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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Motor VFDs | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 -Energieprojekte3 Climate ZoneMontrose,Stanley CapitalNorthMoscow isMotleyVFDs Jump

2

List of Motor VFDs Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolarList of GeothermalMethanol Incentives

3

Field demonstration of optimized variable speed compressor and condenser fan control for commercial refrigeration systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The demonstration project discussed in this report consisted of two separate programs intended to examine methods of implementing variable-frequency drives (VFDs) to increase the efficiency of supermarket refrigeration racks. The first program examined the optimum control strategy for minimizing the power consumption of medium-temperature parallel compressor racks driven by VFDs. The second program, aimed at developing the optimum control strategy for variable-speed control of supermarket condenser fans.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

5

Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

6

Use of VFDs on Asphalt Plant Induced Draft Fans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

paybacks were 3-5 years before utility incentives. In the 10 plants evaluated, the ID fans accounted for as much as 30% of the total plant electrical consumption. In the majority of these plants the outlet dampers were typically 50%-60% closed. Fan motors...

Anderson, G. R.; Case, P. L.; Lowery, J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Asset Management Equipment Disposal Form -Refrigerant Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enters the waste stream with the charge intact (e.g., motor vehicle air conditioners, refrigeratorsAsset Management Equipment Disposal Form - Refrigerant Recovery Safe Disposal Requirements Under refrigeration, cold storage warehouse refrigeration, chillers, and industrial process refrigeration) has to have

Sin, Peter

8

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates. Citations in this report are divided into the following topics: thermophysical properties; materials compatibility; lubricants and tribology; application data; safety; test and analysis methods; impacts; regulatory actions; substitute refrigerants; identification; absorption and adsorption; research programs; and miscellaneous documents. Information is also presented on ordering instructions for the computerized version.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)] [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Calm, J.M.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

Calm, J.M.

1992-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

12

NICE3: Industrial Refrigeration System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy Concepts has developed an absorption-augmented system as a cost-effective means of achieving more cooling capacity with a substantial reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for industrial refrigeration. It cuts fuel consumption by 30% by combining an internal combustion engine with a mechanical compression refrigeration system and an absorption refrigeration system. The absorption system is powered by engine waste heat. Conventional industrial refrigeration uses mechanical vapor compression, powered by electric motors, which results in higher energy costs. By the year 2010, the new system could cut fuel consumption by 19 trillion Btu and greenhouse emissions by more than 1 million tons per year.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

13

Ontario Hydro Motor Efficiency Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric motors consume more than one-half of the electrical energy produced by Ontario Hydro. In the residential sector, the major motor load is for refrigerators and freezers while packaged equipment dominate the motor load in the commercial...

Dautovich, D. R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Malone refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It's potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

Swift, G.W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

Calm, J.M.

1992-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

16

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Cain, J.M. (Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States))

1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

17

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 8. Heat pumps, heat pipes, cold thermal energy storage Ron on a vapour-compression cycle) /heat_pump.g Heat pumps make use of low- temperature (waste) heat, replacing/vcmfiles/ electricity!) for heating and air conditioning purposes Heat pumps became popular in ://www.bge.c Heat pumps

Zevenhoven, Ron

18

Malone refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical point, without evaporation, as working fluid in a refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling cycle. We discuss relevant properties of appropriate liquids, and describe two Malone refrigerators. The first completed several years ago, established the basic principles of use of liquids in such cycles. The second, now under construction, is a linear, free-piston machine.

Swift, G W

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at constant p #12;Stirling cycle, Stirling engineStirling cycle, Stirling engine See for principle also http://www.cs.sbcc.net/~physics/flash/heatengines/stirlingRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 5. Low temperatures,p liquefied gases Ron Zevenhoven ├?├?bo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory / V├Ąrme- och str├Âmningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron

Zevenhoven, Ron

20

Malone refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It`s potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

Swift, G.W.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced ac motor Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for a QE2 synchronous motor... in motor applications < 110 the energy required for 4K refrigeration HTS enhances commercial economics... Motors and Generators HTS enables...

22

Motors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment SurfacesResource ProgramModification andinterface1 EEnergy, OfficeMotors Sign In

23

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

25

Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

30

Plant Site Refrigeration Upgrade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bayer Corporation operates a multi-division manufacturing facility in Bushy Park, South Carolina. Low temperature refrigeration (-4░F) is required by many of the chemical manufacturing areas and is provided by a Plant Site Refrigeration System...

Zdrojewski, R.; Healy, M.; Ramsey, J.

31

Save with Hybrid Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SAVE WITH HYBRID REFRIGERATION Cheng-Wen (Wayne) Chung, P.E. Fluor Engineers, Inc. Irvine, California ABSTRACT Two level demand makes it possible to use two systems for refrigeration and save energy and money. An example of this type... of refrigeration, consisting of an ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) unit and a mechanical compression refrigera tion (MCR) unit, is presented in this article. This paper will briefly describe process configur ation, advantages and utility consumption...

Chung, C. W.

32

Alternative refrigerants and refrigeration cycles for domestic refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project initially focused on using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) in a two-evaporator refrigerator-freezer design using two stages of liquid refrigerant subcooling. This concept was proposed and tested in 1975. The work suggested that the concept was 20% more efficient than the conventional one-evaporator refrigerator-freezer (RF) design. After considerable planning and system modeling based on using a NARM in a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) RF, the program scope was broadened to include investigation of a ``dual-loop`` concept where energy savings result from exploiting the less stringent operating conditions needed to satisfy cooling, of the fresh food section. A steady-state computer model (CYCLE-Z) capable of simulating conventional, dual loop, and L-M refrigeration cycles was developed. This model was used to rank the performance of 20 ozone-safe NARMs in the L-M refrigeration cycle while key system parameters were systematically varied. The results indicated that the steady-state efficiency of the L-M design was up to 25% greater than that of a conventional cycle. This model was also used to calculate the performance of other pure refrigerants relative to that of dichlorodifluoromethane, R-12, in conventional and dual-loop RF designs. Projected efficiency gains for these cycles were more modest, ranging from 0 to 10%. Individual compressor calorimeter tests of nine combinations of evaporator and condenser temperatures usually used to map RF compressor performance were carried out with R-12 and two candidate L-M NARMs in several compressors. Several models of a commercially produced two-evaporator RF were obtained as test units. Two dual-loop RF designs were built and tested as part of this project.

Sand, J.R.; Rice, C.L.; Vineyard, E.A.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Payback enormous for variable-frequency motor drives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The City Utilities of Springfield's (Mo) 200-MW Southwest power station is a 200-MW plant anchored around a single coal-fired steam generator and its major support systems, including an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and two wet limestone scrubbers. In the late 1980s, engineers at Southwest began evaluating the feasibility of installing variable-frequency drives (VFD) to reduce the plant's parasitic load and boost overall performance. This article reports on VFDs installed to control the induced draft (i-d) and forced-draft (f-d) fan motors at the plant. The devices have surpassed the utility's expectations by reducing parasitic load, improving combustion control, and increasing overall plant reliability. Virtually every major plant component--including the ESPs and scrubbers--performs better as a result of the retrofit.

Collins, S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Energy-efficiency directory of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented about the energy costs of operating refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers and includes the type of refrigerator or refrigerator-freezer, the fresh food volume, the freezer volume, the total volume, and the yearly energy cost. The directory lists all currently marketed electric refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers that have Energy Guide labels. The Federal Trade Commission requires manufacturers who distribute refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers to attach Energy Guide labels to appliances manufactured on or after May 19, 1980. The data have been measured by manufacturers and/or their agents according to US Government standard test procedures.

Statt, T.G.; Coggins, J.L.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

China Refrigerator Information Label  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-246E China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact Jianhong Cheng China National Institute of Standardization Tomoyuki Sakamoto The Institute of Energy

36

Manufacture of refrigeration oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lubricating oils suitable for use in refrigeration equipment in admixture with fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants are produced by solvent extraction of naphthenic lubricating oil base stocks, cooling the resulting extract mixture, optionally with the addition of a solvent modifier, to form a secondary raffinate and a secondary extract, and recovering a dewaxed oil fraction of lowered pour point from the secondary raffinate as a refrigeration oil product. The process of the invention obviates the need for a separate dewaxing operation, such as dewaxing with urea, as conventionally employed for the production of refrigeration oils.

Chesluk, R.P.; Platte, H.J.; Sequeira, A.J.

1981-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

37

Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Efficiency Vermont offers financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of energy efficient refrigeration for commercial, industrial, agricultural and institutional buildings. To receive the...

38

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

39

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

40

Chapter 19. Heat Engines and Refrigerators That's not smoke. It's clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the cooling towers around a large power plant. The power plant is generating electricity by turning heat Addison-Wesley. ┬Ě Ideal-Gas Refrigerators ┬Ě The Limits of Efficiency ┬Ě The Carnot Cycle #12;Chapter 19. Refrigerator B. Thermal motor C. Heat engine D. Carnot cycle E. Otto processor #12;The area enclosed within a pV

Dhamala, Mukesh

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Experimental analysis of variable capacity heat pump system equipped with vapour injection and permanent magnet motor.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This study analyzes the performance of variable capacity heat pump scroll compressor which is equipped with vapour injection and permanent magnet motor. Refrigerant usedů (more)

Awan, Umer Khalid

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Stirling-cycle refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Stirling-cycle refrigerator comprises a plurality of Stirling-cycle refrigerator units each having a displacer defining an expansion chamber, a piston defining a compression chamber, and a circuit including a heater and a cooler and interconnecting the expansion chamber and the compression chamber, and a heat exchanger shared by the circuits and disposed between the coolers and the heaters for effecting heat exchange between working gases in the circuits. The heat exchanger may comprise a countercurrent heat exchanger, and the Stirling-cycle refrigerator units are operated in cycles which are 180/sup 0/ out of phase with each other.

Nakamura, K.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

43

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) July 20, 2012 DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an 8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had...

44

Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

Swift, G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

Refrigerants in Transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.E. Senior Engineer The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company Hartford,. Connecticut ABSTRACT The massive growth of air conditioning and refrigeration has been a direct result of the development of a class of chemicals called fluorocarbons..., Gordon, "Forty Years Research on Atmospheric Ozone at Oxford: A !Iistory," Applied Optics, March t968, pp. 387-405. 4. Downing, R., "Development of Chloro fluorocarbon Refrigerants," CFCs: Time of Transition, ASHRAE Publication, Atlanta, GA, 1989...

Stouppe, D. E.

46

Super efficient refrigeration systems: Two non-CFC designs ready for commercialization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two high-efficiency prime movers for refrigeration are ready for field testing and commercialization. Either machine, combined with other advanced measures, could result in a CFC-free refrigerator using significantly less energy than units meeting the 1993 US efficiency standards. The first design is a linear motor/compressor that manufacturers could substitute for the standard rotating motor/compressor in a conventional refrigerator. The second design is a Stirling-cycle refrigeration machine that is self contained and uses helium gas as the working fluid. The results of prototype testing, the inherent simplicity of both machines, and their virtually frictionless operation point to economical and reliable service. If these features are confirmed in further testing now being conducted by appliance and compressor manufacturers, these machines will be strong candidates for inclusion in super efficient refrigerator designs over the next few years.

Stickney, B.L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Products of motor burnout. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Montreal Protocol of 1987 effectively banned a long list of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) traditionally used in air conditioning and refrigeration applications. The refrigeration and air conditioning industries have responded by developing and testing new, alternative refrigerants that are less damaging to the atmosphere upon release. Despite a reputation for quality and reliability, air conditioning systems do occasionally fail. One of the more common failure modes in a hermetic system is a motor burnout. Motor burnouts can occur by various mechanisms. One of the most common scenarios is a locked motor rotor, which may result from a damaged bearing. The resulting electrical motor burnout is caused by overheating of the locked rotor and subsequent failure of the insulation. This is primarily a thermal breakdown process.

Hawley-Fedder, R.; Goerz, D.; Koester, C.; Wilson, M.

1996-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

48

Downhole pulse tube refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

Swift, G.; Gardner, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Proceedings: Commercial Refrigeration Research Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving refrigeration systems for commercial use can enhance both utility load factors and supermarket profits. This workshop has pinpointed research needs in commercial refrigeration and systems integration for a supermarket environment.

None

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat recovery from refrigeration machines is a concept which has great potential for implementation in many businesses. If a parallel requirement for refrigeration and hot water exists, the installation of a system to provide hot water as a by...

Jackson, H. Z.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Refrigeration monitor and alarm system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A monitor is described for a refrigeration system including a heat reclaiming system coupled therewith, comprising: a sensor positioned to detect the level of liquid state refrigerant in the system and provide an electrical output signal therefrom; a digital display for displaying the refrigerant level; first circuit means coupling the digital display to the sensor for actuating the digital display; and lockout means coupled with the sensor for deactivating the heat reclaiming system when a preselected refrigerant level is reached.

Branz, M.A.; Renaud, P.F.

1986-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

52

Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

Pecharsky, Vitalij

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Refrigerator recycling and CFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utility-sponsored refrigerator and freezer pick-up programs have removed almost 900,000 inefficient appliances from the North American electric grid to date. While the CFC-12 refrigerant from the discarded appliances is typically removed and recycled, in all but a few programs the CFC-11 in the foam insulation is not. About a quarter-billion pounds of CFC-11 are banked in refrigerator foam in the United States. Release of this ``bank`` of CFC, combined with that from foam insulation used in buildings, will be the largest source of future emissions if preventive measures are not taken. Methods exist to recover the CFC for reuse or to destroy it by incineration. The task of recycling or destroying the CFCs and other materials from millions of refrigerators is a daunting challenge, but one in which utilities can play a leadership role. E Source believes that utilities can profitably serve as the catalyst for public-private partnerships that deliver comprehensive refrigerator recycling. Rather than treating such efforts solely as a DSM resource acquisition, utilities could position these programs as a multifaceted service delivery that offers convenient appliance removal for homeowners, a solid waste minimization service for landfills, a source of recycled materials for industry, and a CFC recovery and/or disposal service in support of the HVAC industry and society`s atmospheric protection goals and laws. Financial mechanisms could be developed through these public-private enterprises to ensure that utilities are compensated for the extra cost of fully recycling refrigerators, including the foam CFC.

Shepard, M.; Hawthorne, W.; Wilson, A.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

55

Helium dilution refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 1875" OD exchanger Qu ID copper cap Fig. 6. Assembled view of 3He - He dilution refrigerator. 26 The joint thru the tubing wall and the joining of the two sizes of capillary were silver soldered (35/ silver content). A 0. 250" OD tube... the inert atmosphere inside the refrigerator. After removal from the nitrogen atmosphere the graphite support, was 'attached to the still and mixing chamber using Stycast 2850 GT with catalyst g9 ). The mass of the graphite 26 support 1s 11. 62 grams...

McKee, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

56

Enhanced naphthenic refrigeration oils for household refrigerator systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to industry concerns about the successful employment of hydrofluorocarbon-immiscible hydrocarbon oils in refrigeration systems, enhanced naphthenic refrigeration oils have been developed. These products have been designed to be more dispersible with hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, such as R-134a, in order to facilitate lubricant return to the compressor and to ensure proper energy efficiency of the system. Bench tests and system performance evaluations indicate the feasibility of these oils for use in household refrigeration applications. Results of these evaluations are compared with those obtained with polyol esters and typical naphthenic mineral oils employed in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigeration applications.

Reyes-Gavilan, J.L.; Flak, G.T.; Tritcak, T.R. [Witco Corp., Oakland, NJ (United States); Barbour, C.B. [Americold, Cullman, AL (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

Cool energy savings opportunities in commercial refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The commercial sector consumes over 13 quads of primary energy annually. Most of this consumption (two-thirds) meets the energy needs of lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. The largest consuming group of the remaining one-third is commercial refrigeration at about one quad annually (990 trillion Btu), valued at over $7 billion per year to the commercial sector consumer. Potential energy savings are estimated to be about 266 trillion Btu, with consumer savings valued at about $2 billion. This study provides the first known estimates of these values using a bottom-up approach. The authors evaluated numerous self-contained and engineered commercial refrigeration systems in this study, such as: supermarket central systems, beverage merchandisers, ice machines, and vending machines. Typical physical characteristics of each equipment type were identified at the component level for energy consumption. This information was used to form a detailed database from which they arrived at the estimate of 990 trillion Btu energy consumption for the major equipment types used in commercial refrigeration. Based on the implementation of the most cost-effective technology improvements for the seven major equipment types, they estimated an annual potential energy savings of 266 trillion Btu. Much of the savings can be realized with the implementation of high-efficiency fan motors and compressors. In many cases, payback can be realized within three years.

Westphalen, D.; Brodrick, J.; Zogg, R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

Gaul, Christopher J. (Thornton, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Comparison of Several Eco-Friendly Refrigeration Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, the operation principles, thermodynamics characteristics, and technical practicability were compared between thermoelectric refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration and adsorption refrigeration. The TE refrigeration is the most well...

Tang, C.; Luo, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

A Research Into a New Method of Refrigeration Charging and the Effects of Improper Charging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF outdoor 08, 80░F DB167"F WB indoor) is generally acceptable depending upon the manufacturer's design specifications. TJess than this could result in a refrigerant floodback situation. More than this can cause premature com- pressor motor... best be defined as either a refrigerant overcharge or undercharge when compared with the manufacturer's charging specifications, at standard ARI rating conditions. Either condition will have a detrimental effect on the system, both in terms...

Houcek, J.; Thedford, M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

63

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

Bennett, G.A.

1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

64

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Research and development of energy-efficient appliance motor-compressors. Final report. Volume 1: executive summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The accomplishments of the refrigerator/freezer motor-compressor development program are highlighted. The experimental program involved making numerous incremental changes to an existing compresssor design. The refrigerator/freezer motor compressor experimental development, room air conditioner experimental development, market study, and phase II field demonstration program are summarized. (MHR)

Nelson, R.T.; MacCarthy, P.W.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Multilayer Thermionic Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review is presented of our program to construct an efficient solid state refrigerator based on thermionic emission of electrons over periodic barriers in the solid. The experimental program is to construct a simple device with one barrier layer using a three layers: metal-semiconductor-metal. The theoretical program is doing calculations to determine: (i) the optimal layer thickness, and (ii) the thermal conductivity.

Mahan, G.D.

1999-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

67

Vaccine refrigerator testing. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the Central American Health Clinic Project initiated in 1986, Sandia National Laboratories and the Florida Solar Energy Center recognized the need for a test and evaluation program for vaccine refrigeration systems. At the Florida Solar Energy Center, side-by-side testing of three photovoltaic powered vaccine refrigerators began in 1987. The testing was expanded in 1988 to include a kerosene absorption refrigerator. This report presents observations, conclusions, and recommendations derived from testing the four vaccine refrigeration systems. Information is presented pertaining to the refrigerators, photovoltaic arrays, battery subsystems, charge controllers, and user requirements. This report should be of interest to designers, manufacturers, installers, and users of photovoltaic-powered vaccine refrigeration systems and components.

Ventre, G.G. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Kilfoyle, D.; Marion, B. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the Montreal Protocol that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must be resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability. In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results are presented for an 18 cubic foot (0.51 cubic meter), top-mount refrigerator-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R12, R500, R12/Dimethyl-ether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12 /DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Miller, W.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut Businesses' Energy Bills and Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut...

70

Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one...

71

The refrigerator revolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article discusses how a simple, new technology threw the best-laid plans of the chemical and refrigerator industries into disarray-and provided a new perspective on how future environmental agreements can be reached. In recent years, a series of massive business mergers has mesmerized the industrial world. However in the early 1990s a German environmentalist, triggered global reprocussions in the wake of the mandate to phase out the use of ozone depleting substances. The economic and political background of this is explained in detail.

Ayres, E.; French, H.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

COLD STORAGE DESIGN REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLD STORAGE DESIGN AND REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART 1 \\ "..\\- ,,, T I (Section 1), and F. Bruce Sanford (Section 1) Table of Contents Pages Section 1 - Cold Storage Design to be Considered in the Freezing and Cold Storage of Fishery Products - Preparing, Freezing, and Cold Storage

73

Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present ThesisLoad Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration Lisa Buth Rasmussen Kongens Lyngby 2013 M.Sc.-2013

74

Malone cycle refrigerator development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the progress made in demonstrating a Malone Cycle Refrigerator/Freezer. The Malone cycle is similar to the Stirling cycle but uses a supercritical fluid in place of real gas. In the approach, solid-metal diaphragms are used to seal and sweep the working volumes against the high working fluid pressures required in Malone cycle machines. This feature eliminates the friction and leakage that accounted for nearly half the losses in the best piston-defined Malone cycle machines built to date. The authors successfully built a Malone cycle refrigerator that: (1) used CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, (2) operated at pressures up to 19.3 Mpa (2,800 psi), (3) achieved a cold end metal temperatures of {minus}29 C ({minus}20 F), and (4) produced over 400 Watts of cooling at near ambient temperatures. The critical diaphragm components operated flawlessly throughout characterization and performance testing, supporting the conclusion of high reliability based on analysis of fatigue date and actual strain measurements.

Shimko, M.A.; Crowley, C.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

77

BNL Refrigerant Overview Presentation to the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

charge. #12;BNL Refrigeration Management Plan Details how BNL complies with Sections 608 and 609BNL Refrigerant Overview Presentation to the BER and CAC Ed Murphy, PE Chief Engineer / Manager is a heating process. Refrigeration is an engineered "cycle" where the refrigerant is made to evaporate

Homes, Christopher C.

78

Synopsis of residential refrigerator/freezer alternative refrigerants evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental testing on residential refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) is summarized in this paper. R/F testing focused on two areas: alternative refrigerants and equipment configurations. The refrigerants evaluated consisted of single components, azeotropes, and zeotropes derived from hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrocarbons (HCs). These refrigerants were evaluated in conventional and unconventional R/F designs. Major and minor design modifications were studied. Minor modifications consisted of various capillary tube lengths, door insulations, and compressors, while major modifications included two-evaporator and two-cycle R/F systems. Results obtained from testing the two-cycle system will be discussed in a later paper. This paper presents the experimental results of alternative technologies evaluated as replacements for ozone depleting chemicals.

Baskin, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

79

Energy consumption testing of innovative refrigerator-freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high ambient temperature of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the AHAM/DOE Refrigerator-Freezer Energy Consumption Standards is intended to compensate for the lack of door openings and other heat loads. Recently published results by Meier and Jansky (1993) indicate labeled consumption overpredicting typical field consumption by 15%. In-house field studies on conventional models showed labeled consumption overpredicting by about 22%. The Refrigerator-Freezer Technology Assessment (RFTA) test was developed to more accurately predict field consumption. This test has ambient temperature and humidity, door openings, and condensation control set at levels intended to typify Canadian household conditions. It also assesses consumption at exactly defined compartment rating temperatures. Ten conventional and energy-efficient production models were laboratory tested. The RFTA results were about 30% lower than labeled. Similarly, the four innovative refrigerator-freezer models, when field tested, also had an average of 30% lower consumption than labeled. Thus, the results of the limited testing suggest that the RFTA test may be a more accurate predictor of field use. Further testing with a larger sample is recommended. Experimental results also indicated that some innovative models could save up to 50% of the energy consumption compared with similar conventional units. The technologies that contributed to this performance included dual compressors, more efficient compressors and fan motors, off-state refrigerant control valve, fuzzy logic control, and thicker insulation. The larger savings were on limited production models, for which additional production engineering is required for full marketability.

Wong, M.T.; Howell, B.T.; Jones, W.R. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Long, D.L. [Statistical Solutions, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

80

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

Crunkleton, James A. (Cambridge, MA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

Crunkleton, J.A.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

82

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

83

Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the study is discussed in terms of identifying refrigeration intensive processes. Specific and general conclusions are presented to help faci I itate proper industrial refrigeration system design throughout fhe industry. This paper presents the resul ts... custaner's specifications. Most systems fall into two broad categories: Vapor Canpression Refrigeration Cycles - Mechanical or Steam Jet Canpression Systems Absorption Refrigeration Cycles - Heat Operated Cycles As shown in Table I, refrigerations...

Witherell, W. D.

