Sample records for motor fuel production

  1. Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

  2. Enhanced conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  3. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  4. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, P.K.; Rabo, J.A.

    1985-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C[sub 5][sup +] hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising a SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  5. Conversion of olefins to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear and/or branched claim C.sub.2 to C.sub.12 olefins are converted to hydrocarbon mixtures suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a catalyst capable of ensuring the production of desirable products with only a relatively minor amount of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst having desirable stability during continuous production operations, comprises a steam stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in aluminum-extracted form. The olefins such as propylene, may be diluted with inerts, such as paraffins or with water, the latter serving to moderate the acidity of the catalyst, or to further moderate the activity of the aluminum-extracted catalyst, so as to increase the effective life of the catalyst.

  6. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  7. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinskey, Anthony J. [MIT] [MIT; Worden, Robert Mark [Michigan State University MSU] [Michigan State University MSU; Brigham, Christopher [MIT] [MIT; Lu, Jingnan [MIT] [MIT; Quimby, John Westlake [MIT] [MIT; Gai, Claudia [MIT] [MIT; Speth, Daan [MIT] [MIT; Elliott, Sean [Boston University] [Boston University; Fei, John Qiang [MIT] [MIT; Bernardi, Amanda [MIT] [MIT; Li, Sophia [MIT] [MIT; Grunwald, Stephan [MIT] [MIT; Grousseau, Estelle [MIT] [MIT; Maiti, Soumen [MSU] [MSU; Liu, Chole [MSU] [MSU

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide into complex cellular molecules using the energy from hydrogen. In this research project, engineered strains of R. eutropha redirected the excess carbon from PHB storage into the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can be used directly as substitutes for fossil-based fuels and are seen as alternative biofuels to ethanol and biodiesel. Importantly, these alcohols have approximately 98 % of the energy content of gasoline, 17 % higher than the current gasoline additive ethanol, without impacting corn market production for feed or food. Unlike ethanol, these branched-chain alcohols have low vapor pressure, hygroscopicity, and water solubility, which make them readily compatible with the existing pipelines, gasoline pumps, and engines in our transportation infrastructure. While the use of alternative energies from solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric has spread for stationary power applications, these energy sources cannot be effectively or efficiently employed in current or future transportation systems. With the ongoing concerns of fossil fuel availability and price stability over the long term, alternative biofuels like branched-chain higher alcohols hold promise as a suitable transportation fuel in the future. We showed in our research that various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, would produce isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol when initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Early on, we isolated one mutant R. eutropha strain which produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture while being more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity. After the targeted elimination of genes encoding several potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer of the improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol.

  8. How brasil grows motor fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, V.; Trindade, S.C.; Branco, J.R.C.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general background in technical, economic, and political terms is discussed, along with the experience of using alcohol in automobiles. Since 1973 a concerted effort has been made to utilize various crops for the production of alcohol. The disposal of stillage is considered. 10 refs.

  9. Available Alternative Fuel School Bus Products--2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of the currently available (and soon to be available) model year 2004 alternative fuel school bus and school bus engine products. It includes information from Blue Bird Corporation, Collins Bus Corporation, Corbeil Bus, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Thomas Built Buses, Inc., Clean Air Partners, Cummins Westport, and Deere & Company.

  10. Catalysts for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst composition capable of ensuring the production of only relatively minor amounts of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst composition, having desirable stability during continuous production operation, employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component. The latter component is a steam-stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in acid-extracted form.

  11. Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta Fe Metro FleetAlternative

  12. Minireview R67 ATP synthase: two motors, two fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oster, George

    Minireview R67 ATP synthase: two motors, two fuels George Oster* and Hongyun Wang FoF1 ATPase is the universal protein responsible for ATP synthesis. The enzyme comprises two reversible rotary motors: Fo and signaling events throughout the cell. ATP synthase, also known as FoF1 ATPase, is the principle

  13. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  14. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  15. Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity Use asFeet)Second QuarterThe

  16. MotorWeek Fuel Cell Video

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how fuel cells are being used in specialty vehicles, auxiliary power, standby power generators, and for supplying power and heat to buildings and warehouse operations.

  17. Fuel Cell Technologies Researcher Lightens Green Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Technologies Researcher Lightens Green Fuel Production Fuel Cell Technologies Researcher Lightens Green Fuel Production August 25, 2014 - 9:36am Addthis Research funded...

  18. Fuel-Based On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Fuel-Based On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions Inventory for the Denver Metropolitan Area Sajal S of Denver 2101 E. Wesley Ave. Denver, CO 80208 #12;Mobile Source Emissions Inventory Methods MOBILE emission factors -g/mile uncertain Vehicle miles traveled -very uncertain Speed correction factors Inventory

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol and Biodiesel Tax Exemption Motor fuels sold to an ethanol or biodiesel production facility and motor fuels manufactured at and sold from an ethanol or biodiesel facility...

  20. Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  1. Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity UseFoot) Year Jan2009 2010 2011

  2. Toxicological and performance aspects of oxygenated motor vehicle fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency, the committee reviewed a draft of a federal report that assesses the effects of oxygenated fuels on public health, air quality, fuel economy, engine performance, and water quality. The committee determined that much of the federal report adequately represents what is known about the effects of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) -- the most commonly used additive in the federal oxygenated-fuels program -- on health, the environment, and motor vehicles. MTBE, a chemical added to gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide pollution, appears not to pose a substantial human health risk, but more-definitive data are needed to assess short-term health effects and to determine whether this additive is effective in reducing carbon monoxide pollution in cold environments.

  3. Control of a Fuel-Cell Powered DC Electric Vehicle Motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Fuel-Cell Powered DC Electric Vehicle Motor Federico Zenith Sigurd Skogestad Meeting, 2005 www.ntnu.no Federico Zenith, Sigurd Skogestad, Control of a Fuel-Cell Powered DC Electric Vehicle Motor #12;2 Outline 1) Control of Fuel Cells--Status 2) Dynamic Modelling of Fuel Cells 3) DC

  4. How to Improve Productivity with Energy-Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curley, J. P.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    productivity is to reduce costs, particularly those which are rising faster than others such as electricity. Today's new energy efficient motors reduce the kilowatts consumed, thus reducing electric bills and improving productivity. This paper will discuss...

  5. Economic Implications of Net Metering for Stationary and Motor Vehicle Fuel Cell Systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    PWP-092 Economic Implications of Net Metering for Stationary and Motor Vehicle Fuel Cell Systems emissions, and petroleum use from motor vehicles, fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) could also act as distributed Fuel Cell Systems in California January 31, 2002 Dr. Timothy E. Lipman Ms. Jennifer L. Edwards Prof

  6. Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications for Ozone Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Motor vehicles are major sources of gas-phase organic the two methods except for products of incomplete combustion, which are not present in uncombusted fuels

  7. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  8. Control of a Fuel-Cell Powered DC Electric Vehicle Motor Federico Zenith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Fuel-Cell Powered DC Electric Vehicle Motor Federico Zenith Sigurd Skogestad Introduction Research in fuel cells receives currently a lot of interest. Fuel cells can be used, in different. However, the dynamics of fuel cells has received comparatively less attention. Control of fuel cells

  9. Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  10. Speech motor control variables in the production of voicing contrasts and emphatic accent 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Timothy Ian Pandachuck

    2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation looks at motor control in speech production. Two specific questions emerging from the speech motor control literature are studied: the question of articulatory versus acoustic motor control targets, and ...

  11. alternative motor fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels - biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas 4 Alternative Fuels Is US Investment in...

  12. alternative motor fuels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels - biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas 4 Alternative Fuels Is US Investment in...

  13. Alternative Fuel Production Facility Incentives (Kentucky) |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or biomass as a feedstock. Beginning Aug. 1, 2010, tax incentives are also available for energy-efficient alternative fuel production facilities and up to five alternative fuel...

  14. Blender Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOil

  15. Motor planning for vocal production in common marmosets Cory T. Miller*, Steven J. Eliades 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    Motor planning for vocal production in common marmosets Cory T. Miller*, Steven J. Eliades 1-00291 Keywords: Callithrix jacchus common marmoset primate vocal production vocal motor plan The vocal motor plan whether a single vocal motor plan comprises the full length of a vocalization. We hypothesized

  16. EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES fuel passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty vehicles. 1. Introduction The use of energy/electric hybrid and fuel cell/electric hybrid drivetrain technologies offers the potential for significant

  17. Proton Motor Fuel Cell GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form History Facebook icon TwitterZip Jump to: navigation,ProsperityProton

  18. Fuel cell electric power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, H.-S.; Heck, R. M.; Yarrington, R. M.

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

  19. Fuel cell electric power production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hwang, Herng-Shinn (Livingston, NJ); Heck, Ronald M. (Frenchtown, NJ); Yarrington, Robert M. (Westfield, NJ)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

  20. OIT Forest Products Motor Challenge Industry Profile: Motor System Usage in Forest Products

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment of Order No. EA-212-AOAHU2014)OHIO E.P.A. JUL 16

  1. Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduce OperatingPropaneStationProduction to

  3. What does motor efference copy represent? evidence from speech production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niziolek, CA; Nagarajan, SS; Houde, JF

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What does motor efference copy represent? Evidence fromAbbreviated title: What does motor efference copy represent?SJ, Wang X (2003) Sensory-Motor Interaction in the Primate

  4. advanced motor fuels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BatteryRelated 0 SunLine CNGSunLineGaragemaintenance bay Parts cost, especially for fuel cell replacement RResources tto manage projectj t 6 12 11 A Comparison between...

  5. Injectable Spontaneous Generation of Tremendous Self-Fueled Liquid Metal Droplet Motors in a Moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, You-You; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro motors that could run in liquid environment is very important for a variety of practices such as serving as pipeline robot, soft machine, drug delivery, or microfluidics system etc. However, fabrication of such tiny motors is generally rather time and cost consumptive and has been a tough issue due to involve too many complicated procedures and tools. Here, we show a straightforward injectable way for spontaneously generating autonomously running soft motors in large quantity. A basic fabrication strategy thus enabled is established and illustrated. It was found that, injecting the GaIn alloy pre-fueled with aluminum into electrolyte would automatically split in seconds into tremendous droplet motors swiftly running here and there. The driving force originated from the galvanic cell reaction among alloy, aluminum and surrounding electrolyte which offers interior electricity and hydrogen gas as motion power. This finding opens the possibility to develop injectable tiny-robots, droplet machines or microfl...

  6. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable transportation energy capable system. The prime energy for this project comes from an agreement with a wind turbine operator.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels Clean CitiesStation Locations to someone by

  8. Catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  9. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using...

  10. Production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from peat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodle, W.W.; Punwani, D.; Weil, S.A.

    1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from peat providing wide variation of the composite proportion of liquid-gas output while maintaining high overall carbon conversion to useful fuel. The process and apparatus utilizes three process stages in a single vessel providing functions of drying wet peat, provisions for addition of both wet and dry peat to a hydropyrolysis zone and gasification of the peat char.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Blend Definition An ethanol blend is defined as a blended motor fuel containing ethyl alcohol that is at least 99% pure, derived from agricultural products, and blended exclusively...

  12. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    table. 56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  13. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  14. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    table. 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  15. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  16. How to Improve Productivity with Energy-Efficient Motors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curley, J. P.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by most Industries. The electrIc motor. Fig. 2 Electric motors have always been relatIvely efficIent, that Is they've really been qUite good at turning electrical energy Into mechanical ener gy. The average motor used by Industry Is a 25 HP unit... with a standard efficIency of about 89% which means that all but 11% of the kilowatts consumed by a motor perform useful work. It's precisely that 11%, the energy that' 5 lost I n the form of heat, that we've reduced. Reduced on the average by about...

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  18. Motors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA /Ml'.SolarUS Dept of Energy, Office26,282.1

  19. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the program period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance-of-plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

  20. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  1. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  2. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  3. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation...

  4. Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plevin, Richard Jay

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.4.9. Fuel ethanol production . . . . . .2008 motor gasoline and fuel ethanol use for transportation123. Pimentel, D. (1991). Ethanol fuels - energy security,

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major sub-system. Section 4.0--Specific technical basis description for each product specification. The scope of this product specification does not include data collection requirements to support accountability or environmental compliance activities.

  6. Abstract--There are two types of drivers in production machine systems: constant velocity (CV) motor and servo-motor.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, WJ "Chris"

    ) motor and servo-motor. If a system contains two drivers or more, among which some are of the CV motor while the other are the servo-motor, the system has the so-called hybrid driver architecture is stable. A simulation is performed to show verify the proposed controller. The CV motor has the velocity

  7. October 2005 Gasification-Based Fuels and Electricity Production from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................. 15 3.2.1 Synthesis of Fischer-Tropsch Fuels.4 FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION, and production cost estimates for gasification-based thermochemical conversion of switchgrass into Fischer-Tropsch

  8. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    82.4 77.1 68.9 62.6 71.6 92.3 89.9 82.6 72.7 - 78.2 See footnotes at end of table. 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 56 Energy Information...

  9. Fuel cell entropy production with ohmic heating and diffusive polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naterer, Greg F.

    Fuel cell entropy production with ohmic heating and diffusive polarization G.F. Naterer a,*, C production of ohmic heating and concentration polarization is investigated for two types of fuel cells (PEMFC oxide fuel cell (SOFC), this article formulates entropy production within electrodes of a proton

  10. Fuel Cell Technologies Researcher Lightens Green Fuel Production |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To: Congestion Study CommentsStolar, OlenaSurrogate2015 |ViewStorage,

  11. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they do?t compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  12. Integration Strategy for DB-MHR TRISO Fuel production in conjunction with MOX Fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCGUIRE, DAVID

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the nuclear power options for the future involves the evolution of gas cooled reactors to support the likely high temperature operations needed for commercial scale hydrogen production. One such proposed option is to use a Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor fueled with uranium based TRISO (coated particle) fuel. It has also been suggested that such a MHR could be operated in a ''Deep Burn'' manner fueled with TRISO fuel produced from recycle spent nuclear fuel. This concept known as a DBMHR must withstand significant development and fuel fabrication cost to be economically viable. The purpose of this report is to consider and propose a strategy where synergy with a parallel MOX fuel to LWR program provides economic or other advantage for either or both programs. A strategy involving three phases has been envisioned with potential for economic benefit relative to a stand-alone TRISO/DBMHR program. Such a strategy and related timing will ultimately be driven by economics, but is offered here for consideration of value to the total AFCI program. Phase I Near-term. Conventional spent fuel aqueous processing, MOX fuel fabrication, and use of present and future LWR/ALWR's with objective of a ''Continuous Recycle'' mode of fuel cycle management. Phase II Intermediate. Augmentation of LWR/ALWR industry with MHR deployment as justified by hydrogen economy and/or electrical demand. Phase III Long-term. Introduction of DBMHR's to offer alternative method for transuranic destruction and associated repository benefits, in addition to Phase II benefits. The basic philosophy of this strategy appears sound. However, the details of the technology plans and economic evaluations should receive additional detail and evaluation in the next fiscal year as funding can support.

  13. Projections of motor vehicle growth, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions for the next thirty years in China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, D.; Wang, M.

    2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the early 1990s, China's motor vehicles have entered a period of fast growth resultant from the rapid economic expansion. As the largest developing country, the fast growth of China's motor vehicles will have tremendous effects on the world's automotive and fuel market and on global CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, we projected Chinese vehicle stocks for different vehicle types on the provincial level. First, we reviewed the historical data of China's vehicle growth in the past 10 years and the correlations between vehicle growth and economic growth in China. Second, we investigated historical vehicle growth trends in selected developed countries over the past 50 or so years. Third, we established a vehicle growth scenario based on the historical trends in several developed nations. Fourth, we estimated fuel economy, annual mileage and other vehicle usage parameters for Chinese vehicles. Finally, we projected vehicle stocks and estimated motor fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions in each Chinese province from 2000 to 2030. Our results show that China will continue the rapid vehicle growth, increase gasoline and diesel consumption and increased CO{sub 2} emissions in the next 30 years. We estimated that by year 2030, Chinese motor vehicle fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions could reach the current US levels.

  14. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0

  15. Refinery & Blender Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProvedFeet)Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan2009698Nov-142009 2010

  16. Genetically Modified Bacteria for Fuel Production: Development of Rhodobacteria as a Versatile Platform for Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: Penn State is genetically engineering bacteria called Rhodobacter to use electricity or electrically generated hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels. Penn State is taking genes from oil-producing algae called Botryococcus braunii and putting them into Rhodobacter to produce hydrocarbon molecules, which closely resemble gasoline. Penn State is developing engineered tanks to support microbial fuel production and determining the most economical way to feed the electricity or hydrogen to the bacteria, including using renewable sources of power like solar energy.

