National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for morphology physical properties

  1. PHYSICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF [O II] EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE HETDEX PILOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Hagen, Alex; Zeimann, Greg; Malz, A. I.; Schneider, Donald P. E-mail: caryl@astro.psu.edu E-mail: hagen@psu.edu E-mail: aimalz@psu.edu; and others

    2015-02-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Dark Energy Experiment pilot survey identified 284 [O II] ?3727 emitting galaxies in a 169arcmin{sup 2} field of sky in the redshift range 0 < z < 0.57. This line flux limited sample provides a bridge between studies in the local universe and higher-redshift [O II] surveys. We present an analysis of the star formation rates (SFRs) of these galaxies as a function of stellar mass as determined via spectral energy distribution fitting. The [O II] emitters fall on the ''main sequence'' of star-forming galaxies with SFR decreasing at lower masses and redshifts. However, the slope of our relation is flatter than that found for most other samples, a result of the metallicity dependence of the [O II] star formation rate indicator. The mass-specific SFR is higher for lower mass objects, supporting the idea that massive galaxies formed more quickly and efficiently than their lower mass counterparts. This is confirmed by the fact that the equivalent widths of the [O II] emission lines trend smaller with larger stellar mass. Examination of the morphologies of the [O II] emitters reveals that their star formation is not a result of mergers, and the galaxies' half-light radii do not indicate evolution of physical sizes.

  2. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2014-07-03

    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  3. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED GALAXIES AT z {>=} 6. II. MORPHOLOGY OF THE REST-FRAME UV CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Linhua; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Mechtley, Matthew; Egami, Eiichi; Fan Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-20

    We present a detailed structural and morphological study of a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies at z {>=} 6 using deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) near-IR broad-band images and Subaru Telescope optical narrow-band images. The galaxy sample consists of 51 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 5.7, 6.5, and 7.0, and 16 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 5.9 {<=} z {<=} 6.5. These galaxies exhibit a wide range of rest-frame UV continuum morphology in the HST images, from compact features to multiple component systems. The fraction of merging/interacting galaxies reaches 40%-50% at the brightest end of M{sub 1500} {<=} -20.5 mag. The intrinsic half-light radii r{sub hl,in}, after correcting for point-spread function (PSF) broadening, are roughly between r{sub hl,in} {approx_equal} 0.''05 (0.3 kpc) and 0.''3 (1.7 kpc) at M{sub 1500} {<=} -19.5 mag. The median r{sub hl,in} value is 0.''16 ({approx}0.9 kpc). This is consistent with the sizes of bright LAEs and LBGs at z {>=} 6 found in previous studies. In addition, more luminous galaxies tend to be larger and exhibit a weak size-luminosity relation, r{sub hl,in}{proportional_to}L {sup 0.14} at M{sub 1500} {<=} -19.5 mag. The slope of 0.14 is significantly flatter than those in fainter LBG samples. We discuss the morphology of z {>=} 6 galaxies with nonparametric methods, including the concentration, asymmetry, and smoothness system and the Gini and M{sub 20} parameters, and demonstrate their validity through simulations. We search for extended Ly{alpha} emission halos around LAEs at z {approx_equal} 5.7 and 6.5 by stacking a number of narrow-band images. We do not find evidence of extended Ly{alpha} halos predicted by cosmological simulations. Such halos, if they exist, could be weaker than predicted. Finally, we investigate positional misalignment between the UV continuum and Ly{alpha} emissions in LAEs. While the two positions are generally consistent, several merging galaxies show significant positional differences. This is likely caused by a disturbed interstellar medium distribution due to merging activity.

  4. Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gabitto, Jorge F.; Tsouris, Costas

    2010-01-01

    Memore » thane gas hydrates in sediments have been studied by several investigators as a possible future energy resource. Recent hydrate reserves have been estimated at approximately 10 16   m 3 of methane gas worldwide at standard temperature and pressure conditions. In situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary in order to commercially exploit the resource from the natural-gas-hydrate-bearing sediment. The presence of gas hydrates in sediments dramatically alters some of the normal physical properties of the sediment. These changes can be detected by field measurements and by down-hole logs. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for interpretation of geophysical data collected in field settings, borehole, and slope stability analyses; reservoir simulation; and production models. This work reviews information available in literature related to the physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates. A brief review of the physical properties of bulk gas hydrates is included. Detection methods, morphology, and relevant physical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are also discussed.« less

  5. Growth morphology and properties of metals on graphene (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Growth morphology and properties of metals on graphene Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2016 Title: Growth morphology and properties of metals on graphene Graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite, has been the focus of recent intensive studies due to its novel electronic and structural properties. With this study, metals grown on graphene also have been of interest

  6. Physical properties of residential insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Research to evaluate properties, test methods and operating environments for thermal insulations used in residences is an important part of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Insulating Materials (BTESIM) program sponsored by the US DOE. Three projects were carried out under the Insulating Materials part of BTESIM. The areas discussed are: (1) the thermal performance of mineral fiber insulating batts, (2) the design density for loose-fill insulations, and (3) the operatio of recesses light fixtures covered by loose-fill cellulosic insulation.

  7. Growth morphology and properties of metals on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiaojie; Han, Yong; Evans, James W.; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Behm, R. Juergen; Tringides, Michael C.; Hupalo, Myron; Lin, Hai -Qing; Huang, Li; Ho, Kai -Ming; Appy, David; Thiel, Patricia A.; Wang, Cai -Zhuang

    2015-12-01

    Graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite, has been the focus of recent intensive studies due to its novel electronic and structural properties. With this study, metals grown on graphene also have been of interest because of their potential use as metal contacts in graphene devices, for spintronics applications, and for catalysis. All of these applications require good understanding and control of the metal growth morphology, which in part reflects the strength of the metal–graphene bond. The interaction between graphene and metal is sufficiently strong to modify the electronic structure of graphene is also of great importance. We will discuss recent experimental and computational studies related to deposition of metals on graphene supported on various substrates (SiC, SiO2, and hexagonal close-packed metal surfaces). Of specific interest are the metal–graphene interactions (adsorption energies and diffusion barriers of metal adatoms), and the crystal structures and thermal stability of the metal nanoclusters.

  8. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, John C.

    2010-03-25

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  9. Growth morphology and properties of metals on graphene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Xiaojie; Han, Yong; Evans, James W.; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Behm, R. Juergen; Tringides, Michael C.; Hupalo, Myron; Lin, Hai -Qing; Huang, Li; Ho, Kai -Ming; et al

    2015-12-01

    Graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite, has been the focus of recent intensive studies due to its novel electronic and structural properties. With this study, metals grown on graphene also have been of interest because of their potential use as metal contacts in graphene devices, for spintronics applications, and for catalysis. All of these applications require good understanding and control of the metal growth morphology, which in part reflects the strength of the metal–graphene bond. The interaction between graphene and metal is sufficiently strong to modify the electronic structure of graphene is also of great importance. We will discussmore » recent experimental and computational studies related to deposition of metals on graphene supported on various substrates (SiC, SiO2, and hexagonal close-packed metal surfaces). Of specific interest are the metal–graphene interactions (adsorption energies and diffusion barriers of metal adatoms), and the crystal structures and thermal stability of the metal nanoclusters.« less

  10. The physical properties of microcellular composite foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyitray, A.M.; Williams, J.M.; Onn, D.; Witek, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Applied Thermal Physics Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    Recently we reported on a method of preparing microcellular composite foams. In this procedure an open-celled polystyrene foam is prepared by the polymerization of a high-internal-phase water-in-oil emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene, surfactant, free-radial initiator and water. After drying, the cells of the polystyrene foam are then filled with other materials such as aerogel or resoles. The physical properties of these materials, e.g., surface area, density, thermal conductivity, and compressive strength will be presented. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Effect of suspension property on granule morphology and compaction behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hae-Weon Lee, Guesup Song, In-Sik Suk

    1995-12-31

    Granule morphology is an important factor during dry pressing, since it has great influences on die flowability, compaction ratio, and resulting green microstructure. Granule morphology and packing structure of ultrafine Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles in the granule were optimized during spray drying by adjusting the suspension structure. The particle packing structure of spray-dried granule was investigated with suspension structure. The effects of granule morphology and its particle packing structure on compaction and resultant sintering behavior were evaluated.

  12. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MCU SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-03-19

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone., Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement or lime to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of MCU (Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit) saltstone relative to two permeating fluids. These fluids included simulated groundwater equilibrated with vault concrete and simulated saltstone pore fluid. Samples of the MCU saltstone were prepared by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and allowed to cure for twenty eight days prior to testing. These samples included two three-inch diameter by six inch long mold samples and three one-inch diameter by twelve inch long mold samples.

  13. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, John C.

    2005-06-01

    Equipment that was purchased in the abbreviated year 1 of this project has been used during year 2 to study the fundamental behavior of materials that simulate the behavior of the Hanford transuranic waste sludge. Two significant results have been found, and each has been submitted for publication. Both studies found non-DLVO behavior in simulant systems. These separate but related studies were performed concurrently. It was previously shown in Rassat et al.'s report Physical and Liquid Chemical Simulant Formulations for Transuranic Wastes in Hanford Single-Shell Tanks that colloidal clays behave similarly to transuranic waste sludge (PNNL-14333, National Technical Information Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce). Rassat et al. also discussed the pH and salt content of actual waste materials. It was shown that these materials exist at high pHs, generally above 10, and at high salt content, approximately 1.5 M from a mixture of different salts. A type of clay commonly studied, due to its uniformity, is a synthetic hectorite, Laponite. Therefore the work performed over the course of the last year was done mainly using suspensions of Laponite at high pH and involving high salt concentrations. One study was titled ''Relating Clay Rheology to Colloidal Parameters''. It has been submitted to the Journal of Colloid and INterface Science and is currently in the review process. The idea was to gain the ability to use measurable quantities to predict the flow behavior of clay systems, which should be similar to transuranic waste sludge. Leong et al. had previously shown that the yield stress of colloidal slurries of titania and alumina could be predicted, given the measurement of the accessible parameter zeta potential (Leong YK et al. J Chem Soc Faraday Trans, 19 (1993) 2473). Colloidal clays have a fundamentally different morphology and surface charge distribution than the spheroidal, uniformly charged colloids previously studied. This study was therefore performed in order to determine the applicability of the previous findings to the systems of interest. The yield stress of clay slurries was measured using the Physica MCR 300 purchased in year 1 of this project. The zeta potential of these systems was then measured using the Brookhaven Zeta PALS, also purchased in year 1. These two parameters were then plotted and compared with the Leong result. It was found that this system behaved in a non-DLVO manner. Leong found that colloidal slurry yield stress decreases with increased zeta potential which is consistent with the DLVO theory's assertion that particle attractions decrease as their electrostatic repulsion increases. Clay systems, however, show an increase in yield stress as zeta potential is increased. This is due to the nature of the charge distribution on the surface of clay particles. Clay particles are in the form of platelets.

  14. Physical properties of zircon and scheelite lutetium orthovanadate:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experiment and first-principles calculation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Physical properties of zircon and scheelite lutetium orthovanadate: Experiment and first-principles calculation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physical properties of zircon and scheelite lutetium orthovanadate: Experiment and first-principles calculation Pure zircon and scheelite LuVO{sub 4} were prepared by solid state reaction and high-pressure route, respectively. Structure, elastic constants,

  15. Instability and Anharmonicity in Plutonium Thermo-physical Properties

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Instability and Anharmonicity in Plutonium Thermo-physical Properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Instability and Anharmonicity in Plutonium Thermo-physical Properties Authors: Freibert, Franz J [1] ; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [1] ; Saleh, Tarik A. [1] ; Migliori, Albert [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2012-07-10 OSTI Identifier: 1053884 Report Number(s): LA-UR-12-22830 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  16. Morphology Of Diesel Soot Residuals From Supercooled Water Droplets And Ice Crystals: Implications For Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Scarnatio, Barbara; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-04

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processing often transforms their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earths radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at -20 and -40C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness~0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ~0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness~0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ~63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  17. Physical property characterization of 183-H Basin sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biyani, R.K.; Delegard, C.H.

    1995-09-20

    This document describes the characterization of 183-H Basin sludge physical properties, e.g. bulk density of sludge and absorbent, and determination of free liquids. Calcination of crucible-size samples of sludge was also done and the resulting `loss-on-ignition` was compared to the theoretical weight loss based on sludge analysis obtained from Weston Labs.

  18. Processing-structure-property relationships in electron beam physical vapor deposited yttria stabilized zirconia coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, D. Srinivasa; Valleti, Krishna; Joshi, S. V.; Janardhan, G. Ranga

    2011-05-15

    The physical and mechanical properties of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings deposited by the electron beam physical vapor deposition technique have been investigated by varying the key process variables such as vapor incidence angle and sample rotation speed. The tetragonal zirconia coatings formed under varying process conditions employed were found to have widely different surface and cross-sectional morphologies. The porosity, phase composition, planar orientation, hardness, adhesion, and surface residual stresses in the coated specimens were comprehensively evaluated to develop a correlation with the process variables. Under transverse scratch test conditions, the YSZ coatings exhibited two different crack formation modes, depending on the magnitude of residual stress. The influence of processing conditions on the coating deposition rate, column orientation angle, and adhesion strength has been established. Key relationships between porosity, hardness, and adhesion are also presented.

  19. The correlation of epitaxial graphene properties and morphology of SiC (0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.; Guo, L. W., E-mail: lwguo@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: xlchen@iphy.ac.cn; Huang, J.; Jia, Y. P.; Lin, J. J.; Lu, W.; Li, Z. L. [Research and Development Center for Functional Crystals, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, R. [Nanoscale Physics and Devices Laboratory, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen, X. L., E-mail: lwguo@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: xlchen@iphy.ac.cn [Research and Development Center for Functional Crystals, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-01-28

    The electronic properties of epitaxial graphene (EG) on SiC (0001) depend sensitively on the surface morphology of SiC substrate. Here, 23 layers of graphene were grown on on-axis 6H-SiC with different step densities realized through controlling growth temperature and ambient pressure. We show that epitaxial graphene on SiC (0001) with low step density and straight step edge possesses fewer point defects laying mostly on step edges and higher carrier mobility. A relationship between step density and EG mobility is established. The linear scan of Raman spectra combined with the atomic force microscopy morphology images revealed that the Raman fingerprint peaks are nearly the same on terraces, but shift significantly while cross step edges, suggesting the graphene is not homogeneous in strain and carrier concentration over terraces and step edges of substrates. Thus, control morphology of epitaxial graphene on SiC (0001) is a simple and effective method to pursue optimal route for high quality graphene and will be helpful to prepare wafer sized graphene for device applications.

  20. Composition, morphology and mechanical properties of sputtered TiAlN coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budi, Esmar; Razali, M. Mohd.; Nizam, A. R. Md.

    2014-03-24

    TiAlN coating was deposited on the tungsten carbide cutting tool by using DC magnetron sputtering system to study the influence of substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate on the composition, morphology and mechanical properties. The negatively substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate was varied from about ?79 to ?221 V and 30 sccm to 72 sccm, respectively. The coating composition and roughness were characterized by using SEM/EDX and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively. The dynamic ultra micro hardness tester was used to measure the mechanical properties. The coating hardness increases to about 10-12 GPa with an increase of the negatively substrate bias up to ? 200 V and it tend to decrease with an increase in nitrogen flow rate up to 70 sccm. The increase of hardness follows the increase of Ti and N content and rms coating roughness.

  1. Physical-chemical property based sequence motifs and methods regarding same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, Werner (Friendswood, TX); Mathura, Venkatarajan S. (Sarasota, FL); Schein, Catherine H. (Friendswood, TX)

    2008-09-09

    A data analysis system, program, and/or method, e.g., a data mining/data exploration method, using physical-chemical property motifs. For example, a sequence database may be searched for identifying segments thereof having physical-chemical properties similar to the physical-chemical property motifs.

  2. PHYSICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF LABORATORY PREPARED SALTSTONE GROUT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, E.; Cozzi, A.; Edwards, T.

    2014-05-05

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) built two new Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU), SDU 3 and SDU 5, in 2013. The variable frequency drive (VFD) for the grout transfer hose pump tripped due to high current demand by the motor during the initial radioactive saltstone transfer to SDU 5B on 12/5/2013. This was not observed during clean cap processing on July 5, 2013 to SDU 3A, which is a slightly longer distance from the SPF than is SDU 5B. Saltstone Design Authority (SDA) is evaluating the grout pump performance and capabilities to transfer the grout processed in SPF to SDU 3/5. To assist in this evaluation, grout physical properties are required. At this time, there are no rheological data from the actual SPF so the properties of laboratory prepared samples using simulated salt solution or Tank 50 salt solution will be measured. The physical properties of grout prepared in the laboratory with de-ionized water (DI) and salt solutions were obtained at 0.60 and 0.59 water to premix (W/P) ratios, respectively. The yield stress of the DI grout was greater than any salt grout. The plastic viscosity of the DI grout was lower than all of the salt grouts (including salt grout with admixture). When these physical data were used to determine the pressure drop and fluid horsepower for steady state conditions, the salt grouts without admixture addition required a higher pressure drop and higher fluid horsepower to transport. When 0.00076 g Daratard 17/g premix was added, both the pressure drop and fluid horsepower were below that of the DI grout. Higher concentrations of Daratard 17 further reduced the pressure drop and fluid horsepower. The uncertainty in the single point Bingham Plastic parameters is + 4% of the reported values and is the bounding uncertainty. Two different mechanical agitator mixing protocols were followed for the simulant salt grout, one having a total mixing time of three minutes and the other having a time of 10 minutes. The Bingham Plastic parameters were essentially the same for the salt grout without admixture. When Daratard 17 was added, the Bingham Plastic yield stress increased for the 10 minute mix. The simulant salt used in this task had similar physical properties of the Tank 50 3Q13 salt grout and is recommended for future use, if the salt solution in Tank 50 does not change. The design basis physical properties used to size the pumps and mixers at SPF were obtained from DPST-85-312. The grouts characterized in this report are bounded by the design basis density and Bingham Plastic yield stress. The opposite is true for the plastic viscosity. Steady state pressure drop calculations were performed for the design basis values using the flow rate for the clean cap and salt grouts and they bound the pressure drop of the grouts characterized in this report. A comparison of the lab prepared samples to PI ProcessBook data, specifically average pressure drop, indicate that the lab prepared samples are more viscous in nature than what is processed in the facility. This difference could be due to the applied shear rates which could be lower in the lab as compared to the facility and that fact the SPF added flush water, making this comparison more difficult. A perfunctory review of the PI ProcessBook data was discussed. It may be possible that the frequency that the distributed control system alters the grout pump speed to maintain grout hopper volume can negatively affect the efficiency of the grout pump.

  3. Computational Studies of Physical Properties of Boron Carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizhi Ouyang

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal is to provide valuable insight in to the mechanisms and processes that could lead to better engineering the widely used boron carbide which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. Carbon distribution in boron carbide, which has been difficult to retrieve from experimental methods, is critical to our understanding of its structure-properties relation. For modeling disorders in boron carbide, we implemented a first principles method based on supercell approach within our G(P,T) package. The supercell approach was applied to boron carbide to determine its carbon distribution. Our results reveal that carbon prefers to occupy the end sites of the 3-atom chain in boron carbide and further carbon atoms will distribute mainly on the equatorial sites with a small percentage on the 3-atom chains and the apex sites. Supercell approach was also applied to study mechanical properties of boron carbide under uniaxial load. We found that uniaxial load can lead to amorphization. Other physical properties of boron carbide were calculated using the G(P,T) package.

  4. Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katamine, N.M.

    2000-04-01

    Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

  5. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Hay, M.

    2011-06-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be hindered. However, an irradiation test with a simulated SRAT product supernate containing glycolic acid in an oxygen depleted atmosphere found no evidence of polymerization.

  6. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickenheim, B.; Bibler, N.

    2010-06-08

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be hindered. A series of tests to determine whether the polymer will be formed is currently being outlined. The first phase will be a simple experiment where a simulated SRAT supernatant containing the 80:20 blend of glycolic - formic acid could be irradiated in the Co-60 gamma source at SRNL to a very large dose resembling the dose received by the radioactive SRAT solution after several weeks. The resulting solution could then be heated to simulate refluxing in the SRAT process. Finally a radioactive demonstration of the SRAT process should be performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells to confirm successful execution of the glycolic - formic acid flowsheet.

  7. Instability and Anharmonicity in Plutonium Thermo-physical Properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP: FUNDAMENTAL PLUTONIUM PROPERTIES ; 2012-07-21 - 2012-07-22 ; Cambridge, United Kingdom Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Sponsoring Org:...

  8. Instability and Anharmonicity in Plutonium Thermo-physical Properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: XII INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP: FUNDAMENTAL PLUTONIUM PROPERTIES ; 2012-07-21 - 2012-07-22 ; Cambridge, United Kingdom Research Org: Los Alamos National ...

  9. Effective Interaction Potentials and Physical Properties of Complex Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Gabdullin, M. T.; Omarbakiyeva, Y. A.

    2009-11-10

    Microscopic, thermodynamic and transport properties of complex plasmas are investigated on the basis of effective potentials of interparticle interaction. These potentials take into account correlation effects and quantum-mechanical diffraction. Plasma composition, thermodynamic functions of hydrogen and helium plasmas are obtained for a wide region of coupling parameter. Collision processes in partially ionized plasma are considered; some kinetic characteristics such as phase shift, scattering cross section, bremsstrahlung cross section and absorption coefficient are investigated. Dynamic and transport properties of dusty plasma are studied by computer simulation method of the Langevin dynamics.

  10. Physical-Property Measurements on Core Samples from Drill-Holes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Physical-Property Measurements on Core Samples from Drill-Holes DB-1 and DB-2, Blue Mountain Geothermal Prospect, North-Central Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  11. Tailoring the physical properties of Ni-based single-phase equiatomic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloys by modifying the chemical complexity (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Tailoring the physical properties of Ni-based single-phase equiatomic alloys by modifying the chemical complexity This content will become publicly available on January 1, 2017 « Prev Next » Title: Tailoring the physical properties of Ni-based single-phase equiatomic alloys by modifying the chemical complexity We discovered that equiatomic alloys (e.g. high entropy alloys) have recently attracted considerable

  12. Active doublet method for measuring small changes in physical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Peter M. (Los Alamos, NM); Fehler, Michael C. (Los Alamos, NM); Johnson, Paul A. (Santa Fe, NM); Phillips, W. Scott (Santa Fe, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Small changes in material properties of a work piece are detected by measuring small changes in elastic wave velocity and attenuation within a work piece. Active, repeatable source generate coda wave responses from a work piece, where the coda wave responses are temporally displaced. By analyzing progressive relative phase and amplitude changes between the coda wave responses as a function of elapsed time, accurate determinations of velocity and attenuation changes are made. Thus, a small change in velocity occurring within a sample region during the time periods between excitation origin times (herein called "doublets") will produce a relative delay that changes with elapsed time over some portion of the scattered waves. This trend of changing delay is easier to detect than an isolated delay based on a single arrival and provides a direct measure of elastic wave velocity changes arising from changed material properties of the work piece.

  13. Iron hydroxyl phosphate microspheres: Microwave-solvothermal ionic liquid synthesis, morphology control, and photoluminescent properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao Shaowen; Zhu Yingjie; Cui Jingbiao

    2010-07-15

    A variety of iron hydroxyl phosphate (NH{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}OH.2H{sub 2}O) nanostructures such as solid microspheres, microspheres with the core in the hollow shell, and double-shelled hollow microspheres were synthesized by a simple one-step microwave-solvothermal ionic liquid method. The effects of the experimental parameters on the morphology and crystal phase of the resultant materials were investigated. Structural dependent photoluminescence was observed from the double-shelled hollow microspheres and the underlying mechanisms were discussed. - Graphical abstract: A variety of iron hydroxyl phosphate (NH{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}OH.2H{sub 2}O) nanostructures were synthesized by a simple one-step microwave-solvothermal ionic liquid method. Structural dependent photoluminescence was observed from the double-shelled hollow microspheres.

  14. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of GaN and AlGaN semiconductor nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuppulingam, B. Singh, Shubra Baskar, K.

    2014-04-24

    Hexagonal Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Aluminum Gallium Nitride (AlGaN) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method using Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) complex route. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis confirms the hexagonal wurtzite structure of GaN and Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N nanoparticles. Surface morphology and elemental analysis were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The room temperature Photoluminescence (PL) study shows the near band edge emission for GaN at 3.35 eV and at 3.59 eV for AlGaN nanoparticles. The Aluminum (Al) composition of 20% has been obtained from PL emission around 345 nm.

  15. Photovoltaic properties and morphology of organic solar cells based on liquid-crystal semiconducting polymer with additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Zushi, Masahito; Suzuki, Hisato; Ogahara, Shinichi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Oku, Takeo

    2014-02-20

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cell based on liquid crystal semiconducting polymers of poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bithiophene] (F8T2) as p-type semiconductors and fullerenes (C{sub 60}) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as electron donor and acceptor has been fabricated and characterized for improving photovoltaic and optical properties. The photovoltaic performance including current voltage curves in the dark and illumination of the F8T2/C{sub 60} conventional and inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells were investigated. Relationship between the photovoltaic properties and morphological behavior was focused on tuning for optimization of photo-voltaic performance under annealing condition near glass transition temperature. Additive-effect of diiodooctane (DIO) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) on the photovoltaic performance and optical properties was investigated. Mechanism of the photovoltaic properties of the conventional and inverted solar cells will be discussed by the experimental results.

  16. Physical properties, crystal and magnetic structure of layered Fe[subscript

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1.11]Te[subscript 1;#8722;x]Se[subscript x] superconductors (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Physical properties, crystal and magnetic structure of layered Fe[subscript 1.11]Te[subscript 1;#8722;x]Se[subscript x] superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physical properties, crystal and magnetic structure of layered Fe[subscript 1.11]Te[subscript 1;#8722;x]Se[subscript x] superconductors The physical and structural

  17. Thermo-physical Properties of DU-10 wt.% Mo Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas E. Burkes; Cynthia A. Papesch; Andrew P. Maddison; Thomas Hartmann; Francine J. Rice

    2010-08-01

    Low-enriched uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum is under consideration by the Global Threat Reduction Initiative reactor convert program as a very high density fuel to enable the conversion of high-performance research reactors away from highly-enriched uranium fuels. As with any fuel development program, the thermophysical properties of the fuel as a function of temperature are extremely important and must be well characterized in order to effectively model and predict fuel behavior under normal and off-normal irradiation conditions. For the alloy system under investigation, there is a lack of thermophysical property data, and in most cases, the data is relatively inconsistent and lacks sufficient explanation. Available literature on this alloy system comes mainly from studies done during the 1960s and 1970s, and often does not include sufficient information on fabrication history or conditions to draw conclusions for the current application. The current paper has investigated specific heat capacity, coefficient of linear thermal expansion, density, and thermal diffusivity that were then used to calculate alloy thermal conductivity as a function of temperature. The data obtained from this investigation was compared to available literature on similar U-Mo alloys, and in most cases are in good agreement.

  18. Physical properties of bifunctional BST/LSMO nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beltran-Huarac, Juan, E-mail: baristary26@gmail.com; Morell, Gerardo [Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936 (United States); Martinez, Ricardo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Cayey Campus, Cayey, Puerto Rico 00737 (United States)

    2014-02-28

    We report the fabrication of bifunctional nanocomposites consisting of ferroelectric Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) and ferromagnetic La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) at different concentrations via a high-temperature solid state route. The structural, dielectric, electrical, magnetodielectric (MD), magnetoelectric (ME) and magnetic properties of BST/LSMO nanocomposites were systematically investigated over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The X-Ray Diffraction analyses reveal the nanocrystalline nature of the heterostructures, wherein both perovskite phases co-exist. No parasitic phases were observed. The study of the dielectric properties shows that the nanocomposites exhibit relaxor ferroelectric character, with ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperatures around 287292?K that do not follow the Curie-Weiss law. The electrical measurements indicate that ac conductivities of the nanocomposites follow the Jonscher's universal power law, with activation energies of 0.420.63?eV based on Arrhenius-type behavior at high temperatures. The nanocomposites exhibit well-defined ferromagnetic hysteresis loops at room temperature (RT). The MD and ME measurements at RT indicate that BST/LSMO exhibits a nonlinear ME effect at low frequencies, with a threshold near 0.5?T. The magnetocapacitance (MC{sub p}) measurements evidence a quadratic dependence on magnetic field, further confirming the multiferroic nature of BST/LSMO. The order of MC{sub p} was found to be ?7% per Tesla. The analysis of the MC{sub p} measurements indicates that one of the BST/LSMO compositions studied can be considered as a new multiferroic compound.

  19. Physical properties of bio-diesel & Implications for use of bio-diesel in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; McFarlane, Joanna; Daw, C Stuart; Ra, Youngchul; Griffin, Jelani K

    2008-01-01

    In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both regular diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study. Future studies of diesel combustion sensitivity to both physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are suggested.

  20. Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Group (PDG) Organizations American Institute of Physics (AIP) American Physical Society (APS) Institute of Physics (IOP) SPIE - International society for optics and photonics Top...

  1. Effect of Pore Morphology on the Electrochemical Properties of Electric Double Layer Carbon Cryogel Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, B.B.; Feaver, A.M.; Zhang, Q.; Champion, R.D.; Cao, G.; Fister, T.T.; Nagle, K.P.; Seidler, G.T.

    2008-07-28

    In this study, a group of carbon cryogels have been synthesized using resorcinol formaldehyde as precursors, and altered via catalysis and activation, to obtain varied nanostructures and pore size distributions. To understand the relation between structure and electrochemical properties, an alternate approach to de Levi's cylindrical pore, transmission line method was utilized. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the capacitor can be studied as a dielectric system composed of a porous electrode and the electrolyte (tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate). The complex capacitance and power are used to study the behavior of the system below the relaxation frequency f{sub 0} ({var_phi} = -45{sup o}). Therefore, the relaxation of the capacitor system at the low frequency range, f

  2. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  3. Physical property changes in hydrate-bearingsediment due to depressurization and subsequent repressurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, Timothy; Waite, W.F.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2008-06-01

    Physical property measurements of sediment cores containing natural gas hydrate are typically performed on material exposed at least briefly to non-in situ conditions during recovery. To examine effects of a brief excursion from the gas-hydrate stability field, as can occur when pressure cores are transferred to pressurized storage vessels, we measured physical properties on laboratory-formed sand packs containing methane hydrate and methane pore gas. After depressurizing samples to atmospheric pressure, we repressurized them into the methane-hydrate stability field and remeasured their physical properties. Thermal conductivity, shear strength, acoustic compressional and shear wave amplitudes and speeds are compared between the original and depressurized/repressurized samples. X-ray computed tomography (CT) images track how the gas-hydrate distribution changes in the hydrate-cemented sands due to the depressurization/repressurization process. Because depressurization-induced property changes can be substantial and are not easily predicted, particularly in water-saturated, hydrate-bearing sediment, maintaining pressure and temperature conditions throughout the core recovery and measurement process is critical for using laboratory measurements to estimate in situ properties.

  4. Glancing angle deposition of SiO{sub 2} thin film microstructures: Investigations of optical and morphological properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokas, R. B. E-mail: tokasstar@gmail.com; Jena, S. E-mail: tokasstar@gmail.com; Sarkar, P. E-mail: tokasstar@gmail.com; Thakur, S. E-mail: tokasstar@gmail.com; Sahoo, N. K. E-mail: tokasstar@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    In present work, the optical and the morphological properties of micro-structured SiO{sub 2} thin films fabricated by using glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique has been carried out. The results are compared with the normally deposited SiO{sub 2} films for the gained advantages. The influence of the glancing angle on the refractive index of porous SiO{sub 2} film was investigated by the spectral transmission measurement in 400950 nm wavelength regimes. The refractive index has been found to be 1.14@532 nm for the porous SiO{sub 2} film deposited at a glancing angle of 85. The density and surface qualities of these samples were primarily investigated by using grazing angle X-ray reflectivity (GIXR) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. Results indicate a substantial decrease in film density and refractive index and increase in surface roughness and grain size for GLAD SiO{sub 2} compared to normally deposited SiO{sub 2} films.

  5. Morphology-dependent optical absorption and conduction properties of photoelectrochemical photocatalysts for H{sub 2} production: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huda, Muhammad N.; Turner, John A.

    2010-06-15

    Efficient photoelectrochemical H{sub 2} production by solar irradiation depends not only on the photocatalyst's band gap and its band-edge positions but also on the detailed electronic nature of the bands, such as the localization or delocalization of the band edges and their orbital characteristics. These determine the carrier transport properties, reactivity, light absorption strength, etc. and significantly impact the material's efficiency as a photoconverter. The localization or delocalization of the band edges may arise either due to the orbital nature of the bands or the structural morphology of the material. A recent experimental report on a photocatalyst based on s/p orbitals showed very poor performance for H{sub 2} production despite the delocalized nature of the s/p bands as compared to the d-bands of transition metal oxides. It is then important to examine whether this poor performance is inherent to these materials or rather arises from some experimental limitations. A theoretical analysis by first-principle methods is well suited to shed light on this question.

  6. Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Physics Print Because a large proportion of ALS experiments are "physics" experiments, it's useful to separate them into two categories - one focused on Materials/Condensed Matter, and this one, with a dual focus on AMO (atomic, molecular, and optical) physics and accelerator physics. Light sources such as the ALS have opened up research frontiers that may hold the answers to fundamental questions about structure and dynamics in AMO physics. The advanced spectroscopies that

  7. Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Physics Our science answers questions about the nature of the universe and delivers solutions for national security concerns. Contact Us Division Leader David Meyerhofer ...

  8. Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Print Because a large proportion of ALS experiments are "physics" experiments, it's useful to separate them into two categories - one focused on MaterialsCondensed Matter, ...

  9. Prototype Data Models and Data Dictionaries for Hanford Sediment Physical and Hydraulic Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Last, George V.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2010-09-30

    The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), has been compiling physical and hydraulic property data and parameters to support risk analyses and waste management decisions at Hanford. In FY09 the RDS project developed a strategic plan for a physical and hydraulic property database. This report documents prototype data models and dictionaries for these properties and associated parameters. Physical properties and hydraulic parameters and their distributions are required for any type of quantitative assessment of risk and uncertainty associated with predictions of contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface. The central plateau of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State contains most of the contamination at the Site and has up to {approx}100 m of unsaturated and unconsolidated or semi-consolidated sediments overlying the unconfined aquifer. These sediments contain a wide variety of contaminants ranging from organic compounds, such as carbon tetrachloride, to numerous radionuclides including technetium, plutonium, and uranium. Knowledge of the physical and hydraulic properties of the sediments and their distributions is critical for quantitative assessment of the transport of these contaminants in the subsurface, for evaluation of long-term risks and uncertainty associated with model predictions of contaminant transport and fate, and for evaluating, designing, and operating remediation alternatives. One of the goals of PNNL's RDS project is to work with the Hanford Environmental Data Manager (currently with CHPRC) to develop a protocol and schedule for incorporation of physical property and hydraulic parameter datasets currently maintained by PNNL into HEIS. This requires that the data first be reviewed to ensure quality and consistency. New data models must then be developed for HEIS that are approved by the HTAG that oversees HEIS development. After approval, these new data models then need to be implemented in HEIS by the EDM before there is an actual repository for the data. This document summarizes modifications to previously developed data models, and new data models and data dictionaries for physical and hydraulic property data and parameters to be transferred to HEIS. A prototype dataset that conforms to the specifications of these recommended data models has been identified and processed, and is ready for transfer to CHPRC for inclusion in HEIS. Additional datasets are planned for transfer from PNNL to CHPRC in FY11.