84

Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the Montreal Protocol (UNEP 1987) that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability, In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers (AHAM 1985). The results are presented for an 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}), top mount refrigerators-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R 12, R500, R12/dimethylether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12/DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants, indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising (6.8% and 8.5% higher energy consumption, respectively), changes to the refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. It is noted that the test results are only an initial step in determining a replacement for R12.

Sand, J.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US)); Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Final Rule 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May 2, 2011)...

86

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

years. About 20% of refrigerators and freezers sold in 2000energy efficiency of refrigerators and freezers, Directiveof Energy, for refrigerators and freezers are base unit

Fridley, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Analysis of simultaneous cooling and heating in supermarket refrigeration systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this master thesis project, conventional supermarket refrigeration systems using R404A are compared with refrigeration system solutions using natural refrigerants such as carbon dioxideů (more)

Marigny, Johan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes a new family of safe, environmentally friendly, high performance substitute refrigerants for application in manufacturing and facilities operations. Due to the Montreal Protocol and subsequent environmental regulations, CFC...

Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; Dhooge, P. M.

89

GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Fredrich  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Technologies3 Achema 2012 // heat pumps using ammonia Industrial demand on heat in Germany Heatdemandin

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

90

Analysis of heat recovery in supermarket refrigeration system using carbon dioxide as refrigerant.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The aim of this study is to investigate the heat recovery potential in supermarket refrigeration systems using CO2 as refrigerants. The theoretical control strategyů (more)

Abdi, Amir

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

92

Liberty Utilities (Electric) - Commercial New Construction Rebate...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

approval, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Heat pumps, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Motor VFDs, Motors, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Control Sensors, Economizers Active...

93

Superinsulation in refrigerators and freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results presented here were obtained during Phase 4 of the first CRADA, which had the specific objective of determining the lifetime of superinsulations when installed in simulated refrigerator doors. The second CRADA was established to evaluate and test design concepts proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption in a refrigerator-freezer that is representative of approximately 60% of the US market. The stated goal of this CRADA is to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50%, the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 L) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translates to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research is to facilitate the introduction of efficient appliances by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. In previous work on this project, a Phase 1 prototype refrigerator-freezer achieved an energy consumption of 1.413 kWh/d [Vineyard, et al., 1995]. Following discussions with an advisory group comprised of all the major refrigerator-freezer manufacturers, several options were considered for the Phase 2 effort, one of which was cabinet heat load reductions.

Vineyard, E.; Stovall, T.K.; Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, K.W.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Loveland Water and Power- Refrigerator Recycling Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Loveland Water and Power is providing an incentive for its customers to recycle their old refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old refrigerator...

95

Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

96

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

97

Energy Saving with Absorption Refrigeration Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorption refrigeration technology can be an economical and cost effective means of reducing energy cost and/or improving the efficiency and output of your process. We believe the potential benefits of absorption refrigeration technology have...

Davis, R. C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Refrigerator Manufacturers: Order (2013-CE-5341)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Refrigerator Manufacturers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

99

Method and apparatus for desuperheating refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim.

Zess, James A. (Kelso, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

102

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

103

Optimization of Industrial Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A computer program designed to optimize the size of an evaporative condenser in a two-stage industrial refrigeration plant was created. The program sizes both the high-stage and low-stage compressors and an evaporative condenser. Once the initial...

Flack, P. J.; Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L.

104

Direct condensation refrigerant recovery and restoration system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a refrigerant recovery and purification system for removing gaseous refrigerant from a disabled refrigeration unit, cleaning the refrigerant of contaminants, and converting the gaseous refrigerant to a liquid state for storage. It comprises a low pressure inlet section; a high pressure storage section; the low pressure inlet section comprising: an oil and refrigerant gas separator, including a separated oil removal means, first conduit means for connecting an inlet of the separator to the disabled refrigerant unit, a slack-sided accumulator, second conduit means connecting the separator to the slack-sided accumulator, a reclaim condenser, third conduit means connecting the separator and the reclaim condenser in series, an evaporator coil in the reclaim condenser connectable to a conventional operating refrigeration system for receiving a liquid refrigerant under pressure for expansion therein, the evaporator coil forming a condensing surface for condensing the refrigerant gas at near atmospheric pressure in the condenser, a liquid receiver, a reclaimed refrigerant storage tank, fourth conduit means further connecting the liquid receiver in series with the reclaim condenser, downstream thereof, means between the reclaim condenser and the liquid receiver.

Grant, D.C.H.

1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

105

Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

Lowe, K.T.

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

106

The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

107

HFC supermarket refrigeration demonstration. Phases 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HFC Supermarket Refrigeration Demonstration tested and evaluated HFC refrigerants in a new Shop `n Save supermarket in Glens Falls, New York. This project included laboratory testing of HFC refrigerants for medium- and low-temperature application, the design of a supermarket refrigeration system to accommodate the new refrigerants, installation, start-up, and field monitoring.

Borhanian, H.; Rafuse, L.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

1983-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

109

ARTI Refrigerant Database. [Quarterly progress report, 1 July 1993--30 September 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-227ea, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyol ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Calm, J.M.

1993-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

110

Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adsorbents in heat pump cycles: 1. A high usable refrigerant mass per unit mass of adsorbent. 2. A high energy of adsorption and desorption. 3. Heat flows and composition changes occur at constant temperature. The advantages of complex compounds... 2. Useable refrigerant densities. Summarizing, complex compound exhibit inherent characteristics which make them ideal adsorbents in heat pump cycles: 1. A high usable refrigerant mass per unit mass of adsorbent. 2. A high energy of adsorption...

Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

111

Electric Motors  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Section 313 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 raised Federal minimum efficiency standards for general-purpose, single-speed, polyphase induction motors of 1 to 500 horsepower (hp). This new standard took effect in December 2010. The new minimum efficiency levels match FEMP's performance requirement for these motors.

112

IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P. Leblay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3rd IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P on the refrigerant side and louver fins on the air side. The flat tubes are grouped within a header, to use the heat exchangers with round tubes, such as charge reduction and higher heat transfer efficiency. But a reduced

Paris-Sud XI, Universit├ę de

113

Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial refrigerators and freezers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

114

Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Manufactured in the U.S. 2 Problem Statement * Current commercial and industrial heat pumps - Poor coefficient of performance (COP) at low temperatures * HFC refrigerant...

115

Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

vending machines are equipped with controls or software that put the lighting andor refrigeration systems into a low power state at night, on weekends, or other periods of...

116

Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures Improved Refrigerant Charge Purpose Component packages require in some climate zones that split system air refrigerant charge. For the performance method, the proposed design is modeled with less efficiency

117

Layer of protection analysis applied to ammonia refrigeration systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ammonia refrigeration systems are widely used in industry. Demand of these systems is expected to increase due to the advantages of ammonia as refrigerant and because ammonia is considered a green refrigerant. Therefore, it is important to evaluate...

Zuniga, Gerald Alexander

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transport Refrigeration Units Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration Units This project discusses a CARB Level 2+ verified active regeneration...

119

Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate Filters Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate...

120

DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration...

122

2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule This document...

123

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies...

124

Chapter 7, Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

environmentally harmful refrigerants and foam and enables the recycling of the plastic, metal, and wiring components. 1 Secondary refrigerators are units not located in the...

125

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

126

Corrosion aspects in indirect systems with secondary refrigerants.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Aqueous solutions of organic or inorganic salts are used as secondary refrigerants in indirect refrigeration systems to transport and transfer heat. Water is knownů (more)

Ignatowicz, Monika

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Next Generation Low-Global...

128

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Center. Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration.
Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration....

129

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Lead Performer: National Institute of...

130

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

lighting, upgrade energy management system, replace motors with VFDs, & improve HVAC systems. 05 25 2010 Teresa Jones Digitally signed by Teresa Jones DN: cnTeresa Jones,...

131

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

132

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Natural Refrigerant, Geothermal Heating & Cooling Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, January 2013, www.danfoss.com/co2 DIRECT Refrigerant Leakage (GWP) INDIRECT Energy Consumption (COP Geothermal's Direct Exchange System Advantage: ┬Ě All Natural, Safe & Non-toxic Refrigerant ┬Ě Highly Efficient Equivalent Warming Impact Commercial Food and Retail Application: Direct Leakage > Energy Consumption Brown

134

Modeling supermarket refrigeration energy use and demand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer model has been developed that can predict the performance of supermarket refrigeration equipment to within 3% of field test measurements. The Supermarket Refrigeration Energy Use and Demand Model has been used to simulate currently available refrigerants R-12, R-502 and R-22, and is being further developed to address alternative refrigerants. This paper reports that the model is expected to be important in the design, selection and operation of cost-effective, high-efficiency refrigeration systems. It can profile the operation and performance of different types of compressors, condensors, refrigerants and display cases. It can also simulate the effects of store humidity and temperature on display cases; the efficiency of various floating head pressure setpoints, defrost alternatives and subcooling methods; the efficiency and amount of heat reclaim from refrigeration systems; and the influence of other variables such as store lighting and building design. It can also be used to evaluate operational strategies such as variable-speed drive or cylinder unloading for capacity control. Development of the model began in 1986 as part of a major effort, sponsored by the U.S. electric utility industry, to evaluate energy performance of then conventional single compressor and state-of-the-art multiplex refrigeration systems, and to characterize the contribution of a variety of technology enhancement features on system energy use and demand.

Blatt, M.H.; Khattar, M.K. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (US)); Walker, D.H. (Foster Miller Inc., Waltham, MA (US))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

136

Commercial Refrigerator Door: Order (2013-CE-5351)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Commercial Refrigerator Door had failed to certify that a variety of models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

137

North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding North Star Refrigerator had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

138

Motor Wave Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 -Energieprojekte3 Climate ZoneMontrose,Stanley CapitalNorthMoscow isMotleyVFDs

139

Dynamic simulation of a reverse Brayton refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A test refrigerator based on the modified Reverse Brayton cycle has been developed in the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently. To study the behaviors of this test refrigerator, a dynamic simulation has been carried out. The numerical model comprises the typical components of the test refrigerator: compressor, valves, heat exchangers, expander and heater. This simulator is based on the oriented-object approach and each component is represented by a set of differential and algebraic equations. The control system of the test refrigerator is also simulated, which can be used to optimize the control strategies. This paper describes all the models and shows the simulation results. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental data are also presented. Experimental validation on the test refrigerator gives satisfactory results.

Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Lei, L. L.; Tang, J. C. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 China and Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

140

Heat pump/refrigerator using liquid working fluid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat transfer device is described that can be operated as a heat pump or refrigerator, which utilizes a working fluid that is continuously in a liquid state and which has a high temperature-coefficient of expansion near room temperature, to provide a compact and high efficiency heat transfer device for relatively small temperature differences as are encountered in heating or cooling rooms or the like. The heat transfer device includes a pair of heat exchangers that may be coupled respectively to the outdoor and indoor environments, a regenerator connecting the two heat exchangers, a displacer that can move the liquid working fluid through the heat exchangers via the regenerator, and a means for alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the working fluid. The liquid working fluid enables efficient heat transfer in a compact unit, and leads to an explosion-proof smooth and quiet machine characteristic of hydraulics. The device enables efficient heat transfer as the indoor-outdoor temperature difference approaches zero, and enables simple conversion from heat pumping to refrigeration as by merely reversing the direction of a motor that powers the device.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Solana Beach, CA); Knight, William R. (Corvallis, OR); Warkentin, Paul A. (San Diego, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor for superfluid helium refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CERN's new project, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will use superfluid helium as coolant for its high-field superconducting magnets and therefore require large capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K. This may only be achieved by subatmospheric compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperature. To stimulate development of this technology, CERN has procured from industry prototype Cold Compressor Units (CCU). This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating under low-pressure helium at ambient temperature. The machine has been commissioned and is now in operation. After describing basic constructional features of the compressor, we report on measured performance.

Decker, L; Schustr, P; Vins, M; Brunovsky, I; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Refrigerator/freezer energy use: Measured values vs. simulation results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EPA Refrigerator Analysis (ERA) program was utilized in the engineering analysis performed to support the proposed refrigerator/freezer standards in the United States. In this paper the accuracy of the ERA program for predicting the energy consumption of domestic refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers is studied by comparing the predicted energy consumption with the measured energy consumption.

Hakim, S.H.; Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

145

PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 as refrigerant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the use of carbon dioxide as refrigerant in supermarket refrigeration systems. The work includes fieldPhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 a PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2

Kazachkov, Ivan

146

Proceedings: commercial refrigeration research workshop. Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this workshop was to identify the state-of-the-art and determine research needs for improving energy use and demand in commercial refrigeration applications. Workshop attendees included research and development, technical operations and marketing people from manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration, space conditioning, and energy management systems equipment, and from supermarket chains and electric utilities. Presentations were given on best current practice and research needs from the perspective of each of these industry segments. Working groups identified ten important research, development and equipment demonstration projects to improve the efficiency of refrigerating equipment, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment, and other energy-using systems in supermarkets.

Blatt, M.H.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Cost-efficiency analysis in support of the energy conservation standards for refrigerator/freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Appliance Energy Conservation At (NAECA) of 1987 requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended energy-efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers along with several other appliances. This paper describes the cost-efficiency analysis of design options carried out in support of the proposed 1998 standards for refrigerator/freezers. These proposed standards are unique in that they have been reached by a consensus of various interested parties including the trade association of refrigerator and freezer manufacturers, environmental groups, state energy offices, and utility companies. In large part, these consensus standards are based on the analysis described in this paper. The analysis shows that, for example, for a 515-liter (18.2-ft{sup 3}) top-mount automatic-defrost refrigerator-freezer, the annual energy consumption can be reduced from 700 kWh/yr (2.52 GJ/yr) to 484 kWh/yr (1.74 GJ/yr) (30.9%) by the use of more efficient fan motors and compressors, improved gaskets, and insulation that is {1/2}-inch (12.7 mm) thicker. The energy use can be further reduced to 422 kWh/yr (1.52 GJ/yr) (39.8%) by employing improved heat exchangers, switching to adaptive defrost, and employing vacuum panel insulation instead of thicker walls and doors.

Hakim, S.H.; Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

148

Performance of a two-cycle refrigerator/freezer using HFC refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-cycle 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}) refrigerator/freezer was tested utilizing American National Standards Institute/Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (ANSI/AHAM) standards for energy consumption testing. A 34.9% energy consumption reduction was realized for a 1984 model refrigerator/freezer (1020 kWh original energy use). This paper presents a proven method of reducing the current Department of Energy (DOE) minimum energy-efficiency standards for refrigerator/freezers to the proposed year 2001 standards utilizing existing technology. For a top-mount, frost-free refrigerator/freezer having the above volume, the current DOE minimum energy standard is 770 kWh/year, and the proposed DOE year 2001 standard is 530 kWh/year (a 31% reduction). Therefore, some significant reductions may be obtained by implementing the modifications discussed in this paper into newer refrigerator/freezer models. The paper gives an overview of the modifications implemented by a Danish university on a US refrigerator/freezer and presents experimental performance testing results of the refrigerator/freezer. The modifications will cause the refrigerator/freezer to be more expensive, but the performance enhancements should offset cost. No cost analysis is presented in this paper, but a detailed cost analysis of a two-cycle refrigerator/freezer is contained in a 1993 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report (EPA 1993). The refrigerator/freezer was tested using four refrigerants and compressors. Two compressors and refrigerants were tested in the freezer cycle, and four were tested in the fresh food cycle.

Baskin, E.; Delafield, F.R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption-recompression refrigeration...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

REFRIGERATION CYCLE ACTUAL VAPOR-COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE VAPOR-COMPRESSION HEAT PUMPS THE EXERGY... and Engineering Center CARNOT REFRIGERATION CYCLE Practical...

151

E-Print Network 3.0 - amr refrigeration cycle Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

COPs, pressure ratios, outlet temperatures of the refrigerants... , Ltd. KEY WORDS: refrigeration; refrigerants; water; comparison; compressor; cycle; heat pump; air... be...

152

Energy use of US residential refrigerators and freezers: function derivation based on household and climate characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residential refrigerators and freezers: function derivationsecond most-used) refrigerators, and freezers, and residualfor more efficient refrigerators and freezers, as well as

Greenblatt, Jeffery

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along withthe number of refrigerators and freezers in a home alongcompression refrigerators and freezers) in U.S. households.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Premium Efficient Motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Premium efficient motors are available which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with fewer losses than the more standard motors. The fewer losses in these motors are due to changes in the motor design and improved manufacturing methods...

Moser, P. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Energy use of icemaking in domestic refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was designed to develop and test a procedure to measure the electrical consumption of ice making in domestic refrigerators. The Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure was modified to include the energy used for icemaking in conventional refrigerators and those equipped with automatic icemakers. The procedure assumed that 500 grams of ice would be produced daily. Using the new test procedure and the existing DOE test (as a benchmark), four refrigerators equipped with automatic icemakers were tested for ice-making energy use. With the revised test, gross electricity consumption increased about 10% (100 kWh/yr) due to automatic icemaking but about 5% (55 kWh/yr) could be attributed to the special features of the automatic icemaker. The test also confirmed the feasibility of establishing procedures for measuring energy use of specific loads and other activities related to domestic refrigerators. Field testing and subsequent retesting revealed a 14% increase in energy use.

Meier, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Martinez, M.S. [ENVEST-SCE, Irwindale, CA (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Of Refrigerators & Regulations | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Regulations Of Refrigerators & Regulations February 8, 2011 - 9:29am Addthis Jesse Lee White House Director of Online Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from...

157

Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

Lucas, Timothy S. (Glen Allen, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California

159

Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

162

Improving Industrial Refrigeration System Efficiency - Actual Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cycle cooling during winter operation, compressor intercooling, direct refrigeration vs. brine cooling, insulation of cold piping to reduce heat gain, multiple screw compressors for improved part load operation, evaporative condensers for reduced system...

White, T. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

164

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, D.P.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

166

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, Donald P. (Southold, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum [University of Dayton, Ohio] [University of Dayton, Ohio; Wenning, Thomas J [ORNL] [ORNL; Sever, Franc [University of Dayton, Ohio] [University of Dayton, Ohio; Kissock, Professor Kelly [University of Dayton, Ohio] [University of Dayton, Ohio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Application of Best Industry Practices to the Design of Commercial Refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The substantial efficiency improvements which have been realized in residential refrigerators over the last twenty years due to implementation of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and changing consumer reactions to energy savings give an indication of the potential for improvement in the commercial sector, where few such efficiency improvements have been made to date. The purchase decision for commercial refrigerators is still focused primarily on first cost and product performance issues such as maximizing storage capacity, quick pulldown, durability, and reliability. The project applied techniques used extensively to reduce energy use in residential refrigeration to a commercial reach-in refrigerator. The results will also be applicable to other commercial refrigeration equipment, such as refrigerated vending machines, reach-in freezers, beverage merchandisers, etc. The project described in this paper was a collaboration involving the Appliance and Building Technology Sector of TIAX, the Delfield Company, and the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies. Funding was provided by DOE through Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT41000. The program plan and schedule were structured to assure successful integration of the TIAX work on development of efficient design concepts into Delfield's simultaneous development of the Vantage product line. The energy-saving design options evaluated as part of the development included brushless DC and PSC fan motors, high-efficiency compressors, variable-speed compressor technology, cabinet thermal improvement (particularly in the face frame area), increased insulation thickness, a trap for the condensate line, improved insulation, reduced-wattage antisweat heaters, non-electric antisweat heating, off-cycle defrost termination, rifled heat exchanger tubing, and system optimization (selection of heat exchangers, fans, and subcooling, superheat, and suction temperatures for efficient operation). The project started with a thorough evaluation of the baseline Delfield Model 6051 two-door reach-in refrigerator. Performance testing was done to establish a performance baseline which, to meet end-users requirements, would have to be met or exceeded by the high-efficiency refrigerator design. Energy testing was done to establish the baseline energy use. Diagnostic testing such as reverse heat leak testing and insulation conductivity testing was done to evaluate factors contributing to the cabinet load and energy use. Modeling was done to assess the energy savings potential of the energy saving design options. Discussion with vendors and cost modeling was done to assess the manufacturing cost impact of the options. Based on this work, the following group of design options was selected for incorporation in the final refrigerator design: (1) Brushless DC evaporator fans; (2) Improved face frame design; (3) Reduced antisweat heater wattage; (4) Condensate line trap; and (5) Optimized refrigeration system. There was no net cost premium associated with these design changes, leading to a high-efficiency design requiring no payback of any initial additional investment. Delfield incorporated these design options in the Vantage line design and built a first prototype, which was tested at TIAX. Additional design changes were implemented in the transition to manufacturing, based in part on results of initial prototype testing, and a pilot production unit was sent to TIAX for final testing. The energy use of the pilot production unit was 68% less than that of the baseline refrigerator when tested according to the ASHRAE 117 Energy Test Standard. The energy test results for the baseline refrigerator and the two new-design units is shown in Figure ES-1 below. The resulting energy consumption is well below Energy Star and proposed Canadian and California standards levels. Delfield has successfully transitioned the design to production and is manufacturing all configurations of the energy efficient reach-ins at a rate greater than 7,000 per year, with production quantities projec

None

2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Advanced Motors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, ├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?Motors and Generators for the 21st Century├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬Ł. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can be met with a variety of bonded magnet compositions. The torque ripple was found to drop significantly by using thinner magnet segments. The powder co-filling and subsequent compaction processing allow for thinner magnet structures to be formed. Torque ripple can be further reduced by using skewing and pole shaping techniques. The techniques can be incorporated into the rotor during the powder co-filling process.

Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

171

Experimental results of a household automatic icemaker in a refrigerator/freezer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the performance test results of an automatic icemaker refrigerator under various modes of icemaker operation. The tests were conducted on a 20-ft{sup 3} (0.566-m{sup 3}) household refrigerator that had a single forced convection evaporator and was charged with R-12. The focus of the research was to ascertain the effect of icemaker operation on the refrigerator`s daily energy consumption. Thus, three different types of tests were conducted, depending upon the icemaker`s operating mode. In the first test type, the baseline, the automatic icemaker was turned off and no ice was made. In the second test type, the ice-making mode (test A), the icemaker was turned on and ice was continuously made. Compared to the baseline, additional power was intermittently consumed by a mold heater that melts the ice cubes` interface with the tray, a solenoid valve that supplies water to the icemaker tray, and a motor that rotates the ejector blades to press the crescent-shaped ice cubes out of the mold and unload them into an ice bin. In the third test type, the failure mode (test B), the water supply was manually disconnected but the icemaker was left turned on. Even though no ice was made, additional power was still consumed by the mold heater, the solenoid valve, and the motorized ejector. In tests A and B, the energy consumed by the icemaker`s components increases the cooling load, which raises the compressor power consumption. The present study shows that at the AHAM-specified test conditions, uninterrupted icemaking increased the daily energy consumption by 22.5% to 27.2%.

Haider, I.; Feng, H.; Radermacher, R. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Center for Environmental Energy Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam...

Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

E-Print Network 3.0 - active magnetic refrigerator Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: : The Perspectives of Patient and Public Health Organizations Aerosols Air Conditioning and Refrigeration... : Refrigerant Alternatives for Chillers Koichi Watanabe,...

174

Potential Refrigerants for Power Electronics Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the past, automotive refrigerants have conventionally been used solely for the purpose of air conditioning. However, with the development of hybrid-electric vehicles and the incorporation of power electronics (PEs) into the automobile, automotive refrigerants are taking on a new role. Unfortunately, PEs have lifetimes and functionalities that are highly dependent on temperature and as a result thermal control plays an important role in the performance of PEs. Typically, PEs are placed in the engine compartment where the internal combustion engine (ICE) already produces substantial heat. Along with the ICE heat, the additional thermal energy produced by PEs themselves forces designers to use different cooling methods to prevent overheating. Generally, heat sinks and separate cooling loops are used to maintain the temperature. Disturbingly, the thermal control system can consume one third of the total volume and may weigh more than the PEs [1]. Hence, other avenues have been sought to cool PEs, including submerging PEs in automobile refrigerants to take advantage of two-phase cooling. The objective of this report is to explore the different automotive refrigerants presently available that could be used for PE cooling. Evaluation of the refrigerants will be done by comparing environmental effects and some thermo-physical properties important to two-phase cooling, specifically measuring the dielectric strengths of potential candidates. Results of this report will be used to assess the different candidates with good potential for future use in PE cooling.

Starke, M.R.