  17. Defossiling Fuel: How Synthetic Biology Can Transform Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Defossiling Fuel: How Synthetic Biology Can Transform Biofuel Production David F. Savage , Jeffrey production is pre- dicted to peak soon, it is reason- able to assume that unconventional fossil fuel sources and economic energy volatility, and smoothing the transition from fossil fuels in the distant future

  18. Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-Desert SouthwestofDepartmentCellulosic

  19. Analysis of production line motor failure. CRADA final report for CRADA number Y-1293-0215

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, J. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Talbott, C. [M& M Mars, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was approached by a Food Products Manufacturer (FPM) to investigate the rapid failure of motors in a manufacturing facility. It was reported that some motors or their bearings were being replaced after as little as four months of service. The deciding symptom for replacement was always high motor vibration. To protect against unscheduled downtime in the middle of a process run, the FPM`s maintenance team removes a motor from service when its vibration level reaches a conservative threshold of approximately 0.4 inches per second. In their experience, motors left in service after reaching this vibration threshold can fail at any time within the time span of the next process run causing significant losses of raw material and production capacity. A peculiar finding of vibration level trend analysis was that at least one motor exhibited cyclic variations with 24-hour periodicity. The vibration level reached a maximum at about 4:00 a.m., ramped down during the day, and then rose again during the night. Another peculiarity was that most of the vibration energy in the affected motors was at the 120 Hz frequency. Since this is twice the 60 Hz line frequency the FPM suspected the vibration was electrically induced. The electric loads at the FPMs plant remain constant during the five days of a continuous production run. Thus, the periodicity of the vibration observed, with its daily peaking at about four am, suggested the possibility of being driven by changes in the electrical power grid external to the plant.

  20. Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1 TermoelectricaPavingPerryEnergy ScoutingPhotosynthesis for

  1. Enhanced catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  2. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...

  3. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update October 18, 2012 Prepared By: Brian D. James Andrew B. Spisak...

  4. Petroleum Products and Alternative Fuels Tax Law (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Petroleum Products and Alternative Fuels Tax Law is relevant to all natural gas and/or biofuel projects. Compressed Natural Gas CNG, petroleum product and/or alternative dealers must apply for...

  5. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Todd Sneller (Nebraska Ethanol Board) discussed the food versus fuel issue.

  6. Product Supplied for Distillate Fuel Oil

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubic Feet) Yeara 436 Energy Information3,879

  7. Ethanol Plant Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarkets EnergyConsumption5 15Environmental

  8. Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5LetLooking5invests inLos AlamosLosChristopherLos

  9. Product Supplied for Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0 167,905.6 173,210.44,115

  10. Feasibility of Steam Hydrogasification of Microalgae for Production of Synthetic Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suemanotham, Amornrat

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    81 Alternative microalgae fuel productionlife cycle analysis of microalgae fuels with existingto the production of microalgae fuel including cultivation,

  11. Motor Response Selection in Overt Sentence Production: A Functional MRI Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tremblay, Pascale; Small, Steven L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of oral motor control and language. DownsRelative www.frontiersin.org Motor response selection instruc- tures participating in motor prepa- ration in humans:

  12. Fission product release from irradiated LWR fuel under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strain, R.V.; Sanecki, J.E.; Osborne, M.F.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fission product release from irradiated LWR fuel is being studied by heating fuel rod segments in flowing steam and an inert carrier gas to simulate accident conditions. Fuels with a range of irradiation histories are being subjected to several steam flow rates over a wide range of temperatures. Fission product release during each test is measured by gamma spectroscopy and by detailed examination of the collection apparatus after the test has been completed. These release results are complemented by a detailed posttest examination of samples of the fuel rod segment. Results of release measurements and fuel rod characterizations for tests at 1400 through 2000/sup 0/C are presented in this paper.

  13. Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.W.; Zackro, W.C.; Czajkowski, G. (Allied-Signal, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA). Engineered Materials Research Center); Shah, P.P.; Kelly, A.P. (UOP, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA))

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Air Force is evaluating various feedstock sources of endothermic fuels. The technical feasibility of producing endothermic fuel from the naphtha by-product from Great Plains Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota was evaluated. The capital and operating costs of deriving the fuel from coal naphtha were also estimated. The coal naphtha from Great Plains was successfully processed to remove sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen contaminants (UOP HD Unibon{reg sign} Hydrotreating) and then to saturate aromatic molecules (UOP AH Unibon{reg sign}). The AH Unibon product was fractionated to yield endothermic fuel candidates with less than 5% aromatics. The major cycloparaffins in the AH Unibon product were cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The production of endothermic fuel from the naphtha by-product stream was estimated to be cost competitive with existing technology. 17 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. ULTRACLEAN FUELS PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: ADVANCES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, E.

    2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  15. A Multi-Country Analysis of Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels and Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cell vehicle Methanol (M100) fuel-cell vehicle Ethanol (methanol), fuel feedstocks (e.g. , coal), and vehicle types (e.g. , fuel-cell vehicle).

  16. A MULTI-COUNTRY ANALYSIS OF LIFECYCLE EMISSIONS FROM TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND MOTOR VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cell vehicle Methanol (M100) fuel-cell vehicle Ethanol (methanol), fuel feedstocks (e.g. , coal), and vehicle types (e.g. , fuel-cell vehicle).

  17. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  18. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System Phase 5 report: Impacts of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel production on Navy fuel availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Das, S.; Lee, R.; Domingo, N.; Davis, R.M.

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Legislation for ultra low sulfur (ULS) diesel fuel, with a greatly reduced allowable sulfur content and a new limit on aromatics content, is expected to be in place by 1995. The ULS diesel fuel has been specified to satisfy national standards for particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. The economic and engineering models of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System have been used to study the impacts of ULS diesel fuel production on other refined petroleum products, with emphasis on the quality of Navy mobility fuels. The study predicts that to produce ULS diesel fuel, Gulf and West Coast refiners will have to invest about $4.4 billion in new processing capacity. Refiners will shift aromatics from No. 2 diesel fuel to jet fuel and to No. 2 fuel oil. Therefore, particulate emissions could be transferred from the nation's highways to the airways and to communities which use No. 2 fuel oil for residential and commercial heating. The study also predicts that there will be an increase in the aromatics content of domestically produced Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel. The gum-forming tendencies of F-76 an F-77 burner fuel oil will increase in most cases. The freezing point of JP-5 will improve. There will be minor changes in the cost of JP-5, but sizable reductions in the cost of F-76 and F-77. 20 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  19. Development of a New Extended Motor Product Label for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, E.; Boteler, R.; Elliot, R. N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    opportunities ESL-IE-14-05-11 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Prescriptive Rebate Programs Provides a rebate for specific products that have been determined to be more efficient... of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Example: Prescriptive Rebates Example: NEMA Premium ® • Label identifies highest efficiency motors • Label is acceptable documentation for efficiency programs...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tax Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are taxed at the state motor fuel excise tax rate of 0.22 per gallon. Beginning the fiscal quarter after which a biodiesel production facility...

  1. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  2. Fuel Cell Product Certification/Listing Lessons Learned | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP) (FactEnergy Product

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2NorthAvailabilityBasicsFuelingProduction

  5. Petroleum Refining Energy Use in Relation to Fuel Products Made

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, J. R.; Marshall, J. F.; Shoemaker, G. L.; Smith, R. B.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that reduce the energy effects of changing octane levels. These changes have been incorporated in the linear program representation of a modern 'fuels' refinery. The total flow of crude oil to products and the corresponding energy use are included...

  6. Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and dimethyl ether) by indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Gasification of coal pro- duces a synthesis gas by coal gasification. The principal con- stituents of ``syngas'' are carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which modern coal gasification facilities in operation to make hydrogen for ammonia production. Also

  7. Fuel Cell Assembly Process Flow for High Productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, David A.

    Fuel Cell Assembly Process Flow for High Productivity Problem Presenter Ram Ramanan Bloom Energy: Introduction Bloom Energy manufactures power modules based on fuel cell technology. These are built up their possible placement within a cell assembly. Currently, these rules for assembling the basic components

  8. Fuel-sodium reaction product formation in breached mixed-oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bottcher, J.H.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Strain, R.V.; Ukai, S.; Shibahara, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The run-beyond-cladding-breach (RBCB) operation of mixed-oxide LMR fuel pins has been studied for six years in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as part of a joint program between the US Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The formation of fuel-sodium reaction product (FSRP), Na/sub 3/MO/sub 4/, where M = U/sub 1-y/Pu/sub y/, in the outer fuel regions is the major phenomenon governing RBCB behavior. It increases fuel volume, decreases fuel stoichiometry, modifies fission-product distributions, and alters thermal performance of a pin. This paper describes the morphology of Na/sub 3/MO/sub 4/ observed in 5.84-mm diameter pins covering a variety of conditions and RBCB times up to 150 EFPD's. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Fuel pins with both target and fuel pellets in an isotope-production reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target pellets are placed in close contact with fissile fuel pellets in order to increase the tritium production rate.

  10. Fuel-sodium reaction product and its influence on breached, mixed-oxide fuel pins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strain, R.V.; Bottcher, J.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Ukai, S.; Arii, Y. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuels Development Corp., Ibaraki-ken (Japan))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation and consequences of fuel-sodium reaction product (FSRP) have been studied in experiments irradiated in Experimental Breeder Reactor II as part of a joint program between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. This paper describes observations on the parameters that most influence the extent of the formation of FSRP and the effects it has on the performance of the fuel pin during continued operation.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP)MassachusettsExperimentalInfrastructure Development toBiodiesel

  12. Subtask 3: Fuel production complex | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solid ... StrengtheningLabSubmittingProduction 2:

  13. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  14. FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2003-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has two primary purposes: (1) Build a small-footprint (SFP) fuel production plant to prove the feasibility of this relatively transportable technology on an intermediate scale (i.e. between laboratory-bench and commercial capacity) and produce as much as 150,000 gallons of hydrogen-saturated Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuel; and (2) Use the virtually sulfur-free fuel produced to demonstrate (over a period of at least six months) that it can not only be used in existing diesel engines, but that it also can enable significantly increased effectiveness and life of the next-generation exhaust-after-treatment emission control systems that are currently under development and that will be required for future diesel engines. Furthermore, a well-to-wheels economic analysis will be performed to characterize the overall costs and benefits that would be associated with the actual commercial production, distribution and use of such FT diesel fuel made by the process under consideration, from the currently underutilized (or entirely un-used) energy resources targeted, primarily natural gas that is stranded, sub-quality, off-shore, etc. During the first year of the project, which is the subject of this report, there have been two significant areas of progress: (1) Most of the preparatory work required to build the SFP fuel-production plant has been completed, and (2) Relationships have been established, and necessary project coordination has been started, with the half dozen project-partner organizations that will have a role in the fuel demonstration and evaluation phase of the project. Additional project tasks directly related to the State of Alaska have also been added to the project. These include: A study of underutilized potential Alaska energy resources that could contribute to domestic diesel and distillate fuel production by providing input energy for future commercial-size SFP fuel production plants; Demonstration of the use of the product fuel in a heavy-duty diesel vehicle during the Alaska winter; a comparative study of the cold-starting characteristics of FT and conventional diesel fuel; and demonstration of the use of the fuel to generate electricity for rural Alaskan villages using both a diesel generator set, and a reformer-equipped fuel cell.

  15. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People's Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  16. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People`s Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  17. Fission-product release from irradiated LWR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Wichner, R.P.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation of fission product release from commercial LWR fuel under accident conditions is being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This work, which is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is an extension of earlier experiments up to 1600/sup 0/C and is designed to obtain the experimental data needed to reliably assess the consequences of accidents for fuel temperatures up to melting. The objectives of this program are (1) to determine fission product release rates from fully-irradiated commercial LWR fuel in high-temperature steam; (2) to collect and characterize the aerosol released; (3) to identify the chemical forms of the released material; (4) to correlate the results with related experimental data and develop a consistent source term model; and (5) to aid in the interpretation of tests using simulated LWR fuel.

  18. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II. In Phase II (June 2001 to December 2004), the project team demonstrated the GranuFlow technology as part of a process to combine paper sludge and coal to produce a composite fuel with combustion and handling characteristics acceptable to existing boilers and fuel handling systems. Bench-scale studies were performed at DOE-NETL, followed by full-scale commercial demonstrations to produce the composite fuel in a 400-tph coal cleaning plant and combustion tests at a 90-MW power plant boiler to evaluate impacts on fuel handling, boiler operations and performance, and emissions. A circuit was successfully installed to re-pulp and inject paper sludge into the fine coal dewatering circuit of a commercial coal-cleaning plant to produce 5,000 tons of a ''composite'' fuel containing about 5% paper sludge. Subsequent combustion tests showed that boiler efficiency and stability were not compromised when the composite fuel was blended with the boiler's normal coal supply. Firing of the composite fuel blend did not have any significant impact on emissions as compared to the normal coal supply, and it did not cause any excursions beyond Title V regulatory limits; all emissions were well within regulatory limits. SO{sub 2} emissions decreased during the composite fuel blend tests as a result of its higher heat content and slightly lower sulfur content as compared to the normal coal supply. The composite fuel contained an extremely high proportion of fines because the parent coal (feedstock to the coal-cleaning plant) is a ''soft'' coal (HGI > 90) and contained a high proportion of fines. The composite fuel was produced and combustion-tested under record wet conditions for the local area. In spite of these conditions, full load was obtained by the boiler when firing the composite fuel blend, and testing was completed without any handling or combustion problems beyond those typically associated with wet coal. Fuel handling and pulverizer performance (mill capacity and outlet temperatures) could become greater concerns when firing composite fuels which contain higher percent

  19. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in existing boilers, evaluation of these composite fuels to determine their applicability to the major combustor types, development of preliminary designs and economic projections for commercial facilities producing up to 200,000 tons per year of biomass/waste-containing fuels, and the development of dewatering technologies to reduce the moisture content of high-moisture biomass and waste materials during the pelletization process.

  20. Table 5.1. U.S. Number of Vehicles, Vehicle-Miles, Motor Fuel Consumption

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet) DecadeV493,552.13,846.302.8Effective

  1. Table 5.1. U.S. Number of Vehicles, Vehicle-Miles, Motor Fuel Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota"Dakota"Nevada"Washington" "megawatthours" "Item",5.1 End Uses of

  2. Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs Fifth Annual Report to Congress - 1996

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. CategoryFebruaryFebruary 17, 2015 - SEAB8 An employee7693This

  3. Mark Mathias > General Motors - Fuel Cell Research > Scientific Advisory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home and It'llMappingMariaHereld Manager,Mark Holecek

  4. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most of the fossil fuel in the life cycle of corn stover-based ethanol.

  5. Production of metal waste forms from spent fuel treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, B.R.; Keiser, D.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Laug, D.V.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Treatment of spent nuclear fuel at Argonne National Laboratory consists of a pyroprocessing scheme in which the development of suitable waste forms is being advanced. Of the two waste forms being proposed, metal and mineral, the production of the metal waste form utilizes induction melting to stabilize the waste product. Alloying of metallic nuclear materials by induction melting has long been an Argonne strength and thus, the transition to metallic waste processing seems compatible. A test program is being initiated to coalesce the production of the metal waste forms with current induction melting capabilities.

  6. Feasibility of Steam Hydrogasification of Microalgae for Production of Synthetic Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suemanotham, Amornrat

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Park, Production of Fischer–Tropsch fuels and electricitythe production of Fischer– Tropsch (FT) fuel derived fromCERT technology for Fischer–Tropsch (FT) liquid fuel and co–

  7. High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, Matthew; Hazelton, Craig; Kano, Kimi

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of highly reliable downhole equipment is an essential element in enabling the widespread utilization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The downhole equipment used in these systems will be required to operate at high voltages and temperatures on the order of 200 to 250°C (and eventually to 300?C). These conditions exceed the practical operating ranges of currently available thermoplastic wire insulations, and thus limit the operating lifetime of tools such as Electric Submersible Pumps (ESPs). In this work, high-temperature insulations based on composite materials were developed and demonstrated. The products of this work were found to exhibit electrical resistivities and dielectric breakdown strengths that PEEK at temperatures above 250C. In addition, sub-scale motor windings were fabricated and tested to validate the performance of this technology

  8. Direct fuel cell for the production of electricity from lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weetall, H.H.; Forsyth, B.D.; Hertl, W.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the use of an anthraquinone mediated fuel cell for the direct production of electrical energy from sulfonated lignin and Kraft Black Liquor. The cell produces the equivalent of one kWh for each 2-3 lb sulfonated lignin and 5-8 lb black liquor combustibles. In the case of the sulfonated lignin, chain session occurs during the oxidation process, reducing the molecular weight from ca. 2 x 10/sup 4/ to less than 1000 D.

  9. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  10. alternative fuels production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels - biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas 2 Alternative and Renewable fuels and...

  11. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  12. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: 2007 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost...

  13. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Application Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the...

  14. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    07 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems...

  15. Fuel and core testing plan for a target fueled isotope production reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coats, Richard Lee; Dahl, James J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years there has been an unstable supply of the critical diagnostic medical isotope 99Tc. Several concepts and designs have been proposed to produce 99Mo the parent nuclide of 99Tc, at a commercial scale sufficient to stabilize the world supply. This work lays out a testing and experiment plan for a proposed 2 MW open pool reactor fueled by Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) 99Mo targets. The experiments and tests necessary to support licensing of the reactor design are described and how these experiments and tests will help establish the safe operating envelop for a medical isotope production reactor is discussed. The experiments and tests will facilitate a focused and efficient licensing process in order to bring on line a needed production reactor dedicated to supplying medical isotopes. The Target Fuel Isotope Reactor (TFIR) design calls for an active core region that is approximately 40 cm in diameter and 40 cm in fuel height. It contains up to 150 cylindrical, 1-cm diameter, LEU oxide fuel pins clad with Zircaloy (zirconium alloy), in an annular hexagonal array on a {approx}2.0 cm pitch surrounded, radially, by a graphite or a Be reflector. The reactor is similar to U.S. university reactors in power, hardware, and safety/control systems. Fuel/target pin fabrication is based on existing light water reactor fuel fabrication processes. However, as part of licensing process, experiments must be conducted to confirm analytical predictions of steady-state power and accident conditions. The experiment and test plan will be conducted in phases and will utilize existing facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories. The first phase is to validate the predicted reactor core neutronics at delayed critical, zero power and very low power. This will be accomplished by using the Sandia Critical Experiment (CX) platform. A full scale TFIR core will be built in the CX and delayed critical measurements will be taken. For low power experiments, fuel pins can be removed after the experiment and using Sandia's metrology lab, relative power profiles (radially and axially) can be determined. In addition to validating neutronic analyses, confirming heat transfer properties of the target/fuel pins and core will be conducted. Fuel/target pin power limits can be verified with out-of-pile (electrical heating) thermal-hydraulic experiments. This will yield data on the heat flux across the Zircaloy clad and establish safety margin and operating limits. Using Sandia's Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) a 4 MW TRIGA type research reactor, target/fuel pins can be driven to desired fission power levels for long durations. Post experiment inspection of the pins can be conducted in the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility to observe changes in the mechanical properties of the LEU matrix and burn-up effects. Transient tests can also be conducted at the ACRR to observe target/fuel pin performance during accident conditions. Target/fuel pins will be placed in double experiment containment and driven by pulsing the ACRR until target/fuel failure is observed. This will allow for extrapolation of analytical work to confirm safety margins.

