Sample records for motion kinetic energy

  1. Motion-to-Energy (M2Eâ?¢) Power Generation Technology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    INL researchers developed M2E, a new technology that converts motion to energy. M2E uses an innovative, optimized microgenerator with power management circuitry that kinetically charges mobile batteries from natural motion such as walking. To learn more,

  2. Motion-to-Energy (M2E) Power Generation Technology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    INL

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INL researchers developed M2E, a new technology that converts motion to energy. M2E uses an innovative, optimized microgenerator with power management circuitry that kinetically charges mobile batteries from natural motion such as walking.

  3. Motion-to-Energy (M2E) Power Generation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    INL

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    INL researchers developed M2E, a new technology that converts motion to energy. M2E uses an innovative, optimized microgenerator with power management circuitry that kinetically charges mobile batteries from natural motion such as walking.

  4. Motion-to-Energy (M2Eâ„¢) Power Generation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    INL researchers developed M2E, a new technology that converts motion to energy. M2E uses an innovative, optimized microgenerator with power management circuitry that kinetically charges mobile batteries from natural motion such as walking. To learn more,

  5. Quantum potential energy as concealed motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Holland

    2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that the Schroedinger equation may be derived from a hydrodynamic model in which the Lagrangian position coordinates of a continuum of particles represent the quantum state. Using Routh\\s method of ignorable coordinates it is shown that the quantum potential energy of particle interaction that represents quantum effects in this model may be regarded as the kinetic energy of additional concealed freedoms. The method brings an alternative perspective to Planck\\s constant, which plays the role of a hidden variable, and to the canonical quantization procedure, since what is termed kinetic energy in quantum mechanics may be regarded literally as energy due to motion.

  6. Kinetic Model for Motion Compensation in Computed Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Kinetic Model for Motion Compensation in Computed Tomography Zhou Yu, Jean-Baptiste Thibault- gorithms have recently been applied to computed tomography and demonstrated superior image quality. MBIR to computed tomography and demonstrated superior image quality performance [1], [2], [3]. These methods

  7. Dimensional enhancement of kinetic energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. P. Schleich; J. P. Dahl

    2002-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Simple thermodynamics considers kinetic energy to be an extensive variable which is proportional to the number, N, of particles. We present a quantum state of N non-interacting particles for which the kinetic energy increases quadratically with N. This enhancement effect is tied to the quantum centrifugal potential whose strength is quadratic in the number of dimensions of configuration space.

  8. Amber Kinetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDITCaliforniaWeifangwikiAgouraAlbatechFuels JumpKinetics Jump to:

  9. Energy Conservation Equations of Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vinokurov, Nikolay A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conventional derivation of motion equations in mechanics and field equations in field theory is based on the principle of least action with a proper Lagrangian. With a time-independent Lagrangian, a function of coordinates and velocities that is called energy is constant. This paper presents an alternative approach, namely derivation of a general form of equations of motion that keep the system energy, expressed as a function of generalized coordinates and corresponding velocities, constant. These are Lagrange equations with addition of gyroscopic forces. The important fact, that the energy is defined as the function on the tangent bundle of configuration manifold, is used explicitly for the derivation. The Lagrangian is derived from a known energy function. A development of generalized Hamilton and Lagrange equations without the use of variational principles is proposed. The use of new technique is applied to derivation of some equations.

  10. Eco Kinetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrictInformationEau ClaireEcoEco Kinetics Jump

  11. Classical kinetic energy, quantum fluctuation terms and kinetic-energy functionals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. P. Hamilton; Ricardo A. Mosna; L. Delle Site

    2007-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ a recently formulated dequantization procedure to obtain an exact expression for the kinetic energy which is applicable to all kinetic-energy functionals. We express the kinetic energy of an N-electron system as the sum of an N-electron classical kinetic energy and an N-electron purely quantum kinetic energy arising from the quantum fluctuations that turn the classical momentum into the quantum momentum. This leads to an interesting analogy with Nelson's stochastic approach to quantum mechanics, which we use to conceptually clarify the physical nature of part of the kinetic-energy functional in terms of statistical fluctuations and in direct correspondence with Fisher Information Theory. We show that the N-electron purely quantum kinetic energy can be written as the sum of the (one-electron) Weizsacker term and an (N-1)-electron kinetic correlation term. We further show that the Weizsacker term results from local fluctuations while the kinetic correlation term results from the nonlocal fluctuations. For one-electron orbitals (where kinetic correlation is neglected) we obtain an exact (albeit impractical) expression for the noninteracting kinetic energy as the sum of the classical kinetic energy and the Weizsacker term. The classical kinetic energy is seen to be explicitly dependent on the electron phase and this has implications for the development of accurate orbital-free kinetic-energy functionals. Also, there is a direct connection between the classical kinetic energy and the angular momentum and, across a row of the periodic table, the classical kinetic energy component of the noninteracting kinetic energy generally increases as Z increases.

  12. Blue Motion Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 |BleckleyMotion Energy Jump to: navigation, search

  13. average kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy by kinetic averaging Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin Ecole Normale Sup-Landau energy for two dimensional divergence free fields ap- pearing in the gradient theory of...

  14. Kinetic Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInteriasIowa:Washington:Kimble County, Texas: Energy

  15. Kinetic Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistecKilara Power Pvt

  16. Rotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zagar, Nedjeljka

    energy, divergent energy, ALADIN, limited-area modelling 1. Introduction Horizontal divergenceRotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN By V. BLAZ ICA1 *, N. Z AGAR1 received 7 June 2012; in final form 7 March 2013) ABSTRACT Kinetic energy spectra from the mesoscale

  17. Danotek Motion Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.pngRoofs andCrops Ltd Jump1-EA JumpDalyDanotek Motion

  18. PHYS 626 --Fundamentals of Plasma Physics --Section 6.4-6.5 1. Using the ideal MHD equation of motion, an energy equation can be derived. It is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    of motion, an energy equation can be derived. It is simply the continuity equation of energy density, which is the sum of kinetic energy density mU2 /2, magnetic energy density B2 /2µ0, and the internal energy density p/( -1). The total energy obtained by integrating the energy density over the whole space

  19. Negative kinetic energy term of general relativity and its removing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Mei

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We first present a new Lagrangian of general relativity, which can be divided into kinetic energy term and potential energy term. Taking advantage of vierbein formalism, we reduce the kinetic energy term to a sum of five positive terms and one negative term. Some gauge conditions removing the negative kinetic energy term are discussed. Finally, we present a Lagrangian that only include positive kinetic energy terms. To remove the negative kinetic energy term leads to a new field equation of general relativity in which there are at least five equations of constraint and at most five dynamical equations, this characteristic is different from the normal Einstein field equation in which there are four equations of constraint and six dynamical equations.

  20. An action with positive kinetic energy term for general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Mei

    2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    At first, we state some results in arXiv: 0707.2639, and then, using a positive kinetic energy coordinate condition given by arXiv: 0707.2639, we present an action with positive kinetic energy term for general relativity. Based on this action, the corresponding theory of canonical quantization is discussed.

  1. Motion to intervene and comments of the energy services group...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    intervene and comments of the energy services group of Hydro-Quebec and H.Q. Energy Services (U.S.) Inc, on FE 99-1 Motion to intervene and comments of the energy services group of...

  2. Zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy of triphenylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harthcock, Colin; Zhang, Jie; Kong, Wei, E-mail: wei.kong@oregonstate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report vibrational information of both the first electronically excited state and the ground cationic state of jet-cooled triphenylene via the techniques of resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy. The first excited electronic state S{sub 1} of the neutral molecule is of A{sub 1}? symmetry and is therefore electric dipole forbidden in the D{sub 3h} group. Consequently, there are no observable Franck-Condon allowed totally symmetric a{sub 1}? vibrational bands in the REMPI spectrum. All observed vibrational transitions are due to Herzberg-Teller vibronic coupling to the E? third electronically excited state S{sub 3}. The assignment of all vibrational bands as e? symmetry is based on comparisons with calculations using the time dependent density functional theory and spectroscopic simulations. When an electron is eliminated, the molecular frame undergoes Jahn-Teller distortion, lowering the point group to C{sub 2v} and resulting in two nearly degenerate electronic states of A{sub 2} and B{sub 1} symmetry. Here we follow a crude treatment by assuming that all e? vibrational modes resolve into b{sub 2} and a{sub 1} modes in the C{sub 2v} molecular frame. Some observed ZEKE transitions are tentatively assigned, and the adiabatic ionization threshold is determined to be 63?365 ± 7 cm{sup ?1}. The observed ZEKE spectra contain a consistent pattern, with a cluster of transitions centered near the same vibrational level of the cation as that of the intermediate state, roughly consistent with the propensity rule. However, complete assignment of the detailed vibrational structure due to Jahn-Teller coupling requires much more extensive calculations, which will be performed in the future.

  3. Spectral Cascade and Energy Dissipation in Kinetic Alfven Wave Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhihong

    Spectral Cascade and Energy Dissipation in Kinetic Alfv´en Wave Turbulence Xi Cheng, Zhihong Lin energy sources at large spatial scales. The energy of these non- linearly interacting Alfven waves. 2000). The wave-particle energy exchange rates of these channels depend on the spectral properties near

  4. atom kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    .self-consistent Thomas Fermi TF atom discussed w Kais, Sabre 3 Towards an exact orbital-free single-particle kinetic energy density for the inhomogeneous electron liquid in the...

  5. FREE ENERGIES OF STAGING A SCENARIO AND PERPETUAL MOTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salamon, Peter

    CHAPTER 1 FREE ENERGIES OF STAGING A SCENARIO AND PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINES OF THE THIRD KIND Peter to a notion of staging free energy: the free energy invested in choreographing all the actors of a biochemical \\offprintinfo{(Title, Edition)}{(Author)} at the beginning of your document. 1 #12;2 FREE ENERGIES OF STAGING

  6. Temporal Variations in the Sun's Rotational Kinetic Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Antia; S. M. Chitre; D. O. Gough

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    AIM: To study the variation of the angular momentum and the rotational kinetic energy of the Sun, and associated variations in the gravitational multipole moments, on a timescale of the solar cycle. METHOD: Inverting helioseismic rotational splitting data obtained by the Global Oscillation Network Group and by the Michelson Doppler Imager on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. RESULTS: The temporal variation in angular momentum and kinetic energy at high latitudes (>\\pi/4) through the convection zone is positively correlated with solar activity, whereas at low latitudes it is anticorrelated, except for the top 10% by radius where both are correlated positively. CONCLUSION: The helioseismic data imply significant temporal variation in the angular momentum and the rotational kinetic energy, and in the gravitational multipole moments. The properties of that variation will help constrain dynamical theories of the solar cycle.

  7. AER NY Kinetics LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergySulfonate asAEE Solar Jump to: navigation,AEPAER

  8. Measuring kinetic energy changes in the mesoscale with low acquisition rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roldán, É. [ICFO–Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss 3, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); GISC–Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos, Madrid (Spain); Martínez, I. A.; Rica, R. A., E-mail: rul@ugr.es [ICFO–Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss 3, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Dinis, L. [GISC–Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the measurement of the average kinetic energy changes in isothermal and non-isothermal quasistatic processes in the mesoscale, realized with a Brownian particle trapped with optical tweezers. Our estimation of the kinetic energy change allows to access to the full energetic description of the Brownian particle. Kinetic energy estimates are obtained from measurements of the mean square velocity of the trapped bead sampled at frequencies several orders of magnitude smaller than the momentum relaxation frequency. The velocity is tuned applying a noisy electric field that modulates the amplitude of the fluctuations of the position and velocity of the Brownian particle, whose motion is equivalent to that of a particle in a higher temperature reservoir. Additionally, we show that the dependence of the variance of the time-averaged velocity on the sampling frequency can be used to quantify properties of the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid. Our method could be applied to detect temperature gradients in inhomogeneous media and to characterize the complete thermodynamics of biological motors and of artificial micro and nanoscopic heat engines.

  9. Philips Color Kinetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroupPerfectenergy International Limited

  10. Kinetic Wave Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii |Island,KasVinod Privatea metamorphic

  11. Crystallization Kinetics and Excess Free Energy of H2O and D2O...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystallization Kinetics and Excess Free Energy of H2O and D2O Nanoscale Films of Amorphous Solid Water. Crystallization Kinetics and Excess Free Energy of H2O and D2O Nanoscale...

  12. Help:Motion Chart | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI ReferenceJumpEnergyStrategyHayesHeliofiles Jump to:

  13. Ocean Motion International LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcerns Jumpsource HistoryFractures belowOasisEnergyThe NeedlesOcean

  14. Harvesting Kinetic Energy with Switched-Inductor DCDC Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    the highest output power density, except when supplied from indoor lighting under which conditions power energy in motion may not compete with solar power but, in contrast to indoor lighting and thermal sources, moderate and consistent output power across a vast range of applications is typical [3]­[4]. Although

  15. Plasmadynamics and ionization kinetics of thermionic energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawless, J.L. Jr.; Lam, S.H.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To reduce the plasma arc-drop, thermionic energy conversion is studied with both analytical and numerical tools. Simplifications are made in both the plasmadynamic and ionization-recombination theories. These are applied to a scheme proposed presently using laser irradiation to enhance the ionization kinetics of the thermionic plasma and thereby reduce the arc-drop. It is also predicted that it is possible to generate the required laser light from a thermionic-type cesium plasma. The analysis takes advantage of theoretical simplifications derived for the ionization-recombination kinetics. It is shown that large laser ionization enhancements can occur and that collisional cesium recombination lasing is expected. To complement the kinetic theory, a numerical method is developed to solve the thermionic plasma dynamics. To combine the analysis of ionization-recombination kinetics with the plasma dynamics of thermionic conversion, a finite difference computer program is constructed. It is capable of solving for both unsteady and steady thermionic converter behavior including possible laser ionization enhancement or atomic recombination lasing. A proposal to improve thermionic converter performance using laser radiation is considered. In this proposed scheme, laser radiation impinging on a thermionic plasma enhances the ionization process thereby raising the plasma density and reducing the plasma arc-drop. A source for such radiation may possibly be a cesium recombination laser operating in a different thermionic converter. The possibility of this being an energy efficient process is discussed. (WHK)

  16. Foldtrack in Motion | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.New MexicoFinancingProofWorkingEnergyGo model (Journal

  17. Utilizing Mobility to Minimize the Total Communication and Motion Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mostofi, Yasamin

    Utilizing Mobility to Minimize the Total Communication and Motion Energy Consumption of a Robotic costs. However, simplified path loss models are utilized to model the communication channels. In Yan Operation Yuan Yan and Yasamin Mostofi Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University

  18. Energy Conserving Equations of Motion for Gear Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barber, James R.

    : 10.1115/1.1891815 1 Introduction The undesirable noise and vibration caused by gears in a large critically on the high frequency response. A primary source of gear noise and vibration is the varying meshEnergy Conserving Equations of Motion for Gear Systems Sejoong Oh Senior Engineer General Motors

  19. Amber Kinetics, Inc. Smart Grid Demonstration Project | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDITCaliforniaWeifangwikiAgouraAlbatechFuels JumpKinetics Jump

  20. Dark energy and extending the geodesic equations of motion: connecting the galactic and cosmological length scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Speliotopoulos, A. D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    z RESEARCH ARTICLE Dark energy and extending the geodesicof motion using the Dark Energy length scale was proposed.observations. Keywords Dark energy · Galactic density pro?le

  1. Plasmadynamics and ionization kinetics of thermionic energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawless, J.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To reduce the plasma arc-drop, thermionic energy conversion is studied with both analytical and numerical tools. Simplifications are made in both the plasmadynamic and ionization-recombination theories. These are applied to a scheme proposed presently using laser irradiation to enhance the ionization kinetics of the thermionic plasma and thereby reduce the arc-drop. It is also predicted that it is possible to generate the required laser light from a thermionic-type Cesium plasma. The analysis takes advantage of theoretical simplifications derived for the ionization-recombination kinetics. It is shown that large laser ionization enhancements can occur and that collisional Cesium recombination lasing is expected. To complement the kinetic theory, a numerical method is developed to solve the thermionic plasma dynamics. The effects of the complete system of electron-atom inelastic collisions on the ionization-recombination problem are shown to reduce to a system nearly as simple as the well-known one-quantum approximation. To combine the above analysis of ionization-recombination kinetics with the plasma dynamics of thermionic conversion, a finite difference computer program is constructed. Using the above developments, a proposal to improve thermionic converter performance using laser radiation is considered. In this proposed scheme, laser radiation impinging on a thermionic plasma enhances the ionization process thereby raising the plasma density and reducing the plasma arc-drop. A source for such radiation may possibly be a Cesium recombination laser operating in a different thermionic converter. The possibility of this being an energy efficient process is discussed.

  2. The propagation of kinetic energy across scales in turbulent flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardesa, José I; Dong, Siwei; Jiménez, Javier

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A temporal study of energy transfer across length scales is performed in 3D numerical simulations of homogeneous shear flow and isotropic turbulence, at Reynolds numbers in the range $Re_{\\lambda}=107-384$. The average time taken by perturbations in the energy flux to travel between scales is measured and shown to be additive, as inferred from the agreement between the total travel time from a given scale to the smallest dissipative motions, and the time estimated from successive jumps through intermediate scales. Our data suggests that the propagation of disturbances in the energy flux is independent of the forcing and that it defines a `velocity' that determines the energy flux itself. These results support that the cascade is, on average, a scale-local process where energy is continuously transmitted from one scale to the next in order of decreasing size.

  3. Kinetic Energy Decay Rates of Supersonic and Super-Alfvenic Turbulence in Star-Forming Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mordecai-Mark Mac Low; Ralf S. Klessen; Andreas Burkert; Michael D. Smith

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present numerical studies of compressible, decaying turbulence, with and without magnetic fields, with initial rms Alfven and Mach numbers ranging up to five, and apply the results to the question of the support of star-forming interstellar clouds of molecular gas. We find that, in 1D, magnetized turbulence actually decays faster than unmagnetized turbulence. In all the regimes that we have studied 3D turbulence-super-Alfvenic, supersonic, sub-Alfvenic, and subsonic-the kinetic energy decays as (t-t0)^(-x), with 0.85 < x < 1.2. We compared results from two entirely different algorithms in the unmagnetized case, and have performed extensive resolution studies in all cases, reaching resolutions of 256^3 zones or 350,000 particles. We conclude that the observed long lifetimes and supersonic motions in molecular clouds must be due to external driving, as undriven turbulence decays far too fast to explain the observations.

  4. Rydberg and pulsed field ionization-zero electron kinetic energy spectra Colan Linton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morse, Michael D.

    Rydberg and pulsed field ionization-zero electron kinetic energy spectra of YO Colan Linton Physics, zero electron kinetic energy PFI-ZEKE investigation. The results provide accurate values of the ionization energy of YO, ionization energy I.E. YO 49 304.316 31 cm 1 6.112 958 4 eV , and of the rotational

  5. On a Broken Formal Symmetry between Kinetic and Gravitational Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, the discovery of symmetries has played an important role in the progress of our fundamental understanding of nature. This paper will demonstrate that there exists in Newtonian theory in a spherical gravitational field a formal symmetry between the kinetic (KE) and gravitational potential energy (GPE) of a test mass. Put differently, there exists a way of expressing GPE such that the form of the mathematical expression remains invariant under an interchange of KE and GPE. When extended to relativity by a suitable assumption, it leads to a framework that bridges the general relativistic and Newtonian conceptions of gravitational energy, even though the symmetry is broken except in the infinitesimal limit. Recognizing this symmetry at infinitesimal scales makes it possible to write a relativistic equation of an individual graviton, the properties of which under under one interpretation may be unexpected.

  6. On spherically symmetric metric satisfying the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Mei

    2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally speaking, there is a negative kinetic energy term in the Lagrangian of the Einstein-Hilbert action of general relativity; On the other hand, the negative kinetic energy term can be vanished by designating a special coordinate system. For general spherically symmetric metric, the question that seeking special coordinate system that satisfies the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition is referred to solving a linear first-order partial differential equation. And then, we present a metric corresponding to the Reissner-Nordstrom solution that satisfies the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition. Finally, we discuss simply the case of the Tolman metric.

  7. Kinetic Energy Driven Pairing in Cuprate Superconductors Th. A. Maier,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarrell, Mark

    Kinetic Energy Driven Pairing in Cuprate Superconductors Th. A. Maier,1 M. Jarrell,2 A. Macridin,2, Tennessee 37831-6164, USA 2 Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati Ohio 45221, USA 3 of the electronic potential energy accompanied by an increase in kinetic energy. In the underdoped cuprates, optical

  8. Seasonal Modulation of Eddy Kinetic Energy and Its Formation Mechanism in the Southeast Indian Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    energy and exert profound impacts on large-scale ocean circulations. Satellite altimeter ob- servations- sociations with the large-scale oceanic circulations and the climate. The global eddy kinetic energy (EKESeasonal Modulation of Eddy Kinetic Energy and Its Formation Mechanism in the Southeast Indian

  9. Motion to Withdraw from Yucca Mountain application | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_Cost Estimating35.doc Microsoft2006DepartmentMotion to Withdraw from

  10. The Excitation Energy Dependence of the Total Kinetic Energy Release in 235U(n,f)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Yanez; L. Yao; J. King; W. Loveland; F. Tovesson; N. Fotiades

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The total kinetic energy release in the neutron induced fission of $^{235}$U was measured (using white spectrum neutrons from LANSCE) for neutron energies from E$_{n}$ = 3.2 to 50 MeV. In this energy range the average post-neutron total kinetic energy release drops from 167.4 $\\pm$ 0.7 to 162.1 $\\pm$ 0.8 MeV, exhibiting a local dip near the second chance fission threshold. The values and the slope of the TKE vs. E$_{n}$ agree with previous measurements but do disagree (in magnitude) with systematics. The variances of the TKE distributions are larger than expected and apart from structure near the second chance fission threshold, are invariant for the neutron energy range from 11 to 50 MeV. We also report the dependence of the total excitation energy in fission, TXE, on neutron energy.

  11. MHK Projects/Ogdensburg Kinetic Energy Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformationCygnet <|Galway Bay IE < MHK

  12. MHK Technologies/Blue Motion Energy marine turbine | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma:Energy InformationSEAREVAquaBuoy

  13. Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

  14. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  15. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  16. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  17. A new water anomaly: the temperature dependence of the proton mean kinetic energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davide Flammini; Fabio Bruni; Maria Antonietta Ricci

    2009-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The mean kinetic energy of protons in water is determined by Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments, performed above and below the temperature of maximum density and in the supercooled phase. The temperature dependence of this energy shows an anomalous behavior, as it occurs for many water properties. In particular two regions of maximum kinetic energy are identified: the first one, in the supercooled phase in the range 269 K - 272 K, and a second one above 273 K. In both these regions the measured proton kinetic energy exceedes the theoretical prediction based on a semi-classical model. Noteworthy, the proton mean kinetic energy has a maximum at 277 K, the temperature of the maximum density of water. In the supercooled metastable phase the measured mean kinetic energy and the proton momentum distribution clearly indicate proton delocalization between two H-bonded oxygens.

  18. An Energy Localization Principle and its Application to Fast Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Heteroepitaxial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulze, Tim

    An Energy Localization Principle and its Application to Fast Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1109 Abstract Simulation of heteroepitaxial growth using kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) is often based on rates determined by differences in elastic energy between two configurations

  19. The distribution of eddy kinetic and potential energies in the global ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Raffaele

    Understanding of the major sources, sinks, and reservoirs of energy in the ocean is briefly updated in a diagram. The nature of the dominant kinetic energy reservoir, that of the balanced variablity, is then found to be ...

  20. Piezoelectric step-motion actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mentesana; Charles P. (Leawood, KS)

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

  1. Visual motion sensitivity in dyslexia: evidence for temporal and energy integration decits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Peter

    Visual motion sensitivity in dyslexia: evidence for temporal and energy integration de®cits Joel B December 1999 Abstract In addition to poor literacy skills, developmental dyslexia has been associated in extracting motion coherence from dynamic noise, a de®cit associated with both developmental dyslexia

  2. Conformal piezoelectric energy harvesting and storage from motions of the heart, lung, and diaphragm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Conformal piezoelectric energy harvesting and storage from motions of the heart, lung University, Evanston, IL 60208; d Department of Medicine and Sarver Heart Center and Departments of e Surgery- ural contractile and relaxation motions of the heart, lung, and diaphragm, demonstrated in several

  3. STRENGTH AND ENERGY DEMANDS FROM THE AUGUST 1999 KOCAELI EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    STRENGTH AND ENERGY DEMANDS FROM THE AUGUST 1999 KOCAELI EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTIONS A. Sari 1 and L the demands placed on structures during earthquakes one might also employ an energy-based approach, especially such as absorbed energy (Chou and Uang, 2000) and input energy (Chapman, 1999). Understanding seismic demands

  4. High-energy interactions in Kinetic Inductance Detectors arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Addabbo, A; Goupy, J; Benoit, A; Bourrion, O; Catalano, A; Macias-Perez, J F; Monfardini, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impacts of Cosmic Rays on the detectors are a key problem for space-based missions. We are studying the effects of such interactions on arrays of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID), in order to adapt this technology for use on board of satellites. Before proposing a new technology such as the Kinetic Inductance Detectors for a space-based mission, the problem of the Cosmic Rays that hit the detectors during in-flight operation has to be studied in detail. We present here several tests carried out with KID exposed to radioactive sources, which we use to reproduce the physical interactions induced by primary Cosmic Rays, and we report the results obtained adopting different solutions in terms of substrate materials and array geometries. We conclude by outlining the main guidelines to follow for fabricating KID for space-based applications.

  5. Quantification of disturbance energy due to conductor motion and stability analysis of superconducting composite wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Takao, T.; Honjo, S.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most intricate disturbances causing quenches in high-current-density superconducting magnets is an abrupt conductor motion. There have been very few papers investigating the disturbance energy of the conductor motion and its generally understood that its quantification is very difficult. The authors have proposed a model to quantify the disturbance energy due to conductor motion. The model relates the disturbance energy to mechanical properties of a conductor, electromagnetic force and winding structure. In the paper, stability of a superconducting composite conductor subject to an abrupt conductor motion is analyzed based on the proposed model. It is pointed out that the stability of the conductor is improved by decreasing distance between spacers placed between the conductors. However, it is also pointed out that there is a limit to the improvement of the stability of decreasing the spacer distance, because of limited accuracies of the conductor and spacer dimensions.

  6. Barotropic Impacts of Surface Friction on Eddy Kinetic Energy and Momentum Fluxes: An Alternative to the Barotropic Governor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.

    Barotropic Impacts of Surface Friction on Eddy Kinetic Energy and Momentum Fluxes: An Alternative energy decreases, a response that is inconsistent with the conventional barotropic governor mechanism on eddy momentum fluxes and eddy kinetic energy. Analysis of the pseudomomentum budget shows

  7. Analytic results for Gaussian wave packets in four model systems: I. Visualization of the kinetic energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. W. Robinett; L. C. Bassett

    2004-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Using Gaussian wave packet solutions, we examine how the kinetic energy is distributed in time-dependent solutions of the Schrodinger equation corresponding to the cases of a free particle, a particle undergoing uniform acceleration, a particle in a harmonic oscillator potential, and a system corresponding to an unstable equilibrium. We find, for specific choices of initial parameters, that as much as 90% of the kinetic energy can be localized (at least conceptually) in the `front half' of such Gaussian wave packets, and we visualize these effects.

  8. Ion kinetic energy conservation and magnetic field strength constancy in multi-fluid solar wind Alfv\\'enic turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteini, L; Pantellini, F; Velli, M; Schwartz, S J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate properties of the plasma fluid motion in the large amplitude low frequency fluctuations of highly Alfv\\'enic fast solar wind. We show that protons locally conserve total kinetic energy when observed from an effective frame of reference comoving with the fluctuations. For typical properties of the fast wind, this frame can be reasonably identified by alpha particles, which, owing to their drift with respect to protons at about the Alfv\\'en speed along the magnetic field, do not partake in the fluid low frequency fluctuations. Using their velocity to transform proton velocity into the frame of Alfv\\'enic turbulence, we demonstrate that the resulting plasma motion is characterized by a constant absolute value of the velocity, zero electric fields, and aligned velocity and magnetic field vectors as expected for unidirectional Alfv\\'enic fluctuations in equilibrium. We propose that this constraint, via the correlation between velocity and magnetic field in Alfv\\'enic turbulence, is at the origin of ...

  9. Mesoscale Equipartition of kinetic energy in Quantum Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salort, Julien; Lévêque, Emmanuel; 10.1209/0295-5075/94/24001

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The turbulence of superfluid helium is investigated numerically at finite temperature. Direct numerical simulations are performed with a "truncated HVBK" model, which combines the continuous description of the Hall-Vinen-Bekeravich-Khalatnikov equations with the additional constraint that this continuous description cannot extend beyond a quantum length scale associated with the mean spacing between individual superfluid vortices. A good agreement is found with experimental measurements of the vortex density. Besides, by varying the turbulence intensity only, it is observed that the inter-vortex spacing varies with the Reynolds number as $Re^{-3/4}$, like the viscous length scale in classical turbulence. In the high temperature limit, Kolmogorov's inertial cascade is recovered, as expected from previous numerical and experimental studies. As the temperature decreases, the inertial cascade remains present at large scales while, at small scales, the system evolves towards a statistical equipartition of kinetic ...

  10. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in moving air into rotational energy, which in turn is converted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in moving air into rotational energy, which in turn is converted to electricity. Since wind speeds vary from month to month and second to second, the amount of electricity wind can make varies constantly. Sometimes a wind turbine will make no power at all

  11. Hybrid Recursive Energy-based Method for Robust Optical Flow on Large Motion Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichmann, Felix

    Hybrid Recursive Energy-based Method for Robust Optical Flow on Large Motion Fields Jangheon Kim, and convergence to the global minima is not guaranteed. Our hybrid recursive energy-based method employs, Germany {j.kim, sikora}@nue.tu-berlin.de Abstract--We present a new reliable hybrid recursive method

  12. 4A.5 DERIVING TURBULENT KINETIC ENERGY DISSIPATION RATE WITHIN CLOUDS USING GROUND BASED 94 GHZ RADAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    Terrestre et Plan´etaire, V´elizy, France University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom 1. INTRODUCTION. The variance 1 #12;v 2 of the mean wind is an indicator of the kinetic energy in turbulent scales4A.5 DERIVING TURBULENT KINETIC ENERGY DISSIPATION RATE WITHIN CLOUDS USING GROUND BASED 94 GHZ

  13. CO2 sticking on Pt(111); the role of kinetic energy and internal degrees of freedom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persson, Mats

    CO2 sticking on Pt(111); the role of kinetic energy and internal, S-412 96, G"oteborg, Sweden Abstract CO2 adsorbed measurements of non-dissociative sticking coefficient, S0, of CO2 on the Pt(111) surfac* *e

  14. Wave Turbulence in Superfluid 4 Energy Cascades, Rogue Waves & Kinetic Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Outline Wave Turbulence in Superfluid 4 He: Energy Cascades, Rogue Waves & Kinetic Phenomena Conference, Chernogolovka, 3 August 2009 McClintock Efimov Ganshin Kolmakov Mezhov-Deglin Wave Turbulence in Superfluid 4 He #12;Outline Outline 1 Introduction Motivation 2 Modelling wave turbulence Need for models

  15. Low-Energy Electron Microscopy Studies of Interlayer Mass Transport Kinetics on TiN(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Israeli, Navot

    Low-Energy Electron Microscopy Studies of Interlayer Mass Transport Kinetics on TiN(111) S annealing of three-dimensional (3D) TiN(111) mounds, consisting of stacked 2D islands, at temperatures-limited decay of 2D TiN islands on atomically-flat TiN(111) terraces [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 176102

  16. Energy stability analysis for a hybrid fluid-kinetic plasma model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip J. Morrison; Emanuele Tassi; Cesare Tronci

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In plasma physics, a hybrid fluid-kinetic model is composed of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) part that describes a bulk fluid component and a Vlasov kinetic theory part that describes an energetic plasma component. While most hybrid models in the plasma literature are non-Hamiltonian, this paper investigates a recent Hamiltonian variant in its two-dimensional configuration. The corresponding Hamiltonian structure is described along with its Casimir invariants. Then, the energy-Casimir method is used to derive explicit sufficient stability conditions, which imply a stable spectrum and suggest nonlinear stability.

