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Sample records for mt ni pd

  1. Ni/Pd core/shell nanoparticles supported on graphene as a highly...

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    NiPd coreshell nanoparticles supported on graphene as a highly active and reusable ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NiPd coreshell nanoparticles supported on ...

  2. Electronic and structural influence of Ni by Pd substitution on the hydrogenation properties of TiNi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emami, Hoda; Souques, Raphaeel; Crivello, Jean-Claude; Cuevas, Fermin

    2013-02-15

    In Ti (Ni,Pd) compounds, the hydrogen capacity and the stability of their hydrides decreases when Ni is partially substituted by larger in size Pd atoms. To understand this peculiar behaviour, the crystal structure of TiNi{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x}D{sub y} (x=0.1, 0.3 and 0.5) deuterides and the stability of TiNi{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x} (0{<=}x{<=}0.5) intermetallics and their hydrides have been investigated by both neutron diffraction experiments and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. Neutron diffraction shows that at x=0.1 and 0.3, deuterium absorption induces tetragonal distortion in intermetallics sublattice whereas at x=0.5 the cubic symmetry is preserved. The structural properties and the heat of formation of TiNi{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x} (0{<=}x{<=}0.5) intermetallics and their hydrides have been determined by DFT. These results show that Pd substitution increases the stability of the intermetallics and decreases the stability of the hydrides, which confirms the rule of reverse stability. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of Ti(Ni,Pd)Hy hydrides in the I4/mmm space group. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neutron Diffraction and DFT calculations have been done on TiNi{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x}H{sub y} compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic effect of Pd substitution governs the hydrogenation properties in TiNi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rule of reverse stability in intermetallics/hydrides is observed with Pd substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrogen atoms in the I4/mmm structure prefer to occupy the 16n site.

  3. Effects of aging on the characteristics of TiNiPd shape memory alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Congchun

    2008-07-15

    TiNiPd thin films have been deposited on glass substrate using R.F. magnetron sputtering. Effects of annealing and aging on the microstructure, phase transformation behaviors and shape memory effects of these thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimeter, tensile tests and internal friction characteristics. The TiNiPd thin films annealed at 750 deg. C exhibit uniform martensite/austenite transformations and shape memory effect. Aging at 450 deg. C for 1 h improved the uniformity of transformations and shape memory effect. Long time aging decreased transformation temperatures and increased the brittleness of TiNiPd thin films.

  4. Characterizations Of Precipitate Phases In a Ti-Ni-Pd Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Fan; Kovarik, Libor; Phillips, Patrick J.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Mills, M. J.

    2012-06-01

    Precipitates in the Ti46Ni37.5Pd16.5 alloy were investigated by electron diffraction and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The phase content and stability were determined at several different temperatures and times. Aging at 400 C for an hour results in a new phase, which is consumed by P-phase at longer aging time. At 450 C, the new phase appears first, and then coexists with P-phase. At 500 C, the entire alloy transformed into the new phase. At 550 C, Ti3(Ni,Pd)4 phase begins to form.

  5. Bulk amorphous Pd{endash}Ni{endash}Fe{endash}P alloys: Preparation and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, T.D.; He, Y.; Schwarz, R.B. [Materials Science and Technology Division, MS K765, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Bulk amorphous alloys of Pd{sub x}Ni{sub y}Fe{sub 80{minus}x{minus}y}P{sub 20} (25{le}x{le}60, 20{le}y{le}55, x+y{ge}60) were prepared by a flux-melting and water-quenching method. Seven-mm diameter glassy rods of Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40{minus}x}Fe{sub x}P{sub 20} (0{le}x{le}20) were studied in greater detail. For these alloys, the difference between the crystallization and glass transition temperatures ranges from 102 K for x=0 to 53 K for x=20. In this composition range, the reduced glass transition temperature, T{sub rg}, ranges from 0.66 to 0.57. The change in density upon crystallization ranges from 0.24{plus_minus}0.04{percent} for x=0 to 1.33{plus_minus}0.24{percent} for x=10. The partial molar volume of Fe in amorphous Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40{minus}x}Fe{sub x}P{sub 20} alloys is significantly larger than the molar volume of (metastable) fcc Fe. This, as well as a comparison with the molar volumes of crystalline compounds, suggests chemically selective Fe{endash}Pd bonding in these glasses. {copyright} {ital 1999 Materials Research Society.}

  6. Bulk glass formation in the Pd{endash}Ni{endash}P system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Y.; Schwarz, R.B.; Archuleta, J.I. [Center for Materials Science, MS K-765, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Center for Materials Science, MS K-765, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Bulk amorphous Pd{endash}Ni{endash}P rods with diameters ranging from 10 to 25 mm were prepared by a fluxing technique over a wide composition range. For most bulk glassy alloys studied, the difference between the glass transition temperature and the crystallization temperature, {ital T}{sub {ital x}}{minus}{ital T}{sub {ital g}}, is larger than 90 K. Of all the alloy compositions examined, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} has the highest glass formability, and 300-g bulk amorphous cylinders, 25 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length, were easily and repeatedly formed. This size, however, is not an upper limit. The elastic properties of these bulk amorphous alloys were determined by a resonant ultrasound spectroscopy technique.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}Pd magnetically recyclable catalyst for hydrogenation reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karao?lu, E.; zel, U.; Caner, C.; Baykal, A.; Summak, M.M.; Szeri, H.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Novel superparamagnetic NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}Pd magnetically recyclable catalyst was fabricated through co-precipitation. ? It could be reused several times without significant loss in catalytic activity for hydrogenation reaction. ? No further modification of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}Pd magnetically recyclable catalyst is necessary for utilization as catalyst. -- Abstract: Herein we report the fabrication and characterization magnetically recyclable catalysts of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}Pd nanocomposite as highly effective catalysts for reduction reactions in liquid phase. The reduction Pd{sup 2+} was accomplished with polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400) instead of sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was prepared by sonochemically using FeCI{sub 3}6H{sub 2}O and NiCl{sub 2}. The chemical characterization of the product was done with X-ray diffractometry, Infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UVVis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetry and inductively coupled plasma. Thus formed NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}Pd MRCs showed a very high activity in reduction reactions of 4-nitro aniline and 1,3-dinitrobenzene in liquid phase. It was found out that the catalytic activity of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}Pd MRCs on the reduction of 4-nitro aniline and 1,3-dinitrobenzene in liquid phase are between 9993% and 9893%, respectively. Magnetic character of this system allowed recovery and multiple use without significant loss of its catalytic activity. It is found that NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}Pd MRCs showed very efficient catalytic activity and multiple usability.

  8. Effect of electronic structures on catalytic properties of CuNi alloy and Pd in MeOH-related reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, An-Pang; Kimura, Tomofumi; Suzuki, Yukinori; Kameoka, Satoshi; Shimoda, Masahiko; Ishii, Yasushi

    2013-04-14

    We investigated the catalytic properties of a CuNi solid solution and Pd for methanol-related reactions and associated valence electronic structures. Calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed that the CuNi alloy has a similar valence electronic structure to Pd and hence they exhibited similar CO selectivities in steam reforming of methanol and decomposition of methanol. Samples prepared by various processes were found to have similar CO selectivities. We conjecture that alloying of Cu and Ni dramatically alters the valence electronic structures, making it similar to that of Pd so that the alloy exhibits similar catalytic properties to Pd. First-principles slab calculations of surface electronic structures support this conjecture.

  9. Quantum valley Hall states and topological transitions in Pt(Ni, Pd)-decorated silicene: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Bao; Zhang, Jiayong; Wang, Yicheng; Yang, Zhongqin

    2014-12-28

    The electronic states and topological behaviors of Pt(Ni, Pd)-decorated silicene are investigated by using an ab-initio method. All the three kinds of the adatoms prefer hollow sites of the silicene, guaranteeing the Dirac cones unbroken. The Pt(Ni, Pd)-decorated silicene systems all present quantum valley Hall (QVH) states with the gap opened exactly at the Fermi level. The gaps of the QVH states can be increased substantially by applying a positive electric field. Very fascinating phase transitions from QVH to quantum spin Hall (QSH) and then to QVH again are achieved in the Pt/Ni-decorated silicene when a negative electric field is applied. The QSH state in the Pd case with a negative electric field is, however, quenched because of relatively larger Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) than the intrinsic SOC in the system. Our findings may be useful for the applications of silicene-based devices in valleytronics and spintronics.

  10. Thermally enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy behaviors of ultrathin [Co/Pd]{sub n} multilayers via NiO{sub x} capping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Woo Seong; Lee, Ja Bin; An, Gwang Guk; Yang, Seung Mo; Kim, Jae Hong; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-06-01

    We report the enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) features of ultrathin [Co/Pd]{sub 3} multilayers (MLs) employing a NiO{sub x} insertion layer at high annealing temperatures. Thermally enhanced PMA in [Co/Pd]{sub 3}/NiO{sub x} (capping layer) MLs were achieved at a specific capping layer thickness, while no PMA responses were observed for a NiO{sub x} (buffer layer)/[Co/Pd]{sub 3} ML, regardless of NiO{sub x} thickness. X-ray diffraction observations, including rocking curves, identified the relatively different crystalline characteristics of the NiO{sub x} capping and buffer layers. Origin of the enhanced PMAs of [Co/Pd]{sub 3} MLs containing a NiO{sub x} capping layer is described based on the NiO{sub x} capping effect possibly providing additional Co/Oxide i-PMA under high-temperature annealing.

  11. Diversity of Functionalized Germanium Zintl Clusters: Syntheses and Theoretical Studies of [Ge9PdPPh3]3- and [Ni@(Ge9PdPPh3)]2-

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Zhong-Ming; Zhao, Ya-Fan; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai S.

    2009-09-10

    A new Zintl cluster [Ge9PdPPh3]3- has been isolated as (2,2,2-crypt)K+ salt through the reaction of K4Ge9 and Pd[PPh3]4 in ethylenediamine solutions and characterized via single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The as-prepared bimetallic [Ge9PdPPh3]3- cluster could successfully trap a nickel atom to form a trimetallic cluster [Ni@(Ge9PdPPh3)]2-. The coordination of Ge94- by PdPPh3 induces a one-electron oxidation and encapsulation of the Ni atom into the Ge93- cage leads to a further one-electron oxidation and a geometry transformation from C4v (nido) to C3v (closo).

  12. Effective core potential investigation of Ni, Pd, and Pt and their monohydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohlfing, C.M.; Hay, P.J.; Martin, R.L.

    1986-08-01

    The nickel, palladium, and platinum atoms and their monohydrides are investigated using effective core potentials (ECP's) recently introduced by Hay and Wadt (J. Chem. Phys. 82, 270, 299 (1985)). The palladium and platinum ECP's include relativistic effects. Two types of ECP's, which differ in their definition of the core region, are used in conjunction with large valence basis sets including f-italic functions. Electron correlation is incorporated by Mo-dash-barller--Plesset perturbation theory through fourth order. The results demonstrate the success of the ECP approximation: they are similar in quality to those of all-electron studies and at the same time are achieved at a reduced computational cost. Total correlation energies obtained with both types of ECP's are compared, and are found to be very sensitive to details of the basis set. Correlation effects are treated more consistently by the ECP's which include the outermost core orbitals in the valence region. The relative ordering of molecular states is calculated to be /sup 2/..delta..NiH, /sup 2/..sigma../sup +/ < /sup 2/..delta.. < /sup 2/Pi for PdH, and /sup 2/..delta..roughly-equal/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/

  13. Phase stabilities of pyrite-related MTCh compounds (M=Ni, Pd, Pt; T=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; Ch=S, Se, Te): A systematic DFT study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachhuber, Frederik; Krach, Alexander; Furtner, Andrea; Söhnel, Tilo; Peter, Philipp; Rothballer, Jan; Weihrich, Richard

    2015-03-15

    Pyrite-type and related systems appear for a wide range of binary and ternary combinations of transition metals and main group elements that form Zintl type dumbbell anion units. Those representatives with 20 valence electrons exhibit an extraordinary structural flexibility and interesting properties as low-gap semiconductors or thermoelectric and electrode materials. This work is devoted to the systematic exploration of novel compounds within the class of MTCh compounds (M=Ni, Pd, Pt; T=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; Ch=S, Se, Te) by means of density functional calculations. Their preferred structures are predicted from an extended scheme of colored pyrites and marcasites. To determine their stabilities, competing binary MT{sub 2} and MCh{sub 2} boundary phases are taken into account as well as ternary M{sub 3}T{sub 2}Ch{sub 2} and M{sub 2}T{sub 3}Ch{sub 3} systems. Recently established stability diagrams are presented to account for MTCh ordering phenomena with a focus on a not-yet-reported ordering variant of the NiAs{sub 2} type. Due to the good agreement with experimental data available for several PtTCh systems, the predictions for the residual systems are considered sufficiently accurate. - Graphical abstract: Compositional and structural stability of MTCh compounds is investigated from first principle calculations. A conceptional approach is presented to study and predict novel stable and metastable compounds and structures of low gap semiconductors with TCh dumbbell units that are isoelectronic and structurally related to pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Study of compositional stability of MTCh vs. M{sub 3}T{sub 2}Ch{sub 2} and M{sub 2}T{sub 3}Ch{sub 3} compounds. • Study of structural stability of known and novel MTCh compounds. • Prediction of novel stable and metastable structures and compounds isoelectronic to pyrite, FeS{sub 2}.

  14. Crystal structure and hydrogenation properties of pseudo-binary Mg{sub 6}Pd{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5} complex metallic alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuevas, F.; Latroche, M.

    2009-10-15

    The crystal structure of the Ni-substituted Mg{sub 6.10(2)}Pd{sub 0.52(2)}Ni{sub 0.41(2)} complex metallic alloy has been determined by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction. The reaction of this compound at 573 K towards deuterium absorption for pressures up to 23 bar has also been studied. The crystal structure of Mg{sub 6.10(2)}Pd{sub 0.52(2)}Ni{sub 0.41(2)} compound was determined in the light of Samson's [Acta Crystallogr. B 28 (1972) 936) and Makongo's (Philos. Mag. 86 (2006) 427] models for the binary Mg{sub 6}Pd compound. It crystallizes in F4-bar3m space group with lattice parameter 20.13331(7) A. The refined unit-cell composition is Mg{sub 342(1)}Pd{sub 29(1)}Ni{sub 23(1)} with Z=56. Nickel by palladium substitution is not fully random. Nickel atoms preferentially locate on Pd sites with low coordination number due to steric effects. Deuterium uptake is 9.6 D/f.u. under the given conditions of pressure and temperature. Upon absorption, the intermetallic compound disproportionates into MgD{sub 2}, Mg{sub 5}Pd{sub 2} and Mg{sub 2}NiD{sub 4} phases. The Mg{sub 2}NiD{sub 4} phase is observed to crystallize in the orthorhombic LT2 modification for which an averaged crystal structure in the Pcc2 space group is proposed. - Graphical abstract: Coordination polyhedron around site Mg14 in pseudobinary Mg{sub 6}(Pd,Ni) compounds.

  15. Absolute timing measurements of the Ni-like Pd and Sn soft-x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staub, F.; Braud, M.; Balmer, J.E.; Nilsen, J.

    2005-10-15

    The absolute time of emission of the x-ray laser output with respect to the arrival of a 100-ps pump pulse has been measured with the aid of a calibrated timing fiducial. The results show the x-ray laser to appear up to 60 ps (80 ps) before the peak of the pump pulse in the case of the Sn (Pd) x-ray laser, which is in good agreement with simulations obtained from the LASNEX and CRETIN codes. The pulse duration was found to be {approx}45 ps for both the Sn and the Pd x-ray lasers.

  16. Paramagnetism, superparamagnetism, and spin-glass behavior in bulk amorphous Pd{endash}Ni{endash}Fe{endash}P alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, T.D.; Schwarz, R.B.; Thompson, J.D. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Materials Science and Technology Division, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of bulk amorphous Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40{minus}x}Fe{sub x}P{sub 20} (x=0{endash}17.5) alloys. For Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} (x=0), the magnetic susceptibility consists of temperature-independent and Curie{endash}Weiss-type terms. Alloys with x{ge}5 are paramagnetic at high temperatures. With decreasing temperature, the amorphous alloys become superparamagnetic. At even lower temperatures, and under a weak applied magnetic field, these alloys are spin glasses, as evidenced by static and dynamic magnetic measurements. The spin-freezing temperature increases with increasing iron content and this is attributed to the role of the Ruderman{endash}Kittel{endash}Kasuya{endash}Yosida interaction in creating the spin-glass state. The occurrence of a reentrant spin-glass behavior on cooling (superparamagnetism-to-ferromagnetism-to-spin-glass transition) is also observed for x=17.5 at a field {ge}50 Oe. An unexpected result is that the ferromagnetic state in the present bulk metallic glasses is {ital field induced}. Evidence for the field-induced ferromagnetic-like order is obtained from (a) straight regions in the susceptibility versus temperature curves measured at various fields, (b) an Arrott plot, and (c) time-independent magnetization. With increasing applied field, the spin-freezing temperature decreases and the Curie temperature increases, broadening the temperature range of the field-induced ferromagnetic-like state. The temporal decay of the thermoremanent magnetization in the amorphous alloy with x=17.5 is slower than that in typical crystalline spin glasses. The spin-freezing temperature of the amorphous alloy with x=17.5 decreases approximately logarithmically with applied field, which differs from the prediction of N{acute e}el{close_quote}s model for spin glasses. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Suppression of the spin pumping in Pd/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayers with nano-oxide layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Duck-Ho; Kim, Hong-Hyoun; You, Chun-Yeol

    2011-08-15

    We demonstrate that the spin pumping effect can be effectively suppressed with a nano-oxide layer. Spin pumping effect manifests itself by an enhancement of the Gilbert damping parameter in normal metal/ferromagnetic hetero-structures, while many spintronics devices prefer smaller damping parameter. Since the spin pumping effect is directly related with the spin dependent interface conductance, we can modify the spin pumping by altering the interface conductance with the nano-oxide layer. We prepared series of Pd/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayers with different pausing time between Pd and Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} depositions in order to control the interface conductance. The Gilbert damping parameters are determined from the line-width measurements in the ferromagnetic resonance spectra for each pausing time sample. They are 0.0490, 0.0296, 0.0278, and 0.0251 for 0, 6, 30, and 60 s pausing time, respectively. We find that the damping parameter of Pd/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} is almost recovered to one of the Cu/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayer with 60 s pausing time, while the static magnetic properties are not noticeably changed.

  18. Microstructure and transformation behavior of Ni{sub 24.7}Ti{sub 50.3}Pd{sub 25} high temperature shape-memory alloy with Sc micro-addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramaiah, K.V.; Saikrishna, C.N.; Gouthama; Bhaumik, S.K.

    2015-08-15

    NiTiPd shape-memory alloys (SMAs) are potential functional materials for use as solid-state actuators in the temperature range 100–250 °C. The present study investigates the effect of 1.0 at.% Sc micro-addition to Ni{sub 24.7}Ti{sub 50.3}Pd{sub 25} alloy, Sc replacing either Ti or Ni. Results show that all the three alloys studied have stable transformation behavior on stress-free thermal cycling and hence, are suitable for cyclic actuation applications. However, the addition of Sc to NiTiPd alloy leads to decrease of transformation temperatures, the magnitude of decrease being greater for the alloy with Sc replacing Ni. The martensite finish (M{sub f}) temperature of 181 °C for the NiTiPd alloy decreased to 139 °C for Sc replacing Ti and 83 °C for Sc replacing Ni. Also, the indentation modulus of NiTiPdSc (Sc replacing Ni) alloy is found to be significantly low compared to the other alloys. Analysis indicates that the observed differences in the alloy properties are related to the solubility of Sc in the NiTiPd matrix. While the quaternary NiTiPdSc alloy, Sc replacing Ti, has a single phase microstructure, the alloy with Sc replacing Ni shows the presence of Sc-rich and TiPd-type second phases in the microstructure. TEM examination revealed that the TiPd-type phase has a distinct rod-like morphology (30–50 nm) arranged in a grid-like structure. The transformation and indentation behavior of the alloys is elucidated using thermodynamic calculations of frictional energy and an electronic structure based analysis. - Highlights: • TEM of Ni{sub 23.7}Ti{sub 50.3}Pd{sub 25}Sc{sub 1} showed distinct grid of TiPd-type phase nanorods < 50 nm. • Stress-free thermal cycling of all the three alloys showed stable transformation behavior. • Ni{sub 24.7}Ti{sub 49.3}Pd{sub 25}Sc{sub 1} and Ni{sub 23.7}Ti{sub 50.3}Pd{sub 25}Sc{sub 1} showed single and multiphase structures. • Sc micro-addition (1 at.%) to Ni{sub 24.7}Ti{sub 50.3}Pd{sub 25} alloy decreased TTs

  19. Systematics of the temperature-dependent interplane resistivity in Ba(Fe1-xMx)₂As₂ (M=Co, Rh, Ni, and Pd)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tanatar, M. A.; Ni, N.; Thaler, A.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Prozorov, R.