  16. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by crediting against full fuel cycle emissions from theuse” process fuel -- is the full fuel cycle emission factor,where the full fuel cycle includes emissions from

  17. Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

  18. High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Develop and demonstrate high-temperature ESP motor windings for use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems and operation at 300?C.

  19. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most of which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.

  20. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report formed the basis for much of the subsequent work under the grant. An explanation of the process is presented as well as the completed work on the four tasks.

  1. Energy Dept. Reports: U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Dept. Reports: U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong Growth Energy Dept. Reports: U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong...

  2. Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature Combustion of n-Heptane Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature Combustion of...

  3. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for...

  4. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2013 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

  5. Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session...

  6. U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong Growth U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong Growth January 8, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis...

  7. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application This presentation reports on the status of mass production cost...

  8. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    duty fuel cell vehicles using gasoline, methanol, ethanol,fuel-cell vehicle with a proton-exchange membrane (PEM) and methanolmethanol), fuel feedstocks (e.g. , coal), and vehicle types (e.g. , fuel-cell vehicle).

  9. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline Feedstock activities Fuel production Fuel storage,gasoline vehicle ORNL Fuel cell vehicle DOE fuel cell target: $45/kW by 2015, $30/kW by 2020 (onboard H2 storagegasoline vehicle (Table 3) Component – manufacturing cost Electric Powertrain (Motor + controller + transmission) Fuel cell system (stack + BOP) Hydrogen storage

  10. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    because diesel fuel contains 11% more BTUs per gallon thangenerators, in gallons-diesel fuel per million BTU of

  11. Moving bed reactor for solar thermochemical fuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ermanoski, Ivan

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactors and methods for solar thermochemical reactions are disclosed. Embodiments of reactors include at least two distinct reactor chambers between which there is at least a pressure differential. In embodiments, reactive particles are exchanged between chambers during a reaction cycle to thermally reduce the particles at first conditions and oxidize the particles at second conditions to produce chemical work from heat. In embodiments, chambers of a reactor are coupled to a heat exchanger to pre-heat the reactive particles prior to direct exposure to thermal energy with heat transferred from reduced reactive particles as the particles are oppositely conveyed between the thermal reduction chamber and the fuel production chamber. In an embodiment, particle conveyance is in part provided by an elevator which may further function as a heat exchanger.

  12. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022. Within the mandate, amounts of advanced biofuels, including biomass-based diesel and cellulosic biofuels, are required beginning in 2009. Imported renewable fuels are also eligible for the RFS. Another key U.S. policy is the $1.01 per gal tax credit for producers of cellulosic biofuels enacted as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This credit, along with the DOE's research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs, are assumed to enable the rapid expansion of U.S. and global cellulosic biofuels production needed for the U.S. to approach the 2022 RFS goal. While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to issue RFS rules to determine which fuels would meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and land use restrictions specified in EISA, we assume that cellulosic ethanol, biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL), sugar-derived ethanol, and fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel would all meet the EISA advanced biofuel requirements. We also assume that enough U.S. corn ethanol would meet EISA's biofuel requirements or otherwise be grandfathered under EISA to reach 15 B gal per year.

  13. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

  14. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYCO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    encourages state employees operating state-owned or leased motor vehicles to use hybrid electric vehicles or vehicles that operate on gasohol (a motor fuel containing at least...

  16. A Techno-Economic Analysis of Decentralized Electrolytic Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    A Techno-Economic Analysis of Decentralized Electrolytic Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cell Vehicles-Economic Analysis of Decentralized Electrolytic Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cell Vehicles by Sébastien Prince options considered for future fuel cell vehicles. In this thesis, a model is developed to determine

  17. Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol by the Simultaneous to ethanol, a promising alternative fuel, can be carried out efficiently and economically using are presented in light of the impact of enzymatic hydrolysis on fuel ethanol production. Key words: enzymatic

  18. FOREST FUEL REDUCTION AND ENERGYWOOD PRODUCTION USING A CTL / SMALL CHIPPER HARVESTING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    FOREST FUEL REDUCTION AND ENERGYWOOD PRODUCTION USING A CTL / SMALL CHIPPER HARVESTING SYSTEM THESIS ABSTRACT FOREST FUEL REDUCTION AND ENERGYWOOD PRODUCTION USING A CTL / SMALL CHIPPER HARVESTING concerning mechanical forest fuel reduction. This study examined and measured the feasibility of harvesting

  19. Improving electricity production in tubular microbial fuel cells through optimizing the anolyte flow with spiral spacers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Improving electricity production in tubular microbial fuel cells through optimizing the anolyte h l i g h t s " The spiral spacers improve electricity production in tubular microbial fuel cells fuel cells Spiral spacers Energy Wastewater treatment a b s t r a c t The use of spiral spacers

  20. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Deregulation of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a Motor Fuel The sale of CNG by a fueling station for use as fuel to operate a motor vehicle is deregulated; however, separate...

  2. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel, and biomass. Thus, fuel cell vehicles offer an environmentally clean and energysecure transportation pathway

  3. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJulyD&D Project|StatementDOE Fuel Cell Technologies

  4. Fuels and Other Products | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof Energy ForrestalPrincetonF2: Jet Fuel8:Fueling the

  5. In search of an alternative fuel: Bio-Solar Hydrogen Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    In search of an alternative fuel: Bio-Solar Hydrogen Production from Arthrospira maxima Dariya Comparison of Potential Corn, Cellulose, and Aquatic Microbial Fuel Production Assuming demonstrated biomass production by ­ Sodium substitution ­ Nitrate elimination ­ Hypotonic stress · Conclusions Overview #12;b a

  6. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application: 2009 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application: 2009...

  7. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report identifies the commercial and near-commercial (emerging) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies

  8. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production and Delivery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NREL isData and ResourcesEnergy

  9. Ana Moore | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumni Alumni PARC/I-CARES

  10. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register /of Energy 3 BTO PeerDepartment of Energy Enabling

  11. Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding RemovalCSS LetterStateDepartment ofEqualityCellulosic Liquid

  12. Fuel Production/Quality Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overviewgreen hStrategy1

  13. Mild, Nontoxic Production of Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625Data ShowC -9MicrowaveFuelMike

  14. Hydrogen Production and Storage for Fuel Cells: Current Status | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe SolarContamination Detectorof Energy LeakHydrogenof Energy

  15. Microsoft PowerPoint - Converting Sustainable Forest Products into Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312),Microgrid WorkshopApproved forResourceSeptember

  16. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard | Department ofEmily KnouseEnSysDepartment of

  17. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard | Department ofEmily KnouseEnSysDepartment ofDepartment of

  18. Webinar: Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | Department of Energy Webinar: Energy IsinEnergy

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2North Carolina for MoreFuelsConventional

  20. Webinar: Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnerships ToolkitWaste Heatv3) | Department ofHow to

  1. Fuel NOx pollution production during the combustion of a low caloric value fuel gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caraway, John Phillip

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation is to identify and qualify physical mechanisms and parameters that affect the combustion of low caloric value fuel gases (LCVG) and the formation of NO, pollutants produced from fuel bound nitrogen. Average...

  2. Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 4 of 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Peters, M.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes 25 composite data products (CDPs) produced for stationary fuel cell systems, with data through the fourth quarter of 2013.

  3. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update February 29, 2008 Final Version Brian D. James Jeffrey A. Kalinoski...

  4. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update September 30, 2010 Prepared by: Brian D. James, Jeffrey A. Kalinoski...

  5. mMass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2009 Update January 1, 2010 Prepared by: Brian D. James, Jeffrey A. Kalinoski &...

  6. Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 2 of 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, C.; Kurtz, J.; Peters, M.; Saur, G.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes 24 composite data products (CDPs) produced for stationary fuel cell systems, with data through the second quarter of 2013.

  7. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, ���������������¢��������������������������������Motors and Generators for the 21st Century���������������¢�������������������������������. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can be met with a variety of bonded magnet compositions. The torque ripple was found to drop significantly by using thinner magnet segments. The powder co-filling and subsequent compaction processing allow for thinner magnet structures to be formed. Torque ripple can be further reduced by using skewing and pole shaping techniques. The techniques can be incorporated into the rotor during the powder co-filling process.

  8. Fact #601: December 14, 2009 World Motor Vehicle Production | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment of Energy ScoreEnergyFuel2008 | Department

  9. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S and a reference ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) with 5 ppmof the reference ultra-low-sulfur diesel (5 ppm). SF CD =diesel fuel (CD), ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD),

  10. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    = distillate fuel; ULSD = ultra-low-sulfur distillate fuel;ppm S and a reference ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) with 5content of the reference ultra-low-sulfur diesel (5 ppm). SF

  11. Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steen, Eric James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    motivated production of renewable, biomass-derived fuels andconversion of renewable feedstocks, such as biomass-derivedrenewable energy is the production of these compounds directly from cellulosic plant biomass.

  12. Mission | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenterDioxide Capture in theInformationMission andCenter

  13. Hao Yan | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet When yourecoveryG - SSC DataThe Principal

  14. Ian Pahk | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)Hydrogen StorageITERITER Subscribe to RSS - ITER

  15. Chad Simmons | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamos LaboratoryCertified Reference Materials (CRMs) New

  16. Chelsea Brown | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of SelectiveBrown Graduate student

  17. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires mayYuan T.ExternalscriptEnv LANLFebruary 12, 2015prev

  18. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires mayYuan T.ExternalscriptEnv LANLFebruary 12, 2015prevAZ

  19. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires mayYuan T.ExternalscriptEnv LANLFebruary 12,

  20. Dalvin Mendez | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management Fermi SitePARTOfficeOctober HanfordDecember

  1. Daniel Mieritz | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management Fermi SitePARTOfficeOctober HanfordDecemberDamian

  2. Danielle Ladd | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management Fermi SitePARTOfficeOctoberDaniel Wood About

  3. Devens Gust | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management FermiDavid Turner David3DepthDetectingNERSCPrincipal

  4. Dinesh Medpelli | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management FermiDavidDiesel pricesDiesel28, 2007, 4:15pm

  5. Don Seo | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscovering HowAna Moore Anne Jones Devens Gust Don Seo

  6. Dong Wang | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscovering HowAna Moore Anne Jones Devensfor SUEX dryAlex

  7. Sandip Shinde | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook Twitter Principal Investigators Postdoctoral Fellows Center

  8. Shibom Basu | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarship Fund scholarshipsShedding Light onSheldonUngerSheng

  9. Jackson Megiatto | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as Ready for Summer as

  10. James Allen | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as Ready for Summer asJacob Barhen (1999) JanuaryAna

  11. Jaro Arero | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as Ready for Summer asJacob17 January 309News, FebJaro

  12. Jesse Bergkamp | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as Ready for SummerAcceleratorHarrellJerry DJesse

  13. John Tomlin | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as Ready for(SC) JettingChemistryJohn Shalf

  14. Justin Flory | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as Ready for(SC)JointJournal Cover191 |215Justin

  15. Katie Wong | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as ReadyAppointed to National AcademiesKatieKatie Wong

  16. Kevin Redding | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as ReadyAppointed toCAMD TargetsKevinAna Moore Anne

  17. Kim Rendek | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as ReadyAppointed toCAMD

  18. Kiwan Jeon | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as ReadyAppointed toCAMDAndrews withKiwan Jeon Graduate

  19. Kul Bhushan | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as ReadyAppointed toCAMDAndrewsGraduates >Kuhn

  20. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy, OAPM |TRU Waste Cleanup at1450.5B OMB3.2 DOEDocuments

  1. Xixi Wei | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute moredetection scoreAlex Volosin Anindya

  2. Yan Liu | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contributeSecuritysupports neighbors's/UTAna Moore

  3. Yuichi Terazono | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires mayYuan T. Lee's Crossed Molecular Beam Experiment Home

  4. Zhao Zhao | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires mayYuan T. Lee's Crossed MolecularZerklePrincipal

  5. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:Precourt Institute for EnergyWister|

  6. Palash Dutta | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTestPhysics Lab PPPLEIA-815, Monthly Bulk Terminal and

  7. Patrick Kwan | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTestPhysicsParticipantsPartners ofPatentsPatrick HajekAlex

  8. Petra Fromme | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding accessPeptoid Nanosheets Offer a MathPetascalePeterStangelde

  9. Task Descriptions | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship Program The NIF andPoints of Contact Hanford AdvisoryTakeTask

  10. The Science | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship Program The NIF andPoints ofProject Home

  11. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomass and Biofuelsxml version encoding utfCenter

  12. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomass and Biofuelsxml version encoding

  13. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomass and Biofuelsxml version encodingMedia about

  14. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomass and Biofuelsxml version encodingMedia

  15. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomass and Biofuelsxml version encodingMediaCenter

  16. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomass and Biofuelsxml version encodingMediaCenter

  17. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomass and Biofuelsxml version encodingMediaCenter2

  18. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomass and Biofuelsxml version encodingMediaCenter23

  19. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomass and Biofuelsxml version

  20. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomass and Biofuelsxml versionSubtask 1 Subtask 2

  1. U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulence may be keyNuclearEconomic growthChange | DepartmentAll

  2. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0 Weekly7a.7.Nov-145,083 5,011

  3. Raimund Fromme | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery,Assistance Program ||Principal

  4. U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heatingintensity Energy intensity4. U.S.Barrels,All

  5. Bisfuel Logo | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteries Batteries An errorABisfuel Retreatsfor

  6. Center Objective | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteriesmetal-organic frameworks |A photo ofMayEnergy

  7. Center publications | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms AboutRESEARCH CAPABILITIES The CNMSPartners

  8. Contact information | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGas SeparationsRelevant toSite MapContact Us Contact UsContact

  9. ALCF supercomputer helps identify materials to improve fuel production |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >InternshipDepartmentNeutrino-Induced1 TEMPERATUREiiO E /

  10. Alex Volosin | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C. bescii CelA, adefaultRuns forAndrew

  11. Anindya Roy | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumni Alumni PARC/I-CARESAnalysis &| CareersAlex Volosin

  12. Anne Jones | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumni Alumni PARC/I-CARESAnalysis &| CareersAlex |

  13. Arnab Dutta | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumni AlumniFederal FacilityAprilAre EarthsDecadeNational

  14. Barun Das | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BES Principal Investigators

  15. Ben Sherman | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BESFor41BeforeAllen HPC Principal

  16. Lu Gan | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home and It'll Love You Back Love Your Principal

  17. Matthieu Koepf | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home andDisposition |MaterialsMatt Dozier

  18. Matthieu Walther | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home andDisposition |MaterialsMatt DozierWalther

  19. Michael Kenney | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your HomeOverview and HistoryMEMS:Michael GrossMichael

  20. Michael Vaughn | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your HomeOverview andSinatra Engineering Services TheMichael

  1. Bhupesh Goyal | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplexMaterial Science | Stanford Principal

  2. Bradley Brennan | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess Stories Site MapSolarAboutTaubman Bradbury

  3. Brian Watson | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess Stories Siteand Technical Information BrianBrian

  4. Gerdenis Kodis | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental AssessmentsGeoffrey CampbelllongApplyingGeorgeGeothermal

  5. Giovanna Ghirlanda | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental AssessmentsGeoffrey(SC) Getting MoreStartedStartedtokamaksAna Moore

  6. Emily North | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContractElectron-State HybridizationSecurity / EmergencyResearch FellowsEmilio

  7. Souvik Roy | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarship Fund3Biology|Solar windMarch 26,

  8. Sudhanshu Sharma | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solid ...Success Stories Touching The Lives Of Billions

  9. Thomas Moore | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesis ofwas published inFebruaryHome

  10. Minghui Liu | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1 SECTION A. Revised:7, atMineral Deformation

  11. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice

  12. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in the critical reactors. This combination consumes about 20% of the thorium initially loaded in the hybrid reactor ({approx}200 GWd/tHM), partially during hybrid operation, but mostly during operation in the critical reactor. The plant support ratio is low compared to the one attainable using continuous fuel chemical reprocessing, which can yield a plant support ratio of about 20, but the resulting fuel cycle offers better proliferation resistance as fissile material is never separated from the other fuel components.