  10. Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Gammasphere, GRETINA, FMA and more physics opportunities for single-particle ... Kathrin Wimmer ATLAS User Workshop Physics cases rate pps 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 Kathrin ...

  11. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne, David M.

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  12. Status of Initial Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Graphite Grades for NGNP Appkications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strizak, Joe P; Burchell, Timothy D; Windes, Will

    2011-12-01

    Current candidate graphite grades for the core structures of NGNP include grades NBG-17, NBG-18, PCEA and IG-430. Both NBG-17 and NBG-18 are manufactured using pitch coke, and are vibrationally molded. These medium grain products are produced by SGL Carbon SAS (France). Tayo Tanso (Japan) produces IG-430 which is a petroleum coke, isostatically molded, nuclear grade graphite. And PCEA is a medium grain, extruded graphite produced by UCAR Carbon Co. (USA) from petroleum coke. An experimental program has been initiated to develop physical and mechanical properties data for these current candidate graphites. The results will be judged against the requirements for nuclear grade graphites set forth in ASTM standard D 7219-05 "Standard Specification for Isotropic and Near-isotropic Nuclear Graphites". Physical properties data including thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion, and mechanical properties data including tensile, compressive and flexural strengths will be obtained using the established test methods covered in D-7219 and ASTM C 781-02 "Standard Practice for Testing Graphite and Boronated Graphite Components for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactors". Various factors known to effect the properties of graphites will be investigated. These include specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation (ag and wg) within a billet, and billet-to-billet variations. The current status of the materials characterization program is reported herein. To date billets of the four graphite grades have been procured, and detailed cut up plans for obtaining the various specimens have been prepared. Particular attention has been given to the traceability of each specimen to its spatial location and orientation within a billet.

  13. Effects of biogenic silica on acoustic and physical properties of clay-rich marine sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tribble, J.S.; Mackenzie, F.T.; Urmos, J.; O'Brien, D.K.; Manghnani, M.H. )

    1992-06-01

    The physical properties of marine sediments are influenced by compaction and diagenesis during burial. Changes in mineralogy, chemistry, density, porosity, and microfabric all affect a sediment's acoustic and electrical properties. Sediments from the Japan Trench illustrate the dependence of physical properties on biogenic silica content. Increased opal-A content is correlated with increased porosity and decreased grain density and compressional velocity. Variations with depth in opal-A concentration are therefore reflected in highly variable and, at times, inverse velocity-depth gradients. The diagenetic conversion of opal-A to opal-CT and finally to quartz was investigated at a site in the San Miguel Gap, California. Distinct changes in microfabric, particularly in the porosity distribution, accompany the diagenetic reactions and contribute to a sharp velocity discontinuity at the depth of the opal-A to opal-CT conversion. Evaluation of this reaction at several sites indicates a systematic dependence on temperature and age in clay-rich and moderately siliceous sediments. In ocean margin regions, sediments are buried rapidly, and opal-A may be converted to opal-CT in less than 10 m.y. Temperatures of conversion range from 30{degree} to 50{degree}C. Much longer times (>40 m.y.) are required to complete the conversion in open ocean deposits which are exposed to temperatures less than 15{degree}C. In the absence of silica diagenesis, velocity-depth gradients of most clay-rich and moderately siliceous sediments fall in the narrow range of 0.15 to 0.25 km/s/km which brackets the gradient (0.18 km/s/km) determined for a type pelagic clay section. Relationships such as these can be useful in unraveling the history of a sediment sequence, including the evolution with time of reservoir properties and seismic signatures.

  14. A comparison of the morphological properties between local and z ? 1 infrared luminous galaxies: Are local and high-z (U)LIRGs different?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Sanders, D. B.; Larson, Kirsten L.; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Yanxia; Lockhart, Kelly; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Barnes, Joshua E.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Koss, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Smith, Howard A.

    2014-08-10

    Ultraluminous and luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs and LIRGs) are the most extreme star-forming galaxies in the universe and dominate the total star formation rate density at z > 1. In the local universe (z < 0.3), the majority of ULIRGs and a significant portion of LIRGs are triggered by interactions between gas-rich spiral galaxies, yet it is unclear if this is still the case at high z. To investigate the relative importance of galaxy interactions in infrared luminous galaxies, we carry out a comparison of optical morphological properties between local (U)LIRGs and (U)LIRGs at z = 0.5-1.5 based on the same sample selection, morphology classification scheme, and optical morphology at similar rest-frame wavelengths. In addition, we quantify the systematics in comparing local and high-z data sets by constructing a redshifted data set from local (U)LIRGs, in which its data quality mimics the high-z data set. Based on the Gini-M{sub 20} classification scheme, we find that the fraction of interacting systems decreases by ?8% from local to z ? 1, and it is consistent with the reduction between local and redshifted data sets (6{sub ?6}{sup +14}%). Based on visual classifications, the merger fraction of local ULIRGs is found to be ?20% lower compared to published results, and the reduction due to redshifting is 15{sub ?8}{sup +10}%. Consequently, the differences of merger fractions between local and z ? 1 (U)LIRGs is only ?17%. These results demonstrate that there is no strong evolution in the fraction of (U)LIRGs classified as mergers at least out to z ? 1. At z > 1, the morphology types of ?30% of (U)LIRGs cannot be determined due to their faintness in the F814W band; thus, the merger fraction measured at z > 1 suffers from large uncertainties.

  15. On-Line Physical Property Process Measurements for Nuclear Fuel Recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pappas, Richard A.; Bond, Leonard J.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Hostick, Cody J.

    2007-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is looking to close the nuclear fuel cycle and demonstrate key fuel recycling technologies, while at the same time reducing proliferation risks. A key element of GNEP is the demonstration of the uranium extraction (UREX) +1a process, and potentially other fuel reprocessing schemes. Advanced recycling of nuclear fuel will require improved on-line monitoring and process control. Advanced ultrasonic sensor technology can be a critical component of a process quality control strategy that is designed to determine the sources of variability and minimize their impact on the quality of the end product. PNNL ultrasonic devices and methodologies, many of which were initially developed and deployed to address the needs of the DOE Hanford site, provide on-line physical property measurement useful in optimizing plant capacity, assuring cost-effective analyses, and satisfying direct sampling requirements.. A select collection of PNNL ultrasonic technology is discussed in this context. (authors)

  16. Geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils at the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.L; Rogers, V.A.; Conner, S.P.; Cummings, C.L.; Gladden, J.B.; Weber, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), located in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, is a nuclear production facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). To facilitate future human health and ecological risk assessments, treatability studies, remedial investigations, and feasibility studies for its wetland areas, SRS needs a database of background geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils. These data are needed for comparison to data collected from wetland soils that may have been affected by SRS operations. SRS contains 36,000 acres of wetlands and an additional 5,000 acres of bottom land soils subject to flooding. Recent studies of wetland soils near various waste units at SRS show that some wetlands have been impacted by releases of contaminants resulting from SRS operations (WSRC, 1992). Waste waters originating from the operations facilities typically have been discharged into seepage basins located in upland soils, direct discharge of waste water to wetland areas has been minimal. This suggests that impacted wetland areas have been affected indirectly as a result of transport mechanisms such as surface runoff, groundwater seeps, fluvial or sediment transport, and leaching. Looney et al. (1990) conducted a study to characterize the geochemical and physical properties of upland soils and shallow sediments on the SRS. A primary objective of the upland study was to collect the data needed to assess the qualitative and quantitative impacts of SRS operations on the environment. By comparing the upland soils data to data collected from waste units located in similar soils, SRS impacts could be assessed. The data were also intended to aid in selection of remediation alternatives. Because waste units at SRS have historically been located in upland areas, wetland soils were not sampled. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Methods and apparatus for moving and separating materials exhibiting different physical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Stephen C. (Salt Lake City, UT); Brimhall, Owen D. (Salt Lake City, UT); McLaughlin, Thomas J. (Salt Lake City, UT); Baker, Charles D. (Lehi, UT); Sparks, Sam L. (Alpine, UT)

    1988-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for controlling the movement of materials having different physical properties when one of the materials is a fluid. The invention does not rely on flocculation, sedimentation, centrifugation, the buoyancy of the materials, or any other gravity dependent characteristic, in order to achieve its desired results. The methods of the present invention provide that a first acoustic wave is progpagated through a vessel containing the materials. A second acoustic wave, at a frequency different than the first acoustic wave, is also propagated through the vessel so that the two acoustic waves are superimposed upon each other. The superimposition of the two waves creates a beat frequency wave. The beat frequency wave comprises pressure gradients dividing regions of maximum and minimum pressure. The pressure gradients and the regions of maximum and minimum pressure move through space and time at a group velocity. The moving pressure gradients and regions of maximum and minimum pressure act upon the marterials so as to move one of the materials towards a predetermined location in the vessel. The present invention provides that the materials may be controllably moved toward a location, aggreated at a particular location, or physically separated from each other.

  18. Methods and apparatus for moving and separating materials exhibiting different physical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Stephen C. (al of Salt Lake City, UT); Brimhall, Owen D. (al of Salt Lake City, UT); McLaughlin, Thomas J. (al of Salt Lake City, UT); Baker, Charles D. (Lehi, UT); Sparks, Sam L. (Alpine, UT)

    1991-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for controlling the movement of materials having different physical properties when one of the materials is a fluid. The invention does not rely on flocculation, sedimentation, centrifugation, the buoyancy of the materials, or any other gravity dependent characteristic, in order to achieve its desired results. The methods of the present invention provide that a first acoustic wave is propagated through a vessel containing the materials. A second acoustic wave, at a frequency different than the first acoustic wave, is also propagated through the vessel so that the two acoustic waves are superimposed upon each other. The superimposition of the two waves creates a beat frequency wave. The beat frequency wave comprises pressure gradients dividing regions of maximum and minimum pressure. The pressure gradients and the regions of maximum and minimum pressure move through space and time at a group velocity. The moving pressure gradients and regions of maximum and minimum pressure act upon the materials so as to move one of the materials towards a predetermined location in the vessel. The present invention provides that the materials may be controllably moved toward a location, aggregated at a particular location, or physically separated from each other.

  19. Influence of solvent on the morphology and photocatalytic properties of ZnS decorated CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raubach, Cristiane W. Polastro, Lisnias; Ferrer, Mateus M.; Perrin, Andre; Perrin, Christiane; Albuquerque, Anderson R.; Buzolin, Prescila G. C.; Sambrano, Julio R.; Santana, Yuri B. V. de; Varela, Jos A.; Longo, Elson

    2014-06-07

    Herein, we report a theoretical and experimental study on the photocatalytic activity of CeO{sub 2} ZnS, and ZnS decorated CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared by a microwave-assisted solvothermal method. Theoretical models were established to analyze electron transitions primarily at the interface between CeO{sub 2} and ZnS. As observed, the particle morphology strongly influenced the photocatalytic degradation of organic dye Rhodamine B. A model was proposed to rationalize the photocatalytic behavior of the prepared decorated systems taking into account different extrinsic and intrinsic defect distributions, including order-disorder effects at interfacial and intra-facial regions, and vacancy concentration.

  20. Effects of the solvent on the structure, morphology and photocatalytic properties of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} in the solvothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, Jinhong; Che, Jiangang; Wu, Ling; Liu, Minghua

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Various nanostructure Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalysts have been prepared by a solvothermal process via simply altering the used solvent. It is revealed that the type of solvents has a strong influence on the morphology of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. This could be understood in terms of the reaction media effect on the crystal growth. The photocatalytic experiments for the decomposition of RhB demonstrate that the samples prepared by different solvents show different photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic activity is obtained by the sample with glycol as solvent. Highlights: ? The used solvent in the synthesis can affect the morphology and size of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. ? Different solvent in the reaction leads to different surface area and pore size. ? The highest photocatalytic activity is obtained by the sample prepared in glycol. ? The high activity is mainly due to the large surface area and small particle size. - Abstract: Visible-light-driven photocatalyst Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} was prepared by a solvothermal process with different kinds of solvent including water, isopropanol and ethylene glycol. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, N{sub 2}-sorption, UVvis diffuse reflectance spectra, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that the type of solvent has a strong influence on the morphologies and physico-chemical properties of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. Meanwhile, the formation mechanism of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} with various morphologies was discussed. The photocatalytic activities of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalysts were evaluated by the decomposition of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation (? > 420 nm). It was found that the sample prepared with glycol as solvent showed the best performance in the photodegradation of RhB under visible light irradiation. This could be ascribed to the large surface area, unique morphology and small particle size.

  1. A Long-Term Strategic Plan for Hanford Sediment Physical Property and Vadose Zone Hydraulic Parameter Databases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Last, George V.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2009-09-30

    Physical property data and unsaturated hydraulic parameters are critical input for analytic and numerical models used to predict transport and fate of contaminants in variably saturated porous media and to assess and execute remediation alternatives. The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), has been compiling physical and hydraulic property data and parameters to support risk analyses and waste management decisions at Hanford. Efforts have been initiated to transfer sediment physical property data and vadose zone hydraulic parameters to CHPRC for inclusion in HEIS-Geo, a new instance of the Hanford Environmental Information System database that is being developed for borehole geologic data. This report describes these efforts and a strategic plan for continued updating and improvement of these datasets.

  2. INITIAL COMPARISON OF BASELINE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR THE VHTR CANDIDATE GRAPHITE GRADES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Mark C

    2014-09-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled configuration that is capable of producing thermal energy for power generation as well as process heat for industrial applications that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties in nuclear-grade graphites by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a thorough comparison between these values in different graphite grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons both in specific properties and in the associated variability between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between each of the grades of graphite that are considered candidate grades from four major international graphite producers. These particular grades (NBG-18, NBG-17, PCEA, IG-110, and 2114) are the major focus of the evaluations presently underway on irradiated graphite properties through the series of Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL from which billets are formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration. NBG-17 graphite from SGL is essentially NBG-18 with the grain size reduced by a factor of two. PCEA, petroleum coke graphite from GrafTech with a similar grain size to NBG-17, is formed via an extrusion process and was initially considered the favored grade for the prismatic layout. IG-110 and 2114, from Toyo Tanso and Mersen (formerly Carbone Lorraine), respectively, are fine-grain grades produced via an isomolding process. An analysis of the comparison between each of these grades will include not only the differences in fundamental and statistically-significant individual strength levels, but also the differences in variability in properties within each of the grades that will ultimately provide the basis for the prediction of in-service performance. The comparative performance of the different types of nuclear-grade graphites will continue to evolve as thousands more specimens are fully characterized from the numerous grades of graphite being evaluated.

  3. Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Brunson, Ronald R. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity.

  4. Effect of ZnO seed layer on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandi, R. Mohan, S. Major, S. S.; Srinivasa, R. S.

    2014-04-24

    ZnO nanorods were grown by chemical bath deposition on sputtered, polycrystalline GaN buffer layers with and without ZnO seed layer. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layers are not vertically well aligned. Photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layer, however exhibits a much stronger near-band-edge emission and negligible defect emission, compared to the nanorods grown on ZnO buffer layer. These features are attributed to gallium incorporation at the ZnO-GaN interface. The introduction of a thin (25 nm) ZnO seed layer on GaN buffer layer significantly improves the morphology and vertical alignment of ZnO-NRs without sacrificing the high optical quality of ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer. The presence of a thick (200 nm) ZnO seed layer completely masks the effect of the underlying GaN buffer layer on the morphology and optical properties of nanorods.

  5. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Boris B.; Sverdlik, Leonid G.; Imashev, Sanjar A.; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Artamonova, Maria S.; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass and chemical composition in both size fractions. Dust transported into the region is common, being detected 33% of the time. The maximum frequency occurred in the spring of 2009. Dust transported to Central Asia comes from regional sources, for example, Taklimakan desert and Aral Sea basin, and from long-range transport, for example, deserts of Arabia, Northeast Africa, Iran, and Pakistan. Regionalmore » sources are characterized by pollution transport with maximum values of coarse particles within the planetary boundary layer, aerosol optical thickness, extinction coefficient, integral coefficient of aerosol backscatter, and minimum values of the Ångström exponent. Pollution associated with air masses transported over long distances has different characteristics during autumn, winter, and spring. During winter, dust emissions were low resulting in high values of the Ångström exponent (about 0.51) and the fine particle mass fraction (64%). Dust storms were more frequent during spring with an increase in coarse dust particles in comparison to winter. The aerosol vertical profiles can be used to lower uncertainty in estimating radiative forcing.« less

  7. Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Sisson, W.G.; Brunson, R.R.

    1997-02-18

    The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity. 3 figs.

  8. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-24

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 m electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.5710{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  9. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dispersed nanodiamond novel hybrids: Microscopic structure evolution, physical properties, and radiation resilience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, S.; Farmer, J.

    2011-01-01

    We report the structure and physical properties of novel hybrids of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and ultradispersed diamond (UDD) forming nanocomposite ensemble that were subjected to 50, 100, and 10{sup 3} kGy gamma ray doses and characterized using various analytical tools to investigate hierarchical defects evolution. This work is prompted by recent work on single-walled CNTs and UDD ensemble [Gupta et al., J. Appl. Phys. 107, 104308 (2010)] where radiation-induced microscopic defects seem to be stabilized by UDD. The present experiments show similar effects where these hybrids display only a minimal structural modification under the maximum dose. Quantitative analyses of multiwavelength Raman spectra revealed lattice defects induced by irradiation assessed through the variation in prominent D, G, and 2D bands. A minimal change in the position of D, G, and 2D bands and a marginal increase in intensity of the defect-induced double resonant Raman scattered D and 2D bands are some of the implications suggesting the radiation coupling. The in-plane correlation length (L{sub a}) was also determined following Tunistra-Koenig relation from the ratio of D to G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) besides microscopic stress. However, we also suggest the following taking into account of intrinsic defects of the constituents: (a) charge transfer arising at the interface due to the difference in electronegativity of MWCNT C sp{sup 2} and UDD core (C sp{sup 3}) leading to phonon and electron energy renormalization; (b) misorientation of C sp{sup 2} at the interface of MWCNT and UDD shell (C sp{sup 2}) resulting in structural disorder; (c) softening or violation of the q{approx}0 selection rule leading to D band broadening and a minimal change in G band intensity; and (d) normalized intensity of D and G bands with 2D band help to distinguish defect-induced double resonance phenomena. The MWCNT when combined with nanodiamond showed a slight decrease in their conductance further affected by irradiation pointing at relatively good interfacial contact. Furthermore, owing to high thermal and electrical conductivity properties, they can facilitate potentially efficient heat-transfer applications and some results deduced using Nielsen's model is provided.

  10. Influence of combustion conditions and coal properties on physical properties of fly ash generated from pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiromi Shirai; Hirofumi Tsuji; Michitaka Ikeda; Toshinobu Kotsuji

    2009-07-15

    To develop combustion technology for upgrading the quality of fly ash, the influences of the coal properties, such as the size of pulverized coal particles and the two-stage combustion ratio during the combustion, on the fly ash properties were investigated using our test furnace. The particle size, density, specific surface area (obtained by the Blaine method), and shape of fly ash particles of seven types of coal were measured. It was confirmed that the size of pulverized coal particles affects the size of the ash particles. Regarding the coal properties, the fuel ratio affected the ash particle size distribution. The density and shape of the ash particles strongly depended on their ash size. Our results indicated that the shape of the ash particles and the concentration of unburned carbon affected the specific surface area. The influence of the two-stage combustion ratio was limited. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Status Report for Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 1.B Physical and Hydraulic Properties Database and Interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.

    2008-09-26

    The objective of Activity 1.B of the Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data. Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the objectives of Activity 1.B of the RDS Project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database maintained by PNNL, (2) transfer the physical and hydraulic property data from the Microsoft Access database files used by SoilVision{reg_sign} into HEIS, which has most recently been maintained by Fluor-Hanford, Inc., (3) develop a Virtual Library module for accessing these data from HEIS, and (4) write a User's Manual for the Virtual Library module. The development of the Virtual Library module was to be performed by a third party under subcontract to Fluor. The intent of these activities is to make the available physical and hydraulic property data more readily accessible and useable by technical staff and operable unit managers involved in waste site assessments and remedial action decisions for Hanford. This status report describes the history of this development effort and progress to date.

  12. Additional development of remote sensing techniques for observing morphology, microphysics, and radiative properties of clouds and tests using a new, robust CO{sub 2} lidar. Annual progress report, August 15, 1994--August 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhard, W.L.; Intrieri, J.M.; Brewer, W.A.

    1996-04-01

    The bulk morphology and microphysical characteristics of a cloud are both important in determining the cloud`s effect on radiative transfer. A better understanding of all these properties, and the links among them, are needed for developing adequate parameterizations of these components in climate models. The objective of this project is to develop remote sensing techniques for observing key cloud properties, including the linkages. The research has technique development and instrument development prongs.

  13. Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-14

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

  14. Using Plasmon Peaks in Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy to Determine the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Nanoscale Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, James M.

    2013-05-09

    In this program, we developed new theoretical and experimental insights into understanding the relationships among fundamental universality and scaling phenomena, the solid-state physical and mechanical properties of materials, and the volume plasmon energy as measured by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Particular achievements in these areas are summarized as follows: (i) Using a previously proposed physical model based on the universal binding-energy relation (UBER), we established close phenomenological connections regarding the influence of the valence electrons in materials on the longitudinal plasma oscillations (plasmons) and various solid-state properties such as the optical constants (including absorption and dispersion), elastic constants, cohesive energy, etc. (ii) We found that carbon materials, e.g., diamond, graphite, diamond-like carbons, hydrogenated and amorphous carbon films, exhibit strong correlations in density vs. Ep (or maximum of the volume plasmon peak) and density vs. hardness, both from available experimental data and ab initio DFT calculations. This allowed us to derive a three-dimensional relationship between hardness and the plasmon energy, that can be used to determine experimentally both hardness and density of carbon materials based on measurements of the plasmon peak position. (iii) As major experimental accomplishments, we demonstrated the possibility of in-situ monitoring of changes in the physical properties of materials with conditions, e.g., temperature, and we also applied a new plasmon ratio-imaging technique to map multiple physical properties of materials, such as the elastic moduli, cohesive energy and bonding electron density, with a sub-nanometer lateral resolution. This presents new capability for understanding material behavior. (iv) Lastly, we demonstrated a new physical phenomenon - electron-beam trapping, or ?¢????electron tweezers?¢??? - of a solid metal nanoparticle inside a liquid metal. This phenomenon is analogous to that of optical trapping of solid microparticles in solution known as "optical tweezers", which is currently being used to manipulate molecules and inorganic materials in a variety of nanotechnology applications.

  15. Comparison of physical properties of quiet and active regions through the analysis of magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar photosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Criscuoli, S.

    2013-11-20

    Recent observations have shown that the photometric and dynamic properties of granulation and small-scale magnetic features depend on the amount of magnetic flux of the region they are embedded in. We analyze results from numerical hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulations characterized by different amounts of average magnetic flux and find qualitatively the same differences as those reported from observations. We show that these different physical properties result from the inhibition of convection induced by the presence of the magnetic field, which changes the temperature stratification of both quiet and magnetic regions. Our results are relevant for solar irradiance variations studies, as such differences are still not properly taken into account in irradiance reconstruction models.

  16. Influence of Radiation-Induced Voids and Bubbles on Physical Properties of Austenitic Structural Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shcherbakov, E. N.; Kozlov, A. V.; Portnykh, I. A.; Balachov, Iouri I.; Garner, Francis A.

    2004-08-01

    Void swelling in austenitic stainless steels induces significant changes in their electrical resistivity and elastic moduli, as demonstrated in this study using a Russian stainless steel irradiated as fuel pin cladding in BN-600. Precipitation induced by irradiation also causes second-order changes in these properties. When cavities are full of helium as expected under some fusion irradiation conditions, additional second-order changes are expected but they will be small enough to exclude from the analysis.

  17. Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.S. Tumuluru; L.G. Tabil; Y. Song; K.L. Iroba; V. Meda

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, specific energy for grinding and physical properties of wheat, canola, oat and barley straw grinds were investigated. The initial moisture content of the straw was about 0.130.15 (fraction total mass basis). Particle size reduction experiments were conducted in two stages: (1) a chopper without a screen, and (2) a hammer mill using three screen sizes (19.05, 25.4, and 31.75 mm). The lowest grinding energy (1.96 and 2.91 kWh t-1) was recorded for canola straw using a chopper and hammer mill with 19.05-mm screen size, whereas the highest (3.15 and 8.05 kWh t-1) was recorded for barley and oat straws. The physical properties (geometric mean particle diameter, bulk, tapped and particle density, and porosity) of the chopped and hammer-milled wheat, barley, canola, and oat straw grinds measured were in the range of 0.984.22 mm, 3680 kg m-3, 49119 kg m-3, 6001220 kg m-3, and 0.90.96, respectively. The average mean particle diameter was highest for the chopped wheat straw (4.22-mm) and lowest for the canola grind (0.98-mm). The canola grinds produced using the hammer mill (19.05-mm screen size) had the highest bulk and tapped density of about 80 and 119 kg m-3; whereas, the wheat and oat grinds had the lowest of about 58 and 8890 kg m-3. The results indicate that the bulk and tapped densities are inversely proportional to the particle size of the grinds. The flow properties of the grinds calculated are better for chopped straws compared to hammer milled using smaller screen size (19.05 mm).

  18. CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE THROUGH RISE TIMES AND PEAK LUMINOSITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Maeda, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the diversity in the wind density, supernova ejecta energy, and ejecta mass in Type IIn supernovae based on their rise times and peak luminosities. We show that the wind density and supernova ejecta properties can be estimated independently if both the rise time and peak luminosity are observed. The peak luminosity is mostly determined by the supernova properties and the rise time can be used to estimate the wind density. We find that the ejecta energies of Type IIn supernovae need to vary by factors of 0.2-5 from the average if their ejecta masses are similar. The diversity in the observed rise times indicates that their wind densities vary by factors of 0.2-2 from the average. We show that Type IIn superluminous supernovae should have not only large wind density but also large ejecta energy and/or small ejecta mass to explain their large luminosities and the rise times at the same time. We also note that shock breakout does not necessarily occur in the wind even if it is optically thick, except for the case of superluminous supernovae, and we analyze the observational data both with and without assuming that the shock breakout occurs in the dense wind of Type IIn supernovae.

  19. Method of varying a physical property of a material through its depth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-04-21

    A method is disclosed for varying a mechanical property of a material at two depths. The method involves the application of at least two laser pulses of different durations. The method involves a determination of the density of the material from the surface to each depth, a determination of the heat capacity of the material from the surface to each depth, and a determination of the thermal conductivity of the material from the surface to each depth. Each laser pulse may affect the density, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the material, so it may be necessary to re-evaluate those parameters after each laser pulse and prior to the next pulse. The method may be applied to implantation materials to improve osteoblast and osteoclast activity.

  20. Physical properties and analytical models of band-to-band tunneling in low-bandgap semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chun-Hsing Dang Chien, Nguyen

    2014-01-28

    Low-bandgap semiconductors, such as InAs and InSb, are widely considered to be ideal for use in tunnel field-effect transistors to ensure sufficient on-current boosting at low voltages. This work elucidates the physical and mathematical considerations of applying conventional band-to-band tunneling models in low-bandgap semiconductors, and presents a new analytical alternative for practical use. The high-bandgap tunneling generates most at maximum field region with shortest tunnel path, whereas the low-bandgap generations occur dispersedly because of narrow tunnel barrier. The local electrical field associated with tunneling-electron numbers dominates in low-bandgap materials. This work proposes decoupled electric-field terms in the pre-exponential factor and exponential function of generation-rate expressions. Without fitting, the analytical results and approximated forms exhibit great agreements with the sophisticated forms both in high- and low-bandgap semiconductors. Neither nonlocal nor local field is appropriate to be used in numerical simulations for predicting the tunneling generations in a variety of low- and high-bandgap semiconductors.

  1. Modeling of Some Physical Properties of Zirconium Alloys for Nuclear Applications in Support of UFD Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael V. Glazoff

    2013-08-01

    Zirconium-based alloys Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 are widely used in the nuclear industry as cladding materials for light water reactor (LWR) fuels. These materials display a very good combination of properties such as low neutron absorption, creep behavior, stress-corrosion cracking resistance, reduced hydrogen uptake, corrosion and/or oxidation, especially in the case of Zircaloy-4. However, over the last couple of years, in the post-Fukushima Daiichi world, energetic efforts have been undertaken to improve fuel clad oxidation resistance during off-normal temperature excursions. Efforts have also been made to improve upon the already achieved levels of mechanical behavior and reduce hydrogen uptake. In order to facilitate the development of such novel materials, it is very important to achieve not only engineering control, but also a scientific understanding of the underlying material degradation mechanisms, both in working conditions and in storage of used nuclear fuel. This report strives to contribute to these efforts by constructing the thermodynamic models of both alloys; constructing of the respective phase diagrams, and oxidation mechanisms. A special emphasis was placed upon the role of zirconium suboxides in hydrogen uptake reduction and the atomic mechanisms of oxidation. To that end, computational thermodynamics calculations were conducted concurrently with first-principles atomistic modeling.

  2. Improved crystal orientation and physical properties from single-shot XFEL stills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauter, Nicholas K., E-mail: nksauter@lbl.gov; Hattne, Johan; Brewster, Aaron S.; Echols, Nathaniel; Zwart, Petrus H.; Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    X-ray free-electron laser crystallography relies on the collection of still-shot diffraction patterns. New methods are developed for optimal modeling of the crystals orientations and mosaic block properties. X-ray diffraction patterns from still crystals are inherently difficult to process because the crystal orientation is not uniquely determined by measuring the Bragg spot positions. Only one of the three rotational degrees of freedom is directly coupled to spot positions; the other two rotations move Bragg spots in and out of the reflecting condition but do not change the direction of the diffracted rays. This hinders the ability to recover accurate structure factors from experiments that are dependent on single-shot exposures, such as femtosecond diffract-and-destroy protocols at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Here, additional methods are introduced to optimally model the diffraction. The best orientation is obtained by requiring, for the brightest observed spots, that each reciprocal-lattice point be placed into the exact reflecting condition implied by Braggs law with a minimal rotation. This approach reduces the experimental uncertainties in noisy XFEL data, improving the crystallographic R factors and sharpening anomalous differences that are near the level of the noise.

  3. Superconductivity and Physical Properties of CaPd2Ge2 Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, V K; Kim, Hyunsoo; Tanatar, Makariy A; Prozorov, Ruslan; Johnston, David C

    2014-10-08

    We present the superconducting and normal state properties of CaPd2Ge2 single crystals investigated by magnetic susceptibility ?, isothermal magnetization M, heat capacity Cp, in-plane electrical resistivity ? and London penetration depth ? versus temperature T and magnetic field H measurements. Bulk superconductivity is inferred from the ?(T) and Cp(T) data. The ?(T) data exhibit metallic behavior and a superconducting transition with Tc onset = 1.98 K and zero resistivity at Tc 0 = 1.67 K. The ?(T) reveals the onset of superconductivity at 2.0 K. For T > 2.0 K, the ?(T) and M(H) are weakly anisotropic paramagnetic with ?ab > ?c. The Cp(T) data confirm the bulk superconductivity below Tc = 1.69(3) K. The superconducting state electronic heat capacity is analyzed within the framework of a single-band ?-model of BCS superconductivity and various normal and superconducting state parameters are estimated. Within the ?-model, the Cp(T) data and the ab plane ?(T) data consistently indicate a moderately anisotropic s-wave gap with ?(0)/kBTc ? 1.6, somewhat smaller than the BCS value of 1.764. The relationship of the heat capacity jump at Tc and the penetration depth measurement to the anisotropy in the s-wave gap is discussed.

  4. Spreading of crude petroleum in brash ice; Effects of oil`s physical properties and water current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayed, M.; Kotlyar, L.S.; Sparks, B.D.

    1994-12-31

    Experiments were conducted in a refrigerated, circulating current flume to examine crude oil spreading in brash ice. Amauligak, Hibernia and Norman Wells crudes were tested. Measurements of the physical properties of the oils were also conducted, including: surface and interfacial tensions as well as viscosities. Spreading coefficients were calculated from measured surface and interfacial tensions. Results were obtained for original and weathered oils. For the spreading tests, spill volumes up to 3 liters and water currents up to 0.55 m/s were used. Tests were done using both fresh water ice and saline ice. Slick dimensions were measured, and modes of oil spreading were observed. Slick dimensions depended on oil type, but were not influenced by water current. Oils of high spreading coefficient and low viscosity spread over larger areas than those with low spreading coefficient and high viscosity.

  5. DOE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A METHANE HYDRATE DEPOSIT AND GAS RESERVOIR, BLAKE RIDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Steven Holbrook

    2004-11-11

    This report contains a summary of work conducted and results produced under the auspices of award DE-FC26-00NT40921, ''DOE Three-Dimensional Structure and Physical Properties of a Methane Hydrate Deposit and Gas Reservoir, Blake Ridge.'' This award supported acquisition, processing, and interpretation of two- and three-dimensional seismic reflection data over a large methane hydrate reservoir on the Blake Ridge, offshore South Carolina. The work supported by this project has led to important new conclusions regarding (1) the use of seismic reflection data to directly detect methane hydrate, (2) the migration and possible escape of free gas through the hydrate stability zone, and (3) the mechanical controls on the maximum thickness of the free gas zone and gas escape.

