipe fabrication serving the refinery, petrochemical, chemical

  15. Classification of Two-Phase Flow Patterns by Ultrasonic Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    (e.g., petrochemical processes and nuclear power plants). This concept of flow pattern classification are critical for design, analysis, and operation in a variety of industries such as petrochemical processes

  16. Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions from the Regeneration Air System of a Butane Dehydrogenation Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T. P.

    at 900 to 1100°F containing CO and VOC. By installing a furnace/heat recovery steam generator, Texas Petrochemicals achieved significant reductions of VOC, CO, and NOx, along with energy savings....

  17. Considerations Associated with Reactor Technology Selection for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the inception of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project and during predecessor activities, alternative reactor technologies have been evaluated to determine the technology that best fulfills the functional and performance requirements of the targeted energy applications and market. Unlike the case of electric power generation where the reactor performance is primarily expressed in terms of economics, the targeted energy applications involve industrial applications that have specific needs in terms of acceptable heat transport fluids and the associated thermodynamic conditions. Hence, to be of interest to these industrial energy applications, the alternative reactor technologies are weighed in terms of the reactor coolant/heat transport fluid, achievable reactor outlet temperature, and practicality of operations to achieve the very high reliability demands associated with the petrochemical, petroleum, metals and related industries. These evaluations have concluded that the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) can uniquely provide the required ranges of energy needs for these target applications, do so with promising economics, and can be commercialized with reasonable development risk in the time frames of current industry interest – i.e., within the next 10-15 years.

  18. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Del Mar, CA); Jin, RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO); Keith, Kevin (Three Forks, MT); Copenhaver, Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  19. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, RongGuan (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  20. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  1. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, James (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  2. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach; Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL), Zieler; Helge (Del Mar, CA), Jin; RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO), Keith; Kevin (Three Forks, MT), Copenhaver; Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC), Preuss; Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  3. HYDROCARBONS & ENERGY FROM PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemethy, E.K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBL-8596 itr-t C,d.. HYDROCARBONS & ENERGY FROM PLANTS jmethods of isolating the hydrocarbon-like material from I.privatelyownedrights. HYDROCARBONS AND ENERGY FROM PLANTS

  4. NUCLEAR PLANT AND CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: software require- ments, safety analysis, formal, the missiles, and the digital protection systems embed- ded in nuclear power plants. Obviously, safety method SOFTWARE SAFETY ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL PROTECTION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS USING A QUALITATIVE FORMAL

  5. Propagation of Ornamental Plants.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWerth, A. F.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propagation of Ornamental Plants I A. I?. DEWERTH, Head Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture Texas A. & M. College System THE MULTIPLICATION of ornamental plants is After sterilizing, firm the soil to within 1; receiving more...

  6. Poisonous Plant Management. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Toxic plants also contribute to indirect losses such as reduced calving , lambing or kidding percentages and reduced fiber production and weight gain. Direct and indirect losses from poisonous plants in Texas cost livestock producers from $50 million... to $100 million annually. In the United States, more than 400 species of poisonous plants have been identified. These toxic plants are generally not found in greatest abundance on good-to-excellent condition range but are, with few exceptions...

  7. PERSPECTIVES Interpretingphenotypicvariationin plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    PERSPECTIVES Interpretingphenotypicvariationin plants James S. Coleman Kelly D.M. McConnaughay David D. Ackerly Plant ecologists and evolutionary biologists frequently examine patterns of phenotypic phenotypic traits change throughout growth and development of individual plants, and that rates of growth

  8. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  9. Plant evolution The Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieseberg, Loren

    Plant evolution The Evolution of Plants by Kathy J. Willis and Jenny C. McElwain. Oxford University Press, 2002. $40.00/Ł22.99 pbk (378 pages) ISBN 0 19 850065 3 Developmental Genetics and Plant Evolution is observed for treatments of evolution and development. Titles of major monographs on the subject imply

  10. Process Design and Operation for Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossiter, A. P.; Nath, R.; Yell, M. D.

    by the following example from a large petrochemical plant that recently installed an optimization system: It was plant practice to maintain a large steam reserve in the operation...

  11. Insect-Plant Interactions Insects & Plants Evolution of land plants (especially

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Christopher A.

    1 Insect-Plant Interactions Insects & Plants Evolution of land plants (especially flowering plants) a major force driving the diversity of insects As diversity of land plants has increased, the diversity of insects has increased Interaction between plants and insects is an example of coevolution Coevolution

  12. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meagher, Richard B. (Athens, GA); McKinney, Elizabeth (Athens, GA); Kim, Tehryung (Taejeon, KR)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  13. Chronology of mercury enrichment factors in reef corals from western Venezuela Ruth Ramos a,*, Roberto Cipriani b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    Keywords: Reef corals Sclerochronology Metal pollution Enrichment factors Mercury Petrochemical industry a b s t r a c t Mining and deforestation in the early 20th century, the development of petrochemical). Petrochemical plants, which usually are built on the coast for immediate access to ships, are one of the most

  14. Heat Integrate Heat Engines in Process Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.; Townsend, D. W.

    ~C. T min Table 3. Problem Table Algorithm Applied to Petrochemicals Process Interval GJ ltiour 'Temperatures ! C! 2 ) ? ~ Cold. Hot Aecumulated Heat Heat FJ.owa Interval Streams StrePlS Deficit. Input OUtput -OUtt!utInput. 20 30 -2... of heat which can be passed on in this manner is performed in column 2 and column 3 of Table 3. It is initially assumed that the heat input from external utilities is zero. This is represented in Table 3 by a zero input to the top interval. Having...

  15. Modulating lignin in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  16. Plant pathogen resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  17. NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazičre, Christophe

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: moderator temper ature coefficient, reactivity co reactor Unit 4 of the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant (Sweden) during fuel cycle 16 is analyzed absorption cross-section behavior. Consequently, if NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY VOL. 140 NOV. 2002 147 #12;Demazičre

  18. NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: moderator temper- ature coefficient, reactivity co reactor Unit 4 of the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant (Sweden) during fuel cycle 16 is analyzed. Consequently, if*E-mail: demaz@nephy.chalmers.se NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY VOL. 140 NOV. 2002 147 #12;high-burnup fuel

  19. PHYSICAL PLANT POLICY & PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    PHYSICAL PLANT POLICY & PROCEDURE TITLE PHYSICAL PLANT HIGH VOLTAGE PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OBJECTIVE AND PURPOSE To establish a consistent policy of performing Preventive Maintenance on high voltage by the G.S.A. Preventive Maintenance sections E- 29 (high voltage oil circuit breaker), E-32 (high voltage

  20. Plant Ecology An Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    1 Plant Ecology An Introduction Ecology as a Science Study of the relationships between living and causes of the abundance and distribution of organisms Ecology as a Science We'll use the perspective of terrestrial plants Basic ecology - ecological principles Applied ecology - application of principles

  1. Methodology for developing and implementing alternative temperature-time curves for testing the fire resistance of barriers for nuclear power plant applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, L.Y.; Steckler, K.D.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in fire science over the past 40 years have offered the potential for developing technically sound alternative temperature-time curves for use in evaluating fire barriers for areas where fire exposures can be expected to be significantly different than the ASTM E-119 standard temperature-time exposure. This report summarizes the development of the ASTM E-119, standard temperature-time curve, and the efforts by the federal government and the petrochemical industry to develop alternative fire endurance curves for specific applications. The report also provides a framework for the development of alternative curves for application at nuclear power plants. The staff has concluded that in view of the effort necessary for the development of nuclear power plant specific temperature-time curves, such curves are not a viable approach for resolving the issues concerning Thermo-Lag fire barriers. However, the approach may be useful to licensees in the development of performance-based fire protection methods in the future.

  2. Sandia Energy - Wind Plant Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Plant Optimization Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Wind Plant Optimization Wind Plant OptimizationTara Camacho-Lopez2015-05-29T21:33:21+00:00...

  3. Calibration of Cotton Planting Mechanisms.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson); Byrom, Mills H. (Mills Herbert)

    1936-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    per foot. To obtain a perfect stand of one plant to Foot, a minimum of 1 to a maximum of 11 plants per foot wonld have to be thinned out. The number for picker wheel- drop planting mechanisms ranged from a minimum of 2 to a maxi- mum of 27 plants... per foot, requiring the removal of from 1 to 26 nlants per foot to leave one plant per foot. CONTENTS Introduction History of cotton planter development ------------.---------------------------------- Cottonseed planting mechanisms Requirements...

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Design Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuclear Power Plant Design Project A Response to the Environmental and Economic Challenge Of Global.............................................................................................................. 4 3. Assessment of the Issues and Needs for a New Plant

  5. Virginia Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net...

  6. Ohio Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net...

  7. Arkansas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net...

  8. Michigan Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net...

  9. California Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State...

  10. Alabama Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net...

  11. Texas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net...

  12. Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State...

  13. Tennessee Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear...

  14. Georgia Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net...

  15. Nebraska Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear...

  16. Arizona Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net...

  17. Connecticut Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State...

  18. Maryland Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net...

  19. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear...

  20. Florida Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear...

  1. Wisconsin Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear...

  2. Minnesota Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear...

  3. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  4. Poisonous Plant Management.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are most grass, acid leg paralysis, dribbling urine susceptible to poisoning sorghum, by sorghum sorghum alum Stillingia Trecul Hydrocyanic See prussic acid poisoning Numerous sheep losses to treculiana queensdelight acid this plant have occurred...

  5. Geothermal Demonstration Plant

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a 50 W e binary conversion plant at Heber was initiated and is presented herein. Chevron Oil Company (the field operator) predicts that the reservoir i ill decline from an initial...

  6. Plant Site Refrigeration Upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdrojewski, R.; Healy, M.; Ramsey, J.

    Bayer Corporation operates a multi-division manufacturing facility in Bushy Park, South Carolina. Low temperature refrigeration (-4°F) is required by many of the chemical manufacturing areas and is provided by a Plant Site Refrigeration System...

  7. AJH November 2012 PLANT QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AJH November 2012 PLANT QUALITY TESTING SERVICE THE SERVICE uses morphological standards for forest to obtain information about the quality of their planting stock before planting. will indicate the likely Potential (RGP) 15 150 FURTHER INFORMATION See the Forest Research, Plant Quality Testing web page: http

  8. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  9. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  10. THE PLANT SOIL INTERFACE: NICKEL BIOAVAILABILITY AND THE MECHANISMS OF PLANT HYPERACCUMULATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    THE PLANT SOIL INTERFACE: NICKEL BIOAVAILABILITY AND THE MECHANISMS OF PLANT HYPERACCUMULATION and Learning Company. #12;ii THE PLANT SOIL INTERFACE: NICKEL BIOAVAILABILITY AND THE MECHANISMS OF PLANT

  11. The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    blended into gasoline at distribution terminals rather thangrowth in “terminal blending” of ethanol with gasoline.gasoline com- ponents are shipped separately to a terminal

  12. The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), or tertiary amyl methylOther oxygenates such as ETBE and TAME exist. However, these

  13. Microsoft Word - LBNL 53866_SPME-MTBE_Final_112103.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE SWPAURTeC:8CO6AboutEFCOGSaveDetermination of

  14. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hake, Sarah [USDA ARS Plant Gene Expression Center

    2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  15. B Plant hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  16. Pinellas Plant facts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

  17. Native Vegetation Planting Guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yan

    1 Native Vegetation Planting Guidelines Based on Sustainability Goals for the Macquarie Campus #12.................................................................................................................................10 4.2.5 Shale-Sandstone soil transition...................................................................................................................................11 #12;3 1. Purpose This document provides a guideline for specific grounds management procedures

  18. Steam Plant, 6% Irrigation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Pei

    Steam Plant, 6% School of Medicine, 17% Irrigation, 3% Hospital, 22% Athletics, 2% Housing, 5 · Rainwater Cisterns · Reducing the number of once through cooling systems in labs · Expediting the connection for Irrigation ~15 million gallons Percent of Water Used for Irrigation that is Non-Potable ~10-15% Number

  19. Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muegge, Mark A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Scale insects on o rnamental plants B-6097 8-00 Mark A. Muegge and Michael Merchant* M any species of scale insects damage land- scape plants, shrubs and trees. Scale insects insert their mouthparts into plant tissues and suck out the sap. When... period. Most species never move again in their lives. Scale insects feed by inserting their hairlike mouth- parts into plant tissue and siphoning the plant?s sap. While feeding, many species excrete a sweet, sticky liquid referred to as ?honeydew...