  13. Fact #637: August 23, 2010 World Motor Vehicle Production | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment of EnergyEnergy 5:Department ofDepartment

  14. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications for transportation. Fuel cell systems will have to be cost-competitive with conventional and advanced vehicle cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell

  15. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation (2012), annually updated costs analyses will be conducted for PEM fuel cell passenger buses as well to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell vehicles can operate on hydrogen, which

  16. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications vehicles offer an environmentally clean and energy-secure transportation pathway. Fuel cell systems number of vehicles it represents, DOE has established detailed cost targets for automotive fuel cell

  17. Ceria and its derivatives as substrates for solar-driven thermochemical fuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, John H.

    Ceria and its derivatives as substrates for solar-driven thermochemical fuel production Sossina M of solar energy into a storable form suitable for on-demand utilization, i.e., the creation of solar fuels. We have developed a unique thermochemical approach to solar fuel generation using ceria as a reaction

  18. Reactive Dehydration technology for Production of Fuels and Chemicals...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    platform (Intensified Catalytic and Reactive Distillation) for compact, inexpensive production of biomass-based chemicals from complex aqueous mixtures. Separation...

  19. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  20. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  1. VP 100: UQM revving up electric motor production | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartment ofPrivilegesUnauthorizedVIA EMAILofDepartment ofUQM

  2. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent)by69.6 69.1

  3. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent)by69.6 69.170.4

  4. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent)by69.6

  5. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent)by69.61,312.3

  6. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice5,594.9 37,614.8 44,971.0

  7. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice5,594.9 37,614.8

  8. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy to produce heat to break chemical bonds. The University of Minnesota is envisioning producing the fuel by using partial redox cycles and ceria-based reactive materials. The team will achieve unprecedented solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of more than 10% (where current state-of-the-art efficiency is 1%) by combined efforts and innovations in material development, and reactor design with effective heat recovery mechanisms and demonstration. This new technology will allow for the effective use of vast domestic solar resources to produce precursors to synthetic fuels that could replace gasoline.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP7-0973ManagedStrategic|AljazeeraO S o'wareElectricVehicleMotor

  10. Engineering metabolic systems for production of advanced fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Yajun; Liao, James C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the production of 3-methyl-1-butanol. Appl Environ Microbiolsubstrate for 3-methyl-1-butanol (3MB). The phenylalaninepentanoate KDC ADH 3-Methyl-1-butanol Fig. 3 Schematic

  11. a-1 fuel production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pathway technologies to gain the marketshare required to influence the environment and reduce petroleum use. Since 62 RIS-M-2599 DETERMINATION OF FISSION PRODUCTS IN...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Labeling Requirement Motor fuel containing more than 1% ethanol or methanol may not be sold or offered for sale from a motor fuel dispenser unless the individual selling or...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Cell Motor Vehicle Tax Deduction A taxpayer is eligible for a 2,000 tax deduction for the purchase of a qualified fuel cell motor vehicle placed into service before January...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Tax Exemption Biodiesel is exempt from the 0.30 per gallon state motor fuel tax. Biodiesel may be blended with other fuel for use in motor vehicles, but only the...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Blend Mandate Pursuant to state law, all diesel motor vehicle fuel and all other liquid fuel used to operate motor vehicle diesel engines in Massachusetts must contain at...

  16. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production via a Novel Lowe Pressure, Magnetically Stabilized, Non-volatile Iron Oxide Looping Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The University of Florida is developing a windowless high-temperature chemical reactor that converts concentrated solar thermal energy to syngas, which can be used to produce gasoline. The overarching project goal is lowering the cost of the solar thermochemical production of syngas for clean and synthetic hydrocarbon fuels like petroleum. The team will develop processes that rely on water and recycled CO2 as the sole feed-stock, and concentrated solar radiation as the sole energy source, to power the reactor to produce fuel efficiently. Successful large-scale deployment of this solar thermochemical fuel production could substantially improve our national and economic security by replacing imported oil with domestically produced solar fuels.

  17. Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Defect Formation and Fission Product Dynamics in Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Stubbins

    2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research program is to address major nuclear fuels performance issues for the design and use of oxide-type fuels in the current and advanced nuclear reactor applications. Fuel performance is a major issue for extending fuel burn-up which has the added advantage of reducing the used fuel waste stream. It will also be a significant issue with respect to developing advanced fuel cycle processes where it may be possible to incorporate minor actinides in various fuel forms so that they can be 'burned' rather than join the used fuel waste stream. The potential to fission or transmute minor actinides and certain long-lived fission product isotopes would transform the high level waste storage strategy by removing the need to consider fuel storage on the millennium time scale.

  18. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    However, in the case of biomass feedstocks and fuels, LNG,NGL57/LRG43 LDVs, biomass feedstocks (versus 26 mpg LDGV)NGL57/LRG43 HDVs, biomass feedstocks (versus 6 mpg HDDV)

  19. THERMOCATALYTIC CO2-FREE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN FROM HYDROCARBON FUELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the process efficiency. However these impurities may result in contamination of hydrogen by CO, CO2 and H2S which should be removed from the product gas using methanation and H2S scrubbing steps, respectively. 11

  20. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  1. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

    2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

  2. Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ Report Presentation:in the U.S. by6 (AprilProduction andDepartment

  3. Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProducts | Department of|ofreactivity |high

  4. Fuel age impacts on gaseous fission product capture during separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, Robert T.; Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Strachan, Denis M.; Ilas, G.

    2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides will be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129 Rosnick 2007 I. The question we attempt to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examine the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012), and they apply to the total radonuclide release and to the dose to a particular organ – the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, several cases are studied. These cases consider for the four analyzed radionuclides inventories produced for three fuel types—pressurized water reactor uranium oxide (PWR UOX), pressurized water reactor mixed oxide (PWR MOX), and advanced high-temperature gascooled reactor (AHTGR)—several burnup values and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. Doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) are calculated with the EPA code CAP-88 ( , 1992). Two dose cases are considered. The first case, perhaps unrealistic, assumes that all of the allowable dose is assigned to the volatile radionuclides. In lieu of this, for the second case a value of 10% of the allowable dose is arbitrarily selected to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. The required decontamination factors (DFs) are calculated for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I are the main contributors. However, for completeness, for one fuel type and burnup, additional cases are provided, allowing 25% and 50% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. Because 3H and 85Kr have relatively short half-lives, 12.3 y and 10.7 y, respectively, the dose decreases with the time from when the fuel is removed from the reactor to the time it is processed (herein “fuel age”). One possible strategy for limiting the discharges of these short halflife radionuclides is to allow the fuel to age to take advantage of radioactive decay. Therefore, the doses and required DFs are calculated as a function of fuel age. Here we calculate, given the above constraints and assumptions, the minimum ages for each fuel type that would not require additional effluent controls for the shorter half-life volatile radionuclides based on dose considerations. With respect to 129I doses, we find that the highest dose is calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scales as the fraction of the total 129I that is particulate. Therefore, we assume for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I is particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs. To summarize the data given in the body and appendices of this report, we find that the principal isotopes of concern are 3H and 129I, the latter requiring the highest DFs. The maximum DF value for 129I is 8000 for the illustrated cases. The required DF for 3H could be as high as 720, depending on the age of the fuel processed. The DF for 85Kr could be up to ~60, depending on fuel age. The DF for 14C is in many cases 1 (no treatment required) but could be as high as 30. The DFs required are within the range of DFs that are reported for the capture technologies that are available for the volatile radionuclides. Achieving the required 129I and 3H DFs is more challenging. Variations in stack design and other design factors may also significantly impact the DF requirements.

  5. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EMISSIONS OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYEMISSIONS OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

  6. Assemblies with both target and fuel pins in an isotope-production reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target material is placed in pins adjacent to fuel pins in order to increase the tritium production rate.

  7. Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products: Data Through Quarter 4 of 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, C.; Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes stationary fuel cell system composite data products for data through the fourth quarter of 2012.

  8. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: 2010 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update This report is the fourth annual update of a...

  9. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program - 2011

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This FY 2011 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell

  10. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program - 2012

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This FY 2012 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell T

  11. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2013

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This FY 2013 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell T

  12. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  13. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  14. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  15. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update March 26, 2009 v.30.2021.052209 Prepared by: Brian D. James & Jeffrey...

  16. Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production: Commercial Facilities · Applicant's Legal Name: Yokayo Biofuels, Inc. · Name of project: A Catalyst for Success · Project Description: Yokayo Biofuels, an industry veteran with over 10 years experience

  17. Optimal Simultaneous Production of Hydrogen and Liquid Fuels from Glycerol: Integrating the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    . Keywords: Energy, Biofuels, Hydrogen, Alternative fuels, Diesel, Fisher ­ Tropsch 1 Corresponding author of oil (vegetal, cooking oil or the one obtained from microalgae (Martín & Grossmann, 2012), glycerol, biodiesel production requires energy (Martín & Grossmann, 2012). Therefore, this is another incentive

  18. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL); Sandstrom, William A. (Chicago, IL); Tarman, Paul B. (Elmhurst, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  19. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

  20. Method for forming nuclear fuel containers of a composite construction and the product thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Bo-Ching (Fremont, CA); Rosenbaum, Herman S. (Fremont, CA); Armijo, Joseph S. (Saratoga, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method for producing nuclear fuel containers of a composite construction having components providing therein a barrier system for resisting destructive action by volatile fission products or impurities and also interdiffusion of metal constituents, and the product thereof. The composite nuclear fuel containers of the method comprise a casing of zirconium or alloy thereof with a layer of copper overlying an oxidized surface portion of the zirconium or alloy thereof.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Tax Credit South Carolina residents that claim the federal Alternative Motor Vehicle Credit for fuel cell vehicles are eligible for a state income tax credit...

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    purchase, sale, handling, or consumption of motor vehicle fuel or alternative fuels. For more information see the Wisconsin Grant Programs page. (Reference Wisconsin Statutes 78.82...

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Exemption Qualified alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and motor vehicles with a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated average city fuel economy of at least 40 miles per...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Blend Retailer Tax Credit Biofuel Infrastructure Grants Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund Fuel Cell Motor Vehicle Tax Deduction Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Demonstration Grants...

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Gasoline and Diesel Gallon Equivalent Definition Motor fuels, including alternative fuels, may be sold by gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) or diesel gallon equivalent (DGE) as long...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Blend Purchase Requirement Diesel fuel that the New Hampshire Department of Transportation (DOT) purchases through the Motor Fuel Inventory Fund must contain at least 5%...

  7. SUPPORTING INFORMATION to Large-Scale Gasification-Based Co-Production of Fuels and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and paraffins) that can be refined into "clean diesel" and naphtha fractions, the latter of which can started production from coal syngas as vehicle fuel (Dry, 2002). Subsequently a coal-to-fuels program synthesis technology and is slated to come on line in 2006. 66,000 bpd expansion of the Qatar Petroleum

  8. Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    1 Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement to an increase of AF use from 8.7% to 20.9% of the total energy consumption. 2. One of the alternative fuels used cement industry produces about 3.3 billion tonnes of cement annually. Cement production is energy

  9. Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day of high-Btu Natural Gas from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation fuel jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions, thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report discusses the suitability of the tar oil stream. 5 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas W. Marshall

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. Some characteristics affecting product quality were suppressed while others have become more significant in the larger equipment. Changes to the composition and method of producing resinated graphite matrix material has eliminated the use of hazardous, flammable liquids and enabled it to be procured as a vendor-supplied feed stock. A new method of overcoating TRISO particles with the resinated graphite matrix eliminates the use of hazardous, flammable liquids, produces highly spherical particles with a narrow size distribution, and attains product yields in excess of 99%. Compact fabrication processes have been scaled-up and automated with relatively minor changes to compact quality to manual laboratory-scale processes. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products as equipment was scaled are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels that meet fuel quality specifications.

  11. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  12. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

  13. Classification of intended phoneme production from chronic intracortical microelectrode recordings in speech-motor cortex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brumberg, Jonathan S.; Wright, E. Joe; Andreasen, Dinal S.; Guenther, Frank H.; Kennedy, Philip R.

    2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We conducted a neurophysiological study of attempted speech production in a paralyzed human volunteer using chronic microelectrode recordings. The volunteer suffers from locked-in syndrome leaving him in a state of near-total ...

  14. Photolysis of water for production of fuel gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eror, N.G.; Blakemore, J.S.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To better understand the role of the semiconductor electrode in the photocatalytic decomposition of water to form hydrogen and other fuel gases, researchers characterized the defect structure of a number of large-band-gap semiconductor electrode materials. The defect structure of SrTiO/sub 3/ samples has been related to photoelectrochemical cell response, leading to a signficant improvement in the understanding of how electrode properties influence cell performance. Although the large band gap of these materials severely restricts their ability to use the solar spectrum, they are more resistant to photocorrosion than lower-band-gap materials. This band gap has been reduced somewhat in lanthanum-doped SrTiO/sub 3/ samples without compromising photostability or requiring a bias voltage for water decomposition.

  15. ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Bergin

    2003-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Syntroleum plant is mechanically complete and currently undergoing start-up. The fuel production and demonstration plan is near completion. The study on the impact of small footprint plant (SFP) fuel on engine performance is about half-completed. Cold start testing has been completed. Preparations have been completed for testing the fuel in diesel electric generators in Alaska. Preparations are in progress for testing the fuel in bus fleets at Denali National Park and the Washington Metropolitan Transit Authority. The experiments and analyses conducted during this project show that Fischer-Tropsch (FT) gas-to-liquid diesel fuel can easily be used in a diesel engine with little to no modifications. Additionally, based on the results and discussion presented, further improvements in performance and emissions can be realized by configuring the engine to take advantage of FT diesel fuel's properties. The FT fuel also shows excellent cold start properties and enabled the engine tested to start at more the ten degrees than traditional fuels would allow. This plant produced through this project will produce large amounts of FT fuel. This will allow the fuel to be tested extensively, in current, prototype, and advanced diesel engines. The fuel may also contribute to the nation's energy security. The military has expressed interest in testing the fuel in aircraft and ground vehicles.

  16. ENHANCED HYDROGEN ECONOMICS VIA COPRODUCTION OF FUELS AND CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, Elliot B; Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Dadyburjor, Dady; Dixit, Santhoshi; Garlapalli, Ravinder; Magean, Liviu; Mukkha, Mayuri; Olajide, Olufemi A; Stiller, Alfred H; Yurchick, Christopher L

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research effort to develop environmentally cleaner projects as a spin-off of the FutureGen project, which seeks to reduce or eliminate emissions from plants that utilize coal for power or hydrogen production. New clean coal conversion processes were designed and tested for coproducing clean pitches and cokes used in the metals industry as well as a heavy crude oil. These new processes were based on direct liquefaction and pyrolysis techniques that liberate volatile liquids from coal without the need for high pressure or on-site gaseous hydrogen. As a result of the research, a commercial scale plant for the production of synthetic foundry coke has broken ground near Wise, Virginia under the auspices of Carbonite Inc. This plant will produce foundry coke by pyrolyzing a blend of steam coal feedstocks. A second plant is planned by Quantex Energy Inc (in Texas) which will use solvent extraction to coproduce a coke residue as well as crude oil. A third plant is being actively considered for Kingsport, Tennessee, pending a favorable resolution of regulatory issues.

  17. PRODUCTION, STORAGE AND PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN AS INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUEL: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In the age of ever increasing energy demand, hydrogen may play a major role as fuel. Hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel, whereas neither nuclear nor solar energy can be used directly. The blends of hydrogen and ethanol have been used as alternative renewable fuels in a carbureted spark ignition engine. Hydrogen has very special properties as a transportation fuel, including a rapid burning speed, a high effective octane number, and no toxicity or ozone-forming potential. A stoichiometric hydrogen–air mixture has very low minimum ignition energy of 0.02 MJ. Combustion product of hydrogen is clean, which consists of water and a little amount of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The main drawbacks of using hydrogen as a transportation fuel are huge on-board storage tanks. Hydrogen stores approximately 2.6 times more energy per unit mass than gasoline. The disadvantage is that it needs an estimated 4 times more volume than gasoline to store that energy. The production and the storage of hydrogen fuel are not yet fully standardized. The paper reviews the different production techniques as well as storage systems of hydrogen to be used as IC engine fuel. The desirable and undesirable properties of hydrogen as IC engine fuels have also been discussed.

  18. Fission-product-release signatures for LWR fuel rods failed during PCM and RIA transients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osetek, D.J.; King, J.J.; Croucher, D.W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses fission product release from light-water-reactor-type fuel rods to the coolant loop during design basis accident tests. One of the tests was a power-cooling-mismatch test in which a single fuel rod was operated in film boiling beyond failure. Other tests discussed include reactivity initiated accident (RIA) tests, in which the fuel rods failed as a result of power bursts that produced radial-average peak fuel enthalpies ranging from 250 to 350 cal/g. One of the RIA tests used two previously irradiated fuel rods. On-line gamma spectroscopic measurements of short-lived fission products, and important aspects of fission product behavior observed during the tests, are discussed. Time-dependent release fractions for short-lived fission products are compared with release fractions suggested by: the Reactor Safety Study; NRC Regulatory Guides; and measurements from the Three Mile Island accident. Iodine behavior observed during the tests is discussed, and fuel powdering is identified as a source of particulate fission product activity, the latter of which is neglected for most accident analyses.