    2011-07-27

    Temperature-dependent interplane resistivity ρc(T) was measured systematically as a function of transition-metal substitution in the iron-arsenide superconductors Ba(Fe1-xMx)₂As₂, M=Ni, Pd, Rh. The data are compared with the behavior found in Ba(Fe1-xCox)₂As₂, revealing resistive signatures of pseudogap. In all compounds we find resistivity crossover at a characteristic pseudogap temperature T* from nonmetallic to metallic temperature dependence on cooling. Suppression of T* proceeds very similarly in cases of Ni and Pd doping and much faster than in similar cases of Co and Rh doping. In cases of Co and Rh doping an additional minimum in the temperature-dependent ρc emerges for high dopings,more » when superconductivity is completely suppressed. These features are consistent with the existence of a charge gap covering part of the Fermi surface. The part of the Fermi surface affected by this gap is notably larger for Ni- and Pd-doped compositions than in Co- and Rh-doped compounds.« less

  20. Weak hybridization and isolated localized magnetic moments in the compounds CeT2Cd20 (T = Ni, Pd)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    White, B. D.; Yazici, D.; Ho, P. -C.; Kanchanavatee, N.; Pouse, N.; Fang, Y.; Breindel, A. J.; Friedman, A. J.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-07-20

    Here, we report the physical properties of single crystals of the compounds CeT2Cd20 (T = Ni, Pd) that were grown in a molten Cd flux. Large separations of ~6.7- 6.8 Å between Ce ions favor the localized magnetic moments that are observed in measurements of the magnetization. The strength of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya- Yosida magnetic exchange interaction between the localized moments is severely limited by the large Ce-Ce separations and by weak hybridization between localized Ce 4f and itinerant electron states. Measurements of electrical resistivity performed down to 0.138 K were unable to observe evidence for the emergence of magnetic order;more » however, magnetically-ordered ground states with very low transition temperatures are still expected in these compounds despite the isolated nature of the localized magnetic moments. Such a fragile magnetic order could be highly susceptible to tuning via applied pressure, but evidence for the emergence of magnetic order has not been observed so far in our measurements up to 2.5 GPa.« less

  1. K[sub 10]In[sub 10]Z (Z = Ni, Pd, or Pt): Zintl phases containing isolated decaindium clusters centered by transition elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevov, S.C.; Corbett, J.D. )

    1993-10-06

    The isostructural title compounds are obtained by high yield by slowly cooling the appropriate fused mixture in welded Ta. They occur in the orthorhombic space group Pnma, Z = 12, with a = 15.948(6), 16.043(6), 16.056(3) Angstroms, b = 32.565(6), 32.73(1) Angstroms, and c = 18.822(3), 18.895(5), 18.896(3) Angstroms for the Ni, Pd, and Pt derivatives, respectively. The structure of the Ni phase was refined by single crystal means (R, R[sub w] = 2.9, 3.3%) and shown to be constructed from the close-packed layers of Ni-centered In[sub 10] clusters that are separated by potassium ions both within and between the cluster layers. The compounds have large resistivities at room temperature by two-probe methods and are diamagnetic, with no moments on the transition metals. The geometry of the clusters can be derived from an ideal tetracapped trigonal prism (C[sub 3v]) of In centered by Z through axial compression along the 3-fold axis and opening of the capped triangular face so as to yield substantially equal Ni-In distances. The clusters are also related to Sb[sub 7][sup 3[minus

  2. EuTZn (T=Pd, Pt, Au) with TiNiSi-type structure-Magnetic properties and {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Trinath; Hermes, Wilfried; Harmening, Thomas; Eul, Matthias; Poettgen, Rainer

    2009-09-15

    The europium compounds EuTZn (T=Pd, Pt, Au) were synthesized from the elements in sealed tantalum tubes in an induction furnace. These intermetallics crystallize with the orthorhombic TiNiSi-type structure, space group Pnma. The structures were investigated by X-ray diffraction on powders and single crystals: a=732.3(2), b=448.5(2), c=787.7(2) pm, R{sub 1}/wR{sub 2}=0.0400/0.0594, 565 F{sup 2} values for EuPdZn, a=727.8(3), b=443.7(1), c=781.7(3) pm, R{sub 1}/wR{sub 2}=0.0605/0.0866, 573 F{sup 2} values for EuPtZn, and a=747.4(2), b=465.8(2), c=789.1(4) pm, R{sub 1}/wR{sub 2}=0.0351/0.0590, 658 F{sup 2} values for EuAuZn, with 20 variables per refinement. Together the T and zinc atoms build up three-dimensional [TZn] networks with short T-Zn distances. The EuTZn compounds show Curie-Weiss behavior in the temperature range from 75 to 300 K with mu{sub eff}=7.97(1), 7.70(1), and 7.94(1) mu{sub B}/Eu atom and theta{sub P}=18.6(1), 34.9(1), and 55.5(1) K for T=Pd, Pt, and Au, respectively, indicating divalent europium. Antiferromagntic ordering was detected at 15.1(3) K for EuPdZn and canted ferromagnetic ordering at 21.2(3) and 51.1(3) K for EuPtZn and EuAuZn. {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectroscopic measurements confirm the divalent nature of the europium atoms by isomer shift values ranging from -8.22(8) (EuPtZn) to -9.23(2) mm/s (EuAuZn). At 4.2 K full magnetic hyperfine field splitting is observed in all three compounds due to magnetic ordering of the europium magnetic moments. - Graphical abstract: Europium coordination in EuPdZn, EuPtZn, and EuAuZn.

  3. Weak hybridization and isolated localized magnetic moments in the compounds CeT2Cd20 (T = Ni, Pd)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, B. D.; Yazici, D.; Ho, P. -C.; Kanchanavatee, N.; Pouse, N.; Fang, Y.; Breindel, A. J.; Friedman, A. J.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-07-20

    Here, we report the physical properties of single crystals of the compounds CeT2Cd20 (T = Ni, Pd) that were grown in a molten Cd flux. Large separations of ~6.7- 6.8 Å between Ce ions favor the localized magnetic moments that are observed in measurements of the magnetization. The strength of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya- Yosida magnetic exchange interaction between the localized moments is severely limited by the large Ce-Ce separations and by weak hybridization between localized Ce 4f and itinerant electron states. Measurements of electrical resistivity performed down to 0.138 K were unable to observe evidence for the emergence of magnetic order; however, magnetically-ordered ground states with very low transition temperatures are still expected in these compounds despite the isolated nature of the localized magnetic moments. Such a fragile magnetic order could be highly susceptible to tuning via applied pressure, but evidence for the emergence of magnetic order has not been observed so far in our measurements up to 2.5 GPa.

  4. Quantum Critical Behavior in the Heavy Fermion Single Crystal Ce(Ni0.935Pd0.065)2Ge2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Cuihuan [ORNL; Lawrence, J M [University of California, Irvine; Christianson, Andrew D [ORNL; Chang, S [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD; Bauer, E D [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gofryk, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ronning, F [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thompson, J D [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McClellan, K J [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rodriguez-Rivera, J A [NCNR and University of Maryland; Lynn, J W [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

    2011-01-01

    We have performed magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, resistivity, and inelastic neutron scattering measurements on a single crystal of the heavy Fermion compound Ce(Ni{sub 0.935}Pd{sup 0.065}){sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, which is believed to be close to a quantum critical point (QCP) at T = 0. At lowest temperature (1.8--3.5 K), the magnetic susceptibility behaves as {chi}(T)-{chi} (0) {proportional_to} T{sup -1/6} with {chi} (0) = 0.032 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/mole (0.0025 emu/mole). For T < 1 K, the specific heat can be fit to the formula {Delta} C/T = {gamma}{sub 0} - T{sup 1/2} with {gamma}{sub 0} of order 700 mJ/mole-K{sup 2}. The resistivity behaves as {rho} = {rho}{sub 0} + AT{sup 3/2} for temperatures below 2 K. This low temperature behavior for {gamma} (T) and {rho} (T) is in accord with the SCR theory of Moriya and Takimoto. The inelastic neutron scattering spectra show a broad peak near 1.5 meV that appears to be independent of Q; we interpret this as Kondo scattering with T{sub K} = 17 K. In addition, the scattering is enhanced near Q=(1/2, 1/2, 0) with maximum scattering at {Delta} E = 0.45 meV{sup -}; we interpret this as scattering from antiferromagnetic fluctuations near the antiferromagnetic QCP.

  5. Transport properties of Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn and Ce{sub 2}Pd{sub 2.05}Sn{sub 0.95} Kondo lattice systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinto, R.P.; Amado, M.M.; Braga, M.E.; de Azevedo, M.M.; Sousa, J.B.; Chevalier, B.; Etourneau, J.

    1997-04-01

    We report experimental data on thermoelectric power S, electrical resistivity {rho}, and the magnetoresistivity of the antiferromagnet Kondo stannides Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn (T{sub N}=4.7 K) and Ce{sub 2}Pd{sub 2.05}Sn{sub 0.95} (T{sub N}=4.7 K). The essential features of the S(T) curves resemble those of heavy fermion systems such as CeCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}: a broad and positive maximum at intermediate temperatures, followed by a sharper negative minimum at lower temperatures. S values are is considerably smaller in Ce{sub 2}Pd{sub 2.05}Sn{sub 0.95} than in Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn. The positive peak originates from the incoherent Kondo scattering by the excited crystal field levels of the Ce ion ground state. The negative peak might be related to the shape of the density of states associated with the Abrikosov{endash}Suhl resonance. The change of sign in S(T) between its minimum and maximum at T{sup {asterisk}} can be assigned to the fact that the Fermi level sinks below the upper band at T{gt}T{sup {asterisk}}. This behavior and the maximum observed in the {rho}(T) curve at this temperature can be discussed in terms of the electron polaron model, although one must also take into account the crystal field effect. The role played by the crystal field effect, which is more important in Ce{sub 2}Pd{sub 2.05}Sn{sub 0.95}, is analyzed for this compound, providing the magnitude of the crystal field splitting. Magnetoresistivity was also measured in both compounds. The results are consistent with the important role of the Kondo effect at low temperatures and suggest the splitting of the double degenerate bands at T{gt}T{sup {asterisk}}. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Quantum critical fluctuations in the heavy fermion compound Ce(Ni0.935 Pd0.065)2Ge2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, C. H.; Poudel, L.; Taylor, A. E.; Lawrence, J. M.; Christianson, A. D.; Chang, S.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Lynn, J. W.; Podlesnyak, A. A.; Ehlers, G.; Baumbach, R. E.; Bauer, E. D.; Gofryk, K.; Ronning, F.; McClellan, K. J.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-01-14

    Electric resistivity, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, and inelastic neutron scattering experi- ments were performed on a single crystal of the heavy fermion compound Ce(Ni0.935 Pd0.065)2Ge2 in order to study the spin fluctuations near an antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP). The resistivity and the specific heat coefficient for T ≤ 1 K exhibit the power law behavior expected for a 3D itinerant AF QCP (ρ(T) ~ T3/2 and γ(T) ~ γ0 - bT1/2). However, for 2 ≤ T ≤ 10 K, the susceptibility and specific heat vary as log T and the resistivity varies linearly with temperature. Furthermore, despite the fact that the resistivity and specific heat exhibit the non-Fermi liquid behavior expected at a QCP, the correlation length, correlation time, and staggered susceptibility of the spin fluctuations remain finite at low temperature. We suggest that these deviations from the divergent behavior expected for a QCP may result from alloy disorder.

  7. Mt Poso Cogeneration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Poso Cogeneration Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mt Poso Cogeneration Place: Bakersfield, California Zip: 93308 Product: California-based project developer for the Mt Poso...

  8. Mt. Baker Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mt. Baker Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Development Project: Mt. Baker Geothermal Project Project Location Information Coordinates...

  9. Category:Billings, MT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Billings, MT Jump to: navigation, search Go Back to PV Economics By Location Media in category "Billings, MT" The following 16 files are in this category, out of 16 total....

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Pd(0), PdS, and Pd-PdO core-shell nanoparticles by solventless thermolysis of a Pd-thiolate cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jose, Deepa; Jagirdar, Balaji R.

    2010-09-15

    Colloids of palladium nanoparticles have been prepared by the solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD) method. The as-prepared Pd colloid consists of particles with an average diameter of 2.8{+-}0.1 nm. Digestive ripening of the as-prepared Pd colloid, a process involving refluxing the as-prepared colloid at or near the boiling point of the solvent in the presence of a passivating agent, dodecanethiol resulted in a previously reported Pd-thiolate cluster, [Pd(SC{sub 12}H{sub 25}){sub 2}]{sub 6} but did not render the expected narrowing down of the particle size distribution. Solventless thermolysis of the Pd-thiolate complex resulted in various Pd systems such as Pd(0), PdS, and Pd-PdO core-shell nanoparticles thus demonstrating its versatility. These Pd nanostructures have been characterized using high-resolution electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction methods. - Graphical abstract: Solventless thermolysis of a single palladium-thiolate cluster affords various Pd systems such as Pd(0), Pd-PdO core-shell, and PdS nanoparticles demonstrating the versatility of the precursor and the methodology.

  11. Ni Ni: University of California - Los Angeles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ni Ni: University of California - Los Angeles Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All Issues » submit Ni Ni: University of California - Los Angeles Condensed matter January 1, 2015 Ni Ni Ni Ni Contact Linda Anderman Email Ni Ni Ni Ni now at the University of California-Los Angeles After finishing her work at Princeton, Ni Ni began at the Lab as a postdoc in 2012 with the Condensed Matter and Magnetic Science Group. Ni was

  12. Isotopic Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 2000...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 2000) Exploration Activity Details Location Mt St Helens Area Exploration Technique...

  13. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 2000) Exploration Activity Details Location Mt St Helens Area Exploration Technique...

  14. Isotopic Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995) Exploration Activity Details Location Mt St Helens Area Exploration Technique...

  15. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995) Exploration Activity Details Location Mt St Helens Area Exploration Technique...

  16. Controlled Source Audio MT At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Combs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Audio MT At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Controlled Source Audio MT At Roosevelt Hot...

  17. Water Sampling At Mt Ranier Area (Frank, 1995) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mt Ranier Area (Frank, 1995) Exploration Activity Details Location Mt...

  18. Geothermal Literature Review At Mt Ranier Area (Frank, 1995)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal Literature Review At Mt Ranier Area (Frank, 1995) Exploration Activity Details Location Mt...

  19. Mt Wheeler Power, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mt Wheeler Power, Inc Place: Nevada Phone Number: 1-775-289-8981 Website: mwpower.net Facebook: https:www.facebook.com...

  20. Durable pd-based alloy and hydrogen generation membrane thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benn, Raymond C.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry

    2010-02-02

    A durable Pd-based alloy is used for a H.sub.2-selective membrane in a hydrogen generator, as in the fuel processor of a fuel cell plant. The Pd-based alloy includes Cu as a binary element, and further includes "X", where "X" comprises at least one metal from group "M" that is BCC and acts to stabilize the .beta. BCC phase for stability during operating temperatures. The metal from group "M" is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Cr, Nb, Ta, V, Mo, and W, with Nb and Ta being most preferred. "X" may further comprise at least one metal from a group "N" that is non-BCC, preferably FCC, that enhances other properties of the membrane, such as ductility. The metal from group "N" is selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Re, Ru, Rh, Y, Ce, Ni, Ir, Pt, Co, La and In. The at. % of Pd in the binary Pd--Cu alloy ranges from about 35 at. % to about 55 at. %, and the at. % of "X" in the higher order alloy, based on said binary alloy, is in the range of about 1 at. % to about 15 at. %. The metals are selected according to a novel process.

  1. Elastic properties of Pd-hydrogen, Pd-deuterium, and Pd-tritium single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, R.B. . E-mail: rxzs@lanl.gov; Bach, H.T.; Harms, U.; Tuggle, D.

    2005-02-01

    We used a resonant-ultrasound-spectroscopy technique to measure the three independent elastic constants of PdH{sub x}, PdD{sub x}, and PdT{sub x} single crystals at 300 K. For 0.1x0.62 our PdH{sub x} crystals are two-phase mixtures of coherent {alpha} and {beta} hydride phases. For increasing x in this range, C{sub 44} decreases monotonically whereas C'=12(C11-C12) has a concave parabolic dependence. This difference is because C' is softened by an anelastic relaxation resulting from acoustic-stress-induced changes in the shape of the coherent lenticular-shape precipitates ({beta}-hydride precipitates in {alpha}-hydride matrix and {alpha}-hydride precipitates in {beta}-hydride matrix). In the {beta}-phase C' and C{sub 44} decrease with increasing hydrogen (or deuterium or tritium) content. Furthermore, C' exhibits a strong isotope effect whereas C{sub 44} does not. This effect is attributed to differences in the excitation of optical phonons in Pd-H, Pd-D and Pd-T.

  2. Pd/Ni-WO3 anodic double layer gasochromic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping

    2004-04-20

    An anodic double layer gasochromic sensor structure for optical detection of hydrogen in improved response time and with improved optical absorption real time constants, comprising: a glass substrate; a tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer coated on the glass substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer.

  3. ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS TO PD MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PURIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T; Paul Korinko, P

    2007-11-13

    Development of advanced hydrogen separation membranes in support of hydrogen production processes such as coal gasification and as front end gas purifiers for fuel cell based system is paramount to the successful implementation of a national hydrogen economy. Current generation metallic hydrogen separation membranes are based on Pd-alloys. Although the technology has proven successful, at issue is the high cost of palladium. Evaluation of non-noble metal based dense metallic separation membranes is currently receiving national and international attention. The focal point of the reported work was to evaluate two different classes of materials for potential replacement of conventional Pd-alloy purification/diffuser membranes. Crystalline V-Ni-Ti and Amorphous Fe- and Co-based metallic glass alloys have been evaluated using both electrochemical and gaseous hydrogen permeation testing techniques..

  4. ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS TO PD MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PURIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P; T. Adams

    2008-09-12

    Development of advanced hydrogen separation membranes in support of hydrogen production processes such as coal gasification and as front end gas purifiers for fuel cell based system is paramount to the successful implementation of a national hydrogen economy. Current generation metallic hydrogen separation membranes are based on Pd-alloys. Although the technology has proven successful, at issue is the high cost of palladium. Evaluation of non-noble metal based dense metallic separation membranes is currently receiving national and international attention. The focal point of the reported work was to evaluate two different classes of materials for potential replacement of conventional Pd-alloy purification/diffuser membranes. Crystalline V-Ni-Ti and Amorphous Fe- and Co-based metallic glass alloys have been evaluated using gaseous hydrogen permeation testing techniques.

  5. Mt Wheeler Power, Inc (Utah) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mt Wheeler Power, Inc (Utah) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mt Wheeler Power, Inc Place: Utah Phone Number: 1 775-289-8981 Website: mwpower.net Facebook: https:...

  6. Asymmetric magnetic proximity effect in a Pd/Co/Pd trilayer system (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Asymmetric magnetic proximity effect in a Pd/Co/Pd trilayer system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Asymmetric magnetic proximity effect in a Pd/Co/Pd trilayer system In spintronic devices consisting of ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic systems, the ferromagnet-induced magnetic moment in the adjacent nonmagnetic material significantly influences the spin transport properties. In this study, such magnetic proximity effect in a Pd/Co/Pd trilayer system is

  7. High Tc YBCO superconductor deposited on biaxially textured Ni substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budai, John D.; Christen, David K.; Goyal, Amit; He, Qing; Kroeger, Donald M.; Lee, Dominic F.; List, III, Frederick A.; Norton, David P.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Sales, Brian C.; Specht, Eliot D.

    1999-01-01

    A superconducting article includes a biaxially-textured Ni substrate, and epitaxial buffer layers of Pd (optional), CeO.sub.2 and YSZ, and a top layer of in-plane aligned, c-axis oriented YBCO having a critical current density (J.sub.c) in the range of at least 100,000 A/cm.sup.2 at 77 K.

  8. Room temperature synthesis of Ni-based alloy nanoparticles by radiolysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Berry, Donald T.; Lu, Ping; Leung, Kevin; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Huang, Jian Yu; Zhang, Zhenyuan

    2009-09-01

    Room temperature radiolysis, density functional theory, and various nanoscale characterization methods were used to synthesize and fully describe Ni-based alloy nanoparticles (NPs) that were synthesized at room temperature. These complementary methods provide a strong basis in understanding and describing metastable phase regimes of alloy NPs whose reaction formation is determined by kinetic rather than thermodynamic reaction processes. Four series of NPs, (Ag-Ni, Pd-Ni, Co-Ni, and W-Ni) were analyzed and characterized by a variety of methods, including UV-vis, TEM/HRTEM, HAADF-STEM and EFTEM mapping. In the first focus of research, AgNi and PdNi were studied. Different ratios of Ag{sub x}- Ni{sub 1-x} alloy NPs and Pd{sub 0.5}- Ni{sub 0.5} alloy NP were prepared using a high dose rate from gamma irradiation. Images from high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) show that the Ag-Ni NPs are not core-shell structure but are homogeneous alloys in composition. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) maps show the homogeneity of the metals in each alloy NP. Of particular interest are the normally immiscible Ag-Ni NPs. All evidence confirmed that homogeneous Ag-Ni and Pd-Ni alloy NPs presented here were successfully synthesized by high dose rate radiolytic methodology. A mechanism is provided to explain the homogeneous formation of the alloy NPs. Furthermore, studies of Pd-Ni NPs by in situ TEM (with heated stage) shows the ability to sinter these NPs at temperatures below 800 C. In the second set of work, CoNi and WNi superalloy NPs were attempted at 50/50 concentration ratios using high dose rates from gamma irradiation. Preliminary results on synthesis and characterization have been completed and are presented. As with the earlier alloy NPs, no evidence of core-shell NP formation occurs. Microscopy results seem to indicate alloying occurred with the CoNi alloys. However, there appears to be incomplete reduction of the Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} to form the W

  9. Geothermometry At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff,...

  10. RAPID/Roadmap/5-MT-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Drilling and Well Development (5-MT-a) - 05MTADrillingAndWellDevelopment (1).pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number...

  11. RAPID/Roadmap/18-MT-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (18-MT-b) The Montana Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)...

  12. Refraction Survey At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Refraction Survey Activity Date 2012 - 2012 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis...

  13. RAPID/Roadmap/15-MT-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Air Quality Permit (15-MT-a) The Montana Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)...

  14. Controlled Source Audio MT At Cove Fort Area - Liquid (Combs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Controlled Source Audio MT At Cove Fort Area - Liquid (Combs 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Cove...

  15. Controlled Source Audio MT At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Controlled Source Audio MT At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Mccoy...

  16. Aeromagnetic Survey At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Case, Et Al., 1984) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Aeromagnetic Survey At Mt Princeton...

  17. RAPID/Roadmap/1-MT-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDRoadmap1-MT-a < RAPID | Roadmap Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower...

  18. RAPID/Roadmap/11-MT-c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDRoadmap11-MT-c < RAPID | Roadmap Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal...

  19. RAPID/Roadmap/14-MT-e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Groundwater Pollution Control System (14-MT-e) The Montana Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) regulates the...

  20. RAPID/Roadmap/14-MT-c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Underground Injection Control Permit (14-MT-c) The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has not...

  1. City of Mt Pleasant, Iowa (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number: (319) 385-2121 Website: mountpleasantiowa.orgalliance Twitter: @MtPleasantIOWA Facebook: https:www.facebook.commountpleasantia Outage Hotline: (319) 385-2121...

  2. Water Sampling At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Olson...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Olson & Dellechaie, 1976)...

  3. Water Sampling At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995) Exploration Activity Details...

  4. RAPID/Roadmap/18-MT-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Underground Storage Tank Permit (18-MT-a) A developer must obtain an Underground Storage Tank...

  5. RAPID/Roadmap/20-MT-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Us Well Abandonment Process (20-MT-a) Montana requires the employment of particular engineering standards when abandoning wells. Developers may elect to abandon wells or...

  6. Vertical Electrical Sounding Configurations At Mt Princeton Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Vertical Electrical Sounding Configurations At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Zohdy, Et Al.,...

  7. RAPID/Roadmap/12-MT-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    not in range. Flowchart Narrative 12-MT-a.1 - Consult Regarding Potential Impacts on Fish and Wildlife Building with Wildlife, a guide developed by private landowners,...

  8. RAPID/Roadmap/3-MT-c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us State Encroachment Process (3-MT-c) There are several...

  9. RAPID/Roadmap/11-MT-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us State Cultural Considerations Overview (11-MT-a)...

  10. RAPID/Roadmap/6-MT-d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Other State Construction Permits (6-MT-d)...

  11. RAPID/Roadmap/4-MT-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us State Exploration Process (4-MT-a) 04MTAStateExploration...

  12. RAPID/Roadmap/11-MT-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Human Remains Process (11-MT-b) 11MTBHumanRemainsProcess...

  13. RAPID/Roadmap/14-MT-d | Open Energy Information

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    Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us 401 Water Quality Certification (14-MT-d) A person may...

  14. 3D Mt Resistivity Imaging For Geothermal Resource Assessment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mt Resistivity Imaging For Geothermal Resource Assessment And Environmental Mitigation At The Glass Mountain Kgra, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  15. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Biotin Protein Ligase (MtBPL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    tuberculosis Biotin Protein Ligase (MtBPL) with Nucleoside-Based Bisubstrate Adenylation Inhibitors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis ...

  16. Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the area. Since 2007 Mt. Princeton Geothermal, LLC has been assessing the area for its geothermal energy production potential. The company has conducted several preliminary...