  20. Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a Petrochemical Plant Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a...

  1. MSU Departmental Assessment Plan Department: Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Environmental Horticulture major Environmental Horticulture Science option Landscape Design option Biotechnology (Environmental Horticultural Science, Landscape Design, Plant Biology, Crop Science, and Biotechnology major Plant Biotechnology option Sustainable Food and Bioenergy Systems major Sustainable Crop

  2. Top 10 plant pathogenic bacteria in molecular plant pathology.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Foster, G.D. (2012) The top 10 fungal pathogens in molecularBLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD Top 10 plant pathogenic bacteriaC. and Foster, G.D. (2011) Top 10 plant viruses in molecular

  3. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  4. Gene encoding plant asparagine synthetase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Tsai, Fong-Ying (New York, NY)

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The identification and cloning of the gene(s) for plant asparagine synthetase (AS), an important enzyme involved in the formation of asparagine, a major nitrogen transport compound of higher plants is described. Expression vectors constructed with the AS coding sequence may be utilized to produce plant AS; to engineer herbicide resistant plants, salt/drought tolerant plants or pathogen resistant plants; as a dominant selectable marker; or to select for novel herbicides or compounds useful as agents that synchronize plant cells in culture. The promoter for plant AS, which directs high levels of gene expression and is induced in an organ specific manner and by darkness, is also described. The AS promoter may be used to direct the expression of heterologous coding sequences in appropriate hosts.

  5. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, William G. (Philomath, OR); Lindbo, John A. (Kent, WA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection.

  6. Louisiana Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant NameTotal Reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear...

  7. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N

  8. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N S Estabrooke Memorial Gym Stevens

  9. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby

  10. Los Alamos plants willows for flood recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plants willows Los Alamos plants willows for flood recovery The Laboratory's Corrective Actions Program (CAP) planted nearly 10,000 willows to help preserve the Pueblo Canyon...

  11. CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS A Workshop on "NUCLEAR ENERGY RENAISSANCE" Addressing WAS DEEPLY INVOLVED IN ALMOST EVERY ASPECT OF BUILDING THE PLANTS THROUGH · Quality Assurance · Nuclear IN CONSTRUCTION OF ST. LUCIE-2 #12;LESSONS LEARNED FROM St. Lucie-2 NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS CAN BE BUILT

  12. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  13. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  14. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  15. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  16. Texas Plant Diseases Handbook.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horne, C. Wendell; Amador, Jose M.; Johnson, Jerral D.; McCoy, Norman L.; Philley, George L.; Lee, Thomas A. Jr.; Kaufman, Harold W.; Jones, Roger K.; Barnes, Larry W.; Black, Mark C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the lesion turns brown. With age, 1 es ions en 1 arge and coa 1 esce. The ent i re 1 eaf fi na 11 y drops. Stem lesions appear as long, reddish colored spots. When the plant begins to set fruit, lesions are formed at the nodes \\'Jhich girdle the stem... gi v i ng the 1 eaf a "shot-ho 1 e" appearance, simi 1 ar to those caused by anthracnose. Spots on fruit are usua lly sma 11 er and circul ar in shape. Bacteria overwinter in crop residue and on seed. Hard rains splash the bacteria to stems...

  17. Plants & Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum ReservesThrustBonnevillePlans arePlants &

  18. B Plant - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumni AlumniFederalAshleymonthlyAwards SmallStatutesPacificPlant

  19. Gasification Plant Databases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof EnergyFunding OpportunityF GGaryPortalPlant

  20. Nuclear Plant/Hydrogen Plant Safety: Issues and Approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its agents the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project and the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, is working on developing the technologies to enable the large scale production of hydrogen using nuclear power. A very important consideration in the design of a co-located and connected nuclear plant/hydrogen plant facility is safety. This study provides an overview of the safety issues associated with a combined plant and discusses approaches for categorizing, quantifying, and addressing the safety risks.

  1. How Plants Grow name______________ Plants can grow from more than just seeds. Let's look at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koptur, Suzanne

    How Plants Grow name______________ Plants can grow from more than just seeds. Let's look at some of these ways you can grow plants. CUTTINGS Many plants can be started from cuttings (pieces of a bigger plant). A good place to make a cutting is fromone of the growing points of the plant (stem-tip). Some plants like

  2. Morris Plant Energy Efficiency Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betczynski, M. T.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    installed on several olefins cracking furnaces in order to improve heat recovery from the cracked process gas. As a result of the additional heat recovery, steam imported from the cogeneration facility was reduced by 45,000 lbs/hr. The large turbines... integrated an Aspen-based plant-wide data historian, which is utilized to compile process data from control and measurement points throughout the Morris plant. On-line optimization using this extensive data repository has helped the plant better...

  3. Overview BETTER BUILDINGS, BETTER PLANTS

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    are available to Better Plants Partners on a facilitated basis. These resources include free energy audits for qualifying facilities, energy analysis software tools, and...

  4. Power Plant Modeling and Simulation

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory's Office of Research and Development provides open source tools and expetise for modeling and simulating power plants and carbon sequestration technologies.

  5. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  6. Plant Population Viability and Restoration Potential for Rare Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plant Population Viability and Restoration Potential for Rare Plants Near Solar Installations ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH PIER Environmental Research www.energy.ca.gov/research/ environmental March 2011 with renewable energy by 2020. Largescale solar developments are needed to achieve this goal

  7. Plant Importation Importing "Plant Material" From Outside Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plant Importation Importing "Plant Material" From Outside Canada 1) Determine whether) If a permit is required from the CFIA* (a division of Agriculture Canada), please go to the CFIA website Agency Canada (PHAC) or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). #12;

  8. Managing plant symbiosis: fungal endophyte genotype alters plant community composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudgers, Jennifer

    Managing plant symbiosis: fungal endophyte genotype alters plant community composition Jennifer A hosts the foliar endophytic fungus, Neotypho- dium coenophialum. We quantified vegetation development of the endophyte (KY-31, AR-542) in two tall fescue cultivars (Georgia-5, Jesup). The KY-31 endophyte produces

  9. Planting and Mulching Trees and Shrubs Selecting healthy plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Planting and Mulching Trees and Shrubs Selecting healthy plants Take a step back to examine swollen nodules at the container edge, rather than circling like in a plastic container. The nodules store with soil or mulch ­ ignore these and find the first permanent woody root growing radially out from

  10. Ownership Change, Incentives and Plant Efficiency: The Divestiture of U.S. Electric Generation Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, James B.; Wolfram, Catherine

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ciency of Electric Generating Plants: A Stochastic Frontierthe existing stock of electricity generating plants. Betweenover 300 electric generating plants in the US, accounting

  11. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine cycle. Results of this study indicate that dual flash type plants are preferred at resources with temperatures above 400 F. Closed loop (binary type) plants are preferred at resources with temperatures below 400 F. A rotary separator turbine upstream of a dual flash plant can be beneficial at Salton Sea, the hottest resource, or at high temperature resources where there is a significant variance in wellhead pressures from well to well. Full scale demonstration is required to verify cost and performance. Hot water turbines that recover energy from the spent brine in a dual flash cycle improve that cycle's brine efficiency. Prototype field tests of this technology have established its technical feasibility. If natural gas prices remain low, a combustion turbine/binary hybrid is an economic option for the lowest temperature sites. The use of mixed fluids appear to be an attractive low risk option. The synchronous turbine option as prepared by Barber-Nichols is attractive but requires a pilot test to prove cost and performance. Dual flash binary bottoming cycles appear promising provided that scaling of the brine/working fluid exchangers is controllable. Metastable expansion, reheater, Subatmospheric flash, dual flash backpressure turbine, and hot dry rock concepts do not seem to offer any cost advantage over the baseline technologies. If implemented, the next generation geothermal power plant concept may improve brine utilization but is unlikely to reduce the cost of power generation by much more than 10%. Colder resources will benefit more from the development of a next generation geothermal power plant than will hotter resources. All values presented in this study for plant cost and for busbar cost of power are relative numbers intended to allow an objective and meaningful comparison of technologies. The goal of this study is to assess various technologies on an common basis and, secondarily, to give an approximate idea of the current costs of the technologies at actual resource sites. Absolute costs at a given site will be determined by the specifics of a given pr

  12. (Photosynthesis in intact plants)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in the two years since the last renewal application has been excellent. We have made substantial contributions on both main fronts of the projects, and are particularly happy with the progress of our research on intact plants. The approach of basing our field work on a sound foundation of laboratory studies has enabled is to use methods which provide unambiguous assays of well characterized reactions. We have also made excellent progress in several laboratory studies which will have direct applications in future field work, and have introduced to the laboratory a range of molecular genetics techniques which will allow us to explore new options in the attempt to understand function at the level of molecular structure.

  13. Do Plants Sweat? Core Content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Bruce

    in the bright sun and others are grouped together and are regularly sprinkled with water. You begin to wonder plant distribution where you see this principle in action? -Can you predict the effect of seasons data/graph] Three plants are grown in the same greenhouse with the same air temperature, amount

  14. Graduate Programs in Plant Biology and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildermuth, Mary C

    not re- biochemistry, cell and molecular biology (B22). pmb.berkeley.edu Plant&Microbial Biology #12;The to the environment will continue to fuel the expansion of plant research well into the future. The plant biology program focuses on contemporary ba- sic plant research, design of biotechnologies, and plant-microbe

  15. Application of Metagenomics for Identification of Novel Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degrading Enzymes in Natural Asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baquiran, Jean-Paul Mendoza

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2010. Biodegradation of MTBE by Achromobacter xylosoxidansaromatic hydrocarbons and MTBE (Eixarch and Constanti, 2010,

  16. Plant maintenance and plant life extension issue, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of the March-April issue is on plant maintenance and plant life extension. Major articles/reports in this issue include: Three proposed COLs expected in 2007, by Dale E. Klein, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Delivering behaviors that our customers value, by Jack Allen, Westinghouse Electric Company; Facilitating high-level and fuel waste disposal technologies, by Malcolm Gray, IAEA, Austria; Plant life management and long-term operation, by Pal Kovacs, OECD-NEA, France; Measuring control rod position, by R. Taymanov, K. Sapozhnikova, I. Druzhinin, D.I. Mendeleyev, Institue for Metrology, Russia; and, 'Modernization' means higher safety, by Svetlana Genova, Kozluduy NPP plc, Bulgaria.

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  18. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; Jimmy O. Ong; Sarah J. Patel; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to implement the RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  19. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Troy Raybold; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

    2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The work performed under Phase II will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

  20. Early Entrance Coproduction Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Troy Raybold; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

    2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The work performed under Phase II will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

  1. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; Jimmy O. Ong; Sarah J. Patel; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2000-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstock. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to implement the RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  2. Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, A. M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP) is a Management System designed to reduce operating cost in a continuous operating multi product plant by reviewing all cost factors and selecting plant wide production schedules which are most...