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

175

Quantum heat engines and refrigerators: Continuous devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum thermodynamics supplies a consistent description of quantum heat engines and refrigerators up to the level of a single few level system coupled to the environment. Once the environment is split into three;a hot, cold and work reservoirs a heat engine can operate. The device converts the positive gain into power;where the gain is obtained from population inversion between the components of the device. Reversing the operation transforms the device into a quantum refrigerator. The quantum tricycle, a device connected by three external leads to three heat reservoirs is used as a template for engines and refrigerators. The equation of motion for the heat currents and power can be derived from first principle. Only a global description of the coupling of the device to the reservoirs is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Optimisation of the devices leads to a balanced set of parameters where the couplings to the three reservoirs are of the same order and the external driving field is in resonance. When analysing refrigerators special attention is devoted to a dynamical version of the third law of thermodynamics. Bounds on the rate of cooling when approaching the absolute zero are obtained by optimising the cooling current. At low temperature all refrigerators show universal behavior. Restrictions on the system imposed by the dynamical version of the third law are studied.

Ronnie Kosloff; Amikam Levy

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

176

Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

775 Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering P. A systems developed specifically for neutron scattering environ- ments. The refrigerators are completely relatively recently however, the lowest temperatures available in almost all neutron scattering laboratories

Boyer, Edmond

177

adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

refrigeration, steam... Zuo, Z.; Hu, W. 2006-01-01 287 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

178

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? July 20, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis Earlier this week, Amanda wrote about how you can save energy...

179

Proposed Methodology for LEED Baseline Refrigeration Modeling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This PowerPoint presentation summarizes a proposed methodology for LEED baseline refrigeration modeling. The presentation discusses why refrigeration modeling is important, the inputs of energy models, resources, reference building model cases, baseline model highlights, example savings calculations and results.

Deru, M.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Microcomputer Software for Refrigerant Property and Cycle Analysis Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the thermodynamic properties of ten fluorocarbon refrigerants, (Rll, R12, R13, R14, R22, R23, Rl13, Rl14, R500, R502) and ammonia in the sub-cooled, saturation, 2-phase, and superheat regions. In the sec tions which follow, the theoretical basis... for each fluorocarbon refrigerant, represent curve fits to existing tabular property data. For both ammonia and the fluorocarbon refrigerants, the equations for the following four basic properties of refrigerants are used. - Liquid density as a...

Bierschenk, J. L.; Strohl, S. T.; Schmidt, P. S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Optimal performance of endoreversible quantum refrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The derivation of general performance benchmarks is important in the design of highly optimized heat engines and refrigerators. To obtain them, one may model phenomenologically the leading sources of irreversibility ending up with results which are model-independent, but limited in scope. Alternatively, one can take a simple physical system realizing a thermodynamic cycle and assess its optimal operation from a complete microscopic description. We follow this approach in order to derive the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling rate for \\textit{any} endoreversible quantum refrigerator. At striking variance with the \\textit{universality} of the optimal efficiency of heat engines, we find that the cooling performance at maximum power is crucially determined by the details of the specific system-bath interaction mechanism. A closed analytical benchmark is found for endoreversible refrigerators weakly coupled to unstructured bosonic heat baths: an ubiquitous case study in quantum thermodynamics.

Luis A. Correa; JosÚ P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

182

Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

Alekseev, A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

Calm, James M.

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

184

Simulation results of single refrigerants for use in a dual-circuit refrigerator/freezer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dual-circuit RFs have been shown to have a theoretical advantage over single-evaporator RFs if the compressor efficiencies of the separate loops are equivalent to the compressor efficiency of the combined system. Single refrigerants were analyzed to determine the optimum pure refrigerant in each of the two separate freezer and fresh food loops. R-152a and R-142b were determined to be the optimum single refrigerants in the dual-circuit system. With the assumptions made, theoretical energy savings of up to 23% of compressor power are possible.

Bare, J.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Method and apparatus for de-superheating refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim. 7 figs.

Zess, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.

1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

187

DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER Richard F. Topping-efficient refrigerator- freezer prototype involving the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Arthur D refrigerator-freezers. The resulting 16 cubic foot prototype uses significantly less energy than the most

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

188

Fast Nonconvex Model Predictive Control for Commercial Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

its capabil- ity to minimize the total cost of energy for a commercial refrigeration system while multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor. This corresponds roughly to 2% of the entire electricity consumption in the country. Refrigerated goods constitute

189

Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Form Date 4/4/01 Refrigerant Service Order Form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recovery Unit ID # : Added Lbs oz Lbs oz Lbs oz Startup Charge Net Refrigerant Added: Lbs oz Parts UsedForm Date 4/4/01 Refrigerant Service Order Form Service ID: Owner: Work Order #: Building: Date: Issued: Completed: Equipment ID: Technicians: Location: Model: Manufact: Serial #: Refrigerant Type

Russell, Lynn

191

Feasibility of Solar-Assisted Refrigerated Transport in Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems. Keywords: refrigeration, transport, photovoltaics, economics. 1 #12;B. Elliston, M. Dennis) modules to minimise the use of diesel generation in refrigerated transport. Sub- sequently, UK supermarket. This report investigates the merit of retrofitting a PV system to assist refrigerated trailers in Australian

192

Helium refrigeration considerations for cryomodule design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, packaged in cryo-modules (CM), which depend on helium refrigeration at sub-atmospheric pressures, nominally 2 K. These specialized helium refrigeration systems are quite cost intensive to produce and operate. Particularly as there is typically no work extraction below the 4.5-K supply, it is important that the exergy loss between this temperature level and the CM load temperature(s) be minimized by the process configuration choices. This paper will present, compare and discuss several possible helium distribution process arrangements to support the CM loads.

Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

193

2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential refrigerators and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 10, 2014.

194

Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including refrigerated beverage vending machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR« program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

196

Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The majority of building air conditioning has traditionally been achieved with vapor compression technology using CFC-I I or HCFC-22 as refrigerant fluids. CFC-11 is being successfully replaced by HCFC-123 (retrofit or new equipment) or by HFC- 134a...

Bivens, D. B.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water...

Braud, H. J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Retail refrigeration systems -- The use of ammonia and two-level secondary refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of a secondary refrigeration system for high-temperature use as investigated in 1991, and a design for a full high-temperature system was completed the following year. In late 1992, a supermarket chain commissioned a study of the feasibility of turning the design into a practical application and assisted the project in 1993 by commissioning a test facility for single-temperature secondary refrigeration at one of the company`s factory sites. Results and conclusions from this trial work pointed toward the need for a total secondary refrigeration system, including a low-temperature system for frozen food display cases, and the possibility of utilizing environmentally friendly ammonia as the primary refrigerant. Therefore, in late 1993/early 1994, a low-temperature system was developed and commissioned at the test facility. Full collaboration between the supermarket company and the contractor resulted in the funding of practical trial work and feasibility studies for both secondary refrigeration and a fully detailed proposal for the use of ammonia in a public retail environment. In May 1995, the first UK ammonia and two-level secondary refrigeration system began operation in a supermarket in Horsham, Sussex England.

Thomas, A.S. [Westward Refrigeration, Gloucester (United Kingdom)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case has its own refrigeration unit; low-charge direct expansion--similar to conventional multiplex refrigeration systems but with improved controls to limit charge. Means to integrate store HVAC systems for space heating/cooling with the refrigeration system have been investigated as well. One approach is to use heat pumps to recover refrigeration waste heat and raise it to a sufficient level to provide for store heating needs. Another involves use of combined heating and power (CHP) or combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems to integrate the refrigeration, HVAC, and power services in stores. Other methods including direct recovery of refrigeration reject heat for space and water heating have also been examined.

Baxter, VAN

2003-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Implementing Motor Decision Plans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Implementing Motor Decision Plans R. Neal Elliott, Ph.D., P.E., Senior Associate American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, DC Abstract The first step to reducing energy costs and increasing reliability in motors... when a motor fails and must either be replaced or repaired. This is represented visually in Figure 1. When purchasing a motor for a new application, time is usually available to consider various options. However, once a motor has failed...

Elliott, R. N.

202

The alternative refrigerant dilemma for refrigerator-freezers: Truth or consequences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to select a refrigerant that has minimal impact on energy consumption and the environment, a screening analysis of potential refrigerants was performed that resulted in the selection of six candidates. The screening results show that R-134a, R-134, R-152a, R-134a/R-152a, R-22/R-152a/R-124, and R-134a/R-152a/R-124 are the most promising refrigerants based on the following criteria: ozone depletion potential, greenhouse warming potential, coefficient of performance, and safety. Energy consumption tests were performed for the three pure refrigerants in accordance with the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results indicate an increased energy consumption of 6.8%, 7.3%, and 7.3%, respectively for R-134, R-152a, and R-134a in the most efficient oil. However, when the effects of compressor efficiency are taken into account, the normalized energy consumption results in an increase of only 2.7% for R-152a and 5.5% for both R-134a and R-134. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

Vineyard, E.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

The application of Stirling cooler to refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application field of the free-piston Stirling Cooler, Model 100A of Global Cooling BV in the refrigeration has been studied. The cooling effectiveness of the free-piston Stirling Cooler which means small capacity with better efficiency, large range of temperature and capacity modulated operation is of much use to cool a space insulated well. One practicable application is suggested here, in which FPSC and secondary heat transfer fluid are used to the single temperature refrigerator (60 liter) instead of conventional vapor compression machines. In the freezer operation at {minus}20 C inside cabinet, the steady-state test results show 25% improvement in energy consumption over original one. The application of free-piston Stirling Cooler to a freezer at lower temperature shows great potentials also.

Kim, S.Y.; Chung, W.S.; Shin, D.K.; Cho, K.S. [LG Electronics Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Living System Lab.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed, that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modelling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

Luis A. Correa; JosÚ P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

205

An electric utility's adventures in commercial refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article provides a look at the history of energy conservation efforts in supermarket refrigeration from World War II to the present and a goal for the future. A supermarket is a low profit margin business, typically netting 1 percent on annual sales. The typical supermarket's annual electric bill equals or exceeds the annual profits. With all of these data, it looked like energy conservation in the supermarket industry was going to be an easy task. Change the lighting to a more energy-efficient system and lower the head pressure and raise the suction pressure in the refrigeration. Any owner, CEO, or general manager who could easily increase his bottom-line profit by 10 to 30 percent would jump at the opportunity, especially when the electric utility was willing to support a portion of the cost for the changes.

Flannick, J.A. (Wisconsin Electric Co., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Stamm, R.H. (Industrial Refrigeration, Sandy, OR (United States)); Calle, M.M. (Technical Resources, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Gomolla, J.C. (Gomolla (Jerry C.), Milwaukee, WI (United States))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

HVAC's Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Comfort by Design Steve Jones Commercial Sales Manager for Mitsubishi Southwest Business Unit HVAC?s Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology HVAC Industry Overview HVAC Market Dollar Volume $18 Billion Source:;NABH Research....2M Systems Ductless is a small percent of the U.S. HVAC market but current building and energy usage trends indicate a large growth opportunity Determining the Proper Application Worldwide Usage-Opportunity Window Unitary Chillers...

Jones, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

Swift, Gregory W. (Sante Fe, NM); Olson, Jeffrey R. (San Mateo, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Process for the production of refrigerator oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for producing a high quality refrigerator oil from an oil fraction boiling at a temperature within boiling point of lubricating oil by contacting said oil fraction with a solvent to extract undesirable components thereby lowering % C..cap alpha.. of said oil fraction, hydrogenating said solvent extracted fraction under the specific conditions, and then contacting said hydrogenated oil with a solid absorbant to remove impurities; said oil fraction being obtained from a low grade naphthenic crude oil.

Kunihiro, T.; Tsuchiya, K.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

210

Method of reducing chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant emissons to the atmosphere  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for reducing chloroflurocarbon (CFC) refrigerant emissions during removal or transfer or refrigerants from a vapor compression cooling system or heat pump which comprises contacting the refrigerant with a suitable sorbent material. The sorbent material allows for the storage and retention or the chlorofluorocarbon in non-gaseous form so that it does not tend to escape to the atmosphere where it would cause harm by contributing to ozone depletion. In other aspects of the invention, contacting of CFC refrigerants with sorbent material allows for purification and recycling of used refrigerant, and a device containing stored sorbent material can be employed in the detection of refrigerant leakage in a cooling system or heat pump.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Fairchild, Phillip D. (Clinton, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Analysis and Simulation of Mechanical Trains Driven by Variable Frequency Drive Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Induction motors and Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) are widely used in industry to drive machinery trains. However, some mechanical trains driven by VFD-motor systems have encountered torsional vibration problems. This vibration can induce large...

Han, Xu

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

212

Process Options for Nominal 2-K Helium Refrigeration System Designs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems are frequently used for superconducting radio frequency and magnet string technologies used in accelerators. This paper examines the trade-offs and approximate performance of four basic types of processes used for the refrigeration of these technologies; direct vacuum pumping on a helium bath, direct vacuum pumping using full or partial refrigeration recovery, cold compression, and hybrid compression (i.e., a blend of cold and warm sub-atmospheric compression).

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

214

Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-4 Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory Chaoyi Tan Jianlong Liu Fennan Tang Yang Liu Hunan University of Technology... fiber ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-4 2. REFRIGERATION SYSTEM SUPERIOR DESIGN PROPOSAL IN MUCILAGE GLUE FIBER FACTORY 2.1 Refrigeration system superior design proposal in mucilage glue fiber factory...

Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

216

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

217

Compressor calorimeter performance of refrigerant blends: Comparative methods and results for a refrigerator/freezer application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A protocol was developed to define calorimeter operating pressures for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) which corresponded with the saturated evaporator and condenser temperatures commonly used for pure refrigerants. Compressor calorimeter results were obtained using this equivalent-mean-temperature (EMT) approach and a generally applied Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) procedure at conditions characteristic of a domestic refrigerator-freezer application. Tests with R-12 and two NARMs indicate that compressor volumetric and isentropic efficiencies are nearly the same for refrigerants with similar capacities and pressure ratios. The liquid-line temperature conditions specified in the AHAM calorimeter rating procedure for refrigerator-freezer compressors were found to preferentially derate NARM performance relative to R-12. Conversion of calorimeter data taken with a fixed liquid-line temperature to a uniform minimal level of condenser subcooling is recommended as a fairer procedure when NARMs are involved. Compressor energy-efficiency-ratio (EER) and capacity data measured as a result of the EMT approach were compared to system performance calculated using an equivalent-heat-exchanger-loading (EHXL) protocol based on a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) refrigerator-freezer modeling program. The EHXL protocol was used to transform the calorimeter results into a more relevant representation of potential L-M cycle performance. The EMT method used to set up the calorimeter tests and the AHAM liquid-line conditions combined to significantly understate the cycle potential of NARMs relative to that predicted at the more appropriate EHXL conditions. Compressor conditions representative of larger heat exchanger sizes were also found to give a smaller L-M cycle advantage relative to R-12.

Rice, C K; Sand, J R

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

Jardine, D.M.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

219

High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact space. Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially...

220

Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for Impact Evaluation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Focus...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The Department of Energy has issued one subpoena and two data requests to three companies in response to allegations that the companies are selling refrigerator-freezers that...

222

New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Solstice N40 offer supermarkets an easy solution to reduce their refrigeration system's electricity consumption, save energy, and cut greenhouse gas emissions. The Building...

223

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Supermarket refrigeration assessment for the New England Electric System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a project to assess the impact of energy efficient supermarket refrigeration on the electric capacity requirements of the New England Electric System (NEES) service territories. The leading supermarket chains in the NEES service territories were contacted and the number of supermarkets and the types of refrigeration systems employed were established. Estimates were then made of the potential demand and energy savings that NEES and the supermarkets could realize if energy efficient refrigeration systems were employed. On the basis of this analysis, possible incentives to accelerate the implementation of energy efficient refrigeration equipment in NEES service territories were recommended. 4 refs., 10 figs., 27 tabs.

Tsaros, T.L.; Walker, D.H. (Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the...

226

Polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants and refrigerant oils colored with fluorescent dyes and method for their use as leak detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A leak detectable refrigeration composition is described comprising: (A) a refrigeration liquid selection from the group consisting of: (1) a polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant; (2) a refrigeration oil selected from the group consisting of naphthenic oils, paraffinic oils, alkylated benzenes, silicones, polyglycols, diesters or triesters of dicarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids, and polyalkyl silicate oils, and (3) a mixture of A(1) and A(2), and (B) a fluorescent dye compound or composition comprising the dye selected from the group consisting of: (1) a fluorescent dye selected from the group consisting of perylene, naphthoxanthene, monocyclic aromatic compounds having an organometallic compound, (2) a solution of fluorescent dye in a solvent, and (3) a mixture of B(1) and B(2). The fluorescent dye compound or composition is soluble in the refrigeration liquid. The concentration of the dye being at least 0.001 grams per 100 grams of the refrigeration liquid.

Parekh, M.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

227

Reliability Design and Case Study of a Refrigerator Compressor Subjected to Repetitive Loads, International Journal of Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A newly designed crankshaft of a compressor for a side-by-side (SBS) refrigerator was studied. Using mass and energy conservation balances, a variety of compressor loads typically found in a refrigeration cycle were analyzed. The laboratory failure... vis-a┤-vis de la fiabilite┤ et e┤tude de casArticle history: Received 18 March 2008 Received in revised form 6 May 2008 Accepted 21 July 2008 Published online 31 July 2008 Keywords: Refrigeration system Compression system Reciprocating compressor...

Woo, S.; O'Neal, D.L.; Pecht, M.

228

Implementing Motor Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric motors account for sixty five percent of industrial energy consumed today. There are many opportunities to conserve electricity by using more energy efficient motors and drives. Proven technologies and practices can reduce energy...

Colip, R. L.

229

Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance degradation of R410A at higher temperatures was greater than R22. However, the R22 and R410A systems both operated normally during all tests. Visual observations of the R410A system provided no indication of vibrations or TXV hunting at high ambient outdoor test conditions with the compressor operating in the transcritical regime.

Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption refrigerator system Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: a direct expansion (DX) rack system with multiple refrigerated cases. The basic simulation software handles... interactions between the refrigerated cases and the...

231

E-Print Network 3.0 - adsorption refrigeration system Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: a direct expansion (DX) rack system with multiple refrigerated cases. The basic simulation software handles... interactions between the refrigerated cases and the...

232

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption refrigeration machines Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

refrigeration systems (2-3) htm systems (2-3) Thermo... ) Absorption: used more for air conditioning and for refrigeration- Absorption: used more for air conditioning... air...

233

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

each document... an individual study related to the interaction between refrigeration and air conditioning use, its environmental... , regarding refrigerant emission policy...

234

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption refrigerating machine Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

refrigeration systems (2-3) htm systems (2-3) Thermo... ) Absorption: used more for air conditioning and for refrigeration- Absorption: used more for air conditioning... air...

235

Cascade and secondary coolant supermarket refrigeration systems : modelling and new frost correlations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Nowadays traditional (direct expansion) supermarket refrigeration systems are mostly employed in supermarket establishments for refrigerating food products and beverages in the store. However, the installationsů (more)

Haile-Michael, Getu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

1991 & 1992 trade-in refrigerator metering project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under SMUD`s Equipment Efficiency Improvement Program the District offers an incentive of $100 to customers who trade in an older refrigerator in conjunction with the purchase of a new model. More than 40,000 refrigerators have been traded in this program as of January 1993. This program has provided 36.5% of the total reported savings from all SMUD`s conservation programs through April 1993. Of this 36.5% reported savings, 84.7% is attributed to the trading in of an old refrigerator for a new model, and only 15.3% to purchases of a new refrigerators without trading in their older model. In 1992 two laboratory studies were undertaken to quantify energy use of older, close to retirement, domestic residential refrigerators from participants in SMUD`s refrigerator trade-in program. One study focused on annual energy use from older model refrigerators received from this program, and the second study focused on potential energy savings from condenser coil cleaning from this same stock of refrigerators. To determine the performance of these refrigerators, a sample of 79 units was randomly selected for testing. Each unit was tested to obtain annual energy use (kWh/yr) and to document physical and operational conditions. A subset of 28 units from this sample was also tested to determine energy savings as a result of cleaning condenser coils. This was done by comparing test results of annual energy use before and after coil cleaning. These refrigerators were tested to the same conventional procedures (commonly called the {open_quotes}DOE{close_quotes} test, or AHAM test procedures) used to arrive at annual energy use labeled on all new refrigerators. Although laboratory results do not exactly replicate field (in-home) results, they have been found to still be a reasonably good predictor of energy use as reported in a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory study , discussed in the following section.

Bos, W.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Refrigeration Cycle 1 Refrigeration Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of refrigerators and heat pumps is expressed in terms of coefficient of performance (COP): innet H HP innet L R W Q specified temperature levels. It sets the highest theoretical COP. The coefficient of performance for Carnot Evaporator QH Expansion valve h4 = h3 Compressor 3 2 1 4 Superheated vapor Saturated vapor Saturated liquid

Bahrami, Majid

238

1st TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Adsorption Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Adsorption refrigerators and heat pumps These machines ADsorb cycles for: Heat pumps Refrigerators Air conditioning Driven by heat from: Fossil fuels Bio fuels Waste of concept forced convection adsorption machine [#1] ┬Ě Generating temperature 225┬░ C ┬Ě Heat rejection

Davies, Christopher

239

NBSIFI 86-3373 Impact of Refrigerant Property  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of performance prediction to refrigerant properties for a residential, split heat pump operating in the cooling mode. The NBS steady-state heat pump model, HPSIM, was used in this study. The individual influence and refrigerant mass flow rate are also given in the report. iii #12;Discrepancy between heat pump laboratory test

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

240

Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd.sub.0.54 Er.sub.0.46)AlNi alloys having a relatively constant .DELTA.Tmc over a wide temperature range.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

Control of Refrigeration Systems for Trade-off between Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control of Refrigeration Systems for Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss Ph and Technology (DMST) under Grant: 2002-603/4001-93. CMBC consists of seven industrial companies, three academic of the three academic partners in the center. The refrigeration research activities within CMBC were initiated

Skogestad, Sigurd

243

Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems with EnergyPlus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supermarket refrigeration capabilities were first added to EnergyPlus in 2004. At that time, it was possible to model a direct expansion (DX) rack system with multiple refrigerated cases. The basic simulation software handles all the building energy uses, typically on a 5 to 10 minute time step throughout the period of interest. The original refrigeration module included the ability to model the sensible and latent interactions between the refrigerated cases and the building HVAC system, along with some basic heat recovery capabilities. Over the last few years, the refrigeration module has been expanded to handle more complex systems, such as secondary loops, shared condensers, cascade condensers, subcoolers, and walk-in coolers exchanging energy with multiple conditioned zones.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Replacing Motors Counting Savings: Results from a 100 Motor Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPLACING MOTORS, COUNTING SAVINGS: RESULTS FROM A 100 MOTOR STUDY Nicole M. Kaufman Motor Systems Engineer Advanced Energy Raleigh, NC ABSTRACT Software tools such as MotorMaster+ aid facility personnel in conducting payback... analyses for replacing motors. These tools make assumptions on the motorsĺ operational efficiency in their calculations. By observing 100 pre-EPCA (Energy Policy & Conservation Act) motors in operation, removing them from service and conducting IEEE...

Kaufman, N. M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training Date | 2Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training #12;Date | 2Refrigeration operating pressure (MOP) 5. De-humidifying (Te control) 6. Defrost funtions 7. Loss of charge detection (LOC control) 6. Defrost funtions 7. Loss of charge detection (LOC) 8. Bleed function 9. Sensor placement tips

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

247

Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 1: Refrigerant Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of measuring thermodynamic properties R125, R410A and R507A, measuring viscosity and thermal conductivity of R410A and R507A and comparing data to mixture models in NIST REFPROP database. For R125, isochoric (constant volume) heat capacity was measured over a temperature range of 305 to 397 K (32 to 124 C) at pressures up to 20 MPa. For R410A, isochoric heat capacity was measured along 8 isochores with a temperature range of 303 to 397 K (30 to 124 C) at pressures up to 18 MPa. Pressure-density-temperature was also measured along 14 isochores over a temperature range of 200 to 400 K (-73 to 127 C) at pressures up to 35 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. For R507A, viscosity was measured along 5 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 421 K (28 to 148 C) at pressures up to 83 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. Mixture models were developed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures containing R32, R125, R134a and/or R125. The form of the model is the same for all the blends considered, but blend-specific mixing functions are required for the blends R32/125 (R410 blends) and R32/134a (a constituent binary of R407 blends). The systems R125/134a, R125/143a, R134a/143a, and R134a/152a share a common, generalized mixing function. The new equation of state for R125 is believed to be the most accurate and comprehensive formulation of the properties for that fluid. Likewise, the mixture model developed in this work is the latest state-of-the-art for thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant blends. These models were incorporated into version 7 of NIST REFPROP database.