  17. Magnetotelluric Techniques At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Held & Henderson, 2012) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Magnetotelluric...

  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal...

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    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Held & Henderson, 2012)...

  19. Analysis of borehole temperature data from the Mt. Princeton...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    borehole temperature data from the Mt. Princeton Hot Springs area, Chaffee County, Colorado (abstract only) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  20. American Flyers N-I Wine Makers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flyers N-I Wine Makers WSI leads charge in local bike events. NSTec recognizes top performers in NNSS mission. Navarro employees enjoy wine making hobby. See page 8. See page 7. Do You Know Where To Find Latest NNSS Info? In late August, a rainstorm in Las Vegas caused flooding near Mt. Charleston that washed the remnants of this summer's Carpenter Fire across U.S. 95, blocking the roadway. It was 11 p.m. on a Sunday night, and the road closure threatened Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

  1. WPA Omnibus Award MT Wind Power Outreach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian Spangler, Manager Energy Planning and Renewables

    2012-01-30

    The objective of this grant was to further the development of Montana’s vast wind resources for small, medium, and large scale benefits to Montana and the nation. This was accomplished through collaborative work with wind industry representatives, state and local governments, the agricultural community, and interested citizens. Through these efforts MT Dept Environmental Quality (DEQ) was able to identify development barriers, educate and inform citizens, as well as to participate in regional and national dialogue that will spur the development of wind resources. The scope of DEQ’s wind outreach effort evolved over the course of this agreement from the development of the Montana Wind Working Group and traditional outreach efforts, to the current focus on working with the state’s university system to deliver a workforce trained to enter the wind industry.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of PdFe Nanoleaves as Electrocatalyst...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The side surfaces of Pd-NWs observed by HR-TEM are predominantly Pd (111) facets, while ... acid, the Pd-rich NWs are exposed on the surfaces of the nanoleaves, and they demonstrate ...

  3. RAPID/Roadmap/13-MT-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contribute Contact Us State Land Use Assessment (13-MT-a) 13MTALandUseAssessment.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number...

  4. RAPID/Roadmap/3-MT-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tools Contribute Contact Us State Land Lease (3-MT-b) 03MTBStateLandAccess (1).pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number...

  5. RAPID/Roadmap/6-MT-c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contact Us Drinking Water Permit (6-MT-c) Add Text 06MTCDrinkingWaterPermit.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number...

  6. MT Energie GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Saxony, Germany Zip: 27404 Sector: Services Product: MT-Energie provides both turn-key biogas plants and related components and services. Coordinates: 53.295765, 9.27964 Show...

  7. RAPID/Roadmap/17-MT-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stream Protection Act (SPA 124 Permit) (17-MT-b) Montana has a policy to preserve fish and wildlife habitat as well as maintain Montana's streams and rivers in their natural...

  8. HERO Ski Trip to Mt. Hood Meadows February

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    If there is enough interest, we may be able to charter a bus to drive us up and back. Stay at the Best Western Plus Hood River Inn which is just 30 miles from Mt. Hood's largest...

  9. Ground Gravity Survey At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lithologic distrubtions Notes Gravity low associated with Mt. Princeton Batholith; density contrast of -0.5 gcm3 of valley-fill sediments relative to batholith References J.E....

  10. RAPID/Roadmap/3-MT-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resources & Conservation. The application requires an adequate description of the lands. The application fee is 10. 3-MT-a.2 - Does the Director Decide to Announce the Sale...

  11. 2007-mt-elbert | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    showing Donyon Rig Photo courtesy Doyon Drilling Inc Project Background Maps of Research ... The drilling of the "Mt. Elbert prospect" within the Milne Point Unit (MPU) on the Alaskan ...

  12. Palladium site ordering and the occurrence of superconductivity in Bi{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Se{sub 2-x}S{sub x}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weihrich, R.; Matar, S.F.; Anusca, I.; Pielnhofer, F.; Peter, P.; Bachhuber, F.; Eyert, V.

    2011-04-15

    The crystallographic and electronic structures of compounds related to parkerite (Bi{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) are investigated with respect to the recently reported occurrence (Bi{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Se{sub 2}) and absence (Bi{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}S{sub 2}) of superconductivity. Similarities and differences of the crystal structures are discussed within the series of solid solutions Bi{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}S{sub 2-x}Se{sub x} from powder and single crystal diffraction data. From crystal structure refinements, the question of different structures and settings of parkerite is discussed. Similar and different 2D and 3D partial Pd-Ch (Ch=S, Se) structures are related to half antiperovskite ordering schemes. To investigate the relation of low dimensional structures and the occurrence of superconductivity, electronic structures are analyzed by scalar-relativistic DFT calculations, including site projected DOS, ECOV and Fermi surfaces. -- Graphical abstract: Structure relations for perovskite type BiPd{sub 3}C, BiPd{sub 3/2}Se and BiPd{sub 3/2}S. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Merging crystallographic and electronic structures studies to understand chalcogenides related to parkerite (Bi{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}). {yields} Investigation in view of recently reported occurrence (Bi{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Se{sub 2}) and absence (Bi{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}S{sub 2}) of superconductivity. {yields} Relationship of half perovskites with perovskites.

  13. Formation of Pd/Au Nanostructures from Pd Nanowires via Galvanic Replacement Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng,X.; Wang, Q.; Liu, P.; Han, W.; Frenkel, A.; Wen, W.; Marinkovic, N.; Hanson, J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Bimetallic nanostructures with non-random metal atoms distribution are very important for various applications. To synthesize such structures via benign wet chemistry approach remains challenging. This paper reports a synthesis of a Au/Pd alloy nanostructure through the galvanic replacement reaction between Pd ultrathin nanowires (2.4 {+-} 0.2 nm in width, over 30 nm in length) and AuCl3 in toluene. Both morphological and structural changes were monitored during the reaction up to 10 h. Continuous changes of chemical composition and crystalline structure from Pd nanowires to Pd68Au32 and Pd45Au55 alloys, and to Au nanoparticles were observed. More interestingly, by using combined techniques such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), UV-vis absorption, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, we found the formation of Pd68Au32 non-random alloy with Au-rich core and Pd-rich shell, and random Pd45Au55 alloy with uniformly mixed Pd and Au atom inside the nanoparticles, respectively. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicated that alkylamine will strongly stabilize Pd to the surface, resulting in diffusion of Au atoms into the core region to form a non-random alloy. We believe such benign synthetic techniques can also enable the large scale preparation of various types of non-random alloys for several technically important catalysis applications.

  14. Alternation of the Pd Lattice in Nano-Sized-Pd/ZrO2 Composite during Hydrogen Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arachi, Yoshinori; Asai, Takeshi; Emura, Shuichi; Omura, Akira; Nunogaki, Masanobu; Yamaura, Shunichi; Inoue, Akihisa; Arata, Yoshiaki

    2007-02-02

    Structural analysis of high Deuterium absorbed 5 nm Pd particles in dispersed ZrO2 has been carried out using XAFS techniques. X-ray absorption spectra around the Pd K-absorption edge were observed and analyzed. The Pd-Pd bonding distance in the fcc Pd lattice was enlarged by 0.08 {approx} 0.09 A during absorption of deuterium, and it completely reverted to its original state with the release of deuterium while maintaining the crystal lattice symmetry. These changes provide evidence that deuterium locates not on the surface of the Pd particle, but rather within the Pd crystal lattice. XANES spectra clearly indicate that any change in the oxidation state of Pd are not observed, resulting in no reaction of the absorbed Deuterium atoms with Pd atoms. This paper reports the alternation of Pd lattice in nano-sized composite during hydrogen absorption. The possible models of deuterium position in the Pd lattice are also discussed.

  15. CampanileMtTamalpiasSunset_caption.jpg | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information CampanileMtTamalpiasSunset_caption

  16. Influence of valence electron concentration on Laves phases: Structures and phase stability of pseudo-binary MgZn2-xPdx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Miller, Gordon J.

    2015-06-03

    A series of pseudo-binary compounds MgZn2-xPdx (0.15 ? x ? 1.0) were synthesized and structurally characterized to understand the role of valence electron concentration (vec) on the prototype Laves phase MgZn2 with Pd-substitution. Three distinctive phase regions were observed with respect to Pd content, all exhibiting fundamental Laves phase structures: 0.1 ? x ? 0.3 (MgNi2-type, hP24; MgZn1.80Pd0.20(2)), 0.4 ? x ? 0.6 (MgCu2-type, cF24; MgZn1.59Pd0.41(2)), and 0.62 ? x ? 0.8 (MgZn2-type, hP12: MgZn1.37Pd0.63(2)). Refinements from single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicated nearly statistical distributions of Pd and Zn atoms among the majority atom sites in these structures. Interestingly, the MgZn2-type structure re-emerges in MgZn2xPdx at x ? 0.7 with the refined composition MgZn1.37(2)Pd0.63 and a c/a ratio of 1.59 compared to 1.64 for binary MgZn2. Electronic structure calculations on a model MgZn1.25Pd0.75 yielded a density of states (DOS) curve showing enhancement of a pseudogap at the Fermi level as a result of electronic stabilization due to the Pd addition. Moreover, integrated crystal orbital Hamilton population values show significant increases of orbital interactions for (Zn,Pd)(Zn,Pd) atom pairs within the majority atom substructure, i.e., within the Kagom nets as well as between a Kagom net and an apical site, from binary MgZn2 to the ternary MgZn1.25Pd0.75. Multi-centered bonding is evident from electron localization function plots for MgZn1.25Pd0.75, an outcome which is in accordance with analysis of other Laves phases.

  17. EXAMINATION OF 80 DEGREES C DESORPTION ISOTHERMS OFTRITIUM AGED PD/K AND LANA.75

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staack, G; Kirk Shanahan, K; Tom Walters, T; Roger Pilgrim, R

    2007-08-28

    Metal hydrides, specifically Pd deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) and LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA.75), have been used at the Savannah River Site for almost twenty years for hydrogen isotope separation and storage. Radiolytic decay of tritium to helium-3 in the metal matrix causes three classic changes in the performance of the hydride: the plateau pressure decreases, the plateau slope increases, and a heel forms, reducing the reversible capacity of the hydride. Deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected on the virgin materials, only tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 2 years, and both deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 3.5 years of quiescent aging. Points of interest include those mentioned above as well as the effects of cycling the materials. The methods and results are presented.

  18. The hydrogen permeability of Pd{sub 4}S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, Casey; Miller, James; Gellman, Andrew; Morreale, Bryan

    2011-04-01

    Hydrogen permeates rapidly through pure Pd membranes, but H{sub 2}S, a common minor component in hydrogen-containing streams, produces a Pd{sub 4}S film on the Pd surface that severely retards hydrogen permeation. Hydrogen still permeates through the bi-layered Pd{sub 4}S/Pd structure, indicating that the Pd{sub 4}S surface is active for H{sub 2} dissociation; the low hydrogen permeability of the Pd4S film is responsible for the decreased rate of hydrogen transport. In this work, the hydrogen permeability of Pd{sub 4}S was determined experimentally in the 623-773 K temperature range. Bi-layered Pd{sub 4}S/Pd foils were produced by exposing pure Pd foils to H{sub 2}S. H{sub 2} fluxes through the bi-layered Pd{sub 4}S/Pd foils were measured during exposure to both pure H{sub 2} and a 1000 ppm H{sub 2}S in H{sub 2} gas mixture. Our results show that H{sub 2}S slows hydrogen permeation through Pd mainly by producing a Pd{sub 4}S film on the Pd surface that is roughly an order-of-magnitude less permeable to hydrogen (k{sub Pd{sub 4}S} = 10{sup ?7.5} exp(?0.22 eV/k{sub B}T) molH{sub 2}/m/s/Pa{sup 1/2}) than pure Pd. The presence of H{sub 2}S in the gas stream results in greater inhibition of hydrogen transport than can be explained by the very low permeability of Pd{sub 4}S. H{sub 2}S may block H2 dissociation sites at the Pd{sub 4}S surface.

  19. Enhanced hydrogenation and reduced lattice distortion in size selected Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu alloy nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengar, Saurabh K.; Mehta, B. R.; Kulriya, P. K.; Khan, S. A.

    2013-10-21

    Important correlation between valence band spectra and hydrogenation properties in Pd alloy nanoparticles is established by studying the properties of size selected and monocrystalline Pd, Ag, Cu, Pd-Ag, and Pd-Cu nanoparticles. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection analysis show that size induced Pd4d centroid shift is related to enhanced hydrogenation with H/Pd ratio of 0.57 and 0.49 in Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu nanoparticles in comparison to reported bulk values of 0.2 and 0.1, respectively. Pd-alloy nanoparticles show lower hydrogen induced lattice distortion. The reduced distortion and higher hydrogen reactivity of Pd-alloy nanoparticles is important for numerous hydrogen related applications.

  20. Parity nonconservation in {sup 106}Pd and {sup 108}Pd neutron resonances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, B.E.; Roberson, N.R. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States)] [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States); Bowman, J.D.; Knudson, J.N.; Penttilae, S.I.; Seestrom, S.J.; Yuan, V.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Delheij, P.P. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (CANADA)] [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (CANADA); Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y. [Physics Department, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan)] [Physics Department, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); Lowie, L.Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Stephenson, S.L. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States)] [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States); Postma, H. [Delft University of Technology, Delft, 2629 JB (The Netherlands)] [Delft University of Technology, Delft, 2629 JB (The Netherlands); Sharapov, E.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russia)] [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russia)

    1999-11-01

    Parity nonconservation (PNC) has been studied in the neutron {ital p}-wave resonances of {sup 106}Pd and {sup 108}Pd in the energy range of 20 to 2000 eV. Longitudinal asymmetries in {ital p}-wave capture cross sections are measured using longitudinally polarized neutrons incident on {approximately}20-g metal-powder targets at LANSCE. A CsI {gamma}-ray detector array measures capture cross section asymmetries as a function of neutron energy which is determined by the neutron time-of-flight method. A total of 21 {ital p}-wave resonances in {sup 106}Pd and 21 {ital p}-wave resonances in {sup 108}Pd were studied. One statistically significant PNC effect was observed in {sup 106}Pd, and no effects were observed in {sup 108}Pd. For {sup 106}Pd a weak spreading width of {Gamma}{sub w}=34{sub {minus}28}{sup +47}{times}10{sup {minus}7} eV was obtained. For {sup 108}Pd an upper limit on the weak spreading width of {Gamma}{sub w}{lt}12{times}10{sup {minus}7} eV was determined at the 68{percent} confidence level. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsBlack Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory 2016.06.15 - 2016.10.01 Lead Scientist : Daniel Jaffe Abstract Black carbon (BC) is a key component in the earth system and a significant climate forcing agent. Observations at remote sites and in free-tropospheric air are extremely sparse. We propose to utilize one of the ARM SP2 (Single

  2. HERO PRESENTS A DAY HIKE AT MT. ST. HELENS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HERO PRESENTS A DAY HIKE AT MT. ST. HELENS Saturday, September 10, 2016 Mt. St. Helens lost its top on May 18, 1980 (see the 'before' and 'after' pictures above). The environment has been left to respond naturally to the disturbance - and we'll see how it is doing 36 years into recovery. We'll head to Windy Ridge and walk the "sand ladder," hike towards Norway Pass, take the Meta Lake trail, and see the miner's car in person (pictured below); lots of photo opportunities!! This is a

  3. Babb, MT Liquefied Natural Gas Exports (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Babb, MT Liquefied Natural Gas Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 5 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S.

  4. THE EFFECT OF CO ON HYDROGEN PERMEATION THROUGH PD AND INTERNALLY OXIDIZED AND UN-OXIDIZED PD ALLOY MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanahan, K.; Flanagan, T.; Wang, D.

    2010-10-20

    The H permeation of internally oxidized Pd alloy membranes such as Pd-Al and Pd-Fe, but not Pd-Y alloys, is shown to be more resistant to inhibition by CO(g) as compared to Pd or un-oxidized Pd alloy membranes. The increased resistance to CO is found to be greater at 423 K than at 473 K or 523 K. In these experiments CO was pre-adsorbed onto the membranes and then CO-free H{sub 2} was introduced to initiate the H permeation.

  5. An amorphous phase formation at palladium / silicon oxide (Pd...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An amorphous phase formation at palladium silicon oxide (PdSiOsub x) interface ... Title: An amorphous phase formation at palladium silicon oxide (PdSiOsub x) interface ...

  6. Synergistic Catalysis between Pd and Fe in Gas Phase Hydrodeoxygenatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synergistic Catalysis between Pd and Fe in Gas Phase Hydrodeoxygenation of m-Cresol Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synergistic Catalysis between Pd and Fe in Gas Phase ...

  7. Examination of 80 deg. C desorption isotherms of tritium aged Pd/k and LANA.75

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staack, G. C.; Shanahan, K. L.; Walters, R. T.; Pilgrim, R. D.

    2008-07-15

    Metal hydrides, specifically Pd deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) and LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA.75), have been used at the Savannah River Site for almost twenty years for hydrogen isotope separation and storage. Radiolytic decay of tritium to helium-3 in the metal matrix causes three classic changes in the performance of the hydride: the plateau pressure decreases, the plateau slope increases, and a heel forms, reducing the reversible capacity of the hydride. Deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected on the virgin materials, only tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 2 years, and both deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 3.5 years of quiescent aging at 26 deg. C. Each sample was loaded to 0.5-0.6 T/M prior to each aging period. Points of interest include comparisons of each sample at different aging periods and isotope effects on aged hydride isotherms. Partial restoration of thermodynamic properties by sample cycling has been observed in LANA. 75, though not previously reported in Pd. The methods and results are presented. (authors)

  8. Www.deq.mt.gov/MFS/LawRules/Circular2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Www.deq.mt.govMFSLawRulesCircular2 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: Www.deq.mt.govMFSLawRulesCircular2 Published Publisher Not...

  9. 3-D Density Model Of Mt Etna Volcano (Southern Italy) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Density Model Of Mt Etna Volcano (Southern Italy) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: 3-D Density Model Of Mt Etna Volcano (Southern...

  10. Price of Babb, MT Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Canada (Dollars...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Babb, MT Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Canada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Babb, MT Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Canada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year...

  11. Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge, a new fully ordered ternary Laves phase structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doverbratt, Isa; Ponou, Simeon; Lidin, Sven

    2013-01-15

    The title compound, Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge, was prepared as a part of a systematic investigation of the Ca-Pd-Ge ternary phase diagram. The structure was determined and refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. It is a new fully ordered ternary Laves phase with the space group R-3m, Z=3, a=5.6191 (5) A, c=12.1674 (7) A, wR{sub 2}=0.054 (all data) and is isostructural to Mg{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si (Noreus et al., 1985 [17]) but due to the larger size of all elements in Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge, the cell axes are approximately 10% longer. The compound may formally be considered as a Zintl compound, with [Pd{sub 3}Ge]{sup 4-} forming a poly-anionic network and divalent Ca cations located in truncated tetrahedral interstices. The electronic structure and chemical bonding of Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge is discussed in terms of LMTO band structure calculations and compared with CaPd{sub 2} (MgCu{sub 2}-type). - Graphical abstract: The title compound, Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge is a new fully ordered ternary Laves phase which may formally be considered as a Zintl compound, with [Pd{sub 3}Ge]{sup 4-} forming a poly-anionic network and divalent Ca cations located in truncated tetrahedral interstices. The structure is composed of Kagome net layers, consisting of Pd atoms only, which are stacked in an ABC sequence. Band structure calculations show that the Fermi level is located at a local minimum of the DOS (pseudo-gap) indicating that the charge is roughly optimized in the structure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Site specific segregation in a Laves phase that is also a Zintl phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pseudo-gap at the Fermi level in a Laves phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Distorted Frank-Kasper polyhedron.

  12. Development of membranes for hydrogen separation: Pd-coated V-10Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paglieri, Stephen N; Wermer, Joseph R; Buxbaum, Robert E; Ciocco, Michael V; Howard, Bret H; Morreale, Bryan D

    2009-01-01

    Numerous Group IVB and VB alloys were prepared and tested as potential membrane materials but most of these materials were brittle or exhibited cracking during hydrogen exposure. One of the more ductile alloys, V-10Pd (at. %), was fabricated into a thin (107-{micro}m thick) composite membrane coated with 100 nm of Pd on each side. The material was tested for hydrogen permeability, resistance to hydrogen embrittlement, and long term hydrogen flux stability. The hydrogen permeability, {phi}, of the V-10Pd membrane was 3.86 x 10{sup -8} mol H{sub 2} m{sup -1} s{sup -1} Pa{sup -0.5} (avg. of three different samples) at 400 C, which is slightly higher than the permeability of Pd-23Ag at that temperature. A 1400 h hydrogen flux test at 400 C demonstrated that the rate of metallic interdiffusion was slow between the V-10Pd foil and the 100-nm-thick Pd coating on the surface. However, at the end of testing the membrane cracked at 118 C because of hydrogen embrittlement.

  13. Sweetgrass, MT Liquefied Natural Gas Exports (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Sweetgrass, MT Liquefied Natural Gas Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 7 5 2014 8 11 10 8 8 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 2015 5 4 5 5 5 4 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S.

  14. Fabrication of Pd/Pd-Alloy Films by Surfactant Induced Electroless Plating for Hydrogen Separation from Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilias, Shamsuddin; Kumar, Dhananjay

    2012-07-31

    Dense Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag composite membranes on microporous stainless steel substrate (MPSS) were fabricated by a novel electroless plating (EP) process. In the conventional Pd-EP process, the oxidation-reduction reactions between Pd-complex and hydrazine result in an evolution of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} gas bubbles. When adhered to the substrate surface and in the pores, these gas bubbles hinder uniform Pd-film deposition which results in dendrite growth leading to poor film formation. This problem was addressed by introducing cationic surfactant in the electroless plating process known as surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP). The unique features of this innovation provide control of Pd-deposition rate, and Pd-grain size distribution. The surfactant molecules play an important role in the EP process by tailoring grain size and the process of agglomeration by removing tiny gas bubbles through adsorption at the gas-liquid interface. As a result surfactant can tailor a nanocrystalline Pd, Cu and Ag deposition in the film resulting in reduced membrane film thickness. Also, it produces a uniform, agglomerated film structure. The Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes on MPSS support were fabricated by sequential deposition using SIEP method. The pre- and post-annealing characterizations of these membranes (Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag on MPSS substrate) were carried out by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM studies. The SEM images show significant improvement of the membrane surface morphology, in terms of metal grain structures and grain agglomeration compared to the membranes fabricated by conventional EP process. The SEM images and helium gas-tightness studies indicate that dense and thinner films of Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes can be produced with shorter deposition time using surfactant. H{sub 2} Flux through the membranes fabricated by SIEP shows large improvement compared to those by CEP with comparable permselectivity. Pd-MPSS composite membrane was subjected to test for long term

  15. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mok, H. S.; Murata, Y.; Kodambaka, S., E-mail: kodambaka@ucla.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebnonnasir, A.; Ciobanu, C. V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Nie, S.; McCarty, K. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we follow the growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate temperature, nucleation of graphene begins on graphene-free Pd surface and continues to occur during graphene growth. Measurements of graphene growth rates and Pd surface work functions establish that this continued nucleation is due to increasing C adatom concentration on the Pd surface with time. We attribute this anomalous phenomenon to a large barrier for attachment of C adatoms to graphene coupled with a strong binding of the non-graphitic C to the Pd surface.