  3. Regulatory status of transgrafted plants is unclear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haroldsen, Victor M; Paulino, Gabriel; Chi-ham, Cecilia; Bennett, Alan B

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    publicatie/new-techniques-in- plant-biotechnology (accessedJuglans regia L. ). ).Plant Sci 163(3):591–7. Gonsalves D.improvement. Frontiers Plant Sci 3:39. Heselmans M. 2011.

  4. Review: Rare Plants of Washington State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Ryder W.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field Guide to the Rare Plants of Washington Pamela Camp andField Guide to the Rare Plants of Washington. Seattle, WA:State’s 3600 vascular plants, 600 mosses, and 1000-1500

  5. Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    due to the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Journal of21 3. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS……………………………………………….. 23 3.1-25 3.2- WASTES FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS………………………… 28 4.

  6. Technology Data for Energy Plants June 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................................................................... 35 03 Rebuilding Coal Power Plants to Biomass.......................................................................................................................... 27 01 Advanced Pulverized Fuel Power PlantTechnology Data for Energy Plants June 2010 #12;ISBNwww: 978-87-7844-857-6 #12;2 Table of contents

  7. Geothermal Heat Flow and Existing Geothermal Plants | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Geothermal Heat Flow and Existing Geothermal Plants Geothermal Heat Flow and Existing Geothermal Plants Geothermal Heat Flow and Existing Plants With plants in development. Click...

  8. ASSESSING PLANTING STOCK QUALITY Comprehensive assessments of planting stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    for cold storage, and to evaluate effects of traditional and proposed nursery cultural practices on field and Jenkinson 1970, 1971) just after lifting and after cold storage to spring planting time · Field survival

  9. Automating An Industrial Power Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, D. R.; McCowen, R. R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and electricity requirements of the Component Works as well as all of the heat and a portion of the electricity needed by the adjacent John Deere Foundry. This paper describes the automation of an eXisting industrial power plant and tells how the project...AUTlliATING AN INDUSTRIAL POWER PLANT DAVID R. WILLIAMS, P.E. Energy Coordi?nator John Deere Component Works Waterloo, Iowa ABSTRACT The need for an upgrade of boiler and turbine controls in the 15 MW coal-fired cogeneration plant...

  10. Plant maintenance and plant life extension issue, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of the March-April issue is on plant maintenance and plant life extension. Major articles include the following: Application of modeling and simulation to nuclear power plants, by Berry Gibson, IBM, and Rolf Gibbels, Dassault Systems; Steam generators with tight manufacturing procedures, by Ei Kadokami, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries; SG design based on operational experience and R and D, by Jun Tang, Babcock and Wilcox Canada; Confident to deliver reliable performance, by Bruce Bevilacqua, Westinghouse Nuclear; An evolutionary plant design, by Martin Parece, AREVA NP, Inc.; and, Designed for optimum production, by Danny Roderick, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy. Industry Innovation articles include: Controlling alloy 600 degradation, by John Wilson, Exelon Nuclear Corporation; Condensate polishing innovation, by Lewis Crone, Dominion Millstone Power Station; Reducing deposits in steam generators, by the Electric Power Research Institute; and, Minimizing Radiological effluent releases, by the Electric Power Research Institute. The plant profile article is titled 2008 - a year of 'firsts' for AmerenUE's Callaway plant, by Rick Eastman, AmerenUE.

  11. HYDROCARBONS FROM PLANTS: ANALYTICAL METHODS AND OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvin, Melvin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    molecular weights of various hydrocarbon materials for fuelof oil and alcohol from hydrocarbon-producing plants. Into Die Naturwissenschaften HYDROCARBONS FROM PLANTS: METHODS

  12. Natural Gas Processing Plant- Sulfur (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This regulation establishes sulfur emission standards for natural gas processing plants. Standards are stated for both existing and new plants. There are also rules for stack height requirements,...

  13. North Carolina Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear...

  14. New Jersey Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net...

  15. South Carolina Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    South Carolina nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State...

  16. New York Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net...

  17. Pre-In-Plant Training Webinar (Steam)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This pre-In-Plant training webinar for the Better Plants Program covers how to find energy savings in steam systems.

  18. The Politically Correct Nuclear Energy Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transportation ? · Fuel Cells ? · Electric Cars ? · Solar Electric Cars · Natural Gas ? · Combo-Cars · Hydrogen Nuclear Plants Operating Very Well · But, Generating Companies not Interested in New Nuclear Plants

  19. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plant - November 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - November 2013 November 5, 2013 Review of Preparedness for Severe Natural Phenomena Events...

  20. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    January 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - January 2013 January 2013 Review of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Work Planning and Control...

  1. Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - August 2011 Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - August 2011 August 2011 Orientation Visit to the Portsmouth...

  2. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Anderson; William K. Davis; Thomas W. Sloop

    2001-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Gasification Technologies and Transportation Fuels and Chemicals programs, DOE and Texaco are partners through Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40658 to determine the feasibility of developing, constructing and operating an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). The overall objective of the project is the three-phase development of an EECP that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The specific work requirements of Phase I included: Prepare an EECP Preliminary Concept Report covering Tasks 2-8 specified in the Cooperative Agreement; Develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan as specified in Task 9 of the Cooperative Agreement for implementation in Phase II; and Develop a Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the EECP Project as specified in Task 10 of the Cooperative Agreement. This document is the Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the design, construction, and operation of the EECP at the Motiva Port Arthur Refinery.

  3. Fiberglass plastics in power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, D. [Ashland Performance Materials (United States)

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRPs) are replacing metal in FGDs, stacks, tanks, cooling towers, piping and other plant components. The article documents the use of FRP in power plants since the 1970s. The largest volume of FRP in North American power plants is for stack liners and ductwork. Absorber vessel shells and internal components comprise the third largest use. The most common FRP absorber vessels are known as jet bubbling reactors (JBRs). One of the largest JBRs at a plant on the Ohio River removes 99% of sulphur dioxide from high sulphur coal flue gas. FRPs last twice as long as wood structures when used for cooling towers and require less maintenance. 1 tab., 2 photos.

  4. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutilier, Michael Stephen Ha

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees – a readily available, ...

  5. A neighborhood alternative energy plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, Douglas James

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A design that proposes the redefinition of the role of a power plant facility within a community by creating a humane environment for recreation, education, community gathering, living, and energy production; rather than ...

  6. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore »and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  7. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  8. Kansas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1","1,160","9,556",100.0,"Wolf Creek Nuclear Optg Corp" "1 Plant 1 Reactor","1,160","9,556",100.0...

  9. Vermont Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Vermont Yankee Unit 1",620,"4,782",100.0,"Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee" "1 Plant 1 Reactor",620,"4,782",100.0...

  10. Massachusetts Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (percent)","Owner" "Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Unit 1",685,"5,918",100.0,"Entergy Nuclear Generation Co" "1 Plant 1 Reactor",685,"5,918",100.0 "Note: Totals may not equal...

  11. Foote Hydroelectric Plant spillway rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowers, D.L. [Consumers Power Co., Jackson, MI (United States); Hasan, N.; Gertler, L.R. [Raytheon Infrastructures Services, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1993 the spillway of the 9 MW Foote Hydroelectric Plant located on the AuSable River, near Oscoda, Michigan was rehabilitated. The Foote Plant, built in 1917, is owned and operated by Consumers Power Company. In the 76 years of continuous operation the spillway had deteriorated such that much of the concrete and associated structure needed to be replaced to assure safety of the structure. The hydro station includes an earth embankment with concrete corewall, a concrete spillway with three tainter gates and a log chute, a penstock structure and a steel and masonry powerhouse. The electric generation is by three vertical shaft units of 3,000 KW each. A plan of the plant with spillway and an elevation of the spillway section is shown. This paper describes the evaluation and repair of the plant spillway and associated structure.

  12. North City Water Reclamation Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    -Site Cogeneration Methane Power Plant Methane piped in from: Miramar LandfillMiramar Landfill Metropolitan Biosolids Covered Subgrade basins Malfunction in Point Loma South Bay North City Metro Biosolids Center WW Pumping

  13. AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RESEARCH PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    of these organisms to environmental factors (e .g. , temperature and solar radiation). Actual field data have been compared with simulation output with encouraging results. Starting biomass of the plants and numbers

  14. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Gym Lot Corbett Lot Greenhouse Patch Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam

  15. Common Aquatic Plants -- Identification, Control.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klussmann, Wallace G. (Wallace Glenn); Lowman, Fred G.

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . FLOATING PLANTS WATER STAR GRASS Heteranthera sp. (Mud plantain) Water star grass, a submersed or floating rooted plant, usually is found along muddy shores and in water up to 5 ft. deep. The leaves are approximately 2 inches long and 3/16 inch wide... PONDWEEDS Potamogeton sp. The genus Potamogeton J commonly called pond weeds, includes many species common to Texas waters. Group characteristics include alternate leaves with flowers and fruits in spikes or heads. Many have two kinds...

  16. Computer Control of Unattended Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vinson, D. R.; Chatterjee, N.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPUTER CONTROL OF UNATTENDED PLANTS David R. Vinson, Nirma1 Chatterjee ? Ai r Products and Chemi ca 1s, Inc. Allentown, Pennsylvania Providing a cost-effective and reliable computer monitori ng, control, and optimization package is a greater... the last decade, energy costs in some air separation plants are now more than half the total product cost. Starting in 1975, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. began implementing a program to retrofit existing major energy consuming facili ties...

  17. Valuable Plants Native to Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parks, Harris Braley

    1937-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and makes a splendid plant for cover along mud flats where the seasona.1 change of water would leave bare places. Commercial. Arundo Donax L. This is the reed grass of southern Texas. It has been used for many years to aid in erosion control...LIBRARY, A b COttECE, CAMPUS. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION. BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS -- BULLETIN NO. 551 AUGUST, 1937 -- DIVISION OF APICULTVRE VALUABLE PLANTS NATIVE TO TEXAS i...

  18. COKEMASTER: Coke plant management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanning, J.; Reinke, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To keep coke utilization in ironmaking as competitive as possible, the potential to improve the economics of coke production has to be utilized. As one measure to meet this need of its customers, Krupp Koppers has expanded its existing ECOTROL computer system for battery heating control to a comprehensive Coke Plant Management System. Increased capacity utilization, lower energy consumption, stabilization of plant operation and ease of operation are the main targets.

  19. Researching power plant water recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.

  20. Hydrogeologic investigation of petrochemical contamination at a bulk storage facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fryar, Dennis Gene

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of this study was to model groundwater flow in the shallow aquifer in order to determine if the site was affected by multiple contaminant plumes, and if so, the possible source of each plume. Groundwater flow within the shallow aquifer was simulated using a two...

  1. Observations from Energy Audits in the Petrochemical Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindan, T. S.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The economical use of topping turbines in the steam system versus other mechanical energy options, savings possible from combustion versus other mechanical energy options, savings possible from combustion excess air control in boilers and fired heaters...

  2. Organic Rankine Cycles for the Petro-Chemical Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, R. K.; Colosimo, D. D.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under a cooperatively funded DOE/MTI program, a packaged organic Rankine power recovery system is being developed specifically to meet the needs of the petroleum refining and chemical industries. Program objectives include an actual in...