  17. Matrix representation of the nonlocal kinetic energy operator, the spinless Salpeter equation and the Cornell potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulcher, L.P. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403-0224 (United States))

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new procedure for solving the spinless Salpeter equation is developed. This procedure is implemented with the Cornell potential, where all of the required matrix elements can be calculated from analytic expressions in a convenient basis. Beginning with analytic results for the square of the momentum operator, the matrix elements of the nonlocal kinetic energy operator are obtained from an algorithm that computes the square root of the square of the relativistic kinetic energy operator. Results calculated with the spinless Salpeter equation are compared with those obtained from Schroedinger's equation for heavy-quark systems, heavy-light systems, and light-quark systems. In each case the Salpeter energies agree with experiment substantially better than the Schroedinger energies.

  18. Department of Energy Files Motion to Withdraw Yucca Mountain...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Stephanie Mueller about Yucca Mountain U.S. Department of Energy Awards a Contract to USA Repository Services for Management and Operating Contractor Support for the Yucca...

  19. Department of Energy Files Motion to Withdraw Yucca Mountain License

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015 Business42.1Energy | Department of EnergyCompleted Demo

  20. MHK Technologies/Kinetic Hydropower System KHPS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend < MHK ProjectsFlagship <HelixKESC Tidal GeneratorKHPS

  1. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-DesertofSuccessTroy A. Semelsberger LosFuels

  2. Micro Hydro Kinetic Turbines from Smart Hydro Power | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose BendMiasole Inc Jump to:Michigan/Wind Resources/Full

  3. Motion to Withdraw from Yucca Mountain application | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC)TABLE OFDepartment of EnergyOreille County,

  4. EcoMotion GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrictInformationEau

  5. Widget:Motion Chart Visualizations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri GlobalJumpGoogleAreaMap Jump to:LabelMandatoryFieldsMainPageHelper

  6. Wind for Schools Portal Motion Chart | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 Wind Project Jump to:Wilson HotWalkers Jump to:

  7. Department of Energy Files Motion to Withdraw Yucca Mountain License

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy, OAPMMilestoneAmerican ScientistsDepartment of Energy FY

  8. Green Growth in Motion: Sharing Korea's Experience | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating AGeothermal/Exploration <GlacialGoldenarticle isin theGrowth Best

  9. Kinetics of Lithium Insertion into Silicon Adodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM to 2:05PM PDTKimberlee Kearfott

  10. Extraction of Equilibrium Energy and Kinetic Parameters from Single

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA) /EmailMolecularGE, Ford,Extracting the

  11. J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 1633-1636 1633 Negative Ion Zero Electron Kinetic Energy Spectroscopy of I-*CH3I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 1633-1636 1633 Negative Ion Zero Electron Kinetic Energy Spectroscopy of I: October IO,1994@ The negative ion zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectrum of I-H3I is presented ion zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectrum of I-CH3I in which we observe that the neutralcomplex

  12. Cosmological Kinetic Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok Das; Jorge Gamboa; Miguel Pino

    2015-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we generalize the kinetic mixing idea to time reparametrization invariant theories, namely, relativistic point particles and cosmology in order to obtain new insights for dark matter and energy. In the first example, two relativistic particles interact through an appropriately chosen coupling term. It is shown that the system can be diagonalized by means of a non-local field redefinition, and, as a result of this procedure, the mass of one the particles gets rescaled. In the second case, inspired by the previous example, two cosmological models (each with its own scale factor) are made to interact in a similar fashion. The equations of motion are solved numerically in different scenarios (dust, radiation or a cosmological constant coupled to each sector of the system). When a cosmological constant term is present, kinetic mixing rescales it to a lower value which may be more amenable to observations.

  13. Monte-Carlo simulation for fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions from neutron induced fission of 235U

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montoya, M; Rojas, J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mass and kinetic energy distribution of nuclear fragments from thermal neutron induced fission of 235U have been studied using a Monte-Carlo simulation. Besides reproducing the pronounced broadening on the standard deviation of the final fragment kinetic energy distribution $\\sigma_{e}(m)$ around the mass number m = 109, our simulation also produces a second broadening around m = 125, that is in agreement with the experimental data obtained by Belhafaf et al. These results are consequence of the characteristics of the neutron emission, the variation in the primary fragment mean kinetic energy and the yield as a function of the mass.

  14. Turbulent Kinetic Energy in the Oklahoma City Urban Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J; Leach, M; Gouveia, F

    2004-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A major field experiment, Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003), was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect meteorological and tracer data sets for evaluating dispersion models in urban areas. The Department of Homeland Security and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency were the primary sponsors of JU2003. Investigators from five Department of Energy national laboratories, several other government agencies, universities, private companies, and international agencies conducted the experiment. Observations to characterize the meteorology in and around the urban area complemented the observation of the dispersion of SF6, an inert tracer gas. Over one hundred threedimensional sonic anemometers were deployed in and around the urban area to monitor wind speed, direction, and turbulence fluxes during releases of SF6. Sonic deployment locations included a profile of eight sonic anemometers mounted on a crane less than 1 km north of the central business district (CBD). Using data from these and other sonic anemometers deployed in the urban area, we can quantify the effect of the urban area on atmospheric turbulence and compare results seen in OKC to those in other urban areas to assess the parameters typically used in parameterizations of urban turbulence.

  15. Systematics of Kinetic Freeze-out Properties in High Energy Collisions from STAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lokesh Kumar

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The main aim of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program is to explore the QCD phase diagram which includes search for a possible QCD critical point and the phase boundary between QGP and hadronic phase. We report the collision energy and centrality dependence of kinetic freeze-out properties from the measured mid-rapidity ($|y|energy $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV. The STAR detector, with a large uniform acceptance and excellent particle identification is used in the data collection and analysis. The kinetic freeze-out temperature $T_{\\rm{kin}}$ and average collective velocity $\\langle \\beta \\rangle$ parameters are extracted from blast-wave fits to the identified hadron spectra and systematically compared with the results from other collision energies including those at AGS, SPS and LHC. It is found that all results fall into an anti-correlation band in the 2-dimension ($T_{\\rm{kin}}$, $\\langle \\beta \\rangle$) distribution: the largest value of collective velocity and lowest temperature is reached in the most central collisions at the highest collision energy. The energy dependence of these freeze-out parameters are discussed.

  16. Simulations of Kinetic Events at the Atomic Scale | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of EnergyFocus GroupSherrell R.Chemical Kinetic

  17. Enhanced von Weizsäcker Wang-Govind-Carter kinetic energy density functional for semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Ilgyou [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1009 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1009 (United States); Carter, Emily A., E-mail: eac@princeton.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, and Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5263 (United States)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new form of orbital-free (OF) kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) for semiconductors that is based on the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC99) nonlocal KEDF. We enhance within the latter the semi-local von Weizsäcker KEDF term, which is exact for a single orbital. The enhancement factor we introduce is related to the extent to which the electron density is localized. The accuracy of the new KEDF is benchmarked against Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) by comparing predicted energy differences between phases, equilibrium volumes, and bulk moduli for various semiconductors, along with metal-insulator phase transition pressures. We also compare point defect and (100) surface energies in silicon for a broad test of its applicability. This new KEDF accurately reproduces the exact non-interacting kinetic energy of KSDFT with only one additional adjustable parameter beyond the three parameters in the WGC99 KEDF; it exhibits good transferability between semiconducting to metallic silicon phases and between various III-V semiconductors without parameter adjustment. Overall, this KEDF is more accurate than previously proposed OF KEDFs (e.g., the Huang-Carter (HC) KEDF) for semiconductors, while the computational efficiency remains at the level of the WGC99 KEDF (several hundred times faster than the HC KEDF). This accurate, fast, and transferable new KEDF holds considerable promise for large-scale OFDFT simulations of metallic through semiconducting materials.

  18. Calculating kinetics parameters and reactivity changes with continuous-energy Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiedrowski, Brian C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Paul [UNIV. WISCONSIN

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux forms the basis for a method to perform adjoint weighting of tally scores in continuous-energy Monte Carlo k-eigenvalue calculations. Applying this approach, adjoint-weighted tallies are developed for two applications: calculating point reactor kinetics parameters and estimating changes in reactivity from perturbations. Calculations are performed in the widely-used production code, MCNP, and the results of both applications are compared with discrete ordinates calculations, experimental measurements, and other Monte Carlo calculations.

  19. Chaotic motion at the emergence of the time averaged energy decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Manchein; Jane Rosa; Marcus W. Beims

    2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system plus environment conservative model is used to characterize the nonlinear dynamics when the time averaged energy for the system particle starts to decay. The system particle dynamics is regular for low values of the $N$ environment oscillators and becomes chaotic in the interval $13\\le N\\le15$, where the system time averaged energy starts to decay. To characterize the nonlinear motion we estimate the Lyapunov exponent (LE), determine the power spectrum and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension. For much larger values of $N$ the energy of the system particle is completely transferred to the environment and the corresponding LEs decrease. Numerical evidences show the connection between the variations of the {\\it amplitude} of the particles energy time oscillation with the time averaged energy decay and trapped trajectories.

  20. Einstein-Maxwell Dirichlet walls, negative kinetic energies, and the adiabatic approximation for extreme black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomas Andrade; William R. Kelly; Donald Marolf

    2015-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The gravitational Dirichlet problem -- in which the induced metric is fixed on boundaries at finite distance from the bulk -- is related to simple notions of UV cutoffs in gauge/gravity duality and appears in discussions relating the low-energy behavior of gravity to fluid dynamics. We study the Einstein-Maxwell version of this problem, in which the induced Maxwell potential on the wall is also fixed. For flat walls in otherwise-asymptotically-flat spacetimes, we identify a moduli space of Majumdar-Papapetrou-like static solutions parametrized by the location of an extreme black hole relative to the wall. Such solutions may be described as balancing gravitational repulsion from a negative-mass image-source against electrostatic attraction to an oppositely-signed image charge. Standard techniques for handling divergences yield a moduli space metric with an eigenvalue that becomes negative near the wall, indicating a region of negative kinetic energy and suggesting that the Hamiltonian may be unbounded below. One may also surround the black hole with an additional (roughly spherical) Dirichlet wall to impose a regulator whose physics is more clear. Negative kinetic energies remain, though new terms do appear in the moduli-space metric. The regulator-dependence indicates that the adiabatic approximation may be ill-defined for classical extreme black holes with Dirichlet walls.

  1. Electromagnetic energy conversion in downstream fronts from three dimensional kinetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapenta, Giovanni [Departement Wiskunde, KU Leuven, Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)] [Departement Wiskunde, KU Leuven, Universiteit Leuven (Belgium); Goldman, Martin; Newman, David [University of Colorado, Colorado 80309 (United States)] [University of Colorado, Colorado 80309 (United States); Markidis, Stefano [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Divin, Andrey [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)] [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electromagnetic energy equation is analyzed term by term in a 3D simulation of kinetic reconnection previously reported by Vapirev et al. [J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 118, 1435 (2013)]. The evolution presents the usual 2D-like topological structures caused by an initial perturbation independent of the third dimension. However, downstream of the reconnection site, where the jetting plasma encounters the yet unperturbed pre-existing plasma, a downstream front is formed and made unstable by the strong density gradient and the unfavorable local acceleration field. The energy exchange between plasma and fields is most intense at the instability, reaching several pW/m{sup 3}, alternating between load (energy going from fields to particles) and generator (energy going from particles to fields) regions. Energy exchange is instead purely that of a load at the reconnection site itself in a region focused around the x-line and elongated along the separatrix surfaces. Poynting fluxes are generated at all energy exchange regions and travel away from the reconnection site transporting an energy signal of the order of about S?10{sup ?3}W/m{sup 2}.

  2. Covalent bonds are created by the drive of electron waves to lower their kinetic energy through expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Michael W.; Ivanic, Joseph; Ruedenberg, Klaus

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis based on the variation principle shows that in the molecules H2 +, H2, B2, C2, N2, O2, F2, covalent bonding is driven by the attenuation of the kinetic energy that results from the delocalization of the electronic wave function. For molecular geometries around the equilibrium distance, two features of the wave function contribute to this delocalization: (i) Superposition of atomic orbitals extends the electronic wave function from one atom to two or more atoms; (ii) intra-atomic contraction of the atomic orbitals further increases the inter-atomic delocalization. The inter-atomic kinetic energy lowering that (perhaps counter-intuitively) is a consequence of the intra-atomic contractions drives these contractions (which per se would increase the energy). Since the contractions necessarily encompass both, the intra-atomic kinetic and potential energy changes (which add to a positive total), the fact that the intra-atomic potential energy change renders the total potential binding energy negative does not alter the fact that it is the kinetic delocalization energy that drives the bond formation.

  3. Kinetic and electron-electron energies for convex sums of ground state densities with degeneracies and fractional electron number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Mel, E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: mlevy@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27411 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Anderson, James S. M.; Zadeh, Farnaz Heidar; Ayers, Paul W., E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: mlevy@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties of exact density functionals provide useful constraints for the development of new approximate functionals. This paper focuses on convex sums of ground-level densities. It is observed that the electronic kinetic energy of a convex sum of degenerate ground-level densities is equal to the convex sum of the kinetic energies of the individual degenerate densities. (The same type of relationship holds also for the electron-electron repulsion energy.) This extends a known property of the Levy-Valone Ensemble Constrained-Search and the Lieb Legendre-Transform refomulations of the Hohenberg-Kohn functional to the individual components of the functional. Moreover, we observe that the kinetic and electron-repulsion results also apply to densities with fractional electron number (even if there are no degeneracies), and we close with an analogous point-wise property involving the external potential. Examples where different degenerate states have different kinetic energy and electron-nuclear attraction energy are given; consequently, individual components of the ground state electronic energy can change abruptly when the molecular geometry changes. These discontinuities are predicted to be ubiquitous at conical intersections, complicating the development of universally applicable density-functional approximations.

  4. The isospin quartic term in the kinetic energy of neutron-rich nucleonic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Bao-Jun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy of a free gas of neutrons and protons is well known to be approximately isospin parabolic with a negligibly small quartic term of only $0.45$ MeV at the saturation density of nuclear matter $\\rho_0=0.16/\\rm{fm}^3$. Using an isospin-dependent single-nucleon momentum distribution including a high (low) momentum tail (depletion) with its shape parameters constrained by recent high-energy electron scattering and medium-energy nuclear photodisintegration experiments as well as the state-of-the-art calculations of the deuteron wave function and the equation of state of pure neutron matter near the unitary limit within several modern microscopic many-body theories, we show for the first time that the kinetic energy of interacting nucleons in neutron-rich nucleonic matter has a significant quartic term of $7.18\\pm2.52\\,\\rm{MeV}$. Such a large quartic term has significant ramifications in determining the equation of state of neutron-rich nucleonic matter using both terrestrial and astrophysical observables.

  5. The isospin quartic term in the kinetic energy of neutron-rich nucleonic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao-Jun Cai; Bao-An Li

    2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy of a free gas of neutrons and protons is well known to be approximately isospin parabolic with a negligibly small quartic term of only $0.45$ MeV at the saturation density of nuclear matter $\\rho_0=0.16/\\rm{fm}^3$. Using an isospin-dependent single-nucleon momentum distribution including a high (low) momentum tail (depletion) with its shape parameters constrained by recent high-energy electron scattering and medium-energy nuclear photodisintegration experiments as well as the state-of-the-art calculations of the deuteron wave function and the equation of state of pure neutron matter near the unitary limit within several modern microscopic many-body theories, we show for the first time that the kinetic energy of interacting nucleons in neutron-rich nucleonic matter has a significant quartic term of $7.18\\pm2.52\\,\\rm{MeV}$. Such a large quartic term has significant ramifications in determining the equation of state of neutron-rich nucleonic matter using both terrestrial and astrophysical observables.

  6. Study of the ArBr-, AC, and Krl-anions and the corresponding neutral van der Waals complexes by anion zero electron kinetic energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    by anion zero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy Yuexing Zhao, Ivan Yourshaw, Georg Reiser, Caroline C a zero electron kinetic energy @EKE) spectroscopy study of sev- eral rare gas halide (RgX-) anionsI-, and the corresponding open-shell van der Waals complexes, ArBr, ArI, and KrI, were studied with anion zero electron

  7. ON THE KINETIC ENERGY AND RADIATIVE EFFICIENCY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS Nicole M. Lloyd-Ronning1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Bing

    ON THE KINETIC ENERGY AND RADIATIVE EFFICIENCY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS Nicole M. Lloyd-Ronning1 of 17 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) during the afterglow phase and ac- counting for radiative losses, we the implications of these results for the GRB radiation and jet models. Subject headinggs: gamma rays: bursts

  8. 3. A. A. Sadovoi and N. M. Chulkov, "Distribution of kinetic energy dissipation into thermal energy over a spherical shell thickness because of viscosity," in: Calculation Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrov, Victor

    3. A. A. Sadovoi and N. M. Chulkov, "Distribution of kinetic energy dissipation into thermal energy over a spherical shell thickness because of viscosity," in: Calculation Algorithms of Engineering and N. M. Chulkov, "Inertial convergence of cylindrical and spherical shells of incompressible

  9. LABORATORY III POTENTIAL ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY III POTENTIAL ENERGY Lab III - 1 In previous problems, you have been introduced to the concepts of kinetic energy, which is associated with the motion of an object, and internal energy, which is associated with the internal structure of a system. In this section, you work with another form of energy

  10. AGN JET KINETIC POWER AND THE ENERGY BUDGET OF RADIO GALAXY LOBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godfrey, L. E. H. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6102 (Australia)] [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6102 (Australia); Shabala, S. S., E-mail: L.Godfrey@curtin.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Physics, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results based on the analysis of radio galaxies and their hot X-ray emitting atmospheres suggest that non-radiating particles dominate the energy budget in the lobes of FR I radio galaxies, in some cases by a factor of more than 1000, while radiating particles dominate the energy budget in FR II radio galaxy lobes. This implies a significant difference in the radiative efficiency of the two morphological classes. To test this hypothesis, we have measured the kinetic energy flux for a sample of 3C FR II radio sources using a new method based on the observed parameters of the jet terminal hotspots, and compared the resulting Q{sub jet}-L{sub radio} relation to that obtained for FR I radio galaxies based on X-ray cavity measurements. Contrary to expectations, we find approximate agreement between the Q{sub jet}-L{sub radio} relations determined separately for FR I and FR II radio galaxies. This result is ostensibly difficult to reconcile with the emerging scenario in which the lobes of FR I and FR II radio galaxies have vastly different energy budgets. However, a combination of lower density environment, spectral aging and strong shocks driven by powerful FR II radio galaxies may reduce the radiative efficiency of these objects relative to FR Is and counteract, to some extent, the higher radiative efficiency expected to arise due to the lower fraction of energy in non-radiating particles. An unexpected corollary is that extrapolating the Q{sub jet}-L{sub radio} relation determined for low power FR I radio galaxies provides a reasonable approximation for high power sources, despite their apparently different lobe compositions.

  11. Free Energy & Kinetics from Molecular Dynamics Objective: To give a presentation of about 60 minutes at the end of the week covering the key aspects of how to get kinetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    Free Energy & Kinetics from Molecular Dynamics 14.6.10 Objective: To give a presentation of about of determining macroscopic parameters by simulations. One of the most important examples would be free energy and rate constants. The above illustration is the standard description of free energy and rates of going

  12. Position and energy-resolved particle detection using phonon-mediated microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, D. C.; Golwala, S. R.; Cornell, B. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Bumble, B.; Day, P. K.; LeDuc, H. G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Zmuidzinas, J. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate position and energy-resolved phonon-mediated detection of particle interactions in a silicon substrate instrumented with an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). The relative magnitude and delay of the signal received in each sensor allow the location of the interaction to be determined with < or approx. 1mm resolution at 30 keV. Using this position information, variations in the detector response with position can be removed, and an energy resolution of {sigma}{sub E} = 0.55 keV at 30 keV was measured. Since MKIDs can be fabricated from a single deposited film and are naturally multiplexed in the frequency domain, this technology can be extended to provide highly pixelized athermal phonon sensors for {approx}1 kg scale detector elements. Such high-resolution, massive particle detectors would be applicable to rare-event searches such as the direct detection of dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay, or coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  13. Kinetic energy deficit in the symmetric fission of /sup 259/Md. [Light particle emission in /sup 256/Fm fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Baisden, P.A.; Dougan, R.J.; Mustafa, M.G.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fragment energies of about 725 coincidence events have now been observed in the spontaneous fission (SF) decay of 105-min /sup 259/Md since its discovery in 1977. The fission of /sup 259/Md is characterized by a symmetric mass distribution, similar to those of /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, but with a broad total kinetic energy (anti TKE) distribution which peaks at about 195 MeV, in contrast to those of /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, for which the anti TKE is about 240 MeV. This kinetic energy deficit, approx. 40 MeV, has been postulated to be due to the emission of hydrogen-like particles by /sup 259/Md at the scission point in a large fraction of the fissions, leaving the residual fissioning nucleus with 100 protons. The residual nucleus would then be able to divide into two ultrastable tin-like fission fragments, but with less kinetic energy than that observed in the SF of /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, because of binding-energy losses and a reduction in the Coulomb repulsion of the major fragments. To test this hypothesis, counter-telescope experiments aimed at detecting and identifying these light particles were performed. In 439 SF events 3 + 3 protons of the appropriate energy were observed, too few to account for the kinetic energy deficit in the fission of /sup 259/Md. There seems to be no explanation for this problem within the framework of current fission theory. These results are discussed along with preliminary measurements of light-particle emission in the SF of /sup 256/Fm. 5 figures.

  14. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  15. Modeling Spike Trains from Area This chapter describes the application of a motion energy model to the dynamic dot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bair, Wyeth

    74 Chapter 6 Modeling Spike Trains from Area MT This chapter describes the application of a motion energy model to the dynamic dot stimulus. We wanted to know whether the precise temporal modulation widely compared to electrophysiological data from both area MT and its V1 inputs (Heeger, 1987; Grzywacz

  16. Symmetries of particle motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy Maartens; David Taylor

    1997-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We define affine transport lifts on the tangent bundle by associating a transport rule for tangent vectors with a vector field on the base manifold. The aim is to develop tools for the study of kinetic/ dynamical symmetries in relativistic particle motion. The transport lift unifies and generalises the various existing lifted vector fields, with clear geometric interpretations. We find the affine dynamical symmetries of free particle motion, and compare this to previous results and to the alternative concept of "matter symmetry".

  17. Laser sustained discharge nozzle apparatus for the production of an intense beam of high kinetic energy atomic species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cross, J.B.; Cremers, D.A.

    1986-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser sustained discharge apparatus for the production of intense beams of high kinetic energy atomic species is described. A portion of the plasma resulting from a laser sustained continuous optical discharge which generates energetic atomic species from a gaseous source thereof is expanded through a nozzle into a region of low pressure. The expanded plasma contains a significant concentration of the high kinetic energy atomic species which may be used to investigate the interaction of surfaces therewith. In particular, O-atoms having velocities in excess of 3.5 km/s can be generated for the purpose of studying their interaction with materials in order to develop protective materials for spacecraft which are exposed to such energetic O-atoms during operation in low earth orbit.

  18. Pion yield studies for proton drive beams of 2-8 GeV kinetic energy for stopped

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    data. Pion kinetic energy of 40 MeV corresponds to momentum of 113 MeV/c #12;MARS - dash-dotted lines #12;MARS - dash-dotted lines #12;#12;#12;HARP collaboration conclusion #12;#12;HARP vs HARP-CDP #12 angle pion production · Negative pion yield was studied at 10 GeV/c using JINR 2-m propane bubble

  19. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY VIA OPTIMIZED CHARGE MOTION AND SLURRY FLOW IN PLANT SCALE SAG MILLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Sravan K. Prathy; Trilokyanath Patra

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. mining industry operates approximately 80 semi-autogenesis grinding mills (SAG) throughout the United States. Depending on the mill size the SAG mills draws between 2 MW and 17 MW. The product from the SAG mill is further reduced in size using pebble crushers and ball mills. Hence, typical gold or copper ore requires between 2.0 and 7.5 kWh per ton of energy to reduce the particle size. Considering a typical mining operation processes 10,000 to 100,000 tons per day the energy expenditure in grinding is 50 percent of the cost of production of the metal. A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, Process Engineering Resources Inc. and others. In the current project, Cortez Gold Mines played a key role in facilitating the 26-ft SAG mill at Cortez as a test mill for this study. According to plant personnel, there were a number of unscheduled shut downs to repair broken liners and the mill throughput fluctuated depending on ore type. The University team had two softwares, Millsoft and FlowMod to tackle the problem. Millsoft is capable of simulating the motion of charge in the mill. FlowMod calculates the slurry flow through the grate and pulp lifters. Based on this data the two models were fine-tuned to fit the Cortez SAG will. In the summer of 2004 a new design of shell lifters were presented to Cortez and in September 2004 these lifters were installed in the SAG mill. By December 2004 Cortez Mines realized that the SAG mill is drawing approximately 236-kW less power than before while maintaining the same level of production. In the first month there was extreme cycling and operators had to learn more. Now the power consumption is 0.3-1.3 kWh/ton lower than before. The actual SAG mill power draw is 230-370 kW lower. Mill runs 1 rpm lesser in speed on the average. The re-circulation to the cone crusher is reduced by 1-10%, which means more efficient grinding of critical size material is taking place in the mill. All of the savings have resulted in reduction of operating cost be about $0.023-$0.048/ ton.

  20. Study of the low-lying states of Ge2 and Ge2 using negative ion zero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    Study of the low-lying states of Ge2 and Ge2 using negative ion zero electron kinetic energy The low-lying states of Ge2 and Ge2 are probed using negative ion zero electron kinetic energy ZEKE spectroscopy. The ZEKE spectrum of Ge2 yields an electron affinity of 2.035 0.001 eV for Ge2, as well as term

  1. Application of a kinetic energy partitioning scheme for ab initio molecular dynamics to reactions associated with ionization in water tetramers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furuhama, Ayako; Dupuis, Michel; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2008-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We give the details of a partitioning scheme of the kinetic energy in molecular dynamics based on instantaneous internal coordinates and atomic velocities. The scheme applied to the analysis of the short-time dynamics after ionization in ‘cyclic’ and ‘branched’ water tetramers illustrates that the tetrameric systems can be usefully partitioned into two subsystems, a ‘reactive trimer’ and a ‘solvent’ molecule. The partitioned kinetic energy exhibits a broad peak that can be assigned to the interaction between the two sub-systems, and a sharper peak arising from the proton transfer that occurs upon ionization. Comparison of the dynamics in tetramer clusters suggests that the stability of the hydroxyl radical formed upon ionization depends on the instantaneous configuration of the water molecules around the ionized water. These findings are consistent with those reported earlier for the (H2O)17 cluster. This work was supported in part by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This research was performed in part using the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The EMSL is funded by DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research. PNNL is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  2. Zero Kinetic Energy Photofragment Spectroscopy: The Threshold Dissociation of NO2 J. A. Mueller, S. A. Rogers, and Paul L. Houston*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Paul L.

    at the dissociation threshold of, while for higher energies, a new peak occurs as the energy threshold is reachedZero Kinetic Energy Photofragment Spectroscopy: The Threshold Dissociation of NO2 J. A. Mueller, S. A. Rogers, and Paul L. Houston* Department of Chemistry, Cornell UniVersity, Ithaca, New York 14853

  3. 11490 J. Phys. Chem. 1994, 98, 11490-11498 Kinetic and Electronic Energy Dependence of the Reactions of Sc+ and Ti+ with D20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemmer, David E.

    of ground state M+ in both systems. In the titanium system, the effect of electronic energy on product11490 J. Phys. Chem. 1994, 98, 11490- 11498 Kinetic and Electronic Energy Dependence@ The reactions of Sc+ and Ti+ with D20 are studied as a function of translational energy in a guided ion beam

  4. Dark energy and extending the geodesic equations of motion: its construction and experimental constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Speliotopoulos, Achilles D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 RESEARCH ARTICLE Dark energy and extending the geodesicWith the discovery of Dark Energy, DE , there is now aextension is set. Keywords Dark energy · Geodesic equations

  5. LABORATORY V In this lab, you will begin to use the principle of conservation of energy to determine the motion resulting from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Lab V - 1 LABORATORY V ENERGY In this lab, you will begin to use the principle of conservation of energy to determine the motion resulting from interactions that are difficult to analyze using force concepts alone. Keep in mind that energy is always conserved, it but it is sometimes difficult to calculate

  6. Dynamical behavior of the entanglement, purity and energy between atomic qubits in motion under the influence of thermal environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Tan; Y. Q. Zhang; Z. H. Zhu; L. W. Liu

    2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The entanglement, purity and energy of two isolated two-level atoms which are initially prepared in Bell state and each interacts with a thermal cavity field are investigated by considering the atomic motion and the field-mode structure. We achieve the analytical solutions of the atomic qubits by using the algebraic dynamical approach and the influences of the field-mode structure parameter, the strength of the thermal field and the detuning on the entanglement, purity and energy are discussed. We also investigate the state evolution of the atomic qubits based on the entanglement-purity-energy diagrams. Our results show that the disentanglement process of the atomic qubits accompanies by excitations transferring from atomic subsystem to cavity field modes and atomic state from a pure state convert to the mixed states.

  7. Hydrostatic Level Sensors as High Precision Ground Motion Instrumentation for Tevatron and Other Energy Frontier Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volk, James; Hansen, Sten; Johnson, Todd; Jostlein, Hans; Kiper, Terry; Shiltsev, Vladimir; Chupyra, Andrei; Kondaurov, Mikhail; Medvedko, Anatoly; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Singatulin, Shavkat

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle accelerators require very tight tolerances on the alignment and stability of their elements: magnets, accelerating cavities, vacuum chambers, etc. In this article we describe the Hydrostatic Level Sensors (HLS) for very low frequency measurements used in a variety of facilities at Fermilab. We present design features of the sensors, outline their technical parameters, describe their test and calibration procedures, discuss different regimes of operation and give few illustrative examples of the experimental data. Detail experimental results of the ground motion measurements with these detectors will be presented in subsequent papers.

  8. Energy transfer kinetics in oxy-fluoride glass and glass-ceramics doped with rare-earth ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sontakke, Atul D.; Annapurna, K. [Glass Science and Technology Section, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata - 700 032 (India)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of donor-acceptor energy transfer kinetics in dual rare earths doped precursor oxy-fluoride glass and its glass-ceramics containing NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals is reported here, using three different donor-acceptor ion combinations such as Nd-Yb, Yb-Dy, and Nd-Dy. The precipitation of NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals in host glass matrix under controlled post heat treatment of precursor oxy-fluoride glasses has been confirmed from XRD, FESEM, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. Further, the incorporation of dopant ions inside fluoride nano-crystals has been established through optical absorption and TEM-EDX analysis. The noticed decreasing trend in donor to acceptor energy transfer efficiency from precursor glass to glass-ceramics in all three combinations have been explained based on the structural rearrangements that occurred during the heat treatment process. The reduced coupling phonon energy for the dopant ions due to fluoride environment and its influence on the overall phonon assisted contribution in energy transfer process has been illustrated. Additionally, realization of a correlated distribution of dopant ions causing clustering inside nano-crystals has also been reported.