  6. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MAIN-BELT COMET 176P/LINEAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Ishiguro, Masateru; Lacerda, Pedro; Jewitt, David E-mail: p.lacerda@qub.ac.uk E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu

    2011-07-15

    We present a physical characterization of comet 176P/LINEAR, the third discovered member of the new class of main-belt comets, which exhibit cometary activity but are dynamically indistinguishable from main-belt asteroids. Observations show the object exhibiting a fan-shaped tail for at least one month in late 2005, but then becoming inactive in early 2006. During this active period, we measure broadband colors of B - V = 0.63 {+-} 0.02, V - R = 0.35 {+-} 0.02, and R - I = 0.31 {+-} 0.04. Using data from when the object was observed to be inactive, we derive best-fit IAU phase function parameters of H = 15.10 {+-} 0.05 mag and G = 0.15 {+-} 0.10, and best-fit linear phase function parameters of m(1, 1, 0) = 15.35 {+-} 0.05 mag and {beta} = 0.038 {+-} 0.005 mag deg{sup -1}. From this baseline phase function, we find that 176P exhibits a mean photometric excess of {approx}30% during its active period, implying an approximate total coma dust mass of M{sub d} {approx} (7.2 {+-} 3.6) x 10{sup 4} kg. From inactive data obtained in early 2007, we find a rotation period of P{sub rot} = 22.23 {+-} 0.01 hr and a peak-to-trough photometric range of {Delta}m {approx} 0.7 mag. Phasing our photometric data from 176P's 2005 active period to this rotation period, we find that the nucleus exhibits a significantly smaller photometric range than in 2007 that cannot be accounted for by coma damping effects, and as such, are attributed by us to viewing geometry effects. A detailed analysis of these geometric effects showed that 176P is likely to be a highly elongated object with an axis ratio of 1.8 < b/a < 2.1, an orbital obliquity of {epsilon} {approx} 60{sup 0}, and a solstice position at a true anomaly of {nu}{sub o} = 20{sup 0} {+-} 20{sup 0}. Numerical modeling of 176P's dust emission found that its activity can only be reproduced by asymmetric dust emission, such as a cometary jet. We find plausible fits to our observations using models assuming {approx}10 {mu}m dust particles continuously emitted over the period during which 176P was observed to be active, and a jet direction of 180{sup 0} {approx}< {alpha}{sub jet} {approx}< 120{sup 0} and {delta}{sub jet} {approx} -60{sup 0}. We do not find good fits to our observations using models of impulsive dust emission, i.e., what would be expected if 176P's activity was an ejecta cloud resulting from an impact into non-volatile asteroid regolith. Since for a rotating body, the time-averaged direction of a non-equatorial jet is equivalent to the direction of the nearest rotation pole, we find an equivalent orbital obliquity of 50{sup 0} {approx}< {epsilon} {approx}< 75{sup 0}, consistent with the results of our light curve analysis. Furthermore, the results of both our light curve analysis and dust modeling analysis are consistent with the seasonal heating hypothesis used to explain the modulation of 176P's activity. Additional observations are highly encouraged to further characterize 176P's active behavior as the object approaches perihelion on 2011 July 1.

  7. Transfer of Physical and Hydraulic Properties Databases to the Hanford Environmental Information System - PNNL Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2009-03-31

    This report documents the requirements for transferring physical and hydraulic property data compiled by PNNL into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support Hanford Site waste management and remedial action decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy and one of their current site contractors - CH2M-Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). The objective of Task 1, Activity 6 of the RDS project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library.1 These physical and hydraulic property data are used to estimate parameters for analytical and numerical flow and transport models that are used for site risk assessments and evaluation of remedial action alternatives. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data. Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the original objectives of this activity on the RDS project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database maintained by PNNL, (2) transfer the physical and hydraulic property data from the Microsoft Access database files used by SoilVision{reg_sign} into HEIS, which is currently being maintained by CHRPC, (3) develop a Virtual Library module for accessing these data from HEIS, and (4) write a User's Manual for the Virtual Library module. The intent of these activities is to make the available physical and hydraulic property data more readily accessible and useable by technical staff and operable unit managers involved in waste site assessments and remedial action decisions for Hanford. In FY08 communications were established between PNNL and staff from Fluor-Hanford Co. (who formerly managed HEIS) to outline the design of a Virtual Library module that could be used to access the physical and hydraulic property data that are to be transferred into HEIS. Data dictionaries used by SoilVision{reg_sign} were also provided to Fluor-Hanford personnel (who are now with CHPRC). During ongoing work to ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data that currently reside in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database, it was recognized that further work would be required in this effort before the data were actually ported into HEIS. Therefore work on the Virtual Library module development and an accompanying User's Guide was deferred until an unspecified later date. In FY09 efforts have continued to verify the traceability and defensibility of the physical and hydraulic property datasets that are currently being maintained by PNNL. Although this is a work in progress, several of these datasets should be ready for transfer to HEIS in the very near future. This document outlines a plan for the migration of these datasets into HEIS.

  8. Investigation of the physical properties of the tetragonal CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ghimire, N. J.; Ronning, F.; Williams, D. J.; Scott, B. L.; Luo, Yongkang; Thompson, J. D.; Bauer, E. D.

    2014-12-15

    The synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties studied by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetic, thermal and transport measurements of CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) are reported, along with the electronic structure calculations for LaMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt). These materials adopt a tetragonal crystal structure (space group P4/mmm) comprised of BaAl4 blocks, separated by MAl2 units, stacked along the c-axis. Both CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2 order antiferromagnetically below TN1 = 14 and 16 K, respectively, and undergo a second antiferromagnetic transitition at lower temperature (TN2 = 9 and 14 K, respectively). CePtAl4Si2 orders ferromagnetically below TC = 3 Kmore » with an ordered moment of μsat = 0.8 μB for a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the c-axis. Electronic structure calculations reveal quasi-2D character of the Fermi surface.« less

  9. CONSTRAINTS ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MAIN BELT COMET P/2013 R3 FROM ITS BREAKUP EVENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Snchez, Diego Paul; Gabriel, Travis; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2014-07-01

    Jewitt etal. recently reported that main belt comet P/2013 R3 experienced a breakup, probably due to rotational disruption, with its components separating on mutually hyperbolic orbits. We propose a technique for constraining physical properties of the proto-body, especially the initial spin period and cohesive strength, as a function of the body's estimated size and density. The breakup conditions are developed by combining mutual orbit dynamics of the smaller components and the failure condition of the proto-body. Given a proto-body with a bulk density ranging from 1000kgm{sup 3} to 1500kgm{sup 3} (a typical range of the bulk density of C-type asteroids), we obtain possible values of the cohesive strength (40-210Pa) and the initial spin state (0.48-1.9hr). From this result, we conclude that although the proto-body could have been a rubble pile, it was likely spinning beyond its gravitational binding limit and would have needed cohesive strength to hold itself together. Additional observations of P/2013 R3 will enable stronger constraints on this event, and the present technique will be able to give more precise estimates of its internal structure.

  10. A short note on physical properties to irradiated nuclear fuel by means of X-ray diffraction and neutron scattering techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdullah, Yusof Husain, Hishamuddin; Hak, Cik Rohaida Che; Alias, Nor Hayati; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Kasim, Norasiah Ab; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-29

    For nuclear reactor applications, understanding the evolution of the fuel materials microstructure during irradiation are of great importance. This paper reviews the physical properties of irradiated nuclear fuel analysis which are considered to be of most importance in determining the performance behavior of fuel. X-rays diffraction was recognize as important tool to investigate the phase identification while neutron scattering analyses the interaction between uranium and other materials and also investigation of the defect structure.

  11. Status Report on Transfer of Physical and Hydraulic Properties Databases to the Hanford Environmental Information System - PNNL Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2009-06-30

    This document provides a status report on efforts to transfer physical and hydraulic property data from PNNL to CHPRC for incorporation into HEIS. The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support Hanford Site waste management and remedial action decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy and their contractors. The objective of Task 1, Activity 6 of the RDS project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library. These physical and hydraulic property data are used to estimate parameters for analytical and numerical flow and transport models that are used for site risk assessments and evaluation of remedial action alternatives. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data. Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the original objectives of this activity on the RDS project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database maintained by PNNL, (2) transfer the physical and hydraulic property data from the Microsoft Access database files used by SoilVision{reg_sign} into HEIS, which is currently being maintained by CH2M-Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHRPC), (3) develop a Virtual Library module for accessing these data from HEIS, and (4) write a User's Manual for the Virtual Library module. The intent of these activities is to make the available physical and hydraulic property data more readily accessible and useable by technical staff and operable unit managers involved in waste site assessments and remedial action decisions for Hanford. In FY08 communications were established between PNNL and staff from Fluor-Hanford Co. (who formerly managed HEIS) to outline the design of a Virtual Library module that could be used to access the physical and hydraulic property data that are to be transferred into HEIS. Data dictionaries used by SoilVision{reg_sign} were also provided to Fluor-Hanford personnel who are now with CHPRC. During ongoing work to ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data that currently reside in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database, it was recognized that further work would be required in this effort before the data were actually ported into HEIS. Therefore work on the Virtual Library module development and an accompanying User's Guide was deferred until an unspecified later date. In FY09 efforts have continued to verify the traceability and defensibility of the physical and hydraulic property datasets that are currently being maintained by PNNL. Although this is a work in progress, several of these datasets are now ready for transfer to CHRPC for inclusion in HEIS. The actual loading of data into HEIS is performed by CHPRC staff, so after the data are transferred from PNNL to CHPRC, it will be the responsibility of CHPRC to ensure that these data are loaded and made accessible. This document provides a status report on efforts to transfer physical and hydraulic property data from PNNL to CHPRC for incorporation into HEIS.

  12. Polymer/organosilica nanocomposites based on polyimide with benzimidazole linkages and reactive organoclay containing isoleucine amino acid: Synthesis, characterization and morphology properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran ; Dinari, Mohammad

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ? A reactive organoclay was formed using L-isoleucine amino acid as a swelling agent. ? Polyimide was synthesized from benzimidazole diamine and pyromellitic dianhydride. ? Imide and benzimidazole groups assured the thermal stability of the nanocomposites. ? Nanocomposite films were prepared by an in situ polymerization reaction. ? The TEM micrographs of nanocomposites revealed well-exfoliated structures. -- Abstract: Polyimidesilica nanocomposites are attractive hybrid architectures that possess excellent mechanical, thermal and chemical properties. But, the dispersion of inorganic domains in the polymer matrix and the compatibility between the organic and inorganic phases are critical factors in these hybrid systems. In this investigation, a reactive organoclay was prepared via ion exchange reaction between protonated form of difunctional L-isoleucine amino acid as a swelling agent and Cloisite Na{sup +} montmorillonite. Amine functional groups of this swelling agent formed an ionic bond with the negatively charged silicates, whereas the remaining acid functional groups were available for further interaction with polymer chains. Then organo-soluble polyimide (PI) have been successfully synthesized from the reaction of 2-(3,5-diaminophenyl)-benzimidazole and pyromellitic dianhydride in N,N-dimethylacetamide. Finally, PI/organoclay nanocomposite films enclosing 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% of synthesized organoclay were successfully prepared by an in situ polymerization reaction through thermal imidization. The synthesized hybrid materials were subsequently characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis techniques. The PI/organoclay nanocomposite films have good optical transparencies and the mechanical properties were substantially improved by the incorporation of the reactive organoclay.

  13. Physical and chemical properties of dust produced in a N{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} RF plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouni, F.; Alcouffe, G.; Szopa, C.; Carrasco, N.; Cernogora, G.; Adande, G.; Thissen, R.; Quirico, E.; Brissaud, O.; Schmitz-Afonso, I.; Laprevote, O.

    2008-09-07

    Titan's atmospheric chemistry is simulated using a Capacitively Coupled Plasma discharge produced in a N{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} mixture. The produced solid particles are analysed ex-situ. Chemical properties are deduced from: elemental composition, FTIR and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Optical properties are deduced from reflectivity in visible and IR range.

  14. Property

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ER-B-98-07 AUDIT REPORT PERSONAL PROPERTY AT THE OAK RIDGE OPERATIONS OFFICE AND THE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL OFFICE OF AUDIT SERVICES APRIL 1998 Page 10 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Washington, DC 20585 April 6, 1998 MEMORANDUM FOR THE MANAGER, OAK RIDGE OPERATIONS OFFICE AND THE DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION FROM: Terry L. Brendlinger Eastern Regional Audit Office Office of Inspector General SUBJECT:

  15. Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Almost all of the observable matter in the universe is in the plasma state. Formed at high temperatures, plasmas consist of freely moving ions and free electrons. They are often called the "fourth state of matter" because their unique physical properties distinguish them from solids, liquids and gases. Plasma densities and temperatures vary widely, from the cold gases of interstellar space to the extraordinarily hot, dense cores of stars and inside a detonating nuclear

  16. Effect of carbonization temperature on the physical and electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishak, M. M.; Deraman, M. Talib, I. A.; Basri, N. H.; Omar, R.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R.; Taer, E.

    2015-04-16

    Self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) was prepared from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches. The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N{sub 2} environment at 400, 500, 600 and 700C to produce carbon monoliths labeled as CM1, CM2, CM3 and CM4 respectively. The CMs were activated in CO{sub 2} surrounding at 800C for 1 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM1, ACM2, ACM3 and ACM4). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm techniques. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells performances were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical and electrochemical properties of the ACM electrodes by analyzing the influence of the carbonization temperature on these properties.

  17. Gogny, D; Schunck, N 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of low energy fission: fragment properties Younes, W; Gogny, D; Schunck, N 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS Abstract not provided Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory...

  18. Physical Protection

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-07-23

    This Manual establishes requirements for the physical protection of interests under the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) purview ranging from facilities, buildings, Government property, and employees to national security interests such as classified information, special nuclear material (SNM), and nuclear weapons. Cancels Section A of DOE M 470.4-2 Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

  19. Magnetic order and heavy fermion behavior in CePd{sub 1+x}Al{sub 6-x}: Synthesis, structure, and physical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobash, Paul H., E-mail: ptobash@lanl.go [Materials Physics and Application Division, MPA-10, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Ronning, Filip; Thompson, J.D. [Materials Physics and Application Division, MPA-10, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bobev, Svilen [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bauer, Eric D. [Materials Physics and Application Division, MPA-10, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The physical properties including magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and electrical resistivity of single crystals are reported for the compound CePd{sub 1+x}Al{sub 6-x} (x=0.5) which crystallizes in the tetragonal SrAu{sub 2}Ga{sub 5}-type structure (space group P4/mmm). The compound was grown from an excess of molten Al flux from the respective elements and the crystal structure was established from single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Anomalies in the low temperature specific heat C{sub p}(T) and electrical resistivity rho(T) show that the compound undergoes ferromagnetic order at T{sub C}=2.8 K. In the ordered state, CePd{sub 1.5}Al{sub 5.5} displays heavy fermion behavior with a Sommerfeld coefficient of ca. 500 mJ/mol-K{sup 2}. - Graphical abstract: The compound CePd{sub 1+x}Al{sub 6-x} (x=0.5) has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The measured physical properties of temperature and field dependent magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and electrical resistivity suggests that the compound undergoes ferromagnetic order at ca. 2.8 K and further exhibits relatively heavy fermion behavior with a Sommerfeld coefficient of 500 mJ/mol-K2.

  20. High Dose Neutron Irradiation of Hi-Nicalon Type S Silicon Carbide Composites, Part 2. Mechanical and Physical Properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Katoh, Yutai; Nozawa, Takashi; Shih, Chunghao Phillip; Ozawa, Kazumi; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Porter, Wallace D; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-01-07

    Nuclear-grade silicon carbide (SiC) composite material was examined for mechanical and thermophysical properties following high-dose neutron irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at a temperature range of 573–1073 K. Likewise, the material was chemical vapor-infiltrated SiC-matrix composite with a two-dimensional satin weave Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC fiber reinforcement and a multilayered pyrocarbon/SiC interphase. Moderate (1073 K) to very severe (573 K) degradation in mechanical properties was found after irradiation to >70 dpa, whereas no evidence was found for progressive evolution in swelling and thermal conductivity. The swelling was found to recover upon annealing beyond the irradiation temperature, indicating themore » irradiation temperature, but only to a limited extent. Moreover, the observed strength degradation is attributed primarily to fiber damage for all irradiation temperatures, particularly a combination of severe fiber degradation and likely interphase damage at relatively low irradiation temperatures.« less

  1. Optical and Physical Properties from Primary On-Road Vehicle ParticleEmissions And Their Implications for Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strawa, A.W.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Hallar, A.G.; Ban-Weiss, G.A.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Harley, R.A.; Lunden, M.M.

    2009-01-23

    During the summers of 2004 and 2006, extinction and scattering coefficients of particle emissions inside a San Francisco Bay Area roadway tunnel were measured using a combined cavity ring-down and nephelometer instrument. Particle size distributions and humidification were also measured, as well as several gas phase species. Vehicles in the tunnel traveled up a 4% grade at a speed of approximately 60 km h{sup -1}. The traffic situation in the tunnel allows the apportionment of emission factors between light duty gasoline vehicles and diesel trucks. Cross-section emission factors for optical properties were determined for the apportioned vehicles to be consistent with gas phase and particulate matter emission factors. The absorption emission factor (the absorption cross-section per mass of fuel burned) for diesel trucks (4.4 {+-} 0.79 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}) was 22 times larger than for light-duty gasoline vehicles (0.20 {+-} 0.05 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}). The single scattering albedo of particles - which represents the fraction of incident light that is scattered as opposed to absorbed - was 0.2 for diesel trucks and 0.3 for light duty gasoline vehicles. These facts indicate that particulate matter from motor vehicles exerts a positive (i.e., warming) radiative climate forcing. Average particulate mass absorption efficiencies for diesel trucks and light duty gasoline vehicles were 3.14 {+-} 0.88 m{sup 2} g{sub PM}{sup -1} and 2.9 {+-} 1.07 m{sup 2} g{sub PM}{sup -1}, respectively. Particle size distributions and optical properties were insensitive to increases in relative humidity to values in excess of 90%, reinforcing previous findings that freshly emitted motor vehicle particulate matter is hydrophobic.

  2. Effect of UV curing time on physical and electrical properties and reliability of low dielectric constant materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, Kai-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Lung; Chang, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Min; Leu, Jihperng

    2014-11-01

    This study comprehensively investigates the effect of ultraviolet (UV) curing time on the physical, electrical, and reliability characteristics of porous low-k materials. Following UV irradiation for various periods, the depth profiles of the chemical composition in the low-k dielectrics were homogeneous. Initially, the UV curing process preferentially removed porogen-related CH{sub x} groups and then modified Si-CH{sub 3} and cage Si-O bonds to form network Si-O bonds. The lowest dielectric constant (k value) was thus obtained at a UV curing time of 300?s. Additionally, UV irradiation made porogen-based low-k materials hydrophobic and to an extent that increased with UV curing time. With a short curing time (<300?s), porogen was not completely removed and the residues degraded reliability performance. A long curing time (>300?s) was associated with improved mechanical strength, electrical performance, and reliability of the low-k materials, but none of these increased linearly with UV curing time. Therefore, UV curing is necessary, but the process time must be optimized for porous low-k materials on back-end of line integration in 45?nm or below technology nodes.

  3. High moisture corn stover pelleting in a flat die pellet mill fitted with a 6 mm die: physical properties and specific energy consumption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar

    2015-06-15

    The quality and specific energy consumption (SEC) of the biomass pellets produced depend upon pelleting process conditions. The present study includes understanding the effect of feedstock moisture in the range of 28–38% (wet basis [w.b.]) and preheating in the range of 30–110°C at two die speeds of 40 and 60 Hz on the physical properties and SEC. A flat die pellet mill fitted with a 6 mm die was used in the present study. The physical properties of pellets such as moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density, durability, and expansion ratio and SEC of the pelleting process are measured.more » The results indicate that the pellets produced have durability values in the range of 87–98%, and unit bulk and tapped density in the range of 670–1100, 375–575, and 420–620 kg/m³. Increasing the feedstock moisture content from 33% to 38% (w.b) decreased the unit, bulk and tapped density by about 30–40%. Increasing feedstock moisture content increased the expansion ratio and decreased the density values. A higher feedstock moisture content of 38% (w.b.) and higher preheating temperature of 110°C resulted in lower density and a higher expansion ratio, which can be attributed to flash off of moisture as the material extrudes out of the die. The SEC was in the range of 75–275 kWh/ton. Higher feedstock moisture content of 38% (w.b.) and a lower die speed of 40 Hz increased the SEC, whereas lower to medium preheating temperature (30–70°C), medium feedstock moisture content of 33% (w.b.), and a higher die speed of 60 Hz minimized the SEC to <100 kWh/ton.« less

  4. Gold-rich R3Au7Sn3: Establishing the interdependence between electronic features and physical properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Provino, Alessia; Steinberg, Simon; Smetana, Volodymyr; Kulkarni, Ruta; Dhar, Sudesh K.; Manfrinetti, Pietro; Mudring, Anja -Verena

    2015-05-18

    Two new polar intermetallic compounds Y3Au7Sn3 (I) and Gd3Au7Sn3 (II) have been synthesized and their structures have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction (P63/m; Z = 2, a = 8.148(1)/8.185(3), and c = 9.394(2)/9.415(3) for I/II, respectively). They can formally be assigned to the Cu10Sn3 type and consist of parallel slabs of Sn centered, edge-sharing trigonal Au6 antiprisms connected through R3 (R = Y, Gd) triangles. Additional Au atoms reside in the centres of trigonal Au6 prisms forming Au@Au6 clusters with Au–Au distances of 2.906–2.960 Å, while the R–R contacts in the R3 groups are considerably larger than themore » sums of their metallic radii. These exclusive structural arrangements provide alluring systems to study the synergism between strongly correlated systems, particularly, those in the structure of (II), and extensive polar intermetallic contacts, which has been inspected by measurements of the magnetic properties, heat capacities and electrical conductivities of both compounds. Gd3Au7Sn3 shows an antiferromagnetic ordering at 13 K, while Y3Au7Sn3 is a Pauli paramagnet and a downward curvature in its electrical resistivity at about 1.9 K points to a superconducting transition. DFT-based band structure calculations on R3Au7Sn3 (R = Y, Gd) account for the results of the conductivity measurements and different spin ordering models of (II) provide conclusive hints about its magnetic structure. As a result, chemical bonding analyses of both compounds indicate that the vast majority of bonding originates from the heteroatomic Au–Gd and Au–Sn interactions, while homoatomic Au–Au bonding is evident within the Au@Au6 clusters.« less

  5. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2011-06-01

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  6. Effect of the substrate temperature on the physical properties of molybdenum tri-oxide thin films obtained through the spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, H.M.; Torres, J.; Lopez Carreno, L.D.; Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E.

    2013-01-15

    Polycrystalline molybdenum tri-oxide thin films were prepared using the spray pyrolysis technique; a 0.1 M solution of ammonium molybdate tetra-hydrated was used as a precursor. The samples were prepared on Corning glass substrates maintained at temperatures ranging between 423 and 673 K. The samples were characterized through micro Raman, X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance and DC electrical conductivity. The species MoO{sub 3} (H{sub 2}O){sub 2} was found in the sample prepared at a substrate temperature of 423 K. As the substrate temperature rises, the water disappears and the samples crystallize into {alpha}-MoO{sub 3}. The optical gap diminishes as the substrate temperature rises. Two electrical transport mechanisms were found: hopping under 200 K and intrinsic conduction over 200 K. The MoO{sub 3} films' sensitivity was analyzed for CO and H{sub 2}O in the temperature range 160 to 360 K; the results indicate that CO and H{sub 2}O have a reduction character. In all cases, it was found that the sensitivity to CO is lower than that to H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low cost technique is used which produces good material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films are prepared using ammonium molybdate tetra hydrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of the physical properties of the samples could be done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A calculation method is proposed to determine the material optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MoO{sub 3} thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis could be used as gas sensor.

  7. The three-dimensional morphology of growing dendrites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, J. W.; Mohan, K. A.; Gulsoy, E. B.; Shahani, A. J.; Xiao, X.; Bouman, C. A.; De Graef, M.; Voorhees, P. W.

    2015-07-03

    The processes controlling the morphology of dendrites have been of great interest to a wide range of communities, since they are examples of an out-of-equilibrium pattern forming system, there is a clear connection with battery failure processes, and their morphology sets the properties of many metallic alloys. We determine the three-dimensional morphology of free growing metallic dendrites using a novel X-ray tomographic technique that improves the temporal resolution by more than an order of magnitude compared to conventional techniques. These measurements show that the growth morphology of metallic dendrites is surprisingly different from that seen in model systems, the morphology is not self-similar with distance back from the tip, and that this morphology can have an unexpectedly strong influence on solute segregation in castings. These experiments also provide benchmark data that can be used to validate simulations of free dendritic growth.

  8. Investigation of the physical properties of the tetragonal CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghimire, N. J.; Ronning, F.; Williams, D. J.; Scott, B. L.; Luo, Yongkang; Thompson, J. D.; Bauer, E. D.

    2014-12-15

    The synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties studied by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetic, thermal and transport measurements of CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) are reported, along with the electronic structure calculations for LaMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt). These materials adopt a tetragonal crystal structure (space group P4/mmm) comprised of BaAl4 blocks, separated by MAl2 units, stacked along the c-axis. Both CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2 order antiferromagnetically below TN1 = 14 and 16 K, respectively, and undergo a second antiferromagnetic transitition at lower temperature (TN2 = 9 and 14 K, respectively). CePtAl4Si2 orders ferromagnetically below TC = 3 K with an ordered moment of ?sat = 0.8 ?B for a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the c-axis. Electronic structure calculations reveal quasi-2D character of the Fermi surface.

  9. Resolution of the discrepancy between the variation of the physical properties of Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 single crystals and thin films with Yb composition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jang, S.; White, B. D.; Lum, I. K.; Kim, H.; Tanatar, M. A.; Straszheim, W. E.; Prozorov, R.; Keiber, T.; Bridges, F.; Shu, L.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The extraordinary electronic phenomena including an Yb valence transition, a change in Fermi surface topology, and suppression of the heavy fermion quantum critical field at a nominal concentration x≈0.2 have been found in the Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 system. These phenomena have no discernable effect on the unconventional superconductivity and normal-state non-Fermi liquid behaviour that occur over a broad range of x up to ~0.8. However, the variation of the coherence temperature T* and the superconducting critical temperature Tc with nominal Yb concentration x for bulk single crystals is much weaker than that of thin films. To determine whether differences in the actualmore » Yb concentration of bulk single crystals and thin film samples might be responsible for these discrepancies, we employed Vegard’s law and the spectroscopically determined values of the valences of Ce and Yb as a function of x to determine the actual composition xact of bulk single crystals. This analysis is supported by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission X-ray absorption edge spectroscopy measurements. The actual composition xact is found to be about one-third of the nominal concentration x up to x~0.5, and resolves the discrepancy between the variation of the physical properties of Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 single crystals and thin films with Yb concentration.« less

  10. PHYSICAL SCIENCES, Physics Phase

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SCIENCES, Physics Phase competition in trisected superconducting dome I. M. Vishik, 1, 2 M Hashimoto, 3 R.-H. He, 4 W. S. Lee, 1, 2 F. Schmitt, 1, 2 D. H. Lu, 3 R. G. Moore, 1...

  11. The three-dimensional morphology of growing dendrites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gibbs, J. W.; Mohan, K. A.; Gulsoy, E. B.; Shahani, A. J.; Xiao, X.; Bouman, C. A.; De Graef, M.; Voorhees, P. W.

    2015-07-03

    The processes controlling the morphology of dendrites have been of great interest to a wide range of communities, since they are examples of an out-of-equilibrium pattern forming system, there is a clear connection with battery failure processes, and their morphology sets the properties of many metallic alloys. We determine the three-dimensional morphology of free growing metallic dendrites using a novel X-ray tomographic technique that improves the temporal resolution by more than an order of magnitude compared to conventional techniques. These measurements show that the growth morphology of metallic dendrites is surprisingly different from that seen in model systems, the morphologymore » is not self-similar with distance back from the tip, and that this morphology can have an unexpectedly strong influence on solute segregation in castings. These experiments also provide benchmark data that can be used to validate simulations of free dendritic growth.« less

  12. Nuclear Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Programs Office of Science Nuclear Physics science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Nuclear Physics Enabling remarkable discoveries and tools that ...

  13. MATPRO-Version 11: a handbook of materials properties for use...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nonboiling Water Cooled; 360104 -- Metals & Alloys-- Physical Properties; 360204 -- Ceramics, Cermets, & Refractories-- Physical Properties This handbook describes the materials...

  14. Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Plasma Physics By leveraging plasma under extreme conditions, we concentrate on solving ... smuggled nuclear materials, advancing weapons physics and generating fusion energy. ...

  15. Subatomic Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Subatomic Physics We play a major role in large-scale scientific collaborations around the world, performing nuclear physics experiments that advance the understanding of the ...

  16. Theoretical Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HEP Theoretical Physics Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic ... HEP Theory at Los Alamos The Theoretical High Energy Physics group at Los Alamos National ...

  17. TJNAF Property Manual

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The following 7 procedures for receipt and inspection, marking, protection, accountability, physical inventory and disposal of property accomplish this goal at JLab. 3.1 Shipping ...

  18. Materials Physics and Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ADEPS » MPA Materials Physics and Applications We develop new technologies that solve pressing national energy and security challenges by exploring and exploiting materials and their properties; developing practical applications of materials, and providing world-class user facilities. Contact Us Division Leader (acting) Michael Hundley Email Deputy Division Leader Rick Martineau Email Chief of Staff Jeff Willis Email Division Office (505) 665-1131 Materials Physics Applications Division

  19. A convenient strategy to functionalize carbon nanotubes with ascorbic acid and its effect on the physical and thermomechanical properties of poly(amideimide) composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Zadehnazari, Amin

    2014-03-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized by ascorbic acid by a fast strategy under microwave irradiation to improve interfacial interactions and dispersion of CNTs in a poly(amideimide) (PAI) matrix. This technique provides a rapid and economically viable route to produce covalently functionalized CNTs. The as-prepared, new type of functionalized CNTs were analyzed by several techniques. The thermal stabilities and mechanical interfacial properties of CNT/PAI composites were investigated using several techniques. The dispersion state of CNTs in the PAI matrix was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical interfacial property of the composites was significantly increased by the addition of ascorbic acid treated CNTs. The FE-SEM and TEM results showed that the separation and uniform dispersion of CNTs in the PAI matrix. The overview of these recent results is presented. -- Graphical abstract: Presentation of possible interactions of hydrogen bonding between the MWCNT-AS and the PAI chains. Highlights: Surface functionalization of MWCNTs with ascorbic acid under microwave irradiation. The MWCNT-AS/PAI composite films were fabricated by solution blending process. Microstructure and MWCNT states in the composites were studied. Thermal and mechanical properties of the composite films were evaluated. Films of different contents of the MWCNTs-AS showed a superior tensile behavior.

  20. Physical properties and electronic structure of a new barium titanate suboxide Ba1+?Ti13-?O?? (? = 0.11)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotundu, Costel R.; Jiang, Shan; Deng, Xiaoyu; Qian, Yiting; Khan, Saeed; Hawthorn, David G.; Kotliar, Gabriel; Ni, Ni

    2015-04-01

    The structure, transport, thermodynamic properties, x-ray absorption spectra (XAS), and electronic structure of a new barium titanate suboxide, Ba1+?Ti13-?O?? (? = 0.11), are reported. It is a paramagnetic poor metal with hole carriers dominating the transport. Fermi liquid behavior appears at low temperature. The oxidization state of Ti obtained by the XAS is consistent with the metallic Ti? state. Local density approximation band structure calculations reveal the material is near the Van Hove singularity. The pseudogap behavior in the Ti-d band and the strong hybridization between the Ti-d and O-p orbitals reflect the characteristics of the building blocks of the Ti?? semi-cluster and the TiO? quasi-squares, respectively.

  1. Physical properties and electronic structure of a new barium titanate suboxide Ba{sub 1+?}Ti{sub 13??}O{sub 12} (? = 0.11)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotundu, Costel R.; Jiang, Shan; Ni, Ni; Deng, Xiaoyu; Kotliar, Gabriel; Qian, Yiting; Hawthorn, David G.; Khan, Saeed

    2015-04-01

    The structure, transport, thermodynamic properties, x-ray absorption spectra (XAS), and electronic structure of a new barium titanate suboxide, Ba{sub 1+?}Ti{sub 13??}O{sub 12} (? = 0.11), are reported. It is a paramagnetic poor metal with hole carriers dominating the transport. Fermi liquid behavior appears at low temperature. The oxidization state of Ti obtained by the XAS is consistent with the metallic Ti{sup 2+} state. Local density approximation band structure calculations reveal the material is near the Van Hove singularity. The pseudogap behavior in the Ti-d band and the strong hybridization between the Ti-d and O-p orbitals reflect the characteristics of the building blocks of the Ti{sub 13} semi-cluster and the TiO{sub 4} quasi-squares, respectively.

  2. Physical properties and electronic structure of a new barium titanate suboxide Ba1+δTi13-δO₁₂ (δ = 0.11)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rotundu, Costel R.; Jiang, Shan; Deng, Xiaoyu; Qian, Yiting; Khan, Saeed; Hawthorn, David G.; Kotliar, Gabriel; Ni, Ni

    2015-04-01

    The structure, transport, thermodynamic properties, x-ray absorption spectra (XAS), and electronic structure of a new barium titanate suboxide, Ba1+δTi13-δO₁₂ (δ = 0.11), are reported. It is a paramagnetic poor metal with hole carriers dominating the transport. Fermi liquid behavior appears at low temperature. The oxidization state of Ti obtained by the XAS is consistent with the metallic Ti²⁺ state. Local density approximation band structure calculations reveal the material is near the Van Hove singularity. The pseudogap behavior in the Ti-d band and the strong hybridization between the Ti-d and O-p orbitals reflect the characteristics of the building blocks of themore »Ti₁₃ semi-cluster and the TiO₄ quasi-squares, respectively.« less

  3. Theoretical Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HEP Theoretical Physics Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email Bruce Carlsten (505) 667-5657 Email HEP Theory at Los Alamos The Theoretical High Energy Physics group at Los Alamos National Laboratory is active in a number of diverse areas of research. Their primary areas of interest are in physics beyond the Standard Model, cosmology, dark matter, lattice quantum chromodynamics, neutrinos, the fundamentals of

  4. Nuclear Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Programs » Office of Science » Nuclear Physics /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg Nuclear Physics Enabling remarkable discoveries and tools that transform our understanding of energy and matter and advance national, economic, and energy security. Isotopes» A roadmap of matter that will help unlock the secrets of how the universe is put together The DOE Office of Science's Nuclear Physics (NP) program supports the experimental and theoretical research needed to create

  5. physical security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5%2A en Physical Security Systems http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsnuclearsecurityphysicalsecuritysystems

  6. Physical Sciences

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    and the universe around us. Physics Division researchers are studying these interactions from the outermost reaches of the cosmos, to the innermost confines of subatomic particles....

  7. Influence of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content on the structure of erbium-doped borosilicate glasses and on their physical, thermal, optical and luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourhis, Kevin; Massera, Jonathan; Petit, Laeticia; Ihalainen, Heikki; Fargues, Alexandre; Cardinal, Thierry; Hupa, Leena; Hupa, Mikko; Dussauze, Marc; Rodriguez, Vincent; Boussard-Plédel, Catherine; Bureau, Bruno; Roiland, Claire; Ferraris, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Reorganization of the glass structure induced by the addition of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Emission properties related to the presence of P or Al in the Er{sup 3+} coordination shell. • Declustering observed upon addition of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. • No declustering upon addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: The effect of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and/or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition in Er-doped borosilicate glasses on the physical, thermal, optical, and luminescence properties is investigated. The changes in these glass properties are related to the glass structure modifications induced by the addition of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and/or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which were probed by FTIR, {sup 11}B MAS NMR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Variations of the polymerization degree of the silicate tetrahedra and modifications in the {sup [3]}B/{sup [4]}B ratio are explained by a charge compensation mechanism due to the formation of AlO{sub 4}, PO{sub 4} groups and the formation of Al-O-P linkages in the glass network. From the absorption and luminescence properties of the Er{sup 3+} ions at 980 nm and 1530 nm, declustering is suspected for the highest P{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations while for the highest Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations no declustering is observed.