  3. Energy Management in a Large Refining-Petrochemical Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, K. C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    if it has no alternate disposition) and the stream's value as fuel to the boiler. In this latter calculation you need to consider not only the value of the di sp 1aced fuel but also any detri menta 1 effects that wi 11 be caused by burni ng the waste... the plan and the better trained the operating personne1, the more one can decrease surpl\\.1s and, thereby, improve efficiency witholit hurting reliability. Through the Utilities Distribution Department and the team approach, DPMC has achieved a...

  4. Chongqing Global Petrochemical Group Company Limited | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationin Urban Transport | Open EnergyChippewa

  5. Carbohydrate-Mediated Purification of Petrochemicals | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteries BatteriesCAESMissionMetal-Organic

  6. SYMPOSIUM ON PLANT PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHN C WALKER

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play key roles in many aspects of plant biology, including control of cell division, pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, pattern formation, hormonal responses, and abiotic and biotic responses to environmental signals. A Symposium on Plant Protein Phosphorylation was hosted on the Columbia campus of the University of Missouri from May 26-28, 2010. The symposium provided an interdisciplinary venue at which scholars studying protein modification, as it relates to a broad range of biological questions and using a variety of plant species, presented their research. It also provided a forum where current international challenges in studies related to protein phosphorylation could be examined. The symposium also stimulated research collaborations through interactions and networking among those in the research community and engaged students and early career investigators in studying issues in plant biology from an interdisciplinary perspective. The proposed symposium, which drew 165 researchers from 13 countries and 21 States, facilitated a rapid dissemination of acquired knowledge and technical expertise regarding protein phosphorylation in plants to a broad range of plant biologists worldwide.

  7. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the manufacture of ethylene and propylene chemicals from F-T naphtha, for the generation of hydrogen from F-T naphtha to power fuel cells, for direct blending of F-T diesels into transportation fuels, for the conversion of F-T heavy product wax to transportation fuels, and the conversion of F-T Heavy product wax to a valuable high melting point food-grade specialty wax product. Product evaluations conducted under Task 2.5 of Phase II successfully mitigated the above technical and economic risks to the EECP with the development of product yields and product qualities for the production of chemicals, transportation fuels, and specialty food-grade waxes from the F-T synthesis products.

  8. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Storm; Govanon Nongbri; Steve Decanio; Ming He; Lalit Shah; Charles Schrader; Earl Berry; Peter Ricci; Belma Demirel; Charles Benham; Mark Bohn

    2004-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc., GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I, a design basis for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis section was developed based on limited experience with the specified feed gas and operating conditions. The objective of this Task in Phase II RD&T work was to confirm the performance of the F-T reactor at the set design conditions. Although much of the research, development, and testing work were done by TES outside of this project, several important issues were addressed in this phase of the project. They included Rejuvenation/Regeneration of the Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst, online Catalyst Withdrawal and Addition from the synthesis reactor, and the Fischer-Tropsch Design Basis Confirmation. In Phase III the results from these RD&T work will be incorporated in developing the engineering design package. This Topical Report documents the Phase II RD&T work that was completed for this task.

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Anderson; Charles Schrader

    2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1999, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Cooperative Agreement to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. to provide a preliminary engineering design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award, continuous and diligent work has been undertaken to achieve the design of an economical facility that makes strides toward attaining the goal of DOE's Vision 21 Program. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to power while coproducing transportation fuels, chemicals, and useful utilities such as steam. This objective is being pursued in a three-phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems, LLC. (TES), the successor to Texaco Energy Systems, Inc. The key subcontractors to TES include General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root. ChevronTexaco provided gasification technology and Rentech Inc.'s Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology that has been developed for non-natural gas sources. GE provided gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair provided air separation technology and KBR provided engineering to integrate the facility. A conceptual design was completed in Phase I and the report was accepted by the DOE in May 2001. The Phase I work identified risks and critical research, development, and testing that would improve the probability of technical success of the EECP. The objective of Phase II was to mitigate the risks by executing research, development, and testing. Results from the Phase II work are the subject of this report. As the work of Phase II concluded, it became evident that sufficient, but not necessarily complete, technical information and data would be available to begin Phase III - Preliminary Engineering Design. Work in Phase II requires additional technical development work to correctly apply technology at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The decision to proceed with Phase III centers on locating a new site and favorable commercial and economic factors.

  10. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids levels and alleviates corrosion and fuel stability concerns. Future coproduction plants can maximize valuable transportation diesel by hydrocracking the F-T Synthesis wax product to diesel and naphtha. The upgraded neat F-T diesel, hydrotreater F-T diesel, and hydrocracker F-T diesel products would be final blending components in transportation diesel fuel. Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 successfully carried out fuel lubricity property testing, fuel response to lubricity additives, and hot-start transient emission tests on a neat F-T diesel product, a hydrocracker F-T diesel product, a blend of hydrotreater and hydrocracker F-T diesel products, and a Tier II California Air Resources Board (CARB)-like diesel reference fuel. Only the neat F-T diesel passed lubricity inspection without additive while the remaining three fuel candidates passed with conventional additive treatment. Hot-start transient emission tests were conducted on the four fuels in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Test Procedure (FTP) specified in Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 86, and Subpart N on a rebuilt 1991 Detroit Diesel Corporation Series 60 heavy-duty diesel engine. Neat F-T diesel fuel reduced oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), total particulate (PM), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) by 4.5%, 31%, 50%, 29%, and 35%, respectively, compared to the Tier II CARB-like diesel. The hydrocracker F-T diesel product and a blend of hydrocracker and hydrotreater F-T diesel products also reduced NO{sub x}, PM, HC, CO and SOF by 13%, 16% to 17%, 38% to 63%, 17% to 21% and 21% to 39% compared to the Tier II CARB-like diesel. The fuel/engine performance and emissions of the three F-T diesel fuels exceed the performance of a Tier II CARB-like diesel. Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 successfully met the lubricity property testing and F-T diesel fuel hot-start transient emissions test objectives. The results of the testing help mitigate potential economic risks on obtaining a premium price for the F-T diesel fuel

  11. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, J.R.; Staskawicz, B.J.; Bent, A.F.; Innes, R.W.

    1997-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described. 7 figs.

  12. PHYSICAL PLANT OPERATING POLICY AND PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    in this technology. REVIEW This Physical Plant Operating Policy/Procedure (PP/OP) will be reviewed in March of each Plant. Physical Plant's intention is to provide each employee reasonable access to the technology Plant technology will be a prime consideration. Requests for non-standard products will not be approved

  13. Pilot Plant Options for the MFE Roadmap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilot Plant Options for the MFE Roadmap Hutch Neilson Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory International Workshop MFE Roadmapping for the ITER Era Princeton, NJ 10 September 2011 #12;Outline 2 · Pilot plant ­ mission, motivation, and description. · Role of pilot plants on the Roadmap to Demo. Pilot Plant

  14. Exploring the World of Plants and Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Exploring the World of Plants and Soils 4-H Plant , Soils, and Entomology Curriculum 18 U.S.C. 707 Project Book 2 Publication 380-021 2014 #12;Exploring the World of Plants and Soil: Stems and Stamens ................................................................................................................. 3 Activity 1 The Stages of a Plant's Life

  15. Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined cycle power plant utilizing wood waste products as a fuel has been designed. This plant will yield a 50% efficiency improvement compared to conventional wood-fueled steam power plants. The power plant features an externally-fired gas...

  16. Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet provides information about Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant capabilities and resources at NREL.

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdalla H. Ali; Raj Kamarthi; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah

    2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I the team identified the integration of the water produced in the F-T synthesis section with the gasification section as an area of potential synergy. By utilizing the F-T water in the petroleum coke slurry for the gasifier, the EECP can eliminate a potential waste stream and reduce capital costs. There is a low technical risk for this synergy, however, the economic risk, particularly in regards to the water, can be high. The economic costs include the costs of treating the water to meet the locally applicable environmental standards. This option may require expensive chemicals and treatment facilities. EECP Phase II included tests conducted to confirm the viability of integrating F-T water in the slurry feed for the gasifier. Testing conducted at ChevronTexaco's Montebello Technology Center (MTC) included preparing slurries made using petroleum coke with F-T water collected at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The work included bench scale tests to determine the slurry ability of the petroleum coke and F-T water. The results of the tests show that F-T water does not adversely affect slurries for the gasifier. There are a few cases where in fact the addition of F-T water caused favorable changes in viscosity of the slurries. This RD&T task was executed in Phase II and results are reported herein.

  18. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Anderson; Mark Anselmo; Earl Berry; Mark Bohn; Ming He; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit Shah; Donald Todd; Robert Schavey

    2004-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to its detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC (TES) (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR). The work was under cooperative agreements with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing the gasification technology and the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech Inc., GE is providing the combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing the air separation technology, and KBR is providing overall engineering. Each of the EECP's subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers in Phase I. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified catalyst/wax separation as a potential technical and economic risk. To mitigate risks to the proposed EECP concept, Phase II RD&T included tests for secondary catalyst/wax separation systems as part of Task 2.3--Catalyst/Wax Separation. The LCI Scepter{reg_sign} Microfiltration system was determined to be best suited for producing a filtrate that met the EECP secondary catalyst/wax separation standards of producing F-T wax containing less than10 ppmw solids. As part of task 2.3, micro-filtration removal efficiencies and production rates for two FT feeds, Rentech Inc. bubble column reactor (BCR) product and LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) product, were evaluated. Based on comparisons between the performances of these two materials, the more readily available LaPorte AFDU material was judged an acceptable analog to the BCR material that would be produced in a larger-scale F-T synthesis. The present test was initiated to obtain data in an extended range of concentration for use in the scale-up design of the secondary catalyst/wax separation system that would be operating at the EECP capacity.

  19. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Benham; Mark Bohn; John Anderson; Earl Berry; Fred Brent; Ming He; Randy Roberts; Lalit Shah; Marjan Roos

    2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1999 U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) award to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. (presently Texaco Energy Systems LLC, a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco) was made to provide a Preliminary Engineering Design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award presentation, work has been undertaken to achieve an economical concept design that makes strides toward the DOE Vision 21 goal. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to electric power plus transportation fuels, chemicals and useful utilities such as steam. The use of petroleum coke was added as a fuel to reduce the cost of feedstock and also to increase the probability of commercial implementation of the EECP concept. This objective has been pursued in a three phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems LLC and subcontractors General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR). ChevronTexaco is providing gasification technology and Rentech's Fischer-Tropsch technology that has been developed for non-natural gas feed sources. GE is providing gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering to integrate the facility. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was completed in 2000. The Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was prepared based on making assumptions for the basis of design for various technologies that are part of the EECP concept. The Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was approved by the DOE in May 2001. The Phase I work identified technical and economic risks and critical research, development, and testing that would improve the probability of the technical and economic success of the EECP. The Project Management Plan (Task 1) for Phase II was approved by the DOE in 2001. The results of RD&T efforts for Phase II are expected to improve the quality of assumptions made in Phase I for basis of design for the EECP concept. The RD&T work plan (Task 2 and 3) for Phase II has been completed. As the RD&T work conducted during Phase II concluded, it became evident that sufficient, but not necessarily complete, technical information and data would be available to begin Phase III - Basic Engineering Design. Also due to the merger of Chevron and Texaco, the proposed refinery site for the EECP was not available. It became apparent that some additional technical development work would be needed to correctly apply the technology at a specific site. The objective of Task 4 of Phase II is to update the concept basis of design produced during Phase I. As part of this task, items that will require design basis changes and are not site dependent have been identified. The team has qualitatively identified the efforts to incorporate the impacts of changes on EECP concept. The design basis has been modified to incorporate those changes. The design basis changes for those components of EECP that are site and feedstock dependent will be done as part of Phase III, once the site has been selected.