  9. Bibliography 1. Motion Perception

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheingans, Penny

    and Patrick R. Green (1990), Visual Perception: Physiology, Psychology, and Ecology, 2nd edition, LawrenceBibliography 1. Motion Perception E. H. Adelson and J. R. Bergen. Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion. Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, 2:284-299, February 1985. O. Braddick

  10. NiTi shape-memory transformations: minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically-limited intermediate states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zarkevich, N A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated structures and transitions, including their barriers. Using a generalized solid-state nudge elastic band (GSSNEB) method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape memory: those between body-centered orthorhombic (BCO) groundstate and a newly identified stable austenite ("glassy" B2-like) structure, including energy barriers (hysteresis) and intermediate structures (observed as a kinetically limited R-phase), and between martensite variants (BCO orientations). All results are in good agreement with available experiment. We contrast the austenite results to those from the often-assumed, but unstable B2. These high- and low-temperature structures and structural transformations provide much needed atomic-scale detail for transitions responsible for NiTi shape-memory effects.

  11. Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-DesertofSuccessTroy A. SemelsbergerEnergy 12

  12. Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-DesertofSuccessTroy A. SemelsbergerEnergy 121

  13. Motion Constants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Znidarsic

    2000-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A Bose condensate of electrons may exist in nickel hydrogen and palladium hydrogen systems. The motion constants associated with the gravitational and nuclear forces motion tend toward the electromagnetic in these systems. The change in the motion constants produces unexpected gravitomagnetic and nuclear affects.

  14. Appearance Potentials and Kinetic Energies of Ions from N2, CO, and NO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hierl, Peter M.; Franklin, J. L.

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently developed method has permitted the measurement of excess translational energy of ions formed in a time?of?flight mass spectrometer. The method, in conjunction with the RPD technique for determining appearance potentials, has been applied...

  15. Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO OverviewAttachments4 Chairs Meeting - April 2014

  16. Chemical Kinetics Research on HCCI and Diesel Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-DesertofSuccessTroy A.

  17. Brownian shape motion on five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces: Nuclear fission-fragment mass distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jorgen Randrup; Peter Moller

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Although nuclear fission can be understood qualitatively as an evolution of the nuclear shape, a quantitative description has proven to be very elusive. In particular, until now, there exists no model with demonstrated predictive power for the fission fragment mass yields. Exploiting the expected strongly damped character of nuclear dynamics, we treat the nuclear shape evolution in analogy with Brownian motion and perform random walks on five-dimensional fission potential-energy surfaces which were calculated previously and are the most comprehensive available. Test applications give good reproduction of highly variable experimental mass yields. This novel general approach requires only a single new global parameter, namely the critical neck size at which the mass split is frozen in, and the results are remarkably insensitive to its specific value.

  18. Active Brownian Motion Models and Applications to Ratchets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Fiasconaro; Werner Ebeling; Ewa Gudowska-Nowak

    2008-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We give an overview over recent studies on the model of Active Brownian Motion (ABM) coupled to reservoirs providing free energy which may be converted into kinetic energy of motion. First, we present an introduction to a general concept of active Brownian particles which are capable to take up energy from the source and transform part of it in order to perform various activities. In the second part of our presentation we consider applications of ABM to ratchet systems with different forms of differentiable potentials. Both analytical and numerical evaluations are discussed for three cases of sinusoidal, staircase-like and Mateos ratchet potentials, also with the additional loads modeled by tilted potential structure. In addition, stochastic character of the kinetics is investigated by considering perturbation by Gaussian white noise which is shown to be responsible for driving the directionality of the asymptotic flux in the ratchet. This \\textit{stochastically driven directionality} effect is visualized as a strong nonmonotonic dependence of the statistics of the right versus left trajectories of motion leading to a net current of particles. Possible applications of the ratchet systems to molecular motors are also briefly discussed

  19. Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. Feedstock & ProductionChapter 6 LosChelsea2010 DOE

  20. Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. Feedstock & ProductionChapter 6 LosChelsea2010

  1. Capturing the Motion of the Ocean: Wave Energy Explained | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1AAcquisition »Department link

  2. Motion to Intervene Out of Time and Comments of FirstEnergy Service Company

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC)TABLE OFDepartment of Energy OctoberSeptemberSources

  3. Motion to Intervene Out of Time of Sumas Energy 2, Inc on Proposed

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC)TABLE OFDepartment of Energy

  4. Motion to intervene and comments of the energy services group of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC)TABLE OFDepartment of EnergyOreille County,Hydro-Quebec

  5. Motion to intervene of Consumers Energy Company. FE Docket No. 99-1 |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC)TABLE OFDepartment of EnergyOreille

  6. Yucca Mountain - U.S. Department of Energy's Response to the Motion for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want to follow this link? If so, click theRecusal/Disqualification

  7. Measurement of a Complete Set of Nuclides, Cross Sections and Kinetic Energies in Spallation of 238

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of a peaceful future. In the scenario improved systems of fast reactors, of high temperature gas-cooled reactors ­ 50 mA, proton beam at 1 GeV is coupled with a reactor core. The latter is run either with fast more energy. Further burning of coal, oil and gas produces still more CO2 producing deterioration

  8. TheChandraViewofRadiativeandKineticEnergyDissipationin Beyond Unification:An X-ray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Dan

    optically thin corona · X-rays from Comptonization of disk photons in hot corona · Power law X-ray spectrum complex in general consists of a narrow line core, often accompanied by broadened emission · If we can Energy Transmission Gratings Spectrometer well suited · Narrow core always attributed

  9. Quantitative predictions of tokamak energy confinement from first-principles simulations with kinetic effects*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammett, Greg

    Quantitative predictions of tokamak energy confinement from first-principles simulations Jersey 08543 (Received 14 November 1994; accepted 2 March 1995) A first-principles model of anomalous data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Fusion Technol. 21, 1324 (1992)]. This model is based

  10. Quantitative Predictions of Tokamak Energy Confinement from FirstPrinciples Simulations with Kinetic Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammett, Greg

    Quantitative Predictions of Tokamak Energy Confinement from First­Principles Simulations 451, Princeton, NJ, 08543 Abstract A first­principles model of anomalous thermal transport based Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Fusion Technol. 21, 1324 (1992)]. This model is based on nonlinear gyrofluid

  11. Dynamic Positioning System as Dynamic Energy Storage on Diesel-Electric Ships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    1 Dynamic Positioning System as Dynamic Energy Storage on Diesel-Electric Ships Tor A. Johansen in order to implement energy storage in the kinetic and potential energy of the ship motion using the DP in order to relate the dynamic energy storage capacity to the maximum allowed ship position deviation

  12. Zero Energy Travel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Othman Ahmad; Aroland Kiring; Ali Chekima

    2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    It is fundamentally possible to travel with zero energy based on Newton Laws of Motion. According to the first law of motion, a body will continue to travel for infinite distance unless it is acted upon by another force. For a body in motion, the force which stops perpetual motion is friction. However, there are many circumstances that friction is zero, for example in space, where there is vacuum. On earth, gravity makes objects to be in constant contact with each other generating friction but technology exists to separate them in the air using powerful magnetic forces. At low speeds, the friction caused by air is minimal but we can create vacuum even on land for high speed travel. Another condition for travelling is for it to stop at its destination. On land, we can recover the kinetic energy back into electrical energy using brushless permanent magnet generators. These generators can also convert electric energy into kinetic energy in order to provide motion. This article reviews technologies that will allow us to travel with zero energy. It is easier to do it on land but in the air, it is not obvious.

  13. From Proceedings from the Workshop on Motion: Representation and Analysis (pp. 151-155), Charleston, SC, May 7-9 (1986). The extraction of Spatio-temporal Energy in Human and Machine Vision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelson, Edward

    systems. Spatio-temporal energy analysis is a useful tool for understanding and developing motion systemsFrom Proceedings from the Workshop on Motion: Representation and Analysis (pp. 151-155), Charleston, SC, May 7-9 (1986). The extraction of Spatio-temporal Energy in Human and Machine Vision Edward H

  14. On the motion and collisions of rigid bodies in an ideal fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    with the free motion of rigid bodies in an incompressible, inviscid and irrotational fluid flow in R3 . We diffeomorphism P from QP onto a neighborhood of P (i.e. (QP, P) is a local chart of P). We call the elements Q that there exists a 6n × 6n symmetric matrix [K(Q)], called the virtual mass matrix (or the kinetic energy metric

  15. Energy conservation in dissipative processes: Teacher expectations and strategies associated with imperceptible thermal energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daane, Abigail R; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in dissipative scenarios in which kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy (e.g., a ball rolls to a stop). We find that teachers expect that when they can see the motion associated with kinetic energy, they should be able to perceive the warmth associated with thermal energy. Their expectations are violated when the warmth produced is imperceptible. In these cases, teachers reject the idea that the kinetic energy transforms to thermal energy. Our observations suggest that apparent difficulties with energy conservation may have their roots in a strong and productive association between forms of energy and their perceptible indicators. We see teachers resolve these ch...

  16. Measurement of the complete nuclide production and kinetic energies of the system 136Xe + hydrogen at 1 GeV per nucleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Napolitani; K. -H. Schmidt; L. Tassan-Got; P. Armbruster; T. Enqvist; A. Heinz; V. Henzl; D. Henzlova; A. Kelic; R. Pleskac; M. V. Ricciardi; C. Schmitt; O. Yordanov; L. Audouin; M. Bernas; A. Lafriaskh; F. Rejmund; C. Stephan; J. Benlliure; E. Casarejos; M. Fernandez Ordonez; J. Pereira; A. Boudard; B. Fernandez; S. Leray; C. Villagrasa; C. Volant

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an extensive overview of production cross sections and kinetic energies for the complete set of nuclides formed in the spallation of 136Xe by protons at the incident energy of 1 GeV per nucleon. The measurement was performed in inverse kinematics at the FRagment Separator (GSI, Darmstadt). Slightly below the Businaro-Gallone point, 136Xe is the stable nuclide with the largest neutron excess. The kinematic data and cross sections collected in this work for the full nuclide production are a general benchmark for modelling the spallation process in a neutron-rich nuclear system, where fission is characterised by predominantly mass-asymmetric splits.

  17. Kinetics of Silica Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weres, Oleh

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    see S . ) It is the kinetic expression of the increase Therate is in part the kinetic expression of. the reducedrates calculated using kinetic expressions given in Chapter

  18. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  19. Topobo : a 3-D constructive assembly system with kinetic memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffle, Hayes Solos, 1974-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce Topobo, a 3-D constructive assembly system em- bedded with kinetic memory, the ability to record and playback physical motion. Unique among modeling systems is Topobo's coincident physical input and output ...

  20. Impact of subtraction and reconstruction strategies on dual-energy contrast enhanced breast tomosynthesis with interleaved acquisition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of subtraction and reconstruction strategies on dual-energy contrast enhanced breast kinetics available in breast MR while maintaining a higher image spatial resolution. Conventional dual-energy continuous motion sweeps of the X-ray tube (one per energy) followed by weighted subtraction of the HE (high

  1. Brownian Motion of Black Holes in Dense Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt; Peter Berczik; Frederik Laun

    2006-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the Brownian motion of a massive particle ("black hole") at the center of a galaxy using N-body simulations. Our galaxy models have power-law central density cusps like those observed at the centers of elliptical galaxies. The simulations show that the black hole achieves a steady-state kinetic energy that is substantially different than would be predicted based on the properties of the galaxy model in the absence of the black hole. The reason appears to be that the black hole responds to stars whose velocities have themselves been raised by the presence of the black hole. Over a wide range of density slopes and black hole masses, the black hole's mean kinetic energy is equal to what would be predicted under the assumption that it is in energy equipartition with stars lying within a distance ~r_h/2 from it, where r_h is the black hole's influence radius. The dependence of the Brownian velocity on black hole mass is approximately ~ 1/M^{1/(3-gamma)} with gamma the power-law index of the stellar density profile, rho~1/r^gamma. This is less steep than the 1/M dependence predicted in a model where the effect of the black hole on the stellar velocities is ignored. The influence of a stellar mass spectrum on the black hole's Brownian motion is also evaluated and found to be consistent with predictions from Chandrasekhar's theory. We use these results to derive a probability function for the mass of the Milky Way black hole based on a measurement of its proper motion velocity. Interesting constraints on M will require a velocity resolution exceeding 0.5 km/s.

  2. Stochastic Ion Heating at the Magnetopause due to Kinetic Alfven Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay R. Johnson; C.Z. Cheng

    2001-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetopause and boundary layer are typically characterized by large amplitude transverse wave activity with frequency below the ion cyclotron frequency. The signatures of the transverse waves suggest that they are kinetic Alfven waves with wavelength on the order of the ion gyroradius. We investigate ion motion in the presence of large amplitude kinetic Alfven waves with wavelength the order of rho(subscript ''i'') and demonstrate that for sufficiently large wave amplitude (delta B(subscript ''perpendicular'')/B(subscript ''0'') > 0.05) the particle orbits become stochastic. As a result, low energy particles in the core of the ion distribution can migrate to higher energy through the stochastic sea leading to an increase in T(subscript ''perpendicular'') and a broadening of the distribution. This process can explain transverse ion energization and formation of conics which have been observed in the low-latitude boundary layer.

  3. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Xiaoming [Physics and Computer Science Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3C5 (Canada)

    2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  4. Motion planning for energy management in autonomous vehicles. Final report, 1 September 1994-31 August 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baillieul, J.

    1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a technical overview of research supported under an AASERT (Augmentation Awards for Science and Engineering Research Training) grant administered by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research. The grant was tied to a parent grant AFOSR-90-0226 and its follow-on F49620-96-1-0059, both of which bear the title `The Nonlinear Control Theory of Complex Mechanical Systems`. The period of performance of the subject ASSERT grant was Sep 94 through Aug 97. Funds from this grant were used to support the PhD thesis research of Geoffrey Howell as stipulated in the original proposal submitted in the Fall of 1993. Mr. Howell is expected to finish his dissertation and all degree requirements this year. The research described in this report (and which will be reported in greater detail in Geoff Howell`s dissertation) is concerned with two interrelated themes in the control of super-actuated (or underactuated) mechanical systems: (1) how to control the degrees of freedom which are directly actuated without eliciting undesired behavior in the unactuated degrees of freedom, and (2) how to prescribe motions of the directly actuated degrees of freedom to achieve motion objectives for the degrees of freedom which are not directly controlled.

  5. Paper # XXX Topic: Reaction Kinetics Eastern State Fall Technical Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knyazev, Vadim D.

    Paper # XXX Topic: Reaction Kinetics 1 Eastern State Fall Technical Meeting Chemical & Physical ­ 1017 s-1 #12;Paper # XXX Topic: Reaction Kinetics 2 and activation energy values close to the C-C bond

  6. Diagnosing residual motion via the x-ray self emission from indirectly driven inertial confinement implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pak, A., E-mail: pak5@llnl.gov; Field, J. E.; Benedetti, L. R.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Knauer, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In an indirectly driven implosion, non-radial translational motion of the compressed fusion capsule is a signature of residual kinetic energy not coupled into the compressional heating of the target. A reduction in compression reduces the peak pressure and nuclear performance of the implosion. Measuring and reducing the residual motion of the implosion is therefore necessary to improve performance and isolate other effects that degrade performance. Using the gated x-ray diagnostic, the x-ray Bremsstrahlung emission from the compressed capsule is spatially and temporally resolved at x-ray energies of >8.7 keV, allowing for measurements of the residual velocity. Here details of the x-ray velocity measurement and fitting routine will be discussed and measurements will be compared to the velocities inferred from the neutron time of flight detectors.

  7. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  8. 3D Temperature Dependence of Ultrasonic Backscattered Energy in3D Temperature Dependence of Ultrasonic Backscattered Energy in Images Compensated for Apparent Tissue MotionImages Compensated for Apparent Tissue Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur, R. Martin

    DBackscattered Energy in 3D Circulating Heater 7 MHz Transducer Tissue Sample Insulated Tank with Degassed in a water bath from 37 to 50oC. Images were formed by a Terason 2000 imager with a 7 MHz linear probe, Deionized Water Terason 2000 Imaging System Stepper Motor Motor Controller Needle Thermistor Temperature

  9. Photoinduced bimolecular electron transfer kinetics in small unilamellar vesicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, Sharmistha Dutta; Kumbhakar, Manoj; Nath, Sukhendu; Pal, Haridas [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2007-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) from N,N-dimethylaniline to some coumarin derivatives has been studied in small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) of the phospholipid, DL-{alpha}-dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine, using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching, both below and above the phase transition temperature of the vesicles. The primary interest was to examine whether Marcus inversion [H. Sumi and R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] could be observed for the present ET systems in these organized assemblies. The influence of the topology of SUVs on the photophysical properties of the reactants and consequently on their ET kinetics has also been investigated. Absorption and fluorescence spectral data of the coumarins in SUVs and the variation of their fluorescence decays with temperature indicate that the dyes are localized in the bilayer of the SUVs. Time-resolved area normalized emission spectra analysis, however, reveals that the dyes are distributed in two different microenvironments in the SUVs, which we attribute to the two leaflets of the bilayer, one toward bulk water and the other toward the inner water pool. The microenvironments in the two leaflets are, however, not indicated to be that significantly different. Time-resolved anisotropy decays were biexponential for all the dyes in SUVs, and this has been interpreted in terms of the compound motion model according to which the dye molecules can experience a fast wobbling-in-cone type of motion as well as a slow overall rotating motion of the cone containing the molecule. The expected bimolecular diffusion-controlled rates in SUVs, as estimated by comparing the microviscosities in SUVs (determined from rotational correlation times) and that in acetonitrile solution, are much slower than the observed fluorescence quenching rates, suggesting that reactant diffusion (translational) does not play any role in the quenching kinetics in the present systems. Accordingly, clear inversions are observed in the correlation of the fluorescence quenching rate constants k{sub q} with the free energy change, {delta}G{sup 0} of the reactions. However, the coumarin dyes, C152 and C481 (cf. Scheme 1), show unusually high k{sub q} values and high activation barriers, which is not expected from Marcus ET theory. This unusual behavior is explained on the basis of participation of the twisted intramolecular charge transfer states of these two dyes in the ET kinetics.

  10. Energy-Harvesting Shock Absorber with a Mechanical Motion Zhongjie Li, Lei Zuo*, Jian Kuang, and George Luhrs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Lei

    Kuang, and George Luhrs Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Stony energy harvesting such as from tall buildings or long bridges. 1. Introduction The transportation counts for 70% of fuel consumption in the United States and over three quarters of which is for road vehicles [1

  11. Constrained geometric dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex: The role of correlated motion in reducing uncertainty in excitation energy transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander S. Fokas; Daniel J. Cole; Alex W. Chin

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fenna Mathews Olson (FMO) complex of green sulphur bacteria is an example of a photosynthetic pigment protein complex, in which the electronic properties of the pigments are modified by the protein environment to promote efficient excitonic energy transfer from antenna complexes to the reaction centres. Many of the electronic properties of the FMO complex can be extracted from knowledge of the static crystal structure. However, the recent observation and analysis of long lasting quantum dynamics in the FMO complex point to protein dynamics as a key factor in protecting and generating quantum coherence under laboratory conditions. While fast inter and intra molecular vibrations have been investigated extensively, the slow dynamics which effectively determine the optical inhomogeneous broadening of experimental ensembles has received less attention. Our study employs constrained geometric dynamics to study the flexibility in the protein network by efficiently generating the accessible conformational states from the published crystal structure. Statistical and principle component analysis reveal highly correlated low frequency motions between functionally relevant elements, including strong correlations between pigments that are excitonically coupled. Our analysis reveals a hierarchy of structural interactions which enforce these correlated motions, from the level of monomer monomer interfaces right down to the alpha helices, beta sheets and pigments. In addition to inducing strong spatial correlations across the conformational ensemble, we find that the overall rigidity of the FMO complex is exceptionally high. We suggest that these observations support the idea of highly correlated inhomogeneous disorder of the electronic excited states, which is further supported by the remarkably low variance of the excitonic couplings of the conformational ensemble.

  12. Experimental search for solar hidden photons in the eV energy range using kinetic mixing with photons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizumoto, T. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ohta, R.; Horie, T.; Suzuki, J.; Minowa, M. [Department of Physics, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Inoue, Y., E-mail: mizumoto@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: comic@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: horiemon@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: jsuzuki@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: berota@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: minowa@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have searched for solar hidden photons in the eV energy range using a dedicated hidden photon detector. The detector consisted of a parabolic mirror with a diameter of 500 mm and a focal length of 1007 mm installed in a vacuum chamber, and a photomultiplier tube at its focal point. The detector was attached to the Tokyo axion helioscope, Sumico which has a mechanism to track the sun. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of hidden photons and set a limit on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameter ? depending on the hidden photon mass m{sub ?'}.

  13. agonist dissociation kinetics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: supposes that the transition states for dissociation coincide with the free energy maximum along rionKinetic Pathways of Ion Pair Dissociation in Water Phillip...

  14. Interactive motion planning with motion capture data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Wan-Yen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abe, and Jovan Popovi´c. Interactive simulation of stylizedc. Motion fields for interactive character locomotion. ACMon Computer graphics and interactive techniques, SIGGRAPH ’

  15. Geometric dynamics of Vlasov kinetic theory and its moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tronci, Cesare

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Vlasov equation of kinetic theory is introduced and the Hamiltonian structure of its moments is presented. Then we focus on the geodesic evolution of the Vlasov moments. As a first step, these moment equations generalize the Camassa-Holm equation to its multi-component version. Subsequently, adding electrostatic forces to the geodesic moment equations relates them to the Benney equations and to the equations for beam dynamics in particle accelerators. Next, we develop a kinetic theory for self assembly in nano-particles. Darcy's law is introduced as a general principle for aggregation dynamics in friction dominated systems (at different scales). Then, a kinetic equation is introduced for the dissipative motion of isotropic nano-particles. The zeroth-moment dynamics of this equation recovers the classical Darcy's law at the macroscopic level. A kinetic-theory description for oriented nano-particles is also presented. At the macroscopic level, the zeroth moments of this kinetic equation recover the magnetiz...

  16. Effect of driving frequency on excitation of turbulence in a kinetic plasma T. N. Parashar,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shay, Michael

    -point motions. Using 2.5D hybrid simula- tions, we drive the system magnetically and examine the evo- lution of turbulence generation through magnetic forcing is studied using kinetic hybrid simulations with fully kinetic in exciting turbulence and heating the plasma when the time period of the driving is larger than the nonlinear

  17. Kinetic decoupling of WIMPs: analytic expressions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visinelli, Luca

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general expression for the values of the average kinetic energy and of the temperature of kinetic decoupling of a WIMP, valid for any cosmological model. We show an example of the usage of our solution when the Hubble rate has a power-law dependence on temperature, and we show results for the specific cases of kination cosmology and low- temperature reheating cosmology.

  18. Test particle motion in modified gravity theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmood Roshan

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the equations of motion of an electrically neutral test particle for modified gravity theories in which the covariant divergence of the ordinary matter energy-momentum tensor dose not vanish (i.e. $\

  19. Motion Integration Using Competitive Priors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shuang; Lu, Hongjing; Lee, Alan; Yuille, Alan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to investigate motion integration across orientation andspace. VSS 2006. Motion integration using competitive priorsMotion integration using competitive priors Shuang Wu 1 ,

  20. Motion Integration Using Competitive Priors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuang Wu; Hongjing Lu; Alan Lee; Alan Yuille

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to investigate motion integration across orientation andspace. VSS 2006. Motion integration using competitive priorsMotion integration using competitive priors Shuang Wu 1 ,

  1. ash kinetics mechanism: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    close. Such an event we call a collision, and in a collision there is exchange of energy proportional to the average kinetic energy of a molecule. It is very satisfactory that...

  2. Kinetic vs. energetic discrimination in biological copying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pablo Sartori; Simone Pigolotti

    2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study stochastic copying schemes in which discrimination between a right and a wrong match is achieved via different kinetic barriers or different binding energies of the two matches. We demonstrate that, in single-step reactions, the two discrimination mechanisms are strictly alternative and can not be mixed to further reduce the error fraction. Close to the lowest error limit, kinetic discrimination results in a diverging copying velocity and dissipation per copied bit. On the opposite, energetic discrimination reaches its lowest error limit in an adiabatic regime where dissipation and velocity vanish. By analyzing experimentally measured kinetic rates of two DNA polymerases, T7 and Pol{\\gamma}, we argue that one of them operates in the kinetic and the other in the energetic regime. Finally, we show how the two mechanisms can be combined in copying schemes implementing error correction through a proofreading pathway

  3. Reducing Actuator Switchings for Motion Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ryan N.

    Reducing Actuator Switchings for Motion Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Monique Chyba and energy minimization for AUVs). A major difficulty is to provide a formal estimation that compares

  4. Kinetic-energy-angle differential distribution of photofragments in multiphoton above-threshold dissociation of D{sub 2}{sup +} by linearly polarized 400-nm intense laser fields: Effects of highly excited electronic states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Basir Ahamed; Saha, Samir; Bhattacharyya, S. S. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Section, Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed a detailed calculation of the double-differential angular-kinetic-energy distribution of photofragments in above threshold dissociation (ATD) of D{sub 2}{sup +} from initial vibrational-rotational levels v{sub i}=4,5 and J{sub i}=0,1 in an intense linearly polarized laser field of wavelength 400 nm and intensity 3x10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. The calculation used a time-independent close-coupling (CC) formalism with eight (ten) electronic states included in the basis-set expansion of the molecular wave function. The molecular electronic states included, apart from the two lowest 1s{sigma}{sub g} and 2p{sigma}{sub u} states, were 2p{pi}{sub u}{sup {+-}}, 2s{sigma}{sub g}, 3p{sigma}{sub u}, 3d{sigma}{sub g}, 3d{pi}{sub g}{sup {+-}}, and 4f{sigma}{sub u}. All the higher electronic states dissociate to the atomic state D(2l). A sufficient number of photon absorption channels, n=0-7, and molecular rotational quantum numbers J=0-11 were taken into account to ensure the convergence of the multiphoton ATD probability. Altogether 198 coupled channels had to be considered in the calculation. The calculations reveal signatures of significant ejection of the photodissociation fragments away from the laser polarization direction due to the inclusion of the higher excited electronic states. The ratio of the photofragments perpendicular to and along the polarization axis shows good quantitative agreement with the experimental result. The angular distributions show considerable structures depending on the relative kinetic energies of the photofragments, and the fragments with different kinetic energies show peaks at different dissociation angles.

  5. Theory of Chemical Kinetics and Charge Transfer based on Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Advances in the fields of catalysis and electrochemical energy conversion often involve nanoparticles, which can have kinetics surprisingly different from the bulk material. Classical theories of chemical kinetics assume ...

  6. Imitating Human Dance Motions through Motion Structure Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    to apply this idea for importing human dance motions into humanoid robots. Our project overview is shown and Technology Abstract This paper presents the method for importing human dance motion into humanoid robots-kinematics and dynamic balancing technique. Keywords: human motion, humanoid robot, motion prim- itive, motion capture

  7. Collective motion in quantum diffusive environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. M. Kolomietz; S. Å berg; S. V. Radionov

    2007-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The general problem of dissipation in macroscopic large-amplitude collective motion and its relation to energy diffusion of intrinsic degrees of freedom of a nucleus is studied. By applying the cranking approach to the nuclear many-body system, a set of coupled dynamical equations for the collective classical variable and the quantum mechanical occupancies of the intrinsic nuclear states is derived. Different dynamical regimes of the intrinsic nuclear motion and its consequences on time properties of collective dissipation are discussed.

  8. Kinetic Modeling of Non-thermal Escape: Planets and Exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Kinetic Modeling of Non-thermal Escape: Planets and Exoplanets Valery I. Shematovich Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences Modeling Atmospheric Escape Workshop - Spring 2012 University are populated by the atoms and molecules with both thermal and suprathermal kinetic energies (Johnson et al

  9. MCAMC: An Advanced Algorithm for Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations: from Magnetization Switching to Protein Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Novotny; Shannon M. Wheeler

    2002-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the Monte Carlo with Absorbing Markov Chains (MCAMC) method for extremely long kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The MCAMC algorithm does not modify the system dynamics. It is extremely useful for models with discrete state spaces when low-temperature simulations are desired. To illustrate the strengths and limitations of this algorithm we introduce a simple model involving random walkers on an energy landscape. This simple model has some of the characteristics of protein folding and could also be experimentally realizable in domain motion in nanoscale magnets. We find that even the simplest MCAMC algorithm can speed up calculations by many orders of magnitude. More complicated MCAMC simulations can gain further increases in speed by orders of magnitude.

  10. Model Independent Bounds on Kinetic Mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hook, Anson; Izaguirre, Eder; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    New Abelian vector bosons can kinetically mix with the hypercharge gauge boson of the Standard Model. This letter computes the model independent limits on vector bosons with masses from 1 GeV to 1 TeV. The limits arise from the numerous e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments that have been performed in this energy range and bound the kinetic mixing by {epsilon} {approx}< 0.03 for most of the mass range studied, regardless of any additional interactions that the new vector boson may have.

  11. Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Learn how hydropower captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and turns it into electricity for our homes and businesses.

  12. Energy 101: Hydropower

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Learn how hydropower captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and turns it into electricity for our homes and businesses.

  13. Energy 101: Hydropower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Learn how hydropower captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and turns it into electricity for our homes and businesses.

  14. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California 94550 (United States); Welch, D. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada 89030 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

  15. Motion of free spins and NMR imaging without a radio-frequency magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kees van Schenk Brill; Jassem Lahfadi; Tarek Khalil; Daniel Grucker

    2015-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    NMR imaging without any radio-frequency magnetic field is explained by a quantum treatment of independent spin~$\\tfrac 12$. The total magnetization is determined by means of their individual wave function. The theoretical treatment, based on fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics and solving explicitly the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with the kinetic energy part which gives the motion of free spins, is recalled. It explains the phase shift of the spin noise spectrum with its amplitude compared to the conventional NMR spectrum. Moreover it explains also the relatively good signal to noise ratio of NMR images obtained without a RF pulse. This derivation should be helpful for new magnetic resonance imaging sequences or for developing quantum computing by NMR.

  16. Self-organization at low Reynolds numbers in randomly forced isotropic fluid motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McComb, W D; Berera, A; Yoffe, S R; Jankauskas, B

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We observe the formation at long times of a self-organized state in direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equation with random, isotropic forcing. In this state the kinetic energy is contained only in modes at the lowest resolved wavenumber, the skewness vanishes, and visualization of the flows shows a lack of small-scale structure. Accordingly we conclude that the state is not turbulent. Furthermore, we observe that this state is maximally helical. That is, the velocity field is an eigenfunction of the curl operator and is thus a Beltrami field. We put forward numerical evidence suggesting the presence of critical behavior, and outline arguments to support the existence of an upper Reynolds number bound for the occurrence of such self-organized states in forced isotropic fluid motion.

  17. Kinetic theory viscosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Clarke; J. E. Pringle

    2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how the viscous evolution of Keplerian accretion discs can be understood in terms of simple kinetic theory. Although standard physics texts give a simple derivation of momentum transfer in a linear shear flow using kinetic theory, many authors, as detailed by Hayashi & Matsuda 2001, have had difficulties applying the same considerations to a circular shear flow. We show here how this may be done, and note that the essential ingredients are to take proper account of, first, isotropy locally in the frame of the fluid and, second, the geometry of the mean flow.

  18. Physics 321 Energy Conservation Potential Energy in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    is independent of path. If we know we also know . 1 2 y x Potential Energy If T is dependent only on the endPhysics 321 Hour 7 Energy Conservation ­ Potential Energy in One Dimension Work-Energy Theorem = 1 work increases kinetic energy, negative work decreases kinetic energy Gravity Depending on initial

  19. Hydrogen Atom in Relativistic Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Jarvinen

    2005-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lorentz contraction of bound states in field theory is often appealed to in qualitative descriptions of high energy particle collisions. Surprisingly, the contraction has not been demonstrated explicitly even in simple cases such as the hydrogen atom. It requires a calculation of wave functions evaluated at equal (ordinary) time for bound states in motion. Such wave functions are not obtained by kinematic boosts from the rest frame. Starting from the exact Bethe-Salpeter equation we derive the equal-time wave function of a fermion-antifermion bound state in QED, i.e., positronium or the hydrogen atom, in any frame to leading order in alpha. We show explicitly that the bound state energy transforms as the fourth component of a vector and that the wave function of the fermion-antifermion Fock state contracts as expected. Transverse photon exchange contributes at leading order to the binding energy of the bound state in motion. We study the general features of the corresponding fermion-antifermion-photon Fock states, and show that they do not transform by simply contracting. We verify that the wave function reduces to the light-front one in the infinite momentum frame.