  8. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED GALAXIES AT z {>=} 6. I. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REST-FRAME UV CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Linhua; Mechtley, Matthew; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Egami, Eiichi; Fan Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR observations of a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies at z {>=} 6. The sample consists of 51 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 5.7, 6.5, and 7.0, and 16 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 5.9 {<=} z {<=} 6.5. The near-IR images were mostly obtained with WFC3 in the F125W and F160W bands, and the mid-IR images were obtained with IRAC in the 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands. Our galaxies also have deep optical imaging data from Subaru Suprime-Cam. We utilize the multi-band data and secure redshifts to derive their rest-frame UV properties. These galaxies have steep UV-continuum slopes roughly between {beta} {approx_equal} -1.5 and -3.5, with an average value of {beta} {approx_equal} -2.3, slightly steeper than the slopes of LBGs in previous studies. The slope shows little dependence on UV-continuum luminosity except for a few of the brightest galaxies. We find a statistically significant excess of galaxies with slopes around {beta} {approx_equal} -3, suggesting the existence of very young stellar populations with extremely low metallicity and dust content. Our galaxies have moderately strong rest-frame Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) in a range of {approx}10 to {approx}200 A. The star formation rates are also moderate, from a few to a few tens of solar masses per year. The LAEs and LBGs in this sample share many common properties, implying that LAEs represent a subset of LBGs with strong Ly{alpha} emission. Finally, the comparison of the UV luminosity functions between LAEs and LBGs suggests that there exists a substantial population of faint galaxies with weak Ly{alpha} emission (EW < 20 A) that could be the dominant contribution to the total ionizing flux at z {>=} 6.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and physical properties of the skutterudites Yb{sub x}Fe{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sb{sub 12} (0{<=}x{<=}0.4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaltzoglou, Andreas; Vaqueiro, Paz; Knight, Kevin S.; Powell, Anthony V.

    2012-09-15

    The skutterudites Yb{sub x}Fe{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sb{sub 12} (0{<=}x{<=}0.4) have been prepared by solid-state reaction and characterised by powder X-ray diffraction. The compounds crystallise in the cubic space group Im3{sup Macron} (a Almost-Equal-To 9.1 A) with Yb atoms partially filling the voids in the skutterudite framework. A neutron time-of-flight diffraction experiment for Fe{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sb{sub 12} confirms the disorder of Fe and Ni atoms on the transition-metal site. Electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity measurements indicate that the thermoelectric performance of the skutterudites shows a marked dependence on the Yb content. Magnetic measurements over the temperature range 2{<=}T/K{<=}300 show paramagnetic behaviour for all compounds. Decomposition studies under an oxidising atmosphere at elevated temperatures have also been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. - Graphical abstract: The filled skutterudites Yb{sub x}Fe{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sb{sub 12} have been prepared by solid-state reaction and characterised by powder X-ray diffraction. The thermoelectric performance depends strongly on the Yb content. The physical properties and thermal stability of the compounds are further discussed in comparison with the current state-of-the art thermoelectric skutterudites. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new series of skutterudites has been prepared and characterised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical properties are affected by the degree of Yb filling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest thermoelectric performance is found for Yb{sub 0.15}Fe{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sb{sub 12}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The skutterudites decompose in air above 550 K.

  10. Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure, and physical properties of the new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelinska, Mariya; Assoud, Abdeljalil [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kleinke, Holger, E-mail: kleinke@uwaterloo.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    The new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} has been obtained by annealing the elements at 1073 K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the title compound crystallizes in a new structure type, space group Pnma (no. 62) with lattice dimensions of a=8.2326(3) A, b=25.9466(9) A, c=7.3402(3) A, V=1567.9(1) A{sup 3}, Z=4 for La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86(4)}Te{sub 7}. The structure of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is remarkably complex. The Cu and Te atoms build up a three-dimensional covalent network. The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra, and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. Electrical property measurements on a sintered pellet of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86}Te{sub 7} indicate that it is a p-type semiconductor in accordance with the electronic structure calculations. -- Graphical abstract: Oligomeric unit comprising interconnected CuTe{sub 3} pyramids and CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} adopts a new structure type. {yields} All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. {yields} The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is a p-type semiconductor.

  11. Gold-rich R3Au7Sn3: Establishing the interdependence between electronic features and physical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provino, Alessia; Steinberg, Simon; Smetana, Volodymyr; Kulkarni, Ruta; Dhar, Sudesh K.; Manfrinetti, Pietro; Mudring, Anja -Verena

    2015-05-18

    Two new polar intermetallic compounds Y3Au7Sn3 (I) and Gd3Au7Sn3 (II) have been synthesized and their structures have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction (P63/m; Z = 2, a = 8.148(1)/8.185(3), and c = 9.394(2)/9.415(3) for I/II, respectively). They can formally be assigned to the Cu10Sn3 type and consist of parallel slabs of Sn centered, edge-sharing trigonal Au6 antiprisms connected through R3 (R = Y, Gd) triangles. Additional Au atoms reside in the centres of trigonal Au6 prisms forming Au@Au6 clusters with Au–Au distances of 2.906–2.960 Å, while the R–R contacts in the R3 groups are considerably larger than the sums of their metallic radii. These exclusive structural arrangements provide alluring systems to study the synergism between strongly correlated systems, particularly, those in the structure of (II), and extensive polar intermetallic contacts, which has been inspected by measurements of the magnetic properties, heat capacities and electrical conductivities of both compounds. Gd3Au7Sn3 shows an antiferromagnetic ordering at 13 K, while Y3Au7Sn3 is a Pauli paramagnet and a downward curvature in its electrical resistivity at about 1.9 K points to a superconducting transition. DFT-based band structure calculations on R3Au7Sn3 (R = Y, Gd) account for the results of the conductivity measurements and different spin ordering models of (II) provide conclusive hints about its magnetic structure. As a result, chemical bonding analyses of both compounds indicate that the vast majority of bonding originates from the heteroatomic Au–Gd and Au–Sn interactions, while homoatomic Au–Au bonding is evident within the Au@Au6 clusters.

  12. REVEALING THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MOLECULAR GAS IN ORION WITH A LARGE-SCALE SURVEY IN J = 2-1 LINES OF {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, AND C{sup 18}O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, Atsushi; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kimura, Kimihiro; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hideo; Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, 4-1-1 Nukuikita-machi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Mizuno, Akira [Solar-terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo, E-mail: atsushi.nishimura@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    We present fully sampled ?3' resolution images of {sup 12}CO(J=2-1), {sup 13}CO(J=2-1), and C{sup 18}O(J=2-1) emission taken with the newly developed 1.85 m millimeter-submillimeter telescope over the entire area of the Orion A and B giant molecular clouds. The data were compared with J=1-0 of the {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O data taken with the Nagoya 4 m telescope and the NANTEN telescope at the same angular resolution to derive the spatial distributions of the physical properties of the molecular gas. We explore the large velocity gradient formalism to determine the gas density and temperature using line combinations of {sup 12}CO(J=2-1), {sup 13}CO(J=2-1), and {sup 13}CO(J=1-0) assuming a uniform velocity gradient and abundance ratio of CO. The derived gas density is in the range of 500 to 5000 cm{sup 3}, and the derived gas temperature is mostly in the range of 20 to 50 K along the cloud ridge with a temperature gradient depending on the distance from the star forming region. We found that the high-temperature region at the cloud edge faces the H II region, indicating that the molecular gas is interacting with the stellar wind and radiation from the massive stars. In addition, we compared the derived gas properties with the young stellar objects distribution obtained with the Spitzer telescope to investigate the relationship between the gas properties and the star formation activity therein. We found that the gas density and star formation efficiency are positively well correlated, indicating that stars form effectively in the dense gas region.

  13. Advanced Technologies for Monitoring CO2 Saturation and Pore Pressure in Geologic Formations: Linking the Chemical and Physical Effects to Elastic and Transport Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.; Vanorio, T.; Vialle, S.; Saxena, N.

    2014-03-31

    Ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities were measured over a range of confining pressures while injecting CO2 and brine into the samples. Pore fluid pressure was also varied and monitored together with porosity during injection. Effective medium models were developed to understand the mechanisms and impact of observed changes and to provide the means for implementation of the interpretation methodologies in the field. Ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities in carbonate rocks show as much as 20-50% decrease after injection of the reactive CO2-brine mixture; the changes were caused by permanent changes to the rock elastic frame associated with dissolution of mineral. Velocity decreases were observed under both dry and fluid-saturated conditions, and the amount of change was correlated with the initial pore fabrics. Scanning Electron Microscope images of carbonate rock microstructures were taken before and after injection of CO2-rich water. The images reveal enlargement of the pores, dissolution of micrite (micron-scale calcite crystals), and pitting of grain surfaces caused by the fluid- solid chemical reactivity. The magnitude of the changes correlates with the rock microtexture tight, high surface area samples showed the largest changes in permeability and smallest changes in porosity and elastic stiffness compared to those in rocks with looser texture and larger intergranular pore space. Changes to the pore space also occurred from flow of fine particles with the injected fluid. Carbonates with grain-coating materials, such as residual oil, experienced very little permanent change during injection. In the tight micrite/spar cement component, dissolution is controlled by diffusion: the mass transfer of products and reactants is thus slow and the fluid is expected to be close to thermodynamical equilibrium with the calcite, leading to very little dissolution, or even precipitation. In the microporous rounded micrite and macropores, dissolution is controlled by advection: because of an efficient mass transfer of reactants and products, the fluid remains acidic, far from thermodynamical equilibrium and the dissolution of calcite is important. These conclusions are consistent with the lab observations. Sandstones from the Tuscaloosa formation in Mississippi were also subjected to injection under representative in situ stress and pore pressure conditions. Again, both P- and S-wave velocities decreased with injection. Time-lapse SEM images indicated permanent changes induced in the sandstone microstructure by chamosite dissolution upon injection of CO2-rich brine. After injection, the sandstone showed an overall cleaner microstructure. Two main changes are involved: (a) clay dissolution between grains and at the grain contact and (b) rearrangement of grains due to compaction under pressure Theoretical and empirical models were developed to quantify the elastic changes associated with injection. Permanent changes to the rock frame resulted in seismic velocity-porosity trends that mimic natural diagenetic changes. Hence, when laboratory measurments are not available for a candidate site, these trends can be estimated from depth trends in well logs. New theoretical equations were developed to predict the changes in elastic moduli upon substitution of pore-filling material. These equations reduce to Gassmanns equations for the case of constant frame properties, low seismic frequencies, and fluid changes in the pore space. The new models also predict the change dissolution or precipitation of mineral, which cannot be described with the conventional Gassmann theory.

  14. Physical Scientist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, providing more than 40 percent of total funding for this vital area of...

  15. Planetary Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planetary Physics Some of the most intriguing NIF experiments test the physics believed to determine the structures of planets down to their cores, both in our solar system and beyond. In particular, scientists are using NIF to "explore" recently discovered exoplanets by duplicating the extreme conditions thought to exist in their interiors. Hundreds of extrasolar planets have been identified, some smaller than Earth and others a dozen times more massive than Jupiter. There is intense

  16. Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Yu (Saline, MI); Banerjee, Debasish (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2007-11-13

    The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

  17. Flavor Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference, Bled, 2007 1 The Search for ν µ → ν e Oscillations at MiniBooNE H. A. Tanaka, for the MiniBooNE collaboration Department of Physics, Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, 08544 United States of America MiniBooNE (Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment) searches for the ν µ → ν e oscillations with ∆m 2 ∼ 1 eV 2 /c 4 indicated by the LSND experiment. The LSND evidence, when taken with the solar and atmospheric

  18. FSU High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prosper, Harrison B.; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Berg, Bernd; Blessing, Susan K.; Okui, Takemichi; Owens, Joseph F.; Reina, Laura; Wahl, Horst D.

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the non-zero neutrino masses or the overwhelming astrophysical evidence for an invisible form of matter, called dark matter, that has had a marked effect on the evolution of structure in the universe. The report highlights the main, recent, experimental achievements of the experimental group, which include the investigation of properties of the W and Z bosons; the search for new heavy stable charged particles and the search for a proposed property of nature called supersymmetry in proton-proton collisions that yield high energy photons. In addition, we report a few results from a more general search for supersymmetry at the LHC, initiated by the group. The report also highlights the group's significant contributions, both theoretical and experimental, to the 2012 discovery of the Higgs boson and the measurement of its properties.

  19. Rock physics at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Rock physics refers to the study of static and dynamic chemical and physical properties of rocks and to phenomenological investigations of rocks reacting to man-made forces such as stress waves and fluid injection. A bibliography of rock physics references written by LASL staff members is given. Listing is by surname of first author. (RWR)

  20. Crystal Structure, Physical Properties, and Electrochemistry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Brookhaven National University; University of California, San Diego; University of Cambridge, UK; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Massachusetts Institute of Technology;...

  1. Measuring Physical Properties of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Cortney Mittelsteadt of Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC, at the DOE High Temperature Membrane Working Group held September 14, 2006.

  2. Physics Division News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PADSTE ADEPS Physics Physics Division News Physics Division News Discover more about the wide-ranging scope of Physics Division science and technology. Contact Us ADEPS ...

  3. SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER STRUCTURING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Chen, Jian; Jones, Jonaaron F.; Alexandra, Hackett; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Daniel, Claus; Warren, Charles David; Rehkopf, Jackie D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of Carbon Fiber Polymer Composite (CFPC) as a lightweight material in automotive and aerospace industries requires the control of surface morphology. In this study, the composites surface was prepared by ablating the resin in the top fiber layer of the composite using an Nd:YAG laser. The CFPC specimens with T700S carbon fiber and Prepreg - T83 resin (epoxy) were supplied by Plasan Carbon Composites, Inc. as 4 ply thick, 0/90o plaques. The effect of laser fluence, scanning speed, and wavelength was investigated to remove resin without an excessive damage of the fibers. In addition, resin ablation due to the power variation created by a laser interference technique is presented. Optical property measurements, optical micrographs, 3D imaging, and high-resolution optical profiler images were used to study the effect of the laser processing on the surface morphology.

  4. Physical Protection

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26

    This Manual establishes requirements for the physical protection of safeguards and security interests. Copies of Section B, Safeguards and Security Alarm Management System, which contains Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information, and Appendix 1, Security Badge Specifications, which contains Official Use Only information, are only available, by request, from the program manager, Protection Program Operations, 301-903-6209. Chg 1, dated 3/7/06. Cancels: DOE M 473.1-1 and DOE M 471.2-1B

  5. Physical Protection

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26

    Establishes requirements for the physical protection of safeguards and security interests. Copies of Section B, Safeguards and Security Alarm Management System, which contains Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information, and Appendix 1, Security Badge Specifications, which contains Official Use Only information, are only available, by request, from the program manager, Protection Program Operations, 301-903-6209. Cancels: DOE M 473.1-1 and DOE M 471.2-1B.

  6. Operational health physics training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-06-01

    The initial four sections treat basic information concerning atomic structure and other useful physical quantities, natural radioactivity, the properties of {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, x rays and neutrons, and the concepts and units of radiation dosimetry (including SI units). Section 5 deals with biological effects and the risks associated with radiation exposure. Background radiation and man-made sources are discussed next. The basic recommendations of the ICRP concerning dose limitations: justification, optimization (ALARA concepts and applications) and dose limits are covered in Section seven. Section eight is an expanded version of shielding, and the internal dosimetry discussion has been extensively revised to reflect the concepts contained in the MIRD methodology and ICRP 30. The remaining sections discuss the operational health physics approach to monitoring radiation. Individual sections include radiation detection principles, instrument operation and counting statistics, health physics instruments and personnel monitoring devices. The last five sections deal with the nature of, operation principles of, health physics aspects of, and monitoring approaches to air sampling, reactors, nuclear safety, gloveboxes and hot cells, accelerators and x ray sources. Decontamination, waste disposal and transportation of radionuclides are added topics. Several appendices containing constants, symbols, selected mathematical topics, and the Chart of the Nuclides, and an index have been included.

  7. Crystallography and Physical Properties of BaCo2As2, Ba0.94K0.06Co2As2, and Ba0.78K0.22Co2As2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, V K; Quirinale, Dante G; Lee, Yongbin; Harmon, Bruce N; Furukawa, Yuji; Ogloblichev, V V; Huq, A; Abernathy, D L; Stephens, P W; McQueeney, Robert J; Kreyssig, Aandreas; Goldman, Alan I; Johnston, David C

    2014-08-01

    The crystallographic and physical properties of polycrystalline and single crystal samples of BaCo2As2 and K-doped Ba{1-x}K{x}Co2As2 (x = 0.06, 0.22) are investigated by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility chi, magnetization, heat capacity Cp, {75}As NMR and electrical resistivity rho measurements versus temperature T. The crystals were grown using both Sn flux and CoAs self-flux, where the Sn-grown crystals contain 1.6-2.0 mol% Sn. All samples crystallize in the tetragonal ThCr2Si2-type structure (space group I4/mmm). For BaCo2As2, powder neutron diffraction data show that the c-axis lattice parameter exhibits anomalous negative thermal expansion from 10 to 300 K, whereas the a-axis lattice parameter and the unit cell volume show normal positive thermal expansion over this T range. No transitions in BaCo2As2 were found in this T range from any of the measurements. Below 40-50 K, we find rho ~ T^2 indicating a Fermi liquid ground state. A large density of states at the Fermi energy D(EF) ~ 18 states/(eV f.u.) for both spin directions is found from low-T Cp(T) measurements, whereas the band structure calculations give D(EF) = 8.23 states/(eV f.u.). The {75}As NMR shift data versus T have the same T dependence as the chi(T) data, demonstrating that the derived chi(T) data are intrinsic. The observed {75}As nuclear spin dynamics are consistent with the presence of ferromagnetic and/or stripe-type antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations. The crystals of Ba{0.78}K{0.22}Co2As2 were grown in Sn flux and show properties very similar to those of undoped BaCo2As2. On the other hand, the crystals from two batches of Ba{0.94}K{0.06}Co2As2 grown in CoAs self-flux show evidence of weak ferromagnetism at T < 10 K with small ordered moments at 1.8 K of 0.007 and 0.03 muB per formula unit, respectively.

  8. Hadron physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunce, G.

    1984-05-30

    Is all hadronic physics ultimately describable by QCD. Certainly, many disparate phenomena can be understood within the QCD framework. Also certainly, there are important questions which are open, both theoretically (little guidance, as yet) and experimentally, regarding confinement. Are there dibaryons, baryonium, glueballs. In addition, there are experimental results which at present do not have an explanation. This talk, after a short section on QCD successes and difficulties, will emphasize two experimental topics which have recent results - glueball spectroscopy and exclusive reactions at large momentum transfer. Both are experimentally accessible in the AGS/LAMPF II/AGS II/TRIUMF II/SIN II energy domain.

  9. Resolution of the discrepancy between the variation of the physical properties of Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 single crystals and thin films with Yb composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, S.; White, B. D.; Lum, I. K.; Kim, H.; Tanatar, M. A.; Straszheim, W. E.; Prozorov, R.; Keiber, T.; Bridges, F.; Shu, L.; Baumbach, R. E.; Janoschek, M.; Maple, M. B.

    2014-11-18

    The extraordinary electronic phenomena including an Yb valence transition, a change in Fermi surface topology, and suppression of the heavy fermion quantum critical field at a nominal concentration x?0.2 have been found in the Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 system. These phenomena have no discernable effect on the unconventional superconductivity and normal-state non-Fermi liquid behaviour that occur over a broad range of x up to ~0.8. However, the variation of the coherence temperature T* and the superconducting critical temperature Tc with nominal Yb concentration x for bulk single crystals is much weaker than that of thin films. To determine whether differences in the actual Yb concentration of bulk single crystals and thin film samples might be responsible for these discrepancies, we employed Vegards law and the spectroscopically determined values of the valences of Ce and Yb as a function of x to determine the actual composition xact of bulk single crystals. This analysis is supported by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission X-ray absorption edge spectroscopy measurements. The actual composition xact is found to be about one-third of the nominal concentration x up to x~0.5, and resolves the discrepancy between the variation of the physical properties of Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 single crystals and thin films with Yb concentration.

  10. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment.

  11. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton`s Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment.

  12. Physics Topics - MST - UW Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Topics UW Madison Madison Symmetric Torus Physics Topics MST HomeGraduate Student InformationLinksTourControl and Auxiliary SystemsPhysics TopicsDeviceResearch MissionMST People mst logo CPLA Home Directory Publications Links Internal University of Wisconsin Physics Department Research funding includes support from: Department of Energy National Science Foundation The MST physics challenges are large and many, but much of our work is captured in the following four major RFP physics goals

  13. Properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourounis, S.; Tsivilis, S. . E-mail: stsiv@central.ntua.gr; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Papadimitriou, G.D.; Tsibouki, Z.

    2007-06-15

    The present research study investigates the properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag, a by-product of the conversion process of iron to steel. For this purpose, a reference sample and three cements containing up to 45% w/w steel slag were tested. The steel slag fraction used was the '0-5 mm', due to its high content in calcium silicate phases. Initial and final setting time, standard consistency, flow of normal mortar, autoclave expansion and compressive strength at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days were measured. The hydrated products were identified by X-ray diffraction while the non-evaporable water was determined by TGA. The microstructure of the hardened cement pastes and their morphological characteristics were examined by scanning electron microscopy. It is concluded that slag can be used in the production of composite cements of the strength classes 42.5 and 32.5 of EN 197-1. In addition, the slag cements present satisfactory physical properties. The steel slag slows down the hydration of the blended cements, due to the morphology of contained C{sub 2}S and its low content in calcium silicates.

  14. Physics of Cancer | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MBG Auditorium Physics of Cancer Professor Wolfgang Losert, Associate Professor, and ... PDF icon Wolfgang Losert Bio.pdf Physics of Cancer Contact Information ...

  15. High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Energy Physics science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg High Energy Physics Investigating the field of high energy physics through experiments that strengthen our ...

  16. Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan- Chapter 1, Physical Security

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2016 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 1, Physical Security Describes DOE Headquarters Physical Security procedures related to badges, inspections, access controls, visitor controls, and removal of government property.

  17. Menu Driven Program Determining Properties of Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solutions

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-12-09

    LIMENU is a menu driven program written to compute seven physical properties of a lithium bromide-water solution and three physical properties of water, and to display two plots.

  18. Quantum simulations of physics problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somma, R. D.; Ortiz, G.; Knill, E. H.; Gubernatis, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    If a large Quantum Computer (QC) existed today, what type of physical problems could we efficiently simulate on it that we could not efficiently simulate on a classical Turing machine? In this paper we argue that a QC could solve some relevant physical 'questions' more efficiently. The existence of one-to-one mappings between different algebras of observables or between different Hilbert spaces allow us to represent and imitate any physical system by any other one (e.g., a bosonic system by a spin-1/2 system). We explain how these mappings can be performed, and we show quantum networks useful for the efficient evaluation of some physical properties, such as correlation functions and energy spectra.

  19. Saturday Morning Physics - Talks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Further information online Contemporary Physics Education Project The Particle Adventure Particle Physics - Education and Outreach (Fermilab) CERN (Education Website) Wikipedia: ...

  20. SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER STRUCTURING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER ...

  1. Surface Morphology and Magnetic Anisotropy (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Surface Morphology and Magnetic Anisotropy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface Morphology and Magnetic Anisotropy Authors: Lukaszew, R.A. ; Zhang, Z. ;...

  2. Exploration of multi-block polymer morphologies using high performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exploration of multi-block polymer morphologies using high performance computing Modern material design increasingly relies on controlling small scale morphologies. Multi-block...

  3. Addressable morphology control of silica structures by manipulating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Addressable morphology control of silica structures by manipulating the reagent addition time Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Addressable morphology control of silica ...

  4. Statistical physics ""Beyond equilibrium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecke, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    The scientific challenges of the 21st century will increasingly involve competing interactions, geometric frustration, spatial and temporal intrinsic inhomogeneity, nanoscale structures, and interactions spanning many scales. We will focus on a broad class of emerging problems that will require new tools in non-equilibrium statistical physics and that will find application in new material functionality, in predicting complex spatial dynamics, and in understanding novel states of matter. Our work will encompass materials under extreme conditions involving elastic/plastic deformation, competing interactions, intrinsic inhomogeneity, frustration in condensed matter systems, scaling phenomena in disordered materials from glasses to granular matter, quantum chemistry applied to nano-scale materials, soft-matter materials, and spatio-temporal properties of both ordinary and complex fluids.

  5. Carl A. Gagliardi PHYSICS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A. Gagliardi PHYSICS Fundamental interactions and nuclear astrophysics - Fellow, American Physical Society - Distinguished Achievement Award in Teaching, AFS, - Texas A&M John C. Hardy PHYSICS Fundamental interactions and exotic nuclei - Fellow, Royal Society of Canada - Fellow, American Physical Society Che Ming Ko PHYSICS Theoretical hadron physics and heavy-ion collisions - Humboldt Research Award - Fellow, American Physical Society Joseph B. Natowitz CHEMISTRY Heavy-ion reaction

  6. Plasma physics | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    physics Subscribe to RSS - Plasma physics The study of plasma, a partially-ionized gas that is electrically conductive and able to be confined within a magnetic field, and how it ...

  7. Descriptive Morphology Terms For MAMA software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-21

    The table on the following pages lists a set of morphology terms for describing materials. We have organized these terms by categories. Software uses are welcome to suggest other terms that are needed to accurately describe materials. This list is intended as a initial starting point to generating a consensus terminology list.

  8. Office of Physical Protection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Office of Physical Protection is comprised of a team of security specialists engaged in providing Headquarters-wide physical protection.

  9. Nuclear Physics: Recent Talks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free Electron Laser (FEL) Medical Imaging Physics Topics Campaigns Meetings Recent Talks Archived Talks Additional Information Computing at JLab Operations Logbook Physics Topics: ...

  10. Physics Thrust Areas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thrust Areas Physics Thrust Areas Physics Division serves the nation through its broad portfolio of fundamental and applied research. Quality basic science research: critical ...

  11. ORISE: Health Physics Training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health Physics Training Student performs an analysis during an ORAU health physics training course Training and educating a highly skilled workforce that can meet operational ...

  12. ORISE: Health physics services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health physics services Nuclear power plant The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) offers comprehensive health physics services in a number of technical areas ...

  13. UNIRIB: Physics Topics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Topics Research Capitalizing on the strengths of nine collaborating research ... Ion Beam (UNIRIB) consortium is conducting research at the forefront of nuclear physics. ...

  14. Saturday Morning Physics - Talks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Further information online Contemporary Physics Education Project Secret Worlds: The Universe within (Java animation) The Particle Adventure Particle Physics - Education and ...

  15. Nuclear Physics: Meetings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Topics: Meetings Talks given at the Science & Technology Review 2004 Larry Cardman: Science Overview and the Experimental Program ppt | pdf Tony Thomas: Nuclear Physics ...

  16. Nuclear Physics Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hall A Hall B Hall C Hall D Physics Departments Administrative Office Data Acquisition Group Detector & Imaging Group Electronics Group User Liaison Nuclear Physics Program HALL A ...

  17. Nuclear Physics: Campaigns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free-Electron Laser (FEL) Medical Imaging Physics Topics Campaigns The Structure of the Nuclear Building Blocks The Structure of Nuclei Symmetry Tests in Nuclear Physics Meetings ...

  18. Historic Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of its historic properties. The National Park Service would provide interpretation, education, and technical preservation assistance for properties at LANL. Potential Los...

  19. On phase equilibria and crystal structures in the systems Ce-Pd-B and Yb-Pd-B. Physical properties of R{sub 2}Pd{sub 13.6}B{sub 5} (R=Yb, Lu)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sologub, Oksana; Rogl, Peter; Salamakha, Leonid; Bauer, Ernst; Hilscher, Gerfried; Michor, Herwig; Giester, Gerald

    2010-05-15

    Phase equilibria and crystal structures of ternary compounds were determined in the systems Ce-Pd-B and Yb-Pd-B at 850 deg. C in the concentration ranges up to 45 and 33 at% of Ce and Yb, respectively, employing X-ray single crystal and powder diffraction. Phase relations in the Ce-Pd-B system at 850 deg. C are governed by formation of extended homogeneity fields, tau{sub 2}-CePd{sub 8}B{sub 2-x} (0.10Physical properties for Yb{sub 2}Pd{sub 13.6}B{sub 5} (temperature dependent specific heat, electrical resistivity and magnetization) yielded a predominantly Yb-4f{sup 13} electronic configuration, presumably related with a magnetic instability below 2 K. Kondo interaction and crystalline electric field effects control the paramagnetic temperature domain. - Graphical Abstract: Crystal structure of CePd{sub 8}B{sub 2-x}.

  20. GAUSSIAN RANDOM FIELD: PHYSICAL ORIGIN OF SERSIC PROFILES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cen, Renyue

    2014-08-01

    While the Sersic profile family provides adequate fits for the surface brightness profiles of observed galaxies, its physical origin is unknown. We show that if the cosmological density field is seeded by random Gaussian fluctuations, as in the standard cold dark matter model, galaxies with steep central profiles have simultaneously extended envelopes of shallow profiles in the outskirts, whereas galaxies with shallow central profiles are accompanied by steep density profiles in the outskirts. These properties are in accord with those of the Sersic profile family. Moreover, galaxies with steep central profiles form their central regions in smaller denser subunits that possibly merge subsequently, which naturally leads to the formation of bulges. In contrast, galaxies with shallow central profiles form their central regions in a coherent fashion without significant substructure, a necessary condition for disk galaxy formation. Thus, the scenario is self-consistent with respect to the correlation between observed galaxy morphology and the Sersic index. We further predict that clusters of galaxies should display a similar trend, which should be verifiable observationally.

  1. physics-based-html

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics-based High-Resolution Numerical Modeling of Bridge Foundation Scour

  2. Morphologically and size uniform monodisperse particles and their shape-directed self-assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Joshua E.; Bell, Howard Y.; Ye, Xingchen; Murray, Christopher Bruce

    2015-11-17

    Monodisperse particles having: a single pure crystalline phase of a rare earth-containing lattice, a uniform three-dimensional size, and a uniform polyhedral morphology are disclosed. Due to their uniform size and shape, the monodisperse particles self assemble into superlattices. The particles may be luminescent particles such as down-converting phosphor particles and up-converting phosphors. The monodisperse particles of the invention have a rare earth-containing lattice which in one embodiment may be an yttrium-containing lattice or in another may be a lanthanide-containing lattice. The monodisperse particles may have different optical properties based on their composition, their size, and/or their morphology (or shape). Also disclosed is a combination of at least two types of monodisperse particles, where each type is a plurality of monodisperse particles having a single pure crystalline phase of a rare earth-containing lattice, a uniform three-dimensional size, and a uniform polyhedral morphology; and where the types of monodisperse particles differ from one another by composition, by size, or by morphology. In a preferred embodiment, the types of monodisperse particles have the same composition but different morphologies. Methods of making and methods of using the monodisperse particles are disclosed.

  3. Experimental Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Carl; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Purohit, Milind V.

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment, which collected data at SLAC until 2008. They continued to analyze the voluminous BaBar data with an emphasis on precision tests of Quantum Chromodynamics and on properties of the "eta_B," a bottom quark paired in a meson with a strange quark. The ATLAS experiment became the principal research focus for Purohit. One of the world's largest pieces of scientific equipment, ATLAS observes particle collisions at the highest-energy particle accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Our efforts on ATLAS included participation in the commissioning, calibration, and installation of components called "CSCs". The unprecedented energy of 14 TeV enabled the ATLAS and CMS collaborations to declare discovery of the famous Higgs particle in 2012.

  4. High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Energy Physics /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg High Energy Physics Investigating the field of high energy physics through experiments that strengthen our fundamental understanding of matter, energy, space, and time. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological and Environmental Research Fusion Energy Sciences High Energy Physics Nuclear Physics Advanced Scientific Computing Research Pioneering accelerator technology to improve the intensity of

  5. Nuclear Physics and the New Standard Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States) and Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-08-04

    Nuclear physics studies of fundamental symmetries and neutrino properties have played a vital role in the development and confirmation of the Standard Model of fundamental interactions. With the advent of the CERN Large Hadron Collider, experiments at the high energy frontier promise exciting discoveries about the larger framework in which the Standard Model lies. In this talk, I discuss the complementary opportunities for probing the 'new Standard Model' with nuclear physics experiments at the low-energy high precision frontier.

  6. Ronald C Davidson | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ronald C Davidson Professor of Astrophysical Sciences, Emeritus. Senior Astrophysicist Ronald Davidson has made numerous fundamental theoretical contributions to pure and applied plasma physics, including nonlinear plasma dynamics and collective interactions; physics of non-neutral plasmas; kinetic equilibrium and stability properties; and intense charged particle beam propagation in high energy accelerators. Professor Davidson served as director of PPPL from 1991 to 1996 and as director of the

  7. Morphological characterization of ? phase in poly-(vinylidenefluoride) film prepared by spin cast method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehtani, Hitesh Kumar Kumar, Rishi Raina, K. K.

    2014-04-24

    Poly-(Vinylidene fluoride) PVDF film was prepared by spin casting method to control the pore size of the matrix. The morphological spherulitic structure was confirmed Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after gold sputtering and the presence of ? phase was ensured in spin cast PVDF film by the FTIR spectroscopy. The ? phase is very important in the application because it improve the properties like piezoelectricity by modifying PVDF crystallinity.

  8. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on simplistic morphological assumptions, including discrete...

  9. The effect of ultrasonication on the size and morphology of iron oxide - chitosan nano and microparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ak?n, Deniz; Yakar, Arzu; Gndz, Ufuk

    2013-12-16

    The aim of this study is to synthesize magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-chitosan nano and microparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CPs) by suspension cross-linking and ionic gelation methods and investigate the effect of ultrasonication on the size, morphology and magnetic properties. The synthesized particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results showed that the ultrasonication decreased the mean particle diameter and enhanced magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CPs due to the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} content.

  10. Key Physical Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Stephan Bremner

    2010-07-21

    The objective of the project was to study both theoretically and experimentally the excitation, recombination and transport properties required for nanostructured solar cells to deliver energy conversion efficiencies well in excess of conventional limits. These objectives were met by concentrating on three key areas, namely, investigation of physical mechanisms present in nanostructured solar cells, characterization of loss mechanisms in nanostructured solar cells and determining the properties required of nanostructured solar cells in order to achieve high efficiency and the design implications.

  11. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Laboratory P.O. Box 451 Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 GPS: 100 Stellarator Road Princeton, NJ 08540 www.pppl.gov 2015 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A...