  20. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Anderson; Mark Anselmo; Earl Berry; Mark Bohn; Roko Bujas; Ming He; Ken Kwik; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit Shah; Dennis Slater; Donald Todd; Don Wall

    2003-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC (TES), a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco, General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc. GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified catalyst/wax separation as a potential technical and economic risk. To mitigate risks to the proposed EECP, Phase II RD&T included tests of an alternative (to Rentech's Dynamic Settler) primary catalyst/wax separation device and secondary catalyst/wax separation systems. The team evaluated multiple technologies for both primary and secondary catalyst/wax separation. Based on successful testing at Rentech (outside of DOE funding) and difficulties in finalizing a contract to demonstrate alternative primary catalyst/wax separation technology (using magnetic separation technology), ChevronTexaco has selected the Rentech Dynamic Settler for primary catalyst/wax separation. Testing has shown the Dynamic Settler is capable of producing filtrate exceeding the proposed EECP primary catalyst/wax separation goal of less than 0.1 wt%. The LCI Scepter{reg_sign} Microfiltration system appeared to be best suited for producing a filtrate that met the EECP secondary catalyst/wax separation standards of 10 parts per million (weight) [ppmw]. The other technologies, magnetic separation and electrostatic separation, were promising and able to reduce the solids concentrations in the filtrate. Additional RD&T will be needed for magnetic separation and electrostatic separation technologies to obtain 10 ppmw filtrate required for the proposed EECP. The Phase II testing reduces the technical and economic risks and provides the information necessary to proceed with the development of an engineering design for the EECP Fischer-Tropsch catalyst/wax separation system.

  1. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randy Roberts

    2003-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using petroleum coke and ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC. (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ChevronTexaco is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified F-T reactor scale-up as a potential technical risk. The objective of Task 2.3 was to confirm engineering models that allow scale-up to commercial slurry phase bubble column (SPBC) reactors operating in the churn-turbulent flow regime. In developmental work outside the scope of this project, historical data, literature references, and a scale-up from a 1 1/2-in. (3.8 cm) to 6-ft (1.8 m) SPBC reactor have been reviewed. This review formed the background for developing scale-up models for a SPBC reactor operating in the churn-turbulent flow regime. The necessary fundamental physical parameters have been measured and incorporated into the mathematical catalyst/kinetic model developed from the SPBC and CSTR work outside the scope of this EECP project. The mathematical catalyst/kinetic model was used to compare to experimental data obtained at Rentech during the EECP Fischer-Tropsch Confirmation Run (Task 2.1; reported separately). The prediction of carbon monoxide (CO) conversion as a function of days on stream compares quite closely to the experimental data.

  2. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Ming He; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; O.O. Omatete; T.D. Burchell

    2004-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I the team identified several potential methods to reduce or minimize the environmental impact of the proposed EECP. The EECP Project Team identified F-T catalyst disposal, beneficial gasifier slag usage (other than landfill), and carbon dioxide recovery for the gas turbine exhaust for study under this task. Successfully completing the Task 2.10 RD&T provides additional opportunities for the EECP to meet the goals of DOE's Vision 21 Program. The gasification section offers several opportunities to maximize the environmental benefits of an EECP. The spent F-T catalyst can be sent to landfills or to the gasification section. Testing in Phase II shows that the spent F-T catalyst with a small wax coating can safely meet federal landfill requirements. As an alternative to landfilling, it has been proposed to mix the spent F-T catalyst with the petroleum coke and feed this mixture to the gasification unit. Based on ChevronTexaco's experience with gasification and the characteristics of the spent F-T catalyst this appears to be an excellent opportunity to reduce one potential waste stream. The slag from the gasification unit can be commercially marketed for construction or fuel (such as cement kiln fuel) uses. The technical and economic benefits of these options must be reviewed for the final EECP before incorporating a specific alternative into the design basis. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, is an important goal of the EECP. The Texaco gasification process provides opportunities to capture high purity streams of carbon dioxide. For Phase II, a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) was tested to determine its potential to remove high purity carbon dioxide from the exhaust of a gas turbine. Testing on with a simulated gas turbine exhaust shows that the CFCMS is able to remove high purity carbon dioxide from the exhaust. However, more development is required to optimize the system.

  3. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierstra, Richard D. (Madison, WI); Walker, Joseph M. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  4. The Water Circuit of the Plants - Do Plants have Hearts ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Kundt; Eva Gruber

    2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a correspondence between the circulation of blood in all higher animals and the circulation of sap in all higher plants - up to heights h of 140 m - through the xylem and phloem vessels. Plants suck in water from the soil, osmotically through the roothair zone, and subsequently lift it osmotically again, and by capillary suction (via their buds, leaves, and fruits) into their crowns. In between happens a reverse osmosis - the endodermis jump - realized by two layers of subcellular mechanical pumps in the endodermis walls which are powered by ATP, or in addition by two analogous layers of such pumps in the exodermis. The thus established root pressure helps forcing the absorbed ground water upward, through the whole plant, and often out again, in the form of guttation, or exudation.

  5. Primary plant performance evaluation and plant signals validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anikanov, S. S. [Westinghouse LLC, 4350 Northern Pike, Monroeville, PA 15146 (United States); Stolyetniy, I. V.; Semenovski, Y. P. [Westron, 1, Academic Proskura str., Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses results of the implementation of NPP signal validation and data reconciliation algorithms applied to VVER-1000 reactor as part of the Core Monitoring System (CMS) project at South Ukrainian NPP. The proposed method is compared with the G2TM tool (Gensym) application of neural network algorithms to the same plant data. The proposed algorithms yield practically identical results for situations with a significant amount of erroneous data, even though it runs in on-line mode as oppose to the off-line mode of the G2TM tool. The method described in this paper includes preliminary signal processing, data fusion, and data reconciliation algorithms. All major primary and secondary sides measurements, used for plant thermal power evaluation based on different methods, were undergone the proposed processing algorithm. Some plant life data is presented to illustrate quality of input signals used to obtain calculation results. (authors)

  6. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 31 figs.

  7. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 67 figs.

  8. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M. (Pasadena, CA); Chang, Caren (Pasadena, CA); Bleecker, Anthony B. (Madison, WI)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  9. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerowitz, Elliot M. (Pasadena, CA); Chang, Caren (Pasadena, CA); Bleecker, Anthony B. (Madison, WI)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  10. State power plant productivity programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The findings of a working group formed to review the status of efforts by utilities and utility regulators to increase the availability and reliability of generating units are presented. Representatives from nine state regulatory agencies, NRRI, and DOE, participated on the Working Group. The Federal government has been working cooperatively with utilities, utility organizations, and with regulators to encourage and facilitate improvements in power plant productivity. Cooperative projects undertaken with regulatory and energy commissions in California, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Texas, North Carolina and Mighigan are described. Following initiation of these cooperative projects, DOE funded a survey to determine which states were explicitly addressing power plant productivity through the regulatory process. The Working Group was formed following completion of this survey. The Working Group emphasized the need for those power plant productivity improvements which are cost effective. The cost effectiveness of proposed availability improvement projects should be determined within the context of opportunities for operating and capital improvements available to an entire utility. The Working Group also identified the need for: allowing for plant designs that have a higher construction cost, but are also more reliable; allowing for recovery and reducing recovery lags for productivity-related capital expenditures; identifying and reducing disincentives in the regulatory process; ascertaining that utilities have sufficient money available to undertake timely maintenance; and support of EPRI and NERC to develop a relevant and accurate national data base. The DOE views these as extremely important aspects of any regulatory program to improve power plant productivity.

  11. Plant Science Graduates Spring 2011 Bachelor of Science in Plant Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Plant Science Graduates Spring 2011 Bachelor of Science in Plant Sciences Joshua Paul Baker, Old Dale Wallace, Centerville Master of Science Reginald Jason Millwood, Plant Sciences Kara Lee Warwick, Plant Sciences Undergraduate Degrees, Summer Term 2011 Henry Joseph Cope, III, Plant Sciences David

  12. Clemson University Plant Problem Clinic, Nematode Assay Lab and Molecular Plant Pathogen Detection Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Clemson University Plant Problem Clinic, Nematode Assay Lab and Molecular Plant Pathogen Detection Lab Annual Report for 2012 The Plant Problem Clinic serves the people of South Carolina through the Clinic. Plant pathogens, insect pests and weeds can significantly reduce plant growth

  13. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdalla H. Ali; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah

    2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified petroleum coke characteristics as a potential technical risk. The composition of petroleum coke varies from one refinery to another. Petroleum coke characteristics are a function of the crude oil slate available at the refinery and the coker operating parameters. The specific petroleum coke characteristics at a refinery affect the design of the Gasification and Acid Gas Removal (AGR) subsystems. Knowing the petroleum coke composition provides the necessary data to proceed to the EECP Phase III engineering design of the gasification process. Based on ChevronTexaco's experience, the EECP team ranked the technical, economic, and overall risks of the petroleum coke composition related to the gasification subsystem as low. In Phase I of the EECP Project, the Motiva Port Arthur Refinery had been identified as the potential EECP site. As a result of the merger between Texaco and Chevron in October 2001, Texaco was required to sell its interest in the Motiva Enterprises LLC joint venture to Shell Oil Company and Saudi Refining Inc. To assess the possible impact of moving the proposed EECP host site to a ChevronTexaco refinery, samples of petroleum coke from two ChevronTexaco refineries were sent to MTC for bench-scale testing. The results of the analysis of these samples were compared to the Phase I EECP Gasification Design Basis developed for Motiva's Port Arthur Refinery. The analysis confirms that if the proposed EECP is moved to a new refinery site, the Phase I EECP Gasification Design Basis would have to be updated. The lower sulfur content of the two samples from the ChevronTexaco refineries indicates that if one of these sites were selected, the Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU) might be sized smaller than the current EECP design. This would reduce the capital expense of the SRU. Additionally, both ChevronTexaco samples have a higher hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio than the Motiva Port Arthur petroleum coke. The higher hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio could give a slightly higher F-T products yield from the F-T Synthesis Reactor. However, the EECP Gasification Design Basis can not be updated until the site for the proposed EECP site is finalized. Until the site is finalized, the feedstock (petroleum coke) characteristics are a low risk to the EECP project.

  14. Condensate polishing at Plant Bowen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, K.A.; Siegwarth, D.P.; Sawochka, S.G.; McNea, D.A.; Suhonen, C.H.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensate polisher system design and operation were evaluated at the fosssil-fueled Plant Bowen of Georgia Power Company relative to the ability of the polishers to achieve an effluent chemical quality consistent with PWR Steam Generator Owners Group Chemistry Guidelines. Polishers regenerated employing the Seprex and Ammonex processes were evaluated during normal plant operation and during periods of simulated condenser inleakage. Although polisher effluent quality was acceptable relative to boiler corrosion control at Plant Bowen, it was inconsistent with that required for recirculating PWR steam generators. Polisher effluent quality was reasonably consistent with requirements for PWR once-through steam generator systems. High polisher cation to anion resin equivalence ratios (3.4 to 1), and insufficiently rapid anion resin kinetics were the major reasons for the observed non-optimum polisher performance.

  15. Online Modeling in the Process Industry for Energy Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, J.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and electricity. It further discusses the methods of providing this energy for refineries, petrochemical plants, and other processing plants - chemical, paper, and metal. A typical system flow diagram is used to highlight the energy system network and describe...

  16. Partners for Progress- A Utility Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, C. S.

    of the greenest pastures in the country for the integration of cogeneration. Scattered throughout our coastal service area was a concentration of petrochemical plants and refineries placed like a row of dominoes waiting to be knocked over. These plants while...