  20. RIS-M-2216 CHEMICAL KINETICS IN THE GAS PHASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KINETICS, EXPERIMENTAL DATA, GASES, HYDROGEN SULFIDES, PULSED IRRADIATION, RADIATION CHEMISTRY, RADIOLYSIS is subjected to high energy radiation (e.g. a- particles, Y-radiation or fast electrons), the primary products

  1. Integrating Acclimated Kinetic Envelopes into Sustainable Building Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jialiang

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    affects the energy usage of a building. In an effort to simultaneously consider and satisfy all of the various indoor comfort requirements, changing climatic conditions can generate conflicting conditions. Acclimated Kinetic Envelope (AKE) is a notion...

  2. Inertial range turbulence in kinetic plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. G. Howes

    2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The transfer of turbulent energy through an inertial range from the driving scale to dissipative scales in a kinetic plasma followed by the conversion of this energy into heat is a fundamental plasma physics process. A theoretical foundation for the study of this process is constructed, but the details of the kinetic cascade are not well understood. Several important properties are identified: (a) the conservation of a generalized energy by the cascade; (b) the need for collisions to increase entropy and realize irreversible plasma heating; and (c) the key role played by the entropy cascade--a dual cascade of energy to small scales in both physical and velocity space--to convert ultimately the turbulent energy into heat. A strategy for nonlinear numerical simulations of kinetic turbulence is outlined. Initial numerical results are consistent with the operation of the entropy cascade. Inertial range turbulence arises in a broad range of space and astrophysical plasmas and may play an important role in the thermalization of fusion energy in burning plasmas.

  3. On the Physics of Kinetic-Alfven Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations reveal nearly power-law spectra of magnetic and density plasma fluctuations at subproton scales in the solar wind, which indicates the presence of a turbulent cascade. We discuss the three-field and two-field models for micro-scale plasma fluctuations, and then present the results of numerical simulations of a two-field model of kinetic-Alfven turbulence, which models plasma motion at sub-proton scales.

  4. Kinetic equilibrium and relativistic thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Ván

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic thermodynamics is treated from the point of view of kinetic theory. It is shown that the generalized J\\"uttner distribution suggested in [1] is compatible with kinetic equilibrium. The requirement of compatibility of kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium reveals several generalizations of the Gibbs relation where the velocity field is an independent thermodynamic variable.

  5. Inertial range turbulence in kinetic plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howes, G G

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transfer of turbulent energy through an inertial range from the driving scale to dissipative scales in a kinetic plasma followed by the conversion of this energy into heat is a fundamental plasma physics process. A theoretical foundation for the study of this process is constructed, but the details of the kinetic cascade are not well understood. Several important properties are identified: (a) the conservation of a generalized energy by the cascade; (b) the need for collisions to increase entropy and realize irreversible plasma heating; and (c) the key role played by the entropy cascade--a dual cascade of energy to small scales in both physical and velocity space--to convert ultimately the turbulent energy into heat. A strategy for nonlinear numerical simulations of kinetic turbulence is outlined. Initial numerical results are consistent with the operation of the entropy cascade. Inertial range turbulence arises in a broad range of space and astrophysical plasmas and may play an important role in the ther...

  6. Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling & experimental testing Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling &...

  7. Multi-camera Tracking of Articulated Human Motion Using Motion and Shape Cues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sundaresan, Aravind

    of this energy image. We can then obtain the pose that possesses the least energy using optimisation P cameras and an articulated human shape model. Tracking is performed using motion cues as well as image multi-scale parametric optimisation to estimate the pixel displacement for each body segment. We

  8. Motion detector and analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Unruh, W.P.

    1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus are provided for deriving positive and negative Doppler spectrum to enable analysis of objects in motion, and particularly, objects having rotary motion. First and second returned radar signals are mixed with internal signals to obtain an in-phase process signal and a quadrature process signal. A broad-band phase shifter shifts the quadrature signal through 90/degree/ relative to the in-phase signal over a predetermined frequency range. A pair of signals is output from the broad-band phase shifter which are then combined to provide a first side band signal which is functionally related to a negative Doppler shift spectrum. The distinct positive and negative Doppler spectra may then be analyzed for the motion characteristics of the object being examined.

  9. KINETIC MODELING OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN A SOLAR NULL-POINT RECONNECTION REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, G.; Haugbolle, T.; Nordlund, A., E-mail: gbaumann@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary focus of this paper is on the particle acceleration mechanism in solar coronal three-dimensional reconnection null-point regions. Starting from a potential field extrapolation of a Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) magnetogram taken on 2002 November 16, we first performed magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with horizontal motions observed by SOHO applied to the photospheric boundary of the computational box. After a build-up of electric current in the fan plane of the null point, a sub-section of the evolved MHD data was used as initial and boundary conditions for a kinetic particle-in-cell model of the plasma. We find that sub-relativistic electron acceleration is mainly driven by a systematic electric field in the current sheet. A non-thermal population of electrons with a power-law distribution in energy forms in the simulated pre-flare phase, featuring a power-law index of about -1.78. This work provides a first step toward bridging the gap between macroscopic scales on the order of hundreds of Mm and kinetic scales on the order of centimeter in the solar corona, and explains how to achieve such a cross-scale coupling by utilizing either physical modifications or (equivalent) modifications of the constants of nature. With their exceptionally high resolution-up to 135 billion particles and 3.5 billion grid cells of size 17.5 km-these simulations offer a new opportunity to study particle acceleration in solar-like settings.

  10. Human Motion Adrien Treuille

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treuille, Adrien

    of animation in terms of a point cloud driven by the skeleton. Ideally this point cloud is a downsampling for making a transition from the ith frame of the first motion to the jth frame of the second. White values is over the number of points in each point cloud. The weights wi may be chosen both to assign more

  11. Motion Processing and From-from-Apparent-Motion in Infancy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirshkowitz, Amy

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Motion-carried information is a salient visual cue used in object perception to parse form in the optical array. The present research examined infants’ ability to extract form shapes in apparent motion stimuli, controlling for color and luminance...

  12. Generation of Character Motion by Reactive Motion Capture System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thawonmas, Ruck

    in the human-scale virtual environment. Our purpose is to make character animations with character motion data: Force Feedback, Motion Cap- ture, Human-scale Virtual Environments, Virtual Human 1 Introduction To generate the human motions in virtual envi- ronments made by a computer that are similar to the real world

  13. Non-Markovian polymer reaction kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Guérin; Olivier Bénichou; Raphaël Voituriez

    2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Describing the kinetics of polymer reactions, such as the formation of loops and hairpins in nucleic acids or polypeptides, is complicated by the structural dynamics of their chains. Although both intramolecular reactions, such as cyclization, and intermolecular reactions have been studied extensively, both experimentally and theoretically, there is to date no exact explicit analytical treatment of transport-limited polymer reaction kinetics, even in the case of the simplest (Rouse) model of monomers connected by linear springs. We introduce a new analytical approach to calculate the mean reaction time of polymer reactions that encompasses the non-Markovian dynamics of monomer motion. This requires that the conformational statistics of the polymer at the very instant of reaction be determined, which provides, as a by-product, new information on the reaction path. We show that the typical reactive conformation of the polymer is more extended than the equilibrium conformation, which leads to reaction times significantly shorter than predicted by the existing classical Markovian theory.

  14. Motion blur removal from photographs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Taeg Sang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the long-standing challenges in photography is motion blur. Blur artifacts are generated from relative motion between a camera and a scene during exposure. While blur can be reduced by using a shorter exposure, this ...

  15. Kinetics of Oscillating Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Strack

    2005-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of core-collapse supernovae, Strack and Burrows (Phys. Rev. D 71, 093004 (2005)) have recently developed an extension of the classical Boltzmann kinetic formalism that retains all the standard neutrino oscillation phenomenology, including resonant flavor conversion (the MSW effect), neutrino self-interactions, and the interplay between neutrino-matter coupling and flavor oscillations. In this thesis, I extend the Strack & Burrows formalism to incorporate general relativity, spin degrees of freedom, and a possible neutrino magnetic-moment/magnetic-field interaction.

  16. Chemical kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical kinetics of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.

  17. Reducing Actuator Switchings for Motion Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ryan N.

    Reducing Actuator Switchings for Motion Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Monique Chyba, such as time, energy, payload or some combination of these. Indeed, the major issue is that due to the vehicles

  18. ahumada motion detector: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We show data from a new type of detector that can be used to determine the neutron flux, the energy distribution, and the direction of motion neutron for both fast and thermal...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: governing WEC equations of motion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    governing WEC equations of motion in six degrees of freedom Sandia, NREL Release Wave Energy Converter Modeling and Simulation Code: WEC-Sim On July 29, 2014, in Computational...

  20. OBJECT KINETIC MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandipati, Giridhar; Setyawan, Wahyu; Heinisch, Howard L.; Roche, Kenneth J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to report the development of the flexible object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulation code KSOME (kinetic simulation of microstructure evolution) which can be used to simulate microstructure evolution of complex systems under irradiation. In this report we briefly describe the capabilities of KSOME and present preliminary results for short term annealing of single cascades in tungsten at various primary-knock-on atom (PKA) energies and temperatures.

  1. Energy Blog | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewable Energy Laboratory recently developed a new smart occupancy sensor that adds optics to what had only been a motion detection before. The new sensor combines an...

  2. Kinetic regulation of coated vesicle secretion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lionel Foret; Pierre Sens

    2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The secretion of vesicles for intracellular transport often rely on the aggregation of specialized membrane-bound proteins into a coat able to curve cell membranes. The nucleation and growth of a protein coat is a kinetic process that competes with the energy-consuming turnover of coat components between the membrane and the cytosol. We propose a generic kinetic description of coat assembly and the formation of coated vesicles, and discuss its implication to the dynamics of COP vesicles that traffic within the Golgi and with the Endoplasmic Reticulum. We show that stationary coats of fixed area emerge from the competition between coat growth and the recycling of coat components, in a fashion resembling the treadmilling of cytoskeletal filaments. We further show that the turnover of coat components allows for a highly sensitive switching mechanism between a quiescent and a vesicle producing membrane, upon a slowing down of the exchange kinetics. We claim that the existence of this switching behaviour, also triggered by factors such as the presence of cargo and variation of the membrane mechanical tension, allows for efficient regulation of vesicle secretion. We propose a model, supported by different experimental observations, in which vesiculation of secretory membranes is impaired by the energy consuming desorption of coat proteins, until the presence of cargo or other factors triggers a dynamical switch into a vesicle producing state.

  3. Kinetic theory and the FloryHuggins approximation P. L. Taylor, Yi-Kuo Yu, and X. Y. Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Philip L.

    to the Flory­ Huggins expression for the free energy of mixing of a polymer solution. The kinetic model that weKinetic theory and the Flory­Huggins approximation P. L. Taylor, Yi-Kuo Yu, and X. Y. Wang; accepted 3 April 1996 A kinetic approach is used to examine the structure of the approximations that lead

  4. Danny Byrd Controlling Lights with PWM and Motion Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kachroo, Pushkin

    been used to save power by turning off a light when no motion is detected for many decades now. Just a machine that will taper down the power consumption as time goes by, saving energy by the second to shine will slowly slowed, saving energy in the meantime. Though it will not be a huge save in energy

  5. Operationalization of Relativistic Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno Hartmann

    2015-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply the Helmholtz program of basic measurements to relativistic motion. We define a spatiotemporal order by practical comparison: "longer than" if one object or process covers the other. To express its value also numerically (how many times more) we cover them by a locally regular grid of light clocks. We define basic measures from physical operations. Interrelation of measurement operations by different observers reveals a genetic derivation of formal Lorentz transformation. Operationally impracticable configurations for accelerating observers clarify the way out of apparent Twin paradox. From simple measurement-methodical principles - without mathematical presuppositions - we derive all equations of relativistic Kinematics (and next same for classical and relativistic Dynamics).

  6. Ducted kinetic Alfven waves in plasma with steep density gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houshmandyar, Saeid [Solar Observatory Department, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, Texas 77446 (United States); Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Scime, Earl E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Given their high plasma density (n {approx} 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}), it is theoretically possible to excite Alfven waves in a conventional, moderate length (L {approx} 2 m) helicon plasma source. However, helicon plasmas are decidedly inhomogeneous, having a steep radial density gradient, and typically have a significant background neutral pressure. The inhomogeneity introduces regions of kinetic and inertial Alfven wave propagation. Ion-neutral and electron-neutral collisions alter the Alfven wave dispersion characteristics. Here, we present the measurements of propagating kinetic Alfven waves in helium helicon plasma. The measured wave dispersion is well fit with a kinetic model that includes the effects of ion-neutral damping and that assumes the high density plasma core defines the radial extent of the wave propagation region. The measured wave amplitude versus plasma radius is consistent with the pile up of wave magnetic energy at the boundary between the kinetic and inertial regime regions.

  7. Horizontal displacements contribution to tsunami wave energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutykh, Denys; Chubarov, Leonid; Shokin, Yuriy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main reason for the generation of tsunamis is the deformation of the bottom of the ocean caused by an underwater earthquake. Usually, only the vertical bottom motion is taken into accound while the horizontal displacements are neglected. In the present paper we study both the vertical and the horizontal bottom motion while we propose a novel methodology for reconstructing the bottom coseismic displacements field which is transmitted to the free surface using a new three-dimensional Weakly Nonlinear (WN) approach. We pay a special attention to the evolution of kinetic and potential energies of the resulting wave while the contribution of horizontal displacements into wave energy balance is also quantified. Approaches proposed in this study are illustrated on the July 17, 2006 Java tsunami.

  8. Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Developing chemical kinetic mechanisms and applying them to simulating engine combustion processes. deer09aceves.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Research on...

  9. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size...

  10. Temperature Independent Physisorption Kinetics and Adsorbate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Independent Physisorption Kinetics and Adsorbate Layer Compression for Ar Adsorbed on Pt (111). Temperature Independent Physisorption Kinetics and Adsorbate Layer...

  11. thermodynamics kinetics | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    its kinetic behavior is more complex. Very little reliable kinetic information on coal gasification reactions exists, partly because it is highly depended on the process...

  12. (Revised May 22, 2012) Rotational Dynamics (Energy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    energy (the sum of kinetic and potential energies) to derive an expression for the moment of inertia that the expression for kinetic energy takes on this simple form. Experiment Set Up The apparatus consists of a Rotary. The rotating object has kinetic energy but we cannot write it in the familiar form ½mv2 because the velocities

  13. Constrained geometric dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex: The role of correlated motion in reducing uncertainty in excitation energy transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fokas, Alexander S; Chin, Alex W

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fenna Mathews Olson (FMO) complex of green sulphur bacteria is an example of a photosynthetic pigment protein complex, in which the electronic properties of the pigments are modified by the protein environment to promote efficient excitonic energy transfer from antenna complexes to the reaction centres. Many of the electronic properties of the FMO complex can be extracted from knowledge of the static crystal structure. However, the recent observation and analysis of long lasting quantum dynamics in the FMO complex point to protein dynamics as a key factor in protecting and generating quantum coherence under laboratory conditions. While fast inter and intra molecular vibrations have been investigated extensively, the slow dynamics which effectively determine the optical inhomogeneous broadening of experimental ensembles has received less attention. Our study employs constrained geometric dynamics to study the flexibility in the protein network by efficiently generating the accessible conformational states ...

  14. Kinetics and morphology of erbium silicide formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, J.A.; Picraux, S.T.; Wu, C.S.; Lau, S.S.

    1985-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth kinetics and surface morphology of erbium silicide formation from Er layers on Si(100) substrates are examined using both fast e-beam annealing and furnace annealing. Very smooth erbium silicide layers have been grown using a line-source e beam to heat and react the Er overlayers with the substrate. This contrasts to the severe pitting observed when Er layers are reacted with Si in conventional furnace annealing. The pitting phenomenon can be explained by a thin contaminant layer at the interface between Er and Si. Our results suggest the contamination barrier is not due to oxygen, as usually assumed, but may be related to the presence of carbon. Rapid e-beam heating to reaction temperatures of approx.1200 K permits dispersion of the barrier layer before substantial silicide growth can occur, allowing smooth silicide growth. Heating to shorter times to just disperse the interface barrier allows uniform layer growth by subsequent furnace annealing and has permitted measurement of the kinetics of erbium silicide formation on crystalline Si. The reaction obeys (time)/sup 1//sup ///sup 2/ kinetics but is shown to be not totally diffusion limited by the ability to sustain multiple interface growth from a single Si source. The growth rates are nearly an order of magnitude slower for the Er/Si(100) interface than for the Er/amorphous-Si, but with a similar activation energy near 1.75 eV in both cases.

  15. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    energy.goveerevideosenergy-101-wind-turbines-2014-update Video Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power Learn how hydropower captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and turns...

  16. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 2 of 2 results. Video Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power Learn how hydropower captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and...

  17. Role of Brownian Motion Hydrodynamics on Nanofluid Thermal Conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W Evans, J Fish, P Keblinski

    2005-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a simple kinetic theory based analysis of heat flow in fluid suspensions of solid nanoparticles (nanofluids) to demonstrate that the hydrodynamics effects associated with Brownian motion have a minor effect on the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. Our conjecture is supported by the results of molecular dynamics simulations of heat flow in a model nanofluid with well-dispersed particles. Our findings are consistent with the predictions of the effective medium theory as well as with recent experimental results on well dispersed metal nanoparticle suspensions.

  18. Nonlinear effects in kinetic resolutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Derrell W.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    KTRIC AMPLIFICATION IN THE JACOBSEN HYDROLYTIC KINET RESOLUTION OF RACEMIC EPOXIDES 20 Applicability of Homocompetitive Reaction Kinetics to the Jacobsen HKR Effect of Catalyst EE and Choice of Epoxide on Amplification in the Jacobsen HKR.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effect of Temperature on Amplification and Reaction Rate in the Jacobsen HKR . Effect of Low EE Catalyst Generation on Amplification in the Jacobsen HKR. . . . 21 21 25 26 27 30 31 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) CHAPTER Page V AS...

  19. Kinetic models of opinion formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Toscani

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce and discuss certain kinetic models of (continuous) opinion formation involving both exchange of opinion between individual agents and diffusion of information. We show conditions which ensure that the kinetic model reaches non trivial stationary states in case of lack of diffusion in correspondence of some opinion point. Analytical results are then obtained by considering a suitable asymptotic limit of the model yielding a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution of opinion among individuals.

  20. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management FermiDavidDiesel pricesDiesel28, 2007,DiracDirect Kinetic

  1. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: PotentialFederal Financial InterventionsDirectDirect Kinetic

  2. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: PotentialFederal FinancialDirect Kinetic Measurements of a

  3. Energy flux fluctuations in a finite volume of turbulent flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahesh Bandi; Walter Goldburg; John Cressman Jr.; Alain Pumir

    2006-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The flux of turbulent kinetic energy from large to small spatial scales is measured in a small domain B of varying size R. The probability distribution function of the flux is obtained using a time-local version of Kolmogorov's four-fifths law. The measurements, made at a moderate Reynolds number, show frequent events where the flux is backscattered from small to large scales, their frequency increasing as R is decreased. The observations are corroborated by a numerical simulation based on the motion of many particles and on an explicit form of the eddy damping.

  4. Group Motion Editing Taesoo Kwon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Shigeo

    : I.3.7 [Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism]: Animation--Virtual reality Keywords: Group Motion Editing, Crowd Simulation, Human Motion, Character Animation 1 Introduction Crowd scenes appear frequently in crowd animation make it possible to synthesize convincing animations of virtual crowds by simulating

  5. Motion Capture Technologies Jessica Hodgins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treuille, Adrien

    a few dof) #12;Production Pipeline #12;What is captured? · Dynamic motions? House of Moves #12;What is captured? · Scale? Motion Analysis #12;What is captured? · Non-rigid objects? House of Moves #12;What is captured? · Props often cause problems ­ Ball in pingpong ­ Fly fishing ­ Sword · Passive behaviors

  6. Electron kinetics in a microdischarge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, Dmitry [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)] [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron kinetics during a microdischarge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is studied using the one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell/Monte Carlo Collisions model. It is obtained that the electron energy distribution function can be divided into three parts, namely, the non-equilibrium low-energy part, the Maxwellian function at moderate energies, and the high-energy tail. Simulation results showed that the role of the high-energy tail of electron energy distribution increases, when the distance between electrodes increases.

  7. Crystallization kinetics of amorphous NiTi shape memory alloy thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crystallization kinetics of amorphous NiTi shape memory alloy thin films Xi Wang, Joost J. Vlassak rights reserved. Keywords: Shape memory alloy thin films; Crystallization kinetics; Activation energy; Grain size 1. Introduction Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are active materials that derive their unique

  8. Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Learn how hydroelectric power, or hydropower, captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and turns it into electricity for our homes and businesses.

  9. Nonequilibrium free energy, H theorem and self-sustained oscillations for Boltzmann-BGK descriptions of semiconductor superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Alvaro; L L Bonilla

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor superlattices (SL) may be described by a Boltzmann-Poisson kinetic equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision term which preserves charge, but not momentum or energy. Under appropriate boundary and voltage bias conditions, these equations exhibit time-periodic oscillations of the current caused by repeated nucleation and motion of charge dipole waves. Despite this clear nonequilibrium behavior, if we `close' the system by attaching insulated contacts to the superlattice and keeping its voltage bias to zero volts, we can prove the H theorem, namely that a free energy $\\Phi(t)$ of the kinetic equations is a Lyapunov functional ($\\Phi\\geq 0$, $d\\Phi/dt\\leq 0$). Numerical simulations confirm that the free energy decays to its equilibrium value for a closed SL, whereas for an `open' SL under appropriate dc voltage bias and contact conductivity $\\Phi(t)$ oscillates in time with the same frequency as the current self-sustained oscillations.

  10. A. La Rosa Lecture Notes ENERGY CONSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    ________________________________________________________________________ ENERGY CONSERVATION The Fisrt Law of Thermodynamics and the Work/Kinetic-Energy Theorem/kinetic-energy theorem Fundamental Energy Conservation Law Inelastic collision (revisited) Case: Pure Thermodynamics the potential energy TRANSFER of ENERGY Heat-transfer Q Macroscopic external Work W ' done on a system ENERGY

  11. 06241 Abstracts Collection Human Motion -Understanding, Modeling,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    06241 Abstracts Collection Human Motion - Understanding, Modeling, Capture and Animation. 13th Summary Human Motion - Understanding, Modeling, Capture and Animation. 13th Workshop Reinhard Klette 06241 Human Motion - Understanding, Modeling, Capture and Animation. 13th Workshop "Theoretical

  12. Elastohydrodynamics and kinetics of protein patterning in the immunological synapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Carlson; L. Mahadevan

    2015-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The cellular basis for the adaptive immune response during antigen recognition relies on a specialized protein interface known as the immunological synapse (IS). Understanding the biophysical basis for protein patterning by deciphering the quantitative rules for their formation and motion is an important aspect of characterizing immune cell recognition and thence the rules for immune system activation. We propose a minimal mathematical model for the physical basis of membrane protein patterning in the IS, which encompass membrane mechanics, protein binding kinetics and motion, and fluid flow in the synaptic cleft. Our theory leads to simple predictions for the spatial and temporal scales of protein cluster formation, growth and arrest as a function of membrane stiffness, rigidity and kinetics of the adhesive proteins, and the fluid in the synaptic cleft. Numerical simulations complement these scaling laws by quantifying the nucleation, growth and stabilization of proteins domains on the size of the cell. Direct comparison with experiment shows that passive elastohydrodynamics and kinetics of protein binding in the synaptic cleft can describe the short-time formation and organization of protein clusters, without evoking any active processes in the cytoskeleton. Despite the apparent complexity of the process, our analysis highlights the role of just two dimensionless parameters that characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of the protein pattern: a ratio of membrane elasticity to protein elasticity, and the ratio of a hydrodynamic time scale for fluid flow relative to the protein binding rate, and we present a simple phase diagram that encompasses the variety of patterns that can arise.

  13. Active Polymers Confer Fast Reorganization Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Swanson; Ned S. Wingreen

    2011-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Many cytoskeletal biopolymers are "active," consuming energy in large quantities. In this Letter, we identify a fundamental difference between active polymers and passive, equilibrium polymers: for equal mean lengths, active polymers can reorganize faster than equilibrium polymers. We show that equilibrium polymers are intrinsically limited to linear scaling between mean lifetime and mean length, MFPT ~ , by analogy to 1-d Potts models. By contrast, we present a simple active-polymer model that improves upon this scaling, such that MFPT ~ ^{1/2}. Since to be biologically useful, structural biopolymers must typically be many monomers long, yet respond dynamically to the needs of the cell, the difference in reorganization kinetics may help to justify active polymers' greater energy cost. PACS numbers: 87.10.Ed, 87.16.ad, 87.16.Ln

  14. Pebble-bed pebble motion: Simulation and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pebble bed reactors (PBR) have moving graphite fuel pebbles. This unique feature provides advantages, but also means that simulation of the reactor requires understanding the typical motion and location of the granular flow of pebbles. This report presents a method for simulation of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. A new mechanical motion simulator, PEBBLES, efficiently simulates the key elements of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. This model simulates gravitational force and contact forces including kinetic and true static friction. It's used for a variety of tasks including simulation of the effect of earthquakes on a PBR, calculation of packing fractions, Dancoff factors, pebble wear and the pebble force on the walls. The simulator includes a new differential static friction model for the varied geometries of PBRs. A new static friction benchmark was devised via analytically solving the mechanics equations to determine the minimum pebble-to-pebble friction and pebble-to-surface friction for a five pebble pyramid. This pyramid check as well as a comparison to the Janssen formula was used to test the new static friction equations. Because larger pebble bed simulations involve hundreds of thousands of pebbles and long periods of time, the PEBBLES code has been parallelized. PEBBLES runs on shared memory architectures and distributed memory architectures. For the shared memory architecture, the code uses a new O(n) lock-less parallel collision detection algorithm to determine which pebbles are likely to be in contact. The new collision detection algorithm improves on the traditional non-parallel O(n log(n)) collision detection algorithm. These features combine to form a fast parallel pebble motion simulation. The PEBBLES code provides new capabilities for understanding and optimizing PBRs. The PEBBLES code has provided the pebble motion data required to calculate the motion of pebbles during a simulated earthquake. The PEBBLES code provides the ability to determine the contact forces and the lengths of motion in contact. This information combined with the proper wear coefficients can be used to determine the dust production from mechanical wear. These new capabilities enhance the understanding of PBRs, and the capabilities of the code will allow future improvements in understanding.

  15. Motion Estimation from Disparity Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirdjian, D.

    2001-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for 3D rigid motion estimation from stereo is proposed in this paper. The appealing feature of this method is that it directly uses the disparity images obtained from stereo matching. We assume that the stereo ...

  16. Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

  17. Computer simulation of submarine motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zurflueh, Jeffery Alan

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subject: Mechanical Engineering COMPUTER SIMULATION OF SUBMARINE MOTION A Thesis by JEFFERY ALAN ZURFLUEH Approved as to style and content by: Make McDermott, Jr. ( Chair of Committee ) Glen Williams ( Member ) Lo 4verett ( Member ) gu r Walter...COMPUTER SIMULATION OF SUBMARINE MOTION A Thesis by JEFFERY ALAN ZURFLUEH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major...

  18. Solar Radiation and Asteroidal Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2000-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of solar wind and solar electromagnetic radiation on motion of asteroids are discussed. The results complete the statements presented in Vokrouhlick\\'{y} and Milani (2000). As for the effect of electromagnetic radiation, the complete equation of motion is presented to the first order in $v/c$ -- the shape of asteroid (spherical body is explicitly presented) and surface distribution of albedo should be taken into account. Optical quantities must be calculated in proper frame of reference.

  19. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Abstract: The desorption kinetics of methanol,...

  20. Widening the Axion Window via Kinetic and Stückelberg Mixings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary Shiu; Wieland Staessens; Fang Ye

    2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We point out that kinetic and St\\"uckelberg mixings that are generically present in the low energy effective action of axions can significantly widen the window of axion decay constants. We show that an effective super-Planckian decay constant can be obtained even when the axion kinetic matrix has only sub-Planckian entries. Our minimal model involves only two axions, a St\\"uckelberg U(1) and a modest rank instanton generating non-Abelian group. Below the mass of the St\\"uckelberg U(1), there is only a single axion with a non-perturbatively generated potential. In contrast to previous approaches, the enhancement of the axion decay constant is not tied to the number of degrees of freedom introduced. We also discuss how kinetic mixings can lower the decay constant to the desired axion dark matter window. String theory embeddings of this scenario and their phenomenological features are briefly discussed.

  1. Kinetic Theory for Binary Granular Mixtures at Low-Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vicente Garzo

    2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Many features of granular media can be modelled as a fluid of hard spheres with {\\em inelastic} collisions. Under rapid flow conditions, the macroscopic behavior of grains can be described through hydrodynamic equations. At low-density, a fundamental basis for the derivation of the hydrodynamic equations and explicit expressions for the transport coefficients appearing in them is provided by the Boltzmann kinetic theory conveniently modified to account for inelastic binary collisions. The goal of this chapter is to give an overview of the recent advances made for binary granular gases by using kinetic theory tools. Some of the results presented here cover aspects such as transport properties, energy nonequipartition, instabilities, segregation or mixing, non-Newtonian behavior, .... In addition, comparison of the analytical results with those obtained from Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations is also carried out, showing the reliability of kinetic theory to describe granular flows even for strong dissipation.

  2. Kinetic Alfven waves in a homogeneous dusty magnetoplasma with dust charge fluctuation effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zubia, K.; Rubab, N.; Shah, H. A.; Salimullah, M.; Murtaza, G. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan and Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan and Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Kinetic Alfven waves with finite Larmor radius effects have been examined rigorously in a uniform dusty plasma in the presence of an external/ambient magnetic field. Two-potential theory has been applied for these electromagnetic waves and the dispersion relation is derived which shows a cutoff frequency at the dust-lower-hybrid frequency due to the hybrid motion of magnetized ions and cold and unmagnetized dust dynamics. The dust charge fluctuation effect was analyzed for finding the damping of the electromagnetic kinetic Alfven waves, which arises on account of the electrostatic parallel component of the waves. The dust charge fluctuation damping is seen to be contributed dominantly by the perpendicular motion of electrons and ions in the dusty magnetoplasma.

  3. Peculiarities in the energy transfer by waves on strained strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butikov, Eugene

    potential and kinetic energies. All the texts and papers agree on the expression for the kinetic energy expressions for the density of potential energy encountered in the literature are clarified. The common statement regarding the relationship between the densities of kinetic and potential energies in a transverse

  4. Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling & experimental testing Salvador Aceves, Daniel Flowers, Bill Pitz, Charlie Westbrook, Emma Silke,...

  5. Kinetic Modeling and Thermodynamic Closure Approximation of ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 5, 2007 ... Kinetic Modeling and Thermodynamic Closure. Approximation of Liquid Crystal Polymers. Haijun Yu. Program in Applied and Computational ...

  6. Kinetic and electromagnetic transport processes in toroidal devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, R.W.; Schoenberg, K.F.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief review of transport processes in toroidal devices is presented. Particular attention is given to radial transport of power by the Poynting's vector and kinetic electron flow. This work is primarily focused on the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) which holds the added complexity of a dynamo process that sustains poloidal current in the edge region, where the toroidal field is reversed. The experimental observation of superthermal unidirectional electrons in the plasma edge of ZT-40M and HBTX1C is noted, and the rapid, nonclassical ion heating in RFPs is taken account of. Radial transport parallel to fluctuating magnetic field lines is deemed a likely candidate for both electromagnetic and kinetic energy transport. Two models are discussed and compared. It is concluded that electromagnetic transport using a local Ohm's law best describes nonclassical ion heating, and the transport of kinetic energy by long mean free path electrons best represents the half-Maxwellian of electrons observed in the edge of several RFPs. A nonlocal Ohm's law is essential for the kinetic electron model. 18 refs.