  19. U.S. Product Supplied of Distillate Fuel Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion Cubic Feet)Year Jan Feb MarRevision2009 2010 2011Product

  20. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  1. Process for making a martensitic steel alloy fuel cladding product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Gerald D. (Kennewick, WA); Lobsinger, Ralph J. (Kennewick, WA); Hamilton, Margaret L. (Richland, WA); Gelles, David S. (West Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a very narrowly defined martensitic steel alloy fuel cladding material for liquid metal cooled reactors, and a process for making such a martensitic steel alloy material. The alloy contains about 10.6 wt. % chromium, about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, about 0.85 wt. % manganese, about 0.2 wt. % niobium, about 0.37 wt. % silicon, about 0.2 wt. % carbon, about 0.2 wt. % vanadium, 0.05 maximum wt. % nickel, about 0.015 wt. % nitrogen, about 0.015 wt. % sulfur, about 0.05 wt. % copper, about 0.007 wt. % boron, about 0.007 wt. % phosphorous, and with the remainder being essentially iron. The process utilizes preparing such an alloy and homogenizing said alloy at about 1000.degree. C. for 16 hours; annealing said homogenized alloy at 1150.degree. C. for 15 minutes; and tempering said annealed alloy at 700.degree. C. for 2 hours. The material exhibits good high temperature strength (especially long stress rupture life) at elevated temperature (500.degree.-760.degree. C.).

  2. Parametric electric motor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stahura, D. [GM-AC Delco Systems, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology for the axial gap motor was developed by DOE with an investment of approximately $15 million. This development effort is for motor technologies of high power density and high efficiency. Such motors that are also small and light-weight are not available on the commercial market because high-power motors have typically been used in large industrial applications where small size and light weight are not requirements. AC Delco has been developing motors since 1918 and is interested in leveraging its research and development dollars to produce an array of motor systems for vehicles and to develop a future line of propulsion products. The DOE focus of the study was applied to machining applications. The most attractive feature of this motor is the axial air gap, which may make possible the removal of the motor`s stationary component from a total enclosure of the remainder of the machine if the power characteristics are adequate. The objectives of this project were to evaluate alternative electric drive systems for machine tools and automotive electric drive systems and to select a best machine type for each of those applications. A major challenge of this project was to produce a small, light-weight, highly efficient motor at a cost-effective price. The project developed machine and machine drive systems and design criteria for the range of applications. The final results included the creation of a baseline for developing electric vehicle powertrain system designs, conventional vehicle engine support system designs, and advanced machine tool configurations. In addition, an axial gap permanent magnet motor was built and tested, and gave, said one engineer involved, a sterling performance. This effort will commercialize advanced motor technology and extend knowledge and design capability in the most efficient electric machine design known today.

  3. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two

  4. AFCI Transmutation Fuel Processes and By-Products Planning: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric L. Shaber

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program are to reduce high-level waste volume, reduce long-lived and radiotoxic elements, and reclaim valuable energy content of spent nuclear fuel. The AFCI chartered the Fuel Development Working Group (FDWG) to develop advanced fuels in support of the AFCI goals. The FDWG organized a phased strategy of fuel development that is designed to match the needs of the AFCI program: Phase 1 - High-burnup fuels for light-water reactors (LWRs) and tri-isotopic (TRISO) fuel for gas-cooled reactors Phase 2 – Mixed oxide fuels with minor actinides for LWRs, Am transmutation targets for LWRs, inert matrix fuels for LWRs, and TRISO fuel containing Pu and other transuranium for gas-cooled reactors Phase 3 – Fertile free or low-fertile metal, ceramic, ceramic dispersed in a metal matrix (CERMET), and ceramics dispersed in a ceramic matrix (CERCER) that would be used primarily in fast reactors. Development of advanced fuels requires the fabrication, assembly, and irradiation of prototypic fuel under bounding reactor conditions. At specialized national laboratory facilities small quantities of actinides are being fabricated into such fuel for irradiation tests. Fabrication of demonstration quantities of selected fuels for qualification testing is needed but not currently feasible, because existing manual glovebox fabrication approaches result in significant radiation exposures when larger quantities of actinides are involved. The earliest demonstration test fuels needed in the AFCI program are expected to be variants of commercial mixed oxide fuel for use in an LWR as lead test assemblies. Manufacture of such test assemblies will require isolated fabrication lines at a facility not currently available in the U.S. Such facilities are now being planned as part of an Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). Adequate planning for and specification of actinide fuel fabrication facilities capable of producing transmutation fuels dictates the need for detailed process flows, mass balances, batch size data, and radiological dose estimates. Full definition of the materials that will need to be handled in the facility as feed material inputs, in-process fuel, scrap recycle, scrap requiring recovery, and by-product wastes is required. The feed material for demonstrating transmutation fuel fabrication will need to come from the separations of actinides from spent nuclear fuel processed in the same AFCF.

  5. Analyzing Losses: Transuranics into Waste and Fission Products into Recycled Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert E. Cherry; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros; Candido Pereira; Denia Djokic

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All mass streams from separations and fuel fabrication are products that must meet criteria. Those headed for disposal must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the eventual disposal sites corresponding to their waste classification. Those headed for reuse must meet fuel or target impurity limits. A “loss” is any material that ends up where it is undesired. The various types of losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of transuranic (TRU) material into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. We have analyzed four separation options and two fuel fabrication options in a generic fuel cycle. The separation options are aqueous uranium extraction plus (UREX+1), electrochemical, Atomics International reduction oxidation separation (AIROX), and melt refining. UREX+1 and electrochemical are traditional, full separation techniques. AIROX and melt refining are taken as examples of limited separations, also known as minimum fuel treatment. The fuels are oxide and metal. To define a generic fuel cycle, a fuel recycling loop is fed from used light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel (UOX) at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup. The recycling loop uses a fast reactor with TRU conversion ratio (CR) of 0.50. Excess recovered uranium is put into storage. Only waste, not used fuel, is disposed – unless the impurities accumulate to a level so that it is impossible to make new fuel for the fast reactor. Impurities accumulate as dictated by separation removal and fission product generation. Our model approximates adjustment to fast reactor fuel stream blending of TRU and U products from incoming LWR UOX and recycling FR fuel to compensate for impurity accumulation by adjusting TRU:U ratios. Our mass flow model ignores postulated fuel impurity limits; we compare the calculated impurity values with those limits to identify elements of concern. AIROX and melt refining cannot be used to separate used LWR UOX-51 because they cannot separate U from TRU, it is then impossible to make X% TRU for fast reactors with UOX-51 used fuel with 1.3% TRU. AIROX and melt refining can serve in the recycle loop for about 3 recycles, at which point the accumulated impurities displace fertile uranium and the fuel can no longer be as critical as the original fast reactor fuel recipe. UREX+1 and electrochemical can serve in either capacity; key impurities appear to be lanthanides and several transition metals.

  6. Subtask 2.6 - Assessment of Alternative Fuels on CO2 Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Darren Naasz

    2009-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Many coal-based electric generating units use alternative fuels, and this effort assessed the impact of alternative fuels on CO{sub 2} production and other emissions and also assessed the potential impact of changes in emission regulations under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for facilities utilizing alternative fuels that may be categorized as wastes. Information was assembled from publicly available U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information Administration databases that included alternative fuel use for 2004 and 2005. Alternative fuel types were categorized along with information on usage by coal-based electric, number of facilities utilizing each fuel type, and the heating value of solid, liquid, and gaseous alternative fuels. The sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with alternative fuels and primary fuels were also evaluated. Carbon dioxide emissions are also associated with the transport of all fuels. A calculation of carbon dioxide emissions associated with the transport of biomass-based fuels that are typically accessed on a regional basis was made. A review of CAA emission regulations for coal-based electric generating facilities from Section 112 (1) and Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators was performed with consideration for a potential regulatory change from Section 112 (1) regulation to Section 129 (2). Increased emission controls would be expected to be required if coal-based electric generating facilities using alternative fuels would be recategorized under CAA Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators, and if this change were made, it is anticipated that coal-fired electric generating facilities might reduce the use of alternative fuels. Conclusions included information on the use profile for alternative fuels and the impacts to emissions as well as the impact of potential application of emission regulations for solid waste incinerators to electric generating facilities using alternative fuels.

  7. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  8. A Reversible Planar Solid Oxide Fuel-Fed Electrolysis Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Hydrogen and Electricity Production Operating on Natural Gas/Biomass Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg, G.

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis technique was developed to co-generate hydrogen and electricity directly from a fuel at a reduced cost of electricity. Solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs), which were comprised of 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between thick anode supports and thin cathodes, were constructed and experimentally evaluated at various operation conditions on lab-level button cells with 2 cm2 per-cell active areas as well as on bench-scale stacks with 30 cm2 and 100 cm2 per-cell active areas. To reduce the concentration overpotentials, pore former systems were developed and engineered to optimize the microstructure and morphology of the Ni+8YSZ-based anodes. Chemically stable cathode materials, which possess good electronic and ionic conductivity and exhibit good electrocatalytic properties in both oxidizing and reducing gas atmospheres, were developed and materials properties were investigated. In order to increase the specific hydrogen production rate and thereby reduce the system volume and capital cost for commercial applications, a hybrid system that integrates the technologies of the SOFEC and the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was developed and successfully demonstrated at a 1kW scale, co-generating hydrogen and electricity directly from chemical fuels.

  9. Syngas production from heavy liquid fuel reforming in inert porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pastore, Andrea

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    -up), but it will still show a significant efficiency advantage [2]. Eventually, when fuel cells and hydrogen demand will build up, a switch can be made to central hydrogen production, by using fossil sources with CO2 sequestration and finally by the use of low carbon... requirements: • Hydrogen production levels smaller than those in chemical plants; • Severe constraints on size and weight; • Ability to cycle through frequent start-ups and shutdowns; • Hydrogen production rate should be responsive to changes in demand...

  10. A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khang, S.J.; Lin, L.; Keener, T.C.; Yeh, P.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some denitrification in this coal feeder. In this year, two basic studies have been performed: (1) the desulfurization and (2) the denitrification due to mild pyrolysis. Specifically, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw reactor, (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data, (3) Study of the devolatilization, the desulfurization kinetics and the denitrification kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters, (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-feeder reactor, (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization, (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis and desulfurization using a TGA(Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer).

  11. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer lab evaluation; cold-start test-cell evaluations; overall feasibility, economics, and efficiency of SFP fuel production; and an economic analysis. Two unexpected issues that arose during the project were further studied and resolved: variations in NOx emissions were accounted for and fuel-injection nozzle fouling issues were traced to the non-combustible (ash) content of the engine oil, not the F-T fuel. The F-T fuel domestically produced and evaluated in this effort appears to be a good replacement candidate for petroleum-based transportation fuels. However, in order for domestic F-T fuels to become a viable cost-comparable alternative to petroleum fuels, the F-T fuels will need to be produced from abundant U.S. domestic resources such as coal and biomass, rather than stranded natural gas.

  12. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration or calcination, alkali sintering, and dissolution of sintered products in nitric acid. Insoluble residues are then mixed with vitrifying components and Pu sludges, vitrified, and sent for storage and disposal. Implementation of the intergovernmental agreement between Russia and the United States (US) regarding the utilization of 34 tons of weapons plutonium will also require treatment of Pu containing MOX fabrication wastes at the MCC radiochemical production plant.

  13. Fission product behavior during the PBF (Power Burst Facility) Severe Fuel Damage Test 1-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartwell, J K; Petti, D A; Hagrman, D L; Jensen, S M; Cronenberg, A W

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated a series of Severe Fuel Damage tests that were performed in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to obtain data necessary to understand (a) fission product release, transport, and deposition; (b) hydrogen generation; and (c) fuel/cladding material behavior during degraded core accidents. Data are presented about fission product behavior noted during the second experiment of this series, the Severe Fuel Damage Test 1-1, with an in-depth analysis of the fission product release, transport, and deposition phenomena that were observed. Real-time release and transport data of certain fission products were obtained from on-line gamma spectroscopy measurements. Liquid and gas effluent grab samples were collected at selected periods during the test transient. Additional information was obtained from steamline deposition analysis. From these and other data, fission product release rates and total release fractions are estimated and compared with predicted release behavior using current models. Fission product distributions and a mass balance are also summarized, and certain probable chemical forms are predicted for iodine, cesium, and tellurium. An in-depth evaluation of phenomena affecting the behavior of the high-volatility fission products - xenon, krypton, iodine, cesium, and tellurium - is presented. Analysis indicates that volatile release from fuel is strongly influenced by parameters other than fuel temperature. Fission product behavior during transport through the Power Burst Facility effluent line to the fission product monitoring system is assessed. Tellurium release behavior is also examined relatve to the extent of Zircaloy cladding oxidation. 81 fig., 53 tabs.

  14. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  15. Fossil fuel potential of Turkey: A statistical evaluation of reserves, production, and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korkmaz, S.; Kara-Gulbay, R.; Turan, M. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since Turkey is a developing country with tremendous economic growth, its energy demand is also getting increased. Of this energy, about 70% is supplied from fossil fuels and the remaining 30% is from renewable sources. Among the fossil fuels, 90% of oil, natural gas, and coal are imported, and only 10% is from domestic sources. All the lignite is supplied from domestic sources. The total share of renewable sources and lignite in the total energy production is 45%. In order for Turkey to have sufficient and reliable energy sources, first the renewable energy sources must be developed, and energy production from fossil fuels, except for lignite, must be minimized. Particularly, scarcity of fossil fuels and increasing oil prices have a strong effect on economic growth of the country.

  16. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  17. Procedure for matching synfuel users with potential suppliers. Appendix B. Proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    To assist the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion (OFC), in implementing the synthetic fuel exemption under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (FUA) of 1978, Resource Consulting Group, Inc. (RCG), has developed a procedure for matching prospective users and producers of synthetic fuel. The matching procedure, which involves a hierarchical screening process, is designed to assist OFC in: locating a supplier for a firm that wishes to obtain a synthetic fuel exemption; determining whether the fuel supplier proposed by a petitioner is technically and economically capable of meeting the petitioner's needs; and assisting the Synthetic Fuels Corporation or a synthetic fuel supplier in evaluating potential markets for synthetic fuel production. A data base is provided in this appendix on proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects to be used in applying the screening procedure. The data base encompasses a total of 212 projects in the seven production technologies.

  18. Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two subjects are covered in this section. They are: (1) Health effects of possible contamination at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant to be studied; and (2) DOE agrees on test of MOX fuel in Canada.

  19. ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Bergin

    2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: SFP Construction and Fuel Production, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Fleet Testing at WMATA and Denali National Park, Demonstration of Clean Diesel Fuels in Diesel Electric Generators in Alaska, and Economic Analysis. ICRC provided overall project organization and budget management for the project. ICRC held meetings with various project participants. ICRC presented at the Department of Energy's annual project review meeting. The plant began producing fuel in October 2004. The first delivery of finished fuel was made in March of 2004 after the initial start-up period.

  20. Tri-County solid waste-to-fuel production project feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis and preliminary findings of refuse-derived fuel and recovered components markets are presented. Other topics covered are: municipal solid waste composition, quantity and constraints; technical assessment and capital cost assessment; economic feasibility of burning process residue to generate steam; review of commercially available equipment for the densification of refuse-derived fuel; final pre-feasibility analysis for the Tri-County Municipal Solid Waste to Fuel Production Project; preliminary economic and sensitivity analysis for the Tri-County Project; risks assessment for the Tri-County Project; and environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic assessment for the Tri-County Project. (MHR)

  1. Radioactive Fission Product Release from Defective Light Water Reactor Fuel Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konyashov, Vadim V.; Krasnov, Alexander M. [State Scientific Centre of Russian Federation-Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Russian Federation)

    2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are provided of the experimental investigation of radioactive fission product (RFP) release, i.e., krypton, xenon, and iodine radionuclides from fuel elements with initial defects during long-term (3 to 5 yr) irradiation under low linear power (5 to 12 kW/m) and during special experiments in the VK-50 vessel-type boiling water reactor.The calculation model for the RFP release from the fuel-to-cladding gap of the defective fuel element into coolant was developed. It takes into account the convective transport in the fuel-to-cladding gap and RFP sorption on the internal cladding surface and is in good agreement with the available experimental data. An approximate analytical solution of the transport equation is given. The calculation dependencies of the RFP release coefficients on the main parameters such as defect size, fuel-to-cladding gap, temperature of the internal cladding surface, and radioactive decay constant were analyzed.It is shown that the change of the RFP release from the fuel elements with the initial defects during long-term irradiation is, mainly, caused by fuel swelling followed by reduction of the fuel-to-cladding gap and the fuel temperature. The calculation model for the RFP release from defective fuel elements applicable to light water reactors (LWRs) was developed. It takes into account the change of the defective fuel element parameters during long-term irradiation. The calculation error according to the program does not exceed 30% over all the linear power change range of the LWR fuel elements (from 5 to 26 kW/m)

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tax and Fee Compressed natural gas (CNG) used in motor vehicles is subject to a state motor fuel tax of 0.05 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) until January 1, 2020. Beginning...

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Tax CNG is taxed at a rate of 0.10 per gallon when used as a motor fuel. CNG is defined as natural gas that has been compressed for use as a motor...

  4. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

  5. NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret purchases crude oil at a price of Ł11 per barrel. Each day to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

  6. NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel.5 for heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret can purchase two types of crude oil: crude 1 (at Ł12 per Jet fuel Heating oil Minimum octane 8.5 7 4.5 Price (Ł) 18 16 14 Minimum production 2500 3000 3500

  7. Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. 95 Production and Testing of Coconut Oil Biodiesel Fuel and its Blend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oguntola J Alamu; Opeoluwa Dehinbo; Adedoyin M Sulaiman; Oguntola J. Alamu; Opeoluwa Dehinbo; Adedoyin M. Sulaiman

    Many researchers have successfully worked on generating energy from different alternative sources including solar and biological sources such as the conversion of trapped energy from sunlight to electricity and conversion of some renewable agricultural products to fuel. This work considers the use of coconut oil for the production of alternative renewable and environmental friendly biodiesel fuel as an alternative to conventional diesel fuel. Test quantities of coconut oil biodiesel were produced through transesterification reaction using 100g coconut oil, 20.0 % ethanol (wt % coconut oil), 0.8% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 65°C reaction temperature and 120 min. reaction time. The experiment was carried out three times and average results evaluated. Low yield of the biodiesel (10.4%) was obtained. The coconut oil biodiesel produced was subsequently blended with petroleum diesel and characterized as alternative diesel fuel through some ASTM standard fuel tests. The products were further evaluated by comparing specific gravity and viscosity of the biodiesel blend, the raw coconut oil and conventional petroleum diesel.