  17. Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the plant and introduce the history of efficiency improvements for compressors and steam turbines in the Petrochemical Industry. Since heat balance configurations affect the plant's steam consumption, the authors will explain several cases of heat balance...

  18. Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the plant and introduce the history of efficiency improvements for compressors and steam turbines in the Petrochemical Industry. Since heat balance configurations affect the plant's steam consumption, the authors will explain several cases of heat balance...

  19. 296 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, VOL. 9, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 Performance Assessment and Design for Univariate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jiandong

    (PDFs) of the univariate process variable in the normal and abnormal conditions. Thus, a new method to various industrial plants in- cluding power, chemical, and petrochemical plants. Index Terms-- Averaged

  20. Automating An Industrial Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, D. R.; McCowen, R. R.

    AUTlliATING AN INDUSTRIAL POWER PLANT DAVID R. WILLIAMS, P.E. Energy Coordi?nator John Deere Component Works Waterloo, Iowa ABSTRACT The need for an upgrade of boiler and turbine controls in the 15 MW coal-fired cogeneration plant... for the project was estimated at $860,OOO/year. The upgrading process began with a search for a design/ build contractor that could provide complete turn key capability, beginning with a site survey and ending with operator acceptanoe. The contractor...

  1. The Propagation of Ornamental Plants.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWerth, A. F.

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Germinntior- to 10 days. I Cercis canadensis ( Redbud) Soak in full strength commercial sulphuric acid for When seed is removed from acid, 1ca4 - 20 minutes. Stratify in moist peat at 35" to 40" F. running water for 10 minutes. Soak in !rr for 60 days... to 30 days. ture, until ready for planting. Diospyros virginana Stratify freshly cleaned seed in moist peat 36" to These seed will not germinate at thc~ !c (Common Persimmon) 41" F. Seeds will be ready for planting in 30 days. peratures and can...

  2. Annual Report 2001 -Plant Research Departme Plant Research Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    post-genomic tools to improve our understanding of plants. The aim is to develop crops with improved activities in the area of Functional Genomics integrate the department. Each programme contains special expertise in the fields of genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses, which are delivered

  3. Balance of Plant Requirements for a Nuclear Hydrogen Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley Ward

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the requirements for the components and systems that support the hydrogen production portion of a 600 megawatt thermal (MWt) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). These systems, defined as the "balance-of-plant" (BOP), are essential to operate an effective hydrogen production plant. Examples of BOP items are: heat recovery and heat rejection equipment, process material transport systems (pumps, valves, piping, etc.), control systems, safety systems, waste collection and disposal systems, maintenance and repair equipment, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical supply and distribution, and others. The requirements in this document are applicable to the two hydrogen production processes currently under consideration in the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. These processes are the sulfur iodide (S-I) process and the high temperature electrolysis (HTE) process. At present, the other two hydrogen production process - the hybrid sulfur-iodide electrolytic process (SE) and the calcium-bromide process (Ca-Br) -are under flow sheet development and not included in this report. While some features of the balance-of-plant requirements are common to all hydrogen production processes, some details will apply only to the specific needs of individual processes.

  4. Annual Colorado Rare Plant Symposium: G1 Plants of Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    leaves San Juan NF revising Management Plan ­ make sure it is included, although it occurs on the Rio (Tamara Naumann) has no resources to survey for this species, focus is on weed management. CNE population. Can survey for this species almost any time of year. In Arches NP, sand blowing over the plants

  5. Sixth Annual Colorado Rare Plant Symposium Overview of G2 Plants of Northern Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sixth Annual Colorado Rare Plant Symposium Overview of G2 Plants of Northern Colorado 9:00 am - 4 Anticlea (Zigadenus) vaginatus 3:15 Rare Plant Conservation Initiative ­ CNHP/TNC 4:00 Adjourn #12;

  6. Integrated Toxic Plant Management Handbook: Livestock Poisoning Plants of the Trans-Pecos Region of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Charles R.; McGinty, Allan; Carpenter, Bruce B.

    2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Photographs, plant descriptions, and symptoms of poisoning help ranchers identify toxic plants that may be harmful to their livestock in West Texas. There is also information on grazing, livestock management, and toxic plant control....

  7. Integrated Toxic Plant Management Handbook: Livestock Poisoning Plants of the Trans-Pecos Region of Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Charles R.; McGinty, Allan; Carpenter, Bruce B.

    2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Photographs, plant descriptions, and symptoms of poisoning help ranchers identify toxic plants that may be harmful to their livestock in West Texas. There is also information on grazing, livestock management, and toxic plant control....

  8. Methodology for Scaling Fusion Power Plant Availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lester M. Waganer

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, "Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the "teething" problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated "mature" subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.

  9. Magnetic Fusion Pilot Plant Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FNSF = Fusion Nuclear Science Facility CTF = Component Test Facility · Powerplantlike maintenance. · Targeted ultimate capabilities: ­ Fusion nuclear S&T development, component testing · Steady applicable to power plant · Demonstrate methods for fast replacement of in-vessel components ­ Net

  10. Systemic Signalling in Plant Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, David

    develop continuously throughout their life cycle, constantly initiating new or- gans. They doSystemic Signalling in Plant Development David Jackson, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring to the production of systemic signals that control the development of distant organs and tissues. Introduction

  11. Ram Village South Chiller Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    Winston Ram Village South Chiller Plant Dental Craige Campus Alumni Swain Stacy Thermal Student Planetarium Ackland Art Museum Research Chiller D 114 Chase Ave. APCF- Grounds Medical Morehead Stalling- Evans Sports Medicine Center Cobb Hall Ernie School Old Hospital Chiller Hanes Art Coker Wilson Battle

  12. Advanced nuclear plant control complex

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  13. Successful restoration of plant communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fant, Jeremie

    of restoration failure if seed source is incorrect #12;Unexpected results... Penstemon deustus (hot rock miles NEVADA UTAH IDAHOOREGON #12;Plant-focused restoration efforts Disturbed Site Cheatgrass (49%) Rock/Bare Ground (50%) Shrub (0.8%) Native Grass (0.7%) Cattle Dung (0.2%) Undisturbed Site Cheatgrass (0.7%) Rock

  14. Glutathione-S-conjugate transport in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rea, Philip A. (Ardmore, PA); Lu, Yu-Ping (Havertown, PA); Li, Ze-Sheng (Prospect Park, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes an isolated DNA encoding a plant GS-X pump polypeptide and an isolated preparation of a plant GS-X pump polypeptide. Also included is an isolated preparation of a nucleic acid which is antisense in orientation to a portion or all of a plant GS-X pump gene. The invention also includes a cells, vectors and transgenic plants having an isolated DNA encoding a plant GS-X pump and methods of use thereof. In addition, the invention relates to plant GS-X pump promoter sequences and the uses thereof.

  15. Plant Physiology: Manipulating Plant Growth with Solar Radiation Dennis Decoteau, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    Plant Physiology: Manipulating Plant Growth with Solar Radiation Dennis Decoteau, Ph.D. Department. Greenhouse Glazing & Solar Radiation Transmission Workshop, October 1998 © CCEA, Center for Controlled

  16. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling for inspection and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, John

    of potential applications for these models, for example, a single oil refining plant may inspect thousands in the petrochemical industry John Little A thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Statistics Group-temporal modelling for inspection and prediction of complex problems in the petrochemical industry John Little

  17. IsoTex: Texaco`s olefin skeletal isomerization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawicki, R.A.; Pellet, R.J.; Kuhlmann, E.J.; Huang, H.M.; O`Young, C.L.; Kessler, R.V.; Casey, D.G. [Texaco Research and Development, Beacon, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Texaco has developed a new process (IsoTex) for the skeletal isomerization of n-olefins. The IsoTex process can convert normal butenes to isobutylene or normal pentenes to isoamylenes. The resulting product stream is an excellent feed for MTBE, ETBE or TAME units. The process has isomerized an untreated refinery C4 raffinate stream from an MTBE plant. A kinetic model was developed for the butene system. This model accurately predicted IsoTex performance in a one barrel per day skid unit at a Gulf Coast chemical plant. Process economics have been calculated for a once through 54,000 BPD C{sub 4} isomerization plant as well as a 10,000 BPD plant for recycle to an existing MTBE reactor. Economics have also been completed for a 6,800 BPD pentene once through isomerization unit.

  18. Integrated Coal Gasification Power Plant Credit (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Integrated Coal Gasification Power Plant Credit states that an income taxpayer that makes a qualified investment in a new integrated coal gasification power plant or in the expansion of an existing...

  19. Chemicals for Plant Disease Control at Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, Kevin

    2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    common chemical names and the corresponding chemical name for each active ingredient. Kevin Ong* ?Assistant Professor and Extension Plant Pathologist, The Texas A&M University System Table 1. Plant disease control chemicals. Common name Chemical name 1...

  20. Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    This paper examines several cost-effective steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed central steam boiler plant replacement project at a very large semiconductor manufacturing...

  1. Power Plant Research and Siting Program (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Power Plant Research and Siting Act of 1971 established the Power Plant Research Program (PPRP) to evaluate electric generation issues in the state and recommend responsible, long-term...

  2. Minnesota Power Plant Siting Act (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act regulates the siting of large electric power generating plants, which are defined as plants designed for or capable of operating with a capacity of 50,000 kW or more. The policy of the...

  3. Florida Electrical Power Plant Siting Act (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Power Plant Siting Act (PPSA) is the state’s centralized process for licensing large power plants. One license—a certification— replaces local and state permits. Local governments and state...

  4. Plant Breeding Program COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradford, Kent

    Plant Breeding Program COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Office of the Dean Cereal Breeding Program 51 Acknowlegements 51 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Office in production agriculture, which included plant breeding, was necessary for California farmers to thrive

  5. Waste Management Trends in Texas Industrial Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, C. S.; Heffington, W. M.

    have become familiar with several plant waste management practices. This paper discusses waste management practices in industrial plants in Texas with particular attention to the requirements of the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission...

  6. Method to improve drought tolerance in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Kwak, June Myoung

    2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to increase drought resistance in plants is provided. The method comprises inhibiting or disabling inward-rectifying K.sup.+ (K.sup.+.sub.in) channels in the stomatal guard cells of the plant.

  7. Descriptions of Range and Pasture Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragsdale, Bobby; Welch, Tommy G.

    2000-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of common range and pasture plants are listed in this publication. The common and scientific name of each species are given, along with the species' value as a grazing plant for wildlife and livestock....

  8. Plant Diagnostic Clinic Services Offered & Fees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plant Diagnostic Clinic Services Offered & Fees Make the Most of a Beneficial Facility Visual without notice. Location Jefferson County Plant Diagnostic Clinic 15200 West 6th Avenue, Unit C Golden, CO

  9. Modeling water use at thermoelectric power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutberg, Michael J. (Michael Jacob)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The withdrawal and consumption of water at thermoelectric power plants affects regional ecology and supply security of both water and electricity. The existing field data on US power plant water use, however, is of limited ...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Wind Plant Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy and ClimateRenewable SystemsRenewable EnergyWind EnergyWind Plant Optimization Wind Plant Optimization swift21 swift20 swift19 swift18 swift17 swift16 swift15 swift14...

  11. BORON MOBILITY IN CASTOR BEAN PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, Denis Herisson da; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Muraoka, Takashi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil extracted from castor bean (Ricinus communis L. ) seedsthe B distribution in castor bean, as a tropical plant, ismobility of the B in castor bean plant were evaluated in the

  12. alters plant development: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which plant communities Minnesota, University of 8 Signal compounds involved with plant perception and response to microbes alter plant physiological activities and growth of...