  12. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Laboratory P.O. Box 451 Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 GPS: 100 Stellarator Road Princeton, NJ 08540 www.pppl.gov 2016 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A ...

  13. Physics Informed Machine Learning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Informed Machine Learning Physics Informed Machine Learning WHEN: Jan 19, 2016 8:00 AM - Jan 22, 2016 4:00 PM WHERE: Inn at Loretto, Santa Fe CATEGORY: Science TYPE: ...

  14. Physics Informed Machine Learning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Informed Machine Learning Physics Informed Machine Learning WHEN: Jan 19, 2016 8:00 AM - Jan 22, 2016 4:00 PM WHERE: Inn at Loretto, Santa Fe CATEGORY: Science TYPE:...

  15. Crystallization and morphology of mordenite zeolite influenced by various parameters in organic-free synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ling [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian P.O. Box 110, 116023 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian P.O. Box 110, 116023 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie, Sujuan; Xin, Wenjie; Li, Xiujie; Liu, Shenglin [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian P.O. Box 110, 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian P.O. Box 110, 116023 (China); Xu, Longya, E-mail: lyxu@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian P.O. Box 110, 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian P.O. Box 110, 116023 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Seed, gel composition and silicon source affect the crystallization process of MOR. {yields} Seed, gel composition and silicon source influence the morphology of MOR. {yields} Low silica concentration results in MOR with high c/b aspect ratio. {yields} Novel nano fiber-like MOR with c/b aspect ratio of 89 was organic-free synthesized. {yields} The morphology of MOR influences its mesopore property and thermal stability. -- Abstract: A series of mordenite zeolites with different morphologies were synthesized via a facile organic-free hydrothermal route, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption techniques. Influences of synthetic parameters, including seed crystal, silicon precursor, SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2}, on mordenite crystallization were investigated systematically. It was found that mordenite zeolites with various morphologies, such as fiber-like, rod-like, prism-like and needle-like ones could be synthesized in control. Especially, novel nano fiber-like MOR crystals with high c/b aspect ratio were prepared from low silica concentration system, which was manipulated by using small initial SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, large H{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} and silicon source with slow dissolution rate. Moreover, mordenite samples with various morphologies exhibited different mesopore property and thermal stability.

  16. Neutrino Physics with Thermal Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nucciotti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano Bicocca and INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2009-11-09

    The investigation of fundamental neutrino properties like its mass and its nature calls for the design of a new generation of experiments. High sensitivity, high energy resolution, and versatility together with the possibility of a simple multiplexing scheme are the key features of future detectors for these experiments. Thermal detectors can combine all these features. This paper reviews the status and the perspectives for what concerns the application of this type of detectors to neutrino physics, focusing on direct neutrino mass measurements and neutrinoless double beta decay searches.

  17. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dear sir, I am a student of physics. I have heard that scientists are trying to distinguish time as a discrete quantity. Would you give me some detailed information about it? I am very much interested in properties of time. I hope you will be able to help me. Thank you, Ravi Kafley Dear Ravi, Physicists think of time as the fourth dimension. Three spatial dimensions, one time dimension. They call it space-time. The standard view is that time is continuous, but there might be some scientists that

  18. American Physical Society Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physical Society Awards American Physical Society (APS) is one of the most important professional societies for gauging the quality of R&D done at the Laboratory. The APS sponsors a number of awards including the John Dawson Award of Excellence in Plasma Physics, James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics, as well as Dinstinguised Lectuerer and Doctoral Dissertation prizes. Name Year Name of Award and Citation Yu-hsin Chen 2012 Marshall N. Rosenbluth Outstanding Doctoral Thesis For

  19. ORISE: Health Physics Training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health Physics Training Student performs an analysis during an ORAU health physics training course Training and educating a highly skilled workforce that can meet operational commitments in the areas of radiation and health physics is an essential part of protecting your workers, the public and the environment. ORAU, the managing contractor of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, offers hands-on, laboratory-based training courses in a variety of health physics areas. Training

  20. How to Popularize Physics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Simmons, Elizabeth [Michigan State University, East Landing, Michigan, United States

    2009-09-01

    This talk discusses the whys and hows of educational outreach and presents examples from several fields of physics.

  1. American Physical Society awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Computational Physics. * Karissa Sanbonmatsu, Theoretical division's Theoretical Biology and Biophysics group for pioneering computer simulation of molecular machines and...

  2. The Morphology of Emulsion Polymerized Latex Particles

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Wignall, G. D.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Linne, M. A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L. H.; Wai, M. P.; Gelman, R. A.; Fatica, M. G.; Hoerl, R. H.; Fisher, L. W.

    1987-11-01

    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structure as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10{sup 4} 10{sup 6} the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M < 10{sup 6} g/mol SANS gave zero angle scattering intensities much higher than expected on the basis of a random distribution of labeled molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights.

  3. Luu, T; Platter, L 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS;...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis Bedaque, P; Luu, T; Platter, L 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; DEUTERIUM; FIELD THEORIES; NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEOSYNTHESIS;...

  4. Morphological basis of tolerance to ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, M.J.; Dekker, N.P.; Cabral-Anderson, L.J.; Shami, S.G.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to study Type 1 epithelial cells in the ozone (O/sub 3/)-tolerant lung epithelium. Rats were made tolerant by exposure to 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ for 2 days and allowed to recover in air. Reexposure to a lethal concentration of O/sub 3/ (6 ppm) at 3, 7, and 15 days of recovery revealed that tolerance was present at 3 days but almost absent at 7 and 15 days of recovery. Using Type 2 cell proliferation as a means of quantitating Type 1 cell injury, it was observed that when the preexposed rats were reexposed to 0.5 ppm at 3, 7, and 15 days, very little Type 1 cell injury occurred at 3 days. However, at 7 and 15 days the amount of Type 1 cell injury was the same as that associated with the original exposure. To determine whether there was any change in the alveolar epithelial cell populations between the periods of tolerance (3 days) and its decline (7 and 15 days), the percentage of tritiated thymidine (( /sup 3/H)TdR-labeled Type 1 and 2 cells at these times were determined. There was a significant decrease in (/sup 3/H)TdR-labeled Type 1 and 2 cells between the third and fifteenth days of recovery as excess cells were sloughed off and the tissue returned to normal. Using electron microscopic morphometry, Type 1 and 2 cells were then studied during the decline of tolerance. No change was found in the morphology of Type 2 cells; however, the morphology of Type 1 cells revealed a 58% decrease in surface area and a 25% increase in the arithmetic mean thickness when tolerance was present at 3 days. As tolerance declined (7 and 15 days), Type 1 cell morphology returned to normal. It was concluded that tolerance exists when the surface area of a cell exposed to a particular concentration of ozone is small enough so that the existing antioxidant mechanism contained within that cell volume can protect it from damage.

  5. Intellectual Property

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Property Intellectual Property The innovation assets we make available to our industry partners include the ideas, knowledge, skills and experience of our people. Contact thumbnail of Kathleen McDonald Head of Intellectual Property, Business Development Executive Kathleen McDonald Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 667-5844 Email The primary mission of Los Alamos National Laboratory is to develop and deploy the technology required to protect and preserve our national security.

  6. Thermoelectric Properties of Rare-Earth-Ruthenium-Germanium Compounds...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cobalt substitution for ruthenium enhances the semiconductor character but does not improve the thermoelectric properties. URL: Link to article - Journal of Applied Physics...

  7. AN EVALUATION OF PYROLYSIS OIL PROPERTIES AND CHEMISTRY AS RELATED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and physical properties than crude oil, including more water and oxygen and has lower HC ratio, higher specific gravity and density, higher acidity, and lower energy content. ...

  8. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut fr Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  9. ORISE: Health physics services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health physics services Nuclear power plant The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) offers comprehensive health physics services in a number of technical areas for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as other federal and state agencies. From radiological facility audits and reviews to dose modeling and technical evaluations, ORISE is nationally-recognized for its health physics support to decontamination and decommissioning

  10. Experimental Physical Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ADEPS Experimental Physical Sciences Developing and applying materials science and experimental physics capabilities to programs and problems of national importance. Advancing physics and materials science for problems of national importance Neutrons find "missing" magnetism of plutonium Neutrons find "missing" magnetism of plutonium READ MORE Los Alamos among new DOE projects Create new technology pathways for low-cost fusion energy development READ MORE Combined methods

  11. American Physical Society Fellows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American Physical Society Fellows American Physical Society (APS) Fellowships recognize those who have made advances in knowledge through original research or have made significant and innovative contributions in the application of physics to science and technology. Each year, no more than one-half of one percent of APS's current membership is recognized by their peers for election to the status of Fellow. The hundred-year-old society numbers tens of thousands of physicists worldwide. Name Year

  12. MST - UW Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MST Home UW Madison Madison Symmetric Torus MST Home MST HomeGraduate Student InformationLinksTourControl and Auxiliary SystemsPhysics TopicsDeviceResearch MissionMST People mst logo CPLA Home Directory Publications Links Internal University of Wisconsin Physics Department Research funding includes support from: Department of Energy National Science Foundation The Madison Symmetric Torus produces hot plasma for research in plasma physics and fusion power generation, the energy source of the sun.

  13. Physics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Physics Physics On January 13, 2012, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory senior scientist Dr. Saul Perlmutter spoke with Energy Department staff about his research that earned him a 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics. Featured Dark Energy Cam: Fermilab Expands Understanding of Expanding Universe Researchers at Fermi National Lab team stand beside the 570-megapixels, five-ton Dark Energy camera, which will be capable of measuring the expansion of the universe - and developing better models about how

  14. Personal Property

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-10-16

    This Guide provides non-regulatory guidance and information to assist DOE organizations and contractors in implementing the DOE-wide and site-specific personal property management programs. It supplements the policy, requirements, and responsibilities information contained in the DOE Order cited above and clarifies the regulatory requirements contained in the Federal Property Management Regulation (FMR) and specific contracts.

  15. Physical Protection Program Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-12-23

    Supplements DOE O 473.1, by establishing requirements for the physical protection of safeguards and security interests. Cancels: DOE M 5632.1C-1

  16. Nuclear Physics: Experiment Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    search Nuclear Physics Program Please upgrade your browser. This site's design is only visible in a graphical browser that supports web standards, but its content is accessible to...

  17. Internships for Physics Majors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Fermilab's IPM program offers ten-week summer internships to outstanding undergraduate physics majors. This program has been developed to familiarize students with opportunities at the frontiers of...

  18. Nuclear Physics: Experiment Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free Electron Laser (FEL) Medical Imaging Physics Topics Campaigns Meetings Recent Talks Archived Talks Additional Information Computing at JLab Operations Logbook Experiment ...

  19. Palm Physics Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We no longer support this website. This is a preliminary group of Palm applicationsdatabases that are intended to serve the interests of atomic, nuclear and particle physics....

  20. Varied morphology carbon nanotubes and method for their manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Wenzhi; Wen, Jian Guo; Ren, Zhi Feng

    2007-01-02

    The present invention describes the preparation of carbon nanotubes of varied morphology, catalyst materials for their synthesis. The present invention also describes reactor apparatus and methods of optimizing and controlling process parameters for the manufacture carbon nanotubes with pre-determined morphologies in relatively high purity and in high yields. In particular, the present invention provides methods for the preparation of non-aligned carbon nanotubes with controllable morphologies, catalyst materials and methods for their manufacture.

  1. Understand morphology of organic semiconductors, for better tailoring it |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Understand morphology of organic semiconductors, for better tailoring it Wednesday, December 9, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Hongping Yan, SSRL Program Description "Understand morphology of organic semiconductors, for better tailoring it" Morphology dictates performance. To fabricate high performance organic electronics (eg. organic photovoltaics, field-effect transistors etc.), in-depth characterization

  2. SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STRUCTURING (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER STRUCTURING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER STRUCTURING The increasing use of Carbon Fiber Polymer Composite (CFPC) as a lightweight material in automotive and aerospace industries requires the control of surface morphology. In this study, the composites surface was prepared by ablating the resin

  3. Chemical and Morphological Evolution of Nanoporous Pd/Rh Alloy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Chemical and Morphological Evolution of Nanoporous PdRh Alloy Particles for ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  4. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a more likely morphology based on the current study. The absorption of a photon in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) results in a bound exciton (electronhole pair) that must be...

  5. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the...

  6. Rethinking the idealized morphology in high-performance organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rethinking the idealized morphology in high-performance organic photovoltaics December 9, 2011 Tweet EmailPrint Traditionally, organic photovoltaic (OPV) active layers are viewed...

  7. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive...

  8. Nuclear & Particle Physics, Astrophysics, Cosmology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear & Particle Physics science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Nuclear & Particle Physics, Astrophysics, Cosmology National security depends on science and ...

  9. Exploring new physics through contact interactions in lepton pair

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    production at a linear collider (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Exploring new physics through contact interactions in lepton pair production at a linear collider Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exploring new physics through contact interactions in lepton pair production at a linear collider If a contact interaction type correction to a Standard Model process is observed, studying its detailed properties can provide information on the fundamental physics responsible for

  10. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Technical Report: Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage This report covers the results of developing the rock physics theory of the effects of CO{sub 2} injection and storage in a host reservoir on the rock�s elastic properties and the resulting seismic signatures (reflections) observed during sequestration and storage. Specific topics addressed are: (a) how the

  11. Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth; Preston, Dean L.

    2015-03-19

    This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.

  12. Tritium evolution from various morphologies of palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuggle, D.G.; Claytor, T.N.; Taylor, S.F. |

    1994-04-01

    The authors have been able to extend the tritium production techniques to various novel morphologies of palladium. These include small solid wires of various diameters and a type of pressed powder wire and a plasma cell. In most successful experiments, the amount of palladium required, for an equivalent tritium output, has been reduced by a factor of 100 over the older powder methods. In addition, they have observed rates of tritium production (>5 nCi/h) that far exceed most of the previous results. Unfortunately, the methods that they currently use to obtain the tritium are poorly understood and consequently there are numerous variables that need to be investigated before the new methods are as reliable and repeatable as the previous techniques. For instance, it seems that surface and/or bulk impurities play a major role in the successful generation of any tritium. In those samples with total impurity concentrations of >400 ppM essentially no tritium has been generated by the gas loading and electrical simulation methods.

  13. Personal Property

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-06-09

    This Guide provides non-regulatory guidance and information to assist DOE organizations and contractors in implementing the DOE-wide and site-specific personal property management programs. Supersedes DOE G 580.1-1.

  14. Historic Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Historic Properties Historic Properties Our environmental stewardship commitment: we will cleanup the past, minimize impacts for current environmental operations, and create a sustainable future. April 12, 2012 TA-18-0001, site of the 1946 Louis Slotin criticality accident TA-18-0001, site of the 1946 Louis Slotin criticality accident, which significantly influenced future criticality safety programs. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos,

  15. Intellectual Property

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intellectual Property Intellectual Property Los Alamos protects the innovations of its scientists and engineers by filing patent applications and copyrights. Patents and Patent Applications Publication Number Title US20120001631A1 Ultra-Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Method to Discriminate and Identify Materials US20120055264A1 Apparatus and Method for Noninvasive Particle Detection Using Doppler Spectroscopy US20120227473A1 Apparatus and Method for Visualization of Particles Suspended in

  16. Deep Secrets of the Neutrino: Physics Underground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowson, P.C.

    2010-03-23

    Among the many beautiful, unexpected and sometimes revolutionary discoveries to emerge from subatomic physics, probably none is more bizarre than an elementary particle known as the 'neutrino'. More than a trillion of these microscopic phantoms pass unnoticed through our bodies every second, and indeed, through the entire Earth - but their properties remain poorly understood. In recent years, exquisitely sensitive experiments, often conducted deep below ground, have brought neutrino physics to the forefront. In this talk, we will explore the neutrino - what we know, what we want to know, and how one experiment in a New Mexico mine is trying to get there.

  17. Toward a constructive physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    We argue that the discretization of physics which has occurred thanks to the advent of quantum mechanics has replaced the continuum standards of time, length and mass which brought physics to maturity by counting. The (arbitrary in the sense of conventional dimensional analysis) standards have been replaced by three dimensional constants: the limiting velocity c, the unit of action h, and either a reference mass (eg m/sub p/) or a coupling constant (eg G related to the mass scale by hc/(2..pi..Gm/sub p//sup 2/) approx. = 1.7 x 10/sup 38/). Once these physical and experimental reference standards are accepted, the conventional approach is to connect physics to mathematics by means of dimensionless ratios. But these standards now rest on counting rather than ratios, and allow us to think of a fourth dimensionless mathematical concept, which is counting integers. According to constructive mathematics, counting has to be understood before engaging in the practice of mathematics in order to avoid redundancy. In its strict form constructive mathematics allows no completed infinities, and must provide finite algorithms for the computation of any acceptable concept. This finite requirement in constructive mathematics is in keeping with the practice of physics when that practice is restricted to hypotheses which are testable in a finite time. In this paper we attempt to outline a program for physics which will meet these rigid criteria while preserving, in so far as possible, the successes that conventional physics has already achieved.

  18. Future Physics | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future Physics March 5, 2009 In late January, we held a meeting of our Physics Advisory Committee, PAC34 to be precise. We had two primary goals for the PAC, one related to the currently operating program, the other related to future physics after completion of the 12 GeV Upgrade Project. Of course, with its receipt of approval to enter the construction phase, we are treating the 12 GeV Project schedule as something to live by. The shutdowns and running of the machine derive from a combination

  19. Physical Protection Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-12-23

    Establishes Department of Energy management objectives, requirements and responsibilities for the physical protection of safeguards and security interests. Cancels DOE 5632.1C. Canceled by DOE O 470.4.

  20. Courses on Beam Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a foundation course on accelerator physics and associated technologies. The US-CERN-Japan-Russia Joint Accelerator School The purpose of the US-CERN-Japan-Russia joint school...

  1. Investigation of refractory black carbon-containing particle morphologies using the single-particle soot photometer (SP2)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sedlacek, III, Arthur J.; Lewis, Ernie R.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Lambe, Andrew T.; Davidovits, Paul

    2015-07-24

    An important source of uncertainty in radiative forcing by absorbing aerosol particles is the uncertainty in their morphologies (i.e., the location of the absorbing substance on/in the particles). To examine the effects of particle morphology on the response of an individual black carbon-containing particle in a Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), a series of experiments was conducted to investigate black carbon-containing particles of known morphology using Regal black (RB), a proxy for collapsed soot, as the light-absorbing substance. Particles were formed by coagulation of RB with either a solid substance (sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate) or a liquid substance (dioctyl sebacate),more » and by condensation with dioctyl sebacate, the latter experiment forming particles in a core-shell configuration. Each particle type experienced fragmentation (observed as negative lagtimes), and each yielded similar lagtime responses in some instances, confounding attempts to differentiate particle morphology using current SP2 lagtime analysis. SP2 operating conditions, specifically laser power and sample flow rate, which in turn affect the particle heating and dissipation rates, play an important role in the behavior of particles in the SP2, including probability of fragmentation. This behavior also depended on the morphology of the particles and on the thermo-chemical properties of the non-RB substance. Although these influences cannot currently be unambiguously separated, the SP2 analysis may still provide useful information on particle mixing states and black carbon particle sources.« less

  2. Investigation of refractory black carbon-containing particle morphologies using the single-particle soot photometer (SP2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedlacek, III, Arthur J.; Lewis, Ernie R.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Lambe, Andrew T.; Davidovits, Paul

    2015-07-24

    An important source of uncertainty in radiative forcing by absorbing aerosol particles is the uncertainty in their morphologies (i.e., the location of the absorbing substance on/in the particles). To examine the effects of particle morphology on the response of an individual black carbon-containing particle in a Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), a series of experiments was conducted to investigate black carbon-containing particles of known morphology using Regal black (RB), a proxy for collapsed soot, as the light-absorbing substance. Particles were formed by coagulation of RB with either a solid substance (sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate) or a liquid substance (dioctyl sebacate), and by condensation with dioctyl sebacate, the latter experiment forming particles in a core-shell configuration. Each particle type experienced fragmentation (observed as negative lagtimes), and each yielded similar lagtime responses in some instances, confounding attempts to differentiate particle morphology using current SP2 lagtime analysis. SP2 operating conditions, specifically laser power and sample flow rate, which in turn affect the particle heating and dissipation rates, play an important role in the behavior of particles in the SP2, including probability of fragmentation. This behavior also depended on the morphology of the particles and on the thermo-chemical properties of the non-RB substance. Although these influences cannot currently be unambiguously separated, the SP2 analysis may still provide useful information on particle mixing states and black carbon particle sources.

  3. High-pressure stability relations, crystal structures, and physical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    properties of perovskite and post-perovskite of NaNiF{sub 3} (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High-pressure stability relations, crystal structures, and physical properties of perovskite and post-perovskite of NaNiF{sub 3} Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-pressure stability relations, crystal structures, and physical properties of perovskite and post-perovskite of NaNiF{sub 3} NaNiF{sub 3} perovskite was found to transform to post-perovskite at 16-18 GPa and 1273-1473 K.

  4. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayser, Boris

    2012-06-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures. Neutrinos and photons are by far the most abundant elementary particles in the universe. Thus, if we would like to comprehend the universe, we must understand the neutrinos. Of course, studying the neutrinos is challenging, since the only known forces through which these electrically-neutral leptons interact are the weak force and gravity. Consequently, interactions of neutrinos in a detector are very rare events, so that very large detectors and intense neutrino sources are needed to make experiments feasible. Nevertheless, we have confirmed that the weak interactions of neutrinos are correctly described by the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics. Moreover, in the last 14 years, we have discovered that neutrinos have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. These discoveries have been based on the observation that neutrinos can change from one 'flavor' to another - the phenomenon known as neutrino oscillation. We shall explain the physics of neutrino oscillation, deriving the probability of oscillation in a new way. We shall also provide a very brief guide to references that can be used to study some major neutrino-physics topics other than neutrino oscillation.

  5. American Physical Society

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos scientists honored by American Physical Society November 12, 2015 LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Nov. 12, 2015-Ten Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists are new Fellows of the American Physical Society. Tariq Aslam, Steven Batha, Eric Bauer, Hou-Tong Chen, Diego Alejandro Dalvit, Dinh Nguyen, Alan Perelson, Filip Ronning, Alexander Saunders and Glen Wurden were named this week by the national organization. "We're extremely pleased that the technical accomplishments of our talented staff

  6. Computational Physics and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Computational Physics and Methods Performing innovative simulations of physics phenomena on tomorrow's scientific computing platforms Growth and emissivity of young galaxy hosting a supermassive black hole as calculated in cosmological code ENZO and post-processed with radiative transfer code AURORA. image showing detailed turbulence simulation, Rayleigh-Taylor Turbulence imaging: the largest turbulence simulations to date Advanced multi-scale modeling Turbulence datasets Density iso-surfaces

  7. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Physics photo At Fermilab, a robust scientific program pursues answers to key questions about the laws of nature and the cosmos. The challenge of particle physics is to discover what the universe is made of and how it works. By building some of the largest and most complex machines in the world, Fermilab scientists expand humankind's understanding of matter, energy, space and time. Fermilab is at the forefront of research into neutrinos, ubiquitous but hard-to-catch particles that might

  8. LANSCE Weapons Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 LANSCE Weapons Physics Fortune 500 companies and weapons designers alike rely on our internationally recognized nuclear physics and materials science expertise as well as our one-of-a-kind experimental tools. Contact Us Group Leader Gus Sinnis Email Deputy Group Leader Fredrik Tovesson Email Deputy Group Leader and Experimental Area Manager Charles Kelsey Email Group Office (505) 665-5390 Time Projection Chamber at LANSCE Researcher making measurements of fission cross sections on the Time

  9. Surface morphology of atomic nitrogen on Pt(111) (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Physics; Journal Volume: 140; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: (c) 2014 ... Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CHEMISORPTION; FCC LATTICES; ...

  10. H{sub ?} SPECTRAL DIVERSITY OF TYPE II SUPERNOVAE: CORRELATIONS WITH PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutirrez, Claudia P.; Hamuy, Mario; Gonzlez-Gaitn, Santiago [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Anderson, Joseph P. [Departamento de Astronoma, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Folatelli, Gastn [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Morrell, Nidia I.; Phillips, Mark M.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Stritzinger, Maximilian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); McCarthy, Patrick [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Suntzeff, Nicholas B., E-mail: cgutierr@das.uchile.cl [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of the H{sub ?} profiles of hydrogen-rich Type II supernovae. A total of 52 Type II supernovae having well-sampled optical light curves and spectral sequences were analyzed. Concentrating on the H{sub ?} P-Cygni profile we measure its velocity from the FWHM of the emission and the ratio of absorption to emission (a/e) at a common epoch at the start of the recombination phase, and search for correlations between these spectral parameters and photometric properties of the V-band light curves. Testing the strength of various correlations we find that a/e appears to be the dominant spectral parameter in terms of describing the diversity in our measured supernova properties. It is found that supernovae with smaller a/e have higher H{sub ?} velocities, more rapidly declining light curves from maximum during the plateau and radioactive tail phase, are brighter at maximum light, and have shorter optically thick phase durations. We discuss possible explanations of these results in terms of physical properties of Type II supernovae, speculating that the most likely parameters that influence the morphologies of H{sub ?} profiles are the mass and density profile of the hydrogen envelope, together with additional emission components due to circumstellar interaction.

  11. Structural and optical properties of ZnO and ZnO:Fe nanoparticles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We report on the changes in structural, morphological, and optical properties of sol-gel derived ZnO and ZnO:Fe nanoparticles due to dense electronic excitations produced by heavy ...

  12. Physics Topics - Rotating Wall Machine - UW Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Topics UW Madison Line Tied Reconnection Experiment Physics Topics LTRX HomeResearch MissionLTRX DevicePhysics TopicsDiagnosticsLTRX GalleryLTRX People CPLA Home Directory ...

  13. Hanford Waste Physical and Rheological Properties: Data and Gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Beric E.; Kurath, Dean E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Onishi, Yasuo; Huckaby, James L.; Cooley, Scott K.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Tingey, Joel M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Anderson, K. K.

    2011-08-01

    The Hanford Site in Washington State manages 177 underground storage tanks containing approximately 250,000 m3 of waste generated during past defense reprocessing and waste management operations. These tanks contain a mixture of sludge, saltcake and supernatant liquids. The insoluble sludge fraction of the waste consists of metal oxides and hydroxides and contains the bulk of many radionuclides such as the transuranic components and 90Sr. The saltcake, generated by extensive evaporation of aqueous solutions, consists primarily of dried sodium salts. The supernates consist of concentrated (5-15 M) aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium salts. The 177 storage tanks include 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double -hell tanks (DSTs). Ultimately the wastes need to be retrieved from the tanks for treatment and disposal. The SSTs contain minimal amounts of liquid wastes, and the Tank Operations Contractor is continuing a program of moving solid wastes from SSTs to interim storage in the DSTs. The Hanford DST system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protections (ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP is being designed and constructed to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanfords 177 underground waste storage tanks.

  14. Nitriding of super alloys for enhancing physical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Purohit, A.

    1984-06-25

    The invention teaches the improvement of certain super alloys by exposing the alloy to an atmosphere of elemental nitrogen at elevated temperatures in excess of 750/sup 0/C but less than 1150/sup 0/C for an extended duration, viz., by nitriding the surface of the alloy, to establish barrier nitrides of the order of 25 to 100 micrometers thickness. These barrier

  15. Nitriding of super alloys for enhancing physical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Purohit, Ankur (Lisle, IL)

    1986-01-01

    The invention teaches the improvement of certain super alloys by exposing the alloy to an atmosphere of elemental nitrogen at elevated temperatures in excess of 750.degree. C. but less than 1150.degree. C. for an extended duration, viz., by nitriding the surface of the alloy, to establish barrier nitrides of the order of 25-100 micrometers thickness. These barrier nitrides appear to shield the available oxidizing metallic species of the alloy for up to a sixfold improved resistance against oxidation and also appear to impede egress of surface dislocations for increased fatigue and creep strengths.

  16. Physical properties of zircon and scheelite lutetium orthovanadate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 205; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All ...

  17. Physical properties, crystal and magnetic structure of layered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The magnetic structure of the monoclinic phase was confirmed to be of antiferromagnetic configuration with a propagation vector k (12, 0, 12) based on Rietveld refinement of ...

  18. Property:Special Physical Features | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a vertical plane, closed recirculating, variable-speed, variable-pressure, open jet test section, closed jet test section, and semi-rectangular test section. Carderock 3-ft...

  19. COLLOQUIUM: Exploring the Physical Properties of Matter in Extreme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    challenges of this century is to determine if nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes can be demonstrated in the laboratory and developed into an unlimited carbon-free energy source. ...

  20. Physical properties of conventional explosives deduced from radio frequency emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlin, Jeremiah D; Nemzek, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory collected broadband radio frequency (RF) electric field change measurements from multiple detonations of high explosives (HE). Three types of HE were used: small cylinders of flake TNT, solid TNT, and PBX-9501. Low frequency signals (<80 MHz) were shot-to-shot repeatable and occurred within the first 100 {mu} s at measured amplitudes of about 2 V m{sup -1} at 35 m distance. High frequency signals (>290 MHz) occurred later, were an order of magnitude lower in signal strength, and were not repeatable. There is a positive correlation between the maximum electric field change and the shock velocity of the HE. The amount of free charge produced in the explosion estimated from the first RF pulse is between 10 and 150 {mu} C. This implies a weakly ionized plasma with temperatures between 2600 and 2900 K.

  1. ORISE: Environmental Assessment and Health Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Assessments and Health Physics Performing environmental assessments and independent verification is essential to building public trust and confidence in radiological cleanup. As the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other government agencies target contaminated sites across the country for decontamination and decommissioning, strict guidelines must be followed to ensure that property is effectively remediated before being released for public or private use. Through a combination

  2. QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of model atoms in fields Milonni, P.W. 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMS; OPTICAL MODELS; QUANTUM MECHANICS;...

  3. PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; GRAPHITE; CREEP; PHYSICAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    creep of graphite) Kennedy, C.R. 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; GRAPHITE; CREEP; PHYSICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; JAPAN; MEETINGS; TRAVEL; ASIA; CARBON;...

  4. FTP archives for physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trunec, D.; Brablec, A.; Kapicka, V.

    1995-12-31

    We have established archives for programs, data, papers etc. in physics (mainly for plasma physics). The archives are located at computer ftp.muni.cz in the directory pub/muni.cz/physics. These archives can be reached by anonymous FTP or by gopher server gopher.muni.cz (147.251.4.33). At the present time, programs for PC, cross sections for electrons, swarm parameters and rate constants stored are in the archives. We would like to collect the programs for calculations in physics (mainly for PC). We suppose that each program should have a testing example and some description. We would also like to collect physical constants and experimental or theoretical data (e.g. cross sections, swarm parameters and rate constants), which are important for other calculation or for comparison with the results of others studies. Interested scholars are invited to sent us their programs, data, preprints and reports for these archives. All files in the archives are in public domain and can be obtained using computer network Internet.

  5. QCD and Hadron Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deshpande, Abhay L.; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G.; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G.; Roberts, Craig D.

    2015-02-26

    This White Paper presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in coordination with the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD and included a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. The goals of the meeting were to report and highlight progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and present a vision for the future by identifying the key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define the next decade. The introductory summary details the recommendations and their supporting rationales, as determined at the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadron Physics, and the endorsements that were voted upon. The larger document is organized as follows. Section 2 highlights major progress since the 2007 LRP. It is followed, in Section 3, by a brief overview of the physics program planned for the immediate future. Finally, Section 4 provides an overview of the physics motivations and goals associated with the next QCD frontier: the Electron-Ion-Collider.

  6. Structure and electrochemical properties of nanometer Cu substituted ?-nickel hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Zhu, Yanjuan; Zhang, Zhongju; Xu, Qingsheng; Zhao, Weiren; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Han, Quanyong

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Cu substituted ?-nickel hydroxide was prepared by ultrasonic assisted precipitation. ? The XRD peaks are anisotropic broadening. ? The electrode for 0.9 wt.% Cu has the highest capacity of 310 mAh/g at 0.2 C. -- Abstract: Nanometer Cu-substituted ?-nickel hydroxide was synthesized by means of ultrasonic-assisted precipitation. Particle size distribution (PSD) measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) were used to characterize the physical properties of the synthesized samples. The results indicate that the average particle size of the samples is about 96110 nm and the XRD diffraction peaks are anisotropic broadening. The crystal grains are mainly polycrystal structure with columnar or needle-like morphology, containing many defects. With increase of Cu content, the shape of primary particles transform from columnar to needle-like. The influences of doping amounts of Cu on the electrochemical performance were investigated through constant current charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetric measurements. The specific capacity increases initially and then decreases with increasing Cu-doping ratio, the electrode C containing 0.9 wt.% Cu shows the maximum discharge capacity of 310 mAh/g at 0.2 C, and it has the lowest charging voltage, higher discharge voltage plateau, better cycle performance and larger proton diffusion coefficient than the other electrodes.

  7. Physics Beyond the Standard Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Beyond the Standard Model 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues submit Physics Beyond the Standard Model...

  8. The term "lattice physics" refers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    term "lattice physics" refers to the simulation of detailed neutron interactions at the ... utilize two-dimensional (2D) lattice physics calculations as the first step in a ...

  9. Stellarators | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) physicists collaborating on the Wendelstein 7-X ... Top-5 Achievements at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in 2015 From launching the ...

  10. Timeline | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Matterhorn's first linear device, L-1, begins operation for the study of basic plasma physics. 1959 The first Princeton doctoral degree in plasma physics is awarded. Since ...

  11. Neutrino Physics AAPT Strand Day

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics AAPT Strand Day NSTA Regional, 2005 Jocelyn Monroe, Columbia University 1. What Is ... quark (FNAL) The Standard Model New Physics (Relatively Speaking) 1900s: e discovered ...

  12. Nuclear Physics: Archived Talks - Accelerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free Electron Laser (FEL) Medical Imaging Physics Topics Campaigns Meetings Recent Talks ... Additional Information Computing at JLab Operations Logbook Physics Topics: Archived Talks ...

  13. Physics and Chemistry of Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Physics and Chemistry of Materials Developing new science and technologies needed for ... Fundamental and applied theoretical research on the physics and chemistry of materials The ...

  14. ORISE: Applied health physics projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applied health physics projects The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) provides applied health physics services to government agencies needing technical support ...

  15. Miscibility gap closure, interface morphology, and phase microstructur...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Miscibility gap closure, interface morphology, and phase microstructure of 3D LixFePO4 nanoparticles from surface wetting and coherency strain Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  16. Optical and morphological properties of graphene sheets decorated with ZnO nanowires via polyol enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Vinay, E-mail: winn201@gmail.com; Rajaura, Rajveer Singh, E-mail: winn201@gmail.com [Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302004 (India); Sharma, Preetam K.; Srivastava, Subodh; Vijay, Y. K. [Department of Physics, Thin Film and Membrane Science Lab., University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302004 (India); Sharma, S. S. [Department of Physics, Govt. Women Engineering College, Ajmer- 305002 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Graphene-ZnO nanocomposites have proven to be very useful materials for photovoltaic and sensor applications. Here, we report a facile, one-step in situ polymerization method for synthesis of graphene sheets randomly decorated with zinc oxide nanowires using ethylene glycol as solvent. We have used hydrothermal treatment for growth of ZnO nanowires. UV-visible spectra peak shifting around 288nm and 307 nm shows the presence of ZnO on graphene structure. Photoluminiscence spectra (PL) in 400nm-500nm region exhibits the luminescence quenching effect. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image confirms the growth of ZnO nanowires on graphene sheets.