  16. 102Pd(n, {gamma}) Cross Section Measurement Using DANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatarik, R.; Alpizar-Vicente, A. M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bredeweg, T. A.; Esch, E.-I.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Greife, U. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2006-03-13

    The neutron capture cross section of the proton rich nucleus 102Pd was measured with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The target was a 2 mg Pd foil with 78% enriched 102Pd. It was held by a 0.9 {mu}m thick Mylar bag which was selected after comparing different thicknesses of Kapton and Mylar for their scattering background. To identify the contribution of the other Pd isotopes the data of a natural Pd sample was compared to the data of the 102Pd enriched sample. A 12C sample was used to determine the scattering background. The 102Pd(n, {gamma}) rate is of importance for the p-process nucleosynthesis.

  17. Seed influence on the ferromagnetic resonance response of Co/Ni multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabino, Maria Patricia Rouelli, E-mail: maria-sabino@dsi.a-star.edu.sg; Tran, Michael; Hin Sim, Cheow; Ji Feng, Ying; Eason, Kwaku [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2014-05-07

    The effect of Pd and Ru seed layers on the magnetic properties of [Co/Ni]{sub N} multilayers with varying number of bilayer repeats N is investigated using vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance. The effective anisotropy field H{sub Keff} is found to increase with N for Ru seed, but decreases for Pd until N?=?15. As N is increased beyond 15, H{sub Keff} decreases for both seeds. In contrast, the damping parameter ? decreases with N regardless of the seed, showing a 1/N dependence. Taking spin pumping into account, the intrinsic damping ?{sub 0} for both Pd and Ru seeds reduce to ?{sub 0} ? 0.01. These results demonstrate that there can be a strong influence of the seed/Co interface on anisotropy, especially for sufficiently low N, but not necessarily on ?{sub 0}.

  18. Temperature dependence of the Pd [ital K]-edge extended x-ray-absorption fine structure of PdC[sub [ital x

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCaulley, J.A. (Hoechst Celanese Research Division, Robert L. Mitchell Technical Center, 86 Morris Avenue, Summit, New Jersey 07901 (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Pd [ital K]-edge extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) and x-ray-absorption near-edge-structure (XANES) measurements were performed on a Pd carbide phase, PdC[sub [ital x

  19. Papua New Guinea MT: Looking where seismic is blind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoversten, G.M.

    1996-11-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in the Papuan fold belt is made extremely difficult by mountainous terrain, equatorial jungle and thick karstified Miocene limestones at the surface. The high-velocity karstified limestones at or near the surface often render the seismic technique useless for imaging the subsurface. In such areas magnetotellurics (MT) provides a valuable capability for mapping subsurface structure. Numerical and field data examples are presented which demonstrate the severity of the 1D errors and the improvements in accuracy which can be achieved using a 2D inverse solution. Two MT lines over adjacent anticlines, both with well control and seismic data, are used to demonstrate the application of 1D and 2D inversions for structural models. The example over the Hides anticline illustrates a situation where 1D inversion of either TE or TM mode provides essentially the same depth to base of Darai as 2D inversion of both TE and TM. The example over the Angore anticline illustrates the inadequacy of 1D inversion in structurally complex geology complicated by electrical statics. Four MT lines along the Angore anticline have been interpreted using 2D inversion. Three-dimensional modelling has been used to simulate 3D statics in an otherwise 2D earth. These data were used to test the Groom-Bailey (GB) decomposition for possible benefits in reducing static effects and estimating geoelectric strike in the Papua New Guinea (PNG) field data. It has been found that the GB decomposition can provide improved regional 2D strike estimates in 3D contaminated data. However, in situations such as PNG, where the regional 2D strike is well established and hence can be fixed, the GB decomposition provides apparent resistivities identical to those simply rotated to strike.

  20. Sweetgrass, MT Natural Gas Imports by Pipeline from Canada

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Sweetgrass, MT Liquefied Natural Gas Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 7 5 2014 8 11 10 8 8 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 2015 5 4 5 5 5 4 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Cubic Feet)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's

  1. Sweetgrass, MT Liquefied Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet) Sweetgrass, MT Liquefied Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2012 2 2013 3 5 4 6 9 8 5 8 7 5 7 5 2014 8 11 10 8 8 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 2015 5 4 5 5 5 4 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Liquefied

  2. Effect of Sodium Sulfide on Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Feng; Paul A. Lindahl

    2004-07-28

    OAK-B135 The structure of the active-site C-cluster in CO dehydrogenase from Carboxythermus hydrogenoformans includes a {mu}{sup 2}-sulfide ion bridged to the Ni and unique Fe, while the same cluster in enzymes from Rhodospirillum rubrum (CODH{sub Rr}) and Moorella thermoacetica (CODH{sub Mt}) lack this ion. This difference was investigated by exploring the effects of sodium sulfide on activity and spectral properties. Sulfide partially inhibited the CO oxidation activity of CODH{sub Rr} and generated a lag prior to steady-state. CODH{sub Mt} was inhibited similarly but without a lag. Adding sulfide to CODH{sub Mt} in the C{sub red1} state caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 EPR signal to decline and new features to appear, including one with g = 1.95, 1.85 and (1.70 or 1.62). Removing sulfide caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 signal to reappear and activity to recover. Sulfide did not affect the g{sub av} = 1.86 signal from the C{sub red2} state. A model was developed in which sulfide binds reversibly to C{sub red1}, inhibiting catalysis. Reducing this adduct causes sulfide to dissociate, C{sub red2} to develop, and activity to recover. Using this model, apparent K{sub I} values are 40 {+-} 10 nM for CODH{sub Rr} and 60 {+-} 30 {micro}M for CODH{sub Mt}. Effects of sulfide are analogous to those of other anions, including the substrate hydroxyl group, suggesting that these ions also bridge the Ni and unique Fe. This proposed arrangement raises the possibility that CO binding labilizes the bridging hydroxyl and increases its nucleophilic tendency towards attacking Ni-bound carbonyl.

  3. Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Rational Catalyst Design Approach | Department of Energy Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach Discusses results of a project focused on overcoming hydrocarbon inhibition on Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts by using a rational catalyst design approach. deer11_kapur.pdf (745.87 KB) More Documents &

  4. Chemical and Morphological Evolution of Nanoporous Pd/Rh Alloy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Chemical and Morphological Evolution of Nanoporous PdRh Alloy Particles for ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  5. Monitoring Galvanic Replacement of Ag Nanoparticles by Pd using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Monitoring Galvanic Replacement of Ag Nanoparticles by Pd using Low Dose In Situ Liquid STEM. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring Galvanic ...

  6. Supported bimetallic PdAu nanoparticles with superior electrocatalytic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanoparticles with superior electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Supported bimetallic PdAu nanoparticles with superior ...

  7. Biography U. Dsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U. Dsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology. Chair: chair for waste disposal technologies and geomechanics. 1982- 1988 field of study:...

  8. Size and alloying induced shift in core and valence bands of Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengar, Saurabh K.; Mehta, B. R.; Govind

    2014-03-28

    In this report, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out on Pd, Ag, Cu, Pd-Ag, and Pd-Cu nanoparticles having identical sizes corresponding to mobility equivalent diameters of 60, 40, and 20 nm. The nanoparticles were prepared by the gas phase synthesis method. The effect of size on valence and core levels in metal and alloy nanoparticles has been studied by comparing the values to those with the 60 nm nanoparticles. The effect of alloying has been investigated by comparing the valence and core level binding energies of Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag alloy nanoparticles with the corresponding values for Pd, Ag, and Cu nanoparticles of identical sizes. These effects have been explained in terms of size induced lattice contractions, alloying induced charge transfer, and hybridization effects. The observation of alloying and size induced binding energy shifts in bimetallic nanoparticles is important from the point of view of hydrogen reactivity.

  9. Neutron resonance spectroscopy of {sup 106}Pd and {sup 108}Pd from 20 to 2000 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, B.E.; Roberson, N.R. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States)] [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States); Bowman, J.D.; Knudson, J.N.; Penttilae, S.I.; Seestrom, S.J.; Yuan, V.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Delheij, P.P. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (CANADA)] [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (CANADA); Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y. [Physics Department, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan)] [Physics Department, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); Lowie, L.Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Stephenson, S.L. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States)] [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States); Postma, H. [University of Technology, Delft, 2600 GA (The Netherlands)] [University of Technology, Delft, 2600 GA (The Netherlands); Sharapov, E.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russia)] [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russia)

    1998-08-01

    Parity nonconserving asymmetries have been measured in p-wave resonances of {sup 106}Pd and {sup 108}Pd. The data analysis requires knowledge of the neutron resonance parameters. Transmission and capture {gamma}-ray yields were measured for E{sub n}=20{endash}2000 eV with the time-of-flight method at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). A total of 28 resonances in {sup 106}Pd and 32 resonances in {sup 108}Pd were studied. The resonance parameters for {sup 106}Pd are new for all except one resonance. In {sup 108}Pd six new resonances were observed and the precision improved for many of the resonance parameters. A Bayesian analysis was used to assign orbital angular momentum for the resonances studied. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Rock Sampling At Mt Ranier Area (Frank, 1995) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity Details Location Mt Ranier Area Exploration Technique Rock Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes This paper relies...

  11. Controlled Source Audio MT At Pilgrim Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Controlled Source Audio MT At Pilgrim Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Pilgrim...

  12. Characterization of Na+- beta-Zeolite Supported Pd and Pd Ag Bimetallic Catalysts using EXAFS, TEM and Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang,W.; Lobo, R.; Chen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Flow reactor studies of the selective hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of ethylene have been performed on Na+ exchanged {beta}-zeolite supported Pd, Ag and PdAg catalysts, as an extension of our previous batch reactor studies [W. Huang, J.R. McCormick, R.F. Lobo, J.G. Chen, J. Catal. 246 (2007) 40-51]. Results from flow reactor studies show that the PdAg/Na+-{beta}-zeolite bimetallic catalyst has lower activity than Pd/Na+-{beta}-zeolite monometallic catalyst, while Ag/Na+-{beta}-zeolite does not show any activity for acetylene hydrogenation. However, the selectivity for the PdAg bimetallic catalyst is much higher than that for either the Pd catalyst or Ag catalyst. The selectivity to byproduct (ethane) is greatly inhibited on the PdAg bimetallic catalyst as well. The results from the current flow reactor studies confirmed the pervious results from batch reactor studies [W. Huang, J.R. McCormick, R.F. Lobo, J.G. Chen, J. Catal. 246 (2007) 40-51]. In addition, we used transmission electron microscope (TEM), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and FTIR of CO adsorption to confirm the formation of Pd-Ag bimetallic alloy in the PdAg/Na+-{beta}-zeolite catalyst.

  13. Materials Data on Ni(TePd)2 (SG:72) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Atomic and electronic structure of Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (M) atoms and form a polar covalently bonded random network of P-M-P favoring certain angles. The remaining M atoms act as metallic glue with a tendency of nanoscale clustering of...

  15. Materials Data on NiGePd (SG:129) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. A photoemission study of Pd ultrathin films on Pt(111) (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    At sub-monolayer coverage of Pd thin films, the splitting of Pd 3d core level peaks ... on the Pd 3d vanishes and only the initial-state effect, a negative SCLS, is present. ...

  17. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the morphology and chemistry of a PdCl{sub 2}/SnCl{sub 2} electroless plating catalysis system adsorbed onto shape memory alloy particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvain, J.F.; Fouassier, O.; Lescaux, S.

    2004-11-01

    A study of the different stages of the electroless deposition of copper on micronic NiTi shape memory alloy particles activated by one-step and two-step methods has been conducted from both a chemical and a morphological point of view. The combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has allowed detection of the distribution of the formed compounds and depth quantification and estimation of the surface topographic parameters. For the two-step method, at the sensitization of the early stages, it is observed by AFM that Sn is absorbed in form of clusters that tend to completely cover the surface and form a continuous film. XPS analysis have shown that Sn and Pd are first absorbed in form of oxide (SnO{sub 2} and PdO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 4}]. After the entire sensitization step, the NiTi substrate is covered with Sn-based compounds. After the sensitization and the activation steps the powder roughness increases. Behavior of the Sn and Pd growth for the one-step method does not follow the behavior found for the two-step method. Indeed, XPS analysis shows a three-dimensional (3D) growth of Pd clusters on top of a mixture of metallic tin, oxide (SnO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 2}]. These Pd clusters are covered with a thin layer of Pd-oxide contamination induced by the electroless process. The mean roughness for the one-step and two-step processes are equivalent. After copper deposition, the decrease of mean roughness is attributed to a filling of surface valleys, observed after the Sn-Pd coating step.

  18. Pd conductor for thick film hydrogen sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felten, J.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Cooperation between a materials developer and sensor designers has resulted in a palladium conductor used ro design and build a new hydrogen sensor that has superior performance characteristics and is also inexpensive to manufacture. Material characteristics give it faster response time and greater thermal/mechanical stability. The thick film palladium conductor paste, which can be fired at 850{degrees}C-950{degrees}C, has provided device designers a practical conductor paste with which to produce the improved sensor. The conductor uses a high surface area Pd powder combined with a binder glass that is chemically very inert, which combination produces a porous conductor that has good adhesion and chemical resistance. The current sensor design consists of three or four thick film Layers. Because of the flexibility of thick film techniques, the sensor element can be configured to any desired size and shape for specific instrument needs.

  19. Hydrogen catalysis and scavenging action of Pd-POSS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiti, A; Gee, R H; Maxwell, R; Saab, A

    2007-02-01

    Prompted by the need for a self-supported, chemically stable, and functionally flexible catalytic nanoparticle system, we explore a system involving Pd clusters coated with a monolayer of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) cages. With an initial theoretical focus on hydrogen catalysis and sequestration in the Pd-POSS system, we report Density Functional Theory (DFT) results on POSS binding energies to the Pd(110) surface, hydrogen storing ability of POSS, and possible pathways of hydrogen radicals from the catalyst surface to unsaturated bonds away from the surface.

  20. Electrical current suppression in Pd-doped vanadium pentoxide nanowires caused by reduction in PdO due to hydrogen exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Byung Hoon; Oh, Soon-Young; Yu, Han Young; Yun, Yong Ju; Kim, Yark Yeon; Hong, Won G.; Jeong, Hu Young; Lee, Jeong Yong; Kim, Hae Jin

    2010-04-19

    Pd nanoparticle-doped vanadium pentoxide nanowires (Pd-VONs) were synthesized. Electrical current suppression was observed when the Pd-VON was exposed to hydrogen gas, which cannot be explained by the work function changes mentioned in previous report such as Pd-doped carbon nanotubes and SnO{sub 2} nanowires. Using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we found that the reduction in PdO due to hydrogen exposure plays an important role in the current suppression of the Pd-VON.

  1. Kinetic effect of Pd additions on the hydrogen uptake of chemically activated, ultramicroporous carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, Vinay V; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2010-01-01

    The effect of mixing chemically-activated ultramicroporous carbon (UMC) with Pd nanopowder is investigated. Results show that Pd addition doubles the rate of hydrogen uptake, but does not enhance the hydrogen capacity or improve desorption kinetics. The effect of Pd on the rate of hydrogen adsorption supports the occurrence of the hydrogen spillover mechanism in the Pd - UMC system.

  2. Anomalous magnetic configuration of Mn{sub 2}NiAl ribbon and the role of hybridization in the martensitic transformation of Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 50−x}Al{sub x} ribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, R. B.; Zhao, D. W.; Li, G. K.; Ma, L. E-mail: houdenglu@mail.hebtu.edu.cn; Zhen, C. M.; Hou, D. L. E-mail: houdenglu@mail.hebtu.edu.cn; Wang, W. H.; Liu, E. K.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.

    2014-12-08

    The magnetic configuration of Mn{sub 2}NiAl ribbon has been investigated. In contrast to Ni{sub 2}MnAl, the compound Mn{sub 2}NiAl with considerable disorder does exhibit ferromagnetism and, due to exchange interaction competition, both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic moment orientations can coexist between nearest neighbor Mn atoms. This is unexpected in Heusler alloys. Regarding the mechanism of the martensitic transformation in Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 50−x}Al{sub x}, it is found that increasing the Al content results in an unusual change in the lattice constant, a decrease of the transformation entropy change, and enhancement of the calculated electron localization. These results indicate that the p-d covalent hybridization between Mn (or Ni) and Al atoms gradually increases at the expense of the d-d hybridization between Ni and Mn atoms. This leads to an increased stability of the austenite phase and a decrease of the martensitic transformation temperature. For 11 ≤ x ≤ 14, Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 50−x}Al{sub x} ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are obtained.

  3. Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Discusses results of a project focused on overcoming hydrocarbon inhibition on Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts by using a rational catalyst design approach. deer11kapur.pdf ...

  4. Composite Pd and Pd Alloy Porous Stainless Steel Membranes for Hydrogen Production and Process Intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Hua Ma; Nikolaos Kazantzis; Ivan Mardilovich; Federico Guazzone; Alexander Augustine; Reyyan Koc

    2011-11-06

    The synthesis of composite Pd membranes has been modified by the addition of a Al(OH){sub 3} graded layer and sequential annealing at high temperatures to obtain membranes with high permeance and outstanding selectivity stability for over 4000 hours at 450°C. Most of the membranes achieved in this work showed H{sub 2} flux well above 2010 DOE targets and in some case, also above 2015 DOE targets. Similar composite membranes were tested in water gas shift reaction atmospheres and showed to be stable with high CO conversion and high hydrogen recovery for over 1000 hours. The H{sub 2} permeance of composite Pd-Au membranes was studied as well as its resistance in H{sub 2}S containing atmospheres. H{sub 2}S poisoning of Pd-based membranes was reduced by the addition of Au and the loss undergone by membranes was found to be almost totally recoverable with 10-30 wt%Au. PSA technique was studied to test the possibility of H{sub 2}S and COS removal from feed stream with limited success since the removal of H{sub 2}S also led to the removal of a large fraction of the CO{sub 2}. The economics of a WGS bundle reactor, using the information of the membranes fabricated under this project and integrated into an IGCC plant were studied based on a 2D reactor modeling. The calculations showed that without a government incentive to impose a CO{sub 2} tax, application of WGS membrane reactors in IGCC would be not as economically attractive as regular pulverized coal plants.

  5. The PD-1/PD-L1 complex resembles the antigen-binding Fv domains of antibodies and T cell receptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, David Yin-wei; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Iwasaki, Masashi; Gittis, Apostolos G.; Su, Hua-Poo; Mikami, Bunzo; Okazaki, Taku; Honjo, Tasuku; Minato, Nagahiro; Garboczi, David N. (NIH); (Kyoto)

    2008-07-29

    Signaling through the programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitory receptor upon binding its ligand, PD-L1, suppresses immune responses against autoantigens and tumors and plays an important role in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. Release from PD-1 inhibitory signaling revives 'exhausted' virus-specific T cells in chronic viral infections. Here we present the crystal structure of murine PD-1 in complex with human PD-L1. PD-1 and PD-L1 interact through the conserved front and side of their Ig variable (IgV) domains, as do the IgV domains of antibodies and T cell receptors. This places the loops at the ends of the IgV domains on the same side of the PD-1/PD-L1 complex, forming a surface that is similar to the antigen-binding surface of antibodies and T cell receptors. Mapping conserved residues allowed the identification of residues that are important in forming the PD-1/PD-L1 interface. Based on the structure, we show that some reported loss-of-binding mutations involve the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction but that others compromise protein folding. The PD-1/PD-L1 interaction described here may be blocked by antibodies or by designed small-molecule drugs to lower inhibitory signaling that results in a stronger immune response. The immune receptor-like loops offer a new surface for further study and potentially the design of molecules that would affect PD-1/PD-L1 complex formation and thereby modulate the immune response.

  6. Cu--Pd--M hydrogen separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Do{hacek over }an, Omer N; Gao, Michael C; Young, Rongxiang Hu; Tafen, De Nyago

    2013-12-17

    The disclosure provides an H2 separation membrane comprised of an allow having the composition Cu.Sub.(100-x-y)Pd.sub.xM.sub.y, where x is from about 35 to about 50 atomic percent and where y is from greater than 0 to about 20 atomic percent, and where M consists of magnesium, yttrium, aluminum, titanium, lanthanum, or combinations thereof. The M elements act as strong stabilizers for the B2 phase of the allow, and extend the critical temperature of the alloy for a given hydrogen concentration and pressure. Due to the phase stabilization and the greater temperature range over which a B2 phase can be maintained, the allow is well suited for service as a H2 separation membrane, particularly when applicable conditions are established or cycled above about 600.degree. C. over the course of expected operations. In certain embodiments, the B2 phase comprises at least 60 estimated volume percent of the allow at a steady-state temperature of 400.degree. C. The B2 phase stability is experimentally validated through HT-XRD.

  7. A pathway for the growth of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Yang, Xiaofan; Li, Chen; Pennycook, Stephen J; Lupini, Andrew R

    2015-10-12

    In this study, the aging of both Pt-Pd nanoparticles and core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles has been reported to result in alloying of Pt with Pd. In comparison to monometallic Pt catalysts, the growth of Pd-Pt bimetallics is slower; however, the mechanism of growth of particles and the mechanism by which Pd improves the hydrothermal durability of bimetallic Pd-Pt particles remains uncertain. In our work on hydrothermal aging of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles, synthesized by solution methods, with varying Pd:Pt ratio of 1:4, 1:1, and 4:1, we compare the growth of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles and find that particles grow by migrating and joining together. The unique feature of the observed growth is that Pd shells from both particles open up and join, allowing the cores to merge. At high temperatures, alloying occurs in good agreement with reports by other workers.

  8. Local structure order in Pd??Cu?Si?? liquid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, G. Q.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA; Zhang, Y.; Sun, Y.; Shen, B.; Dong, F.; Wang, Z. Y.; Zhang, R. J.; Zheng, Y. X.; Kramer, M. J.; et al

    2015-02-05

    The short-range order (SRO) in Pd??Cu?Si?? liquid was studied by high energy x-ray diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The calculated pair correlation functions at different temperatures agree well with the experimental results. The partial pair correlation functions from ab intio MD simulations indicate that Si atoms prefer to be uniformly distributed while Cu atoms tend to aggregate. By performing structure analysis using Honeycutt-Andersen index, Voronoi tessellation, and atomic cluster alignment method, we show that the icosahedron and face-centered cubic SRO increase upon cooling. The dominant SRO is the Pd-centered Pd?Si? motif, namely the structure of which motifmoreis similar to the structure of Pd-centered clusters in the Pd?Si? crystal. The study further confirms the existence of trigonal prism capped with three half-octahedra that is reported as a structural unit in Pd-based amorphous alloys. The majority of Cu-centered clusters are icosahedra, suggesting that the presence of Cu is benefit to promote the glass forming ability.less

  9. The Pd/Fe Interface in the Epitaxial System Pd/Fe/GaAs(001)- 4 x 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budnik, P.S.; Gordon, R.A.; Crozier, E.D.