Mark O. McLinden; Arno Laesecke; Eric W. Lemmon; Joseph W. Magee; Richard A. Perkins

2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

248

An Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.

Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Product Refrigerator Freezer Fresh, in shell 4 to 5 weeks Don't freeze  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Product Refrigerator Freezer Eggs Fresh, in shell 4 to 5 weeks Don't freeze Raw yolks, whites 2 recommended storage times are for quality only. Refrigerator & Freezer Storage Chart Product Refrigerator, opened 3 days Don't freeze unopened 10 days 1 year Mayonnaise, commercial Refrigerate after opening 2

Burke, Peter

250

Effect of parasitic refrigeration on the efficiency of magnetic liquefiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our studies have shown that magnetic refrigerators have the potential to liquefy cryogens very efficiently. High efficiency is especially important for liquid hydrogen and natural gas applications where the liquefaction costs are a significant fraction of the total liquid cost. One of the characteristics of magnetic refrigerators is the requirement for a high-field superconducting magnet. Providing a 4.2-K bath for this magnet will require a small amount of parasitic refrigeration at 4.2 K even though the rest of the liquefier may be at 110 K (liquid natural gas) or higher. For several different refrigeration power levels at 4.2 K, we have calculated the efficiency of the magnetic liquefier as a function of power, temperature and the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency. The results show that if the ratio of the thermal load at 4.2 K to the main refrigerator power is 0.001 or less, the effect on the efficiency of the liquefier is negligible at all temperatures below room temperature provided the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency is high.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Zha, Shitong [Hillphoenix] [Hillphoenix

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Combined refrigeration system with a liquid pre-cooling heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vapor-compression refrigeration system. A liquid pump is coupled with a second portion of the shaft for receiving liquid refrigerant having a first pressure and for discharging the received liquid refrigerant at a second pressure with the second pressure being higher than the first pressure by a predetermined amount such that the discharged liquid refrigerant is subcooled. A pre-cooling circuit is connected to the liquid pump with the pre-cooling circuit being exposed to the gaseous refrigerant whereby the gaseous refrigerant absorbs heat from the liquid refrigerant, prior to the liquid refrigerant entering the liquid pump.

Gaul, Christopher J.

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Hybrid vehicle motor alignment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

2001-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

254

New energy test procedures for refrigerators and other appliances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many innovations in refrigerator design rely on microprocessors, sensors, and algorithms to control automatic defrost, variable speed,and other features. Even though these features strongly influence energy consumption, the major energy test procedures presently test only a refrigerator's mechanical efficiency and ignore the ''software'' aspects. We describe a new test procedure where both ''hardware'' and ''software'' tests are fed into a dynamic simulation model. A wide range of conditions can be tested and simulated. This approach promotes international harmonization because the simulation model can also be programmed to estimate energy use for the ISO, DOE, or JIS test. The approach outlined for refrigerators can also be applied to other appliances.

Meier, Alan; Ernebrant, Stefan; Kawamoto, Kaoru; Wihlborg, Mats

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

Lubell, M.S.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

256

Refrigerator with a clearance seal compressor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a Stirling refrigeration system in which a displacer is driven in a reciprocating motion within a cold finger by a pressure differential between helium gas in the cold finger and helium gas in a gas spring volume, the reciprocating piston compressor for the working volume has a clearance seal between the working volume and a control volume. The only lubricant in that seal is the helium gas. The mean pressure of the working volume relative to the control volume can be controlled by varying the length of the clearance seal throughout the stroke of the piston. Preferably, the seal is between alumina ceramic sleeves. The clearance seal compressor may also be used in a Gifford-McMahon cycle.

Holland, N. J.

1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

257

Comprehensive Compressor Calorimeter Testing of Lower-GWP Alternative Refrigerants for Heat Pump and Medium Temperature Refrigeration Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. This paper reports one of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributions to AREP. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants to that of R-410A and R-404A for heat pump and medium temperature applications, respectively. The alternatives reported in this paper are: R-32, DR-5, and L-41a for R-410A and ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and a mixture of R-32 and R-134a for R-404A. All performance comparison tests were conducted using scroll compressors of ~1.85 tons (6.5 kW) cooling capacity. Tests were conducted over a range of combinations of saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures for both compressors. The tests showed that, in general, energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of R-410A alternative refrigerants were slightly lower than that of the baseline refrigerant with a moderate increases in discharge temperature. On the other hand, R-404A alternative refrigerants showed relative performance dependence on saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures and larger increases in discharge temperature than for the R-410A alternatives. This paper summarizes the relative performance of all alternative refrigerants compared to their respective baseline.

Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective Outline the procedure for obtaining motor vehicle record (MVR) through Fleet Services. Vehicle Operator Policy 3. Operators with 7 or more points on their motor vehicle record

Kirschner, Denise

259

Availability of refrigerants for heat pumps in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

grids Smart cities #12;8 Residential HPs Refrigerants Use of aero-geo- +hydrothermal renewable energy cooling and heating Residential Future: Heating of electric cars and cooling the batteries Future: Smart

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

260

Applications Tests of Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

development efforts for Ikon« C, an energy efficient R-22 replacement, will also be described. The Ikon« refrigerants are nonflammable, non-ozone-depleting, have low global warming, relatively low toxicity, are thermally stable, and are compatible with most...

Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; McCullough, E.; Dhooge, P.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Reliability of Heat Pumps Containing R410-A Refrigerant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on alternate refrigerants. One major manufacturer announced a formation of black smudge on internal surfaces of field trial units using HFCs. Several causes were suggested but none were published. Reports of capillary tube plugging were wide spread. Polyol...

McJimsey, B. A.; Cawley, D.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

absorption refrigeration system: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L. 12 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

263

absorption refrigeration systems: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L. 12 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

264

Supermarket refrigeration modeling and field demonstration: Interim report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a project to investigate supermarket refrigeration. The objectives of this project are (1) to develop an energy use and demand model of supermarket refrigeration systems and (2) to carry out an extensive field test of such systems in an operating supermarket. To accomplish these goals, a supermarket owned by Safeway Stores, Inc., and located in Menlo Park, CA, with an existing conventional refrigeration system utilizing single compressor units, was equipped with a state-of-the-art system with multiplexed parallel compressors. The store and both refrigeration systems were thoroughly instrumented and a test schedule was prepared and executed. Presented in this report are the preliminary results of this field test along with the initial validation of the energy use and demand model. 62 figs., 47 tabs.

Walker, D.H.; Deming, G.I.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

266

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

267

Commercial Refrigerator Door: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5351)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

268

Optimal Sequencing of Central Refrigeration Equipment in an Industrial Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model was developed to find a viable solution to the problem of selecting the optimal sequence of refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in a Central Utility Plant. The optimal equipment sequence is that sequence...

Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Design and construction of the astronautics refrigerator magnet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports on the design, construction, and testing of a 7-Tesla, 4-in. bore superconducting magnet for use in the Astronautics Refrigerator Experiment. The magnet is a single-strand, layer-wound, potted solenoid wound with Formvar-insulated SSC strands. The magnet was constructed by American Magnetics, Inc. of Oak Ridge and has been installed in the Astronautics Refrigerator Experiment at the Astronautics Technology Center in Madison, Wisconsin.

Dresner, L.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Improving the energy efficiency of refrigerators in India  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Five state-of-the-art, production refrigerators from different manufacturers in India were subjected to a variety of appliance rating and performance evaluation test procedures in an engineering laboratory. Cabinet heat loss, compressor calorimeter, high-ambient pull-down, and closed-door energy consumption tests were performed on each unit to assess the current status of commercially available Indian refrigerators and refrigerator component efficiencies. Daily energy consumption tests were performed at nominal line voltages and at 85% and 115% of nominal voltage to assess the effect of grid voltage variations. These test results were also used to indicate opportunities for effective improvements in energy efficiency. A widely distributed ``generic`` computer model capable of simulating single-door refrigerators with a small interior freezer section was used to estimate cabinet heat loss rates and closed door energy consumption values from basic cabinet and refrigeration circuit inputs. This work helped verify the model`s accuracy and potential value as a tool for evaluating the energy impact of proposed design options. Significant differences ranging from 30 to 90% were seen in the measured performance criterion for these ``comparable`` refrigerators suggesting opportunities for improvements in individual product designs. Modeled cabinet heat loadings differed from experimentally extrapolated values in a range from 2--29%, and daily energy consumption values estimated by the model differed from laboratory data by as little as 3% or as much as 25%, which indicates that refinement of the model may be needed for this single-door refrigerator type. Additional comparisons of experimentally measured performance criteria such as % compressor run times and compressor cycling rates to modeled results are given. The computer model is used to evaluate the energy saving impact of several modest changes to the basic Indian refrigerator design.

Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H. [Consulting Engineer, Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants. [Foreign Trip Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Refrigerator design for the ambulatory and wheelchair-using elderly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of limitations snd their higher degree of dependence on products. An important arse in product design which has seldom been considered is that of kitchen appliances, and, more specifically, rafr igerators. Refrigerator design has changed little in the last... For the elderly or disabled is a relatively unexplored ares. The present research is an attempt to rectify this neglect. LITERATURE REVIEW Ther s is a striking lack of information in the literature specifically concerned with refrigerators. Those few studies...

Mills, Mary Sue

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Demand Side Management (DSM) Through Absorption Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT (DSM) TIIROUGH ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS Peter Y. Chao, PhD, Deepak Shukla, PhD, Sr. Process Engineers, TENSA Services, Inc. Ammi Amarnath, Sr. Project Manager, Electrical Power Research Institute Ed. Mergens.... They are Peak Clipping, Valley filling, Load Shifting, Strategic Conservation, Strategic Load Growth, and Flexible Load Shaping. Absorption Refrigeration from waste heat offers a viable option for DSM. This will either reduce the peak load (peak clipping...

Chao, P. Y.; Shukla, D.; Amarnath, A.; Mergens, E.

274

A review of lubrication and preformance issues in refrigeration systems using an HFC (R-134a) refrigerant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been considered critical for refrigerant and compressor lubricant to be miscible with each other over part of the range of operating conditions of refrigerant systems. Adequate miscibility, many believe, provides oil return to the compressor. Presently, synthetic polyol esters have been selected for use with HFC refrigerants, such as R-134a, which are considered appropriate alternatives to CFCs. The authors will review the mechanical issues in miscible vs non-miscible naphthenic hydrocarbon oil-based lubricants. Extensive lab, test stand and cabinet testing has been conducted and data will be presented which show responsible and predictable performance based on the chemical and physical properties of the lubricant and refrigerant. Many non-miscible systems show satisfactory performance with the proper selection of lubricant, additives and mechanical configuration. 3 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Reyes-Gavilan, J.; Eckard, A.; Flak, T.; Tritak, T. [Witco Corporation, Oakland, NJ (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-10-4 Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigerating System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption... in order to lay a theoretical foundation of improving the performance of whole LBAC. 2. THE PRINCIPLE OF ENHANCING ABSORPTION EFFICIENCY OF THE ABSORBER It is well known that the absorption of ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC...

Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Iowa Community College Campuses Reduce Energy Use | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Baethke and his staff are currently undertaking is the installation of variable frequency drives (VFDs) and high efficiency motors in the HVAC systems on many of the campuses. By...

278

System and method for motor parameter estimation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

279

Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

Spauschus, Hans O. (Stockbridge, GA); Starr, Thomas L. (Roswell, GA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Combination cooler and freezer for refrigerating containers and food in outer space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A refrigeration apparatus for cooling containers and food in the microgravity conditions of outer space is described comprising: (a) a housing defining a refrigeration compartment for supporting the containers in a container storage area and food in a refrigerated food storage area, and freezer compartment; (b) cold plate means within the refrigeration compartment for cooling the containers and food by conduction; (c) thermoelectric refrigeration means for maintaining the cold plates at temperatures which cool the contents of the refrigeration compartment, and the freezer compartment.

Rudick, A.G.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Performance of HCFC22 alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, 14 refrigerant mixtures composed of R32, R125, R134a, R152a, R290(Propane) and R1270(Propylene) were tested in a breadboard heat pump in an attempt to replace R22 used in residential air-conditioners. The test heat pump was of 1 ton capacity with water as the secondary heat transfer fluids. All tests were conducted under ARI test A condition. Test results how that ternary mixtures composed of R32, R125, and R134a have 4 {approximately} 5% higher coefficient of performance(COP) and capacity than R22. Hence they seem to be promising alternatives for R22. On the other hand, ternary mixtures containing R125, R134a, and R152a have lower COPs and capacities than R22. R290/R134 azeotrope also shows 3--4% increases in COP and capacity. The compressor discharge and dome temperatures of all the mixtures tested are lower than those of R22 by 15.9--34.7 C and 5.5--14.3 C respectively, indicating that these mixtures would offer better system reliability and longer life time than R22. Finally, the test results with a suction line heat exchanger (SLHX) indicated that SLHX must be used with special care in air-conditioners since its effect is fluid dependent.

Jung, D.; Kim, C.B.; Song, Y.J.; Park, B.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

The development of a proff of principle superfluid Joule-Thomson refrigerator for cooling below 1 Kelvin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new type of sub-Kelvin refrigerator, the superfluid Joule-Thomson refrigerator, has been developed and its performance has been experimentally verified. This refrigerator uses a liquid superfluid mixture of He and 4He ...

Miller, Franklin K., 1970-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Justification for Energy Efficient Motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents the results of a study of Energy Efficient (or EE) motors in NEMA frame sizes, (1-200 HP). It examines the economics of using EE motors for new motor requirements, as replacements for motors - instead of rewinding...

Buschart, R. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Energy Efficient Motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficiency is only one aspect of motor performance. This paper discusses how efficiency is influenced by such factors as horsepower rating, poles, actual load, and starting requirements. It discusses some of the variables affecting efficiency...

Hoffmeyer, W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

MotorWeek  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

286

Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Environmental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 through 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy-efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act. The EA presents the associated environmental impacts from four energy conservation standards for this type of household appliance. For purposes of this EA, each standard is an alternative action and is compared to what is expected to happen if no new standards for this type of product were finalized, i.e., the no action alternative. Of the four energy conservation standard levels considered, standard level 4 has the highest level of energy efficiency and the largest environmental impact. The proposed action implementing Standard Level 1 would have the least environmental impacts, through emission reductions, of the four alternatives. The description of the standards results from the appliance energy-efficiency analyses conducted for the rulemaking. The presentation of environmental impacts for each of the alternatives appears at Section 3 of the EA.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Markov Process of Muscle Motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study a Markov random process describing a muscle molecular motor behavior. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spend an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at its velocity proportional to average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays at the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a non-linear equation appearing in the limit of infinite number of the motors.

Yu. Kondratiev; E. Pechersky; S. Pirogov

2007-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

288

Development of energy-efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application of advanced techniques in engineering simulation and economic analysis for the development of efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators is illustrated in this paper. A key feature of this methodology is refrigerator simulation to generate energy savings for a set of energy-efficient design options and life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis with these design options. The LCC of a refrigerator is analyzed as a function of five variables: nominal discount rate, fuel price, appliance lifetime, incremental price, and incremental energy savings. The frequency of occurrence of the LCC minimum at any design option indicates the optimum efficiency level or range. Studies carried out in the US and European Economic Community show that the location of the LCC minimum under different scenarios (e.g., variable fuel price, life-time, discount rate, and incremental price) is quite stable. Thus, an efficiency standard can be developed based on the efficiency value at the LCC minimum. This paper examines and uses this methodology in developing efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators. The potential efficiency standard value is indicated to be 0.65 kWh/day for a 165-liter, CFC-based, manual defrost, single-door refrigerator-freezer.

Bhatia, P.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Control of household refrigerators. Part 1: Modeling temperature control performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial household refrigerators use simple, cost-effective, temperature controllers to obtain acceptable control. A manually adjusted airflow damper regulates the freezer compartment temperature while a thermostat controls operation of the compressor and evaporator fan to regulate refrigerator compartment temperature. Dual compartment temperature control can be achieved with automatic airflow dampers that function independently of the compressor and evaporator fan thermostat, resulting in improved temperature control quality and energy consumption. Under dual control, freezer temperature is controlled by the thermostat while the damper controls refrigerator temperature by regulating airflow circulation. A simulation model is presented that analyzes a household refrigerator configured with a conventional thermostat and both manual and automatic dampers. The model provides a new paradigm for investigating refrigerator systems and temperature control performance relative to the extensive verification testing that is typically done by manufacturers. The effects of each type of control and damper configuration are compared with respect to energy usage, control quality, and ambient temperature shift criteria. The results indicate that the appropriate control configuration can have significant effects and can improve plant performance.

Graviss, K.J.; Collins, R.L.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Energy performance listings: Residential refrigerator/freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Performance Listings series provides comparative information across manufacturers on products. The Refrigerator/Freezers Listings include more than 2900 models that meet or exceed federal standards contained in the Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products. Information on model energy efficiency levels, performance characteristics, and manufacturer names permits easy selection of top-performing equipment. Each Energy Performance Listing includes an introductory section, two sections of model listings, and an appendix with manufacturer contacts. The first model-listing section presents information in descending order of efficiency for all manufacturers. These efficiency-ordered listings also include banners or symbols to identify voluntary efficiency thresholds for U.S. DOE/U.S. EPA`s Energy Star Program and U.S. DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Products listed above each banner meet or exceed the efficiency level established by the Energy Star program. All models noted with the symbol meet or exceed FEMP levels. With these listings, users can quickly identify the most efficient product in a particular size range, identify products that meet the efficiency criteria of a specific program, or determine an efficiency threshold that will include a specific number of manufacturers. The second section of model listings presents products grouped by manufacturer and catalog number, allowing users to quickly find and identify performance information on specific models. Energy Performance Listings are tools that support purchasing and procurement by federal, state, and local governments and others, including utility companies, energy interest groups, and research organizations. The listings may be used for program design and planning purposes, equipment selection, specification, and purchasing decisions. The listings are a product of the Energy-Efficient Procurement Collaborative, Inc. and are available through NYSERDA.

NONE

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use of vapor compression system configurations including multi-functional integrated heat pumps, multi

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

292

Next Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants R&D...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

accelerate the transition to low-GWP refrigerants across the entire heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry. The schedule of R&D activities...

293

Modeling the effects of Refrigerant Charging on Air Conditioner Performance Characteristics For Three Expansion Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental and analytical study concerned with the off-design refrigerant charging of air conditioners is presented. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of refrigerant charge and type of expansion device...

Farzad, Mohsen

294

Application Availability of Insulation Heat of the Terrace in a Rebuilt Refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dealing with the terrace in rebuilt refrigerators influences the performance characteristics, performance safety and construction costs. This paper researches the heat transfer of the terrace of the rebuilt refrigerator by the numerical method...

Qu, C.; Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption refrigeration cycle Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Content Distribution Psy Press Titles Summary: applications, including absorption refrigeration, air liquefaction, automotive 973 Downloaded... optimization of vapor...

296

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to investigate the film formation properties of refrigeration lubricants using the ultrathin film elastohydrodynamic (EHD) interferometry technique and to study the effects of refrigerants on film formation. Film thickness measurements were conducted as a function of lubricant viscosity, speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. Based on the EHD film thickness data, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated for the test fluids at different temperatures and the effects of refrigerants on pressure-viscosity properties were investigated.

Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Effects of refrigeration in a transportable cryogenic aerospace application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary feasibility studies, based on refrigeration thermodynamics, have been conducted for candidate power conditioning components in a 1MWe terrestrial/transportable cryogenic power system. The cryogenic power system being considered has a super conducting generator for high power applications such as the power source for a Ground Based Radar (GBR) System. While the superconducting generator operates at 77K or lower, the present analysis indicates that significant benefits cannot be derived by cooling the various components of the power conditioning system to such low temperatures. It was found that, by operating the power conditioning component at 150K instead of at 77K the overall system efficiency was not jeopardized by way of large input power requirements to dissipate small refrigerator loads. This is an acute problem as current cryogenic refrigeration systems allow for very low levels of energy dissipation while performing at about 7 to 10% of the Carnot coefficients of performance (COP) between 300K and 77K.

Donovan, B.D.; Mahefkey, T. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Ramalingam, M.L. [UES, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

298

Frost sensor for use in defrost controls for refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for measuring the total thermal resistance to heat flow from the air to the evaporative cooler fins of a refrigeration system. The apparatus is a frost sensor that measures the reduction in heat flow due to the added thermal resistance of ice (reduced conduction) as well as the reduction in heat flow due to the blockage of airflow (reduced convection) from excessive ice formation. The sensor triggers a defrost cycle when needed, instead of on a timed interval. The invention is also a method for control of frost in a system that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant along a thermal path. The method involves measuring the thermal conductivity of the thermal path from the air to the refrigerant, recognizing a reduction in thermal conductivity due to the thermal insulation effect of the frost and due to the loss of airflow from excessive ice formation; and controlling the defrosting of the system.

French, Patrick D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Butz, James R. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Veatch, Bradley D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); O'Connor, Michael W. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

Goli, Sasank; McKane, Aimee; Olsen, Daniel

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

300

MotorMaster+ International | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of the capabilities and features of MotorMaster+. However, users can evaluate repairreplacement options on a broader range of motors, including 60 hertz (Hz) motors tested under...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

SYMPOSIUM PAPER TC7.1 -DOMESTIC REFRIGERATORS AND FOOD FREEZERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;SYMPOSIUM PAPER FOR TC7.1 - DOMESTIC REFRIGERATORS AND FOOD FREEZERS THE ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURE OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER by Raymond H. Bohman, P.E. Robert REFRIGERATOR - FREEZER 1. INTRODUCTION This paper describes the engineering effort and method of manufacture

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

302

Refrigerated Warehouses Introduction Page 8-1 2008 Nonresidential Compliance Manual August 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, including both coolers and freezers. Coolers are defined as refrigerated spaces cooled between 32┬░F (0┬░C) and 55┬░F (13┬░C). Freezers are #12;Page 8-2 Refrigerated Warehouses ┬ş Introduction 2008 Nonresidential Efficiency Standards do not address walk-in refrigerators and freezers, as these are covered by the Appliance

303

Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System J. Cai and J- tion of commercial refrigeration system, featuring balanced system energy consumption and food quality energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient condition, in a supermarket refrigeration

Skogestad, Sigurd

304

Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Paper No. 206 IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants, Delft, The Netherlands, 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

outside the buildings for devices having the refrigerant charge of small heat pumps for space heatingPaper No. 206 10th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants, Delft, The Netherlands by subcooling of the refrigerant in the cold water tank (not used for cooling during winter). The water tank

Paris-Sud XI, Universit├ę de

306

RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, indirect refrigeration systems renews interest as they enable to notably reduce the use of environmental the refrigeration applications to the air-conditioning systems. However, this kind of process only remainsRHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING. Myl├Ęne

Boyer, Edmond

307

Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 64 44.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 64 44.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN of the simulation model for the two-stage refrigeration system is presented. The model is based on the mathematical, it is #12;Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 65 translated into FORTRAN or C

Skogestad, Sigurd

308

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77 K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.; Henke, M.D.; Kalash, K.E.

1986-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

309

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

Barclay, John A. (Madison, WI); Stewart, Walter F. (Marshall, WI); Henke, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kalash, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

New compressor systems seen paring refrigeration costs 15%  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Manufacturers claim that a parallel arrangement of three to five compressors of varying capacities can lower a store's refrigerating costs over 15%. The energy savings come from the more-precise matching of compressor capacity with refrigeration demand. The 500 stores that have installed uneven compressor systems are achieving a payback in under a year. Because it is important for controls to match a system for maximum efficiency, manufacturers are introducing tailor-made microprocessor controllers. A table summarizes three supermarket case histories. (DCK)

Barber, J.