  17. Argonne Physics Division - ATLAS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety at ATLAS For onsite emergencies, call 911 on the internal phones (or 630-252-1911 on cell phones) Safety Aspects of radiation safety at ATLAS: Health Physics Coverage at ATLAS is provided by Argonne National Laboratory. Health Physics personnel must be notified if there is a possible contamination incident, or if target and/or detectors are to be removed from a beam line following an experiment. HP Contact information: Angel Garcia (HP Technician): 2-9179 (4-1352 pager) Dave

  18. J. Plasma Physics:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics: page 1 of 18. c Cambridge University Press 2015 doi:10.1017/S0022377815000471 1 Prospects for observing the magnetorotational instability in the plasma Couette experiment K. Flanagan 1 †, M. Clark 1 , C. Collins 1,2 , C. M. Cooper 1 , I. V. Khalzov 1,3 , J. Wallace 1 and C. B. Forest 1 1 Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA 2 University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA 3 National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow, 123182,

  19. Argonne Physics Division - ATLAS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CARIBU Proposal Presentation The CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) On Februry 23, 2005 a proposal was introduced to the Office of Nuclear Physics at the Department of Energy to upgrade the capabilities of ATLAS in the area of physics with rare isotopes. A copy of the proposal for the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) can be found here in PDF Format. Click here to see a PDF version of the Cf Upgrade presentation from the ATLAS User Group Workshop July 31-August 1,

  20. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  1. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 27 April 2011 00:00 Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models

  2. Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Removal | Department of Energy and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal This paper reports on studies carried out at ORNL to examine the shear force required to remove particles from a well-developed EGR cooler deposit. PDF icon deer11_sluder.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Effects on Emissions Control Technologies Materials Issues Associated with EGR

  3. Degradative and Morphological Characterization of POSS Modified Nanohybrid

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polyurethane Elastomers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Degradative and Morphological Characterization of POSS Modified Nanohybrid Polyurethane Elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Degradative and Morphological Characterization of POSS Modified Nanohybrid Polyurethane Elastomers Authors: Lewicki, J P ; Pielichowski, K ; Jancia, M ; Hebda, E ; Albo, R F ; Maxwell, R S Publication Date: 2014-02-06 OSTI Identifier: 1144750 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-649713 DOE Contract

  4. Miscibility gap closure, interface morphology, and phase microstructure of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3D LixFePO4 nanoparticles from surface wetting and coherency strain (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Miscibility gap closure, interface morphology, and phase microstructure of 3D LixFePO4 nanoparticles from surface wetting and coherency strain Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Miscibility gap closure, interface morphology, and phase microstructure of 3D LixFePO4 nanoparticles from surface wetting and coherency strain Authors: Welland, Michael J. ; Heinonen, Olle ; Karpeyev,

  5. Addressable morphology control of silica structures by manipulating the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reagent addition time (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Addressable morphology control of silica structures by manipulating the reagent addition time Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Addressable morphology control of silica structures by manipulating the reagent addition time Authors: Sharma, Jaswinder K [1] ; Datskos, Panos G [1] ; Chen, Jihua [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL [ORNL Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1110986 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725

  6. Furth Plasma Physics Library | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Education Organization Business Operations Careers/ Human Resources Directory Environment, Safety & Health Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab Leadership Organization Chart Technology Transfer Contact Us Business Operations Careers/ Human Resources Directory Environment, Safety & Health Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab Leadership Organization Chart Technology Transfer Furth Plasma Physics Library The Harold P. Furth Plasma Physics Library is a branch of the Princeton University

  7. RESEARCH IN PARTICLE PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearns, Edward

    2013-07-12

    This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.

  8. Physics Teachers Workshop

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Huggins, DaNel; Calhoun, John; Palmer, Alyson; Thorpe, Steve; Vanderveen, Anne;

    2013-05-28

    INL is looking for the nation's top high school physics teachers to attend our July workshop in Idaho Falls. Participants get to learn from nuclear researchers, tour facilities including a research reactor and interact with peers from across the country. You can learn more about INL projects at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  9. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  10. Physics overview of AVLIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solarz, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) represents the largest-scale potential application of tunable lasers that has received serious attention within the chemical physics community. For over a decade the US Department of Energy has funded an aggressive program in AVLIS at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. After extensive research, the underlying physical principles have been identified and optimized, the major technology components have been developed, and the integrated enrichment performance of the process has been tested under realistic conditions. The central physical processes are outlined, progress to date on the technology elements is reviewed, and scaling laws that can be used to scope out new applications are fomulated. The two primary applications of major interest to the Department of Energy are the production of light-water reactor fuel and the conversion of fuel-grade plutonium to weapons-grade material. In FY 1984 the total AVLIS funding level for these two missions was approximately $150M. In addition to these primary missions, a variety of applications exist that all potentially use a common base of AVLIS technology. These include missions such as the enrichment of mercury isotopes to improve fluorescent lamp efficiency, the enrichment of iodine isotopes for medical isotope use, and the cleanup of strontium from defense waste for recovering strontium isotopes for radio-thermal mechanical generators. We will see that the ability to rapidly assess the economic and technical feasibility of each mission is derived from the general applicability of AVLIS physics and AVLIS technology.

  11. Physics Division annual report - 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-09-07

    Summaries are given of progress accomplished for the year in the following areas: (1) Heavy-Ion Nuclear Physics Research; (2) Operation and Development of Atlas; (3) Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics Research; (4) Theoretical Physics Research; and (5) Atomic and Molecular Physics Research.

  12. YOUNG PLANETARY NEBULAE: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING AND A NEW MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Villar, Gregory G.; Morris, Mark R.

    2011-04-15

    Using Hubble Space Telescope images of 119 young planetary nebulae (PNs), most of which have not previously been published, we have devised a comprehensive morphological classification system for these objects. This system generalizes a recently devised system for pre-planetary nebulae, which are the immediate progenitors of PNs. Unlike previous classification studies, we have focused primarily on young PNs rather than all PNs, because the former best show the influences or symmetries imposed on them by the dominant physical processes operating at the first and primary stage of the shaping process. Older PNs develop instabilities, interact with the ambient interstellar medium, and are subject to the passage of photoionization fronts, all of which obscure the underlying symmetries and geometries imposed early on. Our classification system is designed to suffer minimal prejudice regarding the underlying physical causes of the different shapes and structures seen in our PN sample, however, in many cases, physical causes are readily suggested by the geometry, along with the kinematics that have been measured in some systems. Secondary characteristics in our system, such as ansae, indicate the impact of a jet upon a slower-moving, prior wind; a waist is the signature of a strong equatorial concentration of matter, whether it be outflowing or in a bound Keplerian disk, and point symmetry indicates a secular trend, presumably precession, in the orientation of the central driver of a rapid, collimated outflow.

  13. SC e-journals, Physics

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Physics ACS Nano Acta Materialia Adsorption Advanced Composite Materials Advances in Condensed Matter Physics - OAJ Advances in Acoustics and Vibration - OAJ Advances in High Energy Physics - OAJ Advances in Materials Science and Engineering - OAJ Advances in Mathematical Physics - OAJ Advances in Optical Technologies - OAJ Advances in Optics and Photonics Advances in Tribology - OAJ American Journal of Physics, The Annalen der Physik Annales Henri Poincare Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry

  14. Elementary particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1990-09-20

    We are continuing a research program in high energy experimental particle physics and particle astrophysics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions were performed using several techniques, in addition, a high energy leptoproduction experiment was continued at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators. The data are being collected with ballon-borne emulsion chambers. The properties of nuclear interactions at these high energies will reveal whether new production mechanisms come into play due to the high nuclear densities and temperatures obtained. We carried out closely related studies of hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams. We are members of a large international collaboration which has exposed emulsion chamber detectors to beams of {sup 32}S and {sup 16}O with energy 60 and 200 GeV/n at CERN and 15 GeV/n at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary objectives of this program are to determine the existence and properties of the hypothesized quark-gluon phase of matter, and its possible relation to a variety of anomalous observations. Studies of leptoproduction processes at high energies involve two separate experiments, one using the Tevatron 500 GeV muon beam and the other exploring the >TeV regime. We are participants in Fermilab experiment E665 employing a comprehensive counter/streamer chamber detector system. During the past year we joined the DUMAND Collaboration, and have been assigned responsibility for development and construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility, to be deployed in 1991. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the triggering system to be used.

  15. Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cliff, John B.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-01-03

    Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special considerations for the forensic arena - quality control, sample integrity, etc. Mark Wilson (retired FBI): Western Carolina University Chapter 4. Physical signatures: Light and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gravimetry etc. Joseph Michael, Sandia National Laboratory Chapter 5. Lipids: FAME, PLFA, steroids, LPS, etc. James Robertson, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chapter 6. Carbohydrates: Cell wall components, cytoplasm components, methods Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina School of Medicine David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 7. Peptides: Peptides, proteins, lipoproteins David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 8. Elemental content: CNOHPS (treated in passing), metals, prospective cell types John Cliff, International Atomic Energy Agency Chapter 9. Isotopic signatures: Stable isotopes C,N,H,O,S, 14C dating, potential for heavy elements. Helen Kreuzer-Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michaele Kashgarian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chapter 10. Extracellular signatures: Cellular debris, heme, agar, headspace, spent media, etc Karen Wahl, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 11. Data Reduction and Integrated Microbial Forensics: Statistical concepts, parametric and multivariate statistics, integrating signatures Kristin Jarman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  16. LHC forward physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cartiglia, N.; Royon, C.

    2015-10-02

    The goal of this report is to give a comprehensive overview of the rich field of forward physics, with a special attention to the topics that can be studied at the LHC. The report starts presenting a selection of the Monte Carlo simulation tools currently available, chapter 2, then enters the rich phenomenology of QCD at low, chapter 3, and high, chapter 4, momentum transfer, while the unique scattering conditions of central exclusive production are analyzed in chapter 5. The last two experimental topics, Cosmic Ray and Heavy Ion physics are presented in the chapter 6 and 7 respectively. Chapter 8 is dedicated to the BFKL dynamics, multiparton interactions, and saturation. The report ends with an overview of the forward detectors at LHC. Each chapter is correlated with a comprehensive bibliography, attempting to provide to the interested reader with a wide opportunity for further studies.

  17. Applied Modern Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Applied Modern Physics From the first bionic eye to airport scanners that detect liquid explosives, our expertise in developing advanced diagnostics results in real-world innovations. Contact Us Group Leader (acting) Larry Schultz Email Deputy Group Leader John George Email Group Office (505) 665-2545 QkarD Quantum key distribution technology could ensure truly secure commerce, banking, communications and data transfer. Read more... A history of excellence in the development and use of

  18. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations.

  19. Argonne Physics Division - ATLAS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The ATLAS User Group Executive Committee The current membership of the ATLAS User Group Executive Committee is: Dan Bardayan University of Notre Dame dbardaya@nd.edu Catherine Deibel Louisiana State University deibel@lsu.edu Nicholas Scielzo (chair) Lawrence Livermore National Lab scielzo1@llnl.gov Alan Wuosmaa University of Connecticut alan.wuosmaa@uconn.edu The ATLAS User Group Charter: The ATLAS User Group shall be formed from the members of the nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry and atomic

  20. Argonne Physics Division - ATLAS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AGFA Proposal AGFA - Argonne Gas Filled Analyzer AGFA, the Argonne Gas-filled Fragment Analyzer is a state-of-the art gas-filled separator at ATLAS, which is being developed in collaboration among the Argonne Physics Division, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, University of Maryland, University of Edinburgh, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Oregon State University. This separator will be used for a wide range of studies, e.g. 1) in conjunction with

  1. Nuclear Physics Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker-Loud, Andre

    2014-11-01

    Anchoring low-energy nuclear physics to the fundamental theory of strong interactions remains an outstanding challenge. I review the current progress and challenges of the endeavor to use lattice QCD to bridge this connection. This is a particularly exciting time for this line of research as demonstrated by the spike in the number of different collaborative efforts focussed on this problem and presented at this conference. I first digress and discuss the 2013 Ken Wilson Award.

  2. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  3. Recent progress in the morphology of bulk heterojunction photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael A.; Su, Gregory M.; Chabinyc, Michael L.

    2011-10-06

    A review of current research in the characterization of the morphology of semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) is presented. BHJs are complex blends of polymers and fullerenes with nanostructures that are highly dependent on materials, processing conditions, and post-treatments to films. Recent work on the study of the morphology of BHJs is surveyed. Emphasis is placed on emerging work on BHJs of poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM, along with BHJs of donoracceptor polymers that have high power conversion efficiency.

  4. The plutonium-hydrogen reaction: SEM characterization of product morphology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The plutonium-hydrogen reaction: SEM characterization of product morphology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The plutonium-hydrogen reaction: SEM characterization of product morphology Authors: Dinh, L N ; McCall, S K ; Saw, C K ; Haschke, J M ; Allen, P G ; McClean II, W Publication Date: 2013-12-23 OSTI Identifier: 1150726 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-648158 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation:

  5. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Walter, Chris [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

    2010-01-08

    In this talk, I will review how a set of experiments in the last decade has given us our current understanding of neutrino properties.  I will show how experiments in the last year or two have clarified this picture, and will discuss how new experiments about to start will address remaining questions.  I will particularly emphasize the relationship between various experimental techniques.

  6. Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsui, Daniel

    2014-03-24

    This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.

  7. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  8. Handbook of gas hydrate properties and occurrence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuustraa, V.A.; Hammershaimb, E.C.

    1983-12-01

    This handbook provides data on the resource potential of naturally occurring hydrates, the properties that are needed to evaluate their recovery, and their production potential. The first two chapters give data on the naturally occurring hydrate potential by reviewing published resource estimates and the known and inferred occurrences. The third and fourth chapters review the physical and thermodynamic properties of hydrates, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of hydrates that are discussed include dissociation energies and a simplified method to calculate them; phase diagrams for simple and multi-component gases; the thermal conductivity; and the kinetics of hydrate dissociation. The final chapter evaluates the net energy balance of recovering hydrates and shows that a substantial positive energy balance can theoretically be achieved. The Appendices of the Handbook summarize physical and thermodynamic properties of gases, liquids and solids that can be used in designing and evaluating recovery processes of hydrates. 158 references, 67 figures, 47 tables.

  9. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mena, R., Pemberton, W., Beal, W.

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health. Topics of discussion included in this manuscript are related to responding to a radiation emergency, and the necessary balance between desired high accuracy laboratory results and rapid turnaround requirements. Considerations are addressed for methodology with which to provide the most competent solutions despite challenges presented from incomplete datasets and, at times, limited methodology. An emphasis is placed on error and uncertainty of sample analysis results, how error affects products, and what is communicated in the final product.

  10. Renormalization and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    A review is given of modern theories of statistical dynamics as applied to problems in plasma physics. The derivation of consistent renormalized kinetic equations is discussed, first heuristically, later in terms of powerful functional techniques. The equations are illustrated with models of various degrees of idealization, including the exactly soluble stochastic oscillator, a prototype for several important applications. The direct-interaction approximation is described in detail. Applications discussed include test particle diffusion and the justification of quasilinear theory, convective cells, E vector x B vector turbulence, the renormalized dielectric function, phase space granulation, and stochastic magnetic fields.

  11. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  12. Argonne Physics Division - ATLAS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Considerations at ATLAS For onsite emergencies, call 911 on the internal phones (or 252-1911 on cell phones) Equipment Safety Reviews are required whenever new equipment is brought in for an experiment. The review is conducted by the Physics Division safety committee. If you plan to bring in your own detectors or other equipment for an experiment, it will need to reviewed. If a safety review is required for your equipment, you will need to fill out a Hazard Analysis form. Forms

  13. Argonne Physics Division - ATLAS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The purpose of this note is to announce an important workshop for the ATLAS users to be held at Argonne National Laboratory on AUGUST 8 and 9, 2009. As you are aware, major changes are in store for the ATLAS facility. First, the Energy Upgrade and the CARIBU (CAlifornium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade) projects are nearing completion. In addition, the role of ATLAS for the low-energy nuclear physics community needs to be revisited in light of the decision to site the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

  14. Nuclear Physics | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science An experimental hall detector An experimental hall detector. A D D I T I O N A L L I N K S: Hall A Hall B Hall C Hall D 12 GeV Recent Experiments Experiment Proposal PAC Review Scheduling Processes top-right bottom-left-corner bottom-right-corner Nuclear Physics Scientists from across the country and around the world use the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility to advance mankind's understanding of the atom's nucleus. To probe nuclei, scientists use continuous beams of

  15. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 (2004) 162-171 PII: S0029-5515(04)72612-5 Equilibrium reconstruction in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch J.K. Anderson, C.B. Forest, T.M. Biewer a , J.S. Sarff and J.C. Wright b Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA Received 21 December 2002, accepted for publication 18 November 2003 Published 17 December 2003 Online at stacks.iop.org/NF/44/162 (DOI: 10.1088/0029-5515/44/1/018) Abstract A non-linear Grad-Shafranov toroidal equilibrium

  16. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 (2006) 521-531 doi:10.1088/0029-5515/46/5/004 Coupling to the electron Bernstein wave using a phased array of waveguides in MST reversed field pinch M. Cengher, J.K. Anderson, V. Svidzinski and C.B. Forest 1 Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706, USA E-mail: cbforest@wisc.edu Received 31 August 2005, accepted for publication 20 February 2006 Published 23 March 2006 Online at stacks.iop.org/NF/46/521 Abstract Coupling to the electron Bernstein

  17. Neutrino Physics at Fermilab

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Saoulidou, Niki

    2010-01-08

    Neutrino oscillations provide the first evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. I will briefly overview the neutrino "hi-story", describing key discoveries over the past decades that shaped our understanding of neutrinos and their behavior. Fermilab was, is and hopefully will be at the forefront of the accelerator neutrino experiments.  NuMI, the most powerful accelerator neutrino beam in the world has ushered us into the era of precise measurements. Its further upgrades may give a chance to tackle the remaining mysteries of the neutrino mass hierarchy and possible CP violation.

  18. Brush-Coated Nanoparticle Polymer Thin Films: structure-mechanical-optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Peter F.

    2015-01-13

    Executive Summary Our work was devoted to understanding the structure and properties of a class of thin film polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). PNCs are composed of polymer hosts into which nanoparticles (metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanorods, C60, nanotubes) are incorporated. PNCs exhibit a diverse range of functional properties (optical, electronic, mechanical, biomedical, structural), determined in part by the chemical composition of the polymer host and the type of nanoparticle. The properties PNCs rely not only on specific functional, size-dependent, behavior of the nanoparticles, but also on the dispersion, and organizational order in some cases, inter-nanoparticle separation distances, and on relative interactions between the nanoparticles and the host. Therefore the scientific challenges associated with understanding the interrelations between the structure and function/properties of PNCs are far more complex than may be understood based only on the knowledge of the compositions of the constituents. The challenges of understanding the structure-function behavior of PNCs are further compounded by the fact that control of the dispersion of the nanoparticles within the polymer hosts is difficult; one must learn how to disperse inorganic particles within an organic host. The goal of this proposal was to develop an understanding of the connection between the structure and the thermal (glass transition), mechanical and optical properties of a specific class of PNCs. Specifically PNCs composed of polymer chain grafted gold nanoparticles within polymer hosts. A major objective was to understand how to develop basic principles that enable the fabrication of functional materials possessing optimized morphologies and combinations of materials properties. Accomplishments: We developed: (1) fundamental principles that enabled the creation of thin film PNCs possessing more complex morphologies of homopolymers and block copolymer micellar systems [1-6]; (2) a new understanding of physical phenomena associated with the structure of PNC systems and the glass transition and dynamics [7-11], including surface dynamics [12, 13]; designed PNCs to understand the connection between structure and specific optical responses of the material [14, 15]; electrorheological phenomena [16-18]; coarsening/aggregation phenomena [19, 20]; directed assembly [21] and elastic mechanical properties of thin supported films [22]. We established procedures to design and control the spatial distribution of gold nanoparticles (Au-NP), onto which polystyrene (PS) chains were end-grafted, within thin film PS hosts.[1-3] We explained how enthalpic and entropic interactions between the grafted layers and the polymer host chains, the nanoparticle (NP) sizes and shapes determine the spatial distribution of NPs within the host (i.e.: the morphology). In brief, the chemistries of the grafted chains and the polymer hosts, the degrees of polymerization of grafted and host chains (N and P, respectively), and the surface grafting densities ? influence the thermodynamic interactions. Thin films are unique: the external interfaces (substrate and free surface) profoundly influence the spatial distribution of NPs within the PNC. For example, thin films are thermodynamically less stable than their bulk analogs due to the preferential attraction between the brush-coated nanoparticles and the external interfaces (i.e.: the free surface/polymer interface and the polymer/substrate interface). We investigated the organization of the brush-coated nanoparticles within a host composed on block copolymer micelles in a homopolymer [4, 5]. Block copolymers, composed of a polymer of type A that is bonded covalently to another polymer of type B (A-b-B) are known to form micelles within homopolymers A or B. A micelle is composed of an inner core of the A component of the copolymer and an outer corona of the B-component, that resides within homopolymer B, which serves as the host. If the host is the A homopolymer then the core of the micelle is composed of the B component of the co

  19. Tokamaks | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for a March 28-30 "Fisch Fest" - a three-day symposium on "Solved and Unsolved Problems in Plasma Physics" in honor of the 65th ...

  20. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    archive Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory news feed en PPPL physicists simulate innovative method for starting up tokamaks without...

  1. VLHC accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Blaskiewicz et al.

    2001-11-01

    A six-month design study for a future high energy hadron collider was initiated by the Fermilab director in October 2000. The request was to study a staged approach where a large circumference tunnel is built that initially would house a low field ({approx}2 T) collider with center-of-mass energy greater than 30 TeV and a peak (initial) luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The tunnel was to be scoped, however, to support a future upgrade to a center-of-mass energy greater than 150 TeV with a peak luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using high field ({approx} 10 T) superconducting magnet technology. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a report of the Design Study was produced by Fermilab in June 2001. 1 The Design Study focused on a Stage 1, 20 x 20 TeV collider using a 2-in-1 transmission line magnet and leads to a Stage 2, 87.5 x 87.5 TeV collider using 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet technology. The article that follows is a compilation of accelerator physics designs and computational results which contributed to the Design Study. Many of the parameters found in this report evolved during the study, and thus slight differences between this text and the Design Study report can be found. The present text, however, presents the major accelerator physics issues of the Very Large Hadron Collider as examined by the Design Study collaboration and provides a basis for discussion and further studies of VLHC accelerator parameters and design philosophies.

  2. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  3. Research in Neutrino Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busenitz, Jerome

    2014-09-30

    Research in Neutrino Physics We describe here the recent activities of our two groups over the first year of this award (effectively November 2010 through January 2012) and our proposed activities and associated budgets for the coming grant year. Both of our groups are collaborating on the Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment and are playing major roles in calibration and analysis. A major milestone was reached recently: the collaboration obtained the first result on the search for 13 based on 100 days of data from the far detector. Our data indicates that 13 is not zero; specifically the best fit of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis to our data gives sin2 (2 13) = 0.086 ± 0.041 (stat) ± 0.030 (syst) The null oscillation hypothesis is excluded at the 94.6% C.L. This result1 has been submitted to Physical Review Letters. As we continue to take data with the far detector in the coming year, in parallel with completing the construction of the near lab and installing the near detector, we expect the precision of our measurement to improve as we gather significantly more statistics, gain better control of backgrounds through use of partial power data and improved event selection, and better understand the detector energy scale and detection efficiency from calibration data. With both detectors taking data starting in the second half of 2013, we expect to further drive down the uncertainty on our measurement of sin2 (2 13) to less than 0.02. Stancu’s group is also collaborating on the MiniBooNE experiment. Data taking is scheduled to continue through April, by which time 1.18 × 1021 POT is projected. The UA group is playing a leading role in the measurement of antineutrino cross sections, which should be the subject of a publication later this year as well as of Ranjan Dharmapalan’s Ph.D. thesis, which he is expected to defend by the end of this year. It is time to begin working on projects which will eventually succeed Double Chooz and MiniBooNE as the main foci of our efforts. The Stancu group plans to become re–involved in LBNE and possibly also to join NO A, and the Busenitz group has begun to explore joining a direct dark matter search.

  4. Health Physics Support Assistant | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Saville Requisition Number: 1500691 POSITIONAL SUMMARY: To support the Health Physics Dosimeter program, records management (both archival and electronic) and to backup the ES&HS...

  5. MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987 Falicov, L.M. 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE PHYSICS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS;...

  6. Particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  7. Few-body physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briceno, Raul

    2015-05-01

    Few-body hadronic observables play an essential role in a wide number of processes relevant for both particle and nuclear physics. In order for Lattice QCD to offer insight into the interpretation of few-body states, a theoretical infrastructure must be developed to map Euclidean-time correlation functions to the desired Minkowski-time few-body observables. In this talk, I will first review the formal challenges associated with the studies of such systems via Lattice QCD, as first introduced by Maiani and Testa, and then review methodology to circumvent said limitations. The first main example of the latter is the formalism of Luscher to analyze elastic scattering and a second is the method of Lellouch & Luscher to analyze weak decays. I will then proceed to discus recent theoretical generalizations of these frameworks that allow for the determination of scattering amplitudes, resonances, transition and elastic form factors. Finally, I will outline outstanding problems, including those that are now beginning to be addressed.

  8. The physics of top, w and z from LHC, Tevatron and HERA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabalina, Elizaveta; /Gottingen U.

    2010-12-01

    We summarize recent experimental results in electroweak and top quark physics presented at the conference. This overview covers new measurements of the properties of top quark and W and Z bosons from the LHC, Tevatron and HERA.

  9. Personal Property Management Program Brochure

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    INVENTORY Physical inventory expectations (methods, frequency, and targeted results) are clarified in the chart below. DOE/NNSA ORGANIZATIONAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS (OPMOs) SC-Oak Ridge-Rebecca Whitehead (Acting) WhiteheadRN@oro.doe.gov SC-Chicago-Bonnie Anderson Bonnie.Anderson@ch.doe.gov EM-Savannah River-Tim Armstrong Timothy.armstrong@srs.gov EM-CBC-David Lojek dave.lojek@emcbc.doe.gov EM-Richland-Renato Mercado Renato_s_mercado@rl.gov EM-ORP-Richard McNulty Richard_r_mcnulty@rl.gov

  10. Void morphology in polyethylene/carbon black composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, D.W.M.; Wartenberg, M.; Schwartz, K.B.

    1996-12-31

    A combination of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and contrast matching techniques is used to determine the size and quantity of voids incorporated during fabrication of polyethylene/carbon black composites. The analysis used to extract void morphology from SANS data is based on the three-phase model of microcrack determination via small angle x-rayscattering (SAXS) developed by W.Wu{sup 12} and applied to particulate reinforced composites.

  11. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  12. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  13. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  14. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  15. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  16. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  17. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  18. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  19. Effect of reaction conditions on film morphology of polyaniline composite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    membranes for gas separation | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Effect of reaction conditions on film morphology of polyaniline composite membranes for gas separation Previous Next List N. V. Blinova, J. Stejskal, J. M. J. Frechet, and F. Svec, J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 50 (15), 3077 (2012) DOI: 10.1002/pola.26093 Thumbnail image of graphical abstract Abstract: Novel composite membranes combining a 90-200 nm thick active layer of polyaniline

  20. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the future of humankind. One bottleneck is energy storage because the harvest and consumption of energy are typically separated in time and/or location. Hence, efficient, low-cost, safe and durable batteries are

  1. PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF STANDARD AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco; Poletto, Giannina; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-10-10

    The X-ray Telescope on board the Hinode mission revealed the occurrence, in polar coronal holes, of much more numerous jets than previously indicated by the Yohkoh/Soft X-ray Telescope. These plasma ejections can be of two types, depending on whether they fit the standard reconnection scenario for coronal jets or if they include a blowout-like eruption. In this work, we analyze two jets, one standard and one blowout, that have been observed by the Hinode and STEREO experiments. We aim to infer differences in the physical parameters that correspond to the different morphologies of the events. To this end, we adopt spectroscopic techniques and determine the profiles of the plasma temperature, density, and outflow speed versus time and position along the jets. The blowout jet has a higher outflow speed, a marginally higher temperature, and is rooted in a stronger magnetic field region than the standard event. Our data provide evidence for recursively occurring reconnection episodes within both the standard and the blowout jet, pointing either to bursty reconnection or to reconnection occurring at different locations over the jet lifetimes. We make a crude estimate of the energy budget of the two jets and show how energy is partitioned among different forms. Also, we show that the magnetic energy that feeds the blowout jet is a factor of 10 higher than the magnetic energy that fuels the standard event.

  2. Research | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview Experimental Fusion Research Theoretical Fusion Research Basic Plasma Science Plasma Astrophysics Other Physics and Engineering Research PPPL Technical Reports NSTX-U Education Organization Contact Us Overview Experimental Fusion Research Theoretical Fusion Research Basic Plasma Science Plasma Astrophysics Other Physics and Engineering Research PPPL Technical Reports NSTX-U Research The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is dedicated to developing fusion as

  3. Directory | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab Leadership Organization Chart Technology Transfer Contact Us Business Operations Careers/ Human Resources Directory Environment, Safety & Health Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab Leadership Organization Chart Technology Transfer Directory Search by Name Search Reset The DOE Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory works with collaborators across the globe to develop fusion as an energy source for the world, and conducts research along the broad frontier of plasma

  4. Research | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview Experimental Fusion Research Theoretical Fusion Research Basic Plasma Science Plasma Astrophysics Other Physics and Engineering Research PPPL Technical Reports NSTX-U...

  5. Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thursday, May 26, 2011 Exa-Scale Computational Resources Nuclear Astrophysics Accelerator Physics Cold QCD and Nuclear Forces Hot and Dense QCD Nuclear Structure and Reactions ...

  6. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What is in the future for physics? You wrote: We are constantly preoccupied with the next steps in our sciences. I would be interested to know, in your opinion, what the next fifteen steps are likely to be in physics in the 21st Century. With thanks for your time Stephanie G. Dear Stephanie: Your question regarding the far distant goals/discoveries of physics is obviously very difficult to answer. In particular, physics is such a vast field that it is already difficult for me to do justice to

  7. Physics and technology of the next linear collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    The authors present the prospects for the next generation of high-energy physics experiments with electron-positron colliding beams. This report summarizes the current status of the design and technological basis of a linear collider of center-of-mass energy 0.5--1.5 TeV, and the opportunities for high-energy physics experiments that this machine is expected to open. The physics goals discussed here are: Standard Model processes and simulation; top quark physics; Higgs boson searches and properties; supersymmetry; anomalous gauge boson couplings; strong WW scattering; new gauge bosons and exotic particles; e{sup {minus}}e{sup {minus}}, e{sup {minus}}{gamma}, and {gamma}{gamma} interactions; and precision tests of QCD.

  8. Review of physics results from the Tevatron: Heavy flavor physics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lewis, Jonathan; Van Kooten, Rick

    2015-02-28

    We present a review of heavy flavor physics results from the CDF and D0 Collaborations operating at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. A summary of results from Run 1 is included, but we concentrate on legacy results of charm and b physics from Run 2, including results up to Summer 2014.

  9. Review of physics results from the Tevatron: Heavy flavor physics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lewis, Jonathan; van Kooten, Rick

    2015-02-28

    In this study, we present a review of heavy flavor physics results from the CDF and DØ Collaborations operating at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. A summary of results from Run 1 is included, but we concentrate on legacy results of charm and b physics from Run 2, including results up to Summer 2014.

  10. EVOLUTION OF THE RADIO REMNANT OF SUPERNOVA 1987A: MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES FROM DAY 7000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, C.-Y.; Zanardo, G.; Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K.

    2013-11-10

    We present radio imaging observations of supernova remnant 1987A at 9 GHz, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array over 21 years from 1992 to 2013. By employing a Fourier modeling technique to fit the visibility data, we show that the remnant structure has evolved significantly since day 7000 (mid-2006): the emission latitude has gradually decreased such that the overall geometry has become more similar to a ring structure. Around the same time, we find a decreasing trend in the east-west asymmetry of the surface emissivity. These results could reflect the increasing interaction of the forward shock with material around the circumstellar ring, and the relative weakening of the interaction with the lower-density material at higher latitudes. The morphological evolution caused an apparent break in the remnant expansion measured with a torus model, from a velocity of 4600{sup +150}{sub -}200 km s{sup 1} between day 4000 and 7000 to 2400{sup +100}{sub -200} km s{sup 1} after day 7000. However, we emphasize that there is no conclusive evidence for a physical slowing of the shock at any given latitude in the expanding remnant, and that a change of radio morphology alone appears to dominate the evolution. This is supported by our ring-only fits which show a constant expansion of 3890 50 km s{sup 1} without deceleration between days 4000 and 9000. We suggest that once the emission latitude no longer decreases, the expansion velocity obtained from the torus model should return to the same value as that measured with the ring model.

  11. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research | National Nuclear Security Administration ... Facilities Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research Joint Actinide ...

  12. Organization | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Careers/ Human Resources Directory Environment, Safety & Health Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab Leadership Organization Chart Technology Transfer Contact Us Business Operations Careers/ Human Resources Directory Environment, Safety & Health Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab Leadership Organization Chart Technology Transfer Organization Careers/ Human Resources Join Princeton's TALENT NETWORK to enhance your job search and the application process for Princeton University and the Plasma

  13. Tour - MST - UW Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tour UW Madison Madison Symmetric Torus Tour MST HomeGraduate Student InformationLinksTourControl and Auxiliary SystemsPhysics TopicsDeviceResearch MissionMST People mst logo CPLA Home Directory Publications Links Internal University of Wisconsin Physics Department Research funding includes support from: Department of Energy National Science Foundation Display: Vacuum vessel Power Supplies Experiments

  14. Physical unclonable functions: A primer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bauer, Todd; Hamlet, Jason

    2014-11-01

    Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) make use of the measurable intrinsic randomness of physical systems to establish signatures for those systems. Thus, PUFs provide a means to generate unique keys that don't need to be stored in nonvolatile memory, and they offer exciting opportunities for new authentication and supply chain security technologies.