  9. Recent Developments on the Production of Transportation Fuels via Catalytic Conversion of Microalgae: Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Fan; Wang, Ping; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

    2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize “food versus fuel” concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

  10. Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi,Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize ‘‘food versus fuel’’ concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) product development test. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the technical progress that has occurred in conjunction with Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-92MC28065, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Product Development Test (PDT) during the period of October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. Information is presented on stack design, manufacturing, stack assembly, procurement, site preparation, and test plan.

  12. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies FY 2003 Progress Report Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies FY 2003 Progress Report 1 Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Eric L. Miller (Primary Contact), Daniela Paluselli, Bjorn Marsen, Richard HPEs based on best available materials systems. · Demonstrate 7.5% solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency

  13. ME 4171 Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (Bras) Assignment Aircraft Fuel Tank Production Pollution Prevention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mainly in the aircraft industry. The main reasons for using fabric in the construction of these tanks Production Pollution Prevention A local company manufactures a wide variety of fabric fuel tanks for use are durability and shape requirements imposed by aircraft design. The construction process involves first

  14. Economics of biomass fuels for electricity production: a case study with crop residues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maung, Thein Aye

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Barriers.......................................................17 2.5.2 Overcoming Institutional Barriers ..........................................................19 2.6 Economics of Demand and Supply for Biomass Feedstocks............................21... Annual Real Fossil Fuel Prices, 1965 to 2006 .................................10 Figure 2.2 The Effect of an Externality on the Demand for Electricity...........................11 Figure 2.3 Biomass Feedstock Production Process...

  15. Preferred track: Speech Motor Control Title: Specificity of speech sensori-motor learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COVER PAGE Preferred track: Speech Motor Control Title: Specificity of speech sensori-motor University, France. Ph.D. thesis focused on the link between language universals and the motor constraints of speech production. Current research focuses on speech sensori-motor learning and its consequences

  16. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA); November 2011 Composite Data Products - Deployment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation is about the Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA). November 2011 Composite Data Products - Deployment November 30, 2011.

  17. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA); Quarter 1 2012 Composite Data Products - Deployment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation is about the Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA). Quarter 1 2012 Composite Data Products - Deployment March 8, 2012.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    E85 Definition E85 motor fuel is defined as an alternative fuel that is a blend of ethanol and hydrocarbon, of which the ethanol portion is 75-85% denatured fuel ethanol by volume...

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Fuel Retailer Tax Credit Retailers that sell fuel blends of gasoline containing up to 15% ethanol by volume (E15) are eligible for a motor fuel tax credit of 0.016 per...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Renewable Fuel Producer Excise Tax and Inspection Exemption The first 1,000 gallons of renewable fuel that an individual produces each year are exempt from the motor vehicle fuel...

  1. Opportunities to increase the productivity of spent fuel shipping casks in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winsor, G.H.; Faletti, D.W.; DeSteese, J.G.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trends indicate that future transportation requirements for spent fuel will be different from those anticipated when the current generation of casks and vehicles was designed. Increased storage capacity at most reactors will increase the average post irradiation age of the spent fuel to be transported. A scenario is presented which shows the 18 casks currently available should be sufficient until approximately 1983. Beyond this time, it appears that an adequate transportation system can be maintained by acquiring, as needed, casks of current designs and new casks currently under development. Spent fuel transportation requirements in the post-1990 period can be met by a new generation of casks specifically designed to transport long-cooled fuel. In terms of the number of casks needed, productivity may be increased by 19% if rail cask turnaround time is reduced to 4 days from the current range of 6.5 to 8.5 days. Productivity defined as payloads per cask year could be increased 62% if the turnaround time for legal weight truck casks were reduced from 12 hours to 4 hours. On a similar basis, overweight truck casks show a 28% increase in productivity.

  2. Biomass Feedstocks for Renewable Fuel Production: A review of the impacts of feedstock and pretreatment on the yield and product distribution of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Carpenter; Stefan Czernik; Whitney Jablonski; Tyler L. Westover

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable transportation fuels from biomass have the potential to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and diversify global fuel supplies. Thermal conversion by fast pyrolysis converts up to 75% of the starting plant material (and its energy content) to a bio-oil intermediate suitable for upgrading to motor fuel. Woody biomass, by far the most widely-used and researched material, is generally preferred in thermochemical processes due to its low ash content and high quality bio-oil produced. However, the availability and cost of biomass resources, e.g. forest residues, agricultural residues, or dedicated energy crops, vary greatly by region and will be key determinates in the overall economic feasibility of a pyrolysis-to-fuel process. Formulation or blending of various feedstocks, combined with thermal and/or chemical pretreatment, could facilitate a consistent, high-volume, lower-cost biomass supply to an emerging biofuels industry. However, the impact of biomass type and pretreatment conditions on bio-oil yield and quality, and the potential process implications, are not well understood. This literature review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the effect of feedstock and pretreatments on the yield, product distribution, and upgradability of bio-oil.

  3. Helium production and behavior in nuclear oxide fuels during irradiation in LWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federici, E.; Courcelle, A. [CEA/DEN/DEC/SESC-Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Blanpain, P. [AREVA-NP, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France); Cognon, H. [EDF/SEPTEN, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During irradiation in a LWR, helium is produced in nuclear oxide fuels, particularly in MOX fuels, but also to a lesser extent in UO{sub 2} fuels. In a context of increasing discharge burnup for the fuel rods and use of higher linear heating rates, the impact of He on the behavior of the fuel rod is required. A three-part study has been performed. The first part is related to the review of the main characteristics of the production modes of He, consisting of alpha-decay of some heavy actinides, (n, alpha) reactions on O-16 and ternary fissions. The modeling of each production mode was carried out and a computer code named PRODHEL, applicable to the calculation of He production either in PWR or in BWR conditions, was developed and qualified. The second part is related to a synthesis of the mechanisms involved in the behavior of He in the fuel pellet during irradiation. One of the most significant difference between helium and fission gases like xenon and krypton is the small solubility of He in oxide ceramics, leading to 'infusion/effusion' mechanisms. In the third part of the study, an illustration of the He behavior during an irradiation of a (U, Pu)O{sub 2} pellet is given. Two types of modeling were developed at two different scales. The first type considers an effective behavior of He at the pellet-fragment scale (millimeter scale). The second type focuses more closely on the fragment, down to the grain scale (micrometer scale). (authors)

  4. Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

  5. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  6. Ultra-Clean Diesel Fuel: U.S. Production and Distribution Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel engines have potential for use in a large number of future vehicles in the US. However, to achieve this potential, proponents of diesel engine technologies must solve diesel's pollution problems, including objectionable levels of emissions of particulates and oxides of nitrogen. To meet emissions reduction goals, diesel fuel quality improvements could enable diesel engines with advanced aftertreatment systems to achieve the necessary emissions performance. The diesel fuel would most likely have to be reformulated to be as clean as low sulfur gasoline. This report examines the small- and large-market extremes for introduction of ultra-clean diesel fuel in the US and concludes that petroleum refinery and distribution systems could produce adequate low sulfur blendstocks to satisfy small markets for low sulfur (30 parts per million) light duty diesel fuel, and deliver that fuel to retail consumers with only modest changes. Initially, there could be poor economic returns on under-utilized infrastructure investments. Subsequent growth in the diesel fuel market could be inconsistent with U.S. refinery configurations and economics. As diesel fuel volumes grow, the manufacturing cost may increase, depending upon how hydrodesulfurization technologies develop, whether significantly greater volumes of the diesel pool have to be desulfurized, to what degree other properties like aromatic levels have to be changed, and whether competitive fuel production technologies become economic. Low sulfur (10 parts per million) and low aromatics (10 volume percent) diesel fuel for the total market could require desulfurization, dearomatization, and hydrogen production investments amounting to a third of current refinery market value. The refinery capital cost component alone would be 3 cents per gallon of diesel fuel. Outside of refineries, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant investment cost would be 3 to 6 cents per gallon. With total projected investments of $11.8 billion (6 to 9 cents per gallon) for the U.S. Gulf Coast alone, financing, engineering, and construction and material availability are major issues that must be addressed, for both refinery and GTL investments.

  7. Integrated hydrogen production process from cellulose by combining dark fermentation, microbial fuel cells, and a microbial electrolysis cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fuel cells, and a microbial electrolysis cell Aijie Wang a, , Dan Sun a , Guangli Cao a , Haoyu Wang Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) Microbial fuel cell (MFC) MEC­MFC coupled system Dark fermentation a b production pro- cess consisting of a dark fermentation reactor and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as power

  8. A calorimetric analysis of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell and the production of H2O2 at the cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    31.08.2009 1 A calorimetric analysis of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell and the production of H2O2 fuel cell that is operated on hydrogen and oxygen at 50 °C and 1 bar. The cell had a SolviCore Catalyst 1. INTRODUCTION The energy that is dissipated as heat in fuel cells is interesting for several

  9. Electric Motors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Section 313 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 raised Federal minimum efficiency standards for general-purpose, single-speed, polyphase induction motors of 1 to 500 horsepower (hp). This new standard took effect in December 2010. The new minimum efficiency levels match FEMP's performance requirement for these motors.

  10. Chemical Engineering Journal 93 (2003) 6980 Production of COx-free hydrogen for fuel cells via step-wise hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Chemical Engineering Journal 93 (2003) 69­80 Production of COx-free hydrogen for fuel cells via Abstract The stringent COx-free hydrogen requirement for the current low temperature fuel cells has motivated the development of COx-free hydro- gen production alternatives to the conventional hydrogen

  11. Experimental and theoretical study of exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by a non-thermal arc discharge for syngas production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -thermal arc discharge for syngas production A. Lebouvier1,2 , F. Fresnet2 , F. Fabry1 , V. Boch2 , V. Rohani1% and a conversion rate of 95% have been reached which correspond to a syngas dry molar fraction of 25%. For the most and promote H2O and CO2 production. Keywords: Plasma reformer, syngas, diesel fuel reforming, NOx trap. 1

  12. System and process for the production of syngas and fuel gasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Kllingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Benefiel, Bradley C

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of gasses and, more particularly, to systems and methods for the production of syngas and fuel gasses including the production of hydrogen are set forth. In one embodiment system and method includes a reactor having a molten pool of a material comprising sodium carbonate. A supply of conditioned water is in communication with the reactor. A supply of carbon containing material is also in communication with the reactor. In one particular embodiment, the carbon containing material may include vacuum residuum (VR). The water and VR may be kept at desired temperatures and pressures compatible with the process that is to take place in the reactor. When introduced into the reactor, the water, the VR and the molten pool may be homogenously mixed in an environment in which chemical reactions take place including the production of hydrogen and other gasses.

  13. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  14. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the second report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1--March 31, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) Internal and external evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel; (2) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation; (3) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor; (4) Steam reformation of Coal Based Methanol; and (5) Initial catalyst degradation studies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  15. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the third report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 30, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) External evaluation of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design, set up and initial testing of the autothermal reactor, (3) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (4) Catalyst degradation studies, and (5) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  16. IMPACT OF FISSION PRODUCTS IMPURITY ON THE PLUTONIUM CONTENT IN PWR MOX FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilles Youinou; Andrea Alfonsi

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a neutronics analysis done in response to the charter IFCA-SAT-2 entitled 'Fuel impurity physics calculations'. This charter specifies that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies (UOX SNF) is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate PWR MOX fuel assemblies. Only non-gaseous FP have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1). This mixture of Pu and FP is called PuFP. Note that, in this preliminary analysis, the FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  17. MINING PROCESS AND PRODUCT INFORMATION FROM PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS WITHIN A FUEL PARTICLE COATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas W. Marshall

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Nuclear Power/Advanced Gas Reactor (NGNP/AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program included the design, installation, and testing of a 6-inch diameter nuclear fuel particle coater to demonstrate quality TRISO fuel production on a small industrial scale. Scale-up from the laboratory-scale coater faced challenges associated with an increase in the kernel charge mass, kernel diameter, and a redesign of the gas distributor to achieve adequate fluidization throughout the deposition of the four TRISO coating layers. TRISO coatings are applied at very high temperatures in atmospheres of dense particulate clouds, corrosive gases, and hydrogen concentrations over 45% by volume. The severe environment, stringent product and process requirements, and the fragility of partially-formed coatings limit the insertion of probes or instruments into the coater vessel during operation. Pressure instrumentation were installed on the gas inlet line and exhaust line of the 6-inch coater to monitor the bed differential pressure and internal pressure fluctuations emanating from the fuel bed as a result of bed and gas “bubble” movement. These instruments are external to the particle bed and provide a glimpse into the dynamics of fuel particle bed during the coating process and data that could be used to help ascertain the adequacy of fluidization and, potentially, the dominant fluidization regimes. Pressure fluctuation and differential pressure data are not presently useful as process control instruments, but data suggest a link between the pressure signal structure and some measurable product attributes that could be exploited to get an early estimate of the attribute values.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    manufacturing facilities include those manufacturing batteries for hybrid electric, fuel cell, or other motor vehicles the South Carolina Energy Office has certified....

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Revolving Loan Program The Mississippi Alternative Fuel School Bus and Municipal Motor Vehicle Revolving Loan Program provides zero-interest loans for public school districts and...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Exemption Vehicles powered exclusively by electricity, including low-speed vehicles, hydrogen, or fuels other than gasoline that are exempt from motor vehicle emissions inspection...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biofuels Quality Specifications The Tennessee Department of Agriculture may inspect and test biofuels under the Kerosene and Motor Fuels Quality Inspection Act of 1989. (Reference...

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Labeling Requirement Any motor vehicle fuel sold at retail containing more than 1% ethanol or methanol must be labeled according to Connecticut Department of Consumer...

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Fuel Blend Use Requirement State government agencies and universities owning or operating motor vehicles capable of using ethanol-blended gasoline must take all reasonable...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) User Fee Study The Vermont Agency of Transportation, in consultation with the Joint Fiscal Office, the Motor Vehicle Department, Department of Taxes,...

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Deregulation of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a Motor Fuel The Public Service Commission does not regulate the sale of CNG by producers, pipelines, distribution companies, or...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) sold for use in registered motor vehicles. Additionally, each retailer of such fuel...

  7. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Future high-efficiency, low-emission generation plants that produce electric power, transportation fuels, and/or chemicals from fossil fuel feed stocks require a new class of fuel-flexible combustors. In this program, a validated combustor approach was developed which enables single-digit NO{sub x} operation for a future generation plants with low-Btu off gas and allows the flexibility of process-independent backup with natural gas. This combustion technology overcomes the limitations of current syngas gas turbine combustion systems, which are designed on a site-by-site basis, and enable improved future co-generation plant designs. In this capacity, the fuel-flexible combustor enhances the efficiency and productivity of future co-production plants. In task 2, a summary of market requested fuel gas compositions was created and the syngas fuel space was characterized. Additionally, a technology matrix and chemical kinetic models were used to evaluate various combustion technologies and to select two combustor concepts. In task 4 systems analysis of a co-production plant in conjunction with chemical kinetic analysis was performed to determine the desired combustor operating conditions for the burner concepts. Task 5 discusses the experimental evaluation of three syngas capable combustor designs. The hybrid combustor, Prototype-1 utilized a diffusion flame approach for syngas fuels with a lean premixed swirl concept for natural gas fuels for both syngas and natural gas fuels at FA+e gas turbine conditions. The hybrid nozzle was sized to accommodate syngas fuels ranging from {approx}100 to 280 btu/scf and with a diffusion tip geometry optimized for Early Entry Co-generation Plant (EECP) fuel compositions. The swozzle concept utilized existing GE DLN design methodologies to eliminate flow separation and enhance fuel-air mixing. With changing business priorities, a fully premixed natural gas & syngas nozzle, Protoytpe-1N, was also developed later in the program. It did not have the diluent requirements of Prototype-1 and was demonstrated at targeted gas turbine conditions. The TVC combustor, Prototype-2, premixes the syngas with air for low emission performance. The combustor was designed for operation with syngas and no additional diluents. The combustor was successfully operated at targeted gas turbine conditions. Another goal of the program was to advance the status of development tools for syngas systems. In Task 3 a syngas flame evaluation facility was developed. Fundamental data on syngas flame speeds and flame strain were obtained at pressure for a wide range of syngas fuels with preheated air. Several promising reduced order kinetic mechanisms were compared with the results from the evaluation facility. The mechanism with the best agreement was selected for application to syngas combustor modeling studies in Task 6. Prototype-1 was modeled using an advanced LES combustion code. The tools and combustor technology development culminate in a full-scale demonstration of the most promising technology in Task 8. The combustor was operated at engine conditions and evaluated against the various engine performance requirements.