1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

311

Supermarket with Ground Coupled Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

refrigeration remains the last big subsector and the strongest emission source of the fluorinated hydrocarbons (HFC) in Germany? - Kauffeld [4] About 65 % of the cooling needs in Germany for frozen and refrigerated food products ? over 50.000 GWh.../a [2] In 2011, 72.4 % of the sales share of food retail industry realized in discounters and supermarkets in Germany [1] Supermarket: ? 600 ? 2.000 kWh/m2.a (PE) [3] Normal building: 200 ? 400 kWh/m2.a (PE) [4] [1] EHI retail institute 2012...

Rehault, N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Bent shaft motor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

Benavides, G.L.

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

313

Bent shaft motor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

Haynes, Howard D. (Kingston, TN); Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Movement is fundamental to life. It takes place even at the cellular level where cargo is continually being transported...

316

Design and prototyping methods for brushless motors and motor control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this report, simple, low-cost design and prototyping methods for custom brushless permanent magnet synchronous motors are explored. Three case-study motors are used to develop, illustrate and validate the methods. Two ...

Colton, Shane W. (Shane William)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Evaluation of ozone-friendly hydrofluoropropane-based zeotropic refrigerant mixtures in a Lorenz-Meutzner refrigerator/freezer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of the Lorenz-Meutzner refrigerator/freezer has two evaporators (located in the freezer and fresh food compartments), which makes it a leading candidate for use of zeotropic refrigerant mixtures. Zeotropic mixtures can have significant temperature glides during evaporation and condensation. Performance of the zeotropic mixture can be maximized in the LM design by permitting the lower end of the temperature glide to occur in the freezer compartment evaporator and the higher end in the fresh food compartment evaporator. Several hydrofluoropropane-based zeotropes (e.g., R-227 ea/R-245ca) have been shown through steady-state modeling to outperform R-134a by up to 15%. Results from previous testing of this refrigerator/freezer using R-32/R-124 (zeotropic mixture) were published in an ASHRAE paper (Sand et al. 1993). Their results showed performance gains of approximately 3% over R-12. In the study presented in this paper, the Lorenz-Meutzner refrigerator/freezer having two evaporators and two intercoolers was experimentally tested in an environmental chamber according to Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers/Department of Energy (AHAM/DOE) testing standards using several hydrofluoropropane-based zeotropic mixtures. The results are compared to baseline testing with R-134a. The R-245ca/R-134a and R-245ca/R-152a mixtures performed comparably to R-134a. R-245ca/R-270 outperformed all zeotropic mixtures and R-134a by at least 16%. Also, a refrigerant sampling loop is added to determine the running composition of the mixture and its effects on the performance of the refrigerator/freezer.

Baskin, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Bayoglu, E.S.; Delafield, F.R. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Efficient, Inexpensive Motors: A New Trend in The Motors Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFICIENT, INEXPENSIVE MOTORS: A NEW TREND IN THE MOTORS MARKET Ronald G. Wroblewski, P.E. Trainer and Consultant ABSTRACT The Consortiwn for Energy Efficiency (CEE) has established criteria for premium-efficiency motors above the EPACf... standard. CEE has set a wrifonn efficiency benchmark that all market players (manufacturers, utilities, and end-users) can use. Some end-users however, have been reluctant to specify these motors because they think they are too expensive...

Wroblewksi, R. G.

319

2014-07-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule Correction  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule correction regarding test procedures for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on July 10, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

320

Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques.

Kueck, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Otaduy, Pedro J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

322

Electric motor model repair specifications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Evaluating High Efficiency Motor Retrofit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the petrochemical and refining Industries, and most manufacturing plants, the reliable operation of AC motors always has been crucial to the continuous operation of the process. Now, the cost of operating these motors has also become a...

Evans, T. A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants Paul BYRNE and to install heat pumps in unoccupied spaces. Nevertheless manufacturers keep working on components for hydrocarbons. In the frame of a research project on heat pumps for simultaneous heating and cooling, an R407C

Paris-Sud XI, Universit├ę de

325

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator Amikam Levy and Ronnie Kosloff  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 07.20.Pe,05.30.-d I. INTRODUCTION The adsorption chiller is a refrigerator which employs a heat source to replace mechanical work for driving a heat pump [1]. The first device was developed in 1850 c J h P Tc Th Tw - - - 0 FIG. 1: The quantum trickle: A quantum heat pump des- ignated

Kosloff, Ronnie

326

Dry dilution refrigerator with 4He-1K-loop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article we summarize experimental work on cryogen-free 3He/4He dilution refrigerators which, in addition to the dilution refrigeration circuit, are equipped with a 4He-1K-stage. This type of DR becomes worth considering when high cooling capacities are needed at T ~ 1 K to cool cold amplifiers and heat sink cables. In our application, the motivation for the construction of this type of cryostat was to do experiments on superconducting quantum circuits for quantum information technology and quantum simulations. In other work, DRs with 1K-stage were proposed for astro-physical cryostats. For neutron scattering research, a top-loading cryogen-free DR with 1K-stage was built which was equipped with a standard commercial dilution refrigeration insert. Cooling powers of up to 100 mW have been reached with our 1K-stage, but higher refrigeration powers were achieved with more powerful pulse tube cryocoolers and higher 4He circulation rates in the 1K-loop. Several different versions of a 1K-loop have been test...

Uhlig, Kurt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the assumed electrical energy cost is $0.04 per kWh.cost (the cost is given in US$ per kWh at 80.4┬░K) andThe cost of nitrogen refrigeration given in $ per kWh at

green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

445 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator Onrawee Laguerre UMR G├ęnie Industriel........................................................................447 16.2.2 Heat Transfer and Airflow Near a Vertical Plate..................................................448 16.2.3 Heat Transfer and Airflow in Empty Closed Cavity

Paris-Sud XI, Universit├ę de

329

Procurement and commissioning of the CHL refrigerator at CEBAF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CEBAF Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) provides 2K refrigeration to the 338 superconducting niobium cavities in two 400 MeV linacs and one 45 MeV injector. The CHL consists of three first stage and three second stage compressors, a 4.5K cold box, a 2K cold box, liquid and gaseous helium storage, liquid nitrogen storage, and transfer lines. Figure 1 presents a block diagram of the CHL refrigerator. The system was designed to provide 4.8 kW of primary refrigeration at 2K, 12 kW of shield refrigeration at 45K for the linac cryomodules, and 10 g/s of liquid flow for the end stations. In April 1994, stable 2K operation of the previously uncommissioned cold compressors was achieved. The cold compressors are a cold vacuum pump with an inlet temperature of circa 3.0K. These compressors operate on magnetic bearing,s and therefore eliminate the possibility of contamination due to any air leaks into the system. Operational data and commissioning experience as they relate to the warm gaseous helium compressors, turbines, instrumentation and control, and the cold compressors are presented.

Chronis, W.C.; Arenius, D.M.; Bevins, B.S.; Ganni, V.; Kashy, D.H.; Keesee, M.M.; Reid, T.R.; Wilson, J.D.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Simulating effects of multispeed compressors on refrigerator/freezer performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulation analyses suggest that a multispeed compressor could increase steady-state operating efficiency by 4% to 14%. An additional 0.5% to 4% energy savings might be obtained from the reduction in the cycling frequency of the refrigerator. Several aspects of the robustness of the capillary tube-suction line heat exchanger design for the two-speed compressor system were also examined with the simulation model. It was shown that a system optimized for low-speed operation, when operating at the high speed, could have as much capacity as the original base case high-speed system. A relatively simple control strategy was proposed, one that requires measurement of on-cycle time and one or two compartment air temperatures. The effects of varying the speed of the evaporator or condenser fans at both compressor speeds were examined over a range of ambient temperatures. One energy-saving scenario was identified: decreasing the condenser fan speed for refrigerators operating at low ambient temperatures. By affecting the distribution of refrigerant change throughout the system, the decrease in condenser fan speed reduces the superheat in the evaporator and increases the overall UA of the evaporator. The resulting increase in evaporator capacity more than offsets the decrease in condenser UA and the energy use of the refrigerator is decreased.

Woodall, R.J. [International Paper Technology, Mobile, AL (United States); Bullard, C.W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Analysis of household refrigerators for different testing standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study highlights the salient differences among various testing standards for household refrigerator-freezers and proposes a methodology for predicting the performance of a single evaporator-based vapor-compression refrigeration system (either refrigerator or freezer) from one test standard (where the test data are available-the reference case) to another (the alternative case). The standards studied during this investigation include the Australian-New Zealand Standard (ANZS), the International Standard (ISO), the American National Standard (ANSI), the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), and the Chinese National Standard (CNS). A simple analysis in conjunction with the BICYCLE model (Bansal and Rice 1993) is used to calculate the energy consumption of two refrigerator cabinets from the reference case to the alternative cases. The proposed analysis includes the effect of door openings (as required by the JIS) as well as defrost heaters. The analytical results are found to agree reasonably well with the experimental observations for translating energy consumption information from one standard to another.

Bansal, P.K. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; McGill, I. [Fischer and Paykel Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1 Leon Reznik and Shane Spiteri School of Communications and Informatics Victoria University PO Box 14428, Melbourne City MC VIC 8001 2-5, 2001 Abstract. The paper describes the development of a smart embedded fuzzy system for reefer

Reznik, Leon

333

TEMPERATURE PREDICTION IN DOMESTIC REFRIGERATOR: DETERMINIST AND STOCHASTIC APPROACHES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the calculation of air and load temperatures. An analysis of the predicted temperatures was undertaken temperature and thermostat setting, on air and load temperatures in non ventilated domestic refrigerator was studied. A simplified steady state heat transfer model was developed which takes into account heat

Paris-Sud XI, Universit├ę de

334

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-4837E Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Sasank thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto- DR) due

335

HANDLING FRESH FISH REFRIGERATION OF FISH -PART 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Fishery Leaflet 427) Cold-Storage Design and Refrigeration Equipment Part 3 (Fisher y Leaflet 429) Factors to be Considered in the Freezing and Cold Storage of Fishery Products Part 4 (Fishery Leaflet 430) -- Preparation, Freezing, and Cold Storage of Fish, Shellfish, and Precooked Fishery Products Part 5 (Fishery Leaflet 431

336

Superefficient Refrigerators: Opportunities and Challenges for Efficiency Improvement Globally  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As an energy-intensive mainstream product, residential refrigerators present a significant opportunity to reduce electricity consumption through energy efficiency improvements. Refrigerators expend a considerable amount of electricity during normal use, typically consuming between 100 to 1,000 kWh of electricity per annum. This paper presents the results of a technical analysis done for refrigerators in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative. Beginning from a base case representative of the average unit sold in India, we analyze efficiency improvement options and their corresponding costs to build a cost-versus-efficiency relationship. We then consider design improvement options that are known to be the most cost effective and that can improve efficiency given current design configurations. We also analyze and present additional super-efficient options, such as vacuum-insulated panels. We estimate the cost of conserved electricity for the various options, allowing flexible program design for market transformation programs toward higher efficiency. We estimate ~;;160TWh/year of energy savings are cost effective in 2030, indicating significant potential for efficiency improvement in refrigerators in SEAD economies and China.

Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Bojda, Nicholas; McNeil, Michael A.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Removing Odors from Refrigerators and Freezers after Food has Spoiled  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ER-005 6-06 Extension Family and Consumer Science Specialists The Texas A&M University System If food has spoiled in a refrigerator or freezer because of a power failure or some other reason, undesirable odors can develop. To eliminate these odors...

FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

338

REVIEW OF SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETOMETERS AND CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION TECHNIQUES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3. REVIEW OF SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETOMETERS AND CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION TECHNIQUES By W. S. GOREE of the macroscopic quantum nature of the superconducting state. Several of these properties have direct application a closed superconducting path must remain constant as long as the path remains superconducting

Boyer, Edmond

339

Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration in a Meat Processing Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat...

Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Leducq, Roche, Macchi-Tejeda , Fournaison, Guilpart Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction, Cemagref Antony, France, 2009 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leducq, Roche, Macchi-Tejeda , Fournaison, Guilpart IIR 1st Workshop on Refrigerant Charge, Antony cedex, 92 163,, France denis.leducq@cemagref.fr ABSTRACT A design of a low charge refrigerating on refrigerant charge and energy performance has been evaluated experimentally for a cold room refrigerating unit

Paris-Sud XI, Universit├ę de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Magazine R729 Motor prediction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magazine R729 Primer Motor prediction Daniel M. Wolpert* and J. Randall Flanagan The concept of motor prediction was first considered by Helmholtz when trying to understand how we localise visual position of the eye, predicted the gaze position based on a copy of the motor command acting on the eye

Flanagan, Randy

342

RMP Colloquia Modeling molecular motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The authors present general considerations and simple models for the operation of isothermal motors at small structural differences from the usual Carnot engines. Turning to more explicit models for a single motorRMP Colloquia Modeling molecular motors Frank JuĘlicher,* Armand Ajdari, and Jacques Prost

JŘlicher, Frank

343

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new requirements to achieve grade 1 on the label are now virtually as stringent as those for US Energy Star-qualified or EU A-grade refrigerators. When the energy information label went into effect in March 2005, refrigerator manufacturers were required to display their declared level of efficiency on the label and report it to the China Energy Label Center (CELC), a newly established unit of CNIS responsible for label program management. Because of the visible nature of the label, it was found, through a METI/IEEJ-supported study, that MEPS non-compliance dropped from 4% to zero after the label became mandatory, and that the percentage of higher-grade refrigerators increased. This suggests that the label itself does have potential for shifting the market to higher-efficiency models (Lin 2007). One challenge, however, of assessing this potential impact is the lack of a comprehensive baseline of market efficiency and a program to evaluate the market impact on a yearly basis. As a result, the impact evaluation in this study draws upon the market transformation experience of the related EU energy information label, for which quantitative assessments of its market impact exist. By assuming a parallel process unfolding in China, it is possible to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. The results of the analysis demonstrates that a robust market transformation program in China focused on the energy information label could save substantial amounts of electricity by 2020, totaling 16.4 TWh annually by that year, compared to a case in which the efficiency distribution of refrigerators was frozen at the 2007 level. Remarkably, the impact of a successful market transformation program with the label would essentially flatten the consumption of electricity for refrigerator use throughout most of the next decade, despite the expectations of continued growth in total stock by nearly 190 million units. At the end of this period, total consumption begins to rise again, as the least efficient of the units have been mostly removed from the market. Such a level of savings would reduce CO{sub

Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

DOE/AHAM advanced refrigerator technology development project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the effort to improve residential energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse emissions from power plants, several design options were investigated for improving the energy efficiency of a conventionally designed domestic refrigerator-freezer. The program goal was to reduce the energy consumption of a 20-ft{sup 3} (570-L) top-mount refrigerator-freeze to 1.00 kWh/d, a 50% reduction from the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard. The options--such as improved cabinet and door insulation, a high-efficiency compressor, a low-wattage fan, a large counterflow evaporator, and adaptive defrost control--were incorporated into prototype refrigerator-freezer cabinets and refrigeration systems. The refrigerant HFC-134a was used as a replacement for CFC-12. The baseline energy performance of the production refrigerator-freezers, along with cabinet heat load and compressor calorimeter test results, were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. The project consisted of three main phases: (1) an evaluation of energy-efficient design options using computer simulation models and experimental testing, (2) design and testing of an initial prototype unit, and (3) energy and economic analyses of a final prototype. The final prototype achieved an energy consumption level of 0.93 kWh/d--an improvement of 45% over the baseline unit and 54% over the 1993 NAECA standard for 20-fg{sup 3} (570-L) units. The manufacturer`s cost for those improvements was estimated at $134; assuming that cost is doubled for the consumer, it would take about 11.4 years to pay for the design changes. Since the payback period was thought to be unfeasible, a second, more cost-effective design was also tested. Its energy consumption level was 1.16 kWh/d, a 42% energy savings, at a manufacturer`s cost increase of $53. Again assuming a 100% markup, the payback for this unit would be 6.6 years.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Rice, C.K.; Linkous, R.L.; Hardin, C.V.; Bohman, R.H.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Stabilizer for motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a stabilizer for a motor vehicle comprising: a rod-shaped torsion section extending in the transverse direction of a motor vehicle; a pair of arm sections continuous with both ends of the torsion section and extending in the longitudinal direction of the motor vehicle; a first member attached to the torsion section or at least one of the arm sections and formed with an axially penetrating cylindrical bore; a columnar second member inserted in the bore of the first member; at least one coil spring disposed between the inner peripheral surface of the bore of the first member and the outer peripheral surface of the second member and wound around the second member, at least one end of the coil spring being a free end; an operating member connected to the free end of the coil spring, at least a part of the operating member being located outside the first member; and drive means coupled to the operating member and adapted to apply a force in a direction such that the diameter of the coil spring is increased or reduced.

Takadera, I.; Kuroda, S.

1986-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

347

Wind motor applications for transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Motion equation for a vehicle equipped with a wind motor allows, taking into account the drag coefficients, to determine the optimal wind drag velocity in the wind motor`s plane, and hence, obtain all the necessary data for the wind wheel blades geometrical parameters definition. This optimal drag velocity significantly differs from the flow drag velocity which determines the maximum wind motor power. Solution of the motion equation with low drag coefficients indicates that the vehicle speed against the wind may be twice as the wind speed. One of possible transportation wind motor applications is its use on various ships. A ship with such a wind motor may be substantially easier to steer, and if certain devices are available, may proceed in autonomous control mode. Besides, it is capable of moving within narrow fairways. The cruise speed of a sailing boat and wind-motored ship were compared provided that the wind velocity direction changes along a harmonic law with regard to the motion direction. Mean dimensionless speed of the wind-motored ship appears to be by 20--25% higher than that of a sailing boat. There was analyzed a possibility of using the wind motors on planet rovers in Mars or Venus atmospheric conditions. A Mars rover power and motor system has been assessed for the power level of 3 kW.

Lysenko, G.P.; Grigoriev, B.V.; Karpin, K.B. [Moscow Aviation Inst. (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

Heat powered refrigeration compressor. Semi-annual technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to develop and improve the design of previously started prototypes of the Heat Powered Refrigeration Compressor. To build this prototype and ready it for testing by the University of Evansville is another goal. This prototype will be of similar capacity as the compressor that will eventually be commercially produced. This unit can operate on almost any moderate temperature water heat source. This heat source could include such applications as industrial waste heat, solar, wood burning stove, resistance electrical heat produced by a windmill, or even perhaps heat put out by the condenser of another refrigeration system. Work performed in the past four months has consisted of: engineering of HX-1; comparisons of specifications from different companies to ensure state of the art applications of parts for project; coordinating project requirements with machine shop; designing condenser; and partial assembly of HX-1.

Goad, R.R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

New age water chillers with water as refrigerant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vacuum-process technology producing chilled water needs no refrigerant of the conventional kind, but water from the process itself is used to generate cooling. This eye-catching novelty incorporates many of the considerations about the future of refrigerants: "ozone friendly", no extra demands for safety measures or for skilful operators, no special requirements concerning the installation's components, lower maintenance costs since leakages can be accommodated from the system. Vacuum-process technology may be used not only for production of chilled water but also for Binary Ice - pumpable suspension of minute ice crystals in an aqueous solution. This means that all the advantages related to a latent heat system may become available.

KŘhnl-Kinel, J

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Cryogenics for superconductors: Refrigeration, delivery, and preservation of the cold  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Applications in superconductivity have become widespread, enabled by advancements in cryogenic engineering. In this paper, the history of cryogenic refrigeration, its delivery, its preservation and the important scientific and engineering advancements in these areas in the last 100 years will be reviewed, beginning with small laboratory dewars to very large scale systems. The key technological advancements in these areas that enabled the development of superconducting applications at temperatures from 4 to 77 K are identified. Included are advancements in the components used up to the present state-of-the-art in refrigeration systems design. Viewpoints as both an equipment supplier and the end-user with regard to the equipment design and operations will be presented. Some of the present and future challenges in these areas will be outlined. Most of the materials in this paper are a collection of the historical materials applicable to these areas of interest.

Venkatarao Ganni, James Fesmire

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Free displacer and Ringbom displacer for a Malone refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Malone refrigeration uses a liquid near its critical point (instead of the customary gas) as the working fluid in a Stirling, Brayton, or similar regenerative or recuperative cycle. Thus far, we have focused on the Stirling cycle, to avoid the difficult construction of the high-pressure-difference counterflow recuperator required for a Brayton machine. Our first Malone refrigerator used liquid propylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) in a double-acting 4-cylinder Stirling configuration. First measurements with a free displacer used in a liquid working fluid are presented. The displacer was operated both in harmonic mode and in Ringbom mode, in liquid carbon dioxide. The results are in reasonable agreement with expectations.

Swift, G.W.; Brown, A.O.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Guide for the selection of supermarket refrigeration systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an evaluation of supermarket refrigeration involving the use of conventional and multiplex compressor systems. Computer simulations of these systems were performed for six representative sites. The performance predictions generated in this fashion were tabulated to allow hand calculation of electric costs for any prevailing electric rate schedule. A methodology was also developed to allow economic assessment of the conventional and multiplex systems and of various enhancements employed with the multiplex system. The results of the evaluation showed the multiplex refrigeration system produced a reasonable payback for all sites examined, depending upon the enhancements employed. System features that had the greatest impact on payback were heat reclaim, hot gas defrost, and floating head pressure. 25 figs., 28 tabs.

Walker, D.H.; Tsaros, T.L.; Deming, G.I. (Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

page 1 of 4 TkF Vrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

kJ/kg. a. Calculate the heat of vaporisation of the R-40 at 30┬░C and -20┬░C, and calculate with methylchloride (CH3Cl, R-40) as refrigerant. The evaporator operates at Te = -20 ┬░C and exchanges heat-1), closing the cycle. The following data is given for these states: T ┬░C p bar h kJ/kg s kJ/(kg┬ĚK) 1 -20 1

Zevenhoven, Ron

354

Aluminum tunnel junction detector operation in an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Superconducting tunnel junction detectors are being developed as both particle and X-ray detectors. Aluminum junctions are desirable for detectors because of their strong native oxide barriers, and because the small energy gap of aluminum is a good match to ballistic phonons generated by particle interactions in single crystals of silicon or other low acoustic-loss insulating crystals. Aluminum tunnel junction detectors must be operated near 0.1 T{sub C} which is 110 mK for aluminum. To operate detectors at these temperatures, we have developed adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs) for the laboratory and prototype ADRs for space based operation. These cryogenic systems are simpler, more convenient and more portable than most dilution refrigerators. We have demonstrated that the magnetic field of the ADR need not compromise the performance of aluminum tunnel junctions. We have recently initiated a program to develop superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) as high resolution X-ray detectors and low energy threshold particle detectors. This complements our existing program in which we are developing high resolution X-ray microcalorimeter detectors. One of our goals for both of these cryogenic detector development efforts is to observe X-ray emission from cosmic sources. This requires a refrigeration system that can operate under zero gravity space flight conditions. For the microcalorimeter project, temperatures of 100 mK and below are required to sufficiently reduce the heat capacity of the device. We have therefore developed an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) system which can be configured for space flight.

Labov, S.; Silver, E.; Le Gros, M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Bland, R.W.; Dickson, S.C.; Dignan, T.G.; Laws, K.; Johnson, R.T.; Simon, M.W.; Stricker, D.A.; Watson, R.M. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)); Madden, N.; Landis, D. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

355

Novel 4-Way Refrigerant Reversing Valve for Heat Pumps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is nearing completion. Since the last progress report (November, 1999), all experimental tests have been completed. Preliminary analysis shows the refrigerant pressure drops through the reversing valve were reduced by an average of about 60{percent}, when compared to traditional reversing valves. Also, the prototype reversing valve reduced the overall coefficient of performance (COP) by an average of only 0.45{percent}.