  15. Emerging Properties of Quantum Matter - Case Studies of Topological and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Superconducting Phases (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Emerging Properties of Quantum Matter - Case Studies of Topological and Superconducting Phases Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Emerging Properties of Quantum Matter - Case Studies of Topological and Superconducting Phases Emerging properties in quantum matter is a major theme of modern physics, with the promise that insights gained would have implications far beyond these materials. This talk will address two

  16. Testing Subgroup Workshop on Critical Property Needs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Subgroup Workshop on Critical Property Needs Testing Subgroup Workshop on Critical Property Needs Objectives: Develop an action plan that details the necessary tests to measure and compare the physical properties of metallic materials relevant to high pressure hydrogen service PDF icon pipeline_group_armstrong_ms.pdf More Documents & Publications American Society of Mechanical Engineers/Savannah River National Laboratory (ASME/SRNL) Materials and Components for Hydrogen

  17. Investigation on effects of surface morphologies on response of LPG sensor based on nanostructured copper ferrite system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Satyendra; Yadav, B.C.; Gupta, V.D.; Dwivedi, Prabhat K.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Figure shows the variations in resistance with time for copper ferrite system synthesized in various molar ratio. A maximum variation in resistance was observed for copper ferrite prepared in 1:1 molar ratio. Highlights: ? Evaluation of structural, optical and surface morphologies. ? Significant variation in LPG sensing properties. ? Surface modification of ferric oxide pellet by copper ferrite. ? CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} pellets for LPG sensing at room temperature. -- Abstract: Synthesis of a copper ferrite system (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) via chemical co-precipitation method is characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface morphology (scanning electron microscope) and optical absorption spectroscopy. These characteristics show their dependence on the relative compositions of the two subsystems. They are further confirmed by the variation in the band gap. A study of gas sensing properties shows the spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized in 1:1 molar ratio exhibit best response to LPG adsorption/resistance measurement. Thus resistance based LPG sensor is found robust, cheap and may be applied for kitchens and industrial applications.

  18. GREAT3 results - I. Systematic errors in shear estimation and the impact of real galaxy morphology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rowe, Barnaby; Armstrong, Robert; Bard, Deborah; Bertin, Emmanuel; Bosch, James; Boutigny, Dominique; Courbin, Frederic; Dawson, William A.; Donnarumma, Annamaria; et al

    2015-05-11

    The study present first results from the third GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing (GREAT3) challenge, the third in a sequence of challenges for testing methods of inferring weak gravitational lensing shear distortions from simulated galaxy images. GREAT3 was divided into experiments to test three specific questions, and included simulated space- and ground-based data with constant or cosmologically varying shear fields. The simplest (control) experiment included parametric galaxies with a realistic distribution of signal-to-noise, size, and ellipticity, and a complex point spread function (PSF). The other experiments tested the additional impact of realistic galaxy morphology, multiple exposure imaging, and the uncertainty aboutmore » a spatially varying PSF; the last two questions will be explored in Paper II. The 24 participating teams competed to estimate lensing shears to within systematic error tolerances for upcoming Stage-IV dark energy surveys, making 1525 submissions overall. GREAT3 saw considerable variety and innovation in the types of methods applied. Several teams now meet or exceed the targets in many of the tests conducted (to within the statistical errors). We conclude that the presence of realistic galaxy morphology in simulations changes shear calibration biases by ~1 per cent for a wide range of methods. Other effects such as truncation biases due to finite galaxy postage stamps, and the impact of galaxy type as measured by the Sérsic index, are quantified for the first time. Our results generalize previous studies regarding sensitivities to galaxy size and signal-to-noise, and to PSF properties such as seeing and defocus. Almost all methods’ results support the simple model in which additive shear biases depend linearly on PSF ellipticity.« less

  19. GREAT3 results - I. Systematic errors in shear estimation and the impact of real galaxy morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rowe, Barnaby; Armstrong, Robert; Bard, Deborah; Bertin, Emmanuel; Bosch, James; Boutigny, Dominique; Courbin, Frederic; Dawson, William A.; Donnarumma, Annamaria; Fenech Conti, Ian; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gentile, Marc; Gill, Mandeep S. S.; Hogg, David W.; Huff, Eric M.; Jee, M. James; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Kilbinger, Martin; Kuntzer, Thibault; Lang, Dustin; Luo, Wentao; March, Marisa C.; Marshall, Philip J.; Meyers, Joshua E.; Miller, Lance; Miyatake, Hironao; Nakajima, Reiko; Ngole Mboula, Fred Maurice; Nurbaeva, Guldariya; Okura, Yuki; Paulin-Henriksson, Stephane; Rhodes, Jason; Schneider, Michael D.; Shan, Huanyuan; Sheldon, Erin S.; Simet, Melanie; Starck, Jean -Luc; Sureau, Florent; Tewes, Malte; Zarb Adami, Kristian; Zhang, Jun; Zuntz, Joe

    2015-05-11

    The study present first results from the third GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing (GREAT3) challenge, the third in a sequence of challenges for testing methods of inferring weak gravitational lensing shear distortions from simulated galaxy images. GREAT3 was divided into experiments to test three specific questions, and included simulated space- and ground-based data with constant or cosmologically varying shear fields. The simplest (control) experiment included parametric galaxies with a realistic distribution of signal-to-noise, size, and ellipticity, and a complex point spread function (PSF). The other experiments tested the additional impact of realistic galaxy morphology, multiple exposure imaging, and the uncertainty about a spatially varying PSF; the last two questions will be explored in Paper II. The 24 participating teams competed to estimate lensing shears to within systematic error tolerances for upcoming Stage-IV dark energy surveys, making 1525 submissions overall. GREAT3 saw considerable variety and innovation in the types of methods applied. Several teams now meet or exceed the targets in many of the tests conducted (to within the statistical errors). We conclude that the presence of realistic galaxy morphology in simulations changes shear calibration biases by ~1 per cent for a wide range of methods. Other effects such as truncation biases due to finite galaxy postage stamps, and the impact of galaxy type as measured by the Sérsic index, are quantified for the first time. Our results generalize previous studies regarding sensitivities to galaxy size and signal-to-noise, and to PSF properties such as seeing and defocus. Almost all methods’ results support the simple model in which additive shear biases depend linearly on PSF ellipticity.

  20. Influence of surface morphology on the immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of hematite particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Hoffmann, Nadine; Kiselev, Alexei; Dreyer, Axel; Zhang, Kai; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Koop, Thomas; Mohler, Ottmar

    2014-03-05

    In this paper, the effect of the morphological modification of aerosol particles with respect to heterogeneous ice nucleation is comprehensively investigated for laboratory-generated hematite particles as a model substrate for atmospheric dust particles. The surface area-scaled ice nucleation efficiencies of monodisperse cubic hematite particles and milled hematite particles were measured with a series of expansion cooling experiments using the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) cloud simulation chamber. Complementary off-line characterization of physico-chemical properties of both hematite subsets were also carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and an electro-kinetical particle charge detector to further constrain droplet-freezing measurements of hematite particles. Additionally, an empirical parameterization derived from our laboratory measurements was implemented in the single-column version of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) to investigate the model sensitivity in simulated ice crystal number concentration on different ice nucleation efficiencies. From an experimental perspective, our results show that the immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of milled hematite particles is almost an order of magnitude higher at -35.2 ?C < T < -33.5 ?C than that of the cubic hematite particles, indicating a substantial effect of morphological irregularities on immersion mode freezing. Our modeling results similarly show that the increased droplet-freezing rates of milled hematite particles lead to about one order magnitude higher ice crystal number in the upper troposphere than cubic hematite particles. Overall, our results suggest that the surface irregularities and associated active sites lead to greater ice activation through droplet-freezing.

  1. The BABAR Physics Book: Physics at an Asymmetric B Factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, P.F., ed.; Quinn, Helen R., ed.

    2010-05-27

    Results of a year-long workshop devoted to a review of the physics opportunities of the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II B Factory, at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center laboratory are presented.

  2. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  3. Physics division annual report 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2008-02-28

    This report highlights the activities of the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory in 2006. The Division's programs include the operation as a national user facility of ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System, research in nuclear structure and reactions, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, investigations in medium-energy nuclear physics as well as research and development in accelerator technology. The mission of nuclear physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the core of matter, the fuel of stars, and the basic constituent of life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission.

  4. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Consequences of Superstring Theory Animesh writes: I am doing my B.Tech in electronics engineering ,with a minor in particle physics at IIT,KANPUR,INDIA. I would like to know the following: WHAT WILL BE THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE SUCCESS OF THE SUPER STRING THEORY? i.e,WHEN THE FUNDAMENTAL PHOMENON OF ALL THE FORCES WILL BE KNOWN,WILL PHYSICS BE EXHAUSTED? Thanking you, ANIMESH D., IIT,KANPUR. Hi ANIMESH, If the superstring theory is true, we have then a very fundemental theory of physics. We could

  5. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ana Kata Dimension You Wrote: One day I was sitting in my living room, reading a book on physics, an idea occurred to me. (This idea probably may be unscientific and unreasonable, but read the rest of this letter anyway.) This is, specifically, a question about dimensional physics (that's probably not the real term for this branch of physics). From now-on, I will refer to the ana/kata dimension (the fourth spatial) dimension as the fourth dimension rather than the fifth dimension, even though

  6. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA) [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  7. NETL: Available Property

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Available Property Buying Property from NETL NETL offers surplus equipment for sale to the public and provides opportunities for colleges and universities to acquire laboratory equipment. It also provides gifts of math and science equipment to eligible recipients in the field of education. Personal Property Sales Program The following surplus personal property is available for sale to the public. Property Sales Laboratory Equipment Donation Grant Program (LEDP) (formerly known as EnergyRelated

  8. Intellectual Property Provisions

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    GNP-115 1 Intellectual Property Provisions (GNP-115) Grant and Cooperative Agreement Research, Development, or Demonstration Non-Federal Entity (State, Local government, Indian tribe, Institution of higher education, or Nonprofit organization) A Non-Federal Entity is subject to the intellectual property requirements at 2 CFR 200.315. 2 CFR 200.315 Intangible Property (a) Title to intangible property (see §200.59 Intangible property) acquired under a Federal award vests upon acquisition in the

  9. Princeton University High Energy Physics Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlow, Daniel R.

    2015-06-30

    This is the Final Report on research conducted by the Princeton Elementary Particles group over the approximately three-year period from May 1, 2012 to April 30, 2015. The goal of our research is to investigate the fundamental constituents of matter, their fields, and their interactions; to understand the properties of space and time; and to study the profound relationships between cosmology and particle physics. During the funding period covered by this report, the group has been organized into a subgroup concentrating on the theory of particles, strings, and cosmology; and four subgroups performing major experiments at laboratories around the world: CERN, Daya Bay, Gran Sasso as well as detector R\\&D on the Princeton campus. Highlights in of this research include the discovery of the Higgs Boson at CERN and the measurement of $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ by the Daya Bay experiment. In both cases, Princeton researchers supported by this grant played key roles.

  10. Pollen morphology of Rhizophora L. in Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohd-Arrabe', A. B.; Noraini, Talip Noraini

    2013-11-27

    Rhizophora L. are common mangrove genus in Peninsular Malaysia, it contains 3 species and 1 hybrid (R. apiculata Blume, R. mucronata Lam., R. stylosa Griff., R. x lamarckii Montrouz). This genus has some unique adaptation towards extreme environment. Rhizophora has looping aerial stilt-root and uniformly viviparous. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation in the pollen morphology of Rhizophora that can be related to their habitat. Methods include in this study is pollen observation under light and acetolysis method under scanning electron microscope. Pollen type of Rhizophora species studied except hybrid species is classified tricolporate, shape spheroidal based on ratio of length polar axis/ length of equatorial axis (1.03 - 1.09). The exine ornamentation is perforate-reticulate for R. apiculata and R. mucronata, while R. stylosa is perforate. For the only hybrid in Peninsular Malaysia, R. x lamarckii (R. apiculata x R. stylosa) differs from others, tricolpate with the absence of porate, shape is subprolate and exine ornamentation is reticulate and striate in equatorial region. Pollenkitt is present due to the salty and extreme environment. This may enhance the volume of pollenkitt present surrounding the pollen grains in Rhizophora for protection and adaptation purposes. Based on these findings, it is evident that pollen morphology is somehow related to its natural habitat.

  11. In-situ Neutron Scattering Determination of 3D Phase-Morphology Correlations in Fullerene Block Copolymer Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Alamgir; Bucknall, David; Raghavan, Dharmaraj

    2015-02-23

    High efficiency solar energy devices can potentially meet all global energy requirements by efficiently harvesting energy from the solar spectrum. However, for solar technologies to be ubiquitous and meet the global power requirements, innovative and revolutionary approaches to trap solar energy are needed. In this regard, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have drawn much attention, largely due to the ease with which OPVs can be manufactured at much lower costs compared to conventional inorganic PVs. Currently the most efficient OPV devices (at ~10%) are still below a technologically useful efficiency (~15%). It can be argued that to date most of the development of the OPVs has been driven by their electronic properties, without much consideration or understanding of the structure and morphology of the organic components and in particular how these affect the performance of the solar cell devices. It is only in the last few years that the latter has begun to be addressed. Arguably, without a complete understanding of the effect of morphology and structure on device performance, the theoretical maximum efficiency of these devices is unlikely to ever be realized. A thorough understanding of the structure and morphology of the polymers and how this affects device efficiency is vital to achieve the full potential of OPVs. If OPV devices with 15% efficiency can be achieved, coupled with the predicted low cost of processing, such devices would create an enabling technology, making these types of solar cells significant power generators and thereby reduce the dependency on conventional energy sources. This would fulfill the economic solar energy challenge identified by the NAE in their Grand Challenges of the 21st Century. In this project, we conducted a directed series of experiments to determine morphology-property correlations in bulk heterojunction films by careful control of the OPV structure and morphology. Unlike most research undertaken in the PV arena, this is mostly a fundamental study that does not set out to evaluate new materials or produce devices, but rather we wish to understand from first principles how the molecular structure of polymer-fullerene mixtures determined using neutron scattering (small angle neutron scattering and neutron reflection) affects device characteristics and consequently performance. While this seems a very obvious question to ask, this critical understanding is far from being realized despite the wealth of studies into OPVs and is severely limiting organic PV devices from achieving their theoretical potential. Despite the fundamental nature of proposed work, it is essential to remain technologically relevant and therefore to ensure we address these issues we have developed relationships on the fundamental nature of structure-processing-property paradigm as applied to future need for large area, flexible OPV devices. Nanoscale heterojunction systems consisting of fullerenes dispersed in conjugated polymers are promising materials candidates for achieving high performance organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. In order to understand the phase behavior in these devices, neutron reflection is used to determine the behavior of model conjugated polymer-fullerene mixtures. Neutron reflection is particularly useful for these types of thin film studies since the fullerene generally have a high scattering contrast with respect to most polymers. We are studying model bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films based on mixtures of poly(3-hexyl thiophene)s (P3HT), a widely used photoconductive polymer, and different fullerenes (C60, PCBM and bis-PCBM). The characterization technique of neutron reflectivity measurements have been used to determine film morphology in a direction normal to the film surfaces. The novelty of the approach over previous studies is that the BHJ layer is sandwiched between a PEDOT/PSS and Al layers in real device configuration. Using this model system, the effect of typical thermal annealing processes on the film development as a function of the polythiophene-fullerene mixtures is measured.

  12. Physical Protection of Classified Matter

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1988-02-03

    The order establishes policy and objectives for physical protection of classified matter. This directive does not cancel another directive. Chg 1, 7-30-93. Canceled by 5632.1C.

  13. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Nanotechnology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Adam Cohen has been named Deputy Under Secretary for Science and Energy in Washington D.C....

  14. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - ITER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rnard-named-communications-director-princeton-plasma-physics

  15. Quest | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quest Welcome to Quest, the annual magazine of the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). We are pleased to provide this news of our strides in...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Careers: Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to deep UV and hard x-rays. Sandia physicists are also conducting high-energy-density physics experiments to deliver a high-yield, inertial-confinement-fusion capability...

  17. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This is why the physics community is building the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in SwitzerlandFrance. It may be found at Fermilab though. The mass of the top quark and the mass of ...

  18. RESEARCH IN ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... to the European Physical Journal C in July 2012 (arXiv: ... (LOI) as a joint ATLASCMS R&D effort motivated by ... CD0 process, but ATLAS management had third thoughts, and ...

  19. Synthesis of monoclinic IrT e 2 under high pressure and its physical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    properties (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Synthesis of monoclinic IrT e 2 under high pressure and its physical properties Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on October 11, 2016 Title: Synthesis of monoclinic IrT e 2 under high pressure and its physical properties Authors: Li, X. ; Yan, J.-Q. ; Singh, D. J. ; Goodenough, J. B. ; Zhou, J.-S. Publication Date: 2015-10-12 OSTI Identifier: 1224648 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal

  20. Physics of Dance | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CANCELLED: March 4 Physics of Dance Lab Lecture Has Been Cancelled NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Feb. 12, 2008 - The Physics of Dance Science Series lecture that had been scheduled for March 4 has been cancelled. Please visit the Science Series webpage for a current listing of scheduled Spring Science Series lectures http://education.jlab.org/scienceseries/index.php Jefferson Lab is managed and operated for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, a joint

  1. ORISE: Applied health physics projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applied health physics projects The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) provides applied health physics services to government agencies needing technical support for decommissioning projects. Whether the need is assistance with the development of technical basis documents or advice on how to identify, measure and assess the presence of radiological materials, ORISE can help determine the best course for an environmental cleanup project. Our key areas of expertise include fuel

  2. Chemical Physics | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics FWP/Project Description: Project Leader(s): James Evans, Mark Gordon Principal Investigators: James Evans, Mark Gordon, Klaus Ruedenberg, Theresa Windus Key Scientific Personnel: Da-Jiang Liu, Michael Schmidt. The theoretical Chemical Physics program at Ames Laboratory supports integrated efforts in electronic structure theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanical & multiscale modeling. The primary focus is on the development and especially application of methods that enable the

  3. Brochures | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brochures Subscribe to RSS - Brochures The United States Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory works with collaborators across the globe to develop fusion as an energy source for the world, and conducts research along the broad frontier of plasma science and technology. Printed materials are free, accessible, and downloadable from this website. Image: Brochures PPPL Experts Fusion. Energy. Plasma. Physics. Tokamaks. Stellarators. Radioactivity. Nanotechnology. Astrophysics.

  4. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General physics From very cold to very hot – and everything in between Negative pressure Some cubic thermodynamical equations of state predict negative pressures, have negative pressures any physical meaning? Could they be related to negative mass? Audio waves and radio waves What is the wave called when you combine an audio wave with a radio wave? Extremely Low Frequency system In Michigan, there is an ELF (extremely low frequency) underground cable. My students asked what it does. Can you

  5. Materials Physics | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics A photo of laser light rays going in various directions atop a corrugated metal substrate In materials physics, NREL focuses on realizing materials that transcend the present constraints of photovoltaic (PV) and solid-state lighting technologies. Through materials growth and characterization, coupled with theoretical modeling, we seek to understand and control fundamental electronic and optical processes in semiconductors. Capabilities Optimizing New Materials An illustration showing

  6. Links - MST - UW Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Links UW Madison Madison Symmetric Torus Links MST HomeGraduate Student InformationLinksTourControl and Auxiliary SystemsPhysics TopicsDeviceResearch MissionMST People mst logo CPLA Home Directory Publications Links Internal University of Wisconsin Physics Department Research funding includes support from: Department of Energy National Science Foundation Other Reversed Field Pinch Experiments around the world: RFX-mod in Padua, Italy Extrap-T2R in Stockhom, Sweden RELAX at Kyoto Institute of

  7. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerating massive objects, Part 2 Physics states that Particles with mass such as protons and electrons can never truly travel at the speed of light in vacuum but they can get very close. Why not? Dan, This follows from Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity which predicts a number of physical consequences for objects moving at large velocities, consequences which are outside our normal everyday intuition gained from observing objects moving at low velocities. One effect is that particles

  8. Microstructure and thermomechanical properties relationship of segmented thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frick, Achim, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de; Borm, Michael, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de; Kaoud, Nouran, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de; Kolodziej, Jan, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de; Neudeck, Jens, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de [Institute of Polymer Science and Processing (iPSP), HTW Aalen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) are important polymeric materials for seals. In competition with Acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBR), TPU exhibits higher strength and a considerable better abrasion resistance. The advantage of NBR over TPU is a smaller compression set but however TPU excels in its much shorter processing cycle times. Generally a TPU is a block copolymer composed of hard and soft segments, which plays an important role in determining the material properties. TPU can be processed either to ready moulded parts or can be incorporated by multi component moulding, in both cases it shows decent mechanical properties. In the present work, the relationship between melt-process induced TPU morphology and resultant thermo mechanical properties were examined and determined by means of quasi-static tensile test, creep experiment, tension test and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA). Scanning electron beam microscope (SEM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were used to study the morphology of the samples. A significant mathematical description of the stress-strain behaviour of TPU was found using a 3 term approach. Moreover it became evident that processing conditions such as processing temperature have crucial influence on morphology as well as short and long-term performance. To be more precise, samples processed at higher temperatures showed a lack of large hard segment agglomerates, a smaller strength for strains up to 250% and higher creep compliance.

  9. Morphological and chemical changes of aerosolized E. coli treated with a dielectric barrier discharge

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Romero-Mangado, Jaione; Nordlund, Dennis; Soberon, Felipe; Deane, Graham; Maughan, Kevin; Sainio, Sami; Singh, Gurusharan; Daniels, Stephen; Saunders, Ian T.; Loftus, David; et al

    2016-02-12

    This paper presents the morphological and chemical modification of the cell structure of aerosolized Escherichia coli treated with a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Exposure to DBD results in severe oxidation of the bacteria, leading to the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbonyl groups and a significant reduction in amine functionalities and phosphate groups. Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure(NEXAFS) measurements confirm the presence of additional oxide bonds upon DBD treatment, suggesting oxidation of the outer layer of the cell wall. Electron microscopy images show that the bacteria undergo physical distortion to varying degrees, resulting in deformation of the bacterial structure.more » The electromagnetic field around the DBD coil causes severe damage to the cell structure, possibly resulting in leakage of vital cellular materials. The oxidation and chemical modification of the bacterial components are evident from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and NEXAFS results. The bacterial reculture experiments confirm inactivation of airborne E. coli upon treating with DBD.« less

  10. Sediment Properties: E-Area Completion Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millings, M.; Bagwell, L.; Amidon, M.; Dixon, K.

    2011-04-29

    To accommodate a future need for additional waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site, the Solid Waste Management Division (SWMD) designated nine additional plots for development (Kasraii 2007; SRS 2010); these plots are collectively known as the E Area Completion Project (ECP). Subsurface samples were collected from ECP plots 6, 7, 8 and 9 (Figure 1) for chemical and physical property analyses to support Performance Assessment (PA) and Special Analyses (SA) modeling. This document summarizes the sampling and analysis scheme and the resultant data, and provides interpretations of the data particularly in reference to existing soil property data. Analytical data in this document include: gamma log, cone penetrometer log, grain size (sieve and hydrometer), water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity (falling head permeameter), porosity, dry bulk density, total organic carbon, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence data. SRNL provided technical and safety oversight for the fieldwork, which included completion of eight soil borings, four geophysical logs, and the collection of 522 feet of core and 33 Shelby tubes from ECP plots 6, 7, 8, and 9. Boart Longyear provided sonic drilling and logging services. Two soil borings were completed at each location. The first set of boreholes extended into (but did not fully penetrate) the Warley Hill Formation. These boreholes were continuously cored, then geophysically (gamma ray) logged. The recovered core was split, photographed, and described; one half of the core was archived at SRS's Core Lab facilities, and the remaining half was consumed as necessary for testing at SRS and off-site labs. Core descriptions and geophysical data were used to calculate target elevations for Shelby tube samples, which were obtained from the second set of boreholes. Shelby tubes were shipped to MACTEC Engineering and Consulting Inc. (MACTEC) in Atlanta for physical property testing. SRNL deployed their Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) cone penetrometer test (CPT) truck at ECP plots 6, 7, 8 and 9 to collect inferred lithology data for the vadose zone. Results from this study are used to make recommendations for future modeling efforts involving the ECP plots. The conceptual model of the ECP hydrogeology differs from the conceptual model of the current ELLWF disposal area in that for the ECP plots, the topography (ground surface) is generally lower in elevation; The Upland and top of Tobacco Road lithostratigraphic units are missing (eroded); The water table occurs lower in elevation (i.e., it occurs in lower stratigraphic units); and the Tan Clay Confining Zone (TCCZ) often occurs within the vadose zone (rather than in the saturated zone). Due to the difference in the hydrogeology between the current ELLWF location and the ECP plots, different vadose zone properties are recommended for the ECP plots versus the properties recommended by Phifer et al. (2006) for the current disposal units. Results from this study do not invalidate or conflict with the current PA's use of the Upper and Lower Vadose Zone properties as described by Phifer et al. (2006) for the current ELLWF disposal units. The following modeling recommendations are made for future modeling of the ECP plots where vadose zone properties are required: (1) If a single vadose zone property is preferred, the properties described by Phifer et al. (2006) for the Upper Vadose Zone encompass the general physical properties of the combined sands and clays in the ECP vadose zone sediments despite the differences in hydrostratigraphic units. (2) If a dual zone system is preferred, a combination of the Lower Zone properties and the Clay properties described by Phifer et al. (2006) are appropriate for modeling the physical properties of the ECP vadose zone. The Clay properties would be assigned to the Tan Clay Confining Zone (TCCZ) and any other significant clay layers, while the Lower Zone properties would be assigned for the remainder of the vadose zone. No immediate updates or changes are recommended for

  11. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2015-09-09

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

  12. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.

    2014-10-19

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-bodymore » interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less

  13. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2015-09-09

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit,more » and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less

  14. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.

    2014-10-19

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

  15. Current experiments in elementary-particle physics - March 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)

  16. Heteropolymer freezing and design: Towards physical models of protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pande, Vijay S. [Chemistry Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5080 (United States)] [Chemistry Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5080 (United States); Grosberg, Alexander Yu. [Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Tanaka, Toyoichi [Department of Physics and Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Protein folding has become one of the most actively studied problems in modern molecular biophysics. Approaches to the problem combine ideas from the physics of disordered systems, polymer physics, and molecular biology. Much can be learned from the statistical properties of model heteropolymers, the chain molecules having different monomers in irregular sequences. Even in highly evolved proteins, there is a strong random element in the sequences, which gives rise to a statistical ensemble of sequences for a given folded shape. Simple analytic models give rise to phase transitions between random, glassy, and folded states, depending on the temperature T and the design temperature T{sup des} of the ensemble of sequences. Besides considering the analytic results obtainable in a random-energy model and in the Flory mean-field model of polymers, the article reports on confirming numerical simulations. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  17. Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-09-01

    Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

  18. Review of Physics Results from the Tevatron. Electroweak Physics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V.; Schellman, Heidi; Sekaric, Jadranka

    2015-02-17

    We summarize an extensive Tevatron (1984–2011) electroweak physics program that involves a variety of W and Z boson precision measurements. The relevance of these studies using single and associated gauge boson production to our understanding of the electroweak sector, quantum chromodynamics and searches for new physics is emphasized. Furthermore,we discuss the importance of the W boson mass measurement, the W/Z boson distributions and asymmetries, and diboson studies. We also highlight the recent Tevatron measurements and prospects for the final Tevatron measurements.

  19. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 (2004) 145-161 PII: S0741-3335(04)64065-6 Current profile modification experiments in EXTRAP T2R M Cecconello 1 , J-A Malmberg 1 , G Spizzo 2 , B E Chapman 3 , R M Gravestjin 4 , P Franz 2,5 , P Piovesan 2 , P Martin 2 and J R Drake 1 1 Division of Fusion Plasma Physics (Association EURATOM/VR), Alfvén Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, SE 100 44, Stockholm, Sweden 2 Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova, Italy 3 Department of Physics, University of

  20. A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David

    2013-07-25

    Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.

  1. PHYSICAL INVENTORY LISTING | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PHYSICAL INVENTORY LISTING PHYSICAL INVENTORY LISTING Form supports nuclear materials control and accountability. PDF icon PHYSICAL INVENTORY LISTING More Documents & Publications DOE/NRC F 742C Material Balance Report DOE F 74

  2. Intellectual Property Provisions - Assistance

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    NRD-115) Nonresearch and Development Intellectual property rights are subject to 2 CFR 200.315 or 910.362.

  3. Structural and morphological evolution of gallium nitride nanorods grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, Shou-Yi; Lai, Fang-I; Chen, Wei-Chun; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Lin, Woei-Tyng

    2009-07-15

    The morphological and structural evolution is presented for GaN nanorods grown by chemical beam epitaxy on (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. Their structural and optical properties are investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements. While increasing the growth temperature and the flow rate of radio-frequency nitrogen radical, the three-dimensional growth mode will be enhanced to form one-dimensional nanostructures. The high density of well-aligned nanorods with a diameter of 30-50 nm formed uniformly over the entire sapphire substrate. The x-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopic images indicate that the self-assembled GaN nanorods are a pure single crystal and preferentially oriented in the c-axis direction. Particularly, the ''S-shape'' behavior with localization of {approx}10 meV observed in the temperature-dependent photoluminescence might be ascribed to the fluctuation in crystallographic defects and composition.

  4. Nuclear Physics & Modeling, AFC R&D Nuclear Physics Working Group...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear Physics & Modeling, AFC R&D Nuclear Physics Working Group Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Physics & Modeling, AFC R&D Nuclear Physics Working Group ...

  5. Fermilab | Directorate | Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee (PAC) PAC The Program Advisory Committee (PAC) consists of 14 distinguished members from the particle physics community appointed by the...

  6. Physical Description and Experimental Characterization of the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Physical Description and Experimental Characterization of the Resistive Switching Filament. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physical Description and Experimental...

  7. Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures Promoting and supporting high-quality, cutting-edge science in...

  8. MPA, Materials Physics and Applications (Technical Report) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MPA, Materials Physics and Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MPA, Materials Physics and Applications Authors: Kippen, Karen Elizabeth 1 + Show Author...

  9. Physical Protection - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2A, Physical Protection by jcronin Functional areas: Security, This Manual establishes requirements for the physical protection of interests under the U.S. Department of Energys...

  10. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Honors Three Researchers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Honors Three Researchers March 12, 2012 Tweet Widget ... the Kaul Prize for Excellence in Plasma Physics Research and Technology Development. ...

  11. SHARP Physics Modules Updated | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Physics Modules Updated SHARP Physics Modules Updated January 29, 2013 - 12:37pm Addthis PROTEUS Development The SHARP neutronics module, PROTEUS, includes neutron and gamma ...

  12. Physics of Condensed Matter and Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Physics of Condensed Matter and Complex Systems A tradition of international leadership ... Basic and applied research in condensed matter, statistical and quantum physics The ...

  13. Saturday Morning Physics talk (Feb 2013)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * Scope and applications of nuclear physics precision frontier compliments LHC ... 222013 Dan Melconian What is Nuclear Physics? * Began with the study of the nucleus ...

  14. VERA Core Physics Benchmark Progression Problems Specifications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VERA Core Physics Benchmark Progression Problem Specifications Revision 4 August 29, 2014 Andrew T. Godfrey Physics Integration Oak Ridge National Laboratory CASL-U-2012-0131-004 ...

  15. News Archive | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have launched a new ... Tensions rose in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory ...

  16. Robert G Andre | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    G Andre Senior Computational Scientist Dr. Robert Andre is currently a member of the Computational Plasma Physics Group at the Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL) where he...

  17. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Technology Marketing Summaries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Technology Marketing Summaries Here you'll find marketing summaries for technologies available for licensing from the Princeton Plasma Physics...

  18. Scott Runnels of Computational Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scott Runnels of Computational Physics to teach at West Point March 19, 2013 LOS ALAMOS, N. M., March 19, 2013- Under an agreement between Los Alamos National Laboratory and the U.S. Military Academy, Scott Runnels has been selected for a two-year faculty post in the Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering at West Point. The teaching position is intended to strengthen the ties between the U.S. national laboratories and the U.S. military academies by bringing in a top scientist to teach at

  19. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pure Antineutron Beams Hello, I am a physics student in Germany. I haven't had particle physics yet, so I'd be glad if you answered me one question: How do you create more or less pure anti-neutron beams in your accelerator?? I'm sure it's possible somehow but I just don't know the way to relize that. The "options" I got to know by now: collision of anti-protons with carbon nuclei can result in anti-neutrons decay of lambda-particles (how would you create them?) I guess the main

  20. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacuum You wrote: I'm Stephen and I moderate a theoretical physics forum at physicsforums.com. Is it possible to increase the probability that virtual particles will appear in a vacuum? I was posed this question from a member and i do not have a definite answer in my reference materials. I would greatly appreciate any response as to how/why if the question has a yes answer. Thank you for your time. Regards, Stephen J Hall, Theoretical Physics moderator PS. if you are ever browsing the net and

  1. About Nuclear Physics | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Education - Students Pulse Laser Deposit Hadware Research at Jefferson Lab leads to the development of technology that has practical applications, such as pulse laser deposit hardware. A D D I T I O N A L L I N K S: Student Zone About Atoms Virginia SOL Virtual Tour JLab Video Brochures top-right bottom-left-corner bottom-right-corner ABOUT NUCLEAR PHYSICS Nuclear physics is an important pursuit because the study of the nucleus of the atom is at the heart of our ability to understand the

  2. Synthesis, Characterization (Molecular-Morphological) and Theoretical Morphology Predictions of Poly(cyclohexadiene) Containing Linear Triblock Terpolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Dadmun, Mark D; Sumpter, Bobby G; Mays, Jimmy; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Zafeiropoulos, N.E.; Misichoronis, K.; Rangou, S.; Ashcraft, E.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis via anionic polymerization of six linear triblock terpolymers with various sequences of blocks such as PS (polystyrene), PB (polybutadiene), PI (polyisoprene) and PCHD (poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene)) is reported. The synthesis of the terpolymers was accomplished by the use of anionic polymerization with high vacuum techniques and sequential monomer addition. Molecular characterization of the samples was performed via size exclusion chromatography and membrane osmometry to measure polydispersity indices and the number-average molecular weights, respectively. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was adopted to verify the type of microstructure for the polydienes as well as to calculate the molar composition. Structural characterization was performed via transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering and several morphologies were observed including one which has not been reported previously. Real-space self-consistent field theory (SCFT) without a priori knowledge about the symmetry of the periodic structures was used to elucidate the thermodynamics of the synthesized triblock copolymers.