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test environmental assessment/protection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunton, Jack; Furukawa, Vance; Frost, Grant; Danna, Mike; Figueroa, Al; Scroppo, Joseph

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective of proposed action is to conduct a 250-kW product development test of M-C Power Corporation's molten carbonate fuel cell concept, at the Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center. Review of environmental impacts of this test indicate the following: no impact on solid waste disposal, water quality, noise levels, floodplains, wetlands, ecology, historic areas, or socioeconomic resources. Impact on air quality are expected to be positive.

  9. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test environmental assessment/protection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective of proposed action is to conduct a 250-kW product development test of M-C Power Corporation`s molten carbonate fuel cell concept, at the Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center. Review of environmental impacts of this test indicate the following: no impact on solid waste disposal, water quality, noise levels, floodplains, wetlands, ecology, historic areas, or socioeconomic resources. Impact on air quality are expected to be positive.

  10. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weakley, Steven A.

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook two efforts simultaneously to accomplish this project. The first effort was a patent search and analysis to identify patents related to hydrogen and fuel cells that are associated with FCT-funded projects (or projects conducted by DOE-EERE predecessor programs) and to ascertain the patents’ current status, as well as any commercial products that may have used the technology documented in the patent. The second effort was a series of interviews with current and past FCT personnel, a review of relevant program annual reports, and an examination of grants made under the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs that are related to hydrogen and fuel cells.

  11. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weakley, Steven A.; Brown, Scott A.

    2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). To do this, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook two efforts simultaneously to accomplish this project. The first effort was a patent search and analysis to identify hydrogen- and fuel-cell-related patents that are associated with FCT-funded projects (or projects conducted by DOE-EERE predecessor programs) and to ascertain the patents current status, as well as any commercial products that may have used the technology documented in the patent. The second effort was a series of interviews with current and past FCT personnel, a review of relevant program annual reports, and an examination of hydrogen- and fuel-cell-related grants made under the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs, and within the FCT portfolio.

  12. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

  13. Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

  14. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan - Section 3.1 Hydrogen Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment of Energy's2ofFuel CellEnergy AboutPRODUCTION

  15. Selection and Properties of Alternative Forming Fluids for TRISO Fuel Kernel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Marshall; M. Baker; J. King; B. Gorman

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  16. Increasing the power density when using inert matrix fuels to reduce production of transuranics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recktenwald, G.D.; Deinert, M.R. [University of Texas, 1 University Station C2200, Austin TX 78715-0162 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing the production of transuranics is a goal of most advanced nuclear fuel cycles. One way to do this is to recycle the transuranics into the same reactors that are currently producing them using an inert matrix fuel. In previous work we have modeled such a reactor where 72%, of the core is comprised of standard enriched uranium fuel pins, with the remaining 28% fuel made from Yttria stabilized zirconium, in which transuranics are loaded. A key feature of this core is that all of the transuranics produced by the uranium fuel assemblies are later burned in inert matrix fuel assemblies. It has been shown that this system can achieve reductions in transuranic waste of more than 86%. The disadvantage of such a system is that the core power rating must be significantly lower than a standard pressurized water reactor. One reason for the lower power is that high burnup of the uranium fuel precludes a critical level of reactivity at the end of the campaign. Increasing the uranium enrichment and changing the pin pitch are two ways to increase burnup while maintaining criticality. In this paper we use MCNPX and a linear reactivity model to quantify the effect of these two parameters on the end of campaign reactivity. Importantly, we show that in the region of our proposed reactor, enrichment increases core reactivity by 0.02 per percent uranium 235 and pin pitch increases reactivity by 0.02 per mm. Reactivity is lost at a rate of 0.005 per MWd/kgIHM uranium burnup. (authors)

  17. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

  18. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  19. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the eighth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005 and includes an entire review of the progress for year 2 of the project. This year saw progress in eight areas. These areas are: (1) steam reformer transient response, (2) steam reformer catalyst degradation, (3) steam reformer degradation tests using bluff bodies, (4) optimization of bluff bodies for steam reformation, (5) heat transfer enhancement, (6) autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (7) autothermal catalyst degradation, and (8) autothermal reformation with bluff bodies. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  20. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  1. Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal fines. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Berger, R.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. Stokers are an attractive market for pellets because pellets are well-suited for this application and because western coal is not a competitor in the stoker market. Compliance stoker fuels come from locations such as Kentucky and West Virginia and the price for fuels from these locations is high relative to the current price of Illinois coal. This market offers the most attractive near-term economic environment for commercialization of pelletization technology. For this effort, the authors will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach. This quarter pellet production work commenced and planning for collection and processing of a preparation plant fines fraction is underway.

  2. Fuel Quality & Metering Current Status and Future Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for hydrogen fuels for use in internal combustion engines and fuel cells in motor vehicles until a standards standards for hydrogen fuels for use in internal combustion engines and fuel cells in motor vehicles development organization for hydrogen fuel for use in internal combustion engines and fuel cells in motor

  3. Rates and products of degradation for MTBE and other oxygenate fuel additives in the subsurface environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tratnyek, P.G.; Church, C.D.; Pankow, J.F. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent realization that oxygenated fuel additives such as MTBE are becoming widely distributed groundwater contaminants has created a sudden and pressing demand for data on the processes that control their environmental fate. Explaining and predicting the subsequent environmental fate of these compounds is going to require extrapolations over long time frames that will be very sensitive to the quality of input data on each compound. To provide such data, they have initiated a systematic study of the pathways and kinetics of fuel oxygenate degradation under subsurface conditions. Batch experiments in simplified model systems are being performed to isolate specific processes that may contribute to MTBE degradation. A variety of degradation pathways can be envisioned that lead to t-butyl alcohol (TBA) as the primary or secondary product. However, experiments to date with a facultative iron reducing bacteria showed no evidence for TBA formation. Continuing experiments include mixed cultures from a range of aquifer materials representative of NAWQA study sites.

  4. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  5. Modeling of fission product release from HTR (high temperature reactor) fuel for risk analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolin, J.; Verfondern, K.; Dunn, T.; Kania, M.

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US and FRG have developed methodologies to determine the performance of and fission product release from TRISO-coated fuel particles under postulated accident conditions. The paper presents a qualitative and quantitative comparison of US and FRG models. The models are those used by General Atomics (GA) and by the German Nuclear Research Center at Juelich (KFA/ISF). A benchmark calculation was performed for fuel temperatures predicted for the US Department of Energy sponsored Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). Good agreement in the benchmark calculations supports the on-going efforts to verify and validate the independently developed codes of GA and KFA/ISF. This work was performed under the US/FRG Umbrella Agreement for Cooperation on Gas Cooled Reactor Development. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels Tax Alternative Fuel License Renewable Fuel Sales Volume Goals Sustainable Biofuels Production Practices Biodiesel Definition Biodiesel Labeling Requirement Propane...

  7. Benefits analysis for the production of fuels and chemicals using solar thermal energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous possibilities exist for using high temperature solar thermal energy in the production of various chemicals and fuels (Sun Fuels). Research and development activities have focused on the use of feedstocks such as coal and biomass to provide synthesis gas, hydrogen, and a variety of other end-products. A Decision Analysis technique geared to the analysis of Sun Fuels options was developed. Conventional scoring methods were combined with multi-attribute utility analysis in a new approach called the Multi-Attribute Preference Scoring (MAPS) system. MAPS calls for the designation of major categories of attributes which describe critical elements of concern for the processes being examined. The six major categories include: Process Demonstration; Full-Scale Process, Feedstock; End-Product Market; National/Social Considerations; and Economics. MAPS calls for each attribute to be weighted on a simple scale for all of the candidate processes. Next, a weight is assigned to each attribute, thus creating a multiplier to be used with each individual value to derive a comparative weighting. Last, each of the categories of attributes themselves are weighted, thus creating another multiplier, for use in developing an overall score. With sufficient information and industry input, each process can be ultimately compared using a single figure of merit. After careful examination of available information, it was decided that only six of the 20 candidate processes were adequately described to allow a complete MAPS analysis which would allow direct comparisons for illustrative purposes. These six processes include three synthesis gas processes, two hydrogen and one ammonia. The remaining fourteen processes were subjected to only a partial MAPS assessment.

  8. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the sixth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) Autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (2) Catalyst deactivation, (3) Steam reformer transient response, and (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    E85 Fuel Exclusivity Contract Regulations Any motor fuel franchise contract entered into or renewed on or after May 30, 2006, must allow for the delivery of E85 at any time...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Conversion Registration When a motor vehicle is modified to use a different fuel type or more than one type of fuel, the vehicle's registered owner must notify the county treasurer...

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Tax Exemption and Rate Reduction E85, compressed natural gas, and hydrogen fuel that is used exclusively to operate a motor vehicle engine is exempt from state...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    person whose only activities with respect to motor fuel are: 1) the conversion of any biomass materials into biodiesel fuel that is produced exclusively for personal use and not...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    as long as the retailer sells a certain percentage of renewable fuels (ethanol and biodiesel) as part of their total motor fuel sales on a company-wide or a site-by-site basis....

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    receive a quarterly incentive for selling and dispensing renewable fuels, including biodiesel. A qualified motor fuel dealer is eligible for up to 0.065 for every gallon of...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Decals An individual may place alternative fuel (defined as liquefied petroleum gas or propane) into the fuel tank of a motor vehicle only if the vehicle has a valid alternative...

  16. Molted carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement - 4th quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of MW-class IMHEX Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell power plants. Progress is described on marketing, systems design and analysis, product options and manufacturing.

  17. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report documents the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Hydrogen, Fuel Ce

  18. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  19. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  20. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the first such report that will be submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1--December 31, 2003. This quarter saw progress in three areas. These areas are: (1) Evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor, as well as (3) Set up and data collection of baseline performance using the steam reformer. All of the projects are proceeding on schedule. During this quarter one conference paper was written that will be presented at the ASME Power 2004 conference in March 2004, which outlines the research direction and basis for looking at the coal to hydrogen pathway.

  1. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  2. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  3. Life Cycle Analysis of the Production of Aviation Fuels Using the CE-CERT Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Sangran

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Municipal Sewage Sludge to Produce Synthetic Fuels, reportMunicipal Sewage Sludge to Produce Synthetic Fuels, report

  4. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Boise Paper Solutions and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and three-stage stoker combustion technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate the commercial applicability of an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system at Boise Paper Solutions' pulp and paper mill located at DeRidder, Louisiana.

  5. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and three-stage stoker combustion technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  7. Partitioning of fission products from irradiated nitride fuel using inductive vaporization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shcherbina, N.; Kulik, D.A.; Kivel, N.; Potthast, H.D.; Guenther-Leopold, I. [Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Irradiated nitride fuel (Pu{sub 0.3}Zr{sub 0.7})N fabricated at PSI in frame of the CONFIRM project and having a burn-up of 10.4 % FIMA (Fission per Initial Metal Atom) has been investigated by means of inductive vaporization. The study of thermal stability and release behavior of Pu, Am, Zr and fission products (FPs) was performed in a wide temperature range (up to 2300 C. degrees) and on different redox conditions. On-line monitoring by ICP-MS detected low nitride stability and significant loss of Pu and Am at T>1900 C. degrees during annealing under inert atmosphere (Ar). The oxidative pre-treatment of nitride fuel on air at 1000 C. degrees resulted in strong retention of Pu and Am in the solid, as well as of most FPs. Thermodynamic modelling of elemental speciation using GEM-Selektor v.3 code (Gibbs Energy Minimization Selektor), supported by a comprehensive literature review on thermodynamics of actinides and FPs, revealed a number of binary compounds of Cs, Mo, Te, Sr and Ba to occur in the solid. Speciation of some FPs in the fuel is discussed and compared to earlier results of electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Predominant vapor species predicted by GEM-Selektor calculations were Pu(g), Am(g) and N{sub 2}. Nitrogen can be completely released from the fuel after complete oxidation at 1000 C. degrees. With regard to the irradiated nitride reprocessing technology, this result can have an important practical application as an alternative way for {sup 15}N recovery. (authors)

  8. ALKALI – CATALYSED PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FUEL FROM NIGERIAN CITRUS SEEDS OIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    The potential of oil extracted from the seeds of three different Nigerian citrus fruits for biodiesel production was investigated. Fatty acid alkyl esters were produced from orange seed oil, grape seed oil and tangerine seed oil by transesterification of the oils with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. In the conversion of the citrus seed oils to alkyl esters (biodiesel), the grape seed oil gave the highest yield of 90.6%, while the tangerine seed oil and orange seed oil gave a yield of 83.1 % and 78.5%, respectively. Fuel properties of the seed oil and its biodiesel were determined. The results showed that orange seed oil had a density of 730 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 36.5 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 14 o C; while its biodiesel fuel had a density of 892 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 5.60 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 25 o C. Grape seed oil had a density of 675 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 39.5 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 12 o C, while its biodiesel fuel had a density of 890 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 4.80 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 22 o C. Tangerine seed oil had an acid value of 1.40 mg/g, a density of 568 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 37.3 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 15 o C, while its biodiesel fuel had an acid value of 0.22 mg/g, a density of 895 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 5.30 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 24 o C.

  9. Premium Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moser, P. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Premium efficient motors are available which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with fewer losses than the more standard motors. The fewer losses in these motors are due to changes in the motor design and improved manufacturing methods...

  10. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

  11. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 012139 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

  12. Tar-free fuel gas production from high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Leguan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhiquan; Liu, Shiming, E-mail: Zhangping101@yeah.net; Cheng, Gong; He, Piwen; Sun, Lei

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • High temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge was efficient for producing tar-free fuel gas. • Complete tar removal and volatile matter release were at elevated temperature of 1300 °C. • Sewage sludge was converted to residual solid with high ash content. • 72.60% of energy conversion efficiency for gas production in high temperature pyrolysis. • Investment and costing for tar cleaning were reduced. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a free-fall reactor at 1000–1400 °C. The results showed that the volatile matter in the sludge could be completely released to gaseous product at 1300 °C. The high temperature was in favor of H{sub 2} and CO in the produced gas. However, the low heating value (LHV) of the gas decreased from 15.68 MJ/N m{sup 3} to 9.10 MJ/N m{sup 3} with temperature increasing from 1000 °C to 1400 °C. The obtained residual solid was characterized by high ash content. The energy balance indicated that the most heating value in the sludge was in the gaseous product.

  13. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

  14. Electric Motors and Critical Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6:Energy Eighth AnnualELECTRIC MOTORS AND

  15. Motor Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative JC3 RSS September 9, 2013 V-237: TYPO3LoveMicrosoft2MitigationMotor Energy

  16. Investigation of the Feasibility of Utilizing Gamma Emission Computed Tomography in Evaluating Fission Product Migration in Irradiated TRISO Fuel Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Demkowicz

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) the TRISO particle fuel serves as the primary fission product containment. However the large number of TRISO particles present in proposed HTGRs dictates that there will be a small fraction (~10-4 to 10-5) of as manufactured and in-pile particle failures that will lead to some fission product release. The matrix material surrounding the TRISO particles in fuel compacts and the structural graphite holding the TRISO particles in place can also serve as sinks for containing any released fission products. However data on the migration of solid fission products through these materials is lacking. One of the primary goals of the AGR-3/4 experiment is to study fission product migration from failed TRISO particles in prototypic HTGR components such as structural graphite and compact matrix material. In this work, the potential for a Gamma Emission Computed Tomography (GECT) technique to non-destructively examine the fission product distribution in AGR-3/4 components and other irradiation experiments is explored. Specifically, the feasibility of using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS) system for this GECT application is considered. To test the feasibility, the response of the PGS system to idealized fission product distributions has been simulated using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. Previous work that applied similar techniques during the AGR-1 experiment will also be discussed as well as planned uses for the GECT technique during the post irradiation examination of the AGR-2 experiment. The GECT technique has also been applied to other irradiated nuclear fuel systems that were currently available in the HFEF hot cell including oxide fuel pins, metallic fuel pins, and monolithic plate fuel.

  17. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the seventh report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in these areas. These areas are: (1) Steam reformer transient response, (2) Heat transfer enhancement, (3) Catalyst degradation, (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies, and (5) Autothermal reforming of coal-derived methanol. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  18. Life Cycle Analysis of the Production of Aviation Fuels Using the CE-CERT Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Sangran

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comes from char and fuel gas combustion. Over 89% of the GHGparts (kg CO 2 e) Fuel gas combustion (kg CO 2 e) Productoutput (MJ) Fuel gas combustion (MJ) Char combustion (MJ)

  19. A scoping study of fission product transport from failed fuel during N Reactor postulated accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagrman, D.L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a scoping study of cesium, iodine, and tellurium behavior during a cold leg manifold break in the N Reactor. More detail about fission product behavior than has previously been available is provided and key parameters that control this behavior are identified. The LACE LA1 test and evidence from the Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage tests are used to test the key model applied to determine aerosol behavior. Recommendations for future analysis are also provided. The primary result is that most of the cesium, iodine, and tellurium remains in the molten uranium fuel. Only 0.0035 of the total inventory is calculated to be released. Condensation of the most of the species of cesium and iodine that are released is calculated, with 0.998 of the released cesium and iodine condensing in the spacers and upstream end of the connector tubes. Most of the tellurium that is released condenses, but the chemical reaction of tellurium vapor with surfaces is also a major factor in the behavior of this element.