  13. Feeding on Phytoestrogens: Implications of Estrogenic Plants for Primate Ecology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wasserman, Michael David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Johnson. 2009. The effects of plant defensive chemistry onT. Yokota. 2007. Progesterone: Its occurrence in plants andinvolvement in plant growth. Phytochemistry 68: 1664-1673.

  14. Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains plants radically improve the overall quality of the treated wastewa- ter compared to secondary plants

  15. Interdisciplinary Research and Training Program in the Plant Sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolk, C.P.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on plants continued. Topics include: Molecular basis of symbiotic plant-microbe interations; enzymatic mechanisms and regulation of plant cell wall biosynthesis; molecular mechanisms that regulate the expression of genes in plants; resistance of plants to environmental stress; studies on hormone biosynthesis and action; plant cell wall proteins; interaction of nuclear and organelle genomes; sensor transduction in plants; molecular mechanisms of trafficking in the plant cell; regulation of lipid metabolism; molecular bases of plant disease resistance mechanisms; biochemical and molecular aspects of plant pathogenesis; developmental biology of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria; environmental control of plant development and its relation to plant hormones.

  16. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    be utilized in a steam power plant to produce electricitytemperature reactor. A steam power plant is a large scaleworking fluid. A simple steam power plant is illustrated in

  17. abortion plants: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 247 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  18. aposematic spiny plants: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 239 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  19. ammunition plant radford: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 233 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  20. ammunition plant baraboo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 184 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  1. ammunition plant joliet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 184 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  2. antidiabetic plants bauhinia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 188 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  3. aube plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 262 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  4. antifungal plant defensins: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 220 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  5. ammunition plant milan: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 248 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  6. Conservation Screening Curves to Compare Efficiency Investments to Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, J.G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency Investments to Power Plants J. Koorney, A.H.Efficiency Investments to Power Plants Jonathan Koorney,Pollution, and Avoid Power Plant Construction. Testimony

  7. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tire Plant saved approximately 93,000 MMBtu and 875,000 annually after increasing steam system energy efficiency in their Union City, Tennessee, plant. Goodyear Tire Plant...

  8. Dirty kilowatts: America's most polluting power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2006, the US EPA tracked more than 1,400 fossil-fired power plants of varying sizes through its Acid Rain Program. This report ranks each of the 378 largest plants (generating at least 2 million megawatt-hours in 2006) for which both the most recent EPA emissions data and Energy Information Administration (EIA) electric generation data are available. The report ranks each plant based on emission rates, or pounds of pollutant for each megawatt-hour (or million megawatt-hours, in the case of mercury) the plant produced. It ranks the top fifty power plants polluters for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and mercury. A complete listing of all 378 plants is included as Appendix A. Appendix B contains overheads of an NETL presentation: Tracking new coal-fired power plants - coal's resurgence in electric power generation, 24 January 2007. The 12 states with the heaviest concentrations of the dirtiest power plants, in terms of total tons of carbon dioxide emitted, are: Texas (five, including two of the top 10 dirtiest plants); Pennsylvania (four); Indiana (four, including two of the top 10 dirtiest plants); Alabama (three); Georgia (three, including two of the top three dirtiest plants); North Carolina (three); Ohio (three); West Virginia (three); Wyoming (two); Florida (two); Kentucky (two); and New Mexico (two). Carbon dioxide emissions from power plants are now at roughly 2.5 billion tons per year. Power plants are responsible for about 30%-40% of all man-made CO{sub 2} emissions in the USA. Power plants, especially those that burn coal, are by far the largest single contributor of SO{sub 2} pollution in the United States. Power plant mercury emissions remain steady as compared to previous years. A searchable database ranking 378 U.S. power plants on carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and mercury pollution is available online at http://www.dirtykilowatts.org. 22 refs., 8 tabs., 2 apps.

  9. What You Should Know About Plant Diseases.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horne, C. Wendell; Smith, Harlan E.

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . From 1845 to 1860, plant disease caused a disaster in Irelantl. Late blight struck the potato- yrowing region and turned the fields into a black- ened, rotting mass. A million people diet1 because I the potato crop failed; numerous families.... OTHER CONDITIONS WHICH MAY CAUSE PLANT IN JURY 1. Drying winds 2. Excessive light 3. Excessive lime in the soil 4. Over-use of commercial fertilizer 5. Gas injury PARASITIC OR SAPROPHYTIC PLANTS MISTLETOE-Mistletoe is a parasitic flowering plant...

  10. Independent Activity Report, Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    National Laboratory - January 2014 Independent Activity Report, Richland Operations Office - April 2013 Independent Activity Report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - July...

  11. ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS Prepared For: California be obvious that large studies like these require the coordinated work of many people. We would first like from the Duke Energy South Bay and Morro Bay power plants and the PG&E Diablo Canyon Power Plant

  12. Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

  13. Maintenance implementation plan for B Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tritt, S.E.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The B Plant facility, is located in the 200 East Area at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. It consists of two major operating areas: the B Plant Canyon Building, and the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The B Plant was originally designed to chemically process spent nuclear fuels. After this initial mission was completed, the plant was modified to provide for the separation of strontium and cesium, individually, from the fission productwaste stream following plutonium and uranium recovery from irradiated reactor fuels in the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX). The recovered, purified, and concentrated strontium and cesium solutions were then transferred to the WESF for conversion to solid compounds, encapsulation, and interim storage. After strontium and cesium removal, the remaining waste was transferred from B Plant to tank farms. B Plantis an operating facility that is required to ensure safe storage And management of the WESF cesium and strontium capsules, as well as a substantial radiological inventory remaining in the plant from previous campaigns. There are currently no production activities at B Plant, but several operating systems are required to accomplish the current B Plant mission.B Plant receives and stores various chemicals from commercial suppliers for treatment of low-level waste generated at WESF and B Plant, generation of demineralized water, and conditioning of water used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning units. This report describes the maintenance of B Plant, including personnel training and schedules.

  14. Transgenic plants with altered senescence characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amasino, Richard M. (Madison, WI); Gan, Susheng (Lexington, KY); Noh, Yoo-Sun (Madison, WI)

    2002-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The identification of senescence-specific promoters from plants is described. Using information from the first senescence-specific promoter, SAG12 from Arabidopsis, other homologous promoters from another plant have been identified. Such promoters may be used to delay senescence in commercially important plants.

  15. Author Proof Plants on red alert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Martin

    Author Proof A Plants on red alert: do insects pay attention? H. Martin Schaefer* and Gregor Rolshausen Summary Two recent hypotheses have proposed that non-green plant colouration evolved as a defence against herbi- vores, either as protective colouration promoting handi- cap signals indicating plant

  16. Exploration of Compact Stellarators as Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Exploration of Compact Stellarators as Power Plants: Initial Results from ARIES-CS Study Farrokh, see: http://aries.ucsd.edu/ #12;Exploration and Optimization of Compact Stellarators as Power Plants in the context of power plant studies, e.g., particle loss Divertor (location, particle and energy distribution

  17. Ash Chemistry in MSW Incineration Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ash Chemistry in MSW Incineration Plants: Advanced Characterization and Thermodynamic Introduction to Municipal Solid Waste Incineration 2 Chapter 2 Plants Considered and Samples Collected 5 Chapter 3 Mapping of Ash Chemistry in MSWI Plants 8 Chapter 4 Advanced Characterization Methods 12 4

  18. FUSION POWER PLANTS GOALS AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    FUSION POWER PLANTS ­ GOALS AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES Farrokh Najmabadi Dept. of Electrical for fusion power plants is given and their economic, safety, and environmental features are explored. Concep- tual design studies predict that fusion power plants will be capital intensive and will be used

  19. Plant nuclear bodies Peter J Shaw1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Peter

    Plant nuclear bodies Peter J Shaw1 and John WS Brown2 Knowledge of the organization bodies have been examined in plants, and recently, various other sub-nuclear domains that are involved. Until recently, the only plant nuclear bodies to be in any way characterized were the nucleolus [11

  20. Solar thermionic power plant (II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abou-Elfotouh, F.; Almassary, M.; Fatmi, H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been shown that the geometric configuration of a central receiver solar electric power plant (SEPP) can be optimized for the high power density and concentration required for the operation of a thermionic converter. The working period of a Thermionic Diode Converter constructed on the top of a SEPP in Riyadh area is found to be 5 to 6 hours per day in winter and 6 to 8 hours in summer. 17 refs.

  1. Energy Efficiency in Chilling Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Energy Efficiency in Chilling Plants Xin Wang????PhD. CandidateBuilding Energy Research Centre, Tsinghua University2006.10.11 2 Index ? Improve COP of chillers ? Increase load ratio? Decrease cooling water temperature? Increase chilled water... temperature ? Reduce energy use of pumps ? Avoid unexpected bypass flow? Keep Working on higher efficiency point? Optimized VFD control Report of On-site Survey, 2005, 20063 1.1 Improve load ratio ? Characteristic of the centrifugal chillers Decrease...

  2. Nuclear plant irradiated steel handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldfield, W.; Oldfield, F.M.; Lombrozo, P.M.; McConnell, P.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This reference handbook presents selected information extracted from the EPRI reactor surveillance program database, which contains the results from surveillance program reports on 57 plants and 116 capsules. Tabulated data includes radiation induced temperature shifts, capsule irradiation conditions and statistical features of the Charpy V-notch curves. General information on the surveillance materials is provided and the Charpy V-notch energy results are presented graphically.

  3. Plant Level Energy Performance Benchmarking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, T. W.

    then be used to construct models that may act as the basis for assessing individual plant performance relative to a peer group. Database Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey The Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), administered by the EIA....S. economy as defined by the Office of Management and Budget. With a sample size of 22,173 establishments, the MECS was undertaken to represent approximately 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which translates to roughly 98 percent...

  4. Canaigre, The New Tanning Plant.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, H. H.; Adriance, Duncan

    1896-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ........................................ Winkler County... 40 miles west of Houston. Florida.................... 12.0 70 71 Ten months old; grown on black, heavy soil........ Seven^months old; cultivated-................................... 16.5 22.5 72 Twelve months old; cultivated... important con? sideration; the first car load of the root having been shipped in 188? from Tucson, Arizona, by Mr. E. J. Kerr, who has, since that time; be? come largely interested in the commercial development of the cultivated plant. But the Mexicans...

  5. Morris Plant Energy Efficiency Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betczynski, M. T.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . These valves affected the steam balance by leaking steam to lower pressure systems or to the atmosphere. Repairs to these valves enabled improved control of the medium pressure steam systems facility-wide. Since the Morris plant is energy integrated across..., the steam demand of each turbine has decreased, while minimizing deposit formation in the turbines. A facility-wide steam trap testing program was established in 2001. Numerous steam traps were found to be leaking or plugged. Replacement of these traps...

  6. B PLANT DOCUMENTED SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DODD, E.N.; KERR, N.R.

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the documented safety analysis (DSA) and Central Plateau Remediation Project (CP) requirements that apply to surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities at the 221-B Canyon Building and ancillary support structures (B Plant). The document replaces BHI-010582, Documented Safety Analysis for the B-Plant Facility. The B Plant is non-operational, deactivated and undergoing long term S&M prior to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This DSA is compliant with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' The DSA was developed in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-1120-98, Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities (DOE 1998) per Table 2 of 10 CFR 830 Appendix A, DOE Richland Operation Office (RL) direction (02-ABD-0053, Fluor Hanford Nuclear Safety Basis Strategy and Criteria) for facilities in long term S&M, and RL Direction (02-ABD-0091, ''FHI Nuclear Safety Expectations for Nuclear Facilities in Surveillance and Maintenance''). A crosswalk was prepared to identify potential inconsistencies between the previous B Plant safety analysis and DOE-STD-1120-98 guidance. In general, the safety analysis met the criteria of DOE-STD-1120-98. Some format and content changes have been made, including incorporating recent facility modifications and updating the evaluation guidelines and control selection criteria in accordance with RL direction (02-ABD-0053). The facility fire hazard analysis (FHA) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) are appended to this DSA as an aid to the users, to minimize editorial redundancy, and to provide an efficient basis for update.