  7. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Abstract: Many...

  8. Challenges and Progress Toward a Commercial Kinetic Hydropower System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Challenges and Progress Toward a Commercial Kinetic Hydropower System for its kinetic hydropower devices, and has made precise measurements

  9. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  10. Benchmarking kinetic calculations of resistive wall mode stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Liu, Y. Q. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Wang, Z. R.; Logan, N. C.; Park, J.-K.; Manickam, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Validating the calculations of kinetic resistive wall mode (RWM) stability is important for confidently predicting RWM stable operating regions in ITER and other high performance tokamaks for disruption avoidance. Benchmarking the calculations of the Magnetohydrodynamic Resistive Spectrum—Kinetic (MARS-K) [Y. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 112503 (2008)], Modification to Ideal Stability by Kinetic effects (MISK) [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 057301 (2005)], and Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) [N. Logan et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 122507 (2013)] codes for two Solov'ev analytical equilibria and a projected ITER equilibrium has demonstrated good agreement between the codes. The important particle frequencies, the frequency resonance energy integral in which they are used, the marginally stable eigenfunctions, perturbed Lagrangians, and fluid growth rates are all generally consistent between the codes. The most important kinetic effect at low rotation is the resonance between the mode rotation and the trapped thermal particle's precession drift, and MARS-K, MISK, and PENT show good agreement in this term. The different ways the rational surface contribution was treated historically in the codes is identified as a source of disagreement in the bounce and transit resonance terms at higher plasma rotation. Calculations from all of the codes support the present understanding that RWM stability can be increased by kinetic effects at low rotation through precession drift resonance and at high rotation by bounce and transit resonances, while intermediate rotation can remain susceptible to instability. The applicability of benchmarked kinetic stability calculations to experimental results is demonstrated by the prediction of MISK calculations of near marginal growth rates for experimental marginal stability points from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)].

  11. Motion Detection Circuits for a Time-To-Travel Rico Moeckel and Shih-Chii Liu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shih-Chii

    on motion energy models, token-based models, correlation-based models, or optical flow models [1-8]. Some motion. The benefits of these sensors ­ low-power consumption, parallel, collective computation, light weight ­ make them attractive for mobile, battery-powered platforms, especially for autonomous micro

  12. Visually simulating realistic fluid motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naithani, Priyanka

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    's second law of motion and Conservation of Mass, which leads to the continuity equation. Newton's second law states that the total force F, acting on an element equals mass m times the element's acceleration a. In the case of fluids we do not consider...

  13. 1 Introduction Synthetic motion capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terzopoulos, Demetri

    animation of animals in virtual worlds, but at significant computational cost. Syn- thetic motion capture). Lifelike virtual animals naturally beckon active in- volvement, and one feels compelled to interact also form the basis of Miller's snakes and worms (Miller 1988), the virtual humans of Hodgins et al

  14. Smoothing of respiratory motion traces for motion-compensated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, Floris; Schlaefer, Alexander; Schweikard, Achim [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, Luebeck SH 23538 (Germany)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The CyberKnife system has been used successfully for several years to radiosurgically treat tumors without the need for stereotactic fixation or sedation of the patient. It has been shown that tumor motion in the lung, liver, and pancreas can be tracked with acceptable accuracy and repeatability. However, highly precise targeting for tumors in the lower abdomen, especially for tumors which exhibit strong motion, remains problematic. Reasons for this are manifold, like the slow tracking system operating at 26.5 Hz, and using the signal from the tracking camera ''as is''. Since the motion recorded with the camera is used to compensate for system latency by prediction and the predicted signal is subsequently used to infer the tumor position from a correlation model based on x-ray imaging of gold fiducials around the tumor, camera noise directly influences the targeting accuracy. The goal of this work is to establish the suitability of a new smoothing method for respiratory motion traces used in motion-compensated radiotherapy. The authors endeavor to show that better prediction--With a lower rms error of the predicted signal--and/or smoother prediction is possible using this method. Methods: The authors evaluated six commercially available tracking systems (NDI Aurora, PolarisClassic, Polaris Vicra, MicronTracker2 H40, FP5000, and accuTrack compact). The authors first tracked markers both stationary and while in motion to establish the systems' noise characteristics. Then the authors applied a smoothing method based on the a trous wavelet decomposition to reduce the devices' noise level. Additionally, the smoothed signal of the moving target and a motion trace from actual human respiratory motion were subjected to prediction using the MULIN and the nLMS{sub 2} algorithms. Results: The authors established that the noise distribution for a static target is Gaussian and that when the probe is moved such as to mimic human respiration, it remains Gaussian with the exception of the FP5000 and the Aurora systems. The authors also showed that the proposed smoothing method can indeed be used to filter noise. The signal's jitter dropped by as much as 95% depending on the tracking system employed. Subsequently, the 3D prediction error (rms) for a prediction horizon of 150 ms on a synthetic signal dropped by up to 37% when using a normalized LMS prediction algorithm (nLMS{sub 2}) and hardly changed when using a MULIN algorithm. When smoothing a real signal obtained in our laboratory, the improvement of prediction was similar: Up to 30% for both the nLMS{sub 2} and the best MULIN algorithm. The authors also found a noticeable increase in smoothness of the predicted signal, the relative jitter dropped by up to 95% on the real signal, and on the simulated signal. Conclusions: In conclusion, the authors can say that preprocessing of marker data is very useful in motion-compensated radiotherapy since the quality of prediction increases. This will result in better performance of the correlation model. As a side effect, since the prediction of a preprocessed signal is also less noisy, the authors expect less robot vibration resulting in better targeting accuracy and less strain on the robot gears.

  15. Ultrahigh performance three-dimensional electromagnetic relativistic kinetic plasma simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, K. J.; Albright, B. J.; Yin, L.; Bergen, B.; Kwan, T. J. T. [Plasma Theory and Applications (X-1-PTA), Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F699, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The algorithms, implementation details, and applications of VPIC, a state-of-the-art first principles 3D electromagnetic relativistic kinetic particle-in-cell code, are discussed. Unlike most codes, VPIC is designed to minimize data motion, as, due to physical limitations (including the speed of light{exclamation_point}), moving data between and even within modern microprocessors is more time consuming than performing computations. As a result, VPIC has achieved unprecedented levels of performance. For example, VPIC can perform {approx}0.17 billion cold particles pushed and charge conserving accumulated per second per processor on IBM's Cell microprocessor--equivalent to sustaining Los Alamos's planned Roadrunner supercomputer at {approx}0.56 petaflop (quadrillion floating point operations per second). VPIC has enabled previously intractable simulations in numerous areas of plasma physics, including magnetic reconnection and laser plasma interactions; next generation supercomputers like Roadrunner will enable further advances.

  16. Master equation approach to protein folding and kinetic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek Cieplak; Malte Henkel; Jan Karbowski; Jayanth R. Banavar

    1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The master equation for 12-monomer lattice heteropolymers is solved numerically and the time evolution of the occupancy of the native state is determined. At low temperatures, the median folding time follows the Arrhenius law and is governed by the longest relaxation time. For good folders, significant kinetic traps appear in the folding funnel whereas for bad folders, the traps also occur in non-native energy valleys.

  17. Kinetic Modeling and Assessment of Lime Pretreatment of Poplar Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass is one of the most promising feedstocks for producing biofuels through fermentation processes. Among lignocellulose choices, poplar wood is appealing because of high energy potential, above-average carbon mitigation potential, fast growth... KINETIC MODELING AND ASSESSMENT OF LIME PRETREATMENT OF POPLAR WOOD A Dissertation by ROCIO SIERRA RAMIREZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  18. Thermodynamics of Potassium Exchange in Soil Using a Kinetics Approach1 D. L. SPARKS AND P. M. JARDINEZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Thermodynamics of Potassium Exchange in Soil Using a Kinetics Approach1 D. L. SPARKS AND P. M. JARDINEZ ABSTRACT Thermodynamics of potassium (K) exchange using a kinetics ap- proach was investigated that more energy was needed to desorb K than to adsorb K. Thermodynamic and pseudother- modynamic parameters

  19. Kinetic theory of nonlinear transport phenomena in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre for Energy Studies (CES), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to the prevalent use of the phenomenological theory of transport phenomena, a number of transport properties of complex plasmas have been evaluated by using appropriate expressions, available from the kinetic theory, which are based on Boltzmann's transfer equation; in particular, the energy dependence of the electron collision frequency has been taken into account. Following the recent trend, the number and energy balance of all the constituents of the complex plasma and the charge balance on the particles is accounted for; the Ohmic loss has also been included in the energy balance of the electrons. The charging kinetics for the complex plasma comprising of uniformly dispersed dust particles, characterized by (i) uniform size and (ii) the Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck power law of size distribution has been developed. Using appropriate expressions for the transport parameters based on the kinetic theory, the system of equations has been solved to investigate the parametric dependence of the complex plasma transport properties on the applied electric field and other plasma parameters; the results are graphically illustrated.

  20. Topology-based character motion synthesis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Shu Lim

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis tackles the problem of automatically synthesizing motions of close-character interactions which appear in animations of wrestling and dancing. Designing such motions is a daunting task even for experienced ...

  1. Metrics for sampling-based motion planning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morales Aguirre, Marco Antonio

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A motion planner finds a sequence of potential motions for a robot to transit from an initial to a goal state. To deal with the intractability of this problem, a class of methods known as sampling-based planners build ...

  2. Generalized Sampling-Based Feedback Motion Planners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Sandip

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The motion planning problem can be formulated as a Markov decision process (MDP), if the uncertainties in the robot motion and environments can be modeled probabilistically. The complexity of solving these MDPs grow exponentially as the dimension...

  3. Video looping of human cyclic motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hye Mee

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, a system called Video Looping is developed to analyze human cyclic motions. Video Looping allows users to extract human cyclic motion from a given video sequence. This system analyzes similarities from a large amount of live footage...

  4. The effects of wave groups on the nonlinear simulation of ship motion in random seas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richer, Jeffrey A.

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, the analysis of ship motion and loading responses has been performed in the frequency domain with both linear response amplitude operators and wave energy density spectra. This method, therefore, did not account for the nonlinear...

  5. The effects of wave groups on the nonlinear simulation of ship motion in random seas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richer, Jeffrey A.

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, the analysis of ship motion and loading responses has been performed in the frequency domain with both linear response amplitude operators and wave energy density spectra. This method, therefore, did not account for the nonlinear...

  6. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of molybdenum carbonyl on a tungsten surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baev, A.K.; Podoprigora, V.I. [S.M. Kirov Belorussian Technological Inst., Minsk (Russian Federation)

    1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal decomposition of Mo(CO){sub 6} on the surface of pyrolytic tungsten is performed under quasi-stationary conditions. The analysis of kinetics shows the reaction to occur in a kinetic region. The activation energy of Mo(CO){sub 6} decomposition on tungsten substrate calculated according to the Arrhenius equation is 63.7 {plus_minus} 3.0 kJ/mole. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Flow and Plate Motion in Compressor Valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Twente, Universiteit

    Flow and Plate Motion in Compressor Valves #12;Flow and Plate Motion in Compressor Valves R.A. Habing Cover Image: 4-stage reciprocating compressor system, Courtesy of Ariel Corporation Thesis.A. Habing, Enschede, The Netherlands #12;FLOW AND PLATE MOTION IN COMPRESSOR VALVES PROEFSCHRIFT ter

  8. Learning Motion Style Synthesis from Perceptual Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bregler, Christoph

    that the learned model can apply a variety of motion styles to pre-recorded motion sequences and it can extrapolate models that are unable to fully capture the subtleties and complexities of human movement based on learned parametric models. The aim is to maintain the animated preci- sion of motion capture

  9. Colloidal Micromotors: Controlled Directed Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baraban, Larysa; Makarov, Denys; Leiderer, Paul; Erbe, Artur

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we demonstrate a synthetic micro-engine, based on long-range controlled movement of colloidal particles, which is induced by a local catalytic reaction. The directed motion at long timescales was achieved by placing specially designed magnetic capped colloids in a hydrogen peroxide solution at weak magnetic fields. The control of the motion of the particles was provided by changes of the concentration of the solution and by varying the strength of the applied magnetic field. Such synthetic objects can then be used not only to understand the fundamental driving processes but also be employed as small motors in biological environments, for example, for the transportation of molecules in a controllable way.

  10. Colloidal Micromotors: Controlled Directed Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larysa Baraban; Christian Kreidler; Denys Makarov; Paul Leiderer; Artur Erbe

    2008-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we demonstrate a synthetic micro-engine, based on long-range controlled movement of colloidal particles, which is induced by a local catalytic reaction. The directed motion at long timescales was achieved by placing specially designed magnetic capped colloids in a hydrogen peroxide solution at weak magnetic fields. The control of the motion of the particles was provided by changes of the concentration of the solution and by varying the strength of the applied magnetic field. Such synthetic objects can then be used not only to understand the fundamental driving processes but also be employed as small motors in biological environments, for example, for the transportation of molecules in a controllable way.

  11. Tracer diffusion at low temperature in kinetically constrained models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oriane Blondel

    2015-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the motion of a tracer in an environment given by a kinetically constrained spin model (KCSM) at equilibrium. We check convergence of its trajectory properly rescaled to a Brownian motion and positivity of the diffusion coefficient $D$ as soon as the spectral gap of the environment is positive (which coincides with the ergodicity region under general conditions). Then we study the asymptotic behavior of $D$ when the density $1-q$ of the environment goes to $1$ in two classes of KCSM. For noncooperative models, the diffusion coefficient $D$ scales like a power of $q$, with an exponent that we compute explicitly. In the case of the Fredrickson-Andersen one-spin facilitated model, this proves a prediction made in Jung, Garrahan and Chandler [Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 061205]. For the East model, instead we prove that the diffusion coefficient is comparable to the spectral gap, which goes to zero faster than any power of $q$. This result contradicts the prediction of physicists (Jung, Garrahan and Chandler [Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 061205; J. Chem. Phys. 123 (2005) 084509]), based on numerical simulations, that suggested $D\\sim \\operatorname {gap}^{\\xi}$ with $\\xi<1$.

  12. Solid state engine with alternating motion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golestaneh, Ahmad A. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat energy is converted to mechanical motion utilizing apparatus including a cylinder, a piston having openings therein reciprocable in the cylinder, inlet and outlet ports for warm water at one end of the cylinder, inlet and outlet ports for cool water at the other end of the cylinder, gates movable with the piston and slidably engaging the cylinder wall to alternately open and close the warm and cool water ports, a spring bearing against the warm water side of the piston and a double helix of a thermal shape memory material attached to the cool end of the cylinder and to the piston. The piston is caused to reciprocate by alternately admitting cool water and warm water to the cylinder.

  13. Solid state engine with alternating motion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golestaneh, A.A.

    1980-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat energy is converted to mechanical motion utilizing apparatus including a cylinder, a piston having openings therein reciprocable in the cylinder, inlet and outlet ports for warm water at one end of the cylinder, inlet and outlet ports for cool water at the other end of the cylinder, gates movable with the piston and slidably engaging the cylinder wall to alternately open and close the warm and cool water ports, a spring bearing against the warm water side of the piston and a double helix of a thermal shape memory material attached to the cool end of the cylinder and to the piston. The piston is caused to reciprocate by alternately admitting cool water and warm water to the cylinder.

  14. Relativistic Motion with Superconducting Qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felicetti, S; Fuentes, I; Lamata, L; Romero, G; Solano, E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how the dynamical modulation of the qubit-field coupling strength in a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture mimics the motion of the qubit at relativistic speeds. This allows us to propose a realistic experiment to detect microwave photons coming from simulated acceleration radiation. Moreover, by combining this technique with the dynamical Casimir physics, we enhance the toolbox for studying relativistic phenomena in quantum field theory with superconducting circuits.

  15. Kinetic bounding volume hierarchies for deformable objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriel Zachmann; Tu Clausthal

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present novel algorithms for updating bounding volume hierarchies of objects undergoing arbitrary deformations. Therefore, we introduce two new data structures, the kinetic AABB tree and the kinetic BoxTree. The event-based approach of the kinetic data structures framework enables us to show that our algorithms are optimal in the number of updates. Moreover, we show a lower bound for the total number of BV updates, which is independent of the number of frames. We used our kinetic bounding volume hierarchies for collision detection and performed a comparison with the classical bottomup update method. The results show that our algorithms perform up to ten times faster in practically relevant scenarios.

  16. Kinetics of the decomposition of tungsten hexacarbonyl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podoprigora, V.I.; Baev, A.K.

    1987-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A differential-flow apparatus is devised for the study of the kinetics of the thermal decomposition of volatile metal carbonyls under quasi-stationary conditions. The applicability of the general kinetic approach to the investigation of the thermodecomposition of carbonyl compounds and of the analysis of the experimental data on the basis of specific thermodecomposition rates was proved. Well-founded kinetic characteristics were obtained for the first time for the thermodecomposition of tungsten carbonyl in the kinetic region and under quasi-stationary pyrolysis conditions.

  17. CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2: ORNL Research on LNT Sulfation & Desulfation (8744, 8746) Jae-Soon Choi Oak Ridge National Laboratory CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data...

  18. The Fractional Kinetic Equation and Thermonuclear Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    2000-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses the solution of a simple kinetic equation of the type used for the computation of the change of the chemical composition in stars like the Sun. Starting from the standard form of the kinetic equation it is generalized to a fractional kinetic equation and its solutions in terms of H-functions are obtained. The role of thermonuclear functions, which are also represented in terms of G- and H-functions, in such a fractional kinetic equation is emphasized. Results contained in this paper are related to recent investigations of possible astrophysical solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

  19. CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data - Pres. 1: Coordination of CLEERS Project; Pres. 2: ORNL Research on LNT Sulfation & Desulfation CLEERS...

  20. RHIC stochastic cooling motion control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Olsen, R.H.; Fu, W.; Brennan, J.M.; Liaw, CJ; Bellavia, S.; Brodowski, J.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beams are subject to Intra-Beam Scattering (IBS) that causes an emittance growth in all three-phase space planes. The only way to increase integrated luminosity is to counteract IBS with cooling during RHIC stores. A stochastic cooling system for this purpose has been developed, it includes moveable pick-ups and kickers in the collider that require precise motion control mechanics, drives and controllers. Since these moving parts can limit the beam path aperture, accuracy and reliability is important. Servo, stepper, and DC motors are used to provide actuation solutions for position control. The choice of motion stage, drive motor type, and controls are based on needs defined by the variety of mechanical specifications, the unique performance requirements, and the special needs required for remote operations in an accelerator environment. In this report we will describe the remote motion control related beam line hardware, position transducers, rack electronics, and software developed for the RHIC stochastic cooling pick-ups and kickers.

  1. Absolute Motion and Gravitational Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahill, R T

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new Process Physics provides a new explanation of space as a quantum foam system in which gravity is an inhomogeneous flow of the quantum foam into matter. An analysis of various experiments demonstrates that absolute motion relative to space has been observed experimentally by Michelson and Morley, Miller, Illingworth, Torr and Kolen, and by DeWitte. The Dayton Miller and Roland DeWitte data also reveal the in-flow of space into matter which manifests as gravity. The in-flow also manifests turbulence and the experimental data confirms this as well, which amounts to the observation of a gravitational wave phenomena. The Einstein assumptions leading to the Special and General Theory of Relativity are shown to be falsified by the extensive experimental data. Contrary to the Einstein assumptions absolute motion is consistent with relativistic effects, which are caused by actual dynamical effects of absolute motion through the quantum foam, so that it is Lorentzian relativity that is seen to be essentially co...

  2. Absolute Motion and Gravitational Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reginald T Cahill

    2003-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The new Process Physics provides a new explanation of space as a quantum foam system in which gravity is an inhomogeneous flow of the quantum foam into matter. An analysis of various experiments demonstrates that absolute motion relative to space has been observed experimentally by Michelson and Morley, Miller, Illingworth, Torr and Kolen, and by DeWitte. The Dayton Miller and Roland DeWitte data also reveal the in-flow of space into matter which manifests as gravity. The in-flow also manifests turbulence and the experimental data confirms this as well, which amounts to the observation of a gravitational wave phenomena. The Einstein assumptions leading to the Special and General Theory of Relativity are shown to be falsified by the extensive experimental data. Contrary to the Einstein assumptions absolute motion is consistent with relativistic effects, which are caused by actual dynamical effects of absolute motion through the quantum foam, so that it is Lorentzian relativity that is seen to be essentially correct.

  3. Kinetics of actinide complexation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, K.L.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the kinetics of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation kinetics. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions.

  4. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  5. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the fourth year of a research project conducted under the University Coal Research Program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (water, carbon dioxide, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the fourth year of the project, an analysis of experimental data collected during the second year of this project was performed. Kinetic parameters were estimated utilizing product distributions from 27 mass balances. During the reporting period two kinetic models were employed: a comprehensive kinetic model of Dr. Li and co-workers (Yang et al., 2003) and a hydrocarbon selectivity model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) The kinetic model of Yang et al. (2003) has 24 parameters (20 parameters for hydrocarbon formation, and 4 parameters for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction). Kinetic parameters for the WGS reaction and FTS synthesis were estimated first separately, and then simultaneously. The estimation of these kinetic parameters employed the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method and the trust-region reflective Newton large-scale (LS) method. A genetic algorithm (GA) was incorporated into estimation of parameters for FTS reaction to provide initial estimates of model parameters. All reaction rate constants and activation energies were found to be positive, but at the 95% confidence level the intervals were large. Agreement between predicted and experimental reaction rates has been fair to good. Light hydrocarbons are predicted fairly accurately, whereas the model underpredicts values of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. Van der Laan and Beenackers hydrocarbon selectivity model provides a very good fit of the experimental data for hydrocarbons up to about C{sub 20}. However, the experimental data shows higher paraffin formation rates in C{sub 12}-C{sub 25} region which is likely due to hydrocracking or other secondary reactions. The model accurately captures the observed experimental trends of decreasing olefin to paraffin ratio and increasing {alpha} (chain growth length) with increase in chain length.

  6. Method and an apparatus to control the lateral motion of a long metal bar being formed by a mechanical process such as rolling or drawing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh (Ann Arbor, MI); Huang, Hsun-Hau (Ann Arbor, MI); Lin, Chang-Hung (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An adjustable guide, includes two or more mechanisms each having a rotatable retaining element containing a retaining groove with a variable radius in its perimeter surface. The grooves form a guidance path to control the lateral, i.e. non-axial, motion of a long bar moving along a longitudinal axis during a production process.The diameter of the guidance path varies according to the variable radii of the grooves. The guidance path increases in size at a predetermined rate, from a point of origin to an end point on the retaining groove. Rotating the retaining elements causes the diameter of the retaining grooves to change so that the size of the guidance path can be changed to match the diameter of the bar being rolled, size of the guidance path can be changed to fit the diameter of a new bar rolled without having to exchange the guide for a different sized guide, reduce fiction between the bar and the guide, a media, such as compressed air, can be injected between the retaining elements via orifices.Each retaining element is attached to a mounting apparatus. The mounting apparatus can be fixed or flexible. The flexible mounting apparatus includes one or more springs and one or more shock absorbers. A force neutral position of the flexible mounting apparatus is designed to be located on the predetermined ideal bar path line. The flexible mounting apparatus dissipates kinetic energy from the bar thereby reducing the bar's lateral motion relative to the ideal bar path line.The damping ratio of the mounting apparatus can be adjustable to alter the product's vibration mode to enable better control of the bar's lateral motion.

  7. Kinetic study of bitumen release from heated shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, E.B.; Barker, C.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With rising temperature shales evolve hydrocarbons discontinuously. At low temperatures, bitumens are thermally distilled (Peak 1) while at higher temperatures kerogen is pyrolyzed to lower molecular weight products (Peak 2). Hydrocarbon release occurring between these two peaks is less well understood. They have studied the kinetics of thermal bitumen release (Peak 1) from samples of the Excello and Woodford Shales and find that they are second order with activation energies of 19,000 cals/mole and 17,048 cals/ mole, respectively. The thermal release of nC/sub 26/ adsorbed on a siliceous support also followed second order kinetics. Activation energies, along with the determined Arrhenius A factor, permits the calculation of Peak 1 shape so that its contribution can be subtracted from the total hydrocarbon release. The residual curve shows two smaller peaks between the bitumen and kerogen peaks. These are tentatively assigned to adsorption on the mineral matrix and adsorption on kerogen. An important consequence of second order kinetics is that the temperature for the Peak 1 maximum varies with the amount of bitumen in the rock.

  8. COMSOL-based Nuclear Reactor Kinetics Studies at the HFIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, David [ORNL] [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL] [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL] [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The computational ability to accurately predict the dynamic behavior of a nuclear reactor core in response to reactivity-induced perturbations is an important subject in reactor physics. Space-time and point kinetics methodologies were developed for the purpose of studying the transient-induced behavior of the High Flux Isotope Reactor s (HFIR) compact core. The space-time simulations employed the three-energy-group neutron diffusion equations, and transients initiated by control cylinder and hydraulic tube rabbit ejections were studied. The work presented here is the first step towards creating a comprehensive multiphysics methodology for studying the dynamic behavior of the HFIR core during reactivity perturbations. The results of these studies show that point kinetics is adequate for small perturbations in which the power distribution is assumed to be time-independent, but space-time methods must be utilized to determine localized effects.

  9. Kinetics of gasification of black liquor char by steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; van Heiningen, A.R.P. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, McGill Univ., Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Montreal, Quebec (CA))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the steam gasification kinetics of kraft black liquor char that were studied in a thermogravimetric analysis reactor. The effect of steam and hydrogen concentration on gasification rate can be described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood type kinetics. An activation energy of 210 kJ/mol was obtained. Methane formation was negligible, and H{sub 2}S was the major gaseous sulfur-containing product obtained over the temperature range studied, 873-973 K. The CO{sub 2} concentration was higher than calculated for the water-shift reaction at equilibrium. A gasification mechanism is proposed whereby CO{sub 2} is one of the primary gasification products.

  10. Nonequilibrium sensing and its analogy to kinetic proofreading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartich, David; Seifert, Udo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For a paradigmatic model of chemotaxis, we analyze the effect how a nonzero affinity driving receptors out of equilibrium affects sensitivity. This affinity arises whenever changes in receptor activity involve ATP hydrolysis. The sensitivity integrated over a ligand concentration range is shown to be enhanced by the affinity, providing a measure of how much energy consumption improves sensing. With this integrated sensitivity we can establish an intriguing analogy between sensing with nonequilibrium receptors and kinetic proofreading: the increase in integrated sensitivity is equivalent to the decrease of the error in kinetic proofreading. The influence of the occupancy of the receptor on the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reaction rates is shown to be crucial for the relation between integrated sensitivity and affinity. This influence can even lead to a regime where a nonzero affinity decreases the integrated sensitivity, which corresponds to anti-proofreading.

  11. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M. (Saline, MI); Raghavan, Kamaldev (Houston, TX)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  12. ADVANCES IN ENVIRONMENTAL REACTION KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    1262 ADVANCES IN ENVIRONMENTAL REACTION KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS: LONG-TERM FATE thermodynamic and kinetic data is available with regard to the formation of these mixed metal precipitate phases to six months from the initial addition of aqueous nickel. Additionally, we have determined thermodynamic

  13. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  14. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Olazar, Martin [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: martin.olazar@ehu.es; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12 K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503 K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25 atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1 atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723 K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  15. Gravitational energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph Katz

    2005-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Observers at rest in a stationary spacetime flat at infinity can measure small amounts of rest-mass+internal energies+kinetic energies+pressure energy in a small volume of fluid attached to a local inertial frame. The sum of these small amounts is the total "matter energy" for those observers. The total mass-energy minus the matter energy is the binding gravitational energy. Misner, Thorne and Wheeler evaluated the gravitational energy of a spherically symmetric static spacetime. Here we show how to calculate gravitational energy in any static and stationary spacetime for isolated sources with a set of observers at rest. The result of MTW is recovered and we find that electromagnetic and gravitational 3-covariant energy densities in conformastatic spacetimes are of opposite signs. Various examples suggest that gravitational energy is negative in spacetimes with special symmetries or when the energy-momentum tensor satisfies usual energy conditions.

  16. Quantum integrals of motion for variable quadratic Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordero-Soto, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardojavier81@gmail.co [Mathematical, Computational and Modeling Sciences Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1804 (United States); Suazo, Erwin, E-mail: erwin.suazo@upr.ed [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaquez, call box 9000, PR 00681-9000 (Puerto Rico); Suslov, Sergei K., E-mail: sks@asu.ed [School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences and Mathematical, Computational and Modeling Sciences Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1804 (United States)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct integrals of motion for several models of the quantum damped oscillators in a framework of a general approach to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation with variable quadratic Hamiltonians. An extension of the Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamical invariant is given. The time-evolution of the expectation values of the energy-related positive operators is determined for the oscillators under consideration. A proof of uniqueness of the corresponding Cauchy initial value problem is discussed as an application.

  17. Simulating galactic outflows with kinetic supernova feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claudio Dalla Vecchia; Joop Schaye

    2008-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Feedback from star formation is thought to play a key role in the formation and evolution of galaxies, but its implementation in cosmological simulations is currently hampered by a lack of numerical resolution. We present and test a sub-grid recipe to model feedback from massive stars in cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. The energy is distributed in kinetic form among the gas particles surrounding recently formed stars. The impact of the feedback is studied using a suite of high-resolution simulations of isolated disc galaxies embedded in dark halos with total mass 10^{10} and 10^{12} Msol/h. We focus in particular on the effect of pressure forces on wind particles within the disc, which we turn off temporarily in some of our runs to mimic a recipe that has been widely used in the literature. We find that this popular recipe gives dramatically different results because (ram) pressure forces on expanding superbubbles determine both the structure of the disc and the development of large-scale outflows. Pressure forces exerted by expanding superbubbles puff up the disc, giving the dwarf galaxy an irregular morphology and creating a galactic fountain in the massive galaxy. Hydrodynamic drag within the disc results in a strong increase of the effective mass loading of the wind for the dwarf galaxy, but quenches much of the outflow in the case of the high-mass galaxy.

  18. Non-equilibrium statistical field theory for classical particles: Basic kinetic theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viermann, Celia; Kozlikin, Elena; Lilow, Robert; Bartelmann, Matthias

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently Mazenko and Das and Mazenko introduced a non-equilibrium field theoretical approach to describe the statistical properties of a classical particle ensemble starting from the microscopic equations of motion of each individual particle. We use this theory to investigate the transition from those microscopic degrees of freedom to the evolution equations of the macroscopic observables of the ensemble. For the free theory, we recover the continuity and Jeans equations of a collisionless gas. For a theory containing two-particle interactions in a canonical perturbation series, we find the macroscopic evolution equations to be described by the Born-Bogoliubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy (BBGKY hierarchy) with a truncation criterion depending on the order in perturbation theory. This establishes a direct link between the classical and the field-theoretical approaches to kinetic theory that might serve as a starting point to investigate kinetic theory beyond the classical limits.

  19. Global kinetics for a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kinetics for a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst with two exhaust hydrocarbons Global kinetics for a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst with two exhaust hydrocarbons...

  20. Improving Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics for HECC Improving Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics for HECC 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  1. Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation in the sediments under alkaline and saline conditions . Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and...

  2. Uncertainty analysis of multi-rate kinetics of uranium desorption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uncertainty analysis of multi-rate kinetics of uranium desorption from sediments. Uncertainty analysis of multi-rate kinetics of uranium desorption from sediments. Abstract: A...

  3. Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Abstract: Molecular simulation techniques...