  20. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  1. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 10, October 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Levy, P.F.; Wise, D.L.; Nabor, M.R.; Molyneaux, M.S.; Hughes, C.A.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe Electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. A coenzyme M analogue, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid has been shown to be an effective suppressor of methane in nonsterile anaerobic fermentation of cellulosic substrates. Preliminary experiments have also been completed utilizing corn meal in which 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid and carbon monoxide were both found to be effective methane suppressors. An analysis of the energy outputs and requirements for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuel from corn has been performed. As a means of expanding the number of potential substrates, pretreatment schemes are being investigated. A tapered auger device has been designed and built which has been demonstrated on the bench to be effective for adding substrate and removing residue in a continuous manner from a fixed packed bed fermenter. A solvent extractor system using kerosene as the nonaqueous phase has been constructed and is currently in operation in series with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter. Although additional work is required to optimize the electrolysis process, the electrolytic oxidation of organic acids produced in the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter is operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential.

  2. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume I. Technical discussion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). The first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 referenvces and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2. 18 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development Task 8.3 - autothermal fuel reformer (ATR). Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Autothermal fuel reforming (ATR) consists of reacting a hydrocarbon fuel such as natural gas or diesel with steam to produce a hydrogen-rich {open_quotes}reformed{close_quotes} fuel. This work has been designed to investigate the fuel reformation and the product gas combustion under gas turbine conditions. The hydrogen-rich gas has a high flammability with a wide range of combustion stability. Being lighter and more reactive than methane, the hydrogen-rich gas mixes readily with air and can be burned at low fuel/air ratios producing inherently low emissions. The reformed fuel also has a low ignition temperature which makes low temperature catalytic combustion possible. ATR can be designed for use with a variety of alternative fuels including heavy crudes, biomass and coal-derived fuels. When the steam required for fuel reforming is raised by using energy from the gas turbine exhaust, cycle efficiency is improved because of the steam and fuel chemically recuperating. Reformation of natural gas or diesel fuels to a homogeneous hydrogen-rich fuel has been demonstrated. Performance tests on screening various reforming catalysts and operating conditions were conducted on a batch-tube reactor. Producing over 70 percent of hydrogen (on a dry basis) in the product stream was obtained using natural gas as a feedstock. Hydrogen concentration is seen to increase with temperature but less rapidly above 1300{degrees}F. The percent reforming increases as the steam to carbon ratio is increased. Two basic groups of reforming catalysts, nickel - and platinum-basis, have been tested for the reforming activity.

  4. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel

  5. How occasional backstepping can speed up a processive motor protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Bier; F. J. Cao

    2008-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Fueled by the hydrolysis of ATP, the motor protein kinesin literally walks on two legs along the biopolymer microtubule. The number of accidental backsteps that kinesin takes appears to be much larger than what one would expect given the amount of free energy that ATP hydrolysis makes available. This is puzzling as more than a billion years of natural selection should have optimized the motor protein for its speed and efficiency. But more backstepping allows for the production of more entropy. Such entropy production will make free energy available. With this additional free energy, the catalytic cycle of the kinesin can be speeded up. We show how measured backstep percentages represent an optimum at which maximal net forward speed is achieved.

  6. Life Cycle Analysis of the Production of Aviation Fuels Using the CE-CERT Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Sangran

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of Natural Gas to Transportation Fuels via theTransportation Total energy Fossil fuel Coal Natural gastransportation and distribution Total energy Fossil energy Coal Natural gas

  7. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is one of the leading states in the production of both coal and timber. As a result of mining and processing coal, an estimated 3 million tons of fine coal are disposed annually to waste-slurry impoundments with an additional 500 million tons stored at a number of disposal sites around the state due to past practices. Likewise, the Kentucky timber industry discards nearly 35,000 tons of sawdust on the production site due to unfavorable economics of transporting the material to industrial boilers for use as a fuel. With an average heating value of 6,700 Btu/lb, the monetary value of the energy disposed in the form of sawdust is approximately $490,000 annually. Since the two industries are typically in close proximity, one promising avenue is to selectively recover and dewater the fine-coal particles and then briquette them with sawdust to produce a high-value fuel. The benefits are i) a premium fuel product that is low in moisture and can be handled, transported, and utilized in existing infrastructure, thereby avoiding significant additional capital investment and ii) a reduction in the amount of fine-waste material produced by the two industries that must now be disposed at a significant financial and environmental price. As such, the goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of producing a premium fuel with a heating value greater than 10,000 Btu/lb from waste materials generated by the coal and timber industries. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the briquetting process indicated that the goal was successfully achieved. Low-ash briquettes containing 5% to 10% sawdust were produced with energy values that were well in excess of 12,000 Btu/lb. A major economic hurdle associated with commercially briquetting coal is binder cost. Approximately fifty binder formulations, both with and without lime, were subjected to an extensive laboratory evaluation to assess their relative technical and economical effectiveness as binding agents for the briquetting of 90% coal and 10% sawdust blends. Guar gum, wheat starch, and a multi-component formulation were identified as most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the pulverized-coal market with costs being around $8 per ton of the coal-sawdust blend. REAX/lime and a second multi-component formulation were identified as the most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the stoker-coal market. Various sources of sawdust generated from different wood types were also investigated to determine their chemical properties and to evaluate their relative performance when briquetted with clean coal to form a premium fuel. The highest heating values, approaching 7,000 Btu/lb, were obtained from oak. Sawdusts from higher-density, red oak, white oak, hickory, and beech trees provided higher quality briquettes relative to their lower-density counterparts. In addition to sawdust type, a number of other parameters were evaluated to characterize their impact on briquette properties. The parameters that exhibited the greatest impact on briquette performance were binder concentration; sawdust concentration and particle size; cure temperature; and ash content. Parameters that had the least impact on briquette properties, at least over the ranges studied, were moisture content, briquetting force, and briquetting dwell time. The continuous production of briquettes from a blend of coal and sawdust was evaluated using a 200 lbs/hr Komarek Model B-100 briquetter. The heating values of briquettes produced by the unit exceeded the goal of the project by a large margin. A significant observation was the role of feed moisture on the stability of the mass flow rate through the briquetter and on briquette strength. Excessive feed moisture levels caused inconsistent or stoppage of material flow through the feed hopper and resulted in the production of variable-quality briquettes. Obviously, the limit on feed moisture content has a significant impact on the economics of coal-sawdust briquetting since it will ultimately dictate dew

  8. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  9. Fission product release and survivability of UN-kernel LWR TRISO fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. M. Besmann; M. K. Ferber; H.-T. Lin; B. P. Collin

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermomechanical assessment of the LWR application of TRISO fuel with UN kernels was performed. Fission product release under operational and transient temperature conditions was determined by extrapolation from fission product recoil calculations and limited data from irradiated UN pellets. Both fission recoil and diffusive release were considered and internal particle pressures computed for both 650 and 800 um diameter kernels as a function of buffer layer thickness. These pressures were used in conjunction with a finite element program to compute the radial and tangential stresses generated within a TRISO particle undergoing burnup. Creep and swelling of the inner and outer pyrolytic carbon layers were included in the analyses. A measure of reliability of the TRISO particle was obtained by computing the probability of survival of the SiC barrier layer and the maximum tensile stress generated in the pyrolytic carbon layers from internal pressure and thermomechanics of the layers. These reliability estimates were obtained as functions of the kernel diameter, buffer layer thickness, and pyrolytic carbon layer thickness. The value of the probability of survival at the end of irradiation was inversely proportional to the maximum pressure.

  10. Production of Hydrogen for Clean and Renewable Source of Energy for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xunming; Ingler, William B, Jr.; Abraham, Martin; Castellano, Felix; Coleman, Maria; Collins, Robert; Compaan, Alvin; Giolando, Dean; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya. H.; Stuart, Thomas; Vonderembse, Mark

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This was a two-year project that had two major components: 1) the demonstration of a PV-electrolysis system that has separate PV system and electrolysis unit and the hydrogen generated is to be used to power a fuel cell based vehicle; 2) the development of technologies for generation of hydrogen through photoelectrochemical process and bio-mass derived resources. Development under this project could lead to the achievement of DOE technical target related to PEC hydrogen production at low cost. The PEC part of the project is focused on the development of photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation devices and systems using thin-film silicon based solar cells. Two approaches are taken for the development of efficient and durable photoelectrochemical cells; 1) An immersion-type photoelectrochemical cells (Task 3) where the photoelectrode is immersed in electrolyte, and 2) A substrate-type photoelectrochemical cell (Task 2) where the photoelectrode is not in direct contact with electrolyte. Four tasks are being carried out: Task 1: Design and analysis of DC voltage regulation system for direct PV-to-electrolyzer power feed Task 2: Development of advanced materials for substrate-type PEC cells Task 3: Development of advanced materials for immersion-type PEC cells Task 4: Hydrogen production through conversion of biomass-derived wastes

  11. Molecular beam mass spectrometric characterization of biomass pyrolysis products for fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agblevor, F.A.; Davis, M.F.; Evans, R.J. [National Renewal Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Converting biomass feedstocks to fuels and chemicals requires rapid characterization of the wide variety of possible feedstocks. The combination of pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (Py-MBMS) and multivariate statistical analysis offers a unique capability for characterizing these feedstocks. Herbaceous and woody biomass feedstocks that were harvested at different periods were used in this study. The pyrolysis mass spectral data were acquired in real time on the MBMS, and multivariate statistical analysis (factor analysis) was used to analyze and classify Py-MBMS data into compound classes. The effect of harvest times on the thermal conversion of these feedstocks was assessed from these data. Apart from sericea lespedeza, the influence of harvest time on the pyrolysis products of the various feedstocks was insignificant. For sericea lespedeza, samples harvested before plant defoliation were significantly different from those harvested after defoliation. The defoliated plant samples had higher carbohydrate-derived pyrolysis products than the samples obtained from the foliated plant. Additionally, char yields from the defoliated plant samples were lower than those from the foliated plant samples.

  12. CAD AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN THE US AUTOMOBILE Based on Visits to Chrysler, General Motors, and Ford in the summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitney, Daniel

    07/25/95 1 CAD AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN THE US AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY Based on Visits to Chrysler to create concepts and details of automobiles by America's Big 3. Some of the organizational issues

  13. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel, fuel cell vehicles offer an environmentally clean and energysecure transportation pathway for transportation. Fuel cell systems will have to be costcompetitive with conventional and advanced vehicle

  14. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscovering HowAnaDynamic Switching of theDynein Motor

  15. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA :Work with Jefferson LabDynein Motor Domain Shows

  16. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA :Work with Jefferson LabDynein Motor Domain ShowsDynein

  17. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA :Work with Jefferson LabDynein Motor Domain

  18. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  19. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122 DOE Hydrogen and

  20. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122 DOE Hydrogen andfor Transportation

  1. Co-Solvent Enhanced Production of Platform Fuel Precursors From Lignocellulosic Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Charles Miao-Zi

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W. Huber. "Production of Renewable Petroleum Refinery DieselW. Huber. "Production of Renewable Petroleum Refinery DieselW. Huber. "Production of Renewable Petroleum Refinery Diesel

  2. Brandl Motor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthbyBoston Heights,BoyneTennessee:Brandl Motor Jump to:

  3. Mission Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio:Menomonee|MililaniMindanaoMinuanoIV JumpMotors Jump to:

  4. Myers Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources Jump to:MuskingumMyers Motors Jump to:

  5. BSA Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbon CaptureAtria PowerAxeonBCHP ScreeningBLMBSA Motors Jump

  6. Implementing Motor Decision Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, R. N.

    The first step to reducing energy costs and increasing reliability in motors is to establish a motor plan. A motor plan allows decisions to be made in advance of motor failure, and increases the options available. By contrast, most motor decisions...

  7. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

  8. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel CellsAutomotive

  9. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122 DOE Hydrogen and FuelAutomotive

  10. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122 DOE Hydrogen and FuelAutomotiveAutomotive

  11. DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Integrated Hydrogen Production, Purification and Compression System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamhankar, Satish; Gulamhusein, Ali; Boyd, Tony; DaCosta, David; Golben, Mark

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project was started in April 2005 with the objective to meet the DOE target of delivered hydrogen of <$1.50/gge, which was later revised by DOE to $2-$3/gge range for hydrogen to be competitive with gasoline as a fuel for vehicles. For small, on-site hydrogen plants being evaluated at the time for refueling stations (the 'forecourt'), it was determined that capital cost is the main contributor to the high cost of delivered hydrogen. The concept of this project was to reduce the cost by combining unit operations for the entire generation, purification, and compression system (refer to Figure 1). To accomplish this, the Fluid Bed Membrane Reactor (FBMR) developed by MRT was used. The FBMR has hydrogen selective, palladium-alloy membrane modules immersed in the reformer vessel, thereby directly producing high purity hydrogen in a single step. The continuous removal of pure hydrogen from the reformer pushes the equilibrium 'forward', thereby maximizing the productivity with an associated reduction in the cost of product hydrogen. Additional gains were envisaged by the integration of the novel Metal Hydride Hydrogen Compressor (MHC) developed by Ergenics, which compresses hydrogen from 0.5 bar (7 psia) to 350 bar (5,076 psia) or higher in a single unit using thermal energy. Excess energy from the reformer provides up to 25% of the power used for driving the hydride compressor so that system integration improved efficiency. Hydrogen from the membrane reformer is of very high, fuel cell vehicle (FCV) quality (purity over 99.99%), eliminating the need for a separate purification step. The hydride compressor maintains hydrogen purity because it does not have dynamic seals or lubricating oil. The project team set out to integrate the membrane reformer developed by MRT and the hydride compression system developed by Ergenics in a single package. This was expected to result in lower cost and higher efficiency compared to conventional hydrogen production technologies. The overall objective was to develop an integrated system to directly produce high pressure, high-purity hydrogen from a single unit, which can meet the DOE cost H2 cost target of $2 - $3/gge when mass produced. The project was divided into two phases with the following tasks and corresponding milestones, targets and decision points. Phase 1 - Task 1 - Verify feasibility of the concept, perform a detailed techno-economic analysis, and develop a test plan; and Task 2: Build and experimentally test a Proof of Concept (POC) integrated membrane reformer/metal hydride compressor system. Phase 2 - Task 3: Build an Advanced Prototype (AP) system with modifications based on POC learning and demonstrate at a commercial site; and Task 4: Complete final product design for mass manufacturing units capable of achieving DOE 2010 H2 cost and performance targets.

  12. Motor Repair Tech Brief

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProductsUptake and Release:Characteristics | Department

  13. Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

  14. BIMETALLIC NANOCATALYSTS IN MESOPOROUS SILICA FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL-DERIVED FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuila, Debasish; Ilias, Shamsuddin

    2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In steam reforming reactions (SRRs) of alkanes and alcohols to produce H{sub 2}, noble metals such as platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are extensively used as catalyst. These metals are expensive; so, to reduce noble-metal loading, bi-metallic nanocatalysts containing non-noble metals in MCM-41 (Mobil Composition of Material No. 41, a mesoporous material) as a support material with high-surface area were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal procedure with a surfactant such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. Bi-metallic nanocatalysts of Pd-Ni and Pd-Co with varying metal loadings in MCM-41 were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The BET surface area of MCM-41 (~1000 m{sup 2}/g) containing metal nanoparticles decreases with the increase in metal loading. The FTIR studies confirm strong interaction between Si-O-M (M = Pd, Ni, Co) units and successful inclusion of metal into the mesoporous silica matrix. The catalyst activities were examined in steam reforming of methanol (SRM) reactions to produce hydrogen. Reference tests using catalysts containing individual metals (Pd, Ni and Co) were also performed to investigate the effect of the bimetallic system on the catalytic behavior in the SRM reactions. The bimetallic system remarkably improves the hydrogen selectivity, methanol conversion and stability of the catalyst. The results are consistent with a synergistic behavior for the Pd-Ni-bimetallic system. The performance, durability and thermal stability of the Pd-Ni/MCM-41 and Pd-Co/MCM-41 suggest that these materials may be promising catalysts for hydrogen production from biofuels. A part of this work for synthesis and characterization of Pd-Ni-MCM-41 and its activity for SRM reactions has been published (“Development of Mesoporous Silica Encapsulated Pd-Ni Nanocatalyst for Hydrogen Production” in “Production and Purification of Ultraclean Transportation Fuels”; Hu, Y., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2011.)

  15. Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Thomas

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS) is a brief motor screening test, specifically designed for assessment of patients with dementia, aphasia and other cognitive disorders. It focuses, therefore, on those motor symptoms, ...

  16. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA): Quarter 4 2013 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes the composite data products (CDPs) for early fuel cell market deployments in quarter 4 of 2013. Results are presented for ARRA (projects funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 [ARRA]) and Combined (projects funded by DOE Interagency Agreements [IAA], Department of Defense Defense Logistics Agency [DLA], and ARRA).

  17. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA); Quarter 3 2012 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.; Post, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes early fuel cell market composite data products for the third quarter of 2012 for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA) deployment projects.

  18. Fuel from Tobacco and Arundo Donax: Synthetic Crop for Direct Drop-in Biofuel Production through Re-routing the Photorespiration Intermediates and Engineering Terpenoid Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    PETRO Project: Biofuels offer renewable alternatives to petroleum-based fuels that reduce net greenhouse gas emissions to nearly zero. However, traditional biofuels production is limited not only by the small amount of solar energy that plants convert through photosynthesis into biological materials, but also by inefficient processes for converting these biological materials into fuels. Farm-ready, non-food crops are needed that produce fuels or fuel-like precursors at significantly lower costs with significantly higher productivity. To make biofuels cost-competitive with petroleum-based fuels, biofuels production costs must be cut in half.

  19. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM5Parabolic Trough Parabolic Trough DOEPatentFUEL CELL

  20. Large-Scale Production of Marine Microalgae for Fuel and Feeds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLEDControlDepartment of Energy Bioenergy