  7. Michigan Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,CubicWithdrawals (MillionperYear Jan FebSamenuclear power plants,

  8. The 6th Annual Colorado Rare Plant Symposium: G2 Plants of Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The 6th Annual Colorado Rare Plant Symposium: G2 Plants of Colorado September 11, 2009 8 am - 4 pm, endangered, candidate, and petitioned plant species. The second symposium, held in Pagosa Springs in 2005, covered the globally critically imperiled (G1) plant species of Colorado that are not federally listed

  9. Plant Characteristics Associated with Natural Enemy Abundance at Michigan Native Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landis, Doug

    BEHAVIOR Plant Characteristics Associated with Natural Enemy Abundance at Michigan Native Plants A. K. FIEDLER1 AND D. A. LANDIS Department of Entomology, 204 Center for Integrated Plant Systems populations by providing them with plant resources such as pollen and nectar. Insects are known to respond

  10. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  11. Methods of saccharification of polysaccharides in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, John; Fake, Gina

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Saccharification of polysaccharides of plants is provided, where release of fermentable sugars from cellulose is obtained by adding plant tissue composition. Production of glucose is obtained without the need to add additional .beta.-glucosidase. Adding plant tissue composition to a process using a cellulose degrading composition to degrade cellulose results in an increase in the production of fermentable sugars compared to a process in which plant tissue composition is not added. Using plant tissue composition in a process using a cellulose degrading enzyme composition to degrade cellulose results in decrease in the amount of cellulose degrading enzyme composition or exogenously applied cellulase required to produce fermentable sugars.

  12. Kansas City Plant Celebrates Safety Milestone

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gang of motorcycle riders arrived at the NNSA's Kansas City Plant on July 1 to help celebrate a significant safety achievement - working nearly five million hours, covering a one-year period without a lost-time injury. The bikers -- some of whom are plant employees -- represent Bikers Against Child Abuse, the local nonprofit selected to receive a $5,000 donation as part of the plant's safety achievement celebration. The organization was selected because it aligns with the plant's community outreach focus on Family Safety & Security and partnership with the plant's union members.

  13. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1986-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  14. PET Plants: Imaging Natural Processes for Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    PET Plants: Imaging Natural Processes for Renewable Energy from Plants Benjamin A. Babst Goldhaber Postdoctoral Fellow Medical Department Plant Imaging #12;PET imaging for medicine Tumor Diagnosis Biomedical research and plants #12;Brookhaven's Unique Capabilities Movement, distribution, and metabolism

  15. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    Plant Production 5000 kg/day Solar Plant Module Cost (with2, which was a solar thermal plant built by the Departmentfor a continuous solar thermochemical plant was modeled and

  16. Genomic Aspects of Research Involving Polyploid Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Almost all extant plant species have spontaneously doubled their genomes at least once in their evolutionary histories, resulting in polyploidy which provided a rich genomic resource for evolutionary processes. Moreover, superior polyploid clones have been created during the process of crop domestication. Polyploid plants generated by evolutionary processes and/or crop domestication have been the intentional or serendipitous focus of research dealing with the dynamics and consequences of genome evolution. One of the new trends in genomics research is to create synthetic polyploid plants which provide materials for studying the initial genomic changes/responses immediately after polyploid formation. Polyploid plants are also used in functional genomics research to study gene expression in a complex genomic background. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in genomics research involving ancient, young, and synthetic polyploid plants, with a focus on genome size evolution, genomics diversity, genomic rearrangement, genetic and epigenetic changes in duplicated genes, gene discovery, and comparative genomics. Implications on plant sciences including evolution, functional genomics, and plant breeding are presented. It is anticipated that polyploids will be a regular subject of genomics research in the foreseeable future as the rapid advances in DNA sequencing technology create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring genomic and transcriptomic changes in polyploid plants. The fast accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement.

  17. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), lubricating oil and itsthe environment. Use of the MTBE additive in gasoline wasof gasoline laced with MTBE into groundwater resulted in

  18. Agricultural and Resource Economics Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Aaron; Zilberman, David; Saitone, Tina; Sexton, Richard J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a natural-gas derivative, werebattle between advocates for ethanol and those for MTBE.MTBE became the dominant additive because it was less

  19. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Priyank

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of ethanol, isobutene and MTBE: Experiments and modeling”,of ethanol, isobutene and MTBE: Experiments and modeling”,of ethanol, isobutene and MTBE: Experiments and modeling”,

  20. Cometabolic bioremediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intrinsic bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater atcontaminants, e.g. PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane, atrazine,Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has also been remediated

  1. Four: Evaluating Reforms in the Implementation of Hazardous Waste Policies in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutter, W. Bowman; DeShazo, J.R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the increasing extent of MTBE contamination from USTs. Onlyof groundwater supplies with MTBE, a gasoline additive.contamination, especially by MTBE, have grown in importance.

  2. Different Strategies for Biological Remediation of Perchlorate Contaminated Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yue

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Association (NGWA) Conference on MTBE and Perchlorate, 2004.at NGWA Conference on MTBE and Perchlorate. June 4. 2004.Association Conference on MTBE and Perchlorate: Assessment,

  3. First Annual U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Joint Genome Institute User Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Various

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Genome Analysis of MTBE-Degrading Beta- Proteobacteriummethyl tert- butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 can alsooften co-contaminants with MTBE in groundwater, including

  4. Regulatory Takings and Environmental Regulation in NAFTA's Chapter 11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aisbett, Emma; Karp, Larry; McAusland, Carol

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxygenates (ethanol and MTBE), and that it was possible forof the gasoline additive MTBE, which uses Methanol as anand regu- lations banning MTBE expropriated parts of its

  5. A Multi-Country Analysis of Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels and Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethanol, or NGLs for MTBE, ETBE is not included here inmethanol, ethanol, MTBE, or ETBE, is accounted for here. 12)methanol, ethanol MTBE, and ETBE. 10) Volumetric reduction

  6. A MULTI-COUNTRY ANALYSIS OF LIFECYCLE EMISSIONS FROM TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND MOTOR VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethanol, or NGLs for MTBE, ETBE is not included here inmethanol, ethanol, MTBE, or ETBE, is accounted for here. 12)methanol, ethanol MTBE, and ETBE. 10) Volumetric reduction

  7. Small Power Plant Exemption (06-SPPE-1) Imperial County

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small Power Plant Exemption (06-SPPE-1) Imperial County NILAND GAS TURBINE PLANT COMMISSIONDECISION ENERGY COMMISSION Small Power Plant Exemption (06-SPPE-1) Imperial County NILAND GAS TURBINE PLANT GAS TURBINE PLANT SMALL POWER PLANT EXEMPTION DOCKET NO. 06-SPPE-1 The California Energy Commission

  8. Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muegge, Mark A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    of all insect groups. Scale insects are generally small ( 1 /4 inch long or less) and often mimic various plant parts, such as bark and buds. Other species appear as small, white, waxy blotches or small bits of cotton on leaves and stems. The one... crawlers are pre- sent, they will fall onto the paper, where you can eas- ily see them moving about. Using natural enemies to control scales Many natural enemies?small parasitic wasps, lady- bird beetles and some fungi?can significantly reduce scale insect...

  9. PEATGAS pilot plant operating results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biljetina, R.; Punwani, D.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Institute of Gas Technology has been developing the PEATGAS process for the conversion of peat to synthetic fuels. A program has recently been completed for the pilot-plant-scale testing of the process. In this scheme, peat is gasified in a two-stage reactor system, which operates at temperatures up to 1750/sup 0/F and pressures up to 500 psig. The process can be controlled to maximize the production of either substitute natural gas (SNG) or liquid hydrocarbons. The technical feasibility of the process was demonstrated in a series of five gasification tests. Highlights of this operating program are presented in this paper.

  10. PEATGAS pilot plant operating results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biljetina, R.; Punwani, D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Institute of Gas Technology has been developing the PEATGAS process for the conversion of peat to synthetic fuels. A program has recently been completed for the pilot-plant-scale testing of the process. In this scheme, peat is gasified in a two-stage reactor system, which operates at temperatures up to 1750/sup 0/F and pressures up to 500 psig. The process can be controlled to maximize the production of either substitute natural gas (SNG) or liquid hydrocarbons. The technical feasibility of the process was demonstrated in a series of five gasification tests. Highlights of this operating program are presented in this paper.

  11. Arkansas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels forA 6 J 9 UFeet)nuclear power plants,

  12. ARM - Lesson Plans: Planting Trees

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, Alaska OutreachMakingPast Sea LevelPlanting

  13. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  14. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook.

  15. Bryan Rubber Plant - International Shoe Company, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponder, W. M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BRYAN RUBBER PLANT - INTERNATIONAL SHOE COhIPANY, INC. \\\\'illis hl. Ponder, P. E. President ACR Energy Engineering, Inc. Austin, Texas ABSTRACT This paper is an energy case study of a failing American manufacturing process suffering from... plant was envisioned alongside the main production building between the original production building and the administration building. The physical plant consists of: MANUFACTURING BUILDING . single story . concrcte floor on one level . walls...

  16. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII genes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Lam, Hon-Ming (Hong Kong, HK); Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun (Woodside, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the

  17. Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    TexasAgriculturalExtensionService The Texas A&M University System Reducing Livestock Losses to Toxic Plants B-1499 Sand Shinnery L Perennial Broomweed Texas Agricultural Extension Service a71 Zerle L. Carpenter, Director a71 The Texas A&M University... ................... ...... ... 6 BehaviorModification.................................. 7 Management Techniques forReducingToxic Plant Losses... 8 LiteratureCited........................................ 9 Poisonous Plants ofTexas...............................10 Editor: Judy Winn...

  18. Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    TexasAgriculturalExtensionService The Texas A&M University System Reducing Livestock Losses to Toxic Plants B-1499 Sand Shinnery L Perennial Broomweed Texas Agricultural Extension Service a71 Zerle L. Carpenter, Director a71 The Texas A&M University... ................... ...... ... 6 BehaviorModification.................................. 7 Management Techniques forReducingToxic Plant Losses... 8 LiteratureCited........................................ 9 Poisonous Plants ofTexas...............................10 Editor: Judy Winn...

  19. Molybdenum nutrition of the cotton plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, Jagdish V.

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that plants receiving molybdenum exhibited a greater capacity to c?nvert accumulated inorganic phosphorus into ?rgani? phosphorus than those lacking the element. Spencer (?0) pointed out that malybdate is a powerful competitive inhibitor of the acid..., Molybdenum cycle in the soil..................... Representative 30-day-?ld c?tt?n plants ?f the plus and minus molybdenum series* Plants in the right hand beaker are in minus molybdenum s?luti?n. . . . Figure 3* Alcohol s?luble amino acids in leaves...

  20. Enterprise Assessments Review, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant -...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    December, 2014 Review of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Conduct of Maintenance Recovery Plan The Office of Nuclear Safety and Environmental Assessments, within the U.S. Department...