  4. Intercalation Kinetics and Ion Mobility in Electrode Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intercalation Kinetics and Ion Mobility in Electrode Materials for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries Intercalation Kinetics and Ion Mobility in Electrode Materials for Advanced...

  5. Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium...

  6. Design and operating characteristics of a transient kinetic analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    operating characteristics of a transient kinetic analysis catalysis reactor system employing in situ transmission Design and operating characteristics of a transient kinetic...

  7. A Study and Comparison of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Study and Comparison of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor and Engine Experimental Data A Study and Comparison of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor and Engine Experimental Data...

  8. Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Power-Take-Off Design for Optimal Performance and Low Impact on Cost-of-Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beam, M.; Kline, B.; Elbing, B.; Straka, W.; Fontaine, A.; Lawson, M.; Li, Y.; Thresher, R.; Previsic, M.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine hydrokinetic devices are becoming a popular method for generating marine renewable energy worldwide. These devices generate electricity by converting the kinetic energy of moving water, wave motion or currents, into electrical energy through the use of a Power-Take-Off (PTO) system. Most PTO systems incorporate a mechanical or hydraulic drive train, power generator and electric control/conditioning system to deliver the generated electric power to the grid at the required state. Like wind turbine applications, the PTO system must be designed for high reliability, good efficiency, and long service life with reasonable maintenance requirements, low cost and an appropriate mechanical design for anticipated applied steady and unsteady loads. The ultimate goal of a PTO design is high efficiency, low maintenance and cost with a low impact on the device Cost-of-Energy (CoE).

  9. Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Power-Take-Off Design for Optimal Performance and Low Impact on Cost-of-Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beam, M.; Kline, B.; Elbing, B.; Straka, W.; Fontaine, A.; Lawson, M.; Li, Y.; Thresher, R.; Previsic, M.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine hydrokinetic devices are becoming a popular method for generating marine renewable energy worldwide. These devices generate electricity by converting the kinetic energy of moving water, wave motion or currents, into electrical energy through the use of a power-take-off (PTO) system. Most PTO systems incorporate a mechanical or hydraulic drivetrain, power generator, and electric control/conditioning system to deliver the generated electric power to the grid at the required state. Like wind turbine applications, the PTO system must be designed for high reliability, good efficiency, and long service life with reasonable maintenance requirements, low cost, and an appropriate mechanical design for anticipated applied steady and unsteady loads. The ultimate goal of a PTO design is high efficiency and low maintenance and cost, with a low impact on the device cost-of-energy (CoE).

  10. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

  11. Computing Vortex Sheet Motion Robert Krasny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasny, Robert

    Computing Vortex Sheet Motion Robert Krasny Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann;1574 Robert Krasny with respect to the time variable and obtained results consistent with Moore

  12. Modeling of Reactor Kinetics and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Johnson; Scott Lucas; Pavel Tsvetkov

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to model a full fuel cycle in a nuclear reactor, it is necessary to simulate the short time-scale kinetic behavior of the reactor as well as the long time-scale dynamics that occur with fuel burnup. The former is modeled using the point kinetics equations, while the latter is modeled by coupling fuel burnup equations with the kinetics equations. When the equations are solved simultaneously with a nonlinear equation solver, the end result is a code with the unique capability of modeling transients at any time during a fuel cycle.

  13. A Monte Carlo simulation for kinetic chemotaxis models: an application to the traveling population wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasuda, Shugo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Monte Carlo simulation for the chemotactic bacteria is developed on the basis of the kinetic modeling, i.e., the Boltzmann transport equation, and applied to the one-dimensional traveling population wave in a micro channel.In this method, the Monte Carlo method, which calculates the run-and-tumble motions of bacteria, is coupled with a finite volume method to solve the macroscopic transport of the chemical cues in the field. The simulation method can successfully reproduce the traveling population wave of bacteria which was observed experimentally. The microscopic dynamics of bacteria, e.g., the velocity autocorrelation function and velocity distribution function of bacteria, are also investigated. It is found that the bacteria which form the traveling population wave create quasi-periodic motions as well as a migratory movement along with the traveling population wave. Simulations are also performed with changing the sensitivity and modulation parameters in the response function of bacteria. It is found th...

  14. Kinetic limits of dynamical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Marklof

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the pioneering work of Maxwell and Boltzmann in the 1860s and 1870s, a major challenge in mathematical physics has been the derivation of macroscopic evolution equations from the fundamental microscopic laws of classical or quantum mechanics. Macroscopic transport equations lie at the heart of many important physical theories, including fluid dynamics, condensed matter theory and nuclear physics. The rigorous derivation of macroscopic transport equations is thus not only a conceptual exercise that establishes their consistency with the fundamental laws of physics: the possibility of finding deviations and corrections to classical evolution equations makes this subject both intellectually exciting and relevant in practical applications. The plan of these lectures is to develop a renormalisation technique that will allow us to derive transport equations for the kinetic limits of two classes of simple dynamical systems, the Lorentz gas and kicked Hamiltonians (or linked twist maps). The technique uses the ergodic theory of flows on homogeneous spaces (homogeneous flows for short), and is based on joint work with Andreas Str\\"ombergsson.

  15. Cross-fixation transfer of motion aftereffects with expansion motion Xin Meng a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    by expanding random-dots stimuli. We also used rightward translational motion for comparison. Subjects adapted, a test pattern without net motion elicits more response in the opposite direction than the adapted

  16. Consistent neutron kinetics data generation for nodal transient calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akdeniz, B. [Penn State Univ., Nuclear Engineering Program, Univ. Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mueller, E.; Panayotov, D. [Westinghouse Electric Sweden, SE - 721 63 Vaesteraas (Sweden); Ivanov, K. N. [Penn State Univ., Nuclear Engineering Program, Univ. Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current three-dimensional transient codes for thermal reactors are mostly based on two-group diffusion-theory nodal models. In the two-group approach no explicit distinction is made between prompt fission neutrons and delayed neutrons. Consequently, effective delayed neutron fractions have traditionally been used in an attempt to compensate for this shortcoming. A fundamentally better approach would be to solve the nodal kinetics equations in a sufficient number of energy groups to explicitly capture neutron emission spectrum effects. However, this would require the availability of a multi-group nodal transient code as well as a lattice code to generate the appropriate multi-group nodal data for the simulator. One such simulator is the PARCS nodal transient code, which is widely used and recognized as representative of the current state-of-the-art. Unfortunately, a proper nodal data preparation path between PARCS and a lattice code is not available. Even though several industrial lattice codes could be considered as candidates, most of them are tailored to producing two-group nodal data and would require modifications to produce multi-group prompt and delayed neutron emission spectra. In this paper, the particular modifications required to match the TransLAT lattice code and the PARCS nodal transient code for BWR transient applications are reported. Some modifications to PARCS were also required to make two-group and multi-group applications fully consistent. Numerical results are presented both to verify the proper functioning of these modifications and to illuminate the impact of various nodal kinetics data approximations in a selected transient calculation. In particular, the significance of blending rodded and un-rodded kinetics data in partially rodded nodes is demonstrated. It is also confirmed that the use of delayed neutron importance factors in two-group calculations notably reduces the differences between two-group and multi-group kinetics calculations. (authors)

  17. A. La Rosa Lecture Notes ENERGY CONSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ________________________________________________________________________ ENERGY CONSERVATION The Fisrt Law of Thermodynamics and the Classical Work Kinetic-Energy (CWE) Theorem I on a system II.4.B2 Heat-transfer Q II.4.C Fundamental Energy Conservation Law Generalization of the classic

  18. Mechanistic studies using kinetic isotope effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulmeier, Brian E.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding reaction mechanisms is an important aspect of chemistry. A now convenient way to study reaction mechanisms is kinetic isotope effects at natural abundance. This technique circumvents the cumbersome methods of traditional isotope effect...

  19. Kinetics of Anionic Surfactant Anoxic Degradation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camacho, Julianna G.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The biodegradation kinetics of Geropon TC-42 (trademark) by an acclimated culture was investigated in anoxic batch reactors to determine biokinetic coefficients to be implemented in two biofilm mathematical models. Geropon TC-42 (trademark...

  20. NAAP Motions of the Sun 1/7 Motions of the Sun Student Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Name: NAAP ­ Motions of the Sun 1/7 Motions of the Sun ­ Student Guide Seasonal Motion Work through in these pages are used in the Paths of the Sun Simulator. Question 1: For each of the following statements questions. (A) On May 25th , the sun is in the constellation of ___________________. (B) What would

  1. A kinetic model for the liquefaction of Texas lignite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haley, Sandra Kay

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    shortages in the United States has led to investigations in alternative energy sources. Of particular interest is the lignite resource in Texas which is mainly situated in the east and central regions north of the Colorado River. There is an estimated...A KINETIC MODEL FOR THE LIQUEFACTION OF TEXAS LIGNITE 4 Thesis by SANDRA KAY BALKY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE y 1980 Major Subject...

  2. Electromigration kinetics and critical current of Pb-free interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Minhua; Rosenberg, Robert [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromigration kinetics of Pb-free solder bump interconnects have been studied using a single bump parameter sweep technique. By removing bump to bump variations in structure, texture, and composition, the single bump sweep technique has provided both activation energy and power exponents that reflect atomic migration and interface reactions with fewer samples, shorter stress time, and better statistics than standard failure testing procedures. Contact metallurgies based on Cu and Ni have been studied. Critical current, which corresponds to the Blech limit, was found to exist in the Ni metallurgy, but not in the Cu metallurgy. A temperature dependence of critical current was also observed.

  3. Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of Real Particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistically covariant equation of motion for real dust particle under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. The particle is neutral in charge. Equation of motion is expressed in terms of particle's optical properties, standardly used in optics for stationary particles.

  4. Roadmapbased Motion Planning in Dynamic Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Roadmap­based Motion Planning in Dynamic Environments Jur P. van den Berg Mark H. Overmars.cs.uu.nl #12; Roadmap­based Motion Planning in Dynamic Environments Jur P. van den Berg Mark H. Overmars April obstacles. We propose a practical algorithm based on a roadmap that is created for the static part

  5. Robot Motion Planning with Uncertainty The Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitton, Mary C.

    Roadmap (SMR), a new motion planning framework that explicitly considers uncertainty in robot motion approach. Our framework builds on the highly successful approach used in Probabilistic Roadmaps (PRMs of discrete states is selected in the state space, and a roadmap is built that represents their collision

  6. Metrics for sampling-based motion planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morales Aguirre, Marco Antonio

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A motion planner finds a sequence of potential motions for a robot to transit from an initial to a goal state. To deal with the intractability of this problem, a class of methods known as sampling-based planners build approximate representations...

  7. The apsidal motion in close binary stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Vasiliev

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    It is usually accepted to consider an apsidal motion in binary stars as a direct confirmation that a substance inside stars is not uniformly distributed. It is shown in this paper that the apsidal motion in binary systems observation data is in a good agreement with an existence of uniform plasma cores inside stars if they consist of hydrogen-deuterium-helium mixture.

  8. Computing realizations of reaction kinetic networks with given properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorban, Alexander N.

    chemical reactions, reaction kinetic systems are the main building blocks of highly interconnected´avid Csercsik, Katalin M. Hangos Process Control Research Group, Computer and Automation Research Institute}@scl.sztaki.hu Keywords: Applications: (bio)chemical kinetics, reaction kinetic systems, mass action kinet- ics

  9. Nonlinear evolution of the magnetized Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: From fluid to kinetic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, BP 4229 06304, Nice Cedex 4 (France); Cerri, S. S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rossi, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); LPP-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC, Université Paris VI, Université Paris XI, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Faganello, M. [International Institute for Fusion Science/PIIM, UMR 7345 CNRS, Aix-Marseille University, 13397 Marseille (France)] [International Institute for Fusion Science/PIIM, UMR 7345 CNRS, Aix-Marseille University, 13397 Marseille (France); Šebek, O. [Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague, Czech Republic and Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, B?ehová 7, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic)] [Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague, Czech Republic and Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, B?ehová 7, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic); Trávní?ek, P. M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); Hellinger, P. [Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic)] [Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); and others

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The nonlinear evolution of collisionless plasmas is typically a multi-scale process, where the energy is injected at large, fluid scales and dissipated at small, kinetic scales. Accurately modelling the global evolution requires to take into account the main micro-scale physical processes of interest. This is why comparison of different plasma models is today an imperative task aiming at understanding cross-scale processes in plasmas. We report here the first comparative study of the evolution of a magnetized shear flow, through a variety of different plasma models by using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall-MHD, two-fluid, hybrid kinetic, and full kinetic codes. Kinetic relaxation effects are discussed to emphasize the need for kinetic equilibriums to study the dynamics of collisionless plasmas in non trivial configurations. Discrepancies between models are studied both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime of the magnetized Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, to highlight the effects of small scale processes on the nonlinear evolution of collisionless plasmas. We illustrate how the evolution of a magnetized shear flow depends on the relative orientation of the fluid vorticity with respect to the magnetic field direction during the linear evolution when kinetic effects are taken into account. Even if we found that small scale processes differ between the different models, we show that the feedback from small, kinetic scales to large, fluid scales is negligible in the nonlinear regime. This study shows that the kinetic modeling validates the use of a fluid approach at large scales, which encourages the development and use of fluid codes to study the nonlinear evolution of magnetized fluid flows, even in the collisionless regime.

  10. A Mobile Motion Analysis System Using Intertial Sensors for Analysis of Lower Limb Prosthetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, John Kyle P [ORNL] [ORNL; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL] [ORNL; Farquhar, Ethan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soldiers returning from the global war on terror requiring lower leg prosthetics generally have different concerns and requirements than the typical lower leg amputee. These subjects are usually young, wish to remain active and often desire to return to active military duty. As such, they demand higher performance from their prosthetics, but are at risk for chronic injury and joint conditions in their unaffected limb. Motion analysis is a valuable tool in assessing the performance of new and existing prosthetic technologies as well as the methods in fitting these devices to both maximize performance and minimize risk of injury for the individual soldier. We are developing a mobile, low-cost motion analysis system using inertial measurement units (IMUs) and two custom force sensors that detect ground reaction forces and moments on both the unaffected limb and prosthesis. IMUs were tested on a robot programmed to simulate human gait motion. An algorithm which uses a kinematic model of the robot and an extended Kalman filter (EKF) was used to convert the rates and accelerations from the gyro and accelerometer into joint angles. Compared to encoder data from the robot, which was considered the ground truth in this experiment, the inertial measurement system had a RMSE of <1.0 degree. Collecting kinematic and kinetic data without the restrictions and expense of a motion analysis lab could help researchers, designers and prosthetists advance prosthesis technology and customize devices for individuals. Ultimately, these improvements will result in better prosthetic performance for the military population.

  11. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harben, Philip E. (Oakley, CA); Rodgers, Peter W. (Santa Barbara, CA); Ewert, Daniel W. (Patterson, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A seismic switching device that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period.

  12. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  13. RICE UNIVERSITY Molecules in Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavraki, Lydia E.

    by computing conformations populated under native conditions. Such computa- tion involves locating free-energy until no lower- energy minima emerge. The method captures relevant features of the native state also. Characterizing the flexibility of a protein under physiological (native) conditions remains an open problem

  14. Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in the Earth'sConnect,LLCStartup America1Theofanis

  15. Optimization of running strategies based on anaerobic energy and ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amandine Aftalion

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Aug 13, 2013 ... We extend this analysis, based on the equation of motion and aerobic energy, to include a balance of anaerobic energy (or accumulated ...

  16. FIELD DEPENDENT SCATTERING AND HOT ELECTRON KINETICS D.C. Herbert and S.J. Till

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    space and this allows derivation of simple kinetic equations. The energy and field dependence electric fields. The technological trend towards VLSI systems, and the use of very high electric fields, for example in avalanche or electroluminescence devices, has led us to consider theoretical alter- natives

  17. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of a Molecular Motor Ensemble Josh E. Baker* and David D. Thomas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Thermodynamics and Kinetics of a Molecular Motor Ensemble Josh E. Baker* and David D. Thomas is transferred to work is accelerated by the free energy of a motor-catalyzed reaction. This thermodynamic model cargo at useful rates along long polymer tracks, and, in this paper, we develop a minimal thermodynamic

  18. Noncommutative minisuperspace, gravity-driven acceleration and kinetic inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. M. Rasouli; Paulo Vargas Moniz

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we introduce a noncommutative version of the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory and obtain the Hamiltonian equations of motion for a spatially flat Friedmann--Lema\\^{\\i}tre--Robertson--Walker universe filled with a perfect fluid. We focus on the case where the scalar potential as well as the ordinary matter sector are absent. Then, we investigate gravity-driven acceleration and kinetic inflation in this noncommutative BD cosmology. In contrast to the commutative case, in which the scale factor and BD scalar field are in a power-law form, in the noncommutative case the power-law scalar factor is multiplied by a dynamical exponential warp factor. This warp factor depends on the noncommutative parameter as well as the momentum conjugate associated to the BD scalar field. We show that the BD scalar field and the scale factor effectively depend on the noncommutative parameter. For very small values of this parameter, we obtain an appropriate inflationary solution, which can overcome problems within BD standard cosmology in a more efficient manner. Furthermore, a graceful exit from an early acceleration epoch towards a decelerating radiation epoch is provided. For late times, due to the presence of the noncommutative parameter, we obtain a zero acceleration epoch, which can be interpreted as the coarse-grained explanation.

  19. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  20. Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardiner, Bennett P J; Dallaston, Michael C; Moroney, Timothy J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mathematical model of a steadily propagating Saffman-Taylor finger in a Hele-Shaw channel has applications to two-dimensional interacting streamer discharges which are aligned in a periodic array. In the streamer context, the relevant regularisation on the interface is not provided by surface tension, but instead has been postulated to involve a mechanism equivalent to kinetic undercooling, which acts to penalise high velocities and prevent blow-up of the unregularised solution. Previous asymptotic results for the Hele-Shaw finger problem with kinetic undercooling suggest that for a given value of the kinetic undercooling parameter, there is a discrete set of possible finger shapes, each analytic at the nose and occupying a different fraction of the channel width. In the limit in which the kinetic undercooling parameter vanishes, the fraction for each family approaches 1/2, suggesting that this 'selection' of 1/2 by kinetic undercooling is qualitatively similar to the well-known analogue with surface tens...

  1. Slow motion responses of compliant offshore structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Peimin

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -HEAVE-PITCH MOTION ANALYSIS 3. 1 Mathematical Formulation . 3. 1. 1 Governing equation for surge-heave-pitch motions 3. 1. 2 Numerical scheme 3. 2 Comparisons of the JIP Spar . 3. 2. 1 Experimental set-up 3. 2. 2 Regular wave 3. 2. 3 Irregular wave 3. 2. 4... structural analyses. Courtesy of American Petroleum Institute. SDOF surge motion model of the JIP Spar. S?rge static offset test of the JIP Spar in the calm water. Surge RAOs of the JIP Spar: experiment ( ~ ); present ( ? ? ); and HOBEM ( ? - ? ). 14...

  2. Problem Set # 5 1. In a stratified flow the energy containing eddies have a time scale of N-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Louis

    kinetic energy dissipation rate. (a) Derive an expression for the time dependence (decay) of u in terms eddy of size l, where L l . (b) Obtain an expression for the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass is the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass 23 2 E u , u, the characteristic turbulent velocity, the turbulent

  3. INTRODUCTION Energy harvesting is the transformation of ambient energy present in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    into electrical energy. This energy is derived from different external sources such as solar power, thermal energyINTRODUCTION Energy harvesting is the transformation of ambient energy present in the environment, wind energy, salinity gradient and kinetic energy. Harvesting energy from ambient vibration has

  4. OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Alaska LNG Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Alaska LNG Project LLC ) Docket No. 14-96-LNG JOINT MOTION TO INTERVENE AND COMMENTS OF THE STATE OF ALASKA AND THE ALASKA GASLINE...

  5. A model of ATL ground motion for storage rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolski, Andrzej; Walker, Nicholas J.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A MODEL OF ATL GROUND MOTION FOR STORAGE RINGS A. WolskiMODEL OF ATL GROUND MOTION FOR STORAGE RINGS* A. Wolski # ,

  6. advanced motion control: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    25 MARCH 2012 | DOI: 10.1038NPHYS2269 Attosecond control of collective electron motion Materials Science Websites Summary: electron motion in plasmas Antonin Borot1 , Arnaud...

  7. Effects of Seismic Motion Incoherency on SSI and SSSI Responses...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Effects of Seismic Motion Incoherency on SSI and SSSI Responses of Nuclear Structures for Different Soil Site Conditions Effects of Seismic Motion Incoherency on SSI and SSSI...

  8. Hydrogen Species Motion in Piezoelectrics: A Quasi-Elastic Neutron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Species Motion in Piezoelectrics: A Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Study. Hydrogen Species Motion in Piezoelectrics: A Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Study. Abstract: Hydrogen...

  9. Neptunium Binding Kinetics with Arsenazo(III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh R. Martin; Aaron T. Johnson; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document has been prepared to meet FCR&D level 2 milestone M2FT-14IN0304021, “Report on the results of actinide binding kinetics with aqueous phase complexants” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems FCR&D work package. The report details kinetics experiments that were performed to measure rates of aqueous phase complexation for pentavalent neptunium with the chromotropic dye Arsenazo III (AAIII). The studies performed were designed to determine how pH, ionic strength and AAIII concentration may affect the rate of the reaction. A brief comparison with hexavalent neptunium is also made. It was identified that as pH was increased the rate of reaction also increased, however increasing the ionic strength and concentration of AAIII had the opposite effect. Interestingly, the rate of reaction of Np(VI) with AAIII was found to be slower than that of the Np(V) reaction.

  10. A simple theory of protein folding kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pande, Vijay S

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple model of protein folding dynamics that captures key qualitative elements recently seen in all-atom simulations. The goals of this theory are to serve as a simple formalism for gaining deeper insight into the physical properties seen in detailed simulations as well as to serve as a model to easily compare why these simulations suggest a different kinetic mechanism than previous simple models. Specifically, we find that non-native contacts play a key role in determining the mechanism, which can shift dramatically as the energetic strength of non-native interactions is changed. For protein-like non-native interactions, our model finds that the native state is a kinetic hub, connecting the strength of relevant interactions directly to the nature of folding kinetics.

  11. Kinetic model for quartz and spinel dissolution during melting of high-level-waste glass batch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissolution of quartz particles and the growth and dissolution of crystalline phases during the conversion of batch to glass potentially affects both the glass melting process and product quality. Crystals of spinel exiting the cold cap to molten glass below can be troublesome during the vitrification of iron-containing high-level wastes. To estimate the distribution of quartz and spinel fractions within the cold cap, we used kinetic models that relate fractions of these phases to temperature and heating rate. Fitting the model equations to data showed that the heating rate, apart from affecting quartz and spinel behavior directly, also affects them indirectly via concurrent processes, such as the formation and motion of bubbles. Because of these indirect effects, it was necessary to allow one kinetic parameter (the pre-exponential factor) to vary with the heating rate. The resulting kinetic equations are sufficiently simple for the detailed modeling of batch-to-glass conversion as it occurs in glass melters. The estimated fractions and sizes of quartz and spinel particles as they leave the cold cap, determined in this study, will provide the source terms needed for modeling the behavior of these solid particles within the flow of molten glass in the melter.

  12. Testing a dissipative kinetic k-essence model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardenas, V H; Villanueva, J R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we present a study of a purely kinetic k-essence model, characterized basically by a parameter $\\alpha$ in presence of a bulk dissipative term, whose relationship between viscous pressure $\\Pi$ and energy density $\\rho$ of the background follows a polytropic type law $\\Pi \\propto \\rho^{\\lambda+1/2}$, where $\\lambda$, in principle, is a parameter without restrictions. Analytical solutions for the energy density of the k-essence field are found in two specific cases: $\\lambda=1/2$ and $\\lambda=(1-\\alpha)/2\\alpha$, and then we show that these solutions posses the same functional form than the non-viscous counterpart. Finally, both approach are contrasted with observational data from type Ia supernova, and the most recent Hubble parameter measurements, and therefore, the best values for the parameters of the theory are founds.

  13. Information Fusion for Improved Motion Estimation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peacock, Andrew M

    Motion Estimation is an important research field with many commercial applications including surveillance, navigation, robotics, and image compression. As a result, the field has received a great deal of attention and ...

  14. On learning task-directed motion plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finney, Sarah, 1974-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Robotic motion planning is a hard problem for robots with more than just a few degrees of freedom. Modern probabilistic planners are able to solve many problems very quickly, but for difficult problems, they are still ...

  15. The Design of Shape from Motion Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caine, Michael E.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a set of representations methodologies and tools for the purpose of visualizing, analyzing and designing functional shapes in terms of constraints on motion. The core of the research is an interactive ...

  16. DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICSOFLIQUID MOTION INPARTIALLYFILLEDTANKS OF SPINNING SPACECRAFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . I. Introduction A recent trend in geosynchronousspacecraft design is using liquid apogee motors. In these spacecraft, liquid motion significantly influence the spacecraft attitude stability and control. LEASAT, a geosynchronous spacecraft with liquid apogee motor, launched in September 1984, experienced attitudecontrol

  17. Motion to Withdraw.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement of the NationalPennsylvania |February 2013 MonthlyPage)Sources

  18. Simulating plant motion with levels of detail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flannery, Rebecca Lynn

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    SIMULATING PLANT MOTION WITH LEVELS OF DETAIL A Senior Honors Thesis by REBECCA LYNN FLANNERY Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs k. Academic Scholarships Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2003 Group: Engineering & Physics I SIMULATING PLANT MOTION WITH LEVELS OF DETAIL A Senior Honors Thesis by REBECCA LYNN FLANNERY Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships...

  19. Ground motion: An introduction for accelerator builders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this seminar we will review some of the characteristics of the major classes of ground motion in order to determine whether their effects must be considered or place fundamental limits on the sitting and/or design of modern storage rings and linear colliders. The classes discussed range in frequency content from tidal deformation and tectonic motions through earthquakes and microseisms. Countermeasures currently available are briefly discussed.

  20. Kinetic determination of selenium in biological material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Efremenko, O.A.; Krasnyuk, I.I.; Kudrin, A.N.; Rudenko, B.A.

    1986-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A very promising method for selenium determination is a kinetic analytical procedure that combines the simplicity and availability of physical instrumentation with a low analyte detection limit. This paper reports a modification of the method to enable the determination of selenium in rat blood and involves decomposing the sample with a mixture of nitric and perchloric acids, separation of the selenium (IV) from other decomposition products, and quantitatively determining selenium by the described kinetic method using the indicator reaction of iron (II) edetate oxidation by sodium nitrate.

  1. Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durant, J.L. Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

  2. Full-f Neoclassical Simulations toward a Predictive Model for H-mode Pedestal Ion Energy, Particle and Momentum Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaglia, D. J. [PPPL; Boedo, J. A. [University of California San Diego; Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics; Chang, C. S. [PPPL; Canik, J. M. [ORNL; deGrassie, J. S. [General Atomics; Gerhardt, S. P. [PPPL; Grierson, B. A. [General Atomics; Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics; Maingi, Rajesh [PPPL; Smith, S. P. [General Atomics

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy and particle transport rates are decoupled in the H-mode edge since the ion thermal transport rate is primarily set by the neoclassical transport of the deuterium ions in the tail of the thermal energy distribution, while the net particle transport rate is set by anomalous transport of the colder bulk ions. Ion orbit loss drives the energy distributions away from Maxwellian, and describes the anisotropy, poloidal asymmetry and local minimum near the separatrix observed in the Ti profile. Non-Maxwellian distributions also drive large intrinsic edge flows, and the interaction of turbulence at the top of the pedestal with the intrinsic edge flow can generate an intrinsic core torque. The primary driver of the radial electric field (Er) in the pedestal and scrapeoff layer (SOL) are kinetic neoclassical effects, such as ion orbit loss of tail ions and parallel electron loss to the divertor. This paper describes the first multi-species kinetic neoclassical transport calculations for ELM-free H-mode pedestal and scrape-off layer on DIII-D using XGC0, a 5D full-f particle-in-cell drift-kinetic solver with self-consistent neutral recycling and sheath potentials. Quantitative agreement between the flux-driven simulation and the experimental electron density, impurity density and orthogonal measurements of impurity temperature and flow profiles is achieved by adding random-walk particle diffusion to the guiding-center drift motion. This interpretative technique quantifies the role of neoclassical, anomalous and neutral transport to the overall pedestal structure, and consequently illustrates the importance of including kinetic effects self-consistently in transport calculations around transport barriers.

  3. On the Kinematics of Undulator Girder Motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, J; /SLAC; ,

    2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The theory of rigid body kinematics is used to derive equations that govern the control and measurement of the position and orientation of undulator girders. The equations form the basis of the girder matlab software on the LCLS control system. The equations are linear for small motion and easily inverted as desired. For reference, some relevant girder geometrical data is also given. Equations 6-8 relate the linear potentiometer readings to the motion of the girder. Equations 9-11 relate the cam shaft angles to the motion of the girder. Both sets are easily inverted to either obtain the girder motion from the angles or readings, or, to find the angles and readings that would give a desired motion. The motion of any point on the girder can be calculated by applying either sets of equations to the two cam-planes and extrapolating in the z coordinate using equation 19. The formulation of the equations is quite general and easily coded via matrix and vector methods. They form the basis of the girder matlab software on the LCLS control system.

  4. Chemical Kinetics of Combustion Processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of the Rotating 2015Analysis ofChemicalof

  5. Collisionless kinetic regimes for quasi-stationary axisymmetric accretion disc plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cremaschini, C. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Tessarotto, M. [Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is concerned with the kinetic treatment of quasi-stationary axisymmetric collisionless accretion disc plasmas. The conditions of validity of the kinetic description for non-relativistic magnetized and gravitationally bound plasmas of this type are discussed. A classification of the possible collisionless plasma regimes which can arise in these systems is proposed, which can apply to accretion discs around both stellar-mass compact objects and galactic-center black holes. Two different classifications are determined, which are referred to, respectively, as energy-based and magnetic field-based classifications. Different regimes are pointed out for each plasma species, depending both on the relative magnitudes of kinetic and potential energies and the magnitude of the magnetic field. It is shown that in all cases, there can be quasi-stationary Maxwellian-like solutions of the Vlasov equation. The perturbative approach outlined here permits unique analytical determination of the functional form for the distribution function consistent, in each kinetic regime, with the explicit inclusion of finite Larmor radius-diamagnetic and/or energy-correction effects.

  6. Comparisons of dense-plasma-focus kinetic simulations with experimental measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Link, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Welch, D. [Voss Scientific, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellsworth, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Falabella, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tang, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dense-plasma-focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high-energy electrons and ions, x rays, and neutrons. The mechanisms through which these physically simple devices generate such high-energy beams in a relatively short distance are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously we reported on fully kinetic simulations of a DPF and compared them with hybrid and fluid simulations of the same device. Here we present detailed comparisons between fully kinetic simulations and experimental data on a 1.2 kJ DPF with two electrode geometries, including neutron yield and ion beam energy distributions. A more intensive third calculation is presented which examines the effects of a fully detailed pulsed power driver model. We also compare simulated electromagnetic fluctuations with direct measurement of radiofrequency electromagnetic fluctuations in a DPF plasma. These comparisons indicate that the fully kinetic model captures the essential physics of these plasmas with high fidelity, and provide further evidence that anomalous resistivity in the plasma arises due to a kinetic instability near the lower hybrid frequency.

  7. Widening the Axion Window via Kinetic and St\\"uckelberg Mixings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiu, Gary; Ye, Fang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We point out that kinetic and St\\"uckelberg mixings that are generically present in the low energy effective action of axions can significantly widen the window of axion decay constants. We show that an effective super-Planckian decay constant can be obtained even when the axion kinetic matrix has only sub-Planckian entries. Our minimal model involves only two axions, a St\\"uckelberg U(1) and a modest rank instanton generating non-Abelian group. Below the mass of the St\\"uckelberg U(1), there is only a single axion with a non-perturbatively generated potential. In contrast to previous approaches, the enhancement of the axion decay constant is not tied to the number of degrees of freedom introduced. We also discuss how kinetic mixings can lower the decay constant to the desired axion dark matter window. String theory embeddings of this scenario and their phenomenological features are briefly discussed.