    2007-01-18

    Magnetic properties of thin magnetic films are strongly affected by the nature of the interface between magnetic and non-magnetic layers. In spintronic devices the extent to which spins are scattered at an interface depends upon interfacial roughness, alloying, and impurities. We present a polarization-dependent XAFS study of a 1Pd/9Fe/GaAs(001)-(4 x 6) structure grown in situ in the MBE facility at the PNC/XOR, APS. To increase the interfacial roughness, the 1ML Pd was grown on the 9 ML Fe without first sputtering and annealing the Fe. An estimate of interfacial roughness, evidence for formation of Pd islands, their height, and the amount of As floating to the Pd surface from the GaAs are given.

  10. Airtricity Developments NI Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Airtricity Developments NI Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Airtricity Developments NI Ltd Place: Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom Zip: BT2 7AF Sector: Wind energy...

  11. SF 6432-NI (04-95)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrieve latest version electronically. SF 6432-NI (061411) SECTION II STANDARD TERMS ... Control : SF 6432-NI Title: Standard Terms & Conditions for Fixed Price Contracts With ...

  12. Electron phonon coupling in Ni-based binary alloys with application to displacement cascade modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Samolyuk, German D.; Stocks, George Malcolm; Stoller, Roger E.

    2016-04-01

    Energy transfer between lattice atoms and electrons is an important channel of energy dissipation during displacement cascade evolution in irradiated materials. On the assumption of small atomic displacements, the intensity of this transfer is controlled by the strength of electron–phonon (el–ph) coupling. The el–ph coupling in concentrated Ni-based alloys was calculated using electronic structure results obtained within the coherent potential approximation. It was found that Ni0.5Fe0.5, Ni0.5Co0.5 and Ni0.5Pd0.5 are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas Ni0.5Cr0.5 is nonmagnetic. Since the magnetism in these alloys has a Stoner-type origin, the magnetic ordering is accompanied by a decrease of electronic density of states atmore » the Fermi level, which in turn reduces the el–ph coupling. Thus, the el–ph coupling values for all alloys are approximately 50% smaller in the magnetic state than for the same alloy in a nonmagnetic state. As the temperature increases, the calculated coupling initially increases. After passing the Curie temperature, the coupling decreases. The rate of decrease is controlled by the shape of the density of states above the Fermi level. Introducing a two-temperature model based on these parameters in 10 keV molecular dynamics cascade simulation increases defect production by 10–20% in the alloys under consideration.« less

  13. A Large Self-Potential Anomaly And Its Changes On The Quiet Mt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Large Self-Potential Anomaly And Its Changes On The Quiet Mt Fuji, Japan Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Large Self-Potential...

  14. Magnetic properties of double perovskite La2BMnO6 (B = Ni or Co) nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Yuanbing; Parsons, Jason; McCloy, John S.

    2013-03-31

    Double perovskite La2BMnO6 (B = Ni and Co) nanoparticles with average particle size of ~50 nm were synthesized using a facile, environmentally friendly, scalable molten-salt reaction at 700 C in air. Their structural and morphological properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic properties were evaluated using dc magnetic M-T and M-H, and ac magnetic susceptibility versus frequency, temperature, and field. The magnetization curve shows a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition at TC ~275 and 220 K for La2NiMnO6 (LNMO) and La2CoMnO6 (LCMO) nanoparticles, respectively. ac susceptibility revealed that the LCMO had a single magnetic transition indicative of Co2+-O2--Mn4+ ordering, whereas the LNMO showed more complex magnetic behavior suggesting a re-entrant spin glass.

  15. Evidence for Low-Intensity D-D Reaction as a Result of Exothermic Deuterium Desorption from Au/Pd/PdO:D Heterostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipson, A.G.; Lyakhov, B.F.; Roussetski, A.S.; Akimoto, T.; Mizuno, T.; Asami, N.; Shimada, R.; Miyashita, S.; Takahashi, A.

    2000-09-15

    Low-intensity nuclear emissions (neutrons and charged particles) due to exothermic deuterium desorption from Au/Pd/PdO heterostructure loaded with deuterium by electrolysis have been studied by NE213 neutron detection as well as SSB and CR-39 charged-particle detectors in low-background conditions with large statistics. Similar measurements were performed with the Au/Pd/PdO:H heterostructure as a control. It has been established that in experiments with the Au/Pd/PdO:D system, the excessive 2.45-MeV neutrons and 3.0-MeV protons are better detected than with the Au/Pd/PdO:H system, where those detection rates for n and p did not exceed the cosmic background level. The levels of neutron and proton emissions for 40- to 60-{mu}m-thick samples are found to be close to one another and after subtracting background (Au/Pd/PdO:H count rate) consist of I{sub n} = (19 {+-} 2).10{sup -3} n/s and I{sub p} (4.0 {+-} 1.0).10{sup -3} p/s in a 4{pi} solid angle, respectively. These yields of D-D reaction products in Au/Pd/PdO heterostructure comply with the mean D-D reaction rate of {lambda}{sub dd} {approx} 10{sup -23}s{sup -1} per D-D pair.

  16. Antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice in the layered compound CePd1-xBi₂ and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    comparison to the superconductor LaPd1-xBi₂ (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice in the layered compound CePd1-xBi₂ and comparison to the superconductor LaPd1-xBi₂ Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice in the layered compound CePd1-xBi₂ and comparison to the superconductor LaPd1-xBi₂ The layered compound CePd1-xBi₂ with the tetragonal ZrCuSi₂-type structure was obtained from excess Bi flux. Magnetic

  17. Surfactant-induced postsynthetic modulation of Pd nanoparticle crystallinity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, C.; Wei, Y.; Zhu, L.; Li, D.; Jiang, J. S.; Markovic, N. M.; Stamenkovic, V. R.; Sun, S.

    2011-02-01

    Modulation of Pd nanoparticle (NP) crystallinity is achieved by switching the surfactants of different binding strengths. Pd NPs synthesized in the presence of weak binding surfactants such as oleylamine possess polyhedral shapes and a polycrystalline nature. When oleylamine is substituted by trioctylphosphine, a much stronger binding surfactant, the particles become spherical and their crystallinity decreases significantly. Moreover, the Pd NPs reconvert their polycrystalline structure when the surfactant is switched back to oleylamine. Through control experiments and molecular dynamics simulation, we propose that this unusual nanocrystallinity transition induced by surfactant exchange was resulted from a counterbalance between the surfactant binding energy and the nanocrystal adhesive energy. The findings represent a novel postsynthetic approach to tailoring the structure and corresponding functional performance of nanomaterials.

  18. Pd/Cu Site Interchange and Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior in UCu{sub 4}Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, C.H.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Heffner, R.H.; Kwei, G.H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); MacLaughlin, D.E. [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Chau, R.; Maple, M.B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    X-ray-absorption fine-structure measurements of the local structure in UCu{sub 4}Pd are described which indicate a probable lattice-disorder origin for non-Fermi-liquid behavior in this material. Short Pd-Cu distances are observed, consistent with (24{plus_minus}3){percent} of the Pd atoms occupying nominally Cu sites. A {open_quotes}Kondo disorder{close_quotes} model, based on the effect on the local Kondo temperature T{sub K} of this interchange and some additional bond-length disorder, agrees quantitatively with previous experimental susceptibility data, and therefore also with specific heat and magnetic resonance experiments. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

  19. Aqueous phase hydrodeoxygenation of polyols over Pd/WO3-ZrO2...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aqueous phase hydrodeoxygenation of polyols over PdWO3-ZrO2: Role of Pd-WO3 interaction and hydrodeoxygenation pathway Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become ...

  20. Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phasehydrodeoxy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts ...

  1. {ital In situ} neutron-reflectometry measurements of hydrogen and deuterium absorption in a Pd/Nb/Pd layered film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munter, A.E.; Heuser, B.J.; Ruckman, M.W.

    1997-06-01

    We present {ital in situ} neutron-reflectivity measurements of the hydrogen and deuterium absorption from the gas phase in a Pd/Nb/Pd thin film multilayer. Hydrogen and deuterium were both preferentially absorbed into the Nb layer at room temperature and at a pressure of 10 Torr. Genetic algorithm fits to the specular data indicate concentrations of approximately 0.71 [H]/[Nb] and 0.51 [D]/[Nb], placing the Nb well into the {beta} phase (or an {alpha}-like phase). {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Wall-catalyzed Water-Gas Shift Reaction in Multi-tubular, Pd and 80wt%Pd-20wt%Cu Membrane Reactors at 1173K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osemwengie, I.; Enick, R.M.; Killmeyer, R.P.

    2007-07-20

    The high-temperature, water-gas shift reaction was conducted in 100 wt%Pd and 80 wt%Pd–20 wt%Cu (Pd80 wt%Cu) shell-and-tube membrane reactors at 1173 K with a 241 kPa (35 psig) trans-membrane pressure differential in the absence of heterogeneous catalyst particles. The tube bundle consisted of four parallel 15.25 cm long, 3.175 mm OD Pd-based tubes with a wall thickness of 125 μm. The modest catalytic activity of the Pd-based membrane surface for the forward WGSR, the high rate of hydrogen extraction through the Pd-based membranes, and the long residence times (1–5 s) resulted in a dramatic shift in carbon monoxide conversions of 93% at 1173 K and a 1.5:1 steam-to-carbon monoxide feed ratio—a value well above the equilibrium value of 54% associated with a conventional (non-membrane) reactor. Carbon monoxide conversions decreased from 93% to 66% and hydrogen recovery from 90% to 85% at a residence time of 5 s when the Pd was replaced with Pd80 wt%Cu, due to the lower permeance of the Pd80 wt%Cu alloy. SEM-EDS analysis of the membrane tubes suggested that the water-gas shift environment caused pinhole formation in the retentate surfaces of the Pd and Pd80 wt%Cu after approximately 8 days of operation.

  3. Selective Hydrogenation of Acetylene in the Presence of Ethylene on K+ -beta-Zeolite Supported Pd and PdAg Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang,W.; Pyrz, W.; Lobo, R.; Chen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The selective hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of ethylene has been studied on K+ exchanged {beta}-zeolite supported Pd and PdAg catalysts. Results from batch reactor studies with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have shown that the K+-{beta}-zeolite support is more selective than the Al2O3 or Na+-{beta}-zeolite supports toward the hydrogenation of acetylene. The rate and equilibrium constants for Pd/K+-{beta}-zeolite and PdAg/K+-{beta}-zeolite were determined using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The selectivity of the PdAg bimetallic catalyst is twice of that of the Pd catalyst. Results from flow reactor studies show that the PdAg/K+-{beta}-zeolite catalyst has higher selectivity but lower activity toward acetylene hydrogenation than the Pd/K+-{beta}-zeolite catalyst. The selectivity to the undesirable ethane by-product is inhibited on the bimetallic catalyst. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis confirm the formation of Pd-Ag bimetallic bonds in the PdAg/K+-{beta}-zeolite catalyst.

  4. Hydrogen Absorption in Pd-based Nanostructures - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Lederman

    2012-10-22

    Pd is known to absorb hydrogen. Molecules are normally chemisorbed at the surface in a process where the molecule breaks into two hydrogen atoms, and the protons are then absorbed into the bulk. This process consists of electron filling holes in the Pd 4d band near the Fermi energy, which due to the high density of states at the Fermi energy, is an energetically favorable process. Our aim with this project was to determine possible changes in magnetic properties with Pd nm-length-scale thick layers intercalated by magnetic materials. Before the start of this work, the literature indicated that there were several possible scenarios by which this could happen: i) the Pd will be magnetized due to a proximity effect with nearby magnetic layers, resulting in changes in the magnetization due to H2 absorption; ii) some H will be absorbed into the magnetic layers, causing a change in the magnetic exchange interactions; or iii) absorption of H2 will cause an expansion of the lattice, resulting in a magnetoelastic effect which changes the magnetic properties.

  5. Experiment operations plan for the MT-4 experiment in the NRU reactor. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russcher, G.E.; Wilson, C.L.; Parchen, L.J.; Marshall, R.K.; Hesson, G.M.; Webb, B.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1983-06-01

    A series of thermal-hydraulic and cladding materials deformation experiments were conducted using light-water reactor fuel bundles as part of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Simulation Program. This report is the formal operations plan for MT-4 - the fourth materials deformation experiment conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. A major objective of MT-4 was to simulate a pressurized water reactor LOCA that could induce fuel rod cladding deformation and rupture due to a short-term adiabatic transient and a peak fuel cladding temperature of 1200K (1700/sup 0/F).

  6. Strain relief and Pd island shape evolution on the palladium and palladium hydride (100) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolesnikov, S. V.; Klavsyuk, A. L.; Saletsky, A. M. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    The mesoscopic relaxation of small Pd islands on Pd(100) and PdH(100) surfaces is investigated on the atomic scale by performing molecular statics calculations. A strong strain and stress inhomogeneity in islands and topmost layers of the substrate is revealed. An unusual size dependence of the shape of islands is discovered.

  7. Sulfur Tolerant Pd/Cu and Pd/Au Alloy Membranes for H2 Separation with High Pressure CO2 for Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Hua Ma; Natalie Pomerantz; Chao-Huang Chen

    2008-09-30

    The effect of H{sub 2}S poisoning on Pd, Pd/Cu, and Pd/Au alloy composite membranes prepared by the electroless deposition method on porous Inconel supports was investigated to provide a fundamental understanding of the durability and preparation of sulfur tolerant membranes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies showed that the exposure of pure Pd to 50 ppm H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} mixtures caused bulk sulfide formation at lower temperatures and surface sulfide formation at higher temperatures. Lower temperatures, longer exposure times, and higher H{sub 2}S concentrations resulted in a higher degree of sulfidation. In a Pd membrane, the bulk sulfide formation caused a drastic irrecoverable H{sub 2} permeance decline and an irreparable loss in selectivity. Pd/Cu and Pd/Au alloy membranes exhibited permeance declines due to surface sulfide formation upon exposure to 50 ppm H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} gas mixtures. However in contrast to the pure Pd membrane, the permeances of the Pd/Cu and Pd/Au alloy membranes were mostly recovered in pure H{sub 2} and the selectivity of the Pd alloy layers remained essentially intact throughout the characterization in H{sub 2}, He and H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} mixtures which lasted several thousand hours. The amount of irreversible sulfur poisoning decreased with increasing temperature due to the exothermicity of H{sub 2}S adsorption. Longer exposure times increased the amount of irreversible poisoning of the Pd/Cu membrane but not the Pd/Au membrane. Pd/Au coupon studies of the galvanic displacement method showed that higher Au{sup 3+} concentrations, lower pH values, higher bath temperatures and stirring the bath at a rate of 200 rpm yielded faster displacement rates, more uniform depositions, and a higher Au content within the layers. While 400 C was found to be sufficient to form a Pd/Au alloy on the surface, high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) studies showed that even after annealing between 500-600 C, the Pd/Cu alloys could have

  8. MT71x: Multi-Temperature Library Based on ENDF/B-VII.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd; Parsons, Donald Kent; Gray, Mark Girard; Lee, Mary Beth; White, Morgan Curtis

    2015-12-16

    The Nuclear Data Team has released a multitemperature transport library, MT71x, based upon ENDF/B-VII.1 with a few modifications as well as additional evaluations for a total of 427 isotope tables. The library was processed using NJOY2012.39 into 23 temperatures. MT71x consists of two sub-libraries; MT71xMG for multigroup energy representation data and MT71xCE for continuous energy representation data. These sub-libraries are suitable for deterministic transport and Monte Carlo transport applications, respectively. The SZAs used are the same for the two sub-libraries; that is, the same SZA can be used for both libraries. This makes comparisons between the two libraries and between deterministic and Monte Carlo codes straightforward. Both the multigroup energy and continuous energy libraries were verified and validated with our checking codes checkmg and checkace (multigroup and continuous energy, respectively) Then an expanded suite of tests was used for additional verification and, finally, verified using an extensive suite of critical benchmark models. We feel that this library is suitable for all calculations and is particularly useful for calculations sensitive to temperature effects.

  9. Combination of emulsion chamber and air shower array at Mt. Chacaltaya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawasumi, N.; Tsushima, I.; Honda, K.; Hashimoto, K. ); Matano, T. ); Mori, K.; Inoue, N.; Ticona, R. ); Ohsawa, A. ); Tamada, M. ); Martinic, N.; Aliaga, Z.; Reguerin, A.; Aguirre, C. )

    1993-06-15

    Data of 34 familes with the accompanying air showers, observed by the combination of emulsion chamber and air shower array at Mt. Chacaltaya, are presented. Comparison with the simulation calculation concludes that a change is necessary in the characteristics of hadron interactions in [ital E][sub 0][ge]10[sup 15] eV.

  10. Pd-vacancy complex in Ge: TDPAC and ab initio study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abiona, Adurafimihan A.; Kemp, Williams; Timmers, Heiko

    2014-02-21

    Low temperature metal-induced-crystallized germanium is a promising alternative for silicon in Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Palladium (Pd) is one of the metals suitable for inducing the low temperature crystallization. It is not certain, how residual Pd atoms are integrated into the Ge lattice. Therefore, time-different ?-? perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique using the {sup 100}Pd(?{sup 100}Rh) nuclear probe has been applied to study the hyperfine interactions of this probe in single crystalline undoped Ge. A Pd-vacancy (Pd-V) complex with a unique interaction frequency of 8.4(2) Mrad/s has been identified. The Pd-V complex has been measured to have a maximum fraction after annealing at 350 C. Density functional theory calculations have confirmed that the Pd-V complex may have the split-vacancy configuration in Ge, in contrast to the full-vacancy configuration observed in Si.

  11. Electrodeposition of Pd Nanowires and Nanorods on Carbon Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliznakov, S.; Vukmirovic, M.; Sutter, E.; Adzic, R.

    2011-06-01

    We report on the method for synthesizing palladium nanowires and nanorods involving the electrodeposition on oxidized amorphous carbon nanoparticles from chloride containing solutions. The effect of the deposition overpotential and the concentration of palladium ions on the morphology of the Pd electrodeposits have been established. Palladium grows predominately in the shape of nanowires if electrodeposited at potentials in the H underpotential deposition potential (UPD) range, where chloride ions are adsorbed only at the edges of nucleated monolayer-thick clusters on the carbon surface. The effect of the concentration of palladium ions on deposits morphology is also discussed. The mechanism of electrodeposition of Pd nanowires and nanorods in the H UPD potential range has been proposed.

  12. Partial encapsulation of Pd particles by reduced ceria-zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, H P.; Pan, X Q.; Graham, George W.; Jen, H. W.; McCabe, Robert W.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Peden, Charles HF.

    2005-11-14

    The interaction between metal particles and their oxide support can be strong so as to affect the reactivity of a catalyst system by, for example, encapsulation of the particles by the oxide. Direct observation of metal-oxide interfaces with atomic resolution is a challenge and can only be achieved by cross sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). With this approach, we found partial encapsulation of Pd particles by reduced ceria-zirconia in a model, single-crystal thin film auto catalyst, indicating a strong interaction between Pd and the oxide. Besides obtaining HRTEM images, the valence of cerium was determined by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The effect of reduction and oxidation conditions on this interaction provides a qualitative explanation for a previously observed reversible reactivation of oxygen storage in model powder auto catalysts. The technique of cross sectional HRTEM can be applied to the study of other metal-particle-on-oxide systems.

  13. Density Functional Studies of Methanol Decomposition on Subnanometer Pd Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehmood, Faisal; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2009-12-31

    A density functional theory study of the decomposition of methanol on subnanometer palladium clusters (primarily Pd4) is presented. Methanol dehydrogenation through C-H bond breaking to form hydroxymethyl (CH2OH) as the initial step, followed by steps involving formation of hydroxymethylene (CHOH), formyl (CHO), and carbon monoxide (CO), is found to be the most favorable reaction pathway. A competing dehydrogenation pathway with O-H bond breaking as the first step, followed by formation of methoxy (CH3O) and formaldehyde (CH2O), is slightly less favorable. In contrast, pathways involving C-O bond cleavage are much less energetically favorable, and no feasible pathways involving C-O bond formation to yield dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) are found. Comparisons of the results are made with methanol decomposition products adsorbed on more extended Pd surfaces; all reaction intermediates are found to bind slightly more strongly to the clusters than to the surfaces.

  14. Computer simulation of D atoms in a Pd lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berrondo, M. )

    1991-05-10

    We calculate the equilibrium configurations of a system of deuterium atoms absorbed in palladium. The interaction potential energy is taken as a sum of pair functionals including non-additive effects, which are crucial for this case. We conclude from our calculations that the most probable configuration for the deuterium in the {beta}-phase of PdD involves at least a partial occupation of the tetrahedral sites of the fcc palladium unit cell.

  15. ternay-pd-alloys-pall | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Designing and Validating Ternay Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance Project No.: DE-FE0001181 Gas Permeation Cell and Test Stand Pall Corporation is developing an economically-viable hydrogen/carbon dioxide (H2/CO2) separation membrane system that would allow efficient capture of CO2 at high temperature and pressure from gasified coal in the presence of typical contaminants. Goals for the project include creating an advanced palladium alloy for optimum hydrogen separation performance

  16. Deactivation Mechanisms of Pt/Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiebenga, Michelle H.; Kim, Chang H.; Schmieg, Steven J.; Oh, Se H.; Brown, David B.; Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Peden, Charles HF

    2012-04-30

    Currently precious metal-based diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) containing platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are most commonly used for the oxidation of hydrocarbon and NO in diesel exhaust hydrocarbon oxidation. The present work has been carried out to investigate the deactivation mechanisms of the DOC from its real-world vehicle operation by coupling its catalytic activity measurements with surface characterization including x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A production Pt-Pd DOC was obtained after being aged on a vehicle driven for 135,000 miles in order to study its deactivation behavior. The performance of the vehicle-aged part was correlated with that of the simulated hydrothermal lab aged sample assuming that Pt-Pd sintering plays a major role in irreversible catalyst deactivation. In addition to the hydrothermal sintering, the deterioration of hydrocarbon and NO oxidation performance was caused by surface poisoning. The role of the various aging factors in determining long-term performance in mobile applications will be discussed.