  3. Property Postings - SRSCRO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Property Postings The Department of Energy has provided the following lists of Excess Property currently available from the Savannah River Site. How to Acquire DOE Property BMG Contact Information If you need more information on the listed items, please call BMG at 803-496-0100 Available Property Postings Note: If using the Internet Explorer, version 9 or later is needed to view the lists properly. Property lists posted at 1:55 p.m. on February 11, 2016: SRCRO16019 SRCRO16065 SRCRO16068

  4. Defect Chemistry and Plasmon Physics of Colloidal Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lounis, SD; Runnerstrorm, EL; Llordes, A; Milliron, DJ

    2014-05-01

    Plasmonic nanocrystals of highly doped metal oxides have seen rapid development in the past decade and represent a class of materials with unique optoelectronic properties. In this Perspective, we discuss doping mechanisms in metal oxides and the accompanying physics of free carrier scattering, both of which have implications in determining the properties of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in these nanocrystals. The balance between activation and compensation of dopants limits the free carrier concentration of the most common metal oxides, placing a ceiling on the LSPR frequency. Furthermore, because of ionized impurity scattering of the oscillating plasma by dopant ions, scattering must be treated in a fundamentally different way in semiconductor metal oxide materials when compared with conventional metals. Though these effects are well-understood in bulk metal oxides, further study is needed to understand their manifestation in nanocrystals and corresponding impact on plasmonic properties, and to develop materials that surpass current limitations in free carrier concentration.

  5. Property Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management Property Management Personal Property Management and Accountability for Headquarters Management Personal property management includes all functions necessary for the proper determination of need, source, acquisition, receipt, accountability, utilization, maintenance, rehabilitation, storage, distribution and disposal of property. Authorized Property Representatives Effective December 2, 2015: Authorized Property Pass Signers List and Accountable Property Representatives List Personal

  6. EA-1562: Construction and Operation of a Physical Sciences Facility at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of DOE proposed activities associated with constructing and operating a new Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) complex on DOE property located in...

  7. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  8. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; Payet, J.; Bartolini, R.; Farvacque, L.; Sen, T.; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  9. News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Q&A With the Director of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Dr. Stewart Prager Click on an image below to view the high resolution image. Then right click on the image and select "Save Image" or "Save Image As..." Stewart Prager

  10. News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    McComas named vice president for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Click on an image below to view the high resolution image. Then right click on the image and select "Save Image" or "Save Image As..." David McComas

  11. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  12. LHC Physics Potential versus Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2009-08-01

    Parton luminosities are convenient for estimating how the physics potential of Large Hadron Collider experiments depends on the energy of the proton beams. I present parton luminosities, ratios of parton luminosities, and contours of fixed parton luminosity for gg, u{bar d}, and qq interactions over the energy range relevant to the Large Hadron Collider, along with example analyses for specific processes.

  13. Thermo-optical Properties of Nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortega, Maria Alejandra; Echevarria, Lorenzo; Rodriguez, Luis; Castillo, Jimmy; Fernandez, Alberto

    2008-04-15

    In this work, we report thermo-optical properties of nanofluids. Spherical gold nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in condensed media were characterized using thermal lens spectroscopy in SDS-water solution pumping at 532 nm with a 10 ns pulsed laser-Nd-YAG system. Nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation were stabilized in the time by surfactants (Sodium Dodecyl-Sulfate or SDS) in different molar concentrations. The morphology and size of the gold nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The plasmonic resonance bands in gold nanoparticles are responsible of the light optical absorption of this wavelength. The position of the absorption maximum and width band in the UV-Visible spectra is given by the morphological characteristics of these systems. The thermo-optical constant such as thermal diffusion, thermal conductivity and dn/dT are functions of nanoparticles sizes and dielectric constant of the media. The theoretical model existents do not describe completely this relations because is not possible separate the contributions due to nanoparticles size, factor form and dielectric constant. The thermal lens signal obtained is also dependent of nanoparticles sizes. This methodology can be used in order to evaluate nanofluids and characterizing nanoparticles in different media. These results are expected to have an impact in bioimaging, biosensors and other technological applications such as cooler system.

  14. Peter Damiano | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Damiano Associate Research Physicist, Plasma Physics Laboratory. Contact Information Phone: 609-243-2607 Email: pdamiano

  15. Jianying Lang | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jianying Lang Computational Scientist, Plasma Physics Laboratory. Contact Information Phone: 609-243-2207 Email: jlang

  16. Jin Chen | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jin Chen Computational Scientist, Plasma Physics Laboratory. Contact Information Phone: 609-243-3352 Email: jchen

  17. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  18. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Benefits of Particle Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Benefits of Particle Physics photo Each generation of particle accelerators and detectors builds on the previous one, raising the potential for discovery and pushing the level of technology ever higher. In 1930, Ernest O. Lawrence, the father of particle accelerators, built the first hand-held cyclotron at Berkeley, California. Larger and more powerful accelerators soon followed. After a day's research, Lawrence often operated the Berkeley cyclotrons through the night to produce medical isotopes

  19. Efimov physics in cold atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braaten, Eric . E-mail: braaten@mps.ohio-state.edu; Hammer, H.-W. . E-mail: hammer@itkp.uni-bonn.de

    2007-01-15

    Atoms with a large scattering length have universal low-energy properties that do not depend on the details of their structure or their interactions at short distances. In the 2-atom sector, the universal properties are familiar and depend only on the scattering length. In the 3-atom sector for identical bosons, the universal properties include the existence of a sequence of shallow triatomic molecules called Efimov trimers and log-periodic dependence of scattering observables on the energy and the scattering length. In this review, we summarize the universal results that are currently known. We also summarize the experimental information that is currently available with an emphasis on 3-atom loss processes.

  20. Morphological development and oxidation mechanisms of aluminum nitride whiskers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou Xinmei; Yue Changsheng; Kumar Singh, Ankit; Zhang Mei; Chou Kuochih

    2010-04-15

    Hexagonal aluminum nitride (AlN) whiskers have been synthesized at 1873 K under a flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The synthesized whiskers are long straight filaments with diameters between 1 and 5 {mu}m and length in the cm range. In order to investigate its 'oxidation resistance', a series of experiments have been performed. The oxidation behavior was quite different in the experimental temperature range assigned, which can be attributed to the kinetic factor and the morphological development during oxidation process. It was chemical controlled at lower temperature while both chemical reaction and diffusion controlled at medium temperature. Further accelerating of temperature to 1473 K, AlN whiskers was peeled into smaller parts, which increased the oxidation rate and hence showed powder-like oxidation behavior. Our new kinetic theory has been applied to study the oxidation behavior of AlN whiskers. The comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical ones validates the applicability of the new model. - Hexagonal aluminum nitride (AlN) whiskers have been synthesized at 1873 K under a flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The synthesized whiskers are long straight filaments with diameters between 1 and 5 {mu}m and length in the cm range.

  1. The effects of high magnetic field on the morphology and microwave electromagnetic properties of MnO{sub 2} powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia Zhang [Department of Materials Processing Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road 2, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116085, Liaoning Province (China); Duan Yuping, E-mail: duanyp@dlut.edu.c [Department of Materials Processing Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road 2, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116085, Liaoning Province (China); Li Shuqing, E-mail: lsq6668@126.co [Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, 1 Jun Zhuang east Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100024 (China); Li Xiaogang, E-mail: lixiaogang99@263.ne [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu Shunhua [Department of Materials Processing Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road 2, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116085, Liaoning Province (China)

    2010-07-15

    MnO{sub 2} with a sea urchin-like ball chain shape was first synthesized in a high magnetic field via a simple chemical process, and a mechanism for the formation of this grain shape was discussed. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and vector network analysis. The dielectric constant and the loss tangent clearly decreased under a magnetic field. The magnetic loss tangent and the imaginary part of the magnetic permeability increased substantially. Furthermore, the theoretically calculated values of reflection loss showed that the absorption peaks shifted to a higher frequency with increases in the magnetic field strength. - Graphical abstract: MnO{sub 2} with a sea urchin-like ball chain shape is first synthesized in a high magnetic field via a simple hydrothermal route.

  2. Impact of annealing on the chemical structure and morphology of the thin-film CdTe/ZnO interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horsley, K. Hanks, D. A.; Weir, M. G.; Beal, R. J.; Wilks, R. G.; Blum, M.; Hming, M.; Hofmann, T.; Weinhardt, L.; and others

    2014-07-14

    To enable an understanding and optimization of the optoelectronic behavior of CdTe-ZnO nanocomposites, the morphological and chemical properties of annealed CdTe/ZnO interface structures were studied. For that purpose, CdTe layers of varying thickness (424?nm) were sputter-deposited on 100?nm-thick ZnO films on surface-oxidized Si(100) substrates. The morphological and chemical effects of annealing at 525?C were investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray-excited Auger electron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We find a decrease of the Cd and Te surface concentration after annealing, parallel to an increase in Zn and O signals. While the as-deposited film surfaces show small grains (100?nm diameter) of CdTe on the ZnO surface, annealing induces a significant growth of these grains and separation into islands (with diameters as large as 1??m). The compositional change at the surface is more pronounced for Cd than for Te, as evidenced using component peak fitting of the Cd and Te 3d XPS peaks. The modified Auger parameters of Cd and Te are also calculated to further elucidate the local chemical environment before and after annealing. Together, these results suggest the formation of tellurium and cadmium oxide species at the CdTe/ZnO interface upon annealing, which can create a barrier for charge carrier transport, and might allow for a deliberate modification of interface properties with suitably chosen thermal treatment parameters.

  3. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particles and their properties Quarks, leptons and bosons, spin and mass, antimatter Particles and Vacuums Do you think it is possible that the velocity of an object in space determines the force of the vacuum it travels through? Movement of the Electron Around the Nucleus Why does the electron have to move around the Nucleus? Why does it not lose energy moving around it? Particles and Their Properties How do I figure out the number of protons, the number of neutrons, and the number of electrons

  4. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How does an electron on a 2p orbital cross the node of nucleus? To Fermilab, I have a question that needs answering for my chemistry class. In an atom, how does an electron on a 2p (bell shaped) orbital cross the node of the nucleus (a region of zero probability)? Does it have something to do with the wave properties of an electron? I cannot find the answer on the internet or in my chemistry book. Thank you very much. Danny Hi Danny, It does have something to do with the wave properties of the

  5. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particles and Their Properties Question: I was hoping that you could help me learn how to figure out the number of protons, the number of neutrons, and the number of electrons of a particular atom. For example, oxygen is 8 O 16, I'm not sure how to figure this out. Thanks in advance for your assistance. - D Answer: Dear D: The key properties of an atom (like oxygen) are described by the Atomic Number (which is 8 for Oxygen) and the total number of nucleons (which is 16 for Oxygen). The atomic

  6. Porous Carbon Supports: Recent Advances with Various Morphologies and Compositions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhu, Huiyuan; Dai, Sheng

    2015-08-31

    The importance of porous carbon as the support material is well recognized in the catalysis community, and it would be even more attractive if several characteristics are considered, such as the stability in acidic and basic media or the ease of noble metal recovery through complete burn off. Because it is still difficult to obtain constant properties even from batch to batch, activated carbons are not popular in industrial catalysis now.

  7. Available DOE Property - SRSCRO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    property Available DOE Property As the Department of Energy's designated Community Reuse Organization, SRSCRO is responsible for working with DOE to identify surplus property and equipment from the Savannah River Site and determining how this material may be used for economic development and job creation. This material is first made available at very reasonable prices to organizations which are creating jobs and/or supporting economic development in our region. Recipients can be local

  8. Greg W Hammett | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greg W Hammett Principal Research Physicist, Plasma Physics Laboratory. Lecture Dr. Hammett is a principal research physicist at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), and a lecturer in the Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Program in Plasma Physics, at Princeton University. He was selected a fellow of the American Physical Society in 1997. Dr. Hammett specializes in computational and theoretical studies of the complex physics of plasma turbulence. He and his collaborators developed

  9. Igor Kaganovich | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Igor Kaganovich Research Physicist, Plasma Physics Laboratory. Dr. Kaganovich is a principal research physicist at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. His professional interests include: beam-plasma interaction, high energy density plasmas, nanotechnology, atomic physics, and physics of partially ionized plasmas. He is involved in research in many areas of plasma physics with applications to nuclear fusion (heavy ion fusion), gas discharge modeling, and plasma processing. Dr. Kaganovich serves

  10. PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PDF icon PIA - WEB Physical Security Major...

  11. General properties of the gravitational wave spectrum from phase

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transitions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect General properties of the gravitational wave spectrum from phase transitions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: General properties of the gravitational wave spectrum from phase transitions In this paper we discuss some general aspects of the gravitational wave background arising from postinflationary short-lasting cosmological events such as phase transitions. We concentrate on the physics which determines the shape and the peak

  12. Quasiparticle properties of the superconducting state of the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    two-dimensional Hubbard model (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Quasiparticle properties of the superconducting state of the two-dimensional Hubbard model Title: Quasiparticle properties of the superconducting state of the two-dimensional Hubbard model Authors: Gull, E. ; Millis, A. J. Publication Date: 2015-02-20 OSTI Identifier: 1180695 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review B Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 91;

  13. Fission barrier properties, resonance fluctuations and isomer fission

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cross-sections. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Fission barrier properties, resonance fluctuations and isomer fission cross-sections. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fission barrier properties, resonance fluctuations and isomer fission cross-sections. Although the main picture of fission bamer physics was established some time ago many of the details still have to be settled. Consequently, the application to evaluation of crosssections of unmeasurable or exotic nuclides and their

  14. Properties | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic SearchQuerying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Special page Properties Jump to:...

  15. PARTICIPATION IN HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Christopher

    2012-12-20

    This grant funded experimental and theoretical activities in elementary particles physics at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). The experiments in which IIT faculty collaborated included the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, the MINOS experiment, the Double Chooz experiment, and FNAL E871 - HyperCP experiment. Funds were used to support summer salary for faculty, salary for postdocs, and general support for graduate and undergraduate students. Funds were also used for travel expenses related to these projects and general supplies.

  16. News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Primary tabs View High Resolution(active tab) Princeton, Max Planck Society launch new research center for plasma physics Click on an image below to view the high resolution image. Then right click on the image and select "Save Image" or "Save Image As..." (From left to right) Princeton University Professor of Astrophysical Sciences James Stone, Princeton University President Shirley M. Tilghman, Princeton University Dean for Research A. J. Stewart Smith, Max Planck

  17. News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Journal Watch Blog PPPL Experts Research at Princeton Events Research Education Organization Contact Us News Room News Archive American Fusion News Press Releases Publications Princeton Journal Watch Blog PPPL Experts Research at Princeton News Primary tabs View High Resolution(active tab) PPPL graduate students help create Princeton University Art Museum exhibition exploring art and physics Click on an image below to view the high resolution image. Then right click on the image and

  18. News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Press Releases Archive Publications Princeton Journal Watch Blog PPPL Experts Research at Princeton Events Research Education Organization Contact Us News Room News Archive American Fusion News Press Releases Press Releases Archive Publications Princeton Journal Watch Blog PPPL Experts Research at Princeton News Primary tabs View High Resolution(active tab) PPPL graduate students help create Princeton University Art Museum exhibition exploring art and physics Click on an image below to view the

  19. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  20. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  1. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What are the virtual particles? You Wrote: What are the virtual particles? What does it mean - "virtual"? Sincerely, Anthony Petrov. Hi, you ask another very good question. "Virtual particles" are real -- they exist in that they can be detected and can interact. But they are fleeting -- they are soon gone with no trace of their existence. This phenomenon is related to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle of quantum physics. Uncertainty in time multiplied by uncertainty in

  2. Education | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Education Science Education Welcome to the Science Education Department at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), where we combine the lab's core research activities with science education programs to create a center of excellence for students, teachers and the general public. We contribute to the training of the next generation of scientists and engineers, collaborate with K-12 teachers on ways to improve science teaching using an inquiry-based approach to learning, and improve the

  3. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Muons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Muons photo Two planned Fermilab experiments, Mu2e and Muon g-2, will use particles called muons to search for rare and hidden phenomena in the quantum realm. In recent years, particle physicists have increasingly turned their attention to finding evidence for physics beyond the already known building blocks of matter and subatomic forces that determine their interactions. Discoveries beyond the well-established Standard Model will help scientists answer some of the most puzzling and pressing

  4. Journal of Physical Chemistry A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physical Chemistry A - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  5. Research | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is dedicated to developing fusion as a clean and abundant source of energy and to advancing the frontiers of plasma science. The Laboratory pursues these goals through experiments and computer simulations of the behavior of plasma, the hot electrically charged gas that fuels fusion reactions and has a wide range of practical applications. Experimental Fusion Research Fusion powers the sun and stars. The process takes

  6. Tours | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History Fusion Basics DOE and Fusion Links Speakers Bureau Tours Virtual Tour 10 Facts About Fusion Energy Contract Documents LDRD M&O Work for Others News Events Research Education Organization Contact Us Overview Learn More Visiting PPPL History Fusion Basics DOE and Fusion Links Speakers Bureau Tours Virtual Tour 10 Facts About Fusion Energy Contract Documents LDRD M&O Work for Others Tours Tour Arrangements at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Come see first-hand the exciting

  7. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Empty Universe You wrote: Madam/sir, Is it true that a completely empty universe, without any object, without any particle, a mere void, would be twodimensional? Jod Dear Jod, According to Einstein's general relativity, a completely empty universe could have any number of spatial dimensions. String theory would say that an empty universe should have 10 spatial dimensions. I hope this is helpful. Fermilab Physicist Back to Questions About Physics Main Page last modified 11/15

  8. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concept of ether in explaining forces You asked: Will there be any research carried out in the near or distant future to find a physical relationship between gravity, mass, light, matter/antimatter through something like the idea of ether hundred years ago? The concept of ether surfaced decades before scientists knew of quantum mechanics and some very fundamental symmetry principles of the microscopic world. Because of the huge change in knowledge, the historic word ether is not used anymore

  9. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Impact of the Accelerator on the Environment Question: Some cubic thermodynamical equations of state predict negative pressures, have negative pressures any physical meaning? Could they be related to negative mass? Silvia, Mexico Answer: Dear Silvia, The short answer is that a system with negative pressure must be unstable, and thus, there are no thermodynamic states of a system with negative pressure. The reason for this is simple: The second law of thermodynamics tells us that all

  10. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Software Programming in Particle Detectors Question: Is it possible to use software programing in particle detectors to develop a program that can interpert data of passive radar? Answer: Thanks for sending your question. The answer greatly depends on the type of data the radar is creating and the signal you are looking for. The particle physics software is used to identify tracks of particles, that is, the imaginary lines that particles leave behind inside a set of detectors. Similar to bullets

  11. About | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview Learn More Visiting PPPL History Fusion Basics DOE and Fusion Links Speakers Bureau Tours 10 Facts About Fusion Energy Contract Documents LDRD M&O Work for Others News Events Research Education Organization Contact Us Overview Learn More Visiting PPPL History Fusion Basics DOE and Fusion Links Speakers Bureau Tours 10 Facts About Fusion Energy Contract Documents LDRD M&O Work for Others About Overview The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is

  12. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  13. Finite groups and quantum physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kornyak, V. V.

    2013-02-15

    Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive 'finite' point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution-only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers-a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories-in particular, within the Standard Model.

  14. Theoretical perspectives on strange physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, J.

    1983-04-01

    Kaons are heavy enough to have an interesting range of decay modes available to them, and light enough to be produced in sufficient numbers to explore rare modes with satisfying statistics. Kaons and their decays have provided at least two major breakthroughs in our knowledge of fundamental physics. They have revealed to us CP violation, and their lack of flavor-changing neutral interactions warned us to expect charm. In addition, K/sup 0/-anti K/sup 0/ mixing has provided us with one of our most elegant and sensitive laboratories for testing quantum mechanics. There is every reason to expect that future generations of kaon experiments with intense sources would add further to our knowledge of fundamental physics. This talk attempts to set future kaon experiments in a general theoretical context, and indicate how they may bear upon fundamental theoretical issues. A survey of different experiments which would be done with an Intense Medium Energy Source of Strangeness, including rare K decays, probes of the nature of CP isolation, ..mu.. decays, hyperon decays and neutrino physics is given. (WHK)

  15. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hisham Kamal Sayed

    2011-05-31

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  16. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Condensed Matter and Materials Physics Materials Sciences and Engineering (MSE) Division MSE Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation Hubs BES Funding Opportunities Reports and Activities Science Highlights Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Research Areas Condensed Matter and Materials Physics Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Research is supported to understand, design, and control materials properties and function. These goals

  17. THE CURIOUS MORPHOLOGY AND ORIENTATION OF ORION PROPLYD HST-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuping, R. Y.; Kassis, Marc; Bally, John; Morris, Mark R.

    2014-02-01

    HST-10 is one of the largest proplyds in the Orion Nebula and is located approximately 1' SE of the Trapezium. Unlike other proplyds in Orion, however, the long-axis of HST-10 does not align with ?{sup 1}C, but is instead aligned with the rotational axis of the HST-10 disk. This cannot be easily explained using current photoevaporation models. In this Letter, we present high spatial resolution near-infrared images of the Orion proplyd HST-10 using Keck/NIRC2 with the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system, along with multi-epoch analysis of HH objects near HST-10 using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 and Advanced Camera for Surveys cameras. Our narrowband near-IR images resolve the proplyd ionization front (IF) and circumstellar disk down to 23AU at the distance to Orion in Br ?, He I, H{sub 2}, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission. Br ? and He I emission primarily trace the IF (with the disk showing prominently in silhouette), while the H{sub 2} and PAH emission trace the surface of the disk itself. PAH emission also traces small dust grains within the proplyd envelope which is asymmetric and does not coincide with the IF. The curious morphology of the PAH emission may be due to UV heating by both ?{sup 1}COri and ?{sup 2} AOri. Multi-epoch HST images of the HST-10 field show proper motion of three knots associated with HH 517, clearly indicating that HST-10 has a jet. We postulate that the orientation of HST-10 is determined by the combined ram pressure of this jet and the FUV-powered photo-ablation flow from the disk surface.

  18. Other Physics and Engineering Research | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Other Physics and Engineering Research United States DIII-D-PPPL scientists participate in experiments on the DIII-D tokamak, the largest U.S. fusion facility, which General Atomics operates in San Diego for the U.S. Department of Energy. Five PPPL researchers are currently assigned to the DIII-D on a year-round basis. Additional researchers travel there on a regular basis and support work is performed at PPPL. https://fusion.gat.com/global/DIII-D Alcator C-MOD-The MIT Plasma Science and Fusion

  19. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics 101 | How Particle Physics Discovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Works How Particle Physics Discovery Works Matter at the smallest scale is made of elementary particles, pieces of matter that cannot be divided into anything smaller. As scientists over the past century have looked deeper and deeper into the atom, they have found the smallest things human beings have ever seen. How do they do it? The first step: accelerators The collision of particles at high energy, either with other particles or with a stationary target, allows physicists not only to look

  20. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 (2003) A457-A470 PII: S0741-3335(03)69356-5 Tokamak-like confinement at high beta and low field in the reversed field pinch J S Sarff 1 , J K Anderson 1 , T M Biewer 1 , D L Brower 2 , B E Chapman 1 , P K Chattopadhyay 1 , D Craig 1 , B Deng 2 , D J Den Hartog 1 , W X Ding 2 , G Fiksel 1 , C B Forest 1 , J A Goetz 1 , R O'Connell 1 , S C Prager 1 and M A Thomas 1 1 Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA 2 Electrical Engineering

  1. Effect of Mn substitution on the transport properties of co-sputtered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a high spin polarization with a high Curie temperature to be applied in spintronic devices, and in order to further study the effect of Mn contents on the physical properties ...

  2. Multi-functional carbon nanomaterials: Tailoring morphology for multidisciplinary applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dervishi, Enkeleda

    2015-05-14

    Carbon based nanomaterials are being developed to have many new properties and applications. Graphene, is a mono-layer 2D atomic thick structure formed from hexagons of carbon atoms bound together by sp^2hybrid bonds. A carbon nanotube (CNT) can be viewed as a sheet of graphene rolled up into a cylinder, usually 1-2 nanometers in diameter and a few microns thick. A few applications of graphene and carbon nanotubes include the development of Nanoelectronics, nanocomposite materials, Hydrogen storage and Li? battery, etc.

  3. ZnO Nanorod Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposites: Morphology and Shape Memory Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, H.; Kelley, J; George, J; Drummy, L; Mirau, P; Bell, N; Hsu, J; Vaia, R

    2009-01-01

    The impact of dispersed alkylthiol-modified ZnO nanorods, as a function of rod aspect ratio and concentration, on the shape memory character of a thermoplastic polyurethane with low hard-segment density (LHS-TPU) is examined relative to the enhanced performance occurring for carbon nanofiber (CNF) dispersion. Solution blending resulted in uniform dispersion within the LHS-TPU of the ZnO nanorods at low volume (weight) fractions (<2.9% v/v (17.75% w/w)). Tensile modulus enhancements were modest though, comparable to values observed for spherical nanofillers. Shape memory characteristics, which in this LHS-TPU result when strain-induced crystallites retard the entropic recovery of the deformed chains, were unchanged for these low volume fraction ZnO nanocomposites. Higher ZnO loadings (12% v/v (50% w/w)) exhibited clustering of ZnO nanorods into a mesh-like structure. Here, tensile modulus and shape recovery characteristics were improved, although not as great as seen for comparable CNF addition. Wide angle X-ray diffraction and NMR revealed that the addition of ZnO nanorods did not impact the inherent strain induced crystallization of the LHS-TPU, which is in contrast to the impact of CNFs and emphasizes the impact of interactions at the polymer-nanoparticle interface. Overall, these findings reinforce the hypothesis that the shape memory properties of polymer nanocomposites are governed by the extent to which nanoparticle addition, via nanoparticle aspect ratio, hierarchical morphology, and interfacial interactions, impacts the molecular mechanism responsible for trapping elastic strain.

  4. Physics division annual report 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2007-03-12

    This report highlights the research performed in 2005 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory, medium energy nuclear research and accelerator research and development. The mission of Nuclear Physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the matter that makes up stars, planets and human life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission and 2005 was a year of great progress. One of the most exciting developments is the initiation of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, CARIBU. By combining a Cf-252 fission source, the gas catcher technology developed for rare isotope beams, a high-resolution isobar separator, and charge breeding ECR technology, CARIBU will make hundreds of new neutron-rich isotope beams available for research. The cover illustration shows the anticipated intensities of low-energy beams that become available for low-energy experiments and for injection into ATLAS for reacceleration. CARIBU will be completed in early 2009 and provide us with considerable experience in many of the technologies developed for a future high intensity exotic beam facility. Notable results in research at ATLAS include a measurement of the isomeric states in {sup 252}No that helps pin down the single particle structure expected for superheavy elements, and a new low-background measurement of {sup 16}N beta-decay to determine the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction rate that is so important in astrophysical environments. Precise mass measurements shed new light on the unitarity of the quark weak-mixing matrix in the search for physics beyond the standard model. ATLAS operated for 4686 hours of research in FY2005 while achieving 95% efficiency of beam delivery for experiments. In Medium-Energy Physics, radium isotopes were trapped in an atom trap for the first time, a major milestone in an innovative search for the violation of time-reversal symmetry. New results from HERMES establish that strange quarks carry little of the spin of the proton and precise results have been obtained at JLAB on the changes in quark distributions in light nuclei. New theoretical results reveal that the nature of the surfaces of strange quark stars. Green's function Monte Carlo techniques have been extended to scattering problems and show great promise for the accurate calculation, from first principles, of important astrophysical reactions. Flame propagation in type 1A supernova has been simulated, a numerical process that requires considering length scales that vary by factors of eight to twelve orders of magnitude. Argonne continues to lead in the development and exploitation of the new technical concepts that will truly make an advanced exotic beam facility, in the words of NSAC, 'the world-leading facility for research in nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics'. Our science and our technology continue to point the way to this major advance. It is a tremendously exciting time in science for these new capabilities hold the keys to unlocking important secrets of nature. The great progress that has been made in meeting the exciting intellectual challenges of modern nuclear physics reflects the talents and dedication of the Physics Division staff and the visitors, guests and students who bring so much to the research.

  5. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Zero Point Energy You Wrote: I recently read an article that made reference to something called Zero Point Energy. It said that every point in space can never be void of all energy. Could you expand on what the Zero Point Energy theory is? Thanks.. Jason Holderness Particles (electrons, photons, etc) are `quantum' excitations of `quantum fields' that fill all of space (more accurately quantum fields are a fundamental property of space itself). A vacuum has no particles in it (in curved space,

  6. Scalable parallel solution coupling for multi-physics reactor simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tautges, T. J.; Caceres, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2009-01-01

    Reactor simulation depends on the coupled solution of various physics types, including neutronics, thermal/hydraulics, and structural mechanics. This paper describes the formulation and implementation of a parallel solution coupling capability being developed for reactor simulation. The coupling process consists of mesh and coupler initialization, point location, field interpolation, and field normalization. We report here our test of this capability on an example problem, namely, a reflector assembly from an advanced burner test reactor. Performance of this coupler in parallel is reasonable for the chosen problem size and range of processor counts. The runtime is dominated by startup costs, which amortize over the entire coupled simulation. Future efforts will include adding more sophisticated interpolation and normalization methods, to accommodate different numerical solvers used in various physics modules and to obtain better conservation properties for certain field types.

  7. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

  8. Magnetic field effects on transport properties of PtSn4 (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE PAGES field effects on transport properties of PtSn4 « Prev Next » Title: Magnetic field effects on transport properties of PtSn4 Authors: Mun, Eundeok ; Ko, Hyunjin ; Miller, Gordon J. ; Samolyuk, German D. ; Bud'ko, Sergey L. ; Canfield, Paul. C. Publication Date: 2012-01-31 OSTI Identifier: 1099085 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review. B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 85; Journal Issue: 3;

  9. Anisotropic-strain-relaxation-induced crosshatch morphology in epitaxial SrTiO{sub 3}/NdGaO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, X. L.; Chen, F.; Chen, P. F.; Xu, H. R.; Chen, B. B.; Jin, F.; Gao, G. Y.; Wu, W. B.

    2014-10-15

    We investigate the strain relaxation and surface morphology of epitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) films grown on (001){sub O} and (110){sub O} planes of orthorhombic NdGaO{sub 3} (NGO), and (001) plane of cubic (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} (LSAT) substrates. Although the average lattice mismatches are similar, strikingly regular crosshatched surface patterns can be found on STO/NGO(001){sub O}[(110){sub O}] films, contrary to the uniform surface of STO/LSAT(001). Based on the orientation and thickness dependent patterns and high-resolution x-ray diffractions, we ascribe the crosshatch morphology to the anisotropic strain relaxation with possibly the 60 misfit dislocation formation and lateral surface step flow in STO/NGO films, while an isotropic strain relaxation in STO/LSAT. Further, we show that the crosshatched STO/NGO(110){sub O} surface could be utilized as a template to modify the magnetotransport properties of epitaxial La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3} films. This study highlights the crucial role of symmetry mismatch in determining the surface morphology of the perovskite oxide films, in addition to their epitaxial strain states, and offers a different route for designing and fabricating functional perovskite-oxide devices.

  10. Structural and optical properties of ZnO and ZnO:Fe nanoparticles under

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dense electronic excitations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structural and optical properties of ZnO and ZnO:Fe nanoparticles under dense electronic excitations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural and optical properties of ZnO and ZnO:Fe nanoparticles under dense electronic excitations We report on the changes in structural, morphological, and optical properties of sol-gel derived ZnO and ZnO:Fe nanoparticles due to dense electronic excitations produced by heavy ion

  11. Physics of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Primary emphasis in the paper is on methods of characterizing and analyzing passive solar buildings. Simplifying assumptions are described which make this analysis tractable without compromising significant accuracy or loss of insight into the basic physics of the situation. The overall nature of the mathematical simulation approach is described. Validation procedures based on data from test rooms and monitored buildings are outlined. Issues of thermal comfort are discussed. Simplified methods of analysis based on correlation procedures are reported and the nature of the economic conservation-solar optimization process is explored. Future trends are predicted.

  12. Electroweak Physics at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. D. McKeown

    2012-03-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility provides CW electron beams with high intensity, remarkable stability, and a high degree of polarization. These capabilities offer new and unique opportunities to search for novel particles and forces that would require extension of the standard model. CEBAF is presently undergoing an upgrade that includes doubling the energy of the electron beam to 12 GeV and enhancements to the experimental equipment. This upgraded facility will provide increased capability to address new physics beyond the standard model.

  13. News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Top-5 Achievements at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in 2015 Click on an image below to view the high resolution image. Then right click on the image and select "Save Image" or "Save Image As..." From top left: 1.Magnetic island geometry revealing the mechanism for the density limit. (Reprinted with permission from Phys. Plasmas 22, 022514 2015); 2.Carlos Paz-Soldan and Raffi Nazikian advanced understanding of the control of heat bursts; 3.interior of the NSTX-U

  14. News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PPPL, Princeton University physicists join German Chancellor Angela Merkel at Wendelstein 7-X celebration Click on an image below to view the high resolution image. Then right click on the image and select "Save Image" or "Save Image As..." An image of the hydrogen plasma inside the Wendelstein 7-X. A.J. Stewart Smith, Princeton University vice president for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel shake hands in the Wendelstein 7-X control

  15. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Special and general relativity Physics at the speed of light Quantum entanglement and Black holes ... "What happens if you take 2 quantum-entangled particles, and untangle them and put one of these particles in a blackhole? The other should demonstrate what is going on inside a blackhole, right? Wouldn't this violate the principle that no light, or information, escapes a blackhole?" Centripetal Forces and distances at speed of light "If space contained only two things and they

  16. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle theories Quantum fields, superstrings and all that Scattering matrix "Could you please help me by explaining what is actually meant by S-matrix?" Concept of ether in explaining forces? "Will there be any research carried out in the near or distant future to find a physical relationship between gravity, mass, light, matter/antimatter through something like the idea of ether hundred years ago?" Consequences of the success of superstring theory? "What will be the

  17. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics of the universe From the big bang to black holes, extra dimensions, space and time Centrifugal Force From smaller than atoms to larger than galaxies structures spin and in doing so the centrifugal force throws things outward. Might not the Universe as a whole be spinning on an axis and what we currently ascribe to a mysterious repulsive force be a centrifugal force throwing things outward? Thrown out rather than pushed or drawn? Motion in the Universe I have been attempting to calculate

  18. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waves or Particles? 1. Does an unobserved, unmeasured (i.e. wave-like) photon exist as an electro-magnetic wave, or as a 'wave-function', i.e. a probability wave? 2. Is the 'wave' nature of an electron the same as speaking of it's wave-function, in other words does an unmeasured electron exist everywhere in space as a purely mathematical probability? Does an unmeasured electron not have any physical meaning at all then? 3. When performing Young's double-slit experiment with photons and

  19. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Results of Tevatron Run II You Wrote: I know that the Tevatron is in full swing again with Collider Run II. When will the physicists start seeing results from the new run, and what can be expected? Dear Tom: You asked when we will start seeing results from the new Tevatron run, and what can be expected. Major physics results tend to get presented at international conferences that take place in the spring and summer. There's a big conference in Amsterdam this summer at which the first

  20. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Virtual Photon Question Brian, X-URL: http://www.fnal.gov/pub/hep_descript.html Dear Fermilab (or to whom this may be going to), Hi. I am 14 years old and I happen to be reading a physics book when I came across something called Virtual Photons and the uncertianty principle. The book does not explain what Virtual Photons are to well, and all I know about Photons is that they could be a wave or matter. If you could help me about what Virtual Photons are and Photons, that would be a great help.