  8. Aggregation kinetics of stiff polyelectrolytes in the presence of multivalent salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossein Fazli; Ramin Golestanian

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, the kinetics of bundle formation for stiff polyelectrolytes such as actin is studied in the solution of multivalent salt. The dominant kinetic mode of aggregation is found to be the case of one end of one rod meeting others at right angle due to electrostatic interactions. The kinetic pathway to bundle formation involves a hierarchical structure of small clusters forming initially and then feeding into larger clusters, which is reminiscent of the flocculation dynamics of colloids. For the first few cluster sizes, the Smoluchowski formula for the time evolution of the cluster size gives a reasonable account for the results of our simulation without a single fitting parameter. The description using Smoluchowski formula provides evidence for the aggregation time scale to be controlled by diffusion, with no appreciable energy barrier to overcome.

  9. Kinetics of the [beta]-[delta]phase transition in PBX9501.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, L. B. (Laura B.); Henson, B. F. (Bryan F.); Asay, B. W. (Blaine W.); Dickson, P. M. (Peter M.); Robinson, J. M. (Jeanne M.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial step in the thermal decomposition of HMX is the solid state phase transition from the centrosymmetric beta form to the noncentrosymmetric delta form. The symmetry change makes the phase transition amenable to the application of second harmonic generation (SHG) as a probe of transition kinetics. We have used SHG to study the temperature dependence of the kinetics for unconfined PBX9501 and HMX. Spatially resolved SHG measurements have shown a nucleation and growth mechanism for the solid state phase transition. We have measured the transition rate as a function of temperature in order to obtain the activation energy and entropy of transition, which determine the phase transition kinetics. Additionally, we have observed temperature dependent reversion of the delta phase to beta phase and have fimd that we can control the reversion rate by controlling the cooling.

  10. Spontaneous motion in hierarchically assembled active matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tim Sanchez; Daniel T. N. Chen; Stephen J. DeCamp; Michael Heymann; Zvonimir Dogic

    2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    With exquisite precision and reproducibility, cells orchestrate the cooperative action of thousands of nanometer-sized molecular motors to carry out mechanical tasks at much larger length scales, such as cell motility, division and replication. Besides their biological importance, such inherently non-equilibrium processes are an inspiration for developing biomimetic active materials from microscopic components that consume energy to generate continuous motion. Being actively driven, these materials are not constrained by the laws of equilibrium statistical mechanics and can thus exhibit highly sought-after properties such as autonomous motility, internally generated flows and self-organized beating. Starting from extensile microtubule bundles, we hierarchically assemble active analogs of conventional polymer gels, liquid crystals and emulsions. At high enough concentration, microtubules form a percolating active network characterized by internally driven chaotic flows, hydrodynamic instabilities, enhanced transport and fluid mixing. When confined to emulsion droplets, 3D networks spontaneously adsorb onto the droplet surfaces to produce highly active 2D nematic liquid crystals whose streaming flows are controlled by internally generated fractures and self-healing, as well as unbinding and annihilation of oppositely charged disclination defects. The resulting active emulsions exhibit unexpected properties, such as autonomous motility, which are not observed in their passive analogues. Taken together, these observations exemplify how assemblages of animate microscopic objects exhibit collective biomimetic properties that are starkly different from those found in materials assembled from inanimate building blocks, challenging us to develop a theoretical framework that would allow for a systematic engineering of their far-from-equilibrium material properties.

  11. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContractElectron-StateEnergy /newsroom/_assets/images/energy-icon.png Energy

  12. The aging of tungsten filaments and its effect on wire surface kinetics in hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    desorption kinetics. In particular, the Si signal exhibits a high temperature activation energy consistent vapor deposition growth have been measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry. New wires produce Si with previous measurements; the activation energy for the SiH3 signal suggests its formation is catalyzed. Aged

  13. Theoretical study of the ammonia nitridation rate on an Fe (100) surface: A combined density functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeo, Sang Chul

    Ammonia (NH[subscript 3]) nitridation on an Fe surface was studied by combining density functional theory (DFT) and kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) calculations. A DFT calculation was performed to obtain the energy barriers ...

  14. Astrophysical gyrokinetics: kinetic and fluid turbulent cascades in magnetized weakly collisional plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Schekochihin; S. C. Cowley; W. Dorland; G. W. Hammett; G. G. Howes; E. Quataert; T. Tatsuno

    2009-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical framework for plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas (solar wind, interstellar medium, galaxy clusters, accretion disks). The key assumptions are that the turbulence is anisotropic with respect to the mean magnetic field and frequencies are low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The energy injected at the outer scale scale has to be converted into heat, which ultimately cannot be done without collisions. A KINETIC CASCADE develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. Its nature depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations. In each of the physically distinct scale ranges, the kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more tractable set of equations. In the "inertial range" above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade splits into a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations, which are governed by the RMHD equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales, and a passive cascade of compressive fluctuations, which obey a linear kinetic equation along the moving field lines associated with the Alfvenic component. In the "dissipation range" between the ion and electron gyroscales, there are again two cascades: the kinetic-Alfven-wave (KAW) cascade governed by two fluid-like Electron RMHD equations and a passive phase-space cascade of ion entropy fluctuations. The latter cascade brings the energy of the inertial-range fluctuations that was damped by collisionless wave-particle interaction at the ion gyroscale to collisional scales in the phase space and leads to ion heating. The KAW energy is similarly damped at the electron gyroscale and converted into electron heat. Kolmogorov-style scaling relations are derived for these cascades. Astrophysical and space-physical applications are discussed in detail.

  15. Slow Sorption Kinetics of Pentachlorophenol on Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    -term sorption kinetic data and a void in the understanding of the factors that control the slow sorption stage virtually unexplored. A complete understanding of the mechanisms that control the slow sorption of organic.1; cation exchange capacity (CEC), 5.02 cmol/kg; 1.7% organic matter (measured by incineration); 29.6% sand

  16. CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS Class Meetings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    CHEM 6471 CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS Class Meetings 9:35 ­ 10:55 am, Tuesday and Thursday of October 22-26 Textbooks Molecular Thermodynamics by D.A McQuarrie and J.D. Simon, University Science Books the laws of classical thermodynamics and some of their chemical applications. It also covers basic

  17. Interpreting the Aggregation Kinetics of Amyloid Peptides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    Amyloid fibrils are insoluble mainly -sheet aggregates of proteins or peptides. The multi-step process) and amyloid-protected states, is used to investigate the kinetics of aggregation and the pathways of fibril state. The minimal-size aggregate able to form a fibril is generated by collisions of oligomers

  18. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN FOLDING KINETICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinner, Aaron

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN FOLDING KINETICS AARON R. DINNER New Chemistry Laboratory for Protein Folding: Advances in Chemical Physics, Volume 120. Edited by Richard A. Friesner. Series Editors Experimental and theoretical studies have led to the emergence of a unified general mechanism for protein

  19. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of transcriptional pausing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    in the cotranscriptional RNA secondary structure upstream of the RNA exit channel. The calculations involve no adjustable of recovery of backtracked paused complexes. A crucial ingredient of our model is the incorporation of kinetic secondary structure, an aspect not included explicitly in previous attempts at modeling the transcrip- tion

  20. THE FUTURE OF ENERGY Carlo Rubbia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    horses1 is included, the equivalent of diesel for trucks and tractors today. One can see that the total energy generation of the planet. The portion of the earth's kinetic energy transformed into lunar

  1. Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation into styrene: kinetic modeling and reactor simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Jae

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    and physicochemical criteria. The kinetic model yielded an excellent fit of the experimental data. The intrinsic kinetic parameters were used with the heterogeneous fixed bed reactor model which is explicitly accounting for the diffusional limitations inside...

  2. On the Geometrical Gyro-Kinetic Theory Emmanuel Frnod

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    On the Geometrical Gyro-Kinetic Theory Emmanuel Frénod Mathieu Lutz Abstract - Considering introduced : Partial Lie Sums. Keywords - Tokamak; Stellarator; Gyro-Kinetic Approximation; Hamiltonian.6 The Darboux Coordinates System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3.7 Expression

  3. Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation into styrene: kinetic modeling and reactor simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Jae

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    detailed kinetic model for coke formation and gasification, which was coupled to the kinetic model for the main reactions. The calculation of the dynamic equilibrium coke content provided a crucial guideline for the selection of the steam to ethylbenzene...

  4. Adsorption, Desorption, and Displacement Kinetics of H2O and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Displacement Kinetics of H2O and CO2 on TiO2(110). Adsorption, Desorption, and Displacement Kinetics of H2O and CO2 on TiO2(110). Abstract: The adsorption, desorption, and...

  5. Direct kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in Co2+ : ZnO. Direct kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in Co2+ : ZnO. Abstract: We report the use of controlled...

  6. Products and Kinetics of the Reactions of an Alkane Monolayer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Products and Kinetics of the Reactions of an Alkane Monolayer and a Terminal Alkene Monolayer with NO Radicals. Products and Kinetics of the Reactions of an Alkane Monolayer and a...

  7. “Batch” Kinetics in Flow: Online IR Analysis and Continuous Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Jason S.

    Currently, kinetic data is either collected under steady-state conditions in flow or by generating time-series data in batch. Batch experiments are generally considered to be more suitable for the generation of kinetic ...

  8. Jeff Haack: Applications of computational kinetic theory | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jeff Haack: Applications of computational kinetic theory Jan 28 2014 10:15 AM - 11:15 AM ORNL CONTACT : Email: Billy Fields Phone: Add to Calendar SHARE Kinetic theory describes...

  9. Crustal motion in Indonesia from Global Positioning System measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCaffrey, Robert

    Crustal motion in Indonesia from Global Positioning System measurements Y. Bock,1 L. Prawirodirdjo: crustal motion, Indonesia tectonics, GPS, current plate motions, Southeast Asia Citation: Bock, Y., L, Crustal motion in Indonesia from Global Positioning System measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 108(B8), 2367

  10. Collective cell motion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vehicles ---Hydrogen & fuel cells ---Powertrain research --Building design ---Construction --Manufacturing -Energy sources --Renewable energy ---Bioenergy ---Solar energy...

  11. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To probe both the Mechanical Non-Equilibrium (MNE) and Thermodynamic Non-Equilibrium (TNE) in the combustion procedure, a two-dimensional Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) version of the Lattice Boltzmann Kinetic Model(LBKM) for combustion phenomena is presented. The chemical energy released in the progress of combustion is dynamically coupled into the system by adding a chemical term to the LB kinetic equation. The LB model is required to recover the Navier-Stokes equations with chemical reaction in the hydrodynamic limit. To that aim, we construct a discrete velocity model with $24$ velocities divided into $3$ groups. In each group a flexible parameter is used to control the size of discrete velocities and a second parameter is used to describe the contribution of the extra degrees of freedom. The current model works for both subsonic and supersonic flows with or without chemical reaction. In this model both the specific-heat ratio and the Prandtl number are flexible, the TNE effects are naturally presented in...

  12. Hydro-kinetic approach to relativistic heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Akkelin; Y. Hama; Iu. A. Karpenko; Yu. M. Sinyukov

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a combined hydro-kinetic approach which incorporates a hydrodynamical expansion of the systems formed in \\textit{A}+\\textit{A} collisions and their dynamical decoupling described by escape probabilities. The method corresponds to a generalized relaxation time ($\\tau_{\\text{rel}}$) approximation for the Boltzmann equation applied to inhomogeneous expanding systems; at small $\\tau_{\\text{rel}}$ it also allows one to catch the viscous effects in hadronic component - hadron-resonance gas. We demonstrate how the approximation of sudden freeze-out can be obtained within this dynamical picture of continuous emission and find that hypersurfaces, corresponding to a sharp freeze-out limit, are momentum dependent. The pion $m_{T}$ spectra are computed in the developed hydro-kinetic model, and compared with those obtained from ideal hydrodynamics with the Cooper-Frye isothermal prescription. Our results indicate that there does not exist a universal freeze-out temperature for pions with different momenta, and support an earlier decoupling of higher $p_{T}$ particles. By performing numerical simulations for various initial conditions and equations of state we identify several characteristic features of the bulk QCD matter evolution preferred in view of the current analysis of heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies.

  13. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Hydrogen Combustion Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed chemical kinetic model is used to explore the flammability and detonability of hydrogen mixtures. In the case of flammability, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for hydrogen is coupled to the CHEMKIN Premix code to compute premixed, laminar flame speeds. The detailed chemical kinetic model reproduces flame speeds in the literature over a range of equivalence ratios, pressures and reactant temperatures. A series of calculation were performed to assess the key parameters determining the flammability of hydrogen mixtures. Increased reactant temperature was found to greatly increase the flame speed and the flammability of the mixture. The effect of added diluents was assessed. Addition of water and carbon dioxide were found to reduce the flame speed and thus the flammability of a hydrogen mixture approximately equally well and much more than the addition of nitrogen. The detailed chemical kinetic model was used to explore the detonability of hydrogen mixtures. A Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) detonation model coupled with detailed chemical kinetics was used to model the detonation. The effectiveness on different diluents was assessed in reducing the detonability of a hydrogen mixture. Carbon dioxide was found to be most effective in reducing the detonability followed by water and nitrogen. The chemical action of chemical inhibitors on reducing the flammability of hydrogen mixtures is discussed. Bromine and organophosphorus inhibitors act through catalytic cycles that recombine H and OH radicals in the flame. The reduction in H and OH radicals reduces chain branching in the flame through the H + O{sub 2} = OH + O chain branching reaction. The reduction in chain branching and radical production reduces the flame speed and thus the flammability of the hydrogen mixture.

  14. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasRelease Date:researchEmerging ThreatsEmployment Openings

  15. Can We Distinguish Biological Motions of Virtual Humans? Perceptual Study With Captured Motions of Weight Lifting.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Information Systems-- Animations ­ Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities Keywords: Human Motions of Weight Lifting. Ludovic Hoyet IRISA - INRIA Bunraku Team, Rennes Franck Multon Mouvement Sport Sant of Edinburgh Figure 1: Subject lifting a 6kg dumbbell: video of a real motion (up) and corresponding captured

  16. Energy & technology review, April 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bookless, W.A.; Stull, S. [eds.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication presents research overviews on projects from the Lawrence Livermore laboratory. This issue provides information on microsphere targets for inertial confinement fusion experiments; laser fabrication of berllium components; and the kinetic energy interceptor.

  17. AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    - equilibrium cases, up to second order. (b) Derive an expression for the non-conservative form of the kineticAER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #4 1. Consider a monatomic gas with one translational by the relaxation time approx- imation. Neglecting external forces, the conserved form of the kinetic equation

  18. Kinetic modelling of the thermal decomposition of ettringite into metaettringite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the validity of kinetic assumptions (rate-determining step, expression of the rate as d/dt = k f() ...), a good1 Kinetic modelling of the thermal decomposition of ettringite into metaettringite J. Pourchez on nucleation and growth mechanisms of metaettringite remained. Therefore, a better understanding of the kinetic

  19. MODELING OF HYDRATION KINETICS AND SHRINKAGE OF PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Christian

    MODELING OF HYDRATION KINETICS AND SHRINKAGE OF PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE Feng Lin Submitted in partial and Sciences COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 2006 #12;MODELING OF HYDRATION KINETICS AND SHRINKAGE OF PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE;ABSTRACT MODELING OF HYDRATION KINETICS AND SHRINKAGE OF PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE Feng Lin A mathematical

  20. Adsorption Kinetics of Surfactants at Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andelman, David

    Adsorption Kinetics of Surfactants at Fluid-Fluid Interfaces Haim Diamant and David Andelman School-Fluid Interfaces, Adsorption, Adsorption Kinetics, Interfacial Tension. 1 #12;Abstract We review a new theoretical approach to the kinetics of surfactant adsorption at fluid-fluid interfaces. It yields a more complete

  1. Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Correlation and Regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Worldwide Oil Production Example. The modern history of petroleum began in the 19Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Topic 4 Correlation and Regression Transformed Variables 1 / 13 #12;Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Outline Worldwide Oil Production

  2. The Inverse Kinetics Method and PID Compensation of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Inverse Kinetics Method and PID Compensation of the Annular Core Research Reactor by Benjamin Kinetics Method and PID Compensation of the Annular Core Research Reactor by Benjamin Garnas ABSTRACT Kinetics Method and PID Compensation of the Annular Core Research Reactor by Benjamin Garnas B.S. General

  3. Kinetic and Macroscopic Models for Semiconductors Ansgar Jungel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jüngel, Ansgar

    Kinetic and Macroscopic Models for Semiconductors Ansgar J¨ungel Vienna University of Technology, Austria www.jungel.at.vu Ansgar J¨ungel (TU Wien) Kinetic Semiconductor Models www.jungel.at.vu 1 / 165 #12;Contents 1 Introduction 2 Semiconductor modeling Basics of semiconductor physics Kinetic models 3

  4. An Energy Based Scheme for Reconstruction of Piecewise Constant Signals observed in the Movement of Molecular Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosskopf, Joachim; Plenio, Martin B; Michaelis, Jens

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyzing the physical and chemical properties of single DNA based molecular machines such as polymerases and helicases often necessitates to track stepping motion on the length scale of base pairs. Although high resolution instruments have been developed that are capable of reaching that limit, individual steps are oftentimes hidden by experimental noise which complicates data processing. Here, we present an effective two-step algorithm which detects steps in a high bandwidth signal by minimizing an energy based model (Energy based step-finder, EBS). First, an efficient convex denoising scheme is applied which allows compression to tupels of amplitudes and plateau lengths. Second, a combinatorial optimization algorithm formulated on a graph is used to assign steps to the tupel data while accounting for prior information. Performance of the algorithm was tested on poissonian stepping data simulated based on published kinetics data of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II). Comparison to existing step-finding methods show...

  5. Kinetics of ion and prompt electron emission from laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farid, N. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, School of Physics and Optical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China); Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Ding, H. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, School of Physics and Optical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, School of Physics and Optical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated ion emission dynamics of laser-produced plasma from several elements, comprised of metals and non-metals (C, Al, Si, Cu, Mo, Ta, W), under vacuum conditions using a Faraday cup. The estimated ion flux for various targets studied showed a decreasing tendency with increasing atomic mass. For metals, the ion flux is found to be a function of sublimation energy. A comparison of temporal ion profiles of various materials showed only high-Z elements exhibited multiple structures in the ion time of flight profile indicated by the observation of higher peak kinetic energies, which were absent for low-Z element targets. The slower ions were seen regardless of the atomic number of target material propagated with a kinetic energy of 1–5 keV, while the fast ions observed in high-Z materials possessed significantly higher energies. A systematic study of plasma properties employing fast photography, time, and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy, and electron analysis showed that there existed different mechanisms for generating ions in laser ablation plumes. The origin of high kinetic energy ions is related to prompt electron emission from high-Z targets.

  6. Approximate models for the ion-kinetic regime in inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoffman, Nelson M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)] (ORCID:000000030178767X); Zimmerman, George B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Molvig, Kim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rinderknecht, Hans G. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Albright, B. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Simakov, Andrei N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sio, Hong [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:000000017274236X); Zylstra, Alex B. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Johnson, Maria Gatu [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Séguin, Fredrick H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Frenje, Johan A. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000168460378); Li, C. K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Petrasso, Richard D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000258834054); Higdon, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Srinivasan, Gowri [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Glebov, Vladimir Yu. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Stoeckl, Christian [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Seka, Wolf [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Sangster, T. Craig [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)] (ORCID:0000000340402672)

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    “Reduced” (i.e., simplified or approximate) ion-kinetic (RIK) models in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations permit a useful description of inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) implosions where kinetic deviations from hydrodynamic behavior are important. For implosions in or near the kinetic regime (i.e., when ion mean free paths are comparable to the capsule size), simulations using a RIK model give a detailed picture of the time- and space-dependent structure of imploding capsules, allow an assessment of the relative importance of various kinetic processes during the implosion, enable explanations of past and current observations, and permit predictions of the results of future experiments. The RIK simulation method described here uses moment-based reduced kinetic models for transport of mass, momentum, and energy by long-mean-free-path ions, a model for the decrease of fusion reactivity owing to the associated modification of the ion distribution function, and a model of hydrodynamic turbulent mixing. The transport models are based on local gradient-diffusion approximations for the transport of moments of the ion distribution functions, with coefficients to impose flux limiting or account for transport modification. After calibration against a reference set of ICF implosions spanning the hydrodynamic-to-kinetic transition, the method has useful, quantifiable predictive ability over a broad range of capsule parameter space. Calibrated RIK simulations show that an important contributor to ion species separation in ICF capsule implosions is the preferential flux of longer-mean-free-path species out of the fuel and into the shell, leaving the fuel relatively enriched in species with shorter mean free paths. Also, the transport of ion thermal energy is enhanced in the kinetic regime, causing the fuel region to have a more uniform, lower ion temperature, extending over a larger volume, than implied by clean simulations. We expect that the success of our simple approach will motivate continued theoretical research into the development of first-principles-based, comprehensive, self-consistent, yet useable models of kinetic multispecies ion behavior in ICF plasmas.

  7. Approximate models for the ion-kinetic regime in inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoffman, Nelson M.; Zimmerman, George B.; Molvig, Kim; Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, Michael J.; Albright, B. J.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Sio, Hong; Zylstra, Alex B.; Johnson, Maria Gatu; et al

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    “Reduced” (i.e., simplified or approximate) ion-kinetic (RIK) models in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations permit a useful description of inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) implosions where kinetic deviations from hydrodynamic behavior are important. For implosions in or near the kinetic regime (i.e., when ion mean free paths are comparable to the capsule size), simulations using a RIK model give a detailed picture of the time- and space-dependent structure of imploding capsules, allow an assessment of the relative importance of various kinetic processes during the implosion, enable explanations of past and current observations, and permit predictions of the results of future experiments. The RIK simulation method describedmore »here uses moment-based reduced kinetic models for transport of mass, momentum, and energy by long-mean-free-path ions, a model for the decrease of fusion reactivity owing to the associated modification of the ion distribution function, and a model of hydrodynamic turbulent mixing. The transport models are based on local gradient-diffusion approximations for the transport of moments of the ion distribution functions, with coefficients to impose flux limiting or account for transport modification. After calibration against a reference set of ICF implosions spanning the hydrodynamic-to-kinetic transition, the method has useful, quantifiable predictive ability over a broad range of capsule parameter space. Calibrated RIK simulations show that an important contributor to ion species separation in ICF capsule implosions is the preferential flux of longer-mean-free-path species out of the fuel and into the shell, leaving the fuel relatively enriched in species with shorter mean free paths. Also, the transport of ion thermal energy is enhanced in the kinetic regime, causing the fuel region to have a more uniform, lower ion temperature, extending over a larger volume, than implied by clean simulations. We expect that the success of our simple approach will motivate continued theoretical research into the development of first-principles-based, comprehensive, self-consistent, yet useable models of kinetic multispecies ion behavior in ICF plasmas.« less

  8. Hubble Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alasdair Macleod

    2004-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Light received from a cosmological source is redshifted with an apparent loss of energy, a problem first pointed out by Edwin Hubble in 1936. A new type of energy called Hubble Energy is introduced to restore the principle of energy conservation. The energy has no inertial or gravitational effect but retards radial motion in a manner consistent with the anomalous acceleration experienced by the Pioneer probes leaving the solar system. The energy is predicted to have important effects on the scale of galaxies, and some of these effects are qualitatively examined: for example, with Hubble Energy, flat rotation curves are found to be an inevitable consequence of spiral galaxy formation. The Hubble Energy is incorporated into the Friedmann Equation and shown to add a term similar to the cosmological term, with a magnitude of order 10^-35 s^-2.

  9. Energy harvesting of random wide-band vibrations with applications to an electro-magnetic rotational energy harvester

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trimble, A. Zachary

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In general, vibration energy harvesting is the scavenging of ambient vibration by transduction of mechanical kinetic energy into electrical energy. Many mechanical or electro-mechanical systems produce mechanical vibrations. ...

  10. Fuel-motion diagnostics and cineradiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear and non-nuclear applications of cineradiography are reviewed, with emphasis on diagnostic instrumentation for in-pile transient-reactor safety testing of nuclear fuel motion. The primary instrument for this purpose has been the fast-neutron hodoscope, which has achieved quantitative monitoring of time, location, mass, and velocity of fuel movement under the difficult conditions associated with transient-reactor experiments. Alternative diagnostic devices that have been developed have not matched the capabilities of the hodoscope. Other applications for the fuel-motion diagnostic apparatus are also evolving, including time-integrated radiography and direct time- and space-resolved fuel-pin power monitoring. Although only two reactors are now actively equipped with high-resolution fuel-motion diagnostic systems, studies and tests have been carried out in and for many other reactors.

  11. SPATIAL SCALABILITY AND COMPRESSION EFFICIENCY WITHIN A FLEXIBLE MOTION COMPENSATED 3D-DWT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taubman, David S

    SPATIAL SCALABILITY AND COMPRESSION EFFICIENCY WITHIN A FLEXIBLE MOTION COMPENSATED 3D-DWT Nagita Mehrseresht and David Taubman The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia ABSTRACT We investigate , the structure allows us to trade energy compaction with the potential for artifacts at reduced spatial

  12. Optimization of Multi-Agent Motion Programs with Applications to Robotic Marionettes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egerstedt, Magnus

    duration and energy, embedded within each mode. These parameters are then optimized over, using tools from abstractions of hybrid systems may need to optimize their motion pro- grams in order to account for system constraints into the hybrid optimization engine. We do so by applying classical results in separable

  13. An analysis of guard cell motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Hsin-i

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN ANALYSIS OF GUARD CELL MOTION A Thesis by BSIN-I WU Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December, 1977 Ma]or Sub]ect: Industrial... Engineering AN ANALYSIS OF GUARD CELL MOTION A Thesis by HSIN-I WU Approved as to style and content by: L. Curry (I. En. ) Newton C. Ellis (I. En. ) c' eter J. H. Sharpe (B. E. ) Dar d J. Ha tfiel (Math) December 1977 I &'(2(i& R) ABSTRACT...

  14. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bylaska, Eric J.

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many different degradation reactions of chlorinated hydrocarbons are possible in natural ground waters. In order to identify which degradation reactions are important, a large number of possible reaction pathways must be sorted out. Recent advances in ab initio electronic structure methods have the potential to help identify relevant environmental degradation reactions by characterizing the thermodynamic properties of all relevant contaminant species and intermediates for which experimental data is usually not available, as well as provide activation energies for relevant pathways. In this paper, strategies based on ab initio electronic structure methods for estimating thermochemical and kinetic properties of reactions with chlorinated hydrocarbons are presented. Particular emphasis is placed on strategies that are computationally fast and can be used for large organochlorine compounds such as 4,4?-DDT.

  15. Kinetics of small single particle combustion of zirconium alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Haoyan; Yoo, Choong-Shik [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Shock Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2816 (United States)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present quantitative kinetic information regarding small, 1-10 {mu}m in diameter, single particle combustion of Zr-rich metal alloy foils subjected to either mechanical impacts or laser-ablation. The lights from combustion of metal fragments were recorded on a high-speed camera. The particle size was determined by the motion analysis of individual particle trajectory based on an aerodynamic drag law and further verified by the microstructure and chemical composition analysis of recovered post-burn particles. The measured particle sizes show a log-normal distribution centered at around 3.1 {mu}m in diameter, and the composition of recovered particles is that of fully oxidized ZrO{sub 2}. The temperature evolution of each particle along the space/time-trajectory is determined based on the thermal emission from combustion using a single-color photographic spectro-pyrometry. The result indicates that the particle has reached the maximum combustion temperature of 4000 K, well beyond the melting temperature of ZrO{sub 2}, and undergone the solidification of molten ZrO{sub 2} during the cooling stage. It also shows that the maximum combustion temperature decreases linearly with increasing the particle diameter, following the correlation t aD{sup 1.5-1.8} between the burn time (t) and the particle diameter (D). Combining the particle size, the burn time, and the particle temperature, both temperature and mass burn rates are obtained as a function of particle size. As the particle size increases, the temperature burn rate decreases, whereas the mass burn rate goes in the opposite direction.

  16. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

  17. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aiguo Xu; Chuandong Lin; Guangcai Zhang; Yingjun Li

    2015-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    To probe both the Hydrodynamic Non-Equilibrium (HNE) and Thermodynamic Non-Equilibrium (TNE) in the combustion process, a two-dimensional Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) version of Lattice Boltzmann Kinetic Model(LBKM) for combustion phenomena is presented. The chemical energy released in the progress of combustion is dynamically coupled into the system by adding a chemical term to the LB kinetic equation. Beside describing the evolutions of the conserved quantities, the density, momentum and energy, which are what the Navier-Stokes model describes, the MRT-LBKM presents also a coarse-grained description on the evolutions of some non-conserved quantities. The current model works for both subsonic and supersonic flows with or without chemical reaction. In this model both the specific-heat ratio and the Prandtl number are flexible, the TNE effects are naturally presented in each simulation step. The model is verified and validated via well-known benchmark tests. As an initial application, various non-equilibrium behaviours, including the complex interplays between various HNEs, between various TNEs and between the HNE and TNE, around the detonation wave in the unsteady and steady one-dimensional detonation processes are preliminarily probed. It is found that the system viscosity (or heat conductivity) decreases the local TNE, but increase the global TNE around the detonation wave, that even locally, the system viscosity (or heat conductivity) results in two kinds of competing trends, to increase and to decrease the TNE effects. The physical reason is that the viscosity (or heat conductivity) takes part in both the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses.

  18. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aiguo Xu; Chuandong Lin; Guangcai Zhang; Yingjun Li

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    To probe both the Mechanical Non-Equilibrium (MNE) and Thermodynamic Non-Equilibrium (TNE) in the combustion procedure, a two-dimensional Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) version of the Lattice Boltzmann Kinetic Model(LBKM) for combustion phenomena is presented. The chemical energy released in the progress of combustion is dynamically coupled into the system by adding a chemical term to the LB kinetic equation. The LB model is required to recover the Navier-Stokes equations with chemical reaction in the hydrodynamic limit. To that aim, we construct a discrete velocity model with $24$ velocities divided into $3$ groups. In each group a flexible parameter is used to control the size of discrete velocities and a second parameter is used to describe the contribution of the extra degrees of freedom. The current model works for both subsonic and supersonic flows with or without chemical reaction. In this model both the specific-heat ratio and the Prandtl number are flexible, the TNE effects are naturally presented in each simulation step. Via the MRT model, it is more convenient to track the effects of TNE and how the TNE influence the MNE behaviors. The model is verified and validated via well-known benchmark tests. It is found that around the detonation wave there are competition between the viscous effect, thermal diffusion effect and the gradient effects of physical quantities. Consequently, with decreasing the collision parameters, (i) the nonequilibrium region becomes wider and the gradients of physical quantities decrease; (ii) the position where the internal energy in the shocking degree of freedom equals the one averaged over all degrees of freedom moves away from the position for the von Neumann peak.

  19. Ion mediated crosslink driven mucous swelling kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sircar, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an experimentally guided, multi-phasic, multi-species ionic gel model to compare and make qualitative predictions on the rheology of mucus of healthy individuals (Wild Type) versus those infected with Cystic Fibrosis. The mixture theory consists of the mucus (polymer phase) and water (solvent phase) as well as several different ions: H+, Na+ and Ca++. The model is linearized to study the hydration of spherically symmetric mucus gels and calibrated against the experimental data of mucus diffusivities. Near equilibrium, the linearized form of the equation describing the radial size of the gel, reduces to the well-known expression used in the kinetic theory of swelling hydrogels. Numerical studies reveal that the Donnan potential is the dominating mechanism driving the mucus swelling/deswelling transition. However, the altered swelling kinetics of the Cystic Fibrosis infected mucus is not merely governed by the hydroelectric composition of the swelling media, but also due to the altered movement of el...