  17. A pathway for the growth of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Yang, Xiaofan; Li, Chen; Pennycook, Stephen J; Lupini, Andrew R

    2015-10-12

    In this study, the aging of both Pt-Pd nanoparticles and core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles has been reported to result in alloying of Pt with Pd. In comparison to monometallic Pt catalysts, the growth of Pd-Pt bimetallics is slower; however, the mechanism of growth of particles and the mechanism by which Pd improves the hydrothermal durability of bimetallic Pd-Pt particles remains uncertain. In our work on hydrothermal aging of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles, synthesized by solution methods, with varying Pd:Pt ratio of 1:4, 1:1, and 4:1, we compare the growth of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles and find that particles grow by migrating and joiningmore » together. The unique feature of the observed growth is that Pd shells from both particles open up and join, allowing the cores to merge. At high temperatures, alloying occurs in good agreement with reports by other workers.« less

  18. Crystallographic evidence for chemical ordering in UCu{sub 5{minus}x}Pd{sub x}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, R.; Maple, M.B. [Department of Physics and the Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)] [Department of Physics and the Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Robinson, R.A. [Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    We report elastic neutron-diffraction measurements on UCu{sub 5{minus}x}Pd{sub x} (x=0.65, 1.0, and 1.5) using the High-Intensity Powder Diffractometer instrument at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Data from six detector banks were simultaneously refined using Rietveld analysis. From the refinements of the data, we find that for Pd concentrations x{lt}1, Pd atoms preferentially occupy the minority Cu/Pd 4c sites, and Cu atoms fully occupy the majority Cu/Pd 16e sites. For Pd concentrations x{gt}1, Pd atoms fully occupy the minority sites and a mixture of Cu and Pd atoms occupy the 16e sites. At the special concentration x=1, we find that the Pd and Cu atoms occupy separate crystallographic sites. This arrangement of atoms is indicative of chemical ordering, although no superlattice peaks were observed. The implications of chemical ordering in UCu{sub 5{minus}x}Pd{sub x} on disorder-driven models of non-Fermi-liquid behavior will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Thermally stable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy features of [Co/Pd]{sub m} multilayer matrix integrated with [CoO/Pd]{sub n} bottom layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, JaBin; An, GwangGuk; Yang, SeungMo; Hong, JinPyo; Chung, WooSeong

    2014-01-13

    We evaluated the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) features of a hybrid [CoO/Pd]{sub 2}/[Co/Pd]{sub 7} multilayer (ML) matrix under annealing in which the [CoO/Pd]{sub 2} bottom layer was inserted. Annealing allowed for the diffusion of oxygen atoms existing in the inserted [CoO/Pd]{sub 2} layer, leading to an atomic structural reconfiguration event. The hybrid matrix was crucial to result in a higher effective anisotropy energy (3.40 Merg/cc) than an ordinary [Co/Pd]{sub 7} ML matrix (1.25 Merg/cc) under annealing at 450?C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Co-O bonding states and annealing dependent oxygen atom diffusion. The possible nature of the enhanced PMA features is discussed.

  20. Hazard assessment in geothermal exploration: The case of Mt. Parker, Southern Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delfin, F.G. Jr.; Salonga, N.D.; Bayon, F.E.B.

    1996-12-31

    Hazard assessment of the Mt. Parker geothermal prospect, conducted in parallel with the surface exploration from 1992 to 1994, was undertaken to determine the long-term suitability of the prospect for development. By comparison with other acidic magmatic-hydrothermal systems in the Philippines, the geochemical data indicated minimal input of acidic magmatic fluids into Mt. Parker`s hydrothermal system. This system was regarded to be a neutral-pH and high-enthalpy chloride reservoir with temperature of at least 200-250{degrees}C. These favorable geochemical indications contrasted sharply with the C-14 and volcanological data indicating a shallow magmatic body with a potential for future eruption. This hazard led PNOC EDC to discontinue the survey and abandon the prospect by late 1994. On September 6, 1995, a flashflood of non-volcanic origin from the caldera lake killed nearly 100 people on the volcano`s northwestern flank.

  1. On phase equilibria and crystal structures in the systems Ce-Pd-B and Yb-Pd-B. Physical properties of R{sub 2}Pd{sub 13.6}B{sub 5} (R=Yb, Lu)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sologub, Oksana; Rogl, Peter; Salamakha, Leonid; Bauer, Ernst; Hilscher, Gerfried; Michor, Herwig; Giester, Gerald

    2010-05-15

    Phase equilibria and crystal structures of ternary compounds were determined in the systems Ce-Pd-B and Yb-Pd-B at 850 deg. C in the concentration ranges up to 45 and 33 at% of Ce and Yb, respectively, employing X-ray single crystal and powder diffraction. Phase relations in the Ce-Pd-B system at 850 deg. C are governed by formation of extended homogeneity fields, tau{sub 2}-CePd{sub 8}B{sub 2-x} (0.10Pd{sub 25-x}B{sub 8-y} (1.06Pd{sub 3}B{sub x} (0Pd{sub 3}. Crystallographic parameters for the new structure type tau{sub 2}-CePd{sub 8}B{sub 2-x} (space group C2/c, a=1.78104(4) nm, b=1.03723(3) nm, c=1.16314(3), beta=118.515(1){sup o} for x=0.46) were established from X-ray single crystal diffraction. The crystal structures of tau{sub 2}-CePd{sub 8}B{sub 2-x} and tau{sub 3}-Ce{sub 3}Pd{sub 25-x}B{sub 3-y} are connected in a crystallographic group-subgroup relationship. Due to the lack of suitable single crystals, the novel structure of tau{sub 1}-Ce{sub 6}Pd{sub 47-x}B{sub 6} (x=0.2, C2/m space group, a=1.03594(2) nm, b=1.80782(3) nm, c=1.01997(2) nm, beta=108.321(1){sup o}) was determined from Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data applying the structural model obtained from single crystals of homologous La{sub 6}Pd{sub 47-x}B{sub 6} (x=0.19) (X-ray single crystal diffraction, new structure type, space group C2/m, a=1.03988(2) nm, b=1.81941(5) nm, c=1.02418(2) nm, beta=108.168(1){sup o}). The Yb-Pd-B system is characterized by one ternary compound, tau{sub 1}-Yb{sub 2}Pd{sub 14}B{sub 5}, forming equilibria with extended solution YbPd{sub 3}B{sub x}, YbB{sub 6}, Pd{sub 5}B{sub 2} and Pd{sub 3}B. The crystal structures of both Yb{sub 2}Pd{sub 14}B{sub 5} and isotypic Lu{sub 2}Pd{sub 14}B{sub 5} were determined from X-ray Rietveld refinements and found to be closely related to the Y{sub 2}Pd{sub 14}B{sub 5}-type (I4{sub 1}/amd). The crystal structure of

  2. Babb, MT Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet) Babb, MT Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 5 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas

  3. Havre, MT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Million Cubic Feet) Havre, MT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 2000's 1,309 NA NA 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S.

  4. Phase Stability for the Pd-Si System. First-Principles, Experiments, and Solution-Based Modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, S. H.; Huo, Y.; Napolitano, Ralph E.

    2015-11-05

    Relative stabilities of the compounds in the binary Pd-Si system were assessed using first-principles calculations and experimental methods. Calculations of lattice parameters and enthalpy of formation indicate that Pd5Si-μ, Pd9Si2-α, Pd3 Si-β, Pd2 Si-γ, and PdSi-δ are the stable phases at 0 K (-273 °C). X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the as-solidified and heat-treated samples support the computational findings, except that the PdSi-δ phase was not observed at low temperature. Considering both experimental data and first-principles results, the compounds Pd 5 Si-μ, Pd9 Si2-α, Pd3Si-β, and Pd2Si-γ are treated as stable phases down to 0more » K (-273 °C), while the PdSi-δ is treated as being stable over a limited range, exhibiting a lower bound. Using these findings, a comprehensive solution-based thermodynamic model is formulated for the Pd-Si system, permitting phase diagram calculation. Moreover, the liquid phase is described using a three-species association model and other phases are treated as solid solutions, where a random substitutional model is adopted for Pd-fcc and Si-dia, and a two-sublattice model is employed for Pd5Si-μ, Pd9Si2-α, Pd3Si-β, Pd2Si-γ, and PdSi-δ. Model parameters are fitted using available experimental data and first-principles data, and the resulting phase diagram is reported over the full range of compositions.« less

  5. Synthesis and crystal structure of the palladium oxides NaPd{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} and K{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panin, Rodion V. Khasanova, Nellie R.; Abakumov, Artem M.; Antipov, Evgeny V.; Tendeloo, Gustaaf van; Schnelle, Walter

    2007-05-15

    NaPd{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} and K{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been prepared by solid-state reaction of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} or KO{sub 2} and PdO in sealed silica tubes. Crystal structures of the synthesized phases were refined by the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffraction data. NaPd{sub 3}O{sub 4} (space group Pm3-barn, a=5.64979(6) A, Z=2) is isostructural to NaPt{sub 3}O{sub 4}. It consists of NaO{sub 8} cubes and PdO{sub 4} squares, corner linked into a three-dimensional framework where the planes of neighboring PdO{sub 4} squares are perpendicular to each other. Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} (space group C2/c, a=5.3857(1) A, b=9.3297(1) A, c=10.8136(2) A, {beta}=99.437(2){sup o}, Z=8) belongs to the Li{sub 2}RuO{sub 3}-structure type, being the layered variant of the NaCl structure, where the layers of octahedral interstices filled with Na{sup +} and Pd{sup 4+} cations alternate with Na{sub 3} layers along the c-axis. Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} exhibits a stacking disorder, detected by electron diffraction and Rietveld refinement. K{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}O{sub 4}, prepared for the first time, crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm (a=6.1751(6) A, b=9.1772(12) A, c=11.3402(12) A, Z=4). Its structure is composed of planar PdO{sub 4} units connected via common edges to form parallel staggered PdO{sub 2} strips, where potassium atoms are located between them. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of K{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}O{sub 4} reveal a Curie-Weiss behavior in the temperature range above 80 K. - Graphical abstract: Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} (space group C2/c, a=5.3857(1) A, b=9.3297(1) A, c=10.8136(2) A, {beta}=99.437(2), Z=8) belongs to the Li{sub 2}RuO{sub 3}-structure type, being the layered variant of the NaCl structure, where the layers of octahedral interstices filled with Na{sup +} and Pd{sup 4+} cations (NaPd{sub 2}O{sub 6} slabs) alternate with Na{sub 3} layers along the c-axis.

  6. Oxygen-induced Y surface segregation in a CuPdY ternary alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tafen, D. N.; Miller, J. B.; Dogan, O. N.; Baltrus, J. P.; Kondratyuk, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of the segregation behavior of the ternary alloy CuPdY in vacuum (i.e., the clean surface) and in the presence of oxygen. Theoretical prediction shows that for clean surface, yttrium will substitute first for Cu and then for Pd at the subsurface lattice site before segregating to the surface where it substitutes for Cu. XRD characterization of the surface of CuPdY indicates the presence of two major phases, B2 CuPd and Pd{sub 3}Y. In the presence of adsorbed oxygen, theory predicts that Y preferentially occupies surface sites due to its stronger oxygen affinity compared to Cu and Pd. XPS experiments confirm the computational results in the adsorbed oxygen case, showing that surface segregation of yttrium is induced by the formation of Y-oxides at the top-surface of the alloy.

  7. Improving the phase stability and oxidation resistance of B-NiAl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brammer, Travis

    2011-08-15

    replacing Ni based superalloys. Modifications to NiAl were explored to increase the phase stability and oxidation resistance which would allow these alloys to be used at even higher temperatures yielding greater efficiencies. The extended Miedema model was an effective tool that screened all of the potential phase space for ternary substitutions to NiAl and found the few potential systems worth further investigation. After production of the alloys it was determined that Ir, Rh, and Pd were the top candidates for substitution on Ni site up to 12 at%. The melting temperature of NiAl could be increased as much as 150 C with 12 at% Ir and 130 C with 12 at% Rh substitution. Pall adium on the other hand decreased the melting temperature by 50 C at the 12 at% substitution level. The grain size was found to have a profound influence on the oxidation resistance. Both Ir and Rh substitutions resulted in finer grain sizes compared to Pd substitutions or base NiAl. The grain size increased drastically during high temperature annealing with the PGM substitutions hindering grain growth only slightly. However, the addition of 0.05 at% Hf limited the grain growth dramatically during high temperature annealing. NiAl inherently has respectable oxidation resistance up to 1100 C. It was found through experimental testing that both Ir and Rh substitutions improve the oxidation resistance of NiAl at ultra-high temperatures with Ir performing the best. Both PGM substitutions decreased the growth rate as well as forming a more adherent oxide scale. Pd substitutions appeared to have a negligible effect to the oxidation resistance of NiAl. Hafnium addition of 0.05 at% was found to decrease the oxidation rate as well as increase the scale adherence. The combination of both Ir substitution (6-9 at%) and Hf addition (0.05 at%) produced the alloy with the best oxidation resistance. Although improvements in phase stability and oxidation resistance have been made to the NiAl system, more development and

  8. Hydrogenation of Acetylene-Ethylene Mixtures over Pd and Pd-Ag Alloys: First-Principles Based Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Neurock, Matthew; Smith, C Michael

    2009-10-22

    The kinetics for the selective hydrogenation of acetylene-ethylene mixtures over model Pd(111) and bimetallic Pd-Ag alloy surfaces were examined using first principles based kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations to elucidate the effects of alloying as well as process conditions (temperature and hydrogen partial pressure). The mechanisms that control the selective and unselective routes which included hydrogenation, dehydrogenation and C-?C bond breaking pathways were analyzed using first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results were used to construct an intrinsic kinetic database that was used in a variable time step kinetic Monte Carlo simulation to follow the kinetics and the molecular transformations in the selective hydrogenation of acetylene-ethylene feeds over Pd and Pd-Ag surfaces. The lateral interactions between coadsorbates that occur through-surface and through-space were estimated using DFT-parameterized bond order conservation and van der Waal interaction models respectively. The simulation results show that the rate of acetylene hydrogenation as well as the ethylene selectivity increase with temperature over both the Pd(111) and the Pd-Ag/Pd(111) alloy surfaces. The selective hydrogenation of acetylene to ethylene proceeds via the formation of a vinyl intermediate. The unselective formation of ethane is the result of the over-hydrogenation of ethylene as well as over-hydrogenation of vinyl to form ethylidene. Ethylidene further hydrogenates to form ethane and dehydrogenates to form ethylidyne. While ethylidyne is not reactive, it can block adsorption sites which limit the availability of hydrogen on the surface and thus act to enhance the selectivity. Alloying Ag into the Pd surface decreases the overall rated but increases the ethylene selectivity significantly by promoting the selective hydrogenation of vinyl to ethylene and concomitantly suppressing the unselective path involving the hydrogenation of vinyl to ethylidene

  9. Annealing, lattice disorder and non-Fermi liquid behavior in UCu4Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, C.H.; Scheidt, E.-W.; Killer, U.; Weber, A.; Kehrein, S.

    2002-07-30

    The magnetic and electronic properties of non-Fermi liquid UCu{sub 4Pd} depend on annealing conditions. Local structural changes due to this annealing are reported from UL{sub III}- and Pd K-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure measurements. In particular, annealing decreases the fraction of Pd atoms on nominally Cu 16e sites and the U-Cu pair-distance distribution width. This study provides quantitative information on the amount of disorder in UCu{sub 4Pd} and allows an assessment of its possible importance to the observed non-Fermi liquid behavior.

  10. Quantitative EDS Analysis of Nanometer-Scale Core/Shell Pd/Rh...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Nanometer-Scale CoreShell PdRh Structures. Authors: Sugar, Joshua Daniel ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel 1 ; Robinson, David ; Cappillino, Patrick + Show Author Affiliations (Sandia...

  11. Towards ALD thin film stabilized single-atom Pd 1 catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Piernavieja-Hermida, Mar; Lu, Zheng; White, Anderson; Low, Ke-Bin; Wu, Tianpin; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Wu, Zili; Lei, Yu

    2016-07-27

    Supported precious metal single-atom catalysts have shown interesting activity and selectivity in recent studies. However, agglomeration of these highly mobile mononuclear surface species can eliminate their unique catalytic properties. In this paper, we study a strategy for synthesizing thin film stabilized single-atom Pd1 catalysts using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The thermal stability of the Pd1 catalysts is significantly enhanced by creating a nanocavity thin film structure. In situ infrared spectroscopy and Pd K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed that the Pd1 was anchored on the surface through chlorine sites. The thin film stabilized Pd1 catalysts were thermally stable under bothmore » oxidation and reduction conditions. The catalytic performance in the methanol decomposition reaction is found to depend on the thickness of protecting layers. While Pd1 catalysts showed promising activity at low temperature in a methanol decomposition reaction, 14 cycle TiO2 protected Pd1 was less active at high temperature. Pd L3 edge XAS indicated that the low reactivity compared with Pd nanoparticles is due to the strong adsorption of carbon monoxide even at 250 °C. Lastly, these results clearly show that the ALD nanocavities provide a basis for future design of single-atom catalysts that are highly efficient and stable.« less

  12. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of the Cu-Pd-X Ternary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of the Cu-Pd-X Ternary Alloys for Hydrogen Separation Membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microstructure and Corrosion...

  13. In-situ synchrotron energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction study of thin Pd foils with Pd:D and Pd:H concentrations up to 1:1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; Dominguez, D. D.; Qadri, S. B.; Hubler, G. K.; Violante, V.; Hu, J. Z.; He, J. H.

    2012-10-15

    Time resolved, in-situ, energy dispersive x-ray diffraction was performed in an electrolysis cell during electrochemical loading of palladium foil cathodes with hydrogen and deuterium. Concentrations of H:Pd (D:Pd) up to 1:1 in 0.1 M LiOH (LiOD) in H{sub 2}O (D{sub 2}O) electrolyte were obtained, as determined by both the Pd lattice parameter and cathode resistivity. In addition, some indications on the kinetics of loading and deloading of hydrogen from the Pd surface were obtained. The alpha-beta phase transformations were clearly delineated but no new phases at high concentration were determined.

  14. Significant Reduction in NiO Band Gap Upon Formation of LixNi1...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Significant Reduction in NiO Band Gap Upon Formation of LixNi1-xO alloys: Applications To Solar Energy Conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Significant Reduction ...

  15. Preparation and characterization of Pd{sub 2}Sn nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Katharine; Schade, Christina S.; Zhang, Jinping; Chupas, Peter J.; Chapman, Karena W.; Proffen, Thomas; Cheetham, Anthony K.; Seshadri, Ram

    2007-12-04

    We report a non-aqueous solution preparation of Pd{sub 2}Sn nanoparticles with sizes near 20 nm. The intermetallic compound with the Co{sub 2}Si structure has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy, Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, and real-space pair distribution function analysis of high-energy synchrotron X-ray scattering. We also present a description of the electronic structure of this covalent intermetallic using density functional calculations of the electronic structure.

  16. SF 6432-NI (02-22-10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be controlling. All deliverables under this Contract shall use andor be in the English language. NI14 - PAYMENT Contractor agrees to provide invoices within 60 days of...

  17. SF 6432-NI (04-95)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be controlling. All deliverables under this Contract shall use andor be in the English language. NI15 - PAYMENT Contractor agrees to provide invoices within 60 days of...

  18. SF 6432-NI (04-95)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be controlling. All deliverables under this Contract shall use andor be in the English language. NI14 - PAYMENT Contractor agrees to provide invoices within 60 days of...

  19. SF 6432-NI (04-95)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    descending order of precedence: (1) Section I; (2) SF 6432-NI, Section II. The English language version of this Contract shall be controlling. All deliverables under this...

  20. Ni Clusterbank Replacement Project | Argonne Leadership Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ni Clusterbank Replacement Project Event Sponsor: Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Seminar Start Date: Oct 20 2015 - 12:00pm BuildingRoom: Building 241Room D173...

  1. Synthesis of Pd?Ru@Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic electrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Yu; Hsieh, Yu-Chi; Chang, Li-Chung; Wu, Pu-Wei; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2014-11-22

    Nanoparticles of PdRu, Pd?Ru, and Pd?Ru are synthesized and impregnated on carbon black via a wet chemical reflux process. X-ray diffraction patterns of the as-synthesized samples, PdxRu/C (x=1/3/9), suggest succesful formation of alloy without presence of individual Pd and Ru nanoparticles. Images from transmission electron microscope confirm irregularly-shaped nanoparticles with average size below 3 nm. Analysis from extended X-ray absorption fine structure on both Pd and Ru K-edge absorption profiles indicate the Ru atoms are enriched on the surface of PdxRu/C. Among these samples, the Pd?Ru/C exhibits the strongest electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an oxygen-saturated 0.1moreM aqueous HClO? solution. Subsequently, the Pd?Ru/C undegoes Cu under potential deposition, followed by a galvanic displacement reaction to deposit a Pt monolayer on the Pd?Ru surface (Pd?Ru@Pt). The Pd?Ru@Pt reveals better ORR performance than that of Pt, reaching a mass activity of 0.38 mA ?g? Pt, as compared to that of commercially available Pt nanoparticles (0.107 mA ?g? Pt). The mechanisms responsible for the ORR enhancement are attributed to the combined effects of lattice strain and ligand interaction. In addition, this core-shell Pd?Ru@Pt electrocatalyst represents a substantial reduction in the amount of Pt consumption and raw material cost.less

  2. Deuterium phase behavior in thin-film Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munter, A.E.; Heuser, B.J.

    1998-07-01

    The absorption of deuterium from the gas phase into two Pd thin films 668 {Angstrom} and 1207 {Angstrom} thick was measured at room temperature with {ital in situ} neutron reflectometry. Room-temperature solubility isothermal curves, out-of-plane film expansion, and deuterium depth profiles were determined from fits to the neutron reflectivity data. The measurements demonstrate that the deuterium solubility behavior, both in solid solution and within the two-phase region, is strongly perturbed by the thin-film geometry, consistent with previous solubility measurements in the published literature. The phase behavior investigated here was observed to depend on film thickness and on deuterium cycling through the two-phase region. The 668-{Angstrom} film exhibited the greatest initial phase perturbation and most significant changes upon cycling. Upon repeated cycling, both films approach nearly identical deuterium isothermal solubility and out-of-plane expansion behaviors. The observed equilibrium out-of-plane expansion behavior was consistent with the films expanding under an in-plane clamping constraint imposed by the substrate. The effect of this substrate constraining force is to amplify the out-of-plane expansion beyond that expected in bulk Pd. Taken together, these measurements implicate the film/substrate interfacial clamping interaction as the origin of the perturbed hydrogen phase behavior in thin-film geometry. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Density functional studies of methanol decomposition on subnanometer Pd clusters.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehmood, F.; Greeley, J.; Curtiss, L. A.

    2009-12-31

    A density functional theory study of the decomposition of methanol on subnanometer palladium clusters (primarily Pd{sub 4}) is presented. Methanol dehydrogenation through C-H bond breaking to form hydroxymethyl (CH{sub 2}OH) as the initial step, followed by steps involving formation of hydroxymethylene (CHOH), formyl (CHO), and carbon monoxide (CO), is found to be the most favorable reaction pathway. A competing dehydrogenation pathway with O-H bond breaking as the first step, followed by formation of methoxy (CH{sub 3}O) and formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O), is slightly less favorable. In contrast, pathways involving C-O bond cleavage are much less energetically favorable, and no feasible pathways involving C-O bond formation to yield dimethyl ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) are found. Comparisons of the results are made with methanol decomposition products adsorbed on more extended Pd surfaces; all reaction intermediates are found to bind slightly more strongly to the clusters than to the surfaces.

  4. First-principles study of the Pd–Si system and Pd(001)/SiC(001) hetero-structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, P.E.A.; Ivashchenko, V.I.

    2014-11-01

    First-principles molecular dynamics simulations of the Pd(001)/3C–SiC(001) nano-layered structure were carried out at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 2100 K. Various PdSi (Pnma, Fm3m, P6m2, Pm3m), Pd2Si (P6⁻2m, P63/mmc, P3m1, P3⁻1m) and Pd3Si (Pnma, P6322, Pm3m, I4/mmm) structures under pressure were studied to identify the structure of the Pd/Si and Pd/C interfaces in the Pd/SiC systems at high temperatures. It was found that a large atomic mixing at the Pd/Si interface occurred at 1500–1800 K, whereas the Pd/C interface remained sharp even at the highest temperature of 2100 K. At the Pd/C interface, voids and a graphite-like clustering were detected. Palladium and silicon atoms interact at the Pd/Si interface to mostly form C22-Pd2Si and D011-Pd3Si fragments, in agreement with experiment.