Darin W. Nutter

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

356

Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

Boeder, A; Zimm, C

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

358

Entrainment of refrigerated air curtains down a wall  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refrigerated air curtains are used in open supermarket display cases as a barrier between the warm ambient air and the cold refrigerated air. Entrainment of ambient air into the curtain by shear layer mixing contributes to both the sensible and the latent heat load on the display case. To better understand the fluid dynamics which govern entrainment, velocity and temperature measurements of the curtains were made in a refrigerated display case, which was modified to allow a more fundamental flow. In particular, a vertical solid wall was installed to approximately represent a fully-stocked configuration. As such, negatively-buoyant wall jets (with high inflow turbulence) in the Reynolds number range of 4200-8000 and in the Richardson number range of 0.13-0.58 were examined. To define the air curtain vortex structures, flow visualization of the curtain interface was employed. The results of which showed that the entrainment of the ambient air was found to be governed by a variety of eddy engulfing structures. Particle Image Velocimetry was used to examine the velocity profiles of the air curtains in a non-intrusive manner, the measurements of which indicated negatively-buoyant acceleration following the jet exhaust, followed by a more linear curtain growth characteristic of isothermal wall jets. In addition, thermocouples were used to obtain the net increase in temperature of the curtain due to entrainment, where it was found that the dimensionless thermal energy loss decreased with decreasing Reynolds number.

Field, Brandon S.; Loth, Eric [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

Brant, B.; Brueske, S. [Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Erickson, D.; Papar, R. [Energy Concepts Co., Annapolis, MD (United States)

1998-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

360

Solid-vapor adsorption-refrigeration system development. Final report, March 1990-May 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study describes the development of heat-activated industrial refrigeration systems using ammoniated complex compound sorption media. The focus was on single-stage cycles for low temperature (+20 F and below) refrigeration. Compared to vapor compression refrigeration, these cycles have the advantages of lower operating energy costs, reduction of peak electrical demand and associated demand charges, and reduced maintenance costs due to replacement of the compressor with solid-state sorbers. In many cases, particularly for refrigeration at -40 F and below, complex compound sorption cycles also have the potential for lower first cost than conventional electrically driven refrigeration systems. Technical issues addressed included the following: economic optimization of sorber design, demonstration of cyclic stability of the sorption reactions, construction material compatibility, and reactor scale-up. Sorption reactions for refrigeration at -40 F, and -70 F were demonstrated. Optimum heat exchanger configuration, complex compound loading, and cycle time were determined.

Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.; Graebel, B.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The LSST Camera 500 watt -130 degC Mixed Refrigerant Cooling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LSST Camera has a higher cryogenic heat load than previous CCD telescope cameras due to its large size (634 mm diameter focal plane, 3.2 Giga pixels) and its close coupled front-end electronics operating at low temperature inside the cryostat. Various refrigeration technologies are considered for this telescope/camera environment. MMR-Technologyĺs Mixed Refrigerant technology was chosen. A collaboration with that company was started in 2009. The system, based on a cluster of Joule-Thomson refrigerators running a special blend of mixed refrigerants is described. Both the advantages and problems of applying this technology to telescope camera refrigeration are discussed. Test results from a prototype refrigerator running in a realistic telescope configuration are reported. Current and future stages of the development program are described. (auth)

Bowden, Gordon B.; Langton, Brian J.; /SLAC; Little, William A.; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA; Powers, Jacob R; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC; Spektor, Sam; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

362

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Spauschus, H.O.; Starr, T.L.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

364

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1997-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

365

A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

Raustad, Richard A. [Florida Solar Energy Center

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

9-056-462-00 (3557) EXPLOSION-PROOF REFRIGERATOR, FREEZER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, FREEZER AND REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER Models 3557, 3557SS, 3557LHSS, 3557-2, 3557-4 o I At Lab-Line, we take in this manual include: Models 3557, 3557SS, 3557LHSS: Model 3557-2: Freezer Model 3557-4: Refrigerator-Freezer9-056-462-00 (3557) kN 4/88 ^INiyiAL LAB-LIIME lAB-LINE FRIGID-CAB EXPLOSION-PROOF REFRIGERATOR

Kleinfeld, David

367

Development of Versatile Compressor Modeling using Approximation Techniques for Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refrigerants are the life-blood of vapor compression systems that are widely used in Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) applications. The HVAC&R community is currently transitioning from main-stream refrigerants that have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) to alternative lower-GWP refrigerants. During this transition, it is important to account for the life cycle climate performance of alternative refrigerants since their performance will be different than that of higher-GWP refrigerants. This requires the evaluation of the system performance with the new refrigerants. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to predict the realistic performance of new alternative refrigerants without experimental validation. One of the main challenges in this regard is modeling the compressor performance with high fidelity due to the complex interaction of operating parameters, geometry, boundary conditions, and fluid properties. High fidelity compressor models are computationally expensive and require significant pre-processing to evaluate the performance of alternative refrigerants. This paper presents a new approach to modeling compressor performance when alternative refrigerants are used. The new modeling concept relies on using existing compressor performance to create an approximate model that captures the dependence of compressor performance on key operating parameters and fluid properties. The model can be built using a myriad of approximation techniques. This paper focuses on Kriging-based techniques to develop higher fidelity approximate compressor models. Baseline and at least one alternative refrigerant performance data are used to build the model. The model accuracy was evaluated by comparing the model results with compressor performance data using other refrigerants. Preliminary results show that the approximate model can predict the compressor mass flow rate and power consumption within 5%.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two naphthenic mineral oils (NMO), four polyolesters (POE), and two polyvinyl ether (PVE) fluids. These fluids represented viscosity grades of ISO 32 and ISO 68 and are shown in a table. Refrigerants studied included R-22, R-134a, and R-410A. Film thickness measurements were conducted at 23 C, 45 C, and 65 C with refrigerant concentrations ranging from zero to 60% by weight.

Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Using R-134a and R-22 in supermarket refrigeration applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports on tests of the performance of refrigerants R-134a and R-22 in medium and low temperature refrigeration systems. These tests were performed to determine the accuracy of predictions that R-134a would be a suitable replacement for CFC refrigerants in supermarkets. The testing resulted in extensive modifications to compressors, lubricating oil and control systems while using standard piping systems, expansion valves and installation practices.

Albrecht, R.H. (New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY (United States)); Borhanian, H.; Rafuse, L.J. (Aspen Systems Inc., Marlborough, MA (United States)); Matthews, T.J. (Hannaford Bros., Co., Scarborough, ME (United States))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

How to Build a Motor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Motor Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects & Initiatives Finance & Rates Expand...

371

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption refrigeration unit Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

;Priority Barriers Limitations of existing refrigeration technologies High capital costs of units coupled... potential for improved ortho--para conversion technologies (lower...

372

E-Print Network 3.0 - adsorption refrigerator powered Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

;Priority Barriers Limitations of existing refrigeration technologies High capital costs of units coupled... potential for improved ortho--para conversion technologies (lower...

373

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation contains provisions for facilities and service related to electricity, natural gas, water, heating, refrigeration, and street railways. The chapter addresses the construction and...

374

Some studies on industrial Refrigeration system integrated With encapsulated pcm in cool Thermal energy storage system;.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The widespread use of refrigeration and air conditioning utilities newlineespecially in the developing countries has increased manifold during the last newlinedecade This additional load onů (more)

Cheralathan M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Energy use test procedures for appliances: A case study of Japanese refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy test procedure provides a consistent measurement of refrigerator energy consumption, which can be used by engineers, utility forecasters, and consumers. The U.S. and Japanese test procedures for refrigerators differ significantly, so it is impossible to directly compare the performance of unique features, or even determine which units are more efficient. The energy use of 12 Japanese refrigerators (of which 9 were unique models) were measured under the U.S. DOE energy test procedure and compared to that reported by the manufacturers under the Japanese test procedure. The Japanese refrigerators used substantially more electricity with the DOE test.

Meier, A.K.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Refrigerator/freezer directory: sorted by type and volume, based on 1979 standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This directory identifies refrigerators, freezers and combinations thereof, that have been certified as complying with the regulations that became effective on November 3, 1979.

Not Available

1980-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

377

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Saving Strategies for Cold Storage Facilities." Process-Refrigeration Systems for Cold Storage. Pacific Gas andDR Strategies for Cold Storage - Barriers to Implementation.

Lekov, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

E-Print Network 3.0 - arti refrigerant database Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-- &i Supplementary Laboratory Testing William M. Toscano... ENERGY-EFFICIENT SUPERMARKET REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS VOLUME 2 SUPPLEMENTAL ... Source: Oak Ridge National Laboratory -...

379

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in significant energy and demand savings for refrigeratedbe modified to reduce energy demand during demand responsein refrigerated warehouse energy demand if they are not

Lekov, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Development and Testing of a Screw Compressor Supermarket Refrigeration System: Phase II, Final Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laboratory prototype screw compressor refrigeration system was designed, fabricated and tested under various evaporator and ambient conditions. The design is based on a Dunham-Bush vertical hermetic screw compressor and other standard refrigeration components. Results indicate that a screw compressor rack with vapor injection can increase the thermodynamic efficiency of low temperature refrigeration in supermarkets by 20 to 28% compared to multiple reciprocating compressor racks. The payback period of the screw compressor refrigeration system relative to multiple reciprocating compressor systems is 1.1 to 1.5 years and the net present value savings range from 15 to 22 thousand dollars.

Borhanian, H. Hamed; Toscano, William M.; Lee, Kang P.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Options for reducing refrigerant emissions from supermarket systems. Final report, February-September 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characterizes the design of typical supermarket refrigeration systems and focuses on why these types of systems have high rates of refrigerant emissions. Three case studies are provided of companies that have successfully implemented emission-reducing practices and technologies. The report discusses a variety of technical and procedural options that can be applied to existing systems and in new construction.

Troy, E.F.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Dynamic Modeling and Cascaded Control for a Multi-Evaporator Supermarket Refrigeration System.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The survey from US Department of Energy showed that about one-third of energy consumption in US is due to air conditioning and refrigeration systems. Thisů (more)

Gupta, Ankush 1986-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Motor Repair Tech Brief  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOE TribaltheMyMinutesDepartmentCharacteristics | Motor Repair

384

Developing a Motor Management Policy at BASF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In early 1998 Thomas R. Theising, BASF Corporate Engineering initiated the formation of a motor management team. The goal of the team was to develop a Motor Management Guideline to better manage the purchase and repair of motors used throughout...

Zickefoose, B.; Theising, T. R.

385

Industrial motor repair in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Adapted from FDA refrigerator and freezer guidelines: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/HealthEducators/UCM109315.pdf Have you ever wondered how long you should keep things in the refrigerator or freezer? If so, then the chart below can he  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adapted from FDA refrigerator and freezer guidelines: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/HealthEducators/UCM109315.pdf Have you ever wondered how long you should keep things in the refrigerator or freezer? If so to preserve quality. Refrigerator & Freezer Storage Chart Product Refrigerator Freezer Product Refrigerator

387

Verification of Motor Repair Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motor testing at Advanced Energy has shown that a motor that has not suffered irreparable damage as a result of failure can be repaired to perform as well as before the failure. But the only way to achieve the performance level of an energy...

Butler, K.

388

10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Replacement of ATR Primary Coolant Pumps and Motors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The continued safe and reliable operation of the ATR is critical to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) mission. While ATR is safely fulfilling current mission requirements, a variety of aging and obsolescence issues challenge ATR engineering and maintenance personnelĺs capability to sustain ATR over the long term. First documented in a series of independent assessments, beginning with an OA Environmental Safety and Health Assessment conducted in 2003, the issues were validated in a detailed Material Condition Assessment (MCA) conducted as a part of the ATR Life Extension Program in 2007.Accordingly, near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NEĺs long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3), switchgear, and the 50-year-old obsolescent marine diesels with commercial power that is backed with safety related emergency diesel generators, switchgear, and uninterruptible power supply (UPS). The second project, the subject of this major modification determination, will replace the four, obsolete, original primary coolant pumps (PCPs) and motors. Completion of this and the two other age-related projects (replacement of the ATR diesel bus [E-3] and switchgear and replacement of the existent emergency firewater injection system) will resolve major age-related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues that lead to the conclusion that the project is a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The proposed strategy for equipping the replacement PCPs with VFDs and having the PCPs also function as ECPs will require significant safety basis changes requiring DOE approval. 2. Evaluation Criteria #4 (Use of new technology). The use of VFD and VFD ôpump catcherö technology for the PCPs is not currently in use and has not been previously formally reviewed/approved by DOE for ATR. It is noted that VFD technology has several decades of commercial use and experience. However, the ATR probabilistic risk assessment will have to be updated, reflecting the changes for supplying ECP flows including VFD reliability, to confirm that the proposed activity maintains or reduces the CDF for the ATR. 3. Evaluation Criteria #5 (Create the need for new or revised safety SSCs). It is expected that the proposed activity will result in a revised list of safety-related SSCs. Specifically, as currently proposed, the existing ECPs will be deleted from the list. The PCPs and their associated components, picking up the ECP function, will be classified as safety-related active Seismic Category I.

Noel Duckwitz

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor motor for at least a predetermined time in response to a condition of the control means operative to initiate a change in the operating direction of the compressor when it restarts.

Sisk, Francis J. (Washington Township, Fayette County, PA)

1980-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

390

Innovative Method for Performance Inspections often save 20-30% through Optimization of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of performance?. (Nordtest.) Esbo, Finland. 16. NT VVS 116, 1997. ?Refrigeration and heat pump equipment: Check-ups and performance data inferred from measurements under field conditions in the refrigerant system?. (Nordtest.) Esbo, Finland. ESL-IC-10...

Berglof, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Overview of CFC replacement issues for household refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1974, the famous ozone depletion theory of Rowland and Molina claimed that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) diffuse into the stratosphere where they are broken down by photolysis to release chlorine atoms that catalytically destroy ozone. Although the understanding of the science is still imperfect, there is little doubt that CFCs play a major role in the Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon and the decline in ozone observed in the rest of the world. Another issue that has become increasingly important is the potential of CFCs to change the earth`s temperature and to modify the climate. While the main impact in global warming is made by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide, CFCs and other trace gases also contribute to this effect. In an effort to respond to the global environmental threat, a CFC protocol was adopted during a diplomatic conference in Montreal. This document, known as the Montreal Protocol, was ratified in 1988 and put into effect on January 1, 1989. In accordance with Article 6 of the Montreal Protocol, the countries that signed the agreement shall periodically assess the control measures provided for in the Protocol. As part of that assessment process, household refrigeration was investigated to determine the status of CFC-12 replacements. The conclusion was that much progress has been made towards finding a suitable replacement. Compressors designed for HFC-134a have efficiencies comparable to those for CFC-12 and acceptable reliability tests have been obtained with ester lubricants. In addition, other replacements such as R-152a and refrigerant mixtures exist, but will require more study. Cycle options, such as the Stirling cycle, may be viable, but are further out in the future. The impact of new refrigerants is expected to result in elimination of CFC-12 consumption in developed countries by 1997 and in developing countries by 2005.

Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Roke, L. [Fisher and Paykel, Auckland (New Zealand); Hallett, F. [Frigidaire, Washington, DC (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

Piezoelectric wave motor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

Yerganian, Simon Scott (Lee's Summit, MO)

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

393

Piezoelectric wave motor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

Yerganian, Simon Scott (Lee's Summit, MO)

2001-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

394

Solubility, viscosity and density of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents results on low refrigerant concentration (70, 80, 90, and 100 weight percent lubricant) mixtures of the following fluids: CFC-12/ISO 32 naphthenic mineral oil; HCFC-22/ISO 32 naphthenic mineral oil; and HFC-134a/ISO 32 pentaerythritol ester mixed acid. These data have been reduced to engineering form and are presented in the form of a Daniel Chart. Scatter diagrams are given for the first fluid listed above, with the intent of illustrating the quality of data as well as providing the rationale for selecting the particular functional forms chosen to represent the experimental data. Equations are given along with statistical measures of goodness of fit.

Henderson, D.R.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

EMS control chosen instead of refrigeration, HVAC upgrade  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Wisconsin supermarket decided on the basis of costs to install an energy management system (EMS) to improve the store's energy efficiency rather than invest in new refrigerating equipment at this time. When the next remodeling occurs in two years, the store will purchase new equipment using energy savings from the EMS to help defray the costs. The store selected an EMS with distributed processing that can expand to control new equipment. It expects a 22% drop in energy bills and a two-year payback of the $50,000 investment. Details of the system's functions describe some of the 53 control points.

Watson, F.

1984-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

396

Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformationInyo County, California |SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration Jump to: navigation, search

397

The Impact of Control Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California Industrial Refrigerated Facilities Final Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Automated Demand Response in Industrial RefrigeratedDemand Response .. ..Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California

Scott, Doug

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT CHAMOUN MARWAN to improve industrial energy efficiency, the development of a high temperature heat pump using water vapor as refrigerant is investigated. Technical problems restraining the feasibility of this industrial heat pump

Paris-Sud XI, Universit├ę de

399

Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander Jun Lan Yang, Yi Tai Ma*, Min Xia Li, Hai Qing Guan Thermal Energy Research Institute of Tianjin University, 300072 is performed for the transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles with a throttling valve

Bahrami, Majid

400

Edinburgh Research Explorer A stand-alone solar adsorption refrigerator for humanitarian aid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Edinburgh Research Explorer A stand-alone solar adsorption refrigerator for humanitarian aid stand-alone solar adsorption refrigerator for humanitarian aid' Solar energy, vol 100, pp. 172-178., 10 as postprint) Published In: Solar energy General rights Copyright for the publications made accessible via

Edinburgh, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Assignment 3 1 Assignment #3 (Refrigeration)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

refrigeration) = 211 kJ/min. water Sat. vapor at 200 kPa Ejector nozzle Steam jet Sat. vapor P = 4 kPa Condenser: Tuesday Jan 29, 2011 Problem 1: Figure below shows a steam jet refrigeration system that produces chilled water in a flash chamber. The chamber is maintained at a vacuum pressure by the steam ejector, which

Bahrami, Majid

402

Thermodynamic optimization of heat-driven refrigerators in the transient regime  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present work introduces a transient endoreversible model of a heat-driven refrigeration plant, which is driven by a fuel-burning heater. The model consists of a combustion chamber with negligible heat loss to the ambient, a refrigerator with three finite-size heat exchangers, namely, the evaporator between the refrigeration load and refrigerant, the condenser between the refrigerant and the ambient, and the generator between the combustion chamber and the refrigerant, and finally the refrigerated space. The total thermal conductance of the three heat exchangers is fixed. A thermodynamic optimization of the absorption cycle is then performed, reporting the operating conditions for minimum time to reach a prescribed cold-space temperature, thus maximum refrigeration rate, specifically, the optimal mass fuel flow rate and the optimal way of allocating the thermal conductance inventory. Half of the total supply of thermal conductance has to be divided equally between the generator and evaporator and the other half allocated to the condenser, for optimal operation. A narrow range of fuel flow rates lead to the minimum time to achieve a prescribed cold-space temperature, thus stressing the importance of the transient analysis. Appropriate dimensionless groups were identified and the generalized results are reported in dimensionless charts.

Vargas, J.V.C.; Parise, J.A.R.; Ledezma, G.A.; Bianchi, M.V.A.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

FLOATING PRESSURE CONVERSION AND EQUIPMENT UPGRADES OF TWO 3.5KW, 20K, HELIUM REFRIGERATORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5 KW at 20 K, are used at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryogenic-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. New changes to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the control issues that necessitated the controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle ôfloating pressureö control technology. The controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology was the first application on a helium gas refrigeration system. Previous implementations of the floating pressure technology have been on 4 K liquefaction and refrigeration systems, which have stored liquid helium volumes that have level indications used for varying the pressure levels (charge) in the system for capacity modulation. The upgrades have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e. at various loads in the vacuum chambers). The performance data of the two systems, pre and post upgrading are presented.

J. Homan, V. Ganni, A. Sidi-Yekhlef, J. Creel, R. Norton, R. Linza, G. Vargas, J. Lauterbach, J. Urbin, D. Howe

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER for evaporation heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant R-134a flowing in a plate heat exchanger. Correlation schemes proposed by Yan and Lin (1999b) for modeling the heat transfer coefficient in both a single- phase

Kandlikar, Satish

405

Thermoelectric materials 1998 -- The next generation materials for small-scale refrigeration and power generation applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials are used in a wide variety of applications related to small-scale solid-state refrigeration or power generation. Over the past 30 years, alloys based on the Bi-Te compounds (refrigeration) [(Bi[sub 1[minus]x]Sb[sub x])[sub 2] (Te[sub 1[minus]x]Se[sub x])[sub 3

Tritt, T.M. (ed.) (Clemson Univ., SC (United States)); Kanatzidis, M.G. (ed.) (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)); Mahan, G.D. (ed.) (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)); Lyon, H.B. Jr. (ed.) (Marlow Industries, Dallas, TX (United States))

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED REFRIGERATED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Holding Tank and Refrigeration Unit A 568-1 (150-gal) fiber glass holding tank was connectedPHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED ahrimp,PandaluB borealis, were held in carbon dioxide modified refrigerated seawater for 12.5 days

407

Hydrodynamic cavitation and boiling in refrigerant (R-123) flow inside microchannels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrodynamic cavitation and boiling in refrigerant (R-123) flow inside microchannels Brandon cavitation has on heat transfer. The fluid medium is refrigerant R-123 flowing through 227 lm hydraulic diameter microchannels. The cavitation is instigated by the inlet orifice. Adiabatic tests were con- ducted

Peles, Yoav

408

COPs OF R718 IN COMPARISION WITH OTHER MODERN REFRIGERANTS A.Kilicarslan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condenser and evaporator, and polytropic efficiency are also investigated. It is shown that for evaporator of polytropic efficiency INTRODUCTION Water as a refrigerant is one of the oldest refrigerants being used and chemical properties. Beside these advantages, there are technical challenges that result from its high

M├╝ller, Norbert

409

Chapter 3: Refrigeration Process Control: Case Study Model 42 33.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compressor driven by a steam turbine. The fraction of the refrigerant that flows around the second the compressor turbine. A forced draft air cooler is used to condense the HP refrigerant vapour, followed TP1o TP2o TP1i TP2i Turbine Compressor 1 Compressor 2 Condenser Receiver Process Stream 1 Process

Skogestad, Sigurd

410

COFELY Refrigeration | Rdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 CopyrightCOFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COFELY Refrigeration | R├╝diger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 Seite 1 Copyright┬ęCOFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten. #12;COFELY Refrigeration | R├╝diger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 Campaign Spectrum: Heat pump with speed controlled screw compressor #12;COFELY Refrigeration | R├╝diger Roth

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

411

INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-26-HERS Refrigerant Charge Verification -Alternate Measurement Procedure (Page 1 of 2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-26-HERS Refrigerant Charge Verification - Alternate Measurement are specified in Reference Residential Appendix RA3.2. If refrigerant charge verification is required-MECH-26-HERS Refrigerant Charge Verification - Alternate Measurement Procedure (Page 2 of 2) Site Address

412

A Comparative Study on the Environmental Impact of CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supermarket refrigeration systems have high environmental impact due to their large refrigerant charge and high leak rates. Accordingly, the interest in using natural refrigerants, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and new refrigerant blends with low GWP in such systems is increasing. In this paper, an open-source Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) framework is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of three supermarket refrigeration systems. These systems include a transcritical CO2 booster system, a cascade CO2/N-40 system, and a baseline R-404A multiplex direct expansion system. The study is performed for cities representing different climates within the USA using EnergyPlus to simulate the systems' hourly performance. Finally, a parametric analysis is performed to study the impact of annual leak rate on the systems' LCCP.

Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

HFC-134A and HCFC-22 supermarket refrigeration demonstration and laboratory testing. Phase I. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aspen Systems and a team of nineteen agencies and industry participants conducted a series of tests to determine the performance of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and CFC-502 for supermarket application. This effort constitutes the first phase of a larger project aimed at carrying out both laboratory and demonstration tests of the most viable HFC refrigerants and the refrigerants they replace. The results of the Phase I effort are presented in the present report. The second phase of the project has also been completed. It centered on testing all viable HFC replacement refrigerants for CFC-502. These were HFC-507, HFC-404A, and HFC-407A. The latter results are published in the Phase II report for this project. As part of Phase I, a refrigeration rack utilizing a horizontal open drive screw compressor was constructed in our laboratory. This refrigeration rack is a duplicate of one we have installed in a supermarket in Clifton Park, NY.

NONE

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Submersible canned motor transfer pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A transfer pump used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank.

Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, Allegheny County, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA); Nyilas, Charles P. (Monroeville, PA); Denmeade, Timothy J. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Submersible canned motor mixer pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mixer pump used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump.

Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Submersible canned motor mixer pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs.

Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

1997-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

417

Topic 7 Organization of Motor System -Cortical Motor Areas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cartoon, 1986 Electrical stimulation produces movement of contralateral body parts. #12;4 Motor Homunculus previous stimulation technique ┬Ě Insert electrode into cortical layer V and use electrical stimulation" somatotopic map vs "more complex" map #12;

Sergio, Lauren E.

418

RECENT PROGRESS IN DYNAMIC PROCESS SIMULATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the CEC 2005 a paper with the title 'Helium refrigerator design for pulsed heat load in Tokamaks' was presented. That paper highlighted the control requirements for cryogenic refrigerators to cope with the expected load variations of future nuclear fusion reactors. First dynamic computer simulations have been presented.In the mean time, the computer program is enhanced and a new series of process simulations are available. The new program considers not only the heat flows and the temperature variations within the heat exchangers, but also the variation of mass flows and pressure drops. The heat transfer numbers now are calculated in dependence of the flow speed and the gas properties. PI-controllers calculate the necessary position of specific valves for maintaining pressures, temperatures and the rotation speed of turbines.Still unsatisfactory is the fact, that changes in the process arrangement usually are attended by adjustments in the program code. It is the main objective of the next step of development a more flexible code which enables that any user defined process arrangements can be assembled by input data.

Kuendig, A. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Dattlikonerstrasse 5, CH-8422 Pfungen (Switzerland)

2008-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

419

NASA advanced refrigerator/freezer technology development project overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has recently initiated a three-year project to develop the advanced refrigerator/freezer (R/F) technologies needed to support future life and biomedical sciences space experiments. Refrigerator/freezer laboratory equipment, most of which needs to be developed, is enabling to about 75 percent of the planned space station life and biomedical science experiments. These experiments will require five different classes of equipment; three storage freezers operating at -20 C, -70 C and less than 183 C, a -70 C freeze-dryer, and a cryogenic (less than 183 C) quick/snap freezer. This project is in response to a survey of cooling system technologies, performed by a team of NASA scientists and engineers. The team found that the technologies required for future R/F systems to support life and biomedical sciences spaceflight experiments, do not exist at an adequate state of development and concluded that a program to develop the advanced R/F technologies is needed. Limitations on spaceflight system size, mass, and power consumption present a significant challenge in developing these systems. This paper presents some background and a description of the Advanced R/F Technology Development Project, project approach and schedule, general description of the R/F systems, and a review of the major R/F equipment requirements.

Cairelli, J.E.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Recover Power with Hydraulic Motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

displacement device, the HPRM torque and speed are almost completely independent - unlike hydraulic power recovery turbines (centrifugal motors). Three screw HPRM's have low moments of inertia, operate at low vibration and noise levels and extract power...

Brennan, J. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Rotary Electrodynamics of a DC Motor: Motor as Mechanical Capacitor Lab 2: Modeling and System Identification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). ┬Ě im is the current through the motor. Because the motor is in series with all other electrical). Because power is conserved, m = Kmim (motor efficiency is actually closer to 69%). Here, Km 0.00767 VRotary Electrodynamics of a DC Motor: Motor as Mechanical Capacitor Lab 2: Modeling and System

423

Segmented rail linear induction motor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

Cowan, Jr., Maynard (1107 Stagecoach Rd. SE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Marder, Barry M. (1412 Pinnacle View Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Segmented rail linear induction motor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

1996-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

425

Direct drive field actuator motors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

Grahn, A.R.

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

426

A linear induction motor conveyer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A LINEAR INCUCTION MOTOR CONVEYER A Thesis Kenneth Sheldon. Solinsky Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER 07 SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Industrial.... Howie, USAMC-ITC-P/P, Red River Army Depot, Texarkana, Texas 75501. Approved owxe, xe , ro uc o uction Engineering For the Commander ne , grec or, I A LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR CONVEYER A Thesis by Kenneth Sheldon Solinsky App ved as to style...

Solinsky, Kenneth Sheldon

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Fridge of the future: ORNL`s refrigeration R&D  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fears about warming the globe may change the way foods are chilled. Concern about global warming, as expressed in the President`s Climate Change Action Plan of 1993, is the latest motivation for putting future American refrigerators and freezers on a strict energy diet. A current national goal is to design an environmentally sound refrigerator-freezer by 1998 that uses half as much energy as 1993 models. Interest in designing a more energy-efficient refrigerator is not new. It first became a goal almost 20 years ago. In the 1970`s the United States was relying on increasingly unstable supplies of imported oil for fuel, and energy prices began to rise. Utilities balked at building additional power plants because of rising costs and investment risks. As a result, a premium was placed on developing energy-efficient appliances, culminating in the passage of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987. In the late 1980`s refrigerator design was again a target of engineers because of the need to change the refrigerant and insulation used. The reason: the Montreal Protocol called for phasing out of substances containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by the year 2000 because they were thought to be destroying the earth`s stratospheric ozone layer. Ozone shields humans from solar rays that can cause skin cancer and cataracts. Among the CFCs to be phased out are common refrigerants like R-12 and the refrigerator insulation blowing agent R-11.

Krause, C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

428

Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

Ardhapurkar, P. M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 India and S. S. G. M. College of Engineering Shegaon, MS 444 203 (India); Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 (India)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

429

ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered and a typical plant layout was developed. In addition a geomechanical review of the proposed cavern design was performed, evaluating the stability of the mine rooms and shafts, and the effects of the refrigerated gas temperatures on the stability of the cavern. Capital and operating cost estimates were also developed for the various temperature cases considered. The cost estimates developed were used to perform a comparative market analysis of this type of gas storage system to other systems that are commercially used in the region of the study.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE/EERE project Advanced Magnetic Refrigerant Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A team led by GE Global Research developed new magnetic refrigerant materials needed to enhance the commercialization potential of residential appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners based on the magnetocaloric effect (a nonvapor compression cooling cycle). The new magnetic refrigerant materials have potentially better performance at lower cost than existing materials, increasing technology readiness level. The performance target of the new magnetocaloric material was to reduce the magnetic field needed to achieve 4 ░C adiabatic temperature change from 1.5 Tesla to 0.75 Tesla. Such a reduction in field minimizes the cost of the magnet assembly needed for a magnetic refrigerator. Such a reduction in magnet assembly cost is crucial to achieving commercialization of magnetic refrigerator technology. This project was organized as an iterative alloy development effort with a parallel material modeling task being performed at George Washington University. Four families of novel magnetocaloric alloys were identified, screened, and assessed for their performance potential in a magnetic refrigeration cycle. Compositions from three of the alloy families were manufactured into regenerator components. At the beginning of the project a previously studied magnetocaloric alloy was selected for manufacturing into the first regenerator component. Each of the regenerators was tested in magnetic refrigerator prototypes at a subcontractor at at GE Appliances. The property targets for operating temperature range, operating temperature control, magnetic field sensitivity, and corrosion resistance were met. The targets for adiabatic temperature change and thermal hysteresis were not met. The high thermal hysteresis also prevented the regenerator components from displaying measurable cooling power when tested in prototype magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigerant alloy compositions that were predicted to have low hysteresis were not attainable with conventional alloy processing methods. Preliminary experiments with rapid solidification methods showed a path towards attaining low hysteresis compositions should this alloy development effort be continued.

Johnson, Francis

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

431

Design and laboratory testing of an unequal parallel multicompressor supermarket refrigeration system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Project was structured to investigate and develop new highly energy-efficient supermarket refrigeration systems. A supermarket refrigeration system that included unequal parallel compressors, a condenser with floating head-pressure control, and a microprocessor-based electronic control system was analyzed, designed, and tested. The total system capacity is 35 hp (26.10 kW), consisting of three compressors of 5, 10, and 20 hp (3.73, 7.46, and 14.91 kW), which were determined to be the optimum number and capacity distribution. A theoretical comparison to conventional supermarket refrigeration systems revealed that the three unequal parallel compressor system with R-12 exhibited a maximum annual energy savings of 29,100 kWh, or 26 percent and with R-502 exhibited a maximum annual energy savings of 20,100 kWh, or 15 percent. A compressor capacity control algorithm was designed to select the optimum compressor combination for each operating condition by matching compressor capacity to refrigeration load. A microprocessor system was selected for system control and data acquisition. The economic analysis revealed that for a payback period of three years or less, an added microprocessor-based electronic control system that costs between $500 and $1500, depending on the refrigerant used and the refrigeration load, is acceptable. Testing was performed on the unequal parallel compressor system over a refrigeration load range of 78,000 to 160,000 Btu/hr (22.86 to 46.88 kW). For refrigerant R-12, the increase in the energy efficiency ratio (EER) for the microprocessor-based electronic control system, as compared to the mechanical pressure control system, ranged from 9.8 to 14.4 percent.

Toscano, W.M.; Cooper, W.L.; Oven, M.J.; Vineyard, E.A.; Walker, D.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Regeneration tests of a room temperature magnetic refrigerator and heat pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A magnetic heat pump apparatus consisting of a solid magnetic refrigerant, gadolinium, and a liquid regenerator column of ethanol and water has been tested. Utilizing a 7T field, it produced a maximum temperature span of 80 K, and in separate tests, a lowest temperature of 241 K and a highest temperature of 328 K. Thermocouples, placed at intervals along the regenerator tube, permitted measurement of the temperature distribution in the regenerator fluid. No attempt was made to extract refrigeration from the device, but analysis of the temperature distributions shows that 34 watts of refrigeration was produced.

Brown, G V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Application of JLab 12GeV helium refrigeration system for the FRIB accelerator at MSU  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The planned approach to have a turnkey helium refrigeration system for the MSU-FRIB accelerator system, encompassing the design, fabrication, installation and commissioning of the 4.5-K refrigerator cold box(es), cold compression system, warm compression system, gas management, oil removal and utility/ancillary systems, was found to be cost prohibitive. Following JLabĺs suggestion, MSU-FRIB accelerator management made a formal request to evaluate the applicability of the recently designed 12GeV JLab cryogenic system for this application. The following paper will outline the findings and the planned approach for the FRIB helium refrigeration system.

Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Casagrande, F. [MSU-FRIB, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

435

Review of energy efficiency of refrigerator/freezer gaskets. Final report, Jul-Nov 90  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report gives results of an investigation of the significance of heat leakage through gaskets in household refrigerator/freezers, explores different design features, and suggests further study if necessary. The report gives results of an extensive literature review, interviews with refrigerator/freezer and gasket manufacturers, and some engineering analysis. (NOTE: Home refrigerators are the largest consumers of electricity among household appliances and are consuming an estimated 8% of the total electricity used in the U.S. Recent studies show that gasket area heat leakage may account for as much as 21% of the total thermal load.)

Ghassemi, M.; Shapiro, H.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

437

The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program: Case study of a Golden Carrot program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work in this report was conducted by the Analytic Studies Division (ASD) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies. This case study describes the development and implementation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP), which awarded $30 million to the refrigerator manufacturer that developed and commercialized a refrigerator that exceeded 1993 federal efficiency standards by at least 25%. The program was funded by 24 public and private utilities. As the first Golden Carrot program to be implemented in the United States, SERP was studied as an example for future `market-pull` efforts.

Eckert, J B

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Assessment of gas-fired commercial refrigeration. Final report Mar-Aug 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas-fired commercial refrigeration is not common today. However, today's and tomorrow's gas engines (internal combustion, Stirling, gas turbines) could power cost-effective refrigeration systems. One key is effectively utilizing the prime mover's reject heat to economic advantage. Another is the capacity control afforded by a variable-speed prime mover. The best example of such a system is comparatively near-term. It serves the large and steady supermarket refrigeration market with an industrial-grade internal combustion engine driving an open-shaft reciprocating compressor. The gas engine's exhaust enables a reciprocating steam engine to boost shaft power by 20%.

Hynek, S.J.; Krepchin, I.P.; Harvey, A.C.; Demler, R.L.; Borhanian, H.H.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Submersible canned motor transfer pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs.

Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

440

Factors affecting the energy consumption of two refrigerator-freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two refrigerator-freezers, one with a top-mounted freezer and one with side-by-side doors, were tested in the laboratory to determine the sensitivity of their energy consumption to various operational factors. Room temperature, room humidity, door openings, and the setting of the anti-sweat heater switch were the factors examined. The results indicated that the room temperature and door openings had a significantly greater effect on energy consumption than the other two factors. More detailed tests were then performed under different room temperature and door-opening combinations. The relationship of door openings and the equivalent test room temperature was established. Finally, the effect on energy of different temperature settings was studied. Test results are presented and discussed.

Kao, J.Y.; Kelley, G.E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Solubility, viscosity and density of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents results for low refrigerant concentration (70, 80, 90 and 100 weight percent lubricant) mixtures of the following fluids: CFC-12/ISO 32 naphthenic mineral oil, HCFC-22/ISO 32 naphthenic mineral oil, CFC-12/ISO 100 naphthenic mineral oil, HFC-134a/ISO 22 pentaerythritol ester mixed acid, HFC-134a/ISO 32 pentaerythritol ester mixed acid [number sign]1, HFC-134a/ISO 68 pentaerythritol ester mixed acid, HFC-134a/ISO 100 pentaerythritol ester mixed acid, HFC-134a/ISO 32 pentaerythritol ester mixed acid [number sign]2, HCFC-123/ISO 32 naphthenic mineral oil, HCFC-123/ISO 100 naphthenic mineral oil, HCFC-123/150 SUS alkylbenzene, HCFC-123/300 SUS alkylbenzene. These data have been reduced to engineering form and are presented in the form of a Daniel Chart. Equations are given along with statistical measures of goodness of fit.

Henderson, D.R.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Electric motors: Markets, trends, and applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric motors play an important role in nearly all sectors of the US economy. Typical motor applications range from air conditioning and appliances in the residential sector, to cooling and space heating in the commercial sector, to materials handling and processing in the industrial sectors. Motors in the residential sector consumed nearly 352 billion kilowatthours (BkWh) in 1985, in the commercial sector 279 BkWh, and the industrial sector 552 BkWh. Approximately 87% of electric motor electricity use in the industrial sector was consumed in manufacturing processes, while the process industries consumed more than half of the manufacturing sector's electric motor electricity use. The total motor population in all sectors in 1987 stood just shy of 1.02 billion, 90% of which are less than one horsepower (HP) in size. An increasing percentage of the motor population is comprised of high efficiency motors, as classified by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). High efficiency motors offer end-users greater energy and cost savings than do their standard efficiency counterparts. This report provides an overview of the history of the electric motor, a brief description of the electromechanical theory behind motor operations, and offers a statistical review of the size and distribution of the electric motor market. The report also presents data on sector motor electricity use, describes current and potential motor application opportunities, and details areas in which further research and development may be needed.

Not Available

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for Industry MotorMaster+ User Manual New Motor Systems Market Assessment AMO and LBNL are currently developing an update to the original Motor Systems Market Assessment. The...

445

Three phase AC motor controller  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

Vuckovich, Michael (Elizabeth, PA); Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA); Burkett, John P. (South Huntington Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

446

PM brushless DC motor drive with a new power converter topology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the growing potential for widespread use of permanent magnet brushless dc motor drives (hereafter referred to as PMBDC drives) in many low-cost applications such as in hvac, refrigerators, and freezers in houses and small velocity servos in process industries, it has become important to minimize the cost. One obvious place for cost reduction is in the cost of the inverter and its associated controller. With that perspective, a novel application of the converter topology for the PMBDC known as C-dump in the switched reluctance motor drives is proposed in this paper. The advantages and disadvantages of this topology vis-a-vis the conventional 3 phase H-bridge converter, are highlighted from the points of view of economy in switches, volt ampere rating, associated controller cost, and packaging. Design considerations for the PMBDC motor are derived for use with the proposed converter topology. The operational and design characteristics of this converter driven PMBDC drive are derived for four quadrant performance. Guidelines for the design of the proposed performance. Guidelines for the design of the proposed topology are derived and presented in the paper. Experimental results from a laboratory prototype are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed PMBDC drive system.

Krishnan, R.; Lee, S. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

Case Histories of Energy Efficient Motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

should be the value read from a reputable manufactur er I s data sheet. COOLING TOWER MOTORS The plant is now replacing 25 hp cooling tower motors with EE motors as the old ones burn out. An adapter base for changing from the old frame size 365... volts and amps from an EE motor and comparing this to readings from an old motor in service on the tower. This was based on an assumption of identical loads and motor power factors. This calculation showed yearly savings very close to the cost...

Riley, J. C.; Comiskey, W. T

448

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for defrosting/compressor cooling or in frigid climates withthermosiphon compressor cooling, premium-efficiency motors,

Lekov, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

An overview of the planned Jefferson Lab 12-GeV helium refrigerator upgrade  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In February 2006, Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, VA, received Ô Critical Decision 1Ô (CD-1) approval to proceed with the engineering and design of the long anticipated upgrade to increase the beam energy of CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, from 6 GeV to 12 GeV. This will require the installation of 10 new cryomodules, and additional 2.1-K refrigeration beyond the available 4600 W to handle the increased heat loads. Additionally, a new experimental hall, Hall D, is planned that will require the installation of a small, available refrigerator. This paper will present an overview of the integration of the new proposed refrigeration system into CEBAF, the installation of the available refrigerator for Hall D, and includes planned work scope, current schedule plans and project status.

Arenius, Dana; Creel, Jonathan; Dixon, Kelly; Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Wright, Mathew

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

A Comparison of Fault Detection Methods For a Transcritical Refrigeration System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Climate Change, eleven of the twelve years between 1995 and 2006 ranked with the highest temperatures since direct measurement has been available [3]. The use of hydroflourocarbons (HFCs) as refrigerants contributes to climate change. Global warming...

Janecke, Alex Karl

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

451

Evaluating energy dissipation during expansion in a refrigeration cycle using flue pipe acoustic resonators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research evaluates the feasibility of using a flue pipe acoustic resonator to dissipate energy from a refrigerant stream in order to achieve greater cooling power from a cryorefrigeration cycle. Two models of the ...

Luckyanova, Maria N. (Maria Nickolayevna)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

LPG recovery from refinery flare by waste heat powered absorption refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A waste heat powered ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit (ARU) has commenced operation at the Colorado Refining Company in Commerce City, Colorado. The ARU provides 85 tons of refrigeration at 30 F to refrigerate the net gas/treat gas stream, thereby recovering 65,000 barrels per year of LPG which formerly was flared or burned as fuel. The ARU is powered by the 290 F waste heat content of the reform reactor effluent. An additional 180 tons of refrigeration is available at the ARU to debottleneck the FCC plant wet gas compressors by cooling their inlet vapor. The ARU is directly integrated into the refinery processes, and uses enhanced, highly compact heat and mass exchange components. The refinery's investment will pay back in less than two years from increased recovery of salable product, and CO{sub 2} emissions are decreased by 10,000 tons per year in the Denver area.

Erickson, D.C.; Kelly, F.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

The effect of new priorities and new materials on residential refrigerator design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing energy-efficiency requirements, combined with environmental considerations, have resulted in designs for domestic refrigerators that incorporate new thermal insulating materials. The first series of tests of these materials have been sufficiently promising that incorporation of vacuum insulations if likely within the next several years. Initial designs will probably use a combination of vacuum insulations and foam; in future designs, major parts consolidation will be possible using structural and other characteristics of the new panel assemblies. Given optimization of the refrigerator thermal envelope according to life-cycle costs, energy use by refrigerators could be greatly reduced; refrigerators could lose their significance as a major component in residential energy-use. Possible forms in which these new materials will be used are discussed, including alternatives for composite assembly and requirements for reliability and durability.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Field Measurements and Evaluation of CO2 Refrigeration Systems for Supermarkets.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this thesis, three supermarket refrigeration systems are evaluated; two trans-critical DX CO2 systems and one R404A/CO2 cascade system. Field measurements of energy consumption,ů (more)

Kullheim, Johan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Southeast Asia and the USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparative analysis of the annual energy consumption of these refrigeration systems in eighty eight cities from all climate zones in Southeast Asia. Also, the performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems is compared to the baseline R404A multiplex direct expansion (DX) system. Finally, the overall performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems in various climatic conditions in Southeast Asia is compared to that in the United States. For the refrigeration systems investigated, it was found that the Transcritical Booster System with Bypass Compressor (TBS-BC) performs better or equivalent to the R404A multiplex DX system in the northern regions of Southeast Asia (China and Japan). In the southern regions of Southeast Asia (India, Bangladesh, Burma), the R404A multiplex DX system and the Combined Secondary Cascade (CSC) system performs better than the TBS-BC.

Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Dynamic Modeling and Cascaded Control for a Multi-Evaporator Supermarket Refrigeration System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The survey from US Department of Energy showed that about one-third of energy consumption in US is due to air conditioning and refrigeration systems. This significant usage of electricity in the HVAC industry has prompted researchers to develop...

Gupta, Ankush 1986-

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

457

A Systems Approach to Optimize the Operation of a Refrigeration Unit at a Chemical Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper focuses on the ongoing system level analysis and the optimization results of two steamturbine driven refrigeration units at the Dow Chemical company Peroxymerics (PXC) plant located at St. Charles Operations in Hahnville, LA. Six...

Papar, R.; Zugibe, K.; Heitler, J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Patterns of Refrigerant Use Resulting From Regulations Designed to Protect the Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These difficulties can be turned into a competitive advantage if the contractor understands the source of the difficulties. This paper explores some of the industry wide problems and solutions. The new refrigerants are many and are covered by venting, recycling...

Thomas, R.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

An Advanced Solar-Powered Rotary Solid Adsorption Refrigerator with High Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, according to practical consideration, a new solar powered rotary solid adsorption refrigerator system adopting activated carbon fibre + ethanol as its adsorption pair has been designed with higher performance. Moreover, the principle...

Zheng, A.; Gu, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amazon Mechanical Turk was used, for the first time, to collect statistically representative survey data from U.S. households on the presence, number, type and usage of refrigerators, freezers, and various ômiscellaneousö refrigeration products (wine/beverage coolers, residential icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along with household and demographic information. Such products have been poorly studied to date, with almost no information available about shipments, stocks, capacities, energy use, etc. A total of 9,981 clean survey responses were obtained from five distinct surveys deployed in 2012. General refrigeration product survey responses were weighted to demographics in the U.S. Energy Information Administrationĺs Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2009 dataset. Miscellaneous refrigeration product survey responses were weighted according to demographics of product ownership found in the general refrigeration product surveys. Model number matching for a portion of miscellaneous refrigeration product responses allowed validation of refrigeration product characteristics, which enabled more accurate estimates of the penetrations of these products in U.S. households. We estimated that there were 12.3▒1.0 million wine/beverage coolers, 5.5(ľ3.5,+3.2) million residential icemakers and 4.4(ľ2.7,+2.3) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S. households in 2012. (All numerical results are expressed with ranges indicating the 95% confidence interval.) No evidence was found for the existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover, we found that 15% of wine/beverage coolers used vapor compression cooling technology, while 85% used thermoelectric cooling technology, with the vast majority of thermoelectric units having capacities of less than 30 wine bottles (approximately 3.5 cubic feet). No evidence was found for the existence of wine/beverage coolers with absorption cooling technology. Additionally, we estimated that there were 3.6▒1.0 million hybrid refrigerator-wine/beverage coolers and 0.9▒0.5 million hybrid freezer-wine/beverage coolers in U.S. households. We also obtained estimates of miscellaneous refrigeration product capacities, lifetimes, purchase and installation costs, repair frequencies and costs, and maintenance costs. For wine/beverage coolers, we also obtained information on the penetration of built-in units, AC/DC operating capability, the use of internal lights, and distributions of door opening frequencies. This information is essential to develop detailed estimates of national energy usage and life-cycle costs, and would be helpful in obtaining information on other plug-load appliances. Additional information not highlighted in the main report was presented in Appendices.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Young, Scott J.; Yang, Hung-Chia; Long, Timothy; Beraki, Bereket; Price, Sarah K.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-3 Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency Huawei Zhu Zhejiang Urban and Rural Planning Design Institute... conditioning system has led to extensive criticism. 2. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VARIABLE REFRIGERANT VOLUME AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND ITS PRESENT APPLICATION ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-3 2...