  20. Niobium Silicon alloys for Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvo, M; Monfardini, A; Benoit, A; Boudou, N; Bourrion, O; Catalano, A; Dumoulin, L; Goupy, J; Sueur, H Le; Marnieros, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are studying the properties of Niobium Silicon amorphous alloys as a candidate material for the fabrication of highly sensitive Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID), optimized for very low optical loads. As in the case of other composite materials, the NbSi properties can be changed by varying the relative amounts of its components. Using a NbSi film with T_c around 1 K we have been able to obtain the first NbSi resonators, observe an optical response and acquire a spectrum in the band 50 to 300 GHz. The data taken show that this material has very high kinetic inductance and normal state surface resistivity. These properties are ideal for the development of KID. More measurements are planned to further characterize the NbSi alloy and fully investigate its potential.

  1. Energy

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling CorpNew 1325.8.Enaineer;/:4,4 (; ...) "..

  2. A de Broglie-Bohr Model for the Hydrogen Atom Frank Rioux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Frank

    that we use the expression kinetic energy, which implies electron motion, there is no motion. The electron and kinetic energy, and consequently a manifold of allowed energy states for the electron relative on a ring with wave-like properties. The electron's kinetic (confinement) energy is calculated using its

  3. Analysis of a direct energy conversion system using medium energy helium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Jesse James

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A scaled direct energy conversion device was built to convert kinetic energy of singly ionized helium ions into an electric potential by the process of direct conversion. The experiments in this paper aimed to achieve higher potentials and higher...

  4. Analysis of a direct energy conversion system using medium energy helium ions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Jesse James

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A scaled direct energy conversion device was built to convert kinetic energy of singly ionized helium ions into an electric potential by the process of direct conversion. The experiments in this paper aimed to achieve ...

  5. The feasibility of head motion tracking in helical CT: A step toward motion correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jung-Ha [Medical Radiation Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW 2141 (Australia); Nuyts, Johan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium and Medical Imaging Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven (Belgium); Kuncic, Zdenka [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Fulton, Roger [Medical Radiation Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW 2141 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Department of Medical Physics, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To establish a practical and accurate motion tracking method for the development of rigid motion correction methods in helical x-ray computed tomography (CT). Methods: A commercially available optical motion tracking system provided 6 degrees of freedom pose measurements at 60 Hz. A 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 calibration matrix was determined to convert raw pose data acquired in tracker coordinates to a fixed CT coordinate system with origin at the isocenter of the scanner. Two calibration methods, absolute orientation (AO), and a new method based on image registration (IR), were compared by means of landmark analysis and correlation coefficient in phantom images coregistered using the derived motion transformations. Results: Transformations calculated using the IR-derived calibration matrix were found to be more accurate, with positional errors less than 0.5 mm (mean RMS), and highly correlated image voxel intensities. The AO-derived calibration matrix yielded larger mean RMS positional errors ( Asymptotically-Equal-To 1.0 mm), and poorer correlation coefficients. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of accurate motion tracking for retrospective motion correction in helical CT. Their new IR-based calibration method based on image registration and function minimization was simpler to perform and delivered more accurate calibration matrices. This technique is a useful tool for future work on rigid motion correction in helical CT and potentially also other imaging modalities.

  6. A New Spin on Neutrino Quantum Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincenzo Cirigliano; George M. Fuller; Alexey Vlasenko

    2014-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present and discuss the quantum kinetic equations (QKEs) which govern neutrino flavor and spin evolution in hot, dense, and anisotropic media. A novel feature of these QKEs is the presence of a coherent spin-flip term which can mediate neutrino-antineutrino transformation for Majorana neutrinos and active-sterile transformation for Dirac neutrinos. We provide an alternative derivation of this term based on a standard effective Hamiltonian.

  7. Motion Perception Model and Its Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliva, Aude

    of the blind, and brain-computer interface system etc. Furthermore, brain-like motion detection algorithms also a meaningful challenge to be solved. This thesis first introduces the psychophysical experiments on human applica- tions. Main contributions of this thesis are listed as follows. #12; First of all, we collect

  8. Strong-Motion Instrumentation Programs in Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yih-Min

    western Taiwan, with high- rise buildings as a consequence of developing economy, is vulnerable-Motion Accelerograph Array in Taiwan, Phase 1 (SMART-1 Array) SMART-1 Array was set up in Lotung in 1980 and closed and University of California, Berkeley. The SMART-1 Array consisted of a central site and accelerographs in three

  9. Motional Spin Relaxation in Large Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Riccardo; Filippone, B W

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the precession of spin-polarized Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms in uniform and static magnetic and electric fields and calculate the spin relaxation effects from motional $v\\times E$ magnetic fields. Particle motion in an electric field creates a motional $v\\times E$ magnetic field, which when combined with collisions, produces variations of the total magnetic field and results in spin relaxation of neutron and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ samples. The spin relaxation times $T_{1}$ (longitudinal) and $T_{2}$ (transverse) of spin-polarized UCN and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms are important considerations in a new search for the neutron Electric Dipole Moment at the SNS \\emph{nEDM} experiment. We use a Monte Carlo approach to simulate the relaxation of spins due to the motional $v\\times E$ field for UCN and for $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms at temperatures below $600 \\mathrm{mK}$. We find the relaxation times for the neutron due to the $v\\times E$ effect to be long compared to the neutron lifetime, ...

  10. Motional Spin Relaxation in Large Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Schmid; B. Plaster; B. W. Filippone

    2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the precession of spin-polarized Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) and $^{3}$He atoms in uniform and static magnetic and electric fields and calculate the spin relaxation effects from motional $v\\times E$ magnetic fields. Particle motion in an electric field creates a motional $v\\times E$ magnetic field, which when combined with collisions, produces variations of the total magnetic field and results in spin relaxation of neutron and $^{3}$He samples. The spin relaxation times $T_{1}$ (longitudinal) and $T_{2}$ (transverse) of spin-polarized UCN and $^{3}$He atoms are important considerations in a new search for the neutron Electric Dipole Moment at the SNS \\emph{nEDM} experiment. We use a Monte Carlo approach to simulate the relaxation of spins due to the motional $v\\times E$ field for UCN and for $^{3}$He atoms at temperatures below $600,\\mathrm{mK}$. We find the relaxation times for the neutron due to the $v\\times E$ effect to be long compared to the neutron lifetime, while the $^{3}$He relaxation times may be important for the \\emph{nEDM} experiment.

  11. 5. Wavelengths and periods of field motions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlay, Christopher

    . Using a technique based on the Radon transform [2], we determined the amount of power propagating5. Wavelengths and periods of field motions 2D frequency-wavenumber (FK) power spectra were of the large scale magnetic field at the surface of the core. Here we deconstruct such a model (gufm1

  12. Ship Motion Prediction for Maritime Flight Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    prediction model, resulting from complicated wave-excitation dynamics caused by the local stochastic sea and stochastic sea state disturbances. An appropriate model aiming to feature the characteristics of the dynamic estimation model in the presence of uncertain stochastic processes (e.g. wind, sea wave), unknown ship motion

  13. N000149510521 Estimating Relative Vehicle Motions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markovitch, Shaul

    CAR­TR­881 CS­TR­3882 N00014­95­1­0521 March 1998 Estimating Relative Vehicle Motions in Traffic for Automation Research University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742­3275 2 Computer Science Department George of Technology Haifa, Israel 32000 Abstract Autonomous operation of a vehicle on a road calls for understanding

  14. Clearance Based Path Optimization for Motion Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Abstract Many motion planning techniques, like the probabilistic roadmap method (PRM), gen- erate low] and humanoid robot planning [13]. A commonly used technique for planning paths is the Probabilistic Roadmap. 1.1 Probabilistic Roadmap Method The probabilistic roadmap method consists of two phases

  15. Clearance Based Path Optimization for Motion Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Abstract Many motion planning techniques, like the probabilistic roadmap method (PRM), gen­ erate low] and humanoid robot planning [13]. A commonly used technique for planning paths is the Probabilistic Roadmap.1 Probabilistic Roadmap Method The probabilistic roadmap method consists of two phases: a construction and a query

  16. On the Topic of Motion Integrals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertinato, Christopher

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An integral of motion is a function of the states of a dynamical system that is constant along the system’s trajectories. Integrals are known for their utility as a means of reducing the dimension of a system, effectively leaving only one...

  17. Chemistry in Motion: Tiny Synthetic Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter H. Colberg; Shang Yik Reigh; Bryan Robertson; Raymond Kapral

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Account, we describe how synthetic motors that operate by self-diffusiophoresis make use of a self-generated concentration gradient to drive motor motion. A description of propulsion by self-diffusiophoresis is presented for Janus particle motors comprising catalytic and noncatalytic faces. The properties of the dynamics of chemically powered motors are illustrated by presenting the results of particle-based simulations of sphere-dimer motors constructed from linked catalytic and noncatalytic spheres. The geometries of both Janus and sphere-dimer motors with asymmetric catalytic activity support the formation of concentration gradients around the motors. Because directed motion can occur only when the system is not in equilibrium, the nature of the environment and the role it plays in motor dynamics are described. Rotational Brownian motion also acts to limit directed motion, and it has especially strong effects for very small motors. We address the following question: how small can motors be and still exhibit effects due to propulsion, even if only to enhance diffusion? Synthetic motors have the potential to transform the manner in which chemical dynamical processes are carried out for a wide range of applications.

  18. Motion Control of Robot Manipulators with MATLAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siena, Università di

    Motion Control of Robot Manipulators with MATLAB · By Francesco Chinello, Stefano Scheggi, Fabio Morbidi, and Domenico Prattichizzo 1070-9932/11/$26.00ª2011 IEEE DECEMBER 2011 · IEEE ROBOTICS robot manipulators. The KUKA Control Toolbox (KCT) is a collection of MATLAB functions developed

  19. Turbulence Kinetic Energy in the Oklahoma City Urban Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J K; Leach, M; Gouveia, F

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment took place in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, during July 2003 to explore the effect of an urban canopy on the transport and diffusion of a passive tracer released in an urban area. Over one hundred three-dimensional sonic anemometers were deployed in and around the urban area to monitor wind speed, direction, and turbulence during releases of SF6. Deployment locations include a profile of eight sonic anemometers mounted on a crane located 1 km north (typically downwind) of the central business district, and several surface meteorological towers within an urban canyon.

  20. Kinetic energy error in the NIMROD spheromak simulations Carl Sovinec

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sovinec, Carl

    divergence always occurs near the electrodes, where non-fluid processes in an experiment may be largest

  1. Energy landscapes, folding mechanisms and kinetics of RNA tetraloop hairpins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Debayan; Collepardo-Guevara, Rosana; Wales, David J.

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 model, with the existence of several intermediates along the folding pathway. Recently, temper- ature jump in combination with microfluidic mixing techniques have revealed that the relaxation... with the recent experimental findings (for DNA hairpins) of Ansari and co-workers.41 In their study, the authors employed a combination of laser induced temperature jump and microfluidic techniques to initiate folding from different start- ing conditions...

  2. Kinetic relaxation models for energy transport , Peter MARKOWICH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markowich, Peter A.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3 Monotonic functions FBE() and RBE() and procedure of inversion

  3. Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of Really Shaped Particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2001-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistically covariant form of equation of motion for real particle (neutral in charge) under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. Various formulations of the equation of motion in the proper frame of reference of the particle are used. Main attention is devoted to the reformulation of the equation of motion in the general frame of reference, e. g., in the frame of reference of the source of electromagnetic radiation. This is the crucial form of equation of motion in applying it to motion of particles (cosmic dust, asteroids, ...) in the Universe if electromagnetic radiation acts on the particles. General relativistic equation of motion is presented.

  4. Introduction to Potential Energy Surfaces The non-relativistic, time-independent, electrostatic molecular Hamiltonian is comprised of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tchumper, Gregory S.

    Introduction to Potential Energy Surfaces The non-relativistic, time-independent, electrostatic molecular Hamiltonian is comprised of terms for the kinetic energy (T) and potential energy (V the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the kinetic energy of the nuclei vanishes and the potential energy

  5. Physics 5B Winter 2009 Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal Waves on a String

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    , Vibrations and Waves (W.W. Norton and Company, New York, 1971). First, we compute the kinetic energyPhysics 5B Winter 2009 Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal Waves on a String Consider the kinetic energy and the potential energy of this string segment due to the passage of a traveling wave

  6. Enhanced Generic Phase-field Model of Irradiation Materials: Fission Gas Bubble Growth Kinetics in Polycrystalline UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments show that inter-granular and intra-granular gas bubbles have different growth kinetics which results in heterogeneous gas bubble microstructures in irradiated nuclear fuels. A science-based model predicting the heterogeneous microstructure evolution kinetics is desired, which enables one to study the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system on gas bubble microstructure evolution kinetics and morphology, improve the understanding of the formation mechanisms of heterogeneous gas bubble microstructure, and provide the microstructure to macroscale approaches to study their impact on thermo-mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking. In our previous report 'Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration, Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing', we developed a phase-field model to simulate the intra-granular gas bubble evolution in a single crystal during post-irradiation thermal annealing. In this work, we enhanced the model by incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic properties at grain boundaries, which can be obtained from atomistic simulations, to simulate fission gas bubble growth kinetics in polycrystalline UO2 fuels. The model takes into account of gas atom and vacancy diffusion, vacancy trapping and emission at defects, gas atom absorption and resolution at gas bubbles, internal pressure in gas bubbles, elastic interaction between defects and gas bubbles, and the difference of thermodynamic and kinetic properties in matrix and grain boundaries. We applied the model to simulate gas atom segregation at grain boundaries and the effect of interfacial energy and gas mobility on gas bubble morphology and growth kinetics in a bi-crystal UO2 during post-irradiation thermal annealing. The preliminary results demonstrate that the model can produce the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and the morphology of gas bubbles at grain boundaries for given grain boundary properties. More validation of the model capability in polycrystalline is underway.

  7. Entropy and Kinetics of Point-Defects in Two-Dimensional Dipolar Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Lechner; David Polster; Georg Maret; Christoph Dellago; Peter Keim

    2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study in experiment and with computer simulation the free energy and the kinetics of vacancy and interstitial defects in two-dimensional dipolar crystals. The defects appear in different local topologies which we characterize by their point group symmetry; $C_n$ is the n-fold cyclic group and $D_n$ is the dihedral group, including reflections. The frequency of different local topologies is not determined by their almost degenerate energies but dominated by entropy for symmetric configurations. The kinetics of the defects is fully reproduced by a master equation in a multi-state Markov model. In this model, the system is described by the state of the defect and the time evolution is given by transitions occurring with particular rates. These transition rate constants are extracted from experiments and simulations using an optimisation procedure. The good agreement between experiment, simulation and master equation thus provides evidence for the accuracy of the model.

  8. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. XX, NO. XX, MONTH 2012 1 Co-Optimization of Communication and Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liebling, Michael

    , simplified path loss models are utilized to model the communication channels. In [14], we design an optimum, as it travels along a pre-defined trajectory, and while minimizing its motion and communication energy costs. We that in order to save energy, the robot should move faster (slower) and send less (more) bits at the locations

  9. Physics of Microswimmers - Single Particle Motion and Collective Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Elgeti; Roland G. Winkler; Gerhard Gompper

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Locomotion and transport of microorganisms in fluids is an essential aspect of life. Search for food, orientation toward light, spreading of off-spring, and the formation of colonies are only possible due to locomotion. Swimming at the microscale occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where fluid friction and viscosity dominates over inertia. Here, evolution achieved propulsion mechanisms, which overcome and even exploit drag. Prominent propulsion mechanisms are rotating helical flagella, exploited by many bacteria, and snake-like or whip-like motion of eukaryotic flagella, utilized by sperm and algae. For artificial microswimmers, alternative concepts to convert chemical energy or heat into directed motion can be employed, which are potentially more efficient. The dynamics of microswimmers comprises many facets, which are all required to achieve locomotion. In this article, we review the physics of locomotion of biological and synthetic microswimmers, and the collective behavior of their assemblies. Starting from individual microswimmers, we describe the various propulsion mechanism of biological and synthetic systems and address the hydrodynamic aspects of swimming. This comprises synchronization and the concerted beating of flagella and cilia. In addition, the swimming behavior next to surfaces is examined. Finally, collective and cooperate phenomena of various types of isotropic and anisotropic swimmers with and without hydrodynamic interactions are discussed.

  10. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of a Go Proteinlike Heteropolymer Model with Two-State Folding Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anna Kallias; Michael Bachmann; Wolfhard Janke

    2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of Monte Carlo computer simulations of a coarse-grained hydrophobic-polar Go-like heteropolymer model and discuss thermodynamic properties and kinetics of an exemplified heteropolymer, exhibiting two-state folding behavior. It turns out that general, characteristic folding features of realistic proteins with a single free-energy barrier can also be observed in this simplified model, where the folding transition is primarily driven by the hydrophobic force.

  11. The folding kinetics of ribonuclease Sa and a charge-reversal variant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trefethen, Jared M.

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Coulomb?s Law suggested that favorable electrostatic interactions in the denatured state were the cause for the decreased stability for the charge-reversed variant. Folding and unfolding kinetic studies were designed and conducted to study the iv charge... of the denatured state as suspected. Additionally, the results showed that the transition state was stabilized as well. These results show that a specific Coulombic interaction lowered the free energy in the denatured and transition state of the charge...

  12. Binding Energies in Nonrelativistic Field Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas S. Kronfeld

    1996-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic corrections communicate the binding energy of a bound state to its kinetic mass. This mechanism is reviewed and used to explain anomalous results of Collins, Edwards, Heller, and Sloan (hep-lat/9512026), which compared rest and kinetic masses of heavy-light mesons and quarkonia.

  13. Stepping and crowding of molecular motors: statistical kinetics from an exclusion process perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Ciandrini; M. Carmen Romano; A. Parmeggiani

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Motor enzymes are remarkable molecular machines that use the energy derived from the hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate to generate mechanical movement, achieved through different steps that constitute their kinetic cycle. These macromolecules, nowadays investigated with advanced experimental techniques to unveil their molecular mechanisms and the properties of their kinetic cycles, are implicated in many biological processes, ranging from biopolymerisation (e.g. RNA polymerases and ribosomes) to intracellular transport (motor proteins such as kinesins or dyneins). Although the kinetics of individual motors is well studied on both theoretical and experimental grounds, the repercussions of their stepping cycle on the collective dynamics still remains unclear. Advances in this direction will improve our comprehension of transport process in the natural intracellular medium, where processive motor enzymes might operate in crowded conditions. In this work, we therefore extend the current statistical kinetic analysis to study collective transport phenomena of motors in terms of lattice gas models belonging to the exclusion process class. Via numerical simulations, we show how to interpret and use the randomness calculated from single particle trajectories in crowded conditions. Importantly, we also show that time fluctuations and non-Poissonian behavior are intrinsically related to spatial correlations and the emergence of large, but finite, clusters of co-moving motors. The properties unveiled by our analysis have important biological implications on the collective transport characteristics of processive motor enzymes in crowded conditions.

  14. Kinetics of Uranium(VI) Desorption from Contaminated Sediments: Effect of Geochemical Conditions and Model Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shi, Zhenqing; Zachara, John M.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stirred-flow cell experiments were performed to investigate the kinetics of uranyl [U(VI)] desorption from a contaminated sediment collected from the Hanford 300 Area at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, Washington. Three influent solutions of variable pH, Ca and carbonate concentrations that affected U(VI) aqueous and surface speciation were used under dynamic flow conditions to evaluate the effect of geochemical conditions on the rate of U(VI) desorption. The measured rate of U(VI) desorption varied with solution chemical composition that evolved as a result of thermodynamic and kinetic interactions between the influent solutions and sediment. The solution chemical composition that led to a lower equilibrium U(VI) sorption to the solid phase yielded a faster desorption rate. The experimental results were used to evaluate a multi-rate, surface complexation model (SCM) that has been proposed to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in the Hanford sediment that contained complex sorbed U(VI) species in mass transfer limited domains. The model was modified and supplemented by including multi-rate, ion exchange reactions to describe the geochemical interactions between the solutions and sediment. With the same set of model parameters, the modified model reasonably well described the evolution of major ions and the rates of U(VI) desorption under variable geochemical and flow conditions, implying that the multi-rate SCM is an effective way to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in subsurface sediments.

  15. Aspartate beta-decarboxylase from Alcaligenes faecalis: carbon-13 kinetic isotope effect and deuterium exchange experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, R.M.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1985-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have measured the /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect at pH 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, and 6.5 and in D/sub 2/O at pH 5.0 and the rate of D-H exchange of the alpha and beta protons of aspartic acid in D/sub 2/O at pH 5.0 for the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme aspartate beta-decarboxylase from Alcaligenes faecalis. The /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect, with a value of 1.0099 +/- 0.0002 at pH 5.0, is less than the intrinsic isotope effect for the decarboxylation step, indicating that the decarboxylation step is not entirely rate limiting. The authors have been able to estimate probable values of the relative free energies of the transition states of the enzymatic reaction up to and including the decarboxylation step from the /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect and the rate of D-H exchange of alpha-H. The pH dependence of the kinetic isotope effect reflects the pKa of the pyridine nitrogen of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate but not that of the imine nitrogen. A mechanism is proposed for the exchange of aspartate beta-H that is consistent with the stereochemistry suggested earlier.

  16. ENERGY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory Board Contributions EMEM RecoveryManagement'sJuneAprilEMS U.S.

  17. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseCElizabethTwoJaniceEnerG2Energetics of Hydrogen .M

  18. Desorption and sublimation kinetics for fluorinated aluminum nitride surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Sean W., E-mail: sean.king@intel.com; Davis, Robert F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adsorption and desorption of halogen and other gaseous species from surfaces is a key fundamental process for both wet chemical and dry plasma etch and clean processes utilized in nanoelectronic fabrication processes. Therefore, to increase the fundamental understanding of these processes with regard to aluminum nitride (AlN) surfaces, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been utilized to investigate the desorption kinetics of water (H{sub 2}O), fluorine (F{sub 2}), hydrogen (H{sub 2}), hydrogen fluoride (HF), and other related species from aluminum nitride thin film surfaces treated with an aqueous solution of buffered hydrogen fluoride (BHF) diluted in methanol (CH{sub 3}OH). Pre-TPD XPS measurements of the CH{sub 3}OH:BHF treated AlN surfaces showed the presence of a variety of Al-F, N-F, Al-O, Al-OH, C-H, and C-O surfaces species in addition to Al-N bonding from the AlN thin film. The primary species observed desorbing from these same surfaces during TPD measurements included H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, HF, F{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3}OH with some evidence for nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) desorption as well. For H{sub 2}O, two desorption peaks with second order kinetics were observed at 195 and 460?°C with activation energies (E{sub d}) of 51?±?3 and 87?±?5?kJ/mol, respectively. Desorption of HF similarly exhibited second order kinetics with a peak temperature of 475?°C and E{sub d} of 110?±?5?kJ/mol. The TPD spectra for F{sub 2} exhibited two peaks at 485 and 585?°C with second order kinetics and E{sub d} of 62?±?3 and 270?±?10?kJ/mol, respectively. These values are in excellent agreement with previous E{sub d} measurements for desorption of H{sub 2}O from SiO{sub 2} and AlF{sub x} from AlN surfaces, respectively. The F{sub 2} desorption is therefore attributed to fragmentation of AlF{sub x} species in the mass spectrometer ionizer. H{sub 2} desorption exhibited an additional high temperature peak at 910?°C with E{sub d}?=?370?±?10?kJ/mol that is consistent with both the dehydrogenation of surface AlOH species and H{sub 2} assisted sublimation of AlN. Similarly, N{sub 2} exhibited a similar higher temperature desorption peak with E{sub d}?=?535?±?40?kJ/mol that is consistent with the activation energy for direct sublimation of AlN.

  19. Frequency analysis and sheared reconstruction for rendering motion blur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egan, Kevin

    Motion blur is crucial for high-quality rendering, but is also very expensive. Our first contribution is a frequency analysis of motion-blurred scenes, including moving objects, specular reflections, and shadows. We show ...

  20. Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Variable valve actuation with onoff IEGR pre-bump is...

  1. Intuitive Generation of Realistic Motions for Articulated Human Characters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min, Jianyuan

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    create and control life-like human motions. This dissertation focuses on exploring theory, algorithms and applications that enable novice users to quickly and easily create and control natural-looking motions, including both full-body movement and hand...

  2. Perception and processing of self-motion cues 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Michael Thomas

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The capacity of animals to navigate through familiar or novel environments depends crucially on the integration of a disparate set of self motion cues. The study begins with one of the most simple, planar visual motion, ...

  3. Robust hybrid control for autonomous vehicle motion planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frazzoli, Emilio, 1970-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation focuses on the problem of motion planning for agile autonomous vehicles. In realistic situations, the motion planning problem must be solved in real-time, in a dynamic and uncertain environment. The ...

  4. absolute proper motions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. Lenhardt; H. Schwan 2000-07-21 25 Lick Northern Proper Motion Program. III. Lick NPM2 Catalog Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: The Lick Northern Proper Motion (NPM) program, a...

  5. apparent proper motion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with a... Hirshkowitz, Amy 2014-08-05 46 Lick Northern Proper Motion Program. III. Lick NPM2 Catalog Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: The Lick Northern Proper Motion (NPM) program, a...

  6. Optimal Motion Planning with constraints for mobile robot navigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, Roger Allan

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    -dimensional space. Motion Planning, or path planning for robots, becomes increasing difficult as the dimension of the planning space increases with the robot's degrees of freedom (dof). While the running time of deterministic motion planning algorithms grows...

  7. Exploiting quaternions to support expressive interactive character motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Michael Patrick, 1971-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A real-time motion engine for interactive synthetic characters, either virtual or physical, needs to allow expressivity and interactivity of motion in order to maintain the illusion of life. Canned animation examples from ...

  8. Learning Probabilistic Models for Visual Motion David Alexander Ross

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roweis, Sam

    Mellon University Motion Capture Database http://mocap.cs.cmu.edu/ (created with funding from NSF EIA

  9. Kinetic Bounding Volume Hierarchies for Collision Detection of Deformable Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriel Zachmann; Rene Weller

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present novel algorithms for updating bounding volume hierarchies of objects undergoing arbitrary deformations. Therefore, we introduce two new data structures, the kinetic AABB tree and the kinetic BoxTree. The event-based approach of the kinetic data structures framework enables us to show that our algorithms are optimal in the number of updates. Moreover, we show a lower bound for the total number of BV updates, which is independent of the number of frames. Furthermore, we present a kinetic data structures which uses the kinetic AABB tree for collision detection and show that this structure can be easily extended for continuous collision detection of deformable objects. We performed a comparison of our kinetic approaches with the classical bottom-up update method. The results show that our algorithms perform up to ten times faster in practically relevant scenarios.

  10. A New Spin on Neutrino Quantum Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincenzo Cirigliano; George M. Fuller; Alexey Vlasenko

    2015-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies have demonstrated that in anisotropic environments a coherent spin-flip term arises in the Quantum Kinetic Equations (QKEs) which govern the evolution of neutrino flavor and spin in hot and dense media. This term can mediate neutrino-antineutrino transformation for Majorana neutrinos and active-sterile transformation for Dirac neutrinos. We discuss the physical origin of the coherent spin-flip term and provide explicit expressions for the QKEs in a two-flavor model with spherical geometry. In this context, we demonstrate that coherent neutrino spin transformation depends on the absolute neutrino mass and Majorana phases.

  11. Benchmarks for the point kinetics equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapol, B. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering (United States); Picca, P. [Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona (United States); Previti, A.; Mostacci, D. [Laboratorio di Montecuccolino Alma Mater Studiorum, Universita di Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new numerical algorithm is presented for the solution to the point kinetics equations (PKEs), whose accurate solution has been sought for over 60 years. The method couples the simplest of finite difference methods, a backward Euler, with Richardsons extrapolation, also called an acceleration. From this coupling, a series of benchmarks have emerged. These include cases from the literature as well as several new ones. The novelty of this presentation lies in the breadth of reactivity insertions considered, covering both prescribed and feedback reactivities, and the extreme 8- to 9- digit accuracy achievable. The benchmarks presented are to provide guidance to those who wish to develop further numerical improvements. (authors)

  12. 5, 1036910408, 2005 Products and kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and Physics Discussions The heterogeneous chemical kinetics of N2O5 on CaCO3 and other atmospheric mineral. At [N2O5]0=(4.0±1.0)×10 11 cm -3 we have found ss values ranging from (3.5±1.1)×10 -2 for CaCO3 to (0 and CaCO3 are lower. On CaCO3 the disappearance10 of N2O5 was also accompanied by the formation of CO2

  13. Studies of combustion kinetics and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutman, D. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the current research is to gain new quantitative knowledge of the kinetics and mechanisms of polyatomic free radicals which are important in hydrocarbon combustion processes. The special facility designed and built for these (which includes a heatable tubular reactor coupled to a photoionization mass spectrometer) is continually being improved. Where possible, these experimental studies are coupled with theoretical ones, sometimes conducted in collaboration with others, to obtain an improved understanding of the factors determining reactivity. The decomposition of acetyl radicals, isopropyl radicals, and n-propyl radicals have been studied as well as the oxidation of methylpropargyl radicals.

  14. ForPeerReview SMC Framework in Motion Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    , Interconnected Systems. 1. INTRODUCTION Modern motion control systems are more and more acting as "agentsForPeerReview SMC Framework in Motion Control Systems Journal: International Journal of Adaptive, Mechatronics Keywords: Motion Control, Sliding Mode Control, Bilateral Control , Interconnected Systems http

  15. Electromagnetic radiation and motion of arbitrarily shaped particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2001-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Covariant form of equation of motion for arbitrarily shaped particle in the electromagnetic radiation field is presented. Equation of motion in the proper frame of the particle uses the radiation pressure cross section 3 $\\times$ 3 matrix. The obtained equation of motion is compared with known result.

  16. Computational Modeling of Brain Dynamics during Repetitive Head Motions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burtscher, Martin

    Computational Modeling of Brain Dynamics during Repetitive Head Motions Igor Szczyrba School the HIC scale to arbitrary head motions. Our simulations of the brain dynamics in sagittal and horizontal injury modeling, resonance effects 1 Introduction A rapid head motion can result in a severe brain injury

  17. Motion Prediction for Moving Objects: a Statistical Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Motion Prediction for Moving Objects: a Statistical Approach Dizan Vasquez & Thierry Fraichard with those objects requires the ability to predict their future motion (e.g. for predator evasion, prey hunting, collision avoidance, etc.). Motion prediction is a research area with applications in many

  18. Bounded, Periodic Relative Motion using Canonical Epicyclic Orbital Elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowley, Clarence W.

    Bounded, Periodic Relative Motion using Canonical Epicyclic Orbital Elements N. Jeremy Kasdin using canonical perturbation theory for studying relative motion trajectories and for finding simple motion [2, 3, 4, 5]. This has the advantage that Lagrange's planetary equations (LPEs) or Gauss

  19. Atlas: A Novel Kinematic Architecture for Six DOF Motion Platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, John

    Atlas: A Novel Kinematic Architecture for Six DOF Motion Platforms M.J.D. HAYES, R.G. LANGLOIS alternative motion platform configurations and developed a novel concept that overcomes existing limitations. This paper presents an overview of the Atlas platform: a novel six DOF motion platform architecture

  20. Ground motion data for International Collider models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volk, J.T.; LeBrun, P.; Shiltsev, V.; Singatulin, S.; /Fermilab

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed location for the International Linear Collider (ILC) in the Americas region is Fermilab in Batavia Illinois. If built at this location the tunnels would be located in the Galena Platteville shale at a depth of 100 or more meters below the surface. Studies using hydro static water levels and seismometers have been conducted in the MINOS hall and the LaFrange Mine in North Aurora Illinois to determine the level of ground motion. Both these locations are in the Galena Platteville shale and indicate the typical ground motion to be expected for the ILC. The data contains both natural and cultural noise. Coefficients for the ALT law are determined. Seismic measurements at the surface and 100 meters below the surface are presented.