  5. The role of destabilization of palladium hydride on the hydrogen uptake of Pd-containing activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, Vinay V; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on differences in stability of Pd hydride phases in palladium particles with various degrees of contact with microporous carbon supports. A sample containing Pd embedded in activated carbon fiber (Pd-ACF; 2 wt% Pd) was compared with commercial Pd nanoparticles deposited on microporous activated carbon (Pd-catalyst, 3 wt% Pd) and with support-free nanocrystalline palladium (Pd-black). The morphology of materials was characterized by electron microscopy, and the phase transformations were analyzed over a large range of hydrogen partial pressures (0.003 - 10 bar) and at several temperatures using in-situ X-ray diffraction. The results were verified with volumetric hydrogen uptake measurements. Results indicate that higher degree of Pd-carbon contacts for Pd particles embedded in a microporous carbon matrix induce efficient pumping of hydrogen out of -PdHx. It was also found that thermal cleaning of carbon surface groups prior to exposure to hydrogen further enhances the hydrogen pumping power of the microporous carbon support. In brief, this study highlights that the stability of -PdHx phase supported on carbon depends on the degree of contact between Pd-carbon and the nature of the carbon surface.

  6. Effects of lattice disorder in the UCu(5-x)Pd(x) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, E.D.; Booth, C.H.; Kwei, G.H.; Chau, R.; Maple, M.B.

    2002-02-19

    The UCu5-x Pdx system exhibits non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior in thermodynamic and transport properties at low temperatures for Pd concentrations 0.9 less than or approximately x less than or approximately 1.5. The local structure around the U, Cu, and Pd atoms has been measured for

  7. Single Pd atoms in activated carbon fibers and their contribution to hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I; van Benthem, Klaus; Li, Sa; Bonifacio, Cecile S; Pennycook, Stephen J; Jena, Puru; Gallego, Nidia C

    2011-01-01

    Palladium-modified activated carbon fibers (Pd-ACF) were synthesized by meltspinning, carbonization and activation of an isotropic pitch carbon precursor premixed with an organometallic Pd compound. The hydrogen uptake at 25 oC and 20 bar on Pd- ACF exceeded the expected capacity based solely on Pd hydride formation and hydrogen physisorption on the microporous carbon support. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with sub- ngstrom spatial resolution provided unambiguous identification of isolated Pd atoms occurring in the carbon matrix that coexist with larger Pd particles. First principles calculations revealed that each single Pd atom can form Kubas-type complexes by binding up to three H2 molecules in the pressure range of adsorption measurements. Based on Pd atom concentration determined from STEM images, the contribution of various mechanisms to the excess hydrogen uptake measured experimentally was evaluated. With consideration of Kubas binding as a viable mechanism (along with hydride formation and physisorption to carbon support) the role of hydrogen spillover in this system may be smaller than previously thought.

  8. Networks of ultrasmall Pd/Cr bilayer nanowires as high performance hydrogen sensors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, X.-Q.; Wang, Y.-L.; Deng, H.; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Z.-L.; Pearson, J.; Xu, T.; Wang, H.-H.; Welp, U.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W.-K.

    2011-01-01

    The newly developed hydrogen sensor, based on a network of ultrasmall pure palladium nanowires sputter-deposited on a filtration membrane, takes advantage of single palladium nanowires' characteristics of high speed and sensitivity while eliminating their nanofabrication obstacles. However, this new type of sensor, like the single palladium nanowires, cannot distinguish hydrogen concentrations above 3%, thus limiting the potential applications of the sensor. This study reports hydrogen sensors based on a network of ultrasmall Cr-buffered Pd (Pd/Cr) nanowires on a filtration membrane. These sensors not only are able to outperform their pure Pd counterparts in speed and durability but also allow hydrogen detection at concentrations up to 100%. The new networks consist of a thin layer of palladium deposited on top of a Cr adhesion layer 1-3 nm thick. Although the Cr layer is insensitive to hydrogen, it enables the formation of a network of continuous Pd/Cr nanowires with thicknesses of the Pd layer as thin as 2 nm. The improved performance of the Pd/Cr sensors can be attributed to the increased surface area to volume ratio and to the confinement-induced suppression of the phase transition from Pd/H solid solution ({alpha}-phase) to Pd hydride ({beta}-phase).

  9. Development of an inter-atomic potential for the Pd-H binary system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Hoyt, Jeffrey John; Leonard, Francois Leonard; Griffin, Joshua D.; Zhou, Xiao Wang

    2007-09-01

    Ongoing research at Sandia National Laboratories has been in the area of developing models and simulation methods that can be used to uncover and illuminate the material defects created during He bubble growth in aging bulk metal tritides. Previous efforts have used molecular dynamics calculations to examine the physical mechanisms by which growing He bubbles in a Pd metal lattice create material defects. However, these efforts focused only on the growth of He bubbles in pure Pd and not on bubble growth in the material of interest, palladium tritide (PdT), or its non-radioactive isotope palladium hydride (PdH). The reason for this is that existing inter-atomic potentials do not adequately describe the thermodynamics of the Pd-H system, which includes a miscibility gap that leads to phase separation of the dilute (alpha) and concentrated (beta) alloys of H in Pd at room temperature. This document will report the results of research to either find or develop inter-atomic potentials for the Pd-H and Pd-T systems, including our efforts to use experimental data and density functional theory calculations to create an inter-atomic potential for this unique metal alloy system.

  10. Havre, MT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Dollars per Thousand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Havre, MT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 2000's 3.66 NA NA -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Price of

  11. Vykson Formerly Turbine Developments NI Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vykson Formerly Turbine Developments NI Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vykson (Formerly Turbine Developments (NI) Ltd) Place: Canterbury, England, United Kingdom Zip: BR6...

  12. The hydrogenation of Dy{sub 5}Pd{sub 2} followed by in situ methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlmann, H.; Talik, E.; Hansen, T.C.

    2012-03-15

    The hydrogenation behavior of the intermetallic compound Dy{sub 5}Pd{sub 2} was investigated by means of ex situ X-ray powder diffraction, in situ neutron powder diffraction and in situ differential scanning calorimetry. The structural model of Dy{sub 5}Pd{sub 2} with a palladium atom at the 32(e) position x, x, x (x Almost-Equal-To 0.22, 7/8 occupation) and a dysprosium atom at almost the same location (x Almost-Equal-To 0.18, 1/8 occupation) is confirmed. Upon heating the latter approaches x(Pd) and at T=399 K both positional parameters are indistinguishable. Dy{sub 5}Pd{sub 2} does not incorporate hydrogen (deuterium) into its crystal structure, however, starting at T=495 K reacts with hydrogen to non stoichiometric dysprosium dideuteride, DyD{sub 2+x}, following a parabolic rate law. In situ differential scanning calorimetry at various hydrogen pressures up to 2.5 MPa shows strongly exothermic signals, whose temperature onset depend on the gas pressure, corresponding to the formation of a mainly ionic hydride (DyH{sub 2+x}). - Graphical abstract: The hydrogenation of Dy5Pd2 is being followed by in situ neutron diffraction. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dy5Pd2 does not form a ternary hydride upon hydrogenation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dy5Pd2 decomposes to binary hydrides of dysprosium and palladium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At T{>=}399 K Dy3 and Pd in the crystal structure of Dy5Pd2 share the same position. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of DyD2+x at T=495 K and p(D2)=2.5 MPa follows a parabolic rate law.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of PdFe Nanoleaves as Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    More, Karren Leslie; Wu, Zili

    2011-01-01

    Novel PdFe-nanoleaves (NLs) have been prepared through a wet chemistry-based solution phase reduction synthesis route. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) coupled with high-spatial-resolution compositional analysis clearly show this newly-developed structure is assembled from Pd-rich nanowires (NWs) surrounded by Fe-rich sheets. The Pd-NWs have a diameter in the range of 1.8-2.3 nm and a large electrochemical surface area of >50 m2/g. Their length (30 - 100 nm) and morphology can be tuned by altering the nanostructure synthesis conditions and the Fe amount in the NLs. With increasing Fe content, thinner and longer sheet-enveloped nanowires can be prepared. The side surfaces of Pd-NWs observed by HR-TEM are predominantly Pd (111) facets, while the tips and ends are Pd (110) and Pd (100) facets. By etching away the enveloping Fe-rich sheets using an organic acid, the Pd-rich NWs are exposed on the surfaces of the nanoleaves, and they demonstrate high reactivity towards electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen in a 0.1 M NaOH electrolyte, i.e., 3.0 increase in the specific activity and 2.7 increase in the mass activity compared with a commercial Pt/C catalyst (at 0 V vs. Hg/HgO). The electrocatalytic activity enhancement can be attributed to the unique nanoleave structure that provides more Pd (111) facets, a large surface area, and more resistance to Pd oxide formation.

  14. Low-temperature aqueous-phase reforming of ethanol on bimetallic PdZn catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Haifeng; DelaRiva, Andrew; Wang, Yong; Dayte, Abhaya

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic PdZn catalysts supported on carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were found to be selective for CO-free H-2 production from ethanol at low temperature (250 degrees C). On Pd, the H-2 yield was low (similar to 0.3 mol H-2/mol ethanol reacted) and the CH4/CO2 ratio was high (similar to 1.7). Addition of Zn to Pd formed the intermetallic PdZn beta phase (atomic ratio of Zn to Pd is 1) with increased H-2 yield (similar to 1.9 mol H-2/mol ethanol reacted) and CH4/CO2 ratio of <1. The higher H-2 yield and low CH4 formation was related to the improved dehydrogenation activity of the L1(0) PdZn beta phase. The TOF increased with particle size and the CNTs provided the most active and selective catalysts, which may be ascribed to pore-confinement effects. Furthermore, no significant changes in either the supports or the PdZn beta particles was found after aqueous-phase reforming (APR) indicating that the metal nanoparticles and the carbon support are hydrothermally stable in the aqueous phase at elevated temperatures and pressures (>200 degrees C, 65 bar). No CO was detected for all the catalysts performed in aqueous-phase reaction, indicating that both monometallic Pd and bimetallic PdZn catalysts have high water-gas shift activity during APR. However, the yield of H-2 is considerably lower than the theoretical value of 6 H-2 per mole ethanol which is due to the presence of oxygenated products and methane on the PdZn catalysts.

  15. Inelastic magnetic neutron scattering in CePd{sub 3}.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, J. M.; Fanelli, V. R.; Goremychkin, E. A.; Osborn, R.; Bauer, E. D.; McClellan, K. J.; Christianson, A. D.; Univ. of California at Irvine; LANL; ORNL

    2008-01-01

    We have performed time-of-flight neutron scattering measurements on a single crystal of the intermediate valence compound CePd{sub 3}. At 10 K, a Kondo-esque inelastic magnetic scattering peak occurs near {Delta}E = 60 meV with maximum intensity for momentum transfer Q near the (1/2, 1/2, 0) zone boundary. Spectral weight is transferred to lower energy as Q varies until at zone center the intensity at 60 meV is considerably weaker. These results are in qualitative accord with predictions of the Anderson lattice. The Q-dependence may resolve an older controversy concerning the low-temperature scattering. We discuss the relationship of these results to our recent results in YbAl{sub 3}.

  16. H2 production from simulated coal syngas containing H2S in multi-tubular Pd and 80 wt% Pd-20 wt% Cu membrane reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyoha, O.; Enick, R.M.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Howard, B.H.; Ciocco, M.V.; Morreale, B.

    2007-12-01

    99.7% conversion of CO in a simulated syngas feed containing 53% CO, 35% H2 and 12% CO2 was achieved via the water–gas shift (WGS) reaction in a counter-current Pd multi-tube membrane reactor (MR) at 1173 K and 2 s residence time. This conversion is significantly greater than the 32% equilibrium conversion associated with a conventional (non-membrane) reactor primarily due to the high rate of H2 extraction from the reaction zone through the Pd membranes at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, nearly complete H2 recovery was attained in the permeate, resulting in the simultaneous production of a high-pressure CO2 (>99%) retentate stream after condensation of the steam. When Pd80 wt%Cu tubes were used in the reactor, a significantly lower CO conversion of 68% was attained at comparable residence times, probably due to the lower H2 permeance of the alloy. When H2S was added to the syngas feed and the H2S-to-H2 ratio was maintained below the threshold required for thermodynamically stable sulfides to form, the Pd and Pd80 wt%Cu MRs retained their mechanical integrity and H2 selectivity, but a precipitous drop in CO conversion was observed due to deactivation of the catalytic surface. The Pd and Pd80 wt%Cu MRs were observed to fail within minutes after increasing the H2S-to-H2 ratio to levels above that expected for thermodynamically stable sulfides to form, as evidenced by rupturing of the membrane tubes. SEM–EDS analyses of the membranes suggested that at high H2S-to-H2 ratios, the H2S compromised the mechanical integrity of the MRs by preferentially attacking the grain boundary region.

  17. Deep oxidation of methane on particles derived from YSZ-supported Pd-Pt-(O) coatings synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwat, D.; Endrino, J.L.; Boreave, A.; Karoum,R.; Pierson, J.F.; Weber, S.; Anders, A.; Vernoux, Ph.

    2008-12-12

    Methane conversion tests were performed on Pd, PdOy, Pd0.6Pt0.4Oy and Pd0.4Pt0.6Oy thin films deposited on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. Pt containing films exhibited poor activity and high reducibility. As-deposited Pd and PdOy films showed good activity and transformed, during the cycling process, to particles dispersed on the YSZ substrates. The higher reaction rate of initially PdOy films was explained by a better dispersion of the catalyst. A drop of the reaction rate was observed when the temperature exceeded 735oC and 725oC for initially Pd and PdOy, respectively, which can be associated with the high-temperature reduction of PdO into Pd.

  18. Hydrogen-induced atomic rearrangement in MgPd{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlmann, H. . E-mail: h.kohlmann@mx.uni-saarland.de; Renaudin, G.; Yvon, K.; Wannek, C.; Harbrecht, B.

    2005-04-15

    The hydrogenation behavior of MgPd{sub 3} has been studied by in situ X-ray powder diffraction and by neutron powder diffraction. At room temperature and p {approx}500kPa hydrogen pressure its structure is capable of incorporating up to one hydrogen atom per formula unit ({alpha}-MgPd{sub 3}H{sub {approx}}{sub 1}), thereby retaining a tetragonal ZrAl{sub 3}-type metal atom arrangement. Upon heating to 750K in a hydrogen atmosphere of 610kPa it transforms into a cubic modification with AuCu{sub 3}-type metal atom arrangement ({beta}-MgPd{sub 3}H{sub {approx}}{sub 0.7}). Neutron diffraction on the deuteride reveals an anion deficient anti-perovskite-type structure ({beta}-MgPd{sub 3}D{sub 0.67}, a=398.200(7)pm) in which octahedral sites surrounded exclusively by palladium atoms are occupied by deuterium. Complete removal of hydrogen (480K, 1Pa) stabilizes a new binary modification ({beta}-MgPd{sub 3}, a=391.78(2)pm) crystallizing with a primitive cubic AuCu{sub 3}-type structure. Mechanical treatment (grinding) transforms both {alpha} and {beta} modifications of MgPd{sub 3} into a cubic face-centered solid solution Mg{sub 0.25}Pd{sub 0.75} showing a random distribution of magnesium and palladium atoms.

  19. Model for the Prediction of the Hydriding Thermodynamics of Pd-Rh-Co Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teter, D.F.; Thoma, D.J.

    1999-03-01

    A dilute solution model (with respect to the substitutional alloying elements) has been developed, which accurately predicts the hydride formation and decomposition thermodynamics and the storage capacities of dilute ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The effect of varying the rhodium and cobalt compositions on the thermodynamics of hydride formation and decomposition and hydrogen capacity of several palladium-rhodium-cobalt ternary alloys has been investigated using pressure-composition (PC) isotherms. Alloying in the dilute regime (<10 at.%) causes the enthalpy for hydride formation to linearly decrease with increasing alloying content. Cobalt has a stronger effect on the reduction in enthalpy than rhodium for equivalent alloying amounts. Also, cobalt reduces the hydrogen storage capacity with increasing alloying content. The plateau thermodynamics are strongly linked to the lattice parameters of the alloys. A near-linear dependence of the enthalpy of hydride formation on the lattice parameter was observed for both the binary Pd-Rh and Pd-Co alloys, as well as for the ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The Pd-5Rh-3Co (at. %) alloy was found to have similar plateau thermodynamics as a Pd-10Rh alloy, however, this ternary alloy had a diminished hydrogen storage capacity relative to Pd-10Rh.

  20. Modifying structure-sensitive reactions by addition of Zn to Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childers, David J.; Schweitzer, Neil M.; Kamali Shahari, Seyed Mehdi; Rioux, Robert M.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Meyer, Randall J.

    2014-10-01

    Silica-supported Pd and PdZn nanoparticles of a similar size were evaluated for neopentane hydrogenolysis/isomerization and propane hydrogenolysis/dehydrogenation. Monometallic Pd showed high neopentane hydrogenolysis selectivity. Addition of small amounts of Zn to Pd lead Pd–Zn scatters in the EXAFS spectrum and an increase in the linear bonded CO by IR. In addition, the neopentane turnover rate decreased by nearly 10 times with little change in the selectivity. Increasing amounts of Zn lead to greater Pd–Zn interactions, higher linear-to-bridging CO ratios by IR and complete loss of neopentane conversion. Pd NPs also had high selectivity for propane hydrogenolysis and thus were poorly selective for propylene. The PdZn bimetallic catalysts, however, were able to preferentially catalyze dehydrogenation, were not active for propane hydrogenolysis, and thus were highly selective for propylene formation. The decrease in hydrogenolysis selectivity was attributed to the isolation of active Pd atoms by inactive metallic Zn,demonstrating that hydrogenolysis requires a particular reactive ensemble whereas propane dehydrogenation does not.

  1. Hydrogen responses of ultrathin Pd films and nanowire networks with a Ti buffer layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, X. Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Latimer, M. L.; Xu, T.; Kwok, W. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report on hydrogen responses of ultrathin films and nanowire networks of palladium on titanium buffered silicon substrates and filtration membranes, respectively. We found that in both systems signatures such as retarding responses and saturation of the resistance changes at high hydrogen concentrations associated with the transition from Pd/H solid solution to Pd hydride diminish with decreasing the thickness of the palladium layer from 7 to 2 nm. Our results not only reveal a new way to suppress the phase transition in Pd/H system but also provide an alternative approach to achieve fast and sensitive hydrogen sensors with a wide concentration detection range.

  2. PdAgAu alloy with high resistance to corrosion by H{sub 2}S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, Fernando; Miller, James B.; Gellman, Andrew J.; Tarditi, Ana M.; Fleutot, Benoit; Petro, Kondratyuk, Cornaglia, Laura M

    2012-12-01

    PdAgAu alloy films were prepared on porous stainless steel supports by sequential electroless deposition. Two specific compositions, Pd{sub 83}Ag{sub 2}Au{sub 15} and Pd{sub 74}Ag{sub 14}Au{sub 12}, were studied for their sulfur tolerance. The alloys and a reference Pd foil were exposed to 1000 H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} at 623 K for periods of 3 and 30 hours. The microstructure, morphology and bulk composition of both nonexposed and H{sub 2}S-exposed samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). XRD and SEM analysis revealed time-dependent growth of a bulk Pd{sub 4}S phase on the Pd foil during H{sub 2}S exposure. In contrast, the PdAgAu ternary alloys displayed the same FCC structure before and after H{sub 2}S exposure. In agreement with the XRD and SEM results, sulfur was not detected in the bulk of either ternary alloy samples by EDS, even after 30 hours of H{sub 2}S exposure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles were acquired for both PdAgAu alloys after 3 and 30 hours of exposure to characterize sulfur contamination near their surfaces. Very low S 2p and S 2s XPS signals were observed at the top-surfaces of the PdAgAu alloys, and those signals disappeared before the etch depth reached ~ 10 nm, even for samples exposed to H{sub 2}S for 30 hours. The depth profile analyses also revealed silver and gold segregation to the surface of the alloys; preferential location of Au on the alloys surface may be related to their resistance to bulk sulfide formation. In preliminary tests, a PdAgAu alloy membrane displayed higher initial H{sub 2} permeability than a similarly prepared pure Pd sample and, consistent with resistance to bulk sulfide formation, lower permeability loss in H{sub 2}S than pure Pd.

  3. CO adsorption and kinetics on well-characterized Pd films on Pt(111) in alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arenz, M.; Stamenkovic, V.; Wandelt, K.; Ross, P.N.; Markovic, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemistry of CO on a bare Pt(111) electrode as well as a Pt(111) electrode modified with pseudomorphic thin palladium films has been studied in alkaline solution by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. First Pd films were prepared and well characterized in UHV and subsequently transferred into the electrochemical cell for the registration of the voltammetric profiles. The charge corresponding to the formation of underpotentially deposited hydrogen (H{sub upd}) on these Pt(111)-xPd surfaces was established in sulfuric acid solution as a function of x (0 {le} x {le} 1 Pd monolayer (ML)). All subsequent measurements were then performed on electrochemically deposited palladium films using the above H{sub upd}-charge vs. Pd coverage relationship to evaluate the amount of electrochemically deposited palladium. FTIR spectra for CO adsorbed on one monolayer and a submonolayer coverage are compared to those of the unmodified Pt(111) surface, all surfaces having identical 2D lattice structures. Infrared absorption bands of CO bound on either Pt(111) or Pt(111)-1ML Pd are clearly distinguished. Spectra of CO adsorbed on Pd submonolayers show characteristic features of both CO bound to Pt and to Pd, indicating that on Pt(111)-xPd surfaces there is no coupling between Pt-CO{sub ad} and Pd-CO{sub ad} molecules. The kinetics of CO oxidation on these surfaces is determined either by rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements or by FTIR spectroscopy, monitoring the CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} production. The oxidation of CO{sub ad} on Pt(111) and on Pd modified platinum surfaces starts at the same potential, ca. at 0.2 V. The oxidation rate is, however, considerably lower on the Pt(111)-xPd surfaces than on the Pt(111) surface. The kinetics of CO oxidation appears to be determined by the nature of adsorbed hydroxyl anions (OH{sub ad}), which are more strongly (less active) adsorbed on the highly oxophilic Pd atoms.