Zhu, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Development and Testing of a Screw Compressor Supermarket Refrigeration System. Phase I Final Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aspen Systems, Inc. has completed the design and performance evaluation for a screw compressor refrigeration system for supermarket application. A major advantage of such a system is its ability to exactly match the compressor capacity to the refrigeration load. The capacity modulation of the compressor is performed by the repositioning of an infinitely adjustable slide valve. Another advantage of this system is its compatibility with vapor injection which is an inexpensive and reliable method of liquid subcooling and compressor intercooling.

Borhanian, H.H.; Toscano, W.M.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Optimization of Industrial Refrigeration Plants: Including a Case Study at Stonyfield Farm Yogurt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

controls and unloading (specifically in the case of screw compressors which do not unload linearly). A lower refrigerant temperature results in lower suction pressure and increased compressor power requirements. A lower condensing pressure, which is a...Optimization of Industrial Refrigeration Plants: Including a Case Study at Stonyfield Farm Yogurt Mark DĺAntonio Satyen Moray Brian McCowan Gary Epstein VP Engineering Services Project Manager VP Technology & Development President Energy...

Dixon, R.; McCowan, B.; Drake, L.; Epstein, G.; D'Antonio, M.; Moray, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

Bass, John C. (6121 La Pintra Dr., La Jolla, CA 92037)

1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

465

Homopolar motor with dual rotors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A homopolar motor has a field rotor mounted on a frame for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor mounted for rotation on said frame within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor. The two rotors are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism, so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed. 7 figs.

Hsu, J.S.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermoelectric generator is described for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gases produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gases pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure. 8 figs.

Bass, J.C.

1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

467

Overview of Air Liquide refrigeration systems between 1.8 K and 200 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cryogenic refrigeration systems are necessary for numerous applications. Gas purification and distillation require temperatures between 15 K and 200 K depending on the application, space simulation chambers down to 15 K, superconductivity between 1.8 K and up to 75 K (magnets, cavities or HTS devices like cables, FCL, SMES, etc), Cold Neutron Sources between 15 and 20 K, etc. Air Liquide Advanced Technologies is designing and manufacturing refrigerators since 60 years to satisfy those needs. The step by step developments achieved have led to machines with higher efficiency and reliability. In 1965, reciprocating compressors and Joule Thomson expansion valves were used. In 1969, centripetal expanders began to be used. In 1980, oil lubricated screw compressors took the place of reciprocating compressors and a standard range of Claude cycle refrigerators was developed: the HELIAL series. 1980 was also the time for cryogenic centrifugal compressor development. In 2011, driven by the need for lower operational cost (high efficiency and low maintenance), cycle oil free centrifugal compressors on magnetic bearings were introduced instead of screw compressors. The power extracted by centripetal expanders was recovered. Based on this technology, a range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators has been designed for temperatures between 40 K and 150 K. On-going development will enable widening the range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators to cryogenic temperatures down to 15 K.. Cryogenic centrifugal circulators have been developed in order to answer to an increasing demand of 4 K refrigerators able to distribute cold power.

Gondrand, C.; Durand, F.; Delcayre, F.; Crispel, S. [AL-AT, 2 rue de ClÚmenciŔres, 38360 Sassenage (France); Baguer, G. M. Gistau [CRYOGUY, 44, chemin de la Buisse, 38330 Biviers (France)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

468

Research and development of highly energy-efficient supermarket refrigeration systems. Volume 2. Supplemental laboratory testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Supermarket Refrigeration System project was structured to investigate and develop a new, highly energy-efficient supermarket refrigeration system which features unequal, parallel compressors, microprocessor suction pressure control, and floating head pressure control. Energy savings are achieved because such a system is better able to match compressor capacity with the required refrigeration load. For this same reason, the unequal, parallel compressor system can operate at the lowest possible condenser pressure. The combined effect of highest possible suction pressure and lowest possible condensing pressure substantially increases the energy efficiency ratio (EER) of the refrigeration system. The test conditions included winter and spring ambient temperatures ranging from 8/sup 0/ to 70/sup 0/F, refrigerants R-12 and R-502 with corresponding evaporator temperatures of 20/sup 0/ and -20/sup 0/F, respectively, and variable refrigeration loads between 100,000 and 170,000 Btu/hr. Heat reclaim tests were performed with R-12 only. For the three sets of tests performed, R-12, R-12 with heat reclaim, and R-502, the highest system EER was achieved when the unequal, parallel compressor system was operated with microprocessor control and floating head control.

Toscano, W.M.; Walker, D.H.; Tetreault, R.D.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Investigations of ammonia-secondary fluid systems in supermarket refrigeration systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International agreements have legislated the phaseout of many refrigerants, including R-502 and R-12, which are commonly used in supermarket refrigeration systems. R-22 and ammonia (R-717) are candidate replacement refrigerants having appropriate thermodynamic properties. The toxicity of ammonia at low concentrations required that it be confined to the equipment room, so a secondary fluid is needed to distribute cooling to the refrigerated cases. This paper investigates ammonia-secondary fluid systems and compares their performance with equivalent R-22 systems. Both R-22 and ammonia have high compressor discharge temperatures, necessitating staged compression. Three methods of staging the compression were compared for both refrigerants. Six secondary fluids were evaluated for use with ammonia in the supermarket system. The overall system performance of the ammonia-secondary fluid refrigeration system, including both compressor and secondary fluid pump power, is governed by a large set of design parameters. The influence of these parameters on the overall system performance was studied in a systematic manner. From this parametric study, design rules leading to optimal ammonia-secondary fluid systems were developed. The performance of well-designed ammonia-secondary fluid systems was found to be 4% to 10% lower than that of R-22 systems operating under similar conditions.

McDowell, T.P. [Thermal Storage Applications Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

470

Writing Motor Specifications - How to Include Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The escalating cost of electric power coupled with the rapid depletion of our non-renewable resources makes consideration of motor efficiency good sense both from economic and conservation viewpoints. The efficiency of an electric motor can...

Quartermaine, B. J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Impact of Motor Failures on Payback Periods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper uses MotorMaster and Vaughen's Complete Price Guide to determine payback periods for different motor failure scenarios. Some scenarios considered are rewinds, reconditions, and replacement of bearings. Prices for these repairs...

Cheek, K. F.; Pillay, P.; Dudley, K. J.

472

Application Guidelines for Energy Efficient Motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rapidly rising power costs have prompted industrial motor users to consider specifying motors having efficiencies higher than the norm. Blanket specifications calling out high efficiency units for all applications can result in extended deliveries...

Cowern, E. H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Self-bearing motor design & control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the design, implementation and control of a new class of self-bearing motors. The primary thesis contributions include the design and experimental demonstration of hysteresis self-bearing motors, novel ...

Imani Nejad, Mohammad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Motor Energy Saving Opportunities in an Industrial Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industrial plants have enormous energy saving opportunities with electric motors. Improving motor efficiency is a conventional wisdom to save energy. Re-engineering affords far greater savings opportunities than motor efficiency improvement. Motor...

Kumar, B.; Elwell, A.

475

Frequency modulation drive for a piezoelectric motor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A piezoelectric motor has peak performance at a specific frequency f.sub.1 that may vary over a range of frequencies. A drive system is disclosed for operating such a motor at peak performance without feedback. The drive system consists of the motor and an ac source connected to power the motor, the ac source repeatedly generating a frequency over a range from f.sub.1 -.DELTA.x to f.sub.1 +.DELTA.y.

Mittas, Anthony (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A NOVEL APPROACH TO DETERMINING MOTOR LOAD by Michael Brown Georgia Tech Research Institute Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACf Properly sized electric motors are essential if industrial plant efficiency is to be optimized and energy costs... minimized. Because of the difficully in making power measurements on three phase motors, loading is rarely, if ever, checked. A simple indication of motor load can be achieved by measuring operating speed because speed and load are almost linearly...

Brown, M.

477

Conducting a Motor Survey: Key Step for Establishing a Motor Management Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Roughly 70% of the energy consumed by manufacturing processes is used by electric motors. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, greater attention to motor systems management can reduce motor-related energy costs by 18%. Establishing a motor...

Miller, R. B.

478

Electric Motor What happens if we put  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric Motor What happens if we put a loop of wire carrying a current in a B field ? FB on opposite sides of the loop produce a torque on the loop causing it to rotate. Electric motor ┬ş a commutator. #12;Electric Motor Define normal n to plane using right-hand rule Torque tends to rotate loop to align

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

479

Method and apparatus for monitoring motor operated valve motor output torque and power at valve seating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization. 14 figs.

Casada, D.A.

1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

480

Method and apparatus for monitoring motor operated valve motor output torque and power at valve seating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization.

Casada, Donald A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "motor vfds refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Performance testing of a commercially produced cryogenic refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A commercially available cryogenic refrigeration unit, model M-20, (3-phase, 60-Hz, 230-V) manufactured by Cryodynamics, Inc., was subjected to laboratory testing to measure some of its performance characteristics. Comparisons were made with those performance characteristics given in manufacturer literature for the M-20 unit (3-phase, 400-Hz, 208-V). At 77 K, the measured cooling capacity of the 60-Hz/230-V unit was very nearly the same (<2% difference) as the specified capacity (110 W) of the 400-Hz/208-V unit. At temperature levels higher than 77 K, measured cooling capacities exceeded the manufacturer product data sheet values. Coefficients of performance (COP) based on the experimental measurements ranged from about 0.37 at 250 K to 0.03 at 70 K. Comparison of measured to ideal (Carnot cycle) COPs yielded values ranging from about 8 to 18%, with broad maximum occurring between approximately 100 and 150 K. Finally, the measured cool-down time from room temperature to 77 K was about 10 minutes compared with a specification sheet value of 7.4 minutes. This difference may be attributed to lower thermal mass (without heater block) and higher operating frequency conditions associated with the specification. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Keshock, E.G. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Murphy, R.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Dry Dilution Refrigerator with He-4 Precool Loop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

He-3/He-4 dilution refrigerators (DR) are very common in sub-Kelvin temperature research. We describe a pulse tube precooled DR where a separate He-4 circuit condenses the He-3 of the dilution loop. Whereas in our previous work the dilution circuit and the He-4 circuit were separate, we show how the two circuits can be combined. Originally, the He-4 loop with a base temperature of ~ 1 K was installed to make an additional cooling power of up to 100 mW available to cool cold amplifiers and electrical lines. In the new design, the dilution circuit is run through a heat exchanger in the vessel of the He-4 circuit so that the condensation of the He-3 stream of the DR is done by the He-4 stage. A much reduced condensation time (factor of 2) of the He-3/He-4 gas mixture at the beginning of an experiment is achieved. A compressor is no longer needed with the DR as the condensation pressure remains below atmospheric pressure at all times; thus the risk of losing expensive He-3 gas is small. The performance of the DR ...

Uhlig, K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Energy Savings in Refrigerated Walk-In Boxes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this technical brief is to provide an overview of the results of an assessment of a technique for saving energy in refrigerated walk-in coolers, and to evaluate the potential for this technology in Federal facilities. The focus of this study was on a single manufacturer of the technology, Nevada Energy Control Systems, Inc. (Necsi); no other vendors for this technology could be found. Previous studies were inconclusive about the overall efficacy of this technique due to uncertainties in a number of areas. [1] Previous evaluations also lacked the benefit of the results from recent manufacturer sponsored tests and did not address some fundamental issues about the overall efficacy of this technology that are critical to understanding its potential. The primary objective of this assessment was to determine if the previous studies combined with recent vendor sponsored test results substantiate the manufacturer's claims that this is a cost effective energy saving technique with significant potential in Federal facilities. Secondary objectives included evaluation of intangible benefits such as equipment life and reliability issues, and humidity and airflow effects on product.

Webster, Tom

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

485

An Evaluation of the Effects of Refrigerant Charge on a Residential Central Air Conditioner with Orifice Expansion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

had one row of tubes with spine fins spaced at 20 per inch. The face area of the coil was 20.94 ft with refrigerant tube sizes of 3/8". The outdoor fan was located on the top of the outdoor coil. The fan specifications are given in Table 2.... 2.5 Table 2.1 - Fan Specification Refrigerant Side A schematic of the refrigerant circuit is shown in Figure 2.3. Refrigerant pressures were monitored at the 6 points shown with the use of 0-300 psig pressure transducers. To accurately measure...

O'Neal, D. L.; Ramsey, C. J.; Farzad, M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India. Michael A.followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliancesfrost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have

McNeil, Michael A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Sample Self-Heating in the Portable Dilution Refrigerator Figure 1. Self-heating of a model sample in a dilution refrigerator. Sample temperature is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Sample Self-Heating in the Portable Dilution Refrigerator Figure 1. Self-heating of a model were curious as to what the internal temperature of the sample may have been as it was heating ~ 6 pW, self heating begins to occur. The most dramatic result of this test was that a temperature

Weston, Ken

488

Industrial DSM: Beyond High Efficiency Lights and Motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on behalf of electric utilities. These represent real-world solutions to problems in actual industrial plants in many different types of industries. DSM IN LOW TEMPERATURE REFRIGERAnON SYST M APPLICAnONS Industrial refrigeration equipment is highly... energy-intensive. In many dairy procl::."ing plants in particular, refrigeration systems are the largest electricity consumers, repre enting as much as 75 percent of plant peak demand. The availability of the refrigeration system is critical...

Appelbaum, B.

489

End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program: Analysis of residential refrigerator/freezer performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is conducting a large end-use data acquisition program in an effort to understand how energy is utilized in buildings with permanent electric space heating equipment in the Pacific Northwest. The initial portion of effort, known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), was conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The collection of detailed end-use data provided an opportunity to analyze the amount of energy consumed by both refrigerators and separate freezers units located in residential buildings. By obtaining this information, the uncertainty of long- term regional end-use forecasting can be improved and potential utility marketing programs for new appliances with a reduced overall energy demand can be identified. It was found that standby loads derived from hourly averages between 4 a.m. and 5 a.m. reflected the minimum consumption needed to maintain interior refrigerator temperatures at a steady-state condition. Next, an average 24-hour consumption that included cooling loads from door openings and cooling food items was also determined. Later, analyses were conducted to develop a model capable of predicting refrigerator standby loads and 24-hour consumption for comparison with national refrigerator label ratings. Data for 140 residential sites with a refrigeration end-use were screened to develop a sample of 119 residences with pure refrigeration for use in this analysis. To identify those refrigerators that were considered to be pure (having no other devices present on the circuit) in terms of their end-use classification, the screening procedure used a statistical clustering technique that was based on standby loads with 24-hour consumption. 5 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

Ross, B.A.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

An experimental study of waste heat recovery from a residential refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of an integrated heat recovery system which has been designed both to enhance the performance of a residential refrigerator and simultaneously to provide preheated water for an electric hot water heater. A commercial, indirect-heated hot water tank was retrofitted with suitable tubing to permit it to serve as a water cooled condenser for a residential refrigerator. This condenser operates in parallel with the air-cooled condenser tubing of the refrigerator so that either one or the other is active when the refrigerator is running. The refrigerator was housed in a controlled-environment chamber, and it was instrumented so that its performance could be monitored carefully in conjunction with the water pre-heating system. The system has been tested under a variety of hot water usage protocols, and the resulting data set has provided significantly insight into issues associated with commercial implementation of the concept. For the case of no water usage, the system was able to provide a 35 C temperature rise in the storage tank after about 100 hours of continuous operation, with no detectable deterioration of the refrigerator performance. Preliminary tests with simulations of high water usage, low water usage, and family water usage indicate a possible 18--20% energy savings for hot water over a long period of operation. Although the economic viability for such a system in a residential environment would appear to be sub-marginal, the potential for such a system associated with commercial-scale refrigeration clearly warrants further study, particularly for climates for which air conditioning heat rejection is highly seasonal.

Clark, R.A.; Smith, R.N.; Jensen, M.K. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

491

Chemistry in Motion: Tiny Synthetic Motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this Account, we describe how synthetic motors that operate by self-diffusiophoresis make use of a self-generated concentration gradient to drive motor motion. A description of propulsion by self-diffusiophoresis is presented for Janus particle motors comprising catalytic and noncatalytic faces. The properties of the dynamics of chemically powered motors are illustrated by presenting the results of particle-based simulations of sphere-dimer motors constructed from linked catalytic and noncatalytic spheres. The geometries of both Janus and sphere-dimer motors with asymmetric catalytic activity support the formation of concentration gradients around the motors. Because directed motion can occur only when the system is not in equilibrium, the nature of the environment and the role it plays in motor dynamics are described. Rotational Brownian motion also acts to limit directed motion, and it has especially strong effects for very small motors. We address the following question: how small can motors be and still exhibit effects due to propulsion, even if only to enhance diffusion? Synthetic motors have the potential to transform the manner in which chemical dynamical processes are carried out for a wide range of applications.

Peter H. Colberg; Shang Yik Reigh; Bryan Robertson; Raymond Kapral

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

492

Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

493

System and method for motor speed estimation of an electric motor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for a motor management system includes a computer readable storage medium and a processing unit. The processing unit configured to determine a voltage value of a voltage input to an alternating current (AC) motor, determine a frequency value of at least one of a voltage input and a current input to the AC motor, determine a load value from the AC motor, and access a set of motor nameplate data, where the set of motor nameplate data includes a rated power, a rated speed, a rated frequency, and a rated voltage of the AC motor. The processing unit is also configured to estimate a motor speed based on the voltage value, the frequency value, the load value, and the set of nameplate data and also store the motor speed on the computer readable storage medium.

Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Yan, Ting (Brookfield, WI); Luebke, Charles John (Sussex, WI); Sharma, Santosh Kumar (Viman Nagar, IN)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

494

Experimental and cost analyses of a one kilowatt-hour/day domestic refrigerator-freezer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past ten years, government regulations for energy standards, coupled with the utility industry`s promotion of energy-efficient appliances, have prompted appliance manufacturers to reduce energy consumption in refrigerator-freezers by approximately 40%. Global concerns over ozone depletion have also required the appliance industry to eliminate CFC-12 and CFC-11 while concurrently improving energy efficiency to reduce greenhouse emissions. In response to expected future regulations that will be more stringent, several design options were investigated for improving the energy efficiency of a conventionally designed, domestic refrigerator-freezer. The options, such as cabinet and door insulation improvements and a high-efficiency compressor were incorporated into a prototype refrigerator-freezer cabinet and refrigeration system. Baseline energy consumption of the original 1996 production refrigerator-freezer, along with cabinet heat load and compressor calorimeter test results, were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. The goal for the project was to achieve an energy consumption that is 50% below in 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard for 20 ft{sup 3} (570 l) units. Based on discussions with manufacturers to determine the most promising energy-saving options, a laboratory prototype was fabricated and tested to experimentally verify the energy consumption of a unit with vacuum insulation around the freezer, increased door thicknesses, a high-efficiency compressor, a low wattage condenser fan, a larger counterflow evaporator, and adaptive defrost control.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Investigation of design options for improving the energy efficiency of conventionally designed refrigerator-freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several design options for improving the energy efficiency of conventionally-designed, domestic refrigerator freezers (RFs) were incorporated into two 1990 production RF cabinets and refrigeration systems. The baseline performance of the original units and unit components were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. A detailed refrigerator system computer model which could simulate cycling behavior was used to evaluate the daily energy use impacts for each modification, and modeled versus experimental results are compared. The model was shown to track measured RF performance improvement sufficiently well that it was used with some confidence to investigate additional options that could not be experimentally investigated. Substantial improvements in RF efficiency were demonstrated with relatively minor changes in system components and refrigeration circuit design. However, each improvement exacts a penalty in terms of increased cost or system complexity/reliability. For RF sizes typically sold in the United States (18-22 ft{sup 3} [510--620 1]), alternative, more-elaborate, refrigeration cycles may be required to achieve the program goal (1.00 Kilowatt-hour per day for a 560 l, top mount RF.

Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H. [Consulting Engineer, Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

EPA's research projects relating to the dual-circuit and Lorenz refrigerator/freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper discusses EPA research projects relating to the dual-circuit and Lorenz refrigerator/freezers (RFs). EPA is interested in not only phasing out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in RFs, but doing so in a way that will maximize energy efficiency and minimize subsequent impacts on the greenhouse effect. An early decision was made to concentrate on replacing fully halogenated CFCs in RFs during the first year of EPA's research. RFs were chosen because they are small, require small quantities of refrigerants, are relatively easy to modify and test, and are the most energy-consumptive appliances in most U.S. households. In the future, other applications are expected to receive more attention. The first year of EPA's program has concentrated on implementing two alternative configurations of RFs which are believed to have the potential to make RFs more energy efficient: the dual-circuit and the Lorenz RFs. Research has included modeling alternative refrigerants and Non-azeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures (NARMs) in the dual-circuit and Lorenz configurations and experimental testing of modified RFs and refrigeration components in test stands.

Bare, J.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

An evaluation on the environmental consequences of residual CFCs from obsolete household refrigerators in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) contained in household refrigerators consist mainly of CFC-11 and CFC-12, which will be eventually released into the environment. Consequentially, environmental releases of these refrigerants will lead to ozone depletion and contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect, if waste refrigerators are not disposed of properly. In the present paper, the potential release of residual CFCs and their substitutes from obsolete household refrigerators in China is examined, and their contributions to ozone depletion and greenhouse effect are compared with those of other recognized ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The results imply that annual potential amounts of released residual CFC-11 and CFC-12 will reach their maximums at 4600 and 2300 tons, respectively in 2011, and then decrease gradually to zero until 2020. Meanwhile, the amounts of their most widely used substitutes HCFC-141b and HFC-134a will keep increasing. Subsequently, the contribution ratio of these CFCs and their substitutes to ozone depletion will remain at 25% through 2011, and reach its peak value of 34% by 2018. The contribution to greenhouse effect will reach its peak value of 0.57% by 2010. Moreover, the contribution ratio of these CFCs to the total global release of CFCs will steadily increase, reaching its peak of 15% by 2018. Thus, this period from 2010 to 2018 is a crucial time during which residual CFCs and their substitutes from obsolete household refrigerators in China will contribute significantly to ozone depletion.

Zhao Xiangyang; Duan Huabo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

498

Dry dilution refrigerator with He-4 precool loop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

He-3/He-4 dilution refrigerators (DR) are very common in sub-Kelvin temperature research. We describe a pulse tube precooled DR where a separate He-4 circuit condenses the He-3 of the dilution loop. Whereas in our previous work the dilution circuit and the He-4 circuit were separate, we show how the two circuits can be combined. Originally, the He-4 loop with a base temperature of ? 1 K was installed to make an additional cooling power of up to 100 mW available to cool cold amplifiers and electrical lines. In the new design, the dilution circuit is run through a heat exchanger in the vessel of the He-4 circuit so condensation of the He-3 stream of the DR is done by the He-4 stage. A much reduced condensation time (factor of 2) of the He-3/He-4 gas mixture at the beginning of an experiment is achieved. A compressor is no longer needed with the DR as the condensation pressure remains below atmospheric pressure at all times; thus the risk of losing expensive He-3 gas is small. The performance of the DR has been improved compared to previous work: The base temperature of the mixing chamber at a small He-3 flow rate is now 4.1 mK; at the highest He-3 flow rate of 1.2 mmol/s this temperature increases to 13 mK. Mixing chamber temperatures were measured with a cerium magnesium nitrate (CMN) thermometer which was calibrated with a superconducting fixed point device.

Uhlig, Kurt [Walther-Meissner-Institute, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

499

Properties and Processes for Cryogenic Refrigeration R. Radebaugh, P. Bradley, M. Lewis (838), J. Gary, and A. O'Gallagher (ITL)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems; to create clean vacuums in semiconductor fabrication processes; for liquefaction of industrial article on the fundamentals of cryogenic refrigeration for both small and large superconducting systems was published: "Refrigeration for Superconductors," IEEE Proceedings on Electronic and Large Scale Applications

Magee, Joseph W.

500

Method for assessing in-service motor efficiency and in-service motor/load efficiency  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for assessing the efficiency of an in-service motor. The operating characteristics of the in-service motor are remotely measured. The operating characteristics are then applied to an equivalent circuit for electrical motors. Finally the equivalent circuit is evaluated to determine the performance characteristics of said in-service motor. Based upon the evaluation an individual is able to determine the rotor speed, power output, efficiency, and toque of the in-service motor. Additionally, an individual is able to confirm the calculations by comparing measured values with values obtained as a result of the motor equivalent circuit evaluation.

Kueck, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Otaduy, Pedro J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z