  4. Antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice in the layered compound CePd1–xBi₂ and comparison to the superconductor LaPd1–xBi₂

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Fei; Wan, Xiangang; Phelan, Daniel; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Sturza, Mihai; Malliakas, Christos D.; Li, Qing'an; Han, Tian-Heng; Zhao, Qingbiao; Chung, Duck Young; et al

    2015-07-13

    The layered compound CePd1–xBi₂ with the tetragonal ZrCuSi₂-type structure was obtained from excess Bi flux. Magnetic susceptibility data of CePd1–xBi₂ show an antiferromagnetic ordering below 6 K and are anisotropic along the c axis and the ab plane. The anisotropy is attributed to crystal-electric-field (CEF) effects and a CEF model which is able to describe the susceptibility data is given. An enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient γ of 0.191 J mol Ce⁻¹ K⁻² obtained from specific-heat measurement suggests a moderate Kondo effect in CePd1–xBi₂. Other than the antiferromagnetic peak at 6 K, the resistivity curve shows a shoulderlike behavior around 75 Kmore » which could be attributed to the interplay between Kondo and CEF effects. Magnetoresistance and Hall-effect measurements suggest that the interplay reconstructs the Fermi-surface topology of CePd1–xBi₂ around 75 K. Electronic structure calculations reveal that the Pd vacancies are important to the magnetic structure and enhance the CEF effects which quench the orbital moment of Ce at low temperatures.« less

  5. Ion irradiation induced defect evolution in Ni and Ni-based FCC equiatomic binary alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the chemical effects on radiation response of alloys with multi-principal elements, defect evolution under Au ion irradiation was investigated in the elemental Ni, equiatomic NiCo and NiFe alloys. Single crystals were successfully grown in an optical floating zone furnace and their (100) surfaces were irradiated with 3 MeV Au ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions cm–2 at room temperature. The irradiation-induced defect evolution was analyzed by using ion channeling technique. Experiment shows that NiFe is more irradiation-resistant than NiCo and pure Ni at low fluences. With continuously increasing the ion fluences, damage level is eventually saturated for all materials but at different dose levels. The saturation level in pure Ni appears at relatively lower irradiation fluence than the alloys, suggesting that damage accumulation slows down in the alloys. Here, under high-fluence irradiations, pure Ni has wider damage ranges than the alloys, indicating that defects in pure Ni have high mobility.

  6. Layering and temperature-dependent magnetization and anisotropy of naturally produced Ni/NiO multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pappas, S. D.; Trachylis, D.; Velgakis, M. J.; Kapaklis, V.; Joensson, P. E.; Papaioannou, E. Th.; Delimitis, A.; Poulopoulos, P.; Fumagalli, P.; Politis, C.

    2012-09-01

    Ni/NiO multilayers were grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature, with the aid of the natural oxidation procedure. That is, at the end of the deposition of each single Ni layer, air is let to flow into the vacuum chamber through a leak valve. Then, a very thin NiO layer ({approx}1.2 nm) is formed. Simulated x-ray reflectivity patterns reveal that layering is excellent for individual Ni-layer thickness larger than 2.5 nm, which is attributed to the intercalation of amorphous NiO between the polycrystalline Ni layers. The magnetization of the films, measured at temperatures 5-300 K, has almost bulk-like value, whereas the films exhibit a trend to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with an unusual significant positive interface anisotropy contribution, which presents a weak temperature dependence. The power-law behavior of the multilayers indicates a non-negligible contribution of higher order anisotropies in the uniaxial anisotropy. Bloch-law fittings for the temperature dependence of the magnetization in the spin-wave regime show that the magnetization in the multilayers decreases faster as a function of temperature than the one of bulk Ni. Finally, when the individual Ni-layer thickness decreases below 2 nm, the multilayer stacking vanishes, resulting in a dramatic decrease of the interface magnetic anisotropy and consequently in a decrease of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  7. Ion irradiation induced defect evolution in Ni and Ni-based FCC equiatomic binary alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the chemical effects on radiation response of alloys with multi-principal elements, defect evolution under Au ion irradiation was investigated in the elemental Ni, equiatomic NiCo and NiFe alloys. Single crystals were successfully grown in an optical floating zone furnace and their (100) surfaces were irradiated with 3 MeV Au ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions cm–2 at room temperature. The irradiation-induced defect evolution was analyzed by using ion channeling technique. Experiment shows that NiFe is more irradiation-resistant than NiCo and pure Ni at low fluences. With continuously increasing themore » ion fluences, damage level is eventually saturated for all materials but at different dose levels. The saturation level in pure Ni appears at relatively lower irradiation fluence than the alloys, suggesting that damage accumulation slows down in the alloys. Here, under high-fluence irradiations, pure Ni has wider damage ranges than the alloys, indicating that defects in pure Ni have high mobility.« less

  8. Microsoft Word - NiR.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In bacteria, NO is produced by nitrite reductase (NiR), a copper-containing enzyme, which ... required to define the mode of binding of the ligands to the active site copper. ...

  9. SF 6432-NI (04-95)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6432-NI (11-03-2010) SECTION II STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR FIXED PRICE CONTRACTS WITH THE NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION INDEX OF CLAUSES. THE FOLLOWING CLAUSES APPLY TO REQUESTS FOR QUOTATION AND CONTRACTS AS INDICATED UNLESS SPECIFICALLY DELETED, OR EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT THEY ARE SPECIFICALLY SUPPLEMENTED OR AMENDED IN WRITING IN THE SIGNATURE PAGE OR SECTION I. NI01 - ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS Contractor, by signing this Agreement, beginning performance,

  10. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Hayes NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Hayes quadrangle, Alaska, are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and Laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A to D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment, lake sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report.

  11. Crustal models of the geothermal areas of Larderello and Mt. Amiata, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianelli, G.; Manzella, A.; Puxeddu, M.

    1996-12-31

    The study of core samples and geophysical data from the Larderello and Mt. Amiata geothermal areas indicate the presence of granite intrusions and granitic dykes as old as 3.8-2.9 Ma and widespread contact aureoles. Reflection seismic surveys reveal the presence of a highly reflective horizon (named K) in a depth range of 3-12 km in the two geothermal areas; seismic tomography and teleseismic studies show at Larderello a low velocity body, 30-40 km wide below the K horizon. Magnetotelluric surveys indicate the presence of a conductive body in good correlation with the anomalous tomographic and teleseismic body. The occurrence of shallow intrusive bodies, still partially molten and associated with saline brines is here considered a reliable model.

  12. Basin Play State(s) Production Reserves Williston Bakken ND, MT, SD

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tight oil plays: production and proved reserves, 2013-14 million barrels 2013 2013 Basin Play State(s) Production Reserves Williston Bakken ND, MT, SD 270 4,844 387 5,972 1,128 Western Gulf Eagle Ford TX 351 4,177 497 5,172 995 Permian Bone Spring, Wolfcamp NM, TX 21 335 53 722 387 Denver-Julesberg Niobrara CO, KS, NE, WY 2 17 42 512 495 Appalachian Marcellus* PA, WV 7 89 13 232 143 Fort Worth Barnett TX 9 58 9 47 -11 Sub-total 660 9,520 1,001 12,657 3,137 Other tight oil 41 523 56 708 185 U.S.

  13. Phase Stability for the Pd-Si System. First-Principles, Experiments, and Solution-Based Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, S. H.; Huo, Y.; Napolitano, Ralph E.

    2015-11-05

    Relative stabilities of the compounds in the binary Pd-Si system were assessed using first-principles calculations and experimental methods. Calculations of lattice parameters and enthalpy of formation indicate that Pd5Si-μ, Pd9Si2-α, Pd3 Si-β, Pd2 Si-γ, and PdSi-δ are the stable phases at 0 K (-273 °C). X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the as-solidified and heat-treated samples support the computational findings, except that the PdSi-δ phase was not observed at low temperature. Considering both experimental data and first-principles results, the compounds Pd 5 Si-μ, Pd9 Si2-α, Pd3Si-β, and Pd2Si-γ are treated as stable phases down to 0 K (-273 °C), while the PdSi-δ is treated as being stable over a limited range, exhibiting a lower bound. Using these findings, a comprehensive solution-based thermodynamic model is formulated for the Pd-Si system, permitting phase diagram calculation. Moreover, the liquid phase is described using a three-species association model and other phases are treated as solid solutions, where a random substitutional model is adopted for Pd-fcc and Si-dia, and a two-sublattice model is employed for Pd5Si-μ, Pd9Si2-α, Pd3Si-β, Pd2Si-γ, and PdSi-δ. Model parameters are fitted using available experimental data and first-principles data, and the resulting phase diagram is reported over the full range of compositions.

  14. Enhanced Fe2O3 Reducibility via Surface Modification with Pd...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The synergistic catalysis in the hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds over a PdFe bimetallic surface has been well established. However, the nature of this synergy is still in ...

  15. Method and Pd/V2 O5 device for H2 detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ping; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Smith, II, R. Davis; Lee, Se-Hee

    2011-12-27

    Methods and Pd/V.sub.2O.sub.5 devices for hydrogen detection are disclosed. An exemplary method of preparing an improved sensor for chemochromic detection of hydrogen gas over a wide response range exhibits stability during repeated coloring/bleaching cycles upon exposure and removal of hydrogen gas. The method may include providing a substrate. The method may also include depositing a V.sub.20.sub.5 layer that functions as a H.sub.2 insertion host in a Pd/V.sub.20.sub.5 hydrogen sensor to be formed on said substrate. The method may also include depositing a Pd layer onto said V.sub.20.sub.5 layer; said Pd layer functioning as an optical modulator.

  16. Anomalous behavior of the Pd/D system. Final report, June 1989-August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpak, S.J.; Mosier-Boss, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    In a news conference on 23 March 1989, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced that nuclear events could be initiated by the electrochemical compression of deuterium into a palladium lattice. When researchers around the world tried to reproduce the effects described by Pons and Fleischmann in their laboratories, the results were mixed. The nature of the announcement and the Irreproducibility of the effect divided the scientific community into believers and skeptics, indicating religious fervor rather than scientific reasoning. Shortly after the Fleischmann-Pons announcement, a program at NRaD investigated anomalous effects in the Pd/D system. The NRaD program investigated the Pd/D system using standard electrochemical techniques to determine conditions for achieving high Pd/D loadings. Metallurgical aspects of the Pd/D system and the effect of additives were also examined. Tritium content in the gas/liquid phases and radiation emissions were monitored during electrolysis. This report summarizes the investigation results.

  17. Development of Pd-Ag Compostie Membrane for Separation of Hydrogen at Elevated Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2009-02-28

    Pd-based membrane reactor offers the possibility of combining reaction and separation in a single operation at high temperatures to overcome the equilibrium limitations experienced in conventional reactor configurations. In this project to develop a defect-free and hermally-stable Pd-film on microporous stainless steel (MPSS) support for H2-separation and membrane reactor applications, the electroless plating process was revisited with an aim to improve the membrane morphology. Specifically, this study includes; (a) an improvement f activation step using Pulse Laser Deposition (PLD), (b) development of a novel surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP) for depositing robust Pd-film on microporous support, and (c) application of Pd-membrane as membrane reactor in steam methanol reforming (SMR) reactions.

  18. Influence of Oxygen and pH on the Selective Oxidation of Ethanol on Pd Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbitts, David D.; Neurock, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The selective oxidation of ethanol on supported Pd is catalytically promoted by the presence of hydroxide species on the Pd surface as well as in solution. These hydroxide intermediates act as Brønsted bases which readily abstract protons from the hydroxyl groups of adsorbed or solution-phase alcohols. The C1AH bond of the resulting alkoxide is subsequently activated on the metal surface via hydride elimination to form acetaldehyde. Surface and solution-phase hydroxide intermediates can also readily react with the acetaldehyde via nucleophilic addition to form a germinal diol intermediate, which subsequently undergoes a second C1AH bond activation on Pd to form acetic acid. The role of O2 is to remove the electrons produced in the oxidation reaction via the oxygen reduction reaction over Pd. The reduction reaction also regenerates the hydroxide intermediates and removes adsorbed hydrogen that is produced during the oxidation.

  19. Temperature, pressure, and size dependence of Pd-H interaction in size selected Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu alloy nanoparticles: In-situ X-ray diffraction studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengar, Saurabh K.; Mehta, B. R.; Kulriya, P. K.

    2014-03-21

    In this study, in-situ X-ray diffraction has been carried out to investigate the effect of temperature and pressure on hydrogen induced lattice parameter variation in size selected Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu alloy nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of three different mobility equivalent diameters (20, 40, and 60 nm) having a narrow size distribution were prepared by gas phase synthesis method. In the present range of temperature (350 K to 250 K) and pressure (10{sup −4} to 100 millibars), no α (H/Pd ≤ 0.03) ↔ β (H/Pd ≥ 0.54) phase transition is observed. At temperature higher than 300 °C or pressure lower than 25 millibars, there is a large difference in the rate at which lattice constant varies as a function of pressure and temperature. Further, the lattice variation with temperature and pressure is also observed to depend upon the nanoparticle size. At lower temperature or higher pressure, size of the nanoparticle seems to be relatively less important. These results are explained on the basis of the relative dominance of physical absorption and diffusion of H in Pd alloy nanoparticles at different temperature and pressure. In the present study, absence of α ↔ β phase transition points towards the advantage of using Pd-alloy nanoparticles in applications requiring long term and repeated hydrogen cycling.

  20. Pt/Pd electrocatalyst electrons for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stonehart, P.

    1981-11-03

    This invention relates to improved electrochemical cells and to novel electrodes for use therein. In particular, the present invention comprises a fuel cell used primarily for the consumption of impure hydrogen fuels containing carbon monoxide or carbonaceous fuels where the electrode in contact with the fuel is not substantially poisoned by carbon monoxide. The anode of the fuel cell comprises a Pd/Pt alloy supported on a graphitized or partially graphitized carbon material. Fuel cells which comprise as essential elements a fuel electrode, an oxidizing electrode, and an electrolyte between said electrodes are devices for the direct production of electricity through the electrochemical combustion of a fuel and oxidant. These devices are recognized for their high efficiency as energy conversion units, since unlike conventional combustion engines, they are not subject to the limitations of the Carnot heat cycle. It is the primary object of the present invention to provide an electrode having high electrochemical activity for an electrochemical cell. It is another object of the present invention to provide an electrode having an electro-catalyst which is highly resistant to the corrosive environment of an electrochemical cell.

  1. A comparison of the structure and localized magnetism in Ce{sub 2}PdGa{sub 12} with the heavy fermion CePdGa{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macaluso, Robin T. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Millican, Jasmine N. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Nakatsuji, Satoru [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan 606-8502 (Japan); Lee, Han-Oh [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Carter, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Moreno, Nelson O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Fisk, Zachary [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Chan, Julia Y. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)]. E-mail: jchan@lsu.edu

    2005-11-15

    Single crystals of Ce{sub 2}PdGa{sub 12} have been synthesized in Ga flux and characterized by X-ray diffraction. This compound crystallizes in the tetragonal P4/nbm space group, Z=2 with lattice parameters of a=6.1040(2)A and c=15.5490(6)A. It shows strongly anisotropic magnetism and orders antiferromagnetically at T{sub N}{approx}11K. A field-induced metamagnetic transition to the ferromagnetic state is observed below T{sub N}. Structure-property relationships with the related heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CePdGa{sub 6} are discussed.

  2. Structural stability of 1100{degree}C heated Pd/k during absorption cycling in protium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, I.A.

    1993-03-12

    Pd/k is a hydride forming packing material which is used in the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP). Palladium is supported on kieselguhr to create a packing material which will provide adequate void space to prevent excessive pressure drops and flow restrictions. The use of unsupported palladium would result in blockage of columns and clogging of filters due to the small particle size of unsupported palladium hydride powder. During pilot scale demonstrations, it was noted that the Pd/k packing material had degraded causing severe flow restrictions within the TCAP column. A solution to the problem involved the heating of Pd/k at 1,110{degree}C to strengthen the packing material, and render it more resistant to breakdown. The 1, 100{degree}C heated Pd/k has been shown to be more resistant to mechanical breakdown than the Pd/k prior to heat treatment. Two primary modes of Pd/k particle degradation have been identified: mechanical breakdown caused by particle fluidization and degradation caused by absorption/desorption cycling. Absorption/desorption cycling causes the palladium particles within the packing to expanded and contract upon formation and decomposition of the hydride, respectively. This expansion and contraction causes large localized stresses within the packing material, which if these stresses can not be accommodated within the packing will cause the material to crack and degrade. The purpose of this report is to document the results of the absorption/desorption cycling of 1,100{degree}C heated Pd/k and compare these results to the results obtained from the absorption/desorption cycling of Pd/k which had not been heated at 1, 100{degree}C.

  3. A Study of Groundwater Matrix Effects for the Destruction of Trichloroethylene Using Fe/Pd Nanoaggregates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    meyer, D E; Hampson, Steve; ormsbee, Lindelle; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2008-06-01

    Fe nanoaggregates have been prepared using the sodium borohydride reduction method and post-coated with Pd using aqueous phase electro-depostition. The Fe/Pd particles have been used to examine dechlorination of TCE with regard to matrix effects using materials representative of examine dechlorination of TCE with regard to matrix effects using materials representative of a potential zero-valent metal remediation site surrounding the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, KY.

  4. Pd?Cd11? (0.21???0.51)a partly disordered ?-brass type phase and Pd?.???Cd?.??? -a ?-brass related incommensurate phase in the palladiumcadmium system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, Partha Pratim; Lidin, Sven

    2013-05-01

    The Cd rich part of the CdPd phase diagram was reassessed by means of synthesis and single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. The region contains two phases that have been reported to have substantial compositional widths, Cd??Pd? and Cd?Pd. The phase Cd??Pd? that has previously been reported to be a disordered ?-brass crystallizing is space group P4-bar 3m is here shown to crystallize in I4-bar 3m and the mechanism for compositional variation is explained. The phase Pd?Cd has previously been shown to constitute a phase field or a phase bundle of modulated structures and here we determine the structure of a compound Pd?.???Cd?.??? which crystallizes in the orthorhombic superspace group mm(?00)0s0 (F=[(, , 0, 0); (, 0, , 0 ); (0, , , 0 )] with the fundamental cell dimensions a=4.687(2) , b=10.000(1) , c=14.140(2) , q=0.6432(6)a?. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures of the partly disordered ?-brass type Pd?Cd11? (0.21???0.51) and ?-brass related Pd?.???Cd?.??? in the palladiumcadmium binary system. Highlights: Partly disordered ?-brass type Pd?Cd11? (0.21???0.51) and ?-brass related Pd?.???Cd?.??? have been synthesized. The Pd?Cd11? structure have been described by cluster concept. Incommensurately modulated Pd?.???Cd?.??? have been described by (3+1) D space description. The structure of Pd?.???Cd?.??? has two different chains of atomic subunits, each with their own translational periodicities.

  5. EIS-0092: Conversion to Coal, Holyoke Water Power Company, Mt. Tom Generating Station Unit 1 Holyoke, Hampden County, Massachusetts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of prohibiting Unit 1 of the Mt. Tom Generation Station Unit 1 from using either natural gas or petroleum products as a primary energy source, which would result in the utility burning low-sulfur coal.

  6. Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Zhang, He; Kovarik, Libor; Li, Xiaohong S.; Hensley, Alyssa; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Abstract Carbon supported metal catalysts (Cu/C, Fe/C, Pd/C, Pt/C, PdFe/C and Ru/C) have been prepared, characterized and tested for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol (GUA) at atmospheric pressure. Phenol was the major intermediate on all catalysts. Over the noble metal catalysts saturation of the aromatic ring was the major pathway observed at low temperature (250 C), forming predominantly cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Substantial ring opening reaction was observed on Pt/C and Ru/C at higher reaction temperatures (e.g., 350 C). Base metal catalysts, especially Fe/C, were found to exhibit high HDO activity without ring-saturation or ring-opening with the main products being benzene, phenol along with small amounts of cresol, toluene and trimethylbenzene (TMB). A substantial enhancement in HDO activity was observed on the PdFe/C catalysts. Compared with Fe/C, the yield to oxygen-free aromatic products (i.e., benzene/toluene/TMB) on PdFe/C increased by a factor of four at 350 C, and by approximately a factor of two (83.2% versus 43.3%) at 450 C. The enhanced activity of PdFe/C is attributed to the formation of PdFe alloy as evidenced by STEM, EDS and TPR.

  7. Local structure order in Pd78Cu6Si16 liquid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, G. Q.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, Y.; Shen, B.; Dong, F.; Wang, Z. Y.; Zhang, R. J.; Zheng, Y. X.; Kramer, M. J.; Wang, S. Y.; et al

    2015-02-05

    The short-range order (SRO) in Pd78Cu6Si16 liquid was studied by high energy x-ray diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The calculated pair correlation functions at different temperatures agree well with the experimental results. The partial pair correlation functions from ab intio MD simulations indicate that Si atoms prefer to be uniformly distributed while Cu atoms tend to aggregate. By performing structure analysis using Honeycutt-Andersen index, Voronoi tessellation, and atomic cluster alignment method, we show that the icosahedron and face-centered cubic SRO increase upon cooling. The dominant SRO is the Pd-centered Pd9Si2 motif, namely the structure of which motifmore » is similar to the structure of Pd-centered clusters in the Pd9Si2 crystal. The study further confirms the existence of trigonal prism capped with three half-octahedra that is reported as a structural unit in Pd-based amorphous alloys. The majority of Cu-centered clusters are icosahedra, suggesting that the presence of Cu is benefit to promote the glass forming ability.« less

  8. Isothermal Solid-State Transformation Kinetics Applied to Pd/Cu Alloy Membrane Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomerantz, Natalie L; Payzant, E Andrew; Ma, Yi Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this work, time-resolved, in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) was used to study the solid-state transformation kinetics of the formation of the fcc Pd/Cu alloy from Pd/Cu bi-layers for the purpose of fabricating sulfur tolerant Pd/Cu membranes for H2 separation. Thin layers of Pd and Cu (total ~15 wt% Cu) were deposited on porous stainless steel (PSS) with the electroless deposition method and annealed in H2 at 500, 550 and 600 C. The kinetics of the annealing process were successfully described by the Avrami nucleation and growth model showing that the annealing process was diffusion controlled and one dimensional. The activation energy for the solid-state transformation was 175 kJ/mol, which was similar to the activation energy of Pd-Cu bulk interdiffusion. Furthermore, the Avrami model was able to successfully describe the changes in permeance and activation energy observed in Pd/Cu alloy membranes during characterization as they were annealed at high temperatures.

  9. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  10. Photosensitivity of the Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F with visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osuka, Hisao; Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5, Takayama-cho, Ikoma-shi, Nara 630-0192 ; Shomura, Yasuhito; Komori, Hirofumi; Shibata, Naoki; Nagao, Satoshi; Higuchi, Yoshiki; CREST, JST, Gobancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 ; Hirota, Shun; CREST, JST, Gobancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase showed light sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New FT-IR bands were observed with light irradiation of the Ni-A state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPR g-values of the Ni-A state shifted upon light irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The light-induced state converted back to the Ni-A state under the dark condition. -- Abstract: [NiFe] hydrogenase catalyzes reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen. Its active site is constructed of a hetero dinuclear Ni-Fe complex, and the oxidation state of the Ni ion changes according to the redox state of the enzyme. We found that the Ni-A state (an inactive unready, oxidized state) of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (DvMF) is light sensitive and forms a new state (Ni-AL) with irradiation of visible light. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) bands at 1956, 2084 and 2094 cm{sup -1} of the Ni-A state shifted to 1971, 2086 and 2098 cm{sup -1} in the Ni-AL state. The g-values of g{sub x} = 2.30, g{sub y} = 2.23 and g{sub z} = 2.01 for the signals in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the Ni-A state at room temperature varied for -0.009, +0.012 and +0.010, respectively, upon light irradiation. The light-induced Ni-AL state converted back immediately to the Ni-A state under dark condition at room temperature. These results show that the coordination structure of the Fe site of the Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase is perturbed significantly by light irradiation with relatively small coordination change at the